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Bibliography on: covid-19

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:42 Created: 


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 41752 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dresp-Langley B (2023)

From Reward to Anhedonia-Dopamine Function in the Global Mental Health Context.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092469.

When "hijacked" by compulsive behaviors that affect the reward and stress centers of the brain, functional changes in the dopamine circuitry occur as the consequence of pathological brain adaptation. As a brain correlate of mental health, dopamine has a central functional role in behavioral regulation from healthy reward-seeking to pathological adaptation to stress in response to adversity. This narrative review offers a spotlight view of the transition from healthy reward function, under the control of dopamine, to the progressive deregulation of this function in interactions with other brain centers and circuits, producing what may be called an anti-reward brain state. How such deregulation is linked to specific health-relevant behaviors is then explained and linked to pandemic-related adversities and the stresses they engendered. The long lockdown periods where people in social isolation had to rely on drink, food, and digital rewards via the internet may be seen as the major triggers of changes in motivation and reward-seeking behavior worldwide. The pathological adaptation of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry in the brain is discussed. It is argued that, when pushed by fate and circumstance into a physiological brain state of anti-reward, human behavior changes and mental health is affected, depending on individual vulnerabilities. A unified conceptual account that places dopamine function at the centre of the current global mental health context is proposed.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sekulovski M, Mileva N, Chervenkov L, et al (2023)

Endothelial Dysfunction and Pregnant COVID-19 Patients with Thrombophilia: A Narrative Review.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092458.

Pregnancy with SARS-CoV-2 infection can raise the risk of many complications, including severe COVID-19 and maternal-fetal adverse outcomes. Additionally, endothelial damage occurs as a result of direct SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as immune system, cardiovascular, and thrombo-inflammatory reactions. In this narrative review, we focus on endothelial dysfunction (ED) in pregnancy, associated with obstetric complications, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth retardation, gestational diabetes, etc., and SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women that can cause ED itself and overlap with other pregnancy complications. We also discuss some shared mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology and ED.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Fehsel K (2023)

Why Is Iron Deficiency/Anemia Linked to Alzheimer's Disease and Its Comorbidities, and How Is It Prevented?.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092421.

Impaired iron metabolism has been increasingly observed in many diseases, but a deeper, mechanistic understanding of the cellular impact of altered iron metabolism is still lacking. In addition, deficits in neuronal energy metabolism due to reduced glucose import were described for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its comorbidities like obesity, depression, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to present the molecular link between both observations. Insufficient cellular glucose uptake triggers increased ferritin expression, leading to depletion of the cellular free iron pool and stabilization of the hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) 1α. This transcription factor induces the expression of the glucose transporters (Glut) 1 and 3 and shifts the cellular metabolism towards glycolysis. If this first line of defense is not adequate for sufficient glucose supply, further reduction of the intracellular iron pool affects the enzymes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and activates the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). This enzyme triggers the translocation of Glut4 to the plasma membrane as well as the autophagic recycling of cell components in order to mobilize energy resources. Moreover, AMPK activates the autophagic process of ferritinophagy, which provides free iron urgently needed as a cofactor for the synthesis of heme- and iron-sulfur proteins. Excessive activation of this pathway ends in ferroptosis, a special iron-dependent form of cell death, while hampered AMPK activation steadily reduces the iron pools, leading to hypoferremia with iron sequestration in the spleen and liver. Long-lasting iron depletion affects erythropoiesis and results in anemia of chronic disease, a common condition in patients with AD and its comorbidities. Instead of iron supplementation, drugs, diet, or phytochemicals that improve energy supply and cellular glucose uptake should be administered to counteract hypoferremia and anemia of chronic disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Anghel L, Manole C, Nechita A, et al (2023)

Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium Abnormalities Associated with COVID-19 Infection, and Beyond.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092362.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has had a profound impact on global health, leading to a surge in research to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease. Among the various aspects under investigation, disruptions in mineral homeostasis have emerged as a critical area of interest. This review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence linking calcium, phosphorus and magnesium abnormalities with COVID-19 infection and explores the potential implications beyond the acute phase of the disease. Beyond the acute phase of COVID-19, evidence suggests a potential impact of these mineral abnormalities on long-term health outcomes. Persistent alterations in calcium, phosphorus and magnesium levels have been linked to increased cardiovascular risk, skeletal complications and metabolic disorders, warranting continuous monitoring and management in post-COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gaudet A, Kreitmann L, S Nseir (2023)

ICU-Acquired Colonization and Infection Related to Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in COVID-19 Patients: A Narrative Review.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091464.

A large proportion of ICU-acquired infections are related to multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR). Infections caused by these bacteria are associated with increased mortality, and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay. The aim of this narrative review is to report on the association between COVID-19 and ICU-acquired colonization or infection related to MDR bacteria. Although a huge amount of literature is available on COVID-19 and MDR bacteria, only a few clinical trials have properly evaluated the association between them using a non-COVID-19 control group and accurate design and statistical methods. The results of these studies suggest that COVID-19 patients are at a similar risk of ICU-acquired MDR colonization compared to non-COVID-19 controls. However, a higher risk of ICU-acquired infection related to MDR bacteria has been reported in several studies, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infection. Several potential explanations could be provided for the high incidence of ICU-acquired infections related to MDR. Immunomodulatory treatments, such as corticosteroids, JAK2 inhibitors, and IL-6 receptor antagonist, might play a role in the pathogenesis of these infections. Additionally, a longer stay in the ICU was reported in COVID-19 patients, resulting in higher exposure to well-known risk factors for ICU-acquired MDR infections, such as invasive procedures and antimicrobial treatment. Another possible explanation is the surge during successive COVID-19 waves, with excessive workload and low compliance with preventive measures. Further studies should evaluate the evolution of the incidence of ICU-acquired infections related to MDR bacteria, given the change in COVID-19 patient profiles. A better understanding of the immune status of critically ill COVID-19 patients is required to move to personalized treatment and reduce the risk of ICU-acquired infections. The role of specific preventive measures, such as targeted immunomodulation, should be investigated.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Leanse LG, Marasini S, Dos Anjos C, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial Resistance: Is There a 'Light' at the End of the Tunnel?.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091437.

In recent years, with the increases in microorganisms that express a multitude of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms, the threat of antimicrobial resistance in the global population has reached critical levels. The introduction of the COVID-19 pandemic has further contributed to the influx of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), which has placed significant pressure on healthcare systems. For over a century, the potential for light-based approaches targeted at combatting both cancer and infectious diseases has been proposed. They offer effective killing of microbial pathogens, regardless of AMR status, and have not typically been associated with high propensities of resistance development. To that end, the goal of this review is to describe the different mechanisms that drive AMR, including intrinsic, phenotypic, and acquired resistance mechanisms. Additionally, the different light-based approaches, including antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), antimicrobial blue light (aBL), and ultraviolet (UV) light, will be discussed as potential alternatives or adjunct therapies with conventional antimicrobials. Lastly, we will evaluate the feasibility and requirements associated with integration of light-based approaches into the clinical pipeline.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kopler I, Marchaim U, Tikász IE, et al (2023)

Farmers' Perspectives of the Benefits and Risks in Precision Livestock Farming in the EU Pig and Poultry Sectors.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(18): pii:ani13182868.

More efficient livestock production systems are necessary, considering that only 41% of global meat demand will be met by 2050. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic crisis has clearly illustrated the necessity of building sustainable and stable agri-food systems. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) offers the continuous capacity of agriculture to contribute to overall human and animal welfare by providing sufficient goods and services through the application of technical innovations like digitalization. However, adopting new technologies is a challenging issue for farmers, extension services, agri-business and policymakers. We present a review of operational concepts and technological solutions in the pig and poultry sectors, as reflected in 41 and 16 European projects from the last decade, respectively. The European trend of increasing broiler-meat production, which is soon to outpace pork, stresses the need for more outstanding research efforts in the poultry industry. We further present a review of farmers' attitudes and obstacles to the acceptance of technological solutions in the pig and poultry sectors using examples and lessons learned from recent European projects. Despite the low resonance at the research level, the investigation of farmers' attitudes and concerns regarding the acceptance of technological solutions in the livestock sector should be incorporated into any technological development.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Citarella A, Dimasi A, Moi D, et al (2023)

Recent Advances in SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors: From Nirmatrelvir to Future Perspectives.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091339.

The main protease (M[pro]) plays a pivotal role in the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is considered a highly conserved viral target. Disruption of the catalytic activity of M[pro] produces a detrimental effect on the course of the infection, making this target one of the most attractive for the treatment of COVID-19. The current success of the SARS-CoV-2 M[pro] inhibitor Nirmatrelvir, the first oral drug for the treatment of severe forms of COVID-19, has further focused the attention of researchers on this important viral target, making the search for new M[pro] inhibitors a thriving and exciting field for the development of antiviral drugs active against SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Andre M, Lau LS, Pokharel MD, et al (2023)

From Alpha to Omicron: How Different Variants of Concern of the SARS-Coronavirus-2 Impacted the World.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091267.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is prone to mutations and the generation of genetic variants. Since its first outbreak in 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has continually evolved, resulting in the emergence of several lineages and variants of concern (VOC) that have gained more efficient transmission, severity, and immune evasion properties. The World Health Organization has given these variants names according to the letters of the Greek Alphabet, starting with the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant, which emerged in 2020, followed by the Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants. This review explores the genetic variation among different VOCs of SARS-CoV-2 and how the emergence of variants made a global impact on the pandemic.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

da Silva RP, Thomé BL, APD da Souza (2023)

Exploring the Immune Response against RSV and SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091223.

Viral respiratory tract infections are a significant public health concern, particularly in children. RSV is a prominent cause of lower respiratory tract infections among infants, whereas SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic with lower overall severity in children than in adults. In this review, we aimed to compare the innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RSV and SARS-CoV-2 to better understand differences in the pathogenesis of infection. Some studies have demonstrated that children present a more robust immune response against SARS-CoV-2 than adults; however, this response is dissimilar to that of RSV. Each virus has a distinctive mechanism to escape the immune response. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these differences is crucial for developing effective treatments and improving the management of pediatric respiratory infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Bernardo L, Lomagno A, Mauri PL, et al (2023)

Integration of Omics Data and Network Models to Unveil Negative Aspects of SARS-CoV-2, from Pathogenic Mechanisms to Drug Repurposing.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091196.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the COVID-19 health emergency, affecting and killing millions of people worldwide. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 patients show a spectrum of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to very severe manifestations. In particular, bronchial and pulmonary cells, involved at the initial stage, trigger a hyper-inflammation phase, damaging a wide range of organs, including the heart, brain, liver, intestine and kidney. Due to the urgent need for solutions to limit the virus' spread, most efforts were initially devoted to mapping outbreak trajectories and variant emergence, as well as to the rapid search for effective therapeutic strategies. Samples collected from hospitalized or dead COVID-19 patients from the early stages of pandemic have been analyzed over time, and to date they still represent an invaluable source of information to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the organ/tissue damage, the knowledge of which could offer new opportunities for diagnostics and therapeutic designs. For these purposes, in combination with clinical data, omics profiles and network models play a key role providing a holistic view of the pathways, processes and functions most affected by viral infection. In fact, in addition to epidemiological purposes, networks are being increasingly adopted for the integration of multiomics data, and recently their use has expanded to the identification of drug targets or the repositioning of existing drugs. These topics will be covered here by exploring the landscape of SARS-CoV-2 survey-based studies using systems biology approaches derived from omics data, paying particular attention to those that have considered samples of human origin.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ishida T, Takagi K, Wang G, et al (2023)

A Greater Increase in Complement C5a Receptor 1 Level at Onset and a Smaller Decrease in Immunoglobulin G Level after Recovery in Severer Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients: A New Analysis of Existing Data with a New Two-Tailed t-Test.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091176.

(1) Background: It is our purpose to identify the differences in the changes in Complement C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) levels showing the degree of inflammation at onset and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels showing the extent of survival of the virus fragments after recovery between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pneumonia coronavirus disease (non-COVID-19) for saving patients' lives. (2) Methods: First, the studies showing these markers' levels in individual patients before and after the passage of time were selected from the PubMed Central[®] databases with the keywords (((COVID-19) AND individual) NOT review) AND C5a/IgG. Then, no changes in these markers' levels with conventional analyses were selected from the studies. Finally, the no changes were reexamined with our new two-tailed t-test using the values on the regression line between initial levels and changed levels instead of the mean or median of changed levels as the expected values of changed levels. (3) Results: Not conventional analyses but our new t-test suggested a greater increase in C5aR1-levels at onset and a smaller decrease in IgG-levels after recovery in COVID-19 patients than non-COVID-19 patients. (4) Conclusion: Our new t-test also should be used in clinics for COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Johnston J, Dorrian D, Linden D, et al (2023)

Pulmonary Sequelae of COVID-19: Focus on Interstitial Lung Disease.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182238.

As the world transitions from the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, a novel concern has arisen-interstitial lung disease (ILD) as a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review discusses what we have learned about its epidemiology, radiological, and pulmonary function findings, risk factors, and possible management strategies. Notably, the prevailing radiological pattern observed is organising pneumonia, with ground-glass opacities and reticulation frequently reported. Longitudinal studies reveal a complex trajectory, with some demonstrating improvement in lung function and radiographic abnormalities over time, whereas others show more static fibrotic changes. Age, disease severity, and male sex are emerging as risk factors for residual lung abnormalities. The intricate relationship between post-COVID ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) genetics underscores the need for further research and elucidation of shared pathways. As this new disease entity unfolds, continued research is vital to guide clinical decision making and improve outcomes for patients with post-COVID ILD.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Zhu DT, Serhan M, Mithani SS, et al (2023)

The barriers, facilitators and association of vaccine certificates on COVID-19 vaccine uptake: a scoping review.

Globalization and health, 19(1):73.

BACKGROUND: Globally, COVID-19 vaccines have proven to be instrumental for promoting population health by reducing illness from SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine certificates emerged as a potentially promising solution for encouraging vaccination and facilitating the safe reopening of society, however, they were controversial due to criticisms of infringing upon individual rights. While there is extensive literature describing the ethical, legal, and public health implications of vaccine certificates, there is currently a gap in knowledge about the association of vaccine certificates on vaccine uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic and barriers and facilitators to their use.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this scoping review are to (i) describe the existing literature on the association of vaccine certificates on the rates of COVID-19 vaccine uptake across several countries and (ii) describe the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers or facilitators that moderate this relationship.

METHODS: We conducted a scoping review based on PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRSIMA-ScR) guidelines. We searched three bibliographic databases (APA PsychInfo, Embase Classic + Embase, OVID-Medline) and preprint severs during the first week of July 2023. Three reviewers independently screened the studies based on pre-specified eligibility criteria and performed quality assessments of the primary literature and data extraction.

RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. 14 or these were surveys and 2 were modelling studies. The majority documented that vaccine certificates were significantly associated with increased rates of COVID-19 vaccine uptake (n = 12), motivated by factors such as travel/employer requirements, influence from the government/peers, and trust in the safety, efficacy, and science behind COVID-19 vaccines. Three studies had non-significant or mixed findings. Only one study found a significant decrease in COVID-19 vaccine uptake, motivated by pervasive distrust in the QR code-based system of digital vaccine certificates in Russia. Quality of survey studies was generally high.

CONCLUSION: Our findings provide insights into the existing literature on vaccine certificates association with vaccine uptake in several different jurisdictions and barriers and facilitators to their uptake. This information can be used to guide future examinations of the implementation of vaccine certificates and more effective implementations.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Malvankar S, Singh A, Ravi Kumar YS, et al (2023)

Modulation of various host cellular machinery during COVID-19 infection.

Reviews in medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) emerged in December 2019, causing a range of respiratory infections from mild to severe. This resulted in the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, which has had a significant impact on public health. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic in March 2020. Viruses are intracellular pathogens that rely on the host's machinery to establish a successful infection. They exploit the gene expression machinery of host cells to facilitate their own replication. Gaining a better understanding of gene expression modulation in SARS-CoV2 is crucial for designing and developing effective antiviral strategies. Efforts are currently underway to understand the molecular-level interaction between the host and the pathogen. In this review, we describe how SARS-CoV2 infection modulates gene expression by interfering with cellular processes, including transcription, post-transcription, translation, post-translation, epigenetic modifications as well as processing and degradation pathways. Additionally, we emphasise the therapeutic implications of these findings in the development of new therapies to treat SARS-CoV2 infection.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Aby ES, Vogel AS, AC Winters (2023)

Intersection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Alcohol-associated Liver Disease: A Review of Emerging Trends and Implications.

Clinical therapeutics pii:S0149-2918(23)00323-5 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: This review will provide an overview of alcohol use and alcohol associated liver disease (ALD) prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the impact of the pandemic on alcohol use and ALD. Furthermore, this review will explore strategies to mitigate the growing disease burden of AUD and ALD.

METHODS: A search using PubMed was performed for articles on topics related to alcohol use, ALD, and COVID-19. The literature was reviewed and pertinent sources were used for this narrative review.

FINDINGS: In the United States (US), excessive alcohol use is the third leading cause of preventable death. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the increasing prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and ALD in the US had already constituted a public health crisis given the association between alcohol misuse, AUD, and ALD with significant medical, economic, and societal burdens. The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased alcohol consumption and downstream consequences, including increased prevalence of AUD, ALD, ALD-related hospitalization and death, and liver transplantation for ALD.

IMPLICATIONS: There is a critical need for additional, multi-pronged interventions to mitigate the mortality and morbidity linked to ALD.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Spannenburg L, H Reed (2023)

Adverse Cognitive Effects of Glucocorticoids: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Steroids pii:S0039-128X(23)00142-3 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids as a drug class are widely used in the treatment of many conditions including more recently as one of the mainstay treatments for the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The physiological adverse effects are well described. However, less is known and understood about the potentially deleterious neuro-cognitive effects of this class of medication.

METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of the literature using two separate search strategies. The first focussed on the rates of reporting of adverse cognitive effects of glucocorticoid use in randomised controlled trials. The second looked at those studies focussing directly on adverse cognitive effects associated with the use of glucocorticoids. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library was searched for randomised controlled trials utilising glucocorticoids as a part of a treatment regimen. Additionally, these databases were also used to search for articles looking directly at the adverse cognitive effects of glucocorticoids.

RESULTS: Of the forty-three RCTs included as a part of the first search strategy, only one (2.3%) included specific documentation pertaining to cognitive side effects. As a part of the twenty studies included in the second search strategy, eleven of the included studies (55%) were able to demonstrate a correlation between glucocorticoid use and decreased cognition. Most studies within this strategy showed that GCs predominately affected hippocampus-dependent functions such as memory, while sparing executive function and attention.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data reporting of adverse clinical effects of glucocorticoid use is poor in recent RCTs. Given the demonstrable effect on predominately hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions evident within the literature, more thorough documentation is needed within clinical research to fully appreciate the potentially widespread nature of these effects.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Karkala A, Tzinas A, Kotoulas S, et al (2023)

Neuropsychiatric outcomes and sleep dysfunction in COVID-19 patients: risk factors and mechanisms.

Neuroimmunomodulation pii:000533722 [Epub ahead of print].

The ongoing global health crisis due to the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has significantly impacted all aspects of life. While the majority of early research following coronavirus disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19) has focused on the physiological effects of the virus, a substantial body of subsequent studies has shown that the psychological burden of the infection is also considerable. Patients, even without mental illness history, were at an increased susceptibility to developing mental health and sleep disturbances during or after COVID-19 infection. Viral neurotropism and inflammatory storm damaging the blood-brain barrier have been proposed as possible mechanisms for mental health manifestations, along with stressful psychological factors and indirect consequences asthrombosis and hypoxia. The virus has been found to infect peripheral olfactory neurons and exploit axonal migration pathways, exhibiting metabolic changes in astrocytes, detrimental to fueling neurons and building neurotransmitters. Patients with COVID-19 present dysregulated and overactive immune responses resulting in impaired neuronal function and viability, adversely affecting sleep and emotion regulation. Additionally, several risk factors have been associated with the neuropsychiatric sequelae of the infection, such as female sex, age, preexisting neuropathologies, severity of initial disease and sociological status. This review aimed to provide an overview of mental health symptoms and sleep disturbances developed during COVID 19 and to analyze the underlying mechanisms and risk factors of psychological distress and sleep dysfunction.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Bhattacharya M, Chatterjee S, Lee SS, et al (2023)

Antibody evasion associated with the RBD significant mutations in several emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and its subvariants.

Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy, 71:101008 pii:S1368-7646(23)00091-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the origin of the wild strain of SARS-CoV-2, several variants have emerged, which were designated as VOC, VOI, and VUM from time to time. The Omicron variant is noted as the recent VOC. After the origin of the Omicron variant on November 2021, several subvariants of Omicron have originated subsequently, like BA.1/2, BA.2.75/2.75.2, BA.4/5, BF.7, BQ.1/1.1, XBB.1/1.5, etc. which are circulated throughout the globe. Scientists reported that antibody escape is a common phenomenon observed in all the previous VOCs, VOIs, including Omicron and its subvariants. The mutations in the NTD (N-terminal domain) and RBD (Receptor-binding domain) of the spike of these variants and subvariants are responsible for antibody escape. At the same time, it has been noted that spike RBD mutations have been increasing in the last few months. This review illustrates significant RBD mutations namely R346T, K417N/T, L452R, N460K E484A/K/Q, and N501Y found in the previous emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron and its subvariants in high frequency and their role in antibody evasion and immune evasion. The review also describes the different classes of nAb responsible for antibody escape in SARS-CoV-2 variants and the molecular perspective of the mutation in nAb escape. It will help the future researchers to develop efficient vaccines which can finally prevent the pandemic.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Wang C, Wang M, Li G, et al (2023)

Effects of COVID-19 vaccination on human fertility: a post-pandemic literature review.

Annals of medicine, 55(2):2261964.

Although vaccination with the Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine is important and effective in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the public expressed concerns regarding the adverse effects of vaccine on fertility. Some reviews have focused on it, they have been unable to collect sufficient research data because of the earlier publication period. As relevant evidence has gradually increased, we reviewed these studies from the perspectives of males, females with or without pregnancy, and different vaccine types. The results suggest that although males may experience fluctuations in semen parameters within their physiological ranges after receiving the vaccine, it has not yet reached a level of influence on the partner's pregnancy probability. As to female without pregnancy, it is believed that vaccination will not affect fertility; however, more research is needed to explore the short-term impact. Vaccination during any trimester is considered safe in pregnant women.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Greenwich JL, Fleming D, Banin E, et al (2023)

The biofilm community resurfaces: new findings and post-pandemic progress.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

The ninth American Society for Microbiology Conference on Biofilms was convened in-person on 13-17 November 2022 in Charlotte, NC. As the first of these conferences since prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the energy among the participants of the conference was clear, and the meeting was a tremendous success. The mixture of >330 oral and poster presentations resoundingly embodied the vitality of biofilm research across a wide range of topics and multiple scientific disciplines. Special activities, including a pre-conference symposium for early career researchers, further enhanced the attendee experience. As a general theme, the conference was deliberately structured to provide high levels of participation and engagement among early career scientists.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Gupta S, S Pellett (2023)

Recent Developments in Vaccine Design: From Live Vaccines to Recombinant Toxin Vaccines.

Toxins, 15(9): pii:toxins15090563.

Vaccines are one of the most effective strategies to prevent pathogen-induced illness in humans. The earliest vaccines were based on live inoculations with low doses of live or related pathogens, which carried a relatively high risk of developing the disease they were meant to prevent. The introduction of attenuated and killed pathogens as vaccines dramatically reduced these risks; however, attenuated live vaccines still carry a risk of reversion to a pathogenic strain capable of causing disease. This risk is completely eliminated with recombinant protein or subunit vaccines, which are atoxic and non-infectious. However, these vaccines require adjuvants and often significant optimization to induce robust T-cell responses and long-lasting immune memory. Some pathogens produce protein toxins that cause or contribute to disease. To protect against the effects of such toxins, chemically inactivated toxoid vaccines have been found to be effective. Toxoid vaccines are successfully used today at a global scale to protect against tetanus and diphtheria. Recent developments for toxoid vaccines are investigating the possibilities of utilizing recombinant protein toxins mutated to eliminate biologic activity instead of chemically inactivated toxins. Finally, one of the most contemporary approaches toward vaccine design utilizes messenger RNA (mRNA) as a vaccine candidate. This approach was used globally to protect against coronavirus disease during the COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2019, due to its advantages of quick production and scale-up, and effectiveness in eliciting a neutralizing antibody response. Nonetheless, mRNA vaccines require specialized storage and transport conditions, posing challenges for low- and middle-income countries. Among multiple available technologies for vaccine design and formulation, which technology is most appropriate? This review focuses on the considerable developments that have been made in utilizing diverse vaccine technologies with a focus on vaccines targeting bacterial toxins. We describe how advancements in vaccine technology, combined with a deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions, offer exciting and promising avenues for the development of new and improved vaccines.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Kobylarz D, Noga M, Frydrych A, et al (2023)

Antidotes in Clinical Toxicology-Critical Review.

Toxics, 11(9): pii:toxics11090723.

Poisoning and overdose are very important aspects in medicine and toxicology. Chemical weapons pose a threat to civilians, and emergency medicine principles must be followed when dealing with patients who have been poisoned or overdosed. Antidotes have been used for centuries and modern research has led to the development of new antidotes that can accelerate the elimination of toxins from the body. Although some antidotes have become less relevant due to modern intensive care techniques, they can still save lives or reduce the severity of toxicity. The availability of antidotes is crucial, especially in developing countries where intensive care facilities may be limited. This article aims to provide information on specific antidotes, their recommended uses, and potential risks and new uses. In the case of poisoning, supportive therapies are most often used; however, in many cases, the administration of an appropriate antidote saves the patient's life. In this review, we reviewed the literature on selected antidotes used in the treatment of poisonings. We also characterised the antidotes (bio)chemically. We described the cases in which they are used together with the dosage recommendations. We also analysed the mechanisms of action. In addition, we described alternative methods of using a given substance as a drug, an example of which is N-acetylcysteine, which can be used in the treatment of COVID-19. This article was written as part of the implementation of the project of the Polish Ministry of Education and Science, "Toxicovigilance, poisoning prevention, and first aid in poisoning with xenobiotics of current clinical importance in Poland", grant number SKN/SP/570184/2023.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Lothert K, MW Wolff (2023)

Affinity and Pseudo-Affinity Membrane Chromatography for Viral Vector and Vaccine Purifications: A Review.

Membranes, 13(9): pii:membranes13090770.

Several chromatographic approaches have been established over the last decades for the production of pharmaceutically relevant viruses. Due to the large size of these products compared to other biopharmaceuticals, e.g., proteins, convective flow media have proven to be superior to bead-based resins in terms of process productivity and column capacity. One representative of such convective flow materials is membranes, which can be modified to suit the particular operating principle and are also suitable for economical single-use applications. Among the different membrane variants, affinity surfaces allow for the most selective separation of the target molecule from other components in the feed solution, especially from host cell-derived DNA and proteins. A successful membrane affinity chromatography, however, requires the identification and implementation of ligands, which can be applied economically while at the same time being stable during the process and non-toxic in the case of any leaching. This review summarizes the current evaluation of membrane-based affinity purifications for viruses and virus-like particles, including traditional resin and monolith approaches and the advantages of membrane applications. An overview of potential affinity ligands is given, as well as considerations of suitable affinity platform technologies, e.g., for different virus serotypes, including a description of processes using pseudo-affinity matrices, such as sulfated cellulose membrane adsorbers.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Sonvico F, Colombo G, Quarta E, et al (2023)

Nasal delivery as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

Expert opinion on drug delivery [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The upper respiratory tract is a major route of infection for COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases. Thus, it appears logical to exploit the nose as administration site to prevent, fight or minimize infectious spread and treat the disease. Numerous nasal products addressing these aspects have been considered and developed for COVID-19.

AREAS COVERED: This review gives a comprehensive overview of the different approaches involving nasal delivery, i.e. nasal vaccination, barrier products and anti-viral pharmacological treatments that have led to products on the market or under clinical evaluation, highlighting the peculiarities of the nose as application and absorption site and pointing at key aspects of nasal drug delivery.

EXPERT OPINION: From analysis of nasal delivery strategies to prevent or fight COVID-19, it emerges that, especially for nasal immunization, formulations appear the same as originally designed for parenteral administration, leading to suboptimal results. On the other hand, mechanical barrier and anti-viral products, designed to halt or treat the infection at early stage, have been proven effective, but were rarely brought to the clinics. If supported by robust and targeted product development strategies, intranasal immunization and drug delivery can represent valid and sometimes superior alternatives to more conventional parenteral and oral medications.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Baruah P, Patra A, Barge S, et al (2023)

Therapeutic Potential of Bioactive Compounds from Edible Mushrooms to Attenuate SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Some Complications of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9):.

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a highly infectious positive RNA virus, has spread from its epicenter to other countries with increased mortality and morbidity. Its expansion has hampered humankind's social, economic, and health realms to a large extent. Globally, investigations are underway to understand the complex pathophysiology of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) induced by SARS-CoV-2. Though numerous therapeutic strategies have been introduced to combat COVID-19, none are fully proven or comprehensive, as several key issues and challenges remain unresolved. At present, natural products have gained significant momentum in treating metabolic disorders. Mushrooms have often proved to be the precursor of various therapeutic molecules or drug prototypes. The plentiful bioactive macromolecules in edible mushrooms, like polysaccharides, proteins, and other secondary metabolites (such as flavonoids, polyphenols, etc.), have been used to treat multiple diseases, including viral infections, by traditional healers and the medical fraternity. Some edible mushrooms with a high proportion of therapeutic molecules are known as medicinal mushrooms. In this review, an attempt has been made to highlight the exploration of bioactive molecules in mushrooms to combat the various pathophysiological complications of COVID-19. This review presents an in-depth and critical analysis of the current therapies against COVID-19 versus the potential of natural anti-infective, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic products derived from a wide range of easily sourced mushrooms and their bioactive molecules.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Balakrishnan S, Elayan S, Sykora M, et al (2023)

Sustainable Smart Cities-Social Media Platforms and Their Role in Community Neighborhood Resilience-A Systematic Review.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(18):.

The COVID-19 pandemic took most communities off guard and has highlighted gaps in community preparedness and resilience in spite of the numerous technological advancements and the variety of available social media platforms that many relied on during lockdown periods. This served to emphasise the necessity for exploring the roles of social media and smart city technologies in mitigating pandemic impacts. In this systematic literature review, we examined twelve articles on social media usage and smart city technologies and their contributions to community resilience during COVID-19. The analysis focused on the use of social media platforms and smart city technologies during and after lockdown periods, examining their role in fostering community resilience. Results indicate that social media and smart city technologies were instrumental in helping communities adapt and recover from the pandemic. While past studies have examined community resilience, social media, or smart cities separately, there is limited literature collating insights on the three elements combined. We therefore argue that these technologies, employed collaboratively, enhance community resilience during crises. Nevertheless, further research is recommended, particularly on urban resilience and comparative analyses to deepen our understanding of the complex interplay between these variables.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Phelan R, Aremu TO, Karst J, et al (2023)

Perspectives on Virtual Care for Childhood Cancer Survivors in Non-Metropolitan Areas during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.), 30(9):8111-8116.

The COVID-19 pandemic paved the way for the widespread use of virtual care for childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). CCSs were virtual recipients of diverse care, including long-term follow-up (LTFU), primary care, mental health care, and several others. Virtual care comes with well-documented benefits and challenges. These are further magnified for CCSs living in rural or non-metropolitan areas. Here, we describe the virtual care of CCSs from two Upper Midwest cities with well-established childhood cancer survivor programs within large comprehensive cancer centers in the United States. CCSs from non-metropolitan areas, especially CCSs with two or more late effects, used virtual care more often during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to CCSs from metropolitan areas. A review of the related literature is also included and the identified challenges in providing virtual care, such as privacy concerns, technology-connectivity constraints, and medical license restrictions. Despite these limitations, the care of CCSs has evolved to leverage virtual care and its ability to increase access for patients and promote continuity of care for CCSs living in rural areas.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Merlino L, Volpicelli AI, Dominoni M, et al (2023)

Lipschütz Ulcer and SARS-CoV-2: What We Currently Know?.

Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 11(3):.

BACKGROUND: In recent years, several interesting case reports have been published which describe the possible role of SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination in the etiopathogenesis of Lipschütz ulcer. Our aim is to analyze this association and provide a rapid algorithm that is of support to gynecologists and dermatologists both in the diagnosis and in setting up the therapy. To do so, in this paper, we describe an interesting case of acute vulvar ulcer triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection and review the related literature.

METHODS: We conducted a literature review including papers published between October 2021 and April 2023, and we described the case of a patient referred to our clinic with Lipschütz ulcer and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

RESULTS: In almost all cases analyzed, a correlation with SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination was found; ulcers usually manifest after 2 to 4 weeks and are associated with flu-like symptoms. A concordance in review papers, as well as in our case report, was also found about the treatment, which is mainly symptomatic.

CONCLUSIONS: Previous infection or vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 should be included as possible etiopathogenetic factors in the onset of Lipschütz ulcer.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Shama , Mahmood A, Mehmood S, et al (2023)

Pathological Effects of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with Hematological Abnormalities.

Current issues in molecular biology, 45(9):7161-7182.

The SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic that has claimed the lives of 6.9 million people and infected over 765 million. It has become a major worldwide health problem and is also known to cause abnormalities in various systems, including the hematologic system. COVID-19 infection primarily affects the lower respiratory tract and can lead to a cascade of events, including a cytokine storm, intravascular thrombosis, and subsequent complications such as arterial and venous thromboses. COVID-19 can cause thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and neutrophilia, which are associated with worse outcomes. Prophylactic anticoagulation is essential to prevent complications and death rates associated with the virus's effect on the coagulation system. It is crucial to recognize these complications early and promptly start therapeutic anticoagulation to improve patient outcomes. While rare, COVID-19-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) exhibits some similarities to DIC induced by sepsis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, ferritin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) biomarkers often increase in serious COVID-19 cases and poor prognosis. Understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and identifying risk factors for adverse outcomes is critical for effective management of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Reynolds J, Loeffler RS, Leigh PJ, et al (2023)

Recent Uses of Paper Microfluidics in Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests.

Biosensors, 13(9):.

Isothermal nucleic acid amplification tests have recently gained popularity over polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as they only require a constant temperature and significantly simplify nucleic acid amplification. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to incorporate paper microfluidics into these isothermal amplification tests. Paper microfluidics (including lateral flow strips) have been used to extract nucleic acids, amplify the target gene, and detect amplified products, all toward automating the process. We investigated the literature from 2020 to the present, i.e., since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, during which a significant surge in isothermal amplification tests has been observed. Paper microfluidic detection has been used extensively for recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and its related methods, along with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and rolling circle amplification (RCA). Detection was conducted primarily with colorimetric and fluorometric methods, although a few publications demonstrated flow distance- and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS)-based detection. A good number of publications could be found that demonstrated both amplification and detection on paper microfluidic platforms. A small number of publications could be found that showed extraction or all three procedures (i.e., fully integrated systems) on paper microfluidic platforms, necessitating the need for future work.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Robinson-Agramonte MLA, Sánchez TS, García EN, et al (2023)

COVID-19 and the Nervous System from a Cuban Experience.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9):.

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of viral infections (both per se and secondary to the neuroinflammatory reaction of the host) are mainly attributed to immunological reactions, so many aspects of their pathogenesis are still nuclear. Some novel therapeutic strategies are progressively emerging in which a vaccination may be having a particular impact on recovery and reduction of death. In this context, it is accepted that the SARS-CoV-2 virus is profoundly neurotropic and neuroinvasive, with various effects on the nervous system, although there is no complete understanding of the mechanism of neuroinvasion, brain injury, or short- or long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the post-infectious manifestations of COVID-19 to guide the management of neuropsychiatric diseases. Thus, based on different research groups focused on this field, in this manuscript we summarize papers on COVID-19 and the nervous system (NS) published in a series of articles by Cuban authors. This review focuses on cognitive and affective emotional states, pathogenesis, biomarkers, clinical manifestations, and intervention strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Agyapong B, Shalaby R, Hay K, et al (2023)

Exploring Sociodemographic Characteristics, Adverse Childhood Experience, and Mental Health History as Predictors of Anxiety and Depression among Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings from the MoreGoodDays Support Program in Alberta, Canada.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9):.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased psychological disorders among adolescents and young adults.

METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional design. An online survey questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and clinical information from subscribers of MoreGoodDays program, a daily supportive text message program co-designed with adolescents and young adults for their peers in Alberta. Validated instruments, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD-7 scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 PHQ-9 were used to collect information on likely GAD and likely major depressive disorder (MDD). Data was analyzed with SPSS version 25 using chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: 343 subscribers of MoreGoodDays participated in the survey. Overall, 117 (56.0%) respondents had a likely MDD and 97 (46.6%) had a likely GAD. Participants who would like to receive mental health counselling were 27 times more likely to experience GAD (OR = 27; 95% CI: 3.09-250.00) and 40 times more likely to experience MDD (OR = 40.03; 95% CI: 4.43-361.51) than those who did not. Respondents who had received mental health counselling in the past were 18.5 times more likely to experience MDD compared with those who had not (OR = 18.52; 95% CI: 1.55-200.00). Demographic variables, including age, education, employment, and relationship status, and clinical variables, such as history of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ADHD, and adverse childhood experience, did not independently the predict presence of likely GAD or MDD in subscribers of MoreGoodDays.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety and depression was relatively high among subscribers of MoreGoodDays, indicating the long-term effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. This finding has significant implications in the broader contextof mental health research and emphasizes the need for more research into innovative mental health support for this cohort. The desire to receive counselling was predictive of both anxiety and depression and is a positive sign of the openness of this cohort to receive psychological intervention. Since this group is mostly adapted to mobile text technology, government agencies and policymakers should prioritize and implement readily accessible interventions such as supportive text messages to support their psychological well-being.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Voudrias EA (2023)

Management of COVID-19 healthcare waste based on the circular economy hierarchy: A critical review.

Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA [Epub ahead of print].

The overall objective of this work was to conduct a critical literature review on the application of the circular economy (CE) hierarchy for the management of COVID-19 healthcare waste (HCW). To describe the problem created by COVID-19 HCW, first, the subsystems of the overall management system, including generation, segregation, classification, storage, collection, transport, treatment and disposal, were reviewed and briefly described. Then, the CE hierarchy using the 10R typology was adapted to the management of COVID-19 HCW and included the strategies Refuse, Reduce, Resell/Reuse, Repair, Reprocess, Refurbish, Remanufacture, Repurpose, Recycle and Recover (energy). Disposal was added as a sink of residues from the CE strategies. Using the detailed 10R CE hierarchy for COVID-19 HCW management is the novelty of this review. It was concluded that R-strategy selection depends on its position in the CE hierarchy and medical item criticality and value. Indicative HCW components, which can be managed by each R-strategy, were compiled, but creating value by recovering infectious downgraded materials contaminated with body fluids and tissues is not currently possible. Therefore, after applying the circular solutions, the end of pipe treatment and disposal would be necessary to close material cycles at the end of their life cycles. Addressing the risks, knowledge gaps and policy recommendations of this article may help to combat COVID-19 and future pandemics without creating environmental crises.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Chala B, Tilaye T, G Waktole (2023)

Re-Emerging COVID-19: Controversy of Its Zoonotic Origin, Risks of Severity of Reinfection and Management.

International journal of general medicine, 16:4307-4319.

The re-emergence of COVID-19 has sparked controversy around its zoonotic origin, management strategies, risks posed by the virus, and the severity of reinfection. While it is widely accepted that the virus originated from animals, the exact source and transmission pathway remain unclear. This has led to debates regarding the regulation of wildlife markets and trade, as well as the need for more robust surveillance and monitoring systems. Hence, the objective of this review is to provide a brief overview of the disease's biology, preventative strategies, risk factors, degree of reinfection, and epidemiological profile. It offers a thorough examination of the disease's root cause, potential zoonotic transmission, and the most recent preventive measures, like vaccines. In terms of management, there is ongoing debate about the most effective strategies to mitigate the spread of the virus. While public health measures such as social distancing and mask-wearing have been widely implemented, there are differing opinions on the effectiveness of lockdowns and restrictions on public movement. The risks posed by COVID-19 are also a topic of debate, with some arguing that the virus is relatively low-risk for the majority of the population while others highlight the potential for severe illness, particularly among vulnerable populations such as the elderly or those with underlying health conditions. Finally, the possibility of reinfection has raised concerns about the longevity of immunity following infection or vaccination. While some studies have suggested that reinfection may be possible and potentially more severe, the overall risk remains uncertain and further research is needed to fully understand the implications of reinfection.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Cardoso FJ, Victor DR, Silva JRD, et al (2023)

Physical fitness level and the risk of severe COVID-19: A systematic review.

Sports medicine and health science, 5(3):174-180.

To verify systematically the association between the status of physical fitness and the risk of severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This systematic review is in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) statement and the eligibility criteria followed the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study (PICOS) recommendation. PubMed, Embase, SciELO and Cochrane electronic databases were searched. All studies that explored the relationship between the pattern of physical fitness and COVID-19 adverse outcomes (hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, intubation, or mortality), were selected. The quality of the studies was assessed by the specific scale of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A total of seven observational studies were identified in this systematic review; 13 468 patients were included in one case-control study, two cohort studies, and four cross-sectional studies. All studies reported an inverse association between high physical fitness and severe COVID-19 (hospitalization, intensive care admission, or mortality). Only some studies reported comorbidities, especially obesity and cardiovascular disorders, but the results remained unchanged after controlling for comorbidities. The quality of the seven studies included was moderate according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The methodological heterogeneity of the studies included did not allow a meta-analysis of the findings. In conclusion, higher physical fitness levels were associated with lower risk of hospitalization, intensive care admissions, and mortality rates among patients with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

AlSamhori JF, Alshrouf MA, AlSamhori ARF, et al (2023)

Implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on athletes, sports events, and mass gathering events: Review and recommendations.

Sports medicine and health science, 5(3):165-173.

Since the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), which caused several respiratory diseases, was formally declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, it affected the lifestyle and health of athletes, both directly through cardiorespiratory and other health related effects, and indirectly as the pandemic has forced the suspension, postponement, or cancellation of most professional sporting events around the world. In this review, we explore the journey of athletes throughout the pandemic and during their return to their competitive routine. We also highlight potential pitfalls during the process and summarize the recommendations for the optimal return to sport participation. We further discuss the impact of the pandemic on the psychology of athletes, the variance between the team and individual athletes, and their ability to cope with the changes. Moreover, we specifically reviewed the pandemic impact on younger professional athletes in terms of mental and fitness health. Finally, we shaded light on the various impacts of mass gathering events and recommendations for managing upcoming events.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ogarek N, Oboza P, Olszanecka-Glinianowicz M, et al (2023)

SARS-CoV-2 infection as a potential risk factor for the development of cancer.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 10:1260776.

The COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on public health and the estimated number of excess deaths may be more than three times higher than documented in official statistics. Numerous studies have shown an increased risk of severe COVID-19 and death in patients with cancer. In addition, the role of SARS-CoV-2 as a potential risk factor for the development of cancer has been considered. Therefore, in this review, we summarise the available data on the potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on oncogenesis, including but not limited to effects on host signal transduction pathways, immune surveillance, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle dysregulation, potential viral genome integration, epigenetic alterations and genetic mutations, oncolytic effects and reactivation of dormant cancer cells. We also investigated the potential long-term effects and impact of the antiviral therapy used in COVID-19 on cancer development and its progression.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Xiao L, Zhao Y, Yang M, et al (2023)

A promising nucleic acid therapy drug: DNAzymes and its delivery system.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 10:1270101.

Based on the development of nucleic acid therapeutic drugs, DNAzymes obtained through in vitro selection technology in 1994 are gradually being sought. DNAzymes are single-stranded DNA molecules with catalytic function, which specifically cleave RNA under the action of metal ions. Various in vivo and in vitro models have recently demonstrated that DNAzymes can target related genes in cancer, cardiovascular disease, bacterial and viral infection, and central nervous system disease. Compared with other nucleic acid therapy drugs, DNAzymes have gained more attention due to their excellent cutting efficiency, high stability, and low cost. Here, We first briefly reviewed the development and characteristics of DNAzymes, then discussed disease-targeting inhibition model of DNAzymes, hoping to provide new insights and ways for disease treatment. Finally, DNAzymes were still subject to some restrictions in practical applications, including low cell uptake efficiency, nuclease degradation and interference from other biological matrices. We discussed the latest delivery strategy of DNAzymes, among which lipid nanoparticles have recently received widespread attention due to the successful delivery of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, which provides the possibility for the subsequent clinical application of DNAzymes. In addition, the future development of DNAzymes was prospected.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sharma P, Sethi MIS, Liem A, et al (2023)

A Review of Telemedicine Guidelines in the South-East Asia Region.

Telemedicine reports, 4(1):271-278.

INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine use has increased for the past few years, and data security-related issues have also accompanied this. Barriers such as poor digital literacy, unaffordability, and ethical and legal issues have also affected the uptake of digital health. Telemedicine guidelines can help in promoting a suitable environment for wider uptake of telemedicine services by focusing on training, supervision, and monitoring of service providers. This policy review compares the telemedicine guidelines of countries in World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) as these countries have similar sociocultural backgrounds.

METHODOLOGY: Latest telemedicine guidelines of the South Asia Region of the WHO were accessed using the official government websites of the countries. The guidelines that were not in the English language were translated into English using Google Translate. The guidelines were analyzed and presented under the following subheadings: (1) Definitions, Purpose, and Tools of Telemedicine; (2) Clinical Aspects of Telemedicine; and (3) Operational and Technical Aspects of Telemedicine.

RESULTS: Investigating the telemedicine guidelines in the SEAR of the WHO revealed that only 5 out of 11 countries, that is, India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia and Nepal, have guidelines specifically for telemedicine. Besides Thailand, the other four countries either published (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) or updated (Indonesia) their telemedicine guidelines after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Guidelines from India and Bangladesh are detailed and robust compared with those from Nepal, Indonesia, and Thailand.

CONCLUSION: Telemedicine guidelines need to be more robust to improve the uptake of the service. Further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of implementing these guidelines.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Cabanillas-Bernal O, Valdovinos-Navarro BJ, Cervantes-Luevano KE, et al (2023)

Unleashing the power of shark variable single domains (VNARs): broadly neutralizing tools for combating SARS-CoV-2.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1257042.

The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) generated a joint global effort to develop vaccines and other treatments that could mitigate the negative effects and the rapid spread of the virus. Single-domain antibodies derived from various sources, including cartilaginous fish, camelids, and humans, have gained attention as promising therapeutic tools against coronavirus disease 2019. Shark-derived variable new antigen receptors (VNARs) have emerged as the smallest naturally occurring antigen-binding molecules. Here, we compile and review recent published studies on VNARs with the capacity to recognize and/or neutralize SARS-CoV-2. We found a close balance between the use of natural immune libraries and synthetic VNAR libraries for the screening against SARS-CoV-2, with phage display being the preferred display technology for the selection of VNARs against this virus. In addition, we discuss potential modifications and engineering strategies employed to improve the neutralization potential of VNARs, such as exploring fusion with the Fc domain of human Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to increase avidity and therapeutic potential. This research highlights the potential of VNARs as powerful molecular tools in the fight against infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Shin J, I Shimomura (2023)

COVID-19, Obesity, and GRP78: Unraveling the Pathological Link.

Journal of obesity & metabolic syndrome, 32(3):183-196.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an unprecedented global surge in infections and fatalities. Notably, obesity has emerged as an important susceptibility factor for COVID-19; however, the pathological mechanisms for this remain poorly understood. Recent studies proposed a role for glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a protein implicated in both obesity and metabolic syndrome, which may function as a binding partner and/or co-receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Given its crucial involvement in diverse biological processes, GRP78 likely plays a major role in multiple facets of the viral life cycle and the pathology of COVID-19. This perspective review discusses the potential contributions of GRP78 to the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathology, particularly in the context of obesity. The primary objective is to facilitate a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Through this exploration, we aim to illuminate the complex interactions underpinning the nexus of COVID-19, obesity, and GRP78, ultimately paving the way for informed therapeutic strategies and preventive measures.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Petkidis A, Andriasyan V, UF Greber (2023)

Machine learning for cross-scale microscopy of viruses.

Cell reports methods, 3(9):100557.

Despite advances in virological sciences and antiviral research, viruses continue to emerge, circulate, and threaten public health. We still lack a comprehensive understanding of how cells and individuals remain susceptible to infectious agents. This deficiency is in part due to the complexity of viruses, including the cell states controlling virus-host interactions. Microscopy samples distinct cellular infection stages in a multi-parametric, time-resolved manner at molecular resolution and is increasingly enhanced by machine learning and deep learning. Here we discuss how state-of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) augments light and electron microscopy and advances virological research of cells. We describe current procedures for image denoising, object segmentation, tracking, classification, and super-resolution and showcase examples of how AI has improved the acquisition and analyses of microscopy data. The power of AI-enhanced microscopy will continue to help unravel virus infection mechanisms, develop antiviral agents, and improve viral vectors.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Pantea Stoian A, Bica IC, Salmen T, et al (2023)

New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in COVID-19: A Scoping Review.

Diabetes therapy : research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic became superimposed on the pre-existing obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) pandemics. Since COVID-19 infection alters the metabolic equilibrium, it may induce pathophysiologic mechanisms that potentiate new-onset DM, and we evaluated this issue.

METHOD: A systematic review of the literature published from the 1 January 2020 until the 20 July 2023 was performed (PROSPERO registration number CRD42022341638). We included only full-text articles of both human clinical and randomized controlled trials published in English and enrolling adults (age > 18 years old) with ongoing or preceding COVID-19 in whom hyperglycemia was detected. The search was based on the following criteria: "(new-onset diabetes mellitus OR new-onset DM) AND (COVID-19) AND adults".

RESULTS: Articles on MEDLINE (n = 70) and the Web of Science database (n = 16) were included and analyzed by two researchers who selected 20 relevant articles. We found evidence of a bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 and DM.

CONCLUSIONS: This link operates as a pathophysiological mechanism supported by epidemiological data and also by the clinical and biological findings obtained from the affected individuals. The COVID-19 pandemic raised the incidence of DM through different pathophysiological and psychosocial factors.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-27

Clark IA, B Vissel (2023)

Autocrine positive feedback of tumor necrosis factor from activated microglia proposed to be of widespread relevance in chronic neurological disease.

Pharmacology research & perspectives, 11(5):e01136.

Over a decade's experience of post-stroke rehabilitation by administering the specific anti-TNF biological, etanercept, by the novel perispinal route, is consistent with a wide range of chronically diminished neurological function having been caused by persistent excessive cerebral levels of TNF. We propose that this TNF persistence, and cerebral disease chronicity, largely arises from a positive autocrine feedback loop of this cytokine, allowing the persistence of microglial activation caused by the excess TNF that these cells produce. It appears that many of these observations have never been exploited to construct a broad understanding and treatment of certain chronic, yet reversible, neurological illnesses. We propose that this treatment allows these chronically activated microglia to revert to their normal quiescent state, rather than simply neutralizing the direct harmful effects of this cytokine after its release from microglia. Logically, this also applies to the chronic cerebral aspects of various other neurological conditions characterized by activated microglia. These include long COVID, Lyme disease, post-stroke syndromes, traumatic brain injury, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, post-chemotherapy, post-irradiation cerebral dysfunction, cerebral palsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, the antinociceptive state of morphine tolerance, and neurogenic pain. In addition, certain psychiatric states, in isolation or as sequelae of infectious diseases such as Lyme disease and long COVID, are candidates for being understood through this approach and treated accordingly. Perispinal etanercept provides the prospect of being able to treat various chronic central nervous system illnesses, whether they are of infectious or non-infectious origin, through reversing excess TNF generation by microglia.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Phianhasin L, Ruksakulpiwat S, Kruahong S, et al (2023)

Management and Characteristics of Embolism and Thrombosis After COVID-19 Vaccination: Scoping Review.

Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 16:2745-2772.

This scoping review aims to 1) identify characteristics of participants who developed embolism and/or thrombotic event(s) after COVID-19 vaccination and 2) review the management during the new vaccine development of the unexpected event(s). This review was conducted following PRISMA for scoping review guidelines. Peer-reviewed articles were searched for studies involving participants with embolism and/or thrombotic event(s) after COVID-19 vaccination with the management described during the early phase after the approval of vaccines. The 12 studies involving 63 participants were included in this review. The majority of participants' ages ranged from 22 to 49 years. The embolism and/or thrombotic event(s) often occur within 30 days post-vaccination. Five of the included studies reported the event after receiving viral vector vaccines and suggested a vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia as a plausible mechanism. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis was the most frequently reported post-vaccination thrombosis complication. In summary, the most frequently reported characteristics and management from this review were consistent with international guidelines. Future studies are recommended to further investigate the incidence and additional potential complications to warrant the benefit and safety after receiving COVID-19 vaccine and other newly developed vaccines.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Weerarathna IN, Luharia A, Tivaskar S, et al (2023)

Emerging Applications of Biomedical Science in Pandemic Prevention and Control: A Review.

Cureus, 15(8):e44075.

The COVID-19 pandemic has made it abundantly clear how crucial biomedical science is to pandemic control and prevention on a global scale. The importance of biomedical science in the fight against pandemics has increased with the appearance of new, deadly infectious diseases. Biomedical science and engineering have been presented as possible areas for combating the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to the unique challenges raised by the pandemic, as reported by epidemiologists, immunologists, and doctors, including the survival, symptoms, protein surface composition, and infection mechanisms of COVID-19. These multidisciplinary engineering concepts are applied to design and develop prevention methods, diagnostics, monitoring, and therapies. An infectious disease outbreak that has spread over a sizable region, such as several continents or the entire world, and is affecting a sizable number of people is referred to as a "pandemic. While current knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited, various (old and new) biomedical approaches have been developed and tested. Here, we review the emerging applications of biomedical science in pandemic prevention and control, including rapid diagnosis tests, the development of vaccines, antiviral therapies, artificial intelligence, genome sequencing, and personal protective equipment. Biomedical science and nanotechnology are two fields that have the potential to combine to develop emerging applications for combating pandemics. In this review, we also discuss the intersection of biomedical science and nanotechnology in pandemic prevention and control.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sahu S, N Nagtode (Sr) (2023)

Impact on Tuberculosis Notification During COVID-19 Pandemic in India: A Narrative Review.

Cureus, 15(8):e44087.

Various programs are being weakened due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the tuberculosis (TB) program is no exception. TB case detection and notification is one of the worst affected areas. The study aims to assess India's TB reporting status during this pandemic and find possible solutions. Data analysis has been obtained from the India TB notification open-source database. Relevant literature research has been done to determine the measures based on various efforts made by different Indian states. There was a review of all TB notifications in 2019, 2020, and 2021 and a deficiency in notifications. Between 2019 and 2021, the country's TB notification ratio experienced a significant adaptation. In 2020, all states reported a decline in private and public TB case reports. In the nation, only a few private TB notifications were lost. In April 2020, there were the fewest notifications, which began to decline in February 2020. When states began implementing cutting-edge programs like the Integrated TB COVID Case Search and Active Case Finding (ACF), the notification trend improved in May 2020. The notifications of TB cases decreased significantly due to the present COVID-19 pandemic, which has consequences for the disease's stealthy spread throughout homes and communities. However, the situation may be better with an integrated strategy for managing TB-COVID cases.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Espinosa-Cardenas E, Garcia-Saenz M, de Los Monteros-Sanchez ALE, et al (2023)

Non-Invasive Biochemical Testing of ACTH-dependent Cushing's Disease: Do We Still Need Petrosal Sinus Sampling?.

Archives of medical research pii:S0188-4409(23)00120-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Differentiating between a pituitary from an ectopic source of ACTH could be a real one of the major challenges of clinical endocrinology. The Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) is considered the gold standard for identifying the source of ACTH; however, is not available worldwide. After the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, algorithms that include biochemical and imaging tests have gained importance as an alternative to BIPSS. This review summarizes the drawbacks in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing; the evolution of diagnostic tests, and the evidence that exists on their performance. As well as a comparison between the advantages and disadvantages of invasive and non-invasive tests.

RevDate: 2023-09-27
CmpDate: 2023-09-27

McCoy D, Roberts S, Daoudi S, et al (2023)

Global health security and the health-security nexus: principles, politics and praxis.

BMJ global health, 8(9):.

The past four decades have seen a steady rise of references to 'security' by health academics, policy-makers and practitioners, particularly in relation to threats posed by infectious disease pandemics. Yet, despite an increasingly dominant health security discourse, the many different ways in which health and security issues and actors intersect have remained largely unassessed and unpacked in current critical global health scholarship. This paper discusses the emerging and growing health-security nexus in the wake of COVID-19 and the international focus on global health security. In recognising the contested and fluid concept of health security, this paper presents two contrasting approaches to health security: neocolonial health security and universal health security. Building from this analysis, we present a novel heuristic that delineates the multiple intersections and entanglements between health and security actors and agendas to broaden our conceptualisation of global health security configurations and practices and to highlight the potential for harmful unintended consequences, the erosion of global health norms and values, and the risk of health actors being co-opted by the security sector.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Sharma S, Di Castelnuovo A, Cerletti C, et al (2023)

Diet quality and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19: a systematic review of observational studies.

Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) pii:S2161-8313(23)01379-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of healthy diets in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Evidence suggests the influence of diet and dietary patterns during post-COVID-19, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dietary habits and quality. However, limited evidence lies on the association between a healthy diet, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19.

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of observational studies to examine the association between diet quality, and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 amongst adult populations.

METHODS: 6,158 research articles from Scopus, EMBASE, PubMed and MEDLINE databases were identified for eligibility. Only observational studies were included. Study quality was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment (NIH) Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included (four with SARS-CoV-2 infection and nine with COVID-19 as outcome), three were case-control, three cross-sectional, and seven were prospective studies. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined as exposure in 7 studies, and was associated with decreased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in two studies, with estimates varying from 12% to 22%, while COVID-19 risk or severity was found reduced in three studies with odds reductions ranging from 36% to 77%. A DASH diet was inversely associated with COVID-19 hospitalization (OR=0.19; 95%CI 0.07-0.55), while a healthy plant-based diet had an inverse association with both COVID-19 infection (HR 0.91; 0.88-0.94) and severity (HR=0.59; 0.47-0.74). Studies examining individual food groups generally found lower risk of infection or COVID-19 in association with larger dietary intakes of fruits, vegetable and fibre.

CONCLUSION: Overall findings of the observational studies in this review support the concept that nutritious diets might lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19. PROSPERO IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: (reference number: 397371,

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Danieli MG, Antonelli E, Auria S, et al (2023)

Low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in different immune-mediated conditions.

Autoimmunity reviews pii:S1568-9972(23)00185-4 [Epub ahead of print].

IVIg has been used for a long time as a replacement therapy for primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. Beside this supplementary role, when used at higher doses (i.e., 2 g/kg/monthly) it exerts an immunomodulatory role able to control multiple autoimmune and systemic inflammatory diseases. Several mechanisms of action have been described and hypothesized, nonetheless a synergistic action on the different component of the immune response seems to be crucial. The other side of the coin are the costs which showed an increase during the years due to the production of highly purified preparations which limit side reactions. This renders the product not easily accessible especially for low-income countries. Moreover, it is based on plasma donations that experienced a significant shrinkage after the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequences are still impactful. Due to the above-mentioned problems different authors tried to find out if a lower dosage of IVIg (< 2 g/kg/monthly) might exert an immunoregulatory role. In this review we aimed to summarize the current literature about a possible beneficial effect of a lower dosage of IVIg in multiple conditions that would help to treat a vast majority of patients. Even though in some cases (e.g., Kawasaki disease and immune thrombocytopenia) results are promising, for other conditions more research is needed.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Saleki K, Alijanizadeh P, A Azadmehr (2023)

Is neuropilin-1 the neuroimmune initiator of multi-system hyperinflammation in COVID-19?.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 167:115558 pii:S0753-3322(23)01356-2 [Epub ahead of print].

A major immunopathological feature of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is excessive inflammation in the form of "cytokine storm". The storm is characterized by injurious levels of cytokines which form a complicated network damaging different organs, including the lungs and the brain. The main starter of "cytokine network" hyperactivation in COVID-19 has not been discovered yet. Neuropilins (NRPs) are transmembrane proteins that act as neuronal guidance and angiogenesis modulators. The crucial function of NRPs in forming the nervous and vascular systems has been well-studied. NRP1 and NRP2 are the two identified homologs of NRP. NRP1 has been shown as a viral entry pathway for SARS-CoV2, which facilitates neuroinvasion by the virus within the central or peripheral nervous systems. These molecules directly interact with various COVID-19-related molecules, such as specific regions of the spike protein (major immune element of SARS-CoV2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, VEGFR1/2, and ANGPTL4 (regulator of vessel permeability and integrity). NRPs mainly play a role in hyperinflammatory injury of the CNS and lungs, and also the liver, kidney, pancreas, and heart in COVID-19 patients. New findings have suggested NRPs good candidates for pharmacotherapy of COVID-19. However, therapeutic targeting of NRP1 in COVID-19 is still in the preclinical phase. This review presents the implications of NRP1 in multi-organ inflammation-induced injury by SARS-CoV2 and provides insights for NRP1-targeting treatments for COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Qin L, Sun Y, Gao N, et al (2023)

Nanotechnology of inhalable vaccines for enhancing mucosal immunity.

Drug delivery and translational research [Epub ahead of print].

Vaccines are the cornerstone of world health. The majority of vaccines are formulated as injectable products, facing the drawbacks of cold chain transportation, needle-stick injuries, and primary systemic immunity. Inhalable vaccines exhibited unique advantages due to their small dose, easy to use, quick effect, and simultaneous induction of mucosal and systemic responses. Facing global pandemics, especially the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a majority of inhalable vaccines are in preclinical or clinical trials. A better understanding of advanced delivery technologies of inhalable vaccines may provide new scientific insights for developing inhalable vaccines. In this review article, detailed immune mechanisms involving mucosal, cellular, and humoral immunity were described. The preparation methods of inhalable vaccines were then introduced. Advanced nanotechnologies of inhalable vaccines containing inhalable nucleic acid vaccines, inhalable adenovirus vector vaccines, novel adjuvant-assisted inhalable vaccines, and biomaterials for inhalable vaccine delivery were emphatically discussed. Meanwhile, the latest clinical progress in inhalable vaccines for COVID-19 and tuberculosis was discussed.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Bekaryssova D, Mruthyunjaya Vijaya P, Ahmed S, et al (2023)

Revisiting articular syndrome in the peri-pandemic COVID-19 era.

Rheumatology international [Epub ahead of print].

Articular syndrome is often the presentation of a person's various rheumatic or related diseases. It includes both arthralgia and arthritis, with objective signs of joint inflammation defining the latter. This syndromic approach to joint pain enables a scientific method for early diagnosis of common rheumatic conditions without compromising the recognition of uncommon conditions. This review explores common rheumatic conditions associated with articular syndrome, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It supports the early differentiation of uncommon but emerging entities such as reactive arthritis (ReA). The aim of the review is to comprehensively overview various forms of articular syndrome to update rheumatologists' and allied health specialists' knowledge. Epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic strategies are discussed in the context of articular syndrome. The challenges emerging in the peri-pandemic COVID-19 era are highlighted. The improved understanding of the spectrum of clinical conditions and disease states presenting with articular syndrome may facilitate early diagnosis, optimal management, and enhanced patient outcomes within the realm of rheumatology.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Maurer M, Buttgereit T, Magerl M, et al (2023)

Patient-physician interactions in hereditary angioedema-Key learnings from the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

Clinical and translational allergy, 13(9):e12300.

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease pandemic and its containing measures have caused concerns for patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) and their treating physicians. Both faced challenges surrounding interaction, and communication had to adapt to facilitate appropriate management. Specifically, the pandemic resulted in reduced in-person contact in clinics. Where possible, telemedicine appointments were offered and treatment outside the hospital setting was encouraged. BODY: The pandemic markedly affected patient-physician communication, which is essential to maintain partnerships and optimize care. Although patients with HAE are often experts in their condition, guidance by their physicians is essential, especially with the recent shift toward patient-centered management for rare diseases and shared decision-making (SDM). SDM enables patients to take control of their disease and allows the risks and benefits of treatment to be discussed with their physicians. This review explores perspectives from patients and physicians in the HAE clinical setting, particularly regarding their experiences with communication throughout the pandemic. We discuss the importance of SDM in rare diseases such as HAE, factors that impact effective communication, and potential solutions.

CONCLUSION: Since patient-centered care and SDM have particular relevance in rare diseases in general, we believe our findings could be transferrable and applicable in the management of other rare diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Alharbi A, Alfatlawi H, Pena C, et al (2023)

Monthly variations in acute coronary syndromes outcomes during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Current medical research and opinion [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease, particularly acute coronary syndromes (ACS), is the leading cause of death in the United States. Minor fluctuations in hospital admissions for different conditions, including ACS, can be seen throughout the year. This study focuses on the impact of admission month on outcomes of acute coronary syndromes during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of patients hospitalized with ACS from the National Inpatient Sample, during the years 2020 (n = 779,895) and 2019 (n = 935,975). We compared the monthly outcomes for every month to the outcomes for the month of January of that same year. The primary outcomes of interest were in-hospital mortality and time from admission to PCI.

RESULTS: Inpatient mortality for patients admitted with STEMI was significantly higher for admissions in the months of April, October and December of 2020 than January of that same year. For patients admitted with NSTEMI or UA, inpatient mortality was higher for admissions in April and December 2020 when compared to admissions in January 2020. Inpatient mortality for patients with STEMI, NSTEMI and UA was not different based on admission month in the year 2019.

CONCLUSION: The month of admission significantly affected outcomes for patients admitted with ACS during the COVID-19 pandemic, with higher inpatient mortality and longer time from admission to PCI for certain months in 2020. Further studies should investigate disparities in monthly ACS outcomes for the year 2021 and onward, now that COVID-19 infections have been steadily declining.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Boldea GJ, Caragea DC, Nicolcescu P, et al (2023)

Effect of the COVID‑19 pandemic on the management and outcomes of patients with traumatic injuries (Review).

Biomedical reports, 19(4):76.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, ~10% of the global population was officially affected, resulting in diverse changes, ranging from shopping habits to stringent hospital protocols. This article sought to provide a concise summary of relevant data concerning the interplay between COVID-19 and trauma, encompassing the entire trajectory from presentation to hospital discharge. Throughout the pandemic, there was a noticeable reduction in trauma presentations, while the ranking of injury mechanisms remained largely unchanged. To ensure essential surgical support, protocols were adjusted accordingly. Although there were some less significant changes in injury severity score, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit stay and mortality, the overall patient outcomes appeared to improve. In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a decline in trauma cases and an enhancement in patient outcomes. However, regrettably, certain mechanisms of injury saw an increase in frequency. To cope with the epidemiological context, management strategies were adapted, and unutilized resources were redirected to cater to the care of COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Bele A, Wagh V, PK Munjewar (2023)

A Comprehensive Review on Cardiovascular Complications of COVID-19: Unraveling the Link to Bacterial Endocarditis.

Cureus, 15(8):e44019.

The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has ushered in a new era of understanding the multifaceted nature of infectious diseases. Beyond its well-documented respiratory impact, COVID-19 has unveiled intricate interactions with the cardiovascular system, with potential implications that extend to bacterial endocarditis. This review explores the complex interplay between COVID-19 and bacterial endocarditis, elucidating shared risk factors, theoretical mechanisms, and clinical implications. We examine the diverse cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19, ranging from myocarditis and thromboembolic events to arrhythmias, and delve into the pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnostic challenges of bacterial endocarditis. By analyzing potential connections, such as viral-induced endothelial disruption and immune modulation, we shed light on the plausible relationship between COVID-19 and bacterial endocarditis. Our synthesis highlights the significance of accurate diagnosis, optimal management, and interdisciplinary collaboration in addressing the challenges posed by these intricate interactions. In addition, we underscore the importance of future research, emphasizing prospective studies on bacterial endocarditis incidence and investigations into the long-term cardiovascular effects of COVID-19. As the boundaries of infectious diseases and cardiovascular complications converge, this review calls for continued research, vigilance, and coordinated efforts to enhance patient care and public health strategies in a rapidly evolving landscape.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Escribano P, J Guinea (2022)

Fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis: A new emerging threat in the fungi arena.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 3:1010782.

Candida parapsilosis is a leading cause of invasive candidiasis in southern Europe, Latin America and Asia. C. parapsilosis has been mostly considered susceptible to triazoles, but fluconazole resistance is on the rise in some countries. The main mechanism related to fluconazole resistance is the presence of ERG11p substitutions, dominated by the Y132F amino acid substitution. Isolates harbouring this substitution mimic C. auris given that they may cause hospital outbreaks, become endemic, and emerge simultaneously in distant areas around the world. At the moment, Spain is experiencing a brusque emergence of fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis; isolates harbouring the Y132F substitution were detected for the first time in 2019. A recent study on Candida spp isolates from blood cultures collected in 16 hospitals located in the Madrid metropolitan area (2019 to 2021) reported that fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis reached as high as 13.6%. Resistance rates rose significantly during those three years: 3.8% in 2019, 5.7% in 2020, and 29.1% in 2021; resistant isolates harboured either the dominant Y132F substitution (a single clone found in four hospitals) or G458S (another clone found in a fifth hospital). The COVID-19 pandemic may have increased the number of candidaemia cases. The reason for such an increase might be a consequence of uncontrolled intra-hospital patient-to-patient transmission in some hospitals, as an increase not only in C. parapsilosis candidaemia episodes but also in the spread of clonal fluconazole-resistant isolates might have occurred in other hospitals during the pandemic period. Patients affected with fluconazole-resistant C. parapsilosis harbouring the Y132F substitution presented a mortality rate ranging from 9% to 78%, were mainly admitted to intensive care wards but did not have differential risk factors compared to those infected by susceptible isolates. With scarce exceptions, few patients (≤20%) infected with fluconazole-resistant isolates had previously received fluconazole, thus supporting the fact that, although fluconazole might have been a key factor to promote resistance, the main driver promoting the spread of fluconazole-resistant isolates was patient-to-patient transmission.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Akokuwebe ME, ES Idemudia (2023)

Fraud within the Nigerian health system, a double threat for resilience of a health system and the response to the COVID-19 pandemic: a review.

The Pan African medical journal, 45:116.

As Nigeria battles the COVID-19 pandemic, systemic fraud within the health system may undermine the efforts to halt the devastating effect of the disease and the fight against COVID-19. Fraud is a major concern worldwide, especially in developing countries such as Nigeria, where it is widespread within the health system. The vulnerability of the Nigerian health system despite several efforts from relevant stakeholders, has consistently been underscored before the pandemic arose, raising serious concerns. These concerns include fraud, embezzlement, and mismanagement of funds, exploitation, lack of transparency in policymaking, cutting corners in procurement processes, and taking advantage of the healthcare workforce for personal benefits. Also, other involvements in the vulnerability of the Nigerian health system that are worrisome include stakeholders using the pandemic to their advantage to increase their private benefits, a short supply of vital health resources, fraudulent recruitment of the health workforce, and ineffective crisis management. This study explores fraud within the Nigerian health system, its impact and implications for health-system resilience as well as its response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Guided by agency theory, causes and impacts of fraud in the health system and its implications on the response to COVID-19 were explained. Systematic review method was employed; out of 1462 articles identified and screened dated from 1991 to 2021, sixty articles were included in the analysis and interpretation. Specific fraud interventions should focus on a weak and vulnerable health system, service delivery, high-risk institutionalized health workforce, and addressing issues of fraud within and outside the health system in order to curb the dreaded COVID-19 and its variants in Nigeria.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Lai T, Thiele H, Rogers BA, et al (2023)

Exploring the advancements of Australian OPAT.

Therapeutic advances in infectious disease, 10:20499361231199582.

Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in Australia has evolved from modest beginnings to a well-established health service with proven benefits in patient outcomes. This is a comprehensive review of the current state of art Australian OPAT with vignettes of the types of OPAT models of care, antimicrobial prescribing and antimicrobial use. In addition, we highlight the similarities and differences between OPAT to other countries and describe Australian OPAT experiences with COVID-19 and paediatrics. Australian OPAT continues to advance with OPAT antifungals, novel treatment options and upcoming high-impact research.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Khaity A, Rababah AAM, Abdelwahab OA, et al (2023)

Cardiovascular Disease and COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Published Cases.

European cardiology, 18:e54.

As vaccination against COVID-19 became more widespread, side-effects that were not initially detected during clinical trials became more prominent. The aim of this systematic review is to discuss reports of adverse cardiovascular events associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Databases were searched from inception up to August 2022 to identify case reports and case series reporting on patients with cardiovascular disease after COVID-19 vaccination. This study assessed 150 published cases. Of these, 109 were case reports and 41 were case series. The majority of patients were male (n=302, 86.6%), with a mean age of 27.6 ± 16.7 years. Of the included patients, 268 (76.6%) had myocarditis, 50 (14.6%) had myopericarditis, 8 (2.3%) had pericarditis, and only 4 (1.1%) had stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Moreover, 30 (8.6%) and 11 (3.1%) were diagnosed with arrhythmia and ischaemic heart disease, respectively. Ultimately, cardiovascular complications after COVID-19 vaccination include myocarditis, myopericarditis, ischaemic heart disease and arrhythmia. The young population, especially young male patients, could be more vulnerable to myocarditis.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Koirala P, Dhakal S, Malla B, et al (2023)

SARS-CoV-2 Burden in Wastewater and its Elimination Using Disinfection.

Microbiology insights, 16:11786361231201598.

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic viruses have been abundant and diverse in wastewater, reflecting the pattern of infection in humans. Human feces, urine, and perhaps other washouts that frequently circulate in sewage systems may contaminate wastewater with SARS-CoV-2. It's crucial to effectively disinfect wastewater since poorly handled wastewater could put the population at risk of infection.

AIMS: To emphasize the presence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage (wastewater) through viral shedding from the patients to detect the virus in the population using wastewater-based epidemiology. Also, to effectively manage the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and reduce the spread of the virus in the population using disinfectants is highlighted.

METHODS: We evaluated articles from December 2019 to August 2022 that addressed SARS-CoV-2 shedding in wastewater and surveillance through wastewater-based epidemiology. We included the papers on wastewater disinfection for the elimination of SARS-CoV-2. Google Scholar, PubMed, and Research4Life are the three electronic databases from which all of the papers were retrieved.

RESULTS: It is possible for viral shedding to get into the wastewater. The enumeration of viral RNA from it can be used to monitor virus circulation in the human community. SARS-CoV-2 can be removed from wastewater by using modern disinfection techniques such as sodium hypochlorite, liquid chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid, and ultraviolet light.

CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 burden estimates at the population level can be obtained via longitudinal examination of wastewater, and SARS-CoV-2 can be removed from the wastewater through disinfection.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Kermani F, Kahouei M, Valinejadi A, et al (2023)

Outcome's Classification in Mobile Applications Tailored to Parents of Premature Infants: A Systematic Review.

Iranian journal of public health, 52(8):1642-1655.

BACKGROUND: Integration of healthcare services for preterm neonates at home and hospital by mobile technology is an economical and convenient intervention, which is being increasingly applied worldwide. We aimed to classify the outcomes of mobile applications tailored to parents of premature infants.

METHODS: This systematic review was conducted by searching the six main databases until May 2021. Mobile applications tailored to parents of premature infants and the reported outcomes of this technology were identified and classified. Quality of screened articles checked by MMAT tool.

RESULTS: Overall, 10703 articles were retrieved, and after eliminating the duplicated articles, 9 articles were reviewed ultimately. Identified outcomes were categorized into three groups parental, application, and neonatal outcomes. In the parental outcomes, maternal stress/stress coping, parenting self-efficacy, satisfaction, anxiety, partnership advocacy/improved parent-infant relationship, feeling of being safe, reassurance and confidence, increase awareness, as well as discharge preparedness, were identified. In the application outcomes, application usage, ease of use/user-friendly, and usability of the designed application were placed. Finally, the neonatal outcomes include health and clinical items.

CONCLUSION: Mobile applications can be useful in prematurity for educating pregnant mothers, managing stress and anxiety, supporting families, and preparing for discharge. Moreover, due to the coronavirus condition, providing remote services for parents is an appropriate solution to reduce the in-person visits to neonatal care centers. Development of tailored apps can promote the neonates' health and reduce their parents' stress.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Almubaslat F, Sanchez-Boluarte SS, MM Diaz (2023)

A review of neurological health disparities in Peru.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1210238.

Peru is a historically unique and culturally diverse Latin American country. As a low-to-middle-income country (LMIC), Peru faces health implications from the spread of communicable diseases as well as a growing rate of noncommunicable diseases, both of which have been worsened by the recent COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the national health system. Over the past two decades, the country has aimed to improve health access for its population through various efforts described in this review. Despite this, there are notable neurological health disparities that exist today. This narrative review investigates such disparities through the leading neurological contributors to the national burden of disease in the country, including migraine headaches, cerebrovascular disease, and dementia. Public health disparities that contribute to other major neurological diseases in the country, including epilepsy, neurocysticercosis, Chagas disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injuries are also investigated. We also explore potential solutions for overcoming the various neurological health disparities covered in this review that may be applied through public policies, as well as in similar LMICs in Latin America. By overcoming such disparities, the country may be able to successfully address the major contributors of neurological disease burden and create a healthcare environment that can sustainably and equitably improve health outcomes for Peruvian people.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

He YF, Liu JQ, Hu XD, et al (2023)

Breastfeeding vs. breast milk transmission during COVID-19 pandemic, which is more important?.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 11:1253333.

The catastrophic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised many health questions, and whether breast milk from SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers may be a vector for SARS-CoV-2 transmission has become a hot topic of concern worldwide. Currently, there are extremely limited and conflicting data on the risk of infection in infants through breastfeeding. For this reason, we investigated almost all current clinical studies and systematically analyzed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and antibodies in the breast milk of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2, their effects on newborns, and the mechanisms involved. A total of 82 studies were included in this review, of which 66 examined the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk samples from mothers diagnosed with COVID-19, 29 reported results of antibody detection of SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk, and 13 reported both nucleic acid and antibody test results. Seventeen studies indicated the presence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in breast milk samples, and only two studies monitored viral activity, both of which reported that infectious viruses could not be cultured from RNA-positive breast milk samples. All 29 studies indicated the presence of at least one of the three antibodies, IgA, IgG and IgM, in breast milk. Five studies indicated the presence of at least one antibody in the serum of breastfed newborns. No COVID-19-related deaths were reported in all 1,346 newborns. Our study suggests that direct breastfeeding does not pose an additional risk of infection to newborns and that breast milk is a beneficial source of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that provide passive immune protection to infants. In addition, direct breastfeeding would provide maternal benefits. Our review supports the recommendation to encourage direct breastfeeding under appropriate infection control guidelines. Systematic Review Registration:, identifier: 458043.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Wang B, Pei J, Xu S, et al (2023)

Recent advances in mRNA cancer vaccines: meeting challenges and embracing opportunities.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1246682.

Since the successful application of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in preventing COVID-19, researchers have been striving to develop mRNA vaccines for clinical use, including those exploited for anti-tumor therapy. mRNA cancer vaccines have emerged as a promising novel approach to cancer immunotherapy, offering high specificity, better efficacy, and fewer side effects compared to traditional treatments. Multiple therapeutic mRNA cancer vaccines are being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials, with promising early-phase results. However, the development of these vaccines faces various challenges, such as tumor heterogeneity, an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, and practical obstacles like vaccine administration methods and evaluation systems for clinical application. To address these challenges, we highlight recent advances from preclinical studies and clinical trials that provide insight into identifying obstacles associated with mRNA cancer vaccines and discuss potential strategies to overcome them. In the future, it is crucial to approach the development of mRNA cancer vaccines with caution and diligence while promoting innovation to overcome existing barriers. A delicate balance between opportunities and challenges will help guide the progress of this promising field towards its full potential.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Hilligan KL, Namasivayam S, A Sher (2023)

BCG mediated protection of the lung against experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1232764.

The observation of reduced COVID-19 incidence and severity in populations receiving neonatal intradermal BCG vaccination vaccine raised the question of whether BCG can induce non-specific protection against the SARS-CoV-2 (SCV2) virus. Subsequent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have largely failed to support this hypothesis. Furthermore, in small animal model studies all investigators have failed to observe resistance to viral challenge in response to BCG immunization by the conventional and clinically acceptable intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Nevertheless, BCG administered by the intravenous (IV) route has been shown to strongly protect both hamsters and mice against SCV2 infection and disease. In this Perspective, we review the current data on the effects of BCG vaccination on resistance to COVID-19 as well as summarize recent work in rodent models on the mechanisms by which IV administered BCG promotes resistance to the virus and discuss the translational implications of these findings.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

das Virgens IPA, Sousa IM, Bezerra ADL, et al (2023)

Assessment of body composition in adults hospitalized with acute COVID-19: a scoping review.

Frontiers in nutrition, 10:1176441.

INTRODUCTION: Body composition (BC) assessment can supply accurate information for in-hospital nutritional evaluation. The aim of this study was to explore in the literature how the studies assessed BC, for what purpose, and investigate the role of BC findings in COVID-19 hospitalized patients' outcomes.

METHODS: A scoping review was conducted according to the methodology available on the Joanna Briggs Institute website. We used the PCC acronym for the systematic search (population: adults with COVID-19, concept: assessment of BC, context: hospital setting) and performed it on PubMed, Scopus, and the Web of Science on 16 September 2022. Eligibility criteria consisted of the utilization of BC assessment tools in COVID-19 patients. Studies in which BC was solely measured with anthropometry (perimeters and skinfolds) were excluded. No language restriction was applied.

RESULTS: Fifty-five studies were eligible for the review. Out of the 55 studies, 36 used computed tomography (CT), 13 used bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and 6 used ultrasound (US). No studies with D3-creatinine, 24  h urine excretion, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance were retrieved. BC was mainly assessed to test associations with adverse outcomes such as disease severity and mortality.

DISCUSSION: Studies assessing BC in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 used mainly CT and BIA and associated the parameters with severity and mortality. There is little evidence of BC being assessed by other methods, as well as studies on BC changes during hospitalization.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zabaleta-Del-Olmo E, Santesmases-Masana R, Martín-Payo R, et al (2023)

Research on missed nursing care during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review.

Worldviews on evidence-based nursing [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Missed nursing care is defined as care that is delayed, partially completed, or not completed at all. The scenario created by the COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced multifactorial determinants related to the care environment, nursing processes, internal processes, and decision-making processes, increasing missed nursing care.

AIM: This scoping review aimed to establish the quantity and type of research undertaken on missed nursing care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: This review was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. We searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus, two national and regional databases, two dissertations and theses databases, a gray literature database, two study registers, and a search engine from November 1, 2019, to March 23, 2023. We included quantitative, qualitative, and mixed studies carried out in all healthcare settings that examined missed nursing care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Language restrictions were not applied. Two independent reviewers conducted study selection and data extraction. Disagreements between the reviewers were resolved through discussion or with an additional reviewer.

RESULTS: We included 25 studies with different designs, the most common being acute care cross-sectional survey designs. Studies focused on determining the frequency and reasons for missed nursing care and its influence on nurses and organizational outcomes.

LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Missed nursing care studies during the COVID-19 pandemic were essentially nurses-based prevalence surveys. There is an urgent need to advance the design and development of longitudinal and intervention studies, as well as to broaden the focus of research beyond acute care. Further research is needed to determine the impact of missed nursing care on nursing-sensitive outcomes and from the patient's perspective.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Yamauchi T, Shimazaki T, Yanagisawa H, et al (2023)

Formal and informal help-seeking intentions/behaviors among students and workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review.

Environmental health and preventive medicine, 28:53.

BACKGROUND: Students and workers have been subjected to increased levels of psychological distress due to the quarantine policy and containment measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. This scoping review aimed to present an overview of published evidence regarding formal and informal help-seeking intentions/behaviors for non-mental health-related issues as well as mental health-related issues among students and workers during the pandemic.

METHODS: In June 2022, we searched MEDLINE, APA PsycNet, and CINAHL for articles reporting the state of help-seeking intentions/behaviors among students and workers during the pandemic. Peer-reviewed original articles published in English were selected.

RESULTS: In total, 150 articles were identified, and 12 articles were selected for final analysis after removing articles that met the exclusion criteria. Three studies targeted university students, and nine targeted healthcare workers. Study settings were restricted to Western countries and China. Of the 12 studies, 11 were observational and predominantly cross-sectional studies. Two longitudinal studies using student samples suggested that university students became more reluctant to seek help from both formal and informal sources during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before, despite the increased need for support during the pandemic. Among healthcare workers, the proportions of those who sought help from formal sources in person were low (7-26%), even among those with mental health issues, despite the increase in the need for mental health services. One randomized controlled study reported that a brief video-based intervention increased treatment-seeking intentions among healthcare workers in the intervention group compared with the non-intervention group.

CONCLUSIONS: The present review revealed that, although most studies included in the final analysis were cross-sectional, intentions/behaviors to seek help from both formal and informal sources decreased among university students, even those with mental health issues. Among healthcare workers, while the frequency of help-seeking from formal sources in person was low, a brief online intervention was suggested to be useful for promoting help-seeking from formal sources. During public health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, system and infrastructure development of online help-seeking services could potentially promote formal and informal help-seeking intentions/behaviors for diverse issues, including non-mental health-related issues, among university students and healthcare workers/providers.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Srivastava RK, Sapra L, Bhardwaj A, et al (2023)

Unravelling the immunobiology of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs): Implications in health and disease.

Cytokine & growth factor reviews pii:S1359-6101(23)00066-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a growing class of immune cells, imitate the appearance and abilities of T cells. However, unlike T cells, ILCs lack acquired antigen receptors, and they also do not undergo clonal selection or proliferation in response to antigenic stimuli. Despite lacking antigen-specific receptors, ILCs respond quickly to signals from infected or damaged tissues and generate an array of cytokines that regulate the development of adaptive immune response. ILCs can be categorized into four types based on their signature cytokines and transcription factors: ILC1, ILC2, ILC3 (including Lymphoid Tissue inducer- LTi cells), and regulatory ILCs (ILCregs). ILCs play key functions in controlling and resolving inflammation, and variations in their proportion are linked to various pathological diseases including cancer, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and skin diseases. We highlight current advancements in the biology and classification of ILCs in this review. Additionally, we provide a thorough overview of their contributions to several inflammatory bone-related pathologies, including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Understanding the multiple functions of ILCs in both physiological and pathological conditions will further mobilize future research towards targeting ILCs for therapeutic purposes.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Contreras J, Tinuoye EO, Folch A, et al (2023)

Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction and COVID-19, when the Sick Get Sicker: Unmasking Racial and Ethnic Inequities During a Pandemic.

Cardiology clinics, 41(4):491-499.

Minoritized racial and ethnic groups have the highest incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rate for heart failure. Despite improvement in medical therapies and overall survival, the morbidity and mortality of these groups remain elevated. The reasons for this disparity are multifactorial, including social determinant of health (SDOH) such as access to care, bias, and structural racism. These same factors contributed to higher rates of COVID-19 infection among minoritized racial and ethnic groups. In this review, we aim to explore the lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic and its interconnection between heart failure and SDOH. The pandemic presents a window of opportunity for achieving greater equity in the health care of all vulnerable populations.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Beirigo EF, Franco PIR, do Carmo Neto JR, et al (2023)

RNA vaccines in infectious diseases: A systematic review.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00405-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Infectious diseases are a major health concern worldwide, especially as they are one of the main causes of mortality in underdeveloped and developing countries. Those that are considered emerging and re-emerging are characterized by unpredictability, high morbidity and mortality, exponential spread, and substantial social impact. These characteristics highlight the need to create an "on demand" control method, with rapid development, large-scale production, and wide distribution. In view of this, RNA vaccines have been investigated as an effective alternative for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases since they can meet those needs and are considered safe, affordable, and totally synthetic. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to evaluate the use of RNA vaccines for infectious diseases from experimental, in vivo, and in vitro studies. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for suitable studies. Additionally, further investigations, such as grey literature checks, were performed. A total of 723 articles were found, of which only 41 met the inclusion criteria. These studies demonstrated the potential of using RNA vaccines to control 19 different infectious diseases, of which COVID-19 was the most studied. Similarly, viruses comprised the largest number of reported vaccine targets, followed by protozoa and bacteria. The mRNA vaccines were the most widely used, and the intramuscular route of administration was the most reported. Regarding preclinical experimental models, mice were the most used to evaluate the impact and safety of the RNA vaccines developed. Thus, although further studies and evaluation of the subject are necessary, it is evident that RNA vaccines can be considered a promising alternative in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Sunder S, Bhandari K, Sounkaria S, et al (2023)

Antibiotics and nano-antibiotics in treatment of lung infection: In management of COVID-19.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00389-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The world has witnessed the cruelty of COVID-19 disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The association of COVID-19 with other secondary and bacterial co-infections has tremendously contributed to lung infections. An increased probability of having a secondary lung infection was observed among the post-COVID patients. The treatment of antibiotics has ameliorated the mortality rate. However, the stewardship of antibiotic treatment was linked to increased organ failure. Therefore, the paper discusses the interactions between the virus and host through the ACE2 receptors that contribute to COVID-19 development. Furthermore, the paper provides an invaluable compendium history of SARS-CoV-2 genomic composition. It revolves around most classes of antibiotics used to treat COVID-19 disease and post-COVID lung infections with the complete mechanism. This binds with the exertion of the antibiotics for bacterial infection associated with COVID-19 patients and how beneficial and effective responses have been recorded for the treatment. The application of nanotechnology and possible approaches of nanomedicines is also discussed to its potential usage.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Ito T, Wuerth JD, F Weber (2023)

Protection of eIF2B from inhibitory phosphorylated eIF2: a viral strategy to maintain mRNA translation during the PKR-triggered integrated stress response.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(23)02315-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The integrated stress response (ISR) protects cells from a variety of insults. Once elicited (e.g. by virus infections), it eventually leads to the block of mRNA translation. Central to the ISR are the interactions between translation initiation factors eIF2 and eIF2B. Under normal conditions, eIF2 drives the initiation of protein synthesis through hydrolysis of GTP, which becomes replenished when binding to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. The antiviral branch of the ISR is activated by the RNA-activated kinase PKR which phosphorylates eIF2, thereby converting it into an eIF2B inhibitor. Here, we describe the recently solved structures of eIF2B in complex with eIF2, and a novel escape strategy used by viruses. While unphosphorylated eIF2 interacts with eIF2B in its "productive" conformation, phosphorylated eIF2 [eIF2(αP)] engages a different binding cavity on eIF2B and forces it into the "non-productive" conformation that prohibits GEF activity. It is well established that viruses express so-called PKR antagonists that interfere with double-strand RNA, PKR itself, or eIF2. However recently, three taxonomically unrelated viruses were reported to encode antagonists targeting eIF2B instead. For one antagonist, the S segment non-structural protein (NSs) of Sandfly fever Sicilian virus, atomic structures showed that it occupies the eIF2(αP)-binding cavity on eIF2B without imposing a switch to the non-productive conformation. NSs thus antagonizes the activity of PKR by protecting eIF2B from inhibition by eIF2(αP). As the ISR and specifically eIF2B are central to neuroprotection and a wide range of genetic and age-related diseases, these developments may open new possibilities for treatments.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Centanni D, Henricks PAJ, F Engels (2023)

The therapeutic potential of resolvins in pulmonary diseases.

European journal of pharmacology pii:S0014-2999(23)00559-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Uncontrolled inflammation leads to nonspecific destruction and remodeling of tissues and can contribute to many human pathologies, including pulmonary diseases. Stimulation of inflammatory resolution is considered an important process that protects against the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Resolvins generated from essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been demonstrated to be signaling molecules in inflammation with important pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory capabilities. By binding to specific receptors, resolvins can modulate inflammatory processes such as neutrophil migration, macrophage phagocytosis and the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators to reduce inflammatory pathologies. The discovery of these pro-resolving mediators has led to a shift in drug research from suppressing pro-inflammatory molecules to investigating compounds that promote resolution to treat inflammation. The exploration of inflammatory resolution also provided the opportunity to further understand the pathophysiology of pulmonary diseases. Alterations of resolution are now linked to both the development and exacerbation of diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cancer and COVID-19. These findings have resulted in the rise of novel design and testing of innovative resolution-based therapeutics to treat diseases. Hence, this paper reviews the generation and mechanistic actions of resolvins and investigates their role and therapeutic potential in several pulmonary diseases that may benefit from resolution-based pharmaceuticals.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Steiner S, Fehrer A, Hoheisel F, et al (2023)

Understanding, diagnosing, and treating Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome - State of the art: Report of the 2nd international meeting at the Charité fatigue center.

Autoimmunity reviews pii:S1568-9972(23)00186-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a devastating disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Due to the 2019 pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we are facing a significant increase of ME/CFS prevalence. On May 11th to 12th, 2023, the second international ME/CFS conference of the Charité Fatigue Center was held in Berlin, Germany, focusing on pathomechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment. During the two-day conference, more than 100 researchers from various research fields met on-site and over 700 attendees participated online to discuss the state of the art and novel findings in this field. Key topics from the conference included: the role of the immune system, dysfunction of endothelial and autonomic nervous system, and viral reactivation. Furthermore, there were presentations on innovative diagnostic measures and assessments for this complex disease, cutting-edge treatment approaches, and clinical studies. Despite the increased public attention due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the subsequent rise of Long COVID-19 cases, and the rise of funding opportunities to unravel the pathomechanisms underlying ME/CFS, this severe disease remains highly underresearched. Future adequately funded research efforts are needed to further explore the disease etiology and to identify diagnostic markers and targeted therapies.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Zhong HL, Li PZ, Li D, et al (2023)

The role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in pulmonary diseases.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(23)00756-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an abundant neurotransmitter in the lungs and other organs. Its discovery dates back to 1970. And VIP gains attention again due to the potential application in COVID-19 after a research wave in the 1980s and 1990s. The diverse biological impacts of VIP extend beyond its usage in COVID-19 treatment, encompassing its involvement in various pulmonary and systemic disorders. This review centers on the function of VIP in various lung diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung tumors. This review also outlines two main limitations of VIP as a potential medication and gathers information on extended-release formulations and VIP analogues.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Chen S, Zhang H, Chu M, et al (2023)

Prevalence of transmissible gastroenteritis among swine populations in China during 1983-2022: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microbial pathogenesis, 183:106320.

BACKGROUND: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), which belongs to the coronaviruses (CoVs), causes diarrhea and high mortality rates in piglets and poses a huge threat and loss to the pig industry in China.

METHOD: We estimated the prevalence of TGEV in Chinese pig animals from 1983 to 2022 by screening 36 papers on TGEV investigations in China from databases such as China Knowledge Network (CNKI), Wanfang Database, Science and Technology Journal Repository (VIP), PubMed, and ScienceDirect, excluding duplicate literature and other host studies according to the exclusion criteria we developed, and excluding literature with incomplete data to extract information from studies that could estimate the prevalence of TGEV infection in pigs in mainland China.

RESULTS: A total of 36 studies (including data from 50,403 pigs) met our evaluation criteria. The overall estimated prevalence of TGEV infection in pigs in China is 10% (3887/50403), and the prevalence of TGEV in northeast China is 38% (2582/3078700) is significantly higher than the rest of China. The prevalence of TGEV infection was related to the sampling season and region.

CONCLUSION: The results of the study show that the prevalence of TGEV is clearly seasonal and regional. Therefore, further research and monitoring of the prevalence of TGEV infection and the development of control programs based on different conditions are essential. In addition, effective and robust regulatory measures should be taken in colder regions to prevent the spread and transmission of TGEV in pigs.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Castle EM, Billany RE, Lightfoot CJ, et al (2023)

Exercise as a therapeutic intervention in chronic kidney disease: are we nearly there yet?.

Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension, 32(6):502-508.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The opportunity to review the more recent evidence for prescribing exercise-based physical rehabilitation for people living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is timely. There has been a recent global focus evaluating how physical activity interventions might improve health-related quality of life and outcomes for people living with chronic health conditions in a post-COVID era. There is finally a long overdue commitment from the kidney research and clinical community to deliver pragmatic interventions to help people living with CKD to be able to live well with their condition.

RECENT FINDINGS: This article reviews recent research, and discusses the challenges and potential solutions, for providing exercise-based therapeutic options for people living with CKD; including predialysis self-management interventions, options for both prehabilitation and posttransplant rehabilitation, pragmatic considerations for delivery of exercise therapy for people receiving haemodialysis treatment and the role of virtual kidney-specific rehabilitation.

SUMMARY: Whilst there remains a need for further research in this area of patient care, there is now a body of evidence and kidney-specific guidelines that firmly support a rollout of pragmatic and scalable exercise-based interventions for people living with CKD. We are indeed nearly there now.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Ngo ATP, Bochenek V, K Gollomp (2023)

The immunology of PF4 polyanion interactions.

Current opinion in hematology, 30(6):219-229.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Platelet factor 4 (PF4, CXCL4), the most abundant α-granule platelet-specific chemokine, forms tetramers with an equatorial ring of high positive charge that bind to a wide range of polyanions, after which it changes conformation to expose antigenic epitopes. Antibodies directed against PF4 not only help to clear infection but can also lead to the development of thrombotic disorders such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT). This review will outline the different mechanisms through which PF4 engagement with polyanions combats infection but also contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and thrombotic disease states.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work has shown that PF4 binding to microbial polyanions may improve outcomes in infection by enhancing leukocyte-bacterial binding, tethering pathogens to neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), decreasing the thrombotic potential of NET DNA, and modulating viral infectivity. However, PF4 binding to nucleic acids may enhance their recognition by innate immune receptors, leading to autoinflammation. Lastly, while HIT is induced by platelet activating antibodies that bind to PF4/polyanion complexes, VITT, which occurs in a small subset of patients treated with COVID-19 adenovirus vector vaccines, is characterized by prothrombotic antibodies that bind to PF4 alone.

SUMMARY: Investigating the complex interplay of PF4 and polyanions may provide insights relevant to the treatment of infectious disease while also improving our understanding of the pathogenesis of thrombotic disorders driven by anti-PF4/polyanion and anti-PF4 antibodies.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Tofade TO, BK Chwalisz (2023)

Neuro-ophthalmic complications of varicella-zoster virus.

Current opinion in ophthalmology, 34(6):470-475.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review broadly describes recent neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reported in literature.

RECENT FINDINGS: Despite varicella vaccination, the incidence of herpes zoster continues to rise, potentially leading to devastating consequences when ocular complications occur.A small but growing literature documents cases of retinal disease because of varicella reactivation after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, ischemic optic neuropathy occurring during herpes zoster ophthalmicus, VZV-induced orbital apex syndrome, and immune-mediated ocular complications in patients with prior neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of VZV.

SUMMARY: It is important for clinicians to keep abreast of the diverse neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of VZV as early diagnosis and treatment often lead to better visual outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Greistorfer T, P Jud (2023)

Pathophysiological Aspects of COVID-19-Associated Vasculopathic Diseases.

Thrombosis and haemostasis, 123(10):931-944.

Since the beginning of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, numerous data reported potential effects on the cardiovascular system due to infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may lead to COVID-19-associated vasculopathies during the acute phase and measurable vascular changes in the convalescent phase. Infection by SARS-CoV-2 seems to have specific direct and indirect effects on the endothelium, immune and coagulation systems thus promoting endothelial dysfunction, immunothrombosis, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps although the exact mechanisms still need to be elucidated. This review represents a recent update of pathophysiological pathways of the respective three major mechanisms contributing to COVID-19 vasculopathies and vascular changes and includes clinical implications and significance of outcome data.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Zhao Y, Li M, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Understanding the mechanism underlying the anti-diabetic effect of dietary component: a focus on gut microbiota.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 63(25):7378-7398.

Diabetes has become one of the biggest non-communicable diseases and threatens human health worldwide. The management of diabetes is a complex and multifaceted process including drug therapy and lifestyle interventions. Dietary components are essential for both diabetes management and health and survival of trillions of the gut microbiota (GM). Herein, we will discuss the relationship between diets and GM, the mechanism linking diabetes and gut dysbiosis, and the effects of dietary components (nutrients, phytochemicals, probiotics, food additives, etc.) on diabetes from the perspective of modulating GM. The GM of diabetic patients differs from that of health individuals and GM disorder contributes to the onset and maintenance of diabetes. Studies in humans and animal models consolidate that dietary component is a key regulator of diabetes and increasing evidence suggests that the alteration of GM plays a salient role in dietary interventions for diabetes. Given that diabetes is a major public health issue, especially that diabetes is linked with a high risk of mortality from COVID-19, this review provides compelling evidence for that targeting GM by dietary components is a promising strategy, and offers new insights into potential preventive or therapeutic approaches (dietary and pharmacological intervention) for the clinical management of diabetes.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Mansour ZM, Al Nassan S, Hawamdeh M, et al (2023)

The impact of COVID-19 on neck pain intensity and onset: A systematic review.

Work (Reading, Mass.) pii:WOR220713 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impacts on most aspects of life, including physical and psychological wellbeing. Neck pain is a very common musculoskeletal complaint worldwide, and one that has been impacted by COVID-19. Such impacts have been studied by a few researchers, but not without inconstancies. Moreover, understanding those impacts in relation to rehabilitation is not fully comprehended.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically examine the impacts of COVID-19 on neck pain intensity and onset pre and post the pandemic.

METHODS: This study was developed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Keywords used were "COVID-19" AND "Neck Pain". Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Checklist for prevalence studies.

RESULTS: A total of five studies were included with an overall sample size of 2618 participants. Three studies were at moderate risk and two were at high risk of bias. Results from three studies reported an increase in neck pain intensity and onset, while the other two did not report an increase.

CONCLUSION: The impact of COVID-19 on neck pain is unclear. The inconsistency in results sheds the light on the importance of having future research (including longitudinal studies) to help guide us towards understanding the real impacts of COVID-19 on neck pain.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Teixeira JP, Zeidman A, Beaubien-Souligny W, et al (2023)

Proceedings of the 2022 UAB CRRT Academy: Non-Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring to Guide Fluid Removal with CRRT and Proliferation of Extracorporeal Blood Purification Devices.

Blood purification pii:000533573 [Epub ahead of print].

In 2022, we celebrated the 15th anniversary of the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) Academy, a 2-day conference attended yearly by an international audience of over 100 nephrology, critical care, and multidisciplinary trainees and practitioners. This year, we introduce the proceedings of the UAB CRRT Academy, a yearly review of select emerging topics in the field of critical care nephrology that feature prominently in the conference. First, we review the rapidly evolving field of non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring and its potential to guide fluid removal by renal replacement therapy (RRT). We begin by summarizing the accumulating data associating fluid overload with harm in critical illness and the potential for harm from end-organ hypoperfusion caused by excessive fluid removal with RRT, underscoring the importance of accurate, dynamic assessment of volume status. We describe four applications of point-of-care ultrasound used to identify patients in need of urgent fluid removal or likely to tolerate fluid removal: lung ultrasound, inferior vena cava ultrasound, venous excess ultrasonography, and Doppler of the left ventricular outflow track to estimate stroke volume. We briefly introduce other minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring technologies before concluding that additional prospective data are urgently needed to adapt these technologies to the specific task of fluid removal by RRT and to learn how best to integrate them into practical fluid-management strategies. Second, we focus on the growth of novel extracorporeal blood purification devices, starting with brief reviews of the inflammatory underpinnings of multiorgan dysfunction and the specific applications of pathogen, endotoxin, and/or cytokine removal and immunomodulation. Finally, we review a series of specific adsorptive technologies, several of which have seen substantial clinical use during the COVID-19 pandemic, describing their mechanisms of target removal, the limited existing data supporting their efficacy, ongoing and future studies, and the need for additional prospective trials.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Mohamed Taha A, Adel Abdelkader Saed S, Hossam-Eldin Moawad M, et al (2023)

Safety and efficacy of melatonin as an adjuvant therapy in COVID-19 patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Advances in medical sciences, 68(2):341-352 pii:S1896-1126(23)00034-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Melatonin might be beneficial to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in terms of both prevention and treatment. We investigated how melatonin affected various clinical and laboratory results in COVID-19 patients.

METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases were utilized for searching eligible articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria up to December 2022. We used random effect model in case of significant heterogeneity; in other cases, a fixed model was applied. RevMan was used for meta-analysis.

RESULTS: We included 11 studies in our review. Clinical improvement rate was found to be statistically significantly higher in patients taking melatonin than in the control group (OR: 5.09; 95% CI: 2.60-9.96, p ​< ​0.001). Patients receiving melatonin showed a non-significant difference in mortality rate compared to the control group (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.07-1.81, p ​= ​0.22). However, in the randomized controlled trials subgroup, melatonin-treated patients showed significantly lower mortality than did the controls (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.08-0.38, p ​< ​0.001). CRP level was statistically significantly lower due to melatonin treatment (weighted mean difference [WMD] ​= ​-9.85; 95% CI: -18.54 to -1.16, p ​= ​0.03). Length of hospital stay was statistically significantly shorter in patients taking melatonin compared to controls (WMD ​= ​-4.05; 95% CI: -5.39 to -2.7, p ​< ​0.001).

CONCLUSION: Melatonin was found to have substantial effects on COVID-19 patients when used as adjuvant therapy, enhancing clinical improvement and decreasing time to recovery with a shorter length of hospital stay and a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Das A, Pathak S, Premkumar M, et al (2023)

A brief overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its management strategies: a recent update.

Molecular and cellular biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a global health crisis, inflicting substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. A diverse range of symptoms, including fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue, characterizes COVID-19. A cytokine surge can exacerbate the disease's severity. This phenomenon involves an increased immune response, marked by the excessive release of inflammatory cytokines like IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and IFNγ, leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Efforts to reduce the cytokine surge and its associated complications have garnered significant attention. Standardized management protocols have incorporated treatment strategies, with corticosteroids, chloroquine, and intravenous immunoglobulin taking the forefront. The recent therapeutic intervention has also assisted in novel strategies like repurposing existing medications and the utilization of in vitro drug screening methods to choose effective molecules against viral infections. Beyond acute management, the significance of comprehensive post-COVID-19 management strategies, like remedial measures including nutritional guidance, multidisciplinary care, and follow-up, has become increasingly evident. As the understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis deepens, it is becoming increasingly evident that a tailored approach to therapy is imperative. This review focuses on effective treatment measures aimed at mitigating COVID-19 severity and highlights the significance of comprehensive COVID-19 management strategies that show promise in the battle against COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Wu J, Wu W, Zhou B, et al (2023)

Chimeric antigen receptor therapy meets mRNA technology.

Trends in biotechnology pii:S0167-7799(23)00239-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Genetically engineered immune cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have emerged as a new game changer in cancer immunotherapy. The utility of CAR T cell therapy against hematological malignancies has been validated in clinical practice. Other CAR immune cells are currently under investigation to improve the potency of CAR therapy in solid tumors. As a new class of therapeutic modalities, mRNA-based therapeutics hold enormous potential beyond COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Arming immune cells with mRNA-encoded CARs represents a new frontier in cancer and beyond, enabling in vivo generation of CAR cells without causing transgene integration. In this review, we summarize recent advances in mRNA-based CAR immunotherapies and highlight their opportunities and challenges for the development of a new generation of living drugs.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Teo JL, Bird SR, Wang X, et al (2023)

Using telehealth to deliver Qi Gong and Tai Chi programs: A mixed-methods systematic review on feasibility, acceptability and participant engagement factors.

Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 117:105203 pii:S0167-4943(23)00281-9 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of digitally delivered exercise classes to promote physical activity has become widespread amongst various populations as an alternative to in-person activities.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and participant engagement variables to delivering Qi Gong and Tai Chi programs through telehealth interventions.

METHODS: Ten databases (Seven English databases; three Chinese databases) were searched between October and November 2021. Studies published in English or Chinese, or having translations in English or Chinese, were included. Titles and abstracts of identified articles were screened, relevant studies were then retrieved for full-text screening. Study selection, assessment of methodological quality, data extraction, data transformation, and data synthesis were completed following a convergent integrated approach to mixed method systematic reviews.

RESULTS: Seven articles were included in review. Digital literacy of both participants and providers was found to be a significant hurdle towards digital program implementation. There were no notable issues pertaining to access to an internet connection, participant safety, program costs, or connectivity. A major theme for sustaining program engagement was found to be individual perceived relevance for intervention involvement. Online social involvement was noted to be both a facilitator for participant acceptability and engagement. Overall, participants expressed satisfaction with the use of telehealth, while providers expressed acceptability concerns regarding quality of care.

CONCLUSION: It is recommended that planned measures be taken prior to program commencement to decrease digital literacy requirements while also including a participatory approach to encourage uptake. During the program, provision of technical support alongside appropriate social-environmental engagement facilitators would promote sustained adherence.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Dawoody Nejad L, LM Julian (2023)

Stem cell-derived organoid models for SARS-CoV-2 and its molecular interaction with host cells.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Modeling severe acute respiratory syndrome, Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in stem cell-derived organoids has helped in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease due to their resemblance to actual human tissues or organs. Over the past decade, organoid 3-dimensional (3D) cultures have represented a new perspective and considerable advancement over traditional in vitro 2-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. COVID-19 disease causes lung injury and multi-organ failure leading to death, especially in older patients. There is an urgent need for physiological models to study SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic. Human stem cell-derived organoids can provide insight into understanding the SARS-CoV-2 cell entry molecular mechanism. Identifying such complexities will help to develop the best preventive drug targets.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Kunkel AA, KJ McHugh (2023)

Injectable controlled-release systems for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A [Epub ahead of print].

Pharmaceutical drugs, including vaccines, pre- and post-exposure prophylactics, and chronic drug therapies, are crucial tools in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. These drugs have the ability to increase survival and improve patient quality of life; however, infectious diseases still accounted for more than 10.2 million deaths in 2019 before the COVID-19 pandemic. High mortality can be, in part, attributed to challenges in the availability of adequate drugs and vaccines, limited accessibility, poor drug bioavailability, the high cost of some treatments, and low patient adherence. A majority of these factors are logistical rather than technical challenges, providing an opportunity for existing drugs and vaccines to be improved through formulation. Injectable controlled-release drug delivery systems are one class of formulations that have the potential to overcome many of these limitations by releasing their contents in a sustained manner to reduce the need for frequent re-administration and improve clinical outcomes. This review provides an overview of injectable controlled drug delivery platforms, including microparticles, nanoparticles, and injectable gels, detailing recent developments using these systems for single-injection vaccination, long-acting prophylaxis, and sustained-release treatments for infectious disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Yuan M, Han Z, Liang Y, et al (2023)

mRNA nanodelivery systems: targeting strategies and administration routes.

Biomaterials research, 27(1):90.

With the great success of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines, mRNA therapeutics have gained significant momentum for the prevention and treatment of various refractory diseases. To function efficiently in vivo and overcome clinical limitations, mRNA demands safe and stable vectors and a reasonable administration route, bypassing multiple biological barriers and achieving organ-specific targeted delivery of mRNA. Nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems representing leading vector approaches ensure the successful intracellular delivery of mRNA to the target organ. In this review, chemical modifications of mRNA and various types of advanced mRNA NPs, including lipid NPs and polymers are summarized. The importance of passive targeting, especially endogenous targeting, and active targeting in mRNA nano-delivery is emphasized, and different cellular endocytic mechanisms are discussed. Most importantly, based on the above content and the physiological structure characteristics of various organs in vivo, the design strategies of mRNA NPs targeting different organs and cells are classified and discussed. Furthermore, the influence of administration routes on targeting design is highlighted. Finally, an outlook on the remaining challenges and future development toward mRNA targeted therapies and precision medicine is provided.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

McPhee C, Yevdokimova K, Rogers L, et al (2023)

The SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and Asthma: What We Have Learned and What is still Unknown.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(23)01184-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought new insights into the immunological intricacies of asthma. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of asthma in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of severe infection. Type 2 inflammation had an overall protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection by various mechanisms summarized in this review. Asthma, intranasal, and inhaled corticosteroids decreased the ACE2 receptor, an important receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells. We summarize the nuances of treatment of type 2 inflammation despite its underlying protective effects. Research to date has shown that patients on various allergen immunotherapies and biologics do benefit from being vaccinated.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Martinez RJ, KA Hogquist (2023)

The role of interferon in the thymus.

Current opinion in immunology, 84:102389 pii:S0952-7915(23)00108-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Interferons (IFNs) are a family of proteins that are generated in response to viral infection and induce an antiviral response in many cell types. The COVID-19 pandemic revealed that patients with inborn errors of type-I IFN immunity were more prone to severe infections, but also found that many patients with severe COVID-19 had anti-IFN autoantibodies that led to acquired defects in type-I IFN immunity. These findings revealed the previously unappreciated finding that central immune tolerance to IFN is essential to immune health. Further evidence has also highlighted the importance of IFN within the thymus and its impact on T-cell development. This review will highlight what is known of IFN's role in T-cell development, T-cell central tolerance, and the impact of IFN on the thymus.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Olsen M, Demaneuf T, Singh G, et al (2023)

Do mobile phone surfaces carry SARS-CoV-2 virus? A systematic review warranting the inclusion of a "6th" moment of hand hygiene in healthcare.

Journal of infection and public health, 16(11):1750-1760 pii:S1876-0341(23)00284-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Mobile phones, used in billions throughout the world, are high-touch devices subject to a dynamic contamination of microorganisms and rarely considered as an important fomite to sanitise systematically. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic, arguably the most impactful pandemic of the 21st century with millions of deaths and disruption of all facets of modern life globally.

AIM: To perform a systematic review of the literature exploring SARS-CoV-2 presence as a contaminant on mobile phones.

METHODS: A systematic search (PubMed and Google Scholar) of literature was undertaken from December 2019 to March 2023 identifying English language studies. Studies included in this review specifically identified or tested for the contamination of the SARS-CoV-2 virus or genome on mobile phones while studies testing for SARS-COV-2 in environments and/or other fomites samples than but not mobile phones were excluded.

RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with reports of SARS-CoV-2 contamination on mobile phones between 2020 and 2023 were included. Amongst all studies, which encompassed ten countries, 511 mobile phones were evaluated for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 contamination and 45% (231/511) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. All studies were conducted in the hospital setting and two studies performed additional testing in residential isolation rooms and a patient's house. Four studies (3 in 2020 and one in 2021) reported 0% contamination while two other studies (in 2020 and 2022) reported 100% of mobile phone contamination with SARS-COV-2. All other studies report mobile phones positive for the virus within a range of 4-77%.

CONCLUSION: A total of 45% of mobile phones are contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 virus. These devices might be an important fomite vector for viral dissemination worldwide. Competent health authorities are advised/recommended to start a global implementation of mobile phone decontamination by introducing regulations and protocols in public health and health care settings such as the 6th moment of hand washing.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Röltgen K, SD Boyd (2023)

Antibody and B Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination: The End of the Beginning.

Annual review of pathology [Epub ahead of print].

As the COVID-19 pandemic has evolved during the past years, interactions between human immune systems, rapidly mutating and selected SARS-CoV-2 viral variants, and effective vaccines have complicated the landscape of individual immunological histories. Here, we review some key findings for antibody and B cell-mediated immunity, including responses to the highly mutated omicron variants; immunological imprinting and other impacts of successive viral antigenic variant exposures on antibody and B cell memory; responses in secondary lymphoid and mucosal tissues and non-neutralizing antibody-mediated immunity; responses in populations vulnerable to severe disease such as those with cancer, immunodeficiencies, and other comorbidities, as well as populations showing apparent resistance to severe disease such as many African populations; and evidence of antibody involvement in postacute sequelae of infection or long COVID. Despite the initial phase of the pandemic ending, human populations will continue to face challenges presented by this unpredictable virus. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, Volume 19 is January 2024. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

John LA, Winterfield JR, Padera R, et al (2023)

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Precipitating VT Storm in Patients With Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

JACC. Clinical electrophysiology pii:S2405-500X(23)00608-4 [Epub ahead of print].

We describe 3 patients presenting with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) flare and ventricular tachycardia (VT) storm following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. COVID-19-related cardiac manifestations can vary and include arrythmias, myocarditis, and exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular disease. The exact mechanism of myocardial involvement is not clear but may include abnormal host immune response and direct myocardial injury, thereby predisposing to enhanced arrhythmic risk. Arrhythmias account for 20% of COVID-19-related complications with ventricular arrythmias occurring in 5.9% of cases. Further studies are needed to better understand mechanisms underlying the intersection between COVID-19 infection and inflammatory cardiomyopathies.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )