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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 06 Aug 2020 at 01:36 Created: 


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 37743 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2020-08-05

Candemir İ, P Ergün (2020)

COVID-19 infections and pulmonary rehabilitation.

Tuberkuloz ve toraks, 68(2):192-194.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Gürün Kaya A, Öz M, Erol S, et al (2020)

High flow nasal cannula in COVID-19: a literature review.

Tuberkuloz ve toraks, 68(2):168-174.

In recent years, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a respiratory support system that has become prominent in the treatment of respiratory failure. HFNC provides higher concentration and flow of oxygen, resulting in decreasing anatomic dead space by preventing rebreathing and ensure positive end-expiratory. However, in COVID-19, the usage of HFNC is much controversial due to concerns about the benefits and risk of aerosol-dispersion. Considering the debates about the use of HFNC, we reviewed the literature related to the usage of HFNC in COVID-19. The available reports suggest that HFNC provides high concentrations of oxygen to the patients, who can not reach with conventional devices. HFNC can reduce the requiring of intubation in patients with COVID-19, and it can decrease the length of intensive care unit stay, and complications related to mechanical ventilation. Also HFNC can in achieving apneic oxygenation in patients during airway management. Besides that, the use of high-flow oxygen cannulas can produce aerosols. So, HFNC treatment should be carried out in a negative pressure room; when it is not possible, devices should be undertaken in a single room.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Çopur S, Kanbay A, Afşar B, et al (2020)

Pathological features of COVID-19 infection from biopsy and autopsy series.

Tuberkuloz ve toraks, 68(2):160-167.

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in December 2019 in Chinese town Wuhan and considered as a pandemic by World Health Organization. The disease has variety of symptoms including fever, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, loss of smell and taste and diarrhea. While the majority of cases have mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia, multi-organ failure, or cytokine storm and mortality is mostly caused by hypoxemic respiratory failure. Until now, more than 3.5 million people worldwide were infected and more than 240.000 mortality has been occurred. Thus, there is now evidence the disease may affect variety of organs according to accumulating biopsy and autopsy studies. Such pathological studies have potential role on the understanding of clinical outcomes and in the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches. Given these aforementioned data, in the current manuscript we have summarized the pathological features of COVID-19 derived from biopsy and autopsy series.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Sarıoğlu N (2020)

Asthma and COVID-19: What do we know?.

Tuberkuloz ve toraks, 68(2):141-147.

There are limited data about the coexistence of asthma and the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is a new disease for the whole world. In this study, we aimed to examine the published case series with the COVID-19 and asthma coexistence, by reviewing existing studies and other publications. We discussed the suggestions of guidelines such as The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), and the Canadian Respiratory Guideline about the management of asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic and the experiences of different countries. We analyzed the publications, reports, and expert opinions about asthma and COVID-19, that were released and expressed from the onset of the disease in Wuhan. In this review, we aimed to summarize the approach to patients with asthma during the pandemic and to make recommendations concerning it.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Gülbay B, Azap A, Kaya A, et al (2020)

[Management of obstructive sleep apnea during COVID-19 pandemic].

Tuberkuloz ve toraks, 68(2):135-140.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that causes important mortality and morbidity all over the world caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), which started in China at the end of 2019. It spreads rapidly, mainly through droplets, and especially for all healthcare workers involved in aerosol producing procedures are at high risk. During COVID-19 pandemic , the health systems worldwide, along with the practice of chest diseases daily were affected. In our article, we aimed to give some clinical suggestions related to sleep practices according to current data.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Rauch S, Regli IB, Clara A, et al (2020)

Right ventricular myopericarditis in COVID-19: a call for regular echocardiography.

Minerva anestesiologica pii:S0375-9393.20.14756-4 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Ferrari F, Visconti F, De Amici M, et al (2020)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critically ill patients: can we re-program the immune system? A primer for intensivists.

Minerva anestesiologica pii:S0375-9393.20.14663-7 [Epub ahead of print].

In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread around the word. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate CoV infections, however, multiorgan damage might be due to direct SARS-CoV2 action against the infected organ cells, as well as an imbalanced host immune response. In effect, a "cytokines storm" and an impaired innate immunity were found in the COVID-19 critically ill patients. In this review, we summarize the virus immune response steps, underlying the relevance of introducing the measurement of plasma cytokine levels and of circulating lymphocyte subsets in clinical practice for the follow-up of critically ill COVID-19 patients and support new therapy.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Rashid MA, Nicholson JG, D Gill (2020)

International solidarity: medical school collaborations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The clinical teacher [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Tenforde MW, Feldstein LR, Lindsell CJ, et al (2020)

Exposures in adult outpatients with COVID-19 infection during early community transmission, Tennessee.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Papandreou C, Arija V, Aretouli E, et al (2020)

Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: Cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.

European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: We compared eating behaviours, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in two countries with different confinement strictness strategies and different levels of COVID-19 pandemic.

METHOD: A web-based cross-sectional survey was administered during and shortly after the COVID-19 related lockdown in Spain and Greece. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify country differences associated with eating behaviour, and symptoms of depression and anxiety.

RESULTS: This study included 1,002 responders in Spain and 839 in Greece. The mean ± SD of restraint, emotional and external eating was 2.5 ± 0.79, 2.1 ± 0.81 and 2.6 ± 0.65 in Spain, whereas 2.7 ± 0.85, 2.3 ± 0.99 and 2.9 ± 0.74 in Greece. Spanish participants had lower average scores of restraint and external eating compared to Greek participants (p < .001), but no difference was seen for emotional eating. In Spain, 13.6%, and 12.3% of the survey respondents reported moderate to severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, whereas in Greece the respective values were 18.8 and 13.2%. After adjusting for several risk factors, a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms was observed in Spain compared to Greece (p = .001), but no difference was seen for depressive symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated high scores of inappropriate eating behaviours and a high frequency of depressive and anxiety symptoms in two Mediterranean countries during the COVID-19 outbreak. Our findings revealed that compared to Greek participants, Spanish participants, that faced more severe COVID-19 pandemic and stricter lockdown measures, were associated with lower restraint and external eating and increased anxiety symptoms, but not with depressive symptoms or emotional eating.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Shah N, Davariya V, Gupta SK, et al (2020)

Review: An insight into coronaviruses: Challenges, security and scope.

Reviews in medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

SARS-CoV2 is a novel coronavirus; the seventh of its species to infect humans. The spread of this virus emerged in Wuhan, China in late December, 2019. Since then, this virus has spread to more than 200 countries and has caused a worldwide pandemic. Being a new species of coronaviruses, any cure or vaccines for this virus has not yet been obtained. A large amount of scientific studies and clinical trials are being carried out across the world to find a potential vaccine for this virus. Current work reports a review of potential drugs and vaccines that may be effective against this virus. Different scientific therapies that may potentially be effective against the SARS-CoV2 virus are also reviewed. The mechanisms of various drugs, their efficiency in various clinical trials and their side effects are also studied.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Wu Y, Xu W, Zhu Z, et al (2020)

Laboratory verification of an RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2.

Journal of clinical laboratory analysis [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is an extremely common clinical method for detecting pathogens, particularly for emerging infectious diseases such as the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Currently, detection of the RNA from the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the gold standard for establishing a COVID-19 diagnosis. This study evaluates the characteristic performance of the analytical system in a clinical laboratory.

METHODS: A commercial SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-PCR Kit used in a clinical laboratory is assessed based on ISO 15189 verification requirements. A multiple real-time RT-PCR assay for the RdRP, N, and E genes in SARS-CoV-2 is verified.

RESULTS: The analytical system exhibits good analytical sensitivity (1000 copies/mL) and specificity (100%); however, the values of 86.7% and 100% for analytical accuracy deserved attention, compared with two other types of methods. Overall, the kit is potentially useful for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing and meets the verification requirements.

CONCLUSION: Compliance with international standards, such as ISO 15189, is valuable for clinical laboratories and for improving laboratory medicine quality and safety. Normalization is essential for obtaining reliable results from the SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-PCR assay. This study aims to develop an improved SARS-CoV-2 verification framework compared with traditional molecular diagnostic methods, given the urgency of implementing new assays in clinical laboratories.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Andrew TW, Alrawi M, P Lovat (2020)

Reduction in Skin Cancer Diagnoses in the UK during COVID-19 Pandemic.

Clinical and experimental dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

The UK healthcare system has been profoundly affected by the COVID-19 Pandemic, including skin cancer departments. Despite service capacity and a worldwide increase in incidence, anecdotal reports suggest a decline in skin cancer diagnoses following COVID-19. To determine if there is a decrease in skin cancer diagnosis in the UK in the COVID-19 era, we analysed data from the Northern Cancer Network from March 23rd 2020 to June 23rd 2020 and compared it to the same period last year. In the COVID Period there was a decrease in skin cancer diagnoses of 68.61% from 3619 to 1136 (p<0.0028). Surprisingly, skin cancer waiting times were also reduced in the COVID Period compared to Before COVID Period (median 8 days and 12 days respectively; p<0.0001). Collectively these data highlight a statistically significant reduction in both skin cancer diagnoses and waiting times during the COVID Period.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Fakhri S, Nouri Z, Moradi SZ, et al (2020)

Astaxanthin, COVID-19 and immune response: Focus on oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Gravlee CC (2020)

Systemic racism, chronic health inequities, and COVID-19: A syndemic in the making?.

American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Onoyama T, H Isomoto (2020)

A perspective gastrointestinal endoscopy infection control strategy against COVID-19: workflow and space management for the operation of endoscopic centers.

All endoscopic centers should establish infection control strategies (ICS) tailored to individual resources based upon updated national and academic guidance for COVID-19 without superseding local advisories and institutional guidelines1 . Endoscopic administrators have to customize control measures and adjust with the rapidly evolving local and global pandemic and prepare for the upcoming resurgence due to relaxation of social distancing norms. In this regard, Zhang et al. have reported their stringent ICS in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) based on the guidance of the Chinese Society of Digestive Endoscopy and have shared their experiences from the pandemic and the subsequent recovery2 .

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Escribese MM, Nistal-Villan E, Fernandez P, et al (2020)

Cross-sectional pilot study exploring the feasibility of a rapid SARS-CoV-2 immunization test in health and non-healthcare workers.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Wang F, Yao Y, Hou H, et al (2020)

Delayed virus-specific antibody responses associate with COVID-19 mortality.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Cristaudo A, Pigliacelli F, Pacifico A, et al (2020)

Teledermatology and hygiene practices during the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Xiong R, Zhang L, Li S, et al (2020)

Novel and potent inhibitors targeting DHODH are broad-spectrum antivirals against RNA viruses including newly-emerged coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Protein & cell pii:10.1007/s13238-020-00768-w [Epub ahead of print].

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC50 of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Smulever A, Abelleira E, Bueno F, et al (2020)

Thyroid cancer in the Era of COVID-19.

Endocrine pii:10.1007/s12020-020-02439-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The recent coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is placing health systems in serious challenges worldwide. Shocking statistics each day has prompted the World Health Organization to officially declare the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic in March 2020. Preliminary studies have shown increased mortality in patients with solid cancers and infection by SARS-CoV-2. Until now, the evidence on the behavior of COVID-19 in patients with a history of thyroid cancer remains scarce, and most of the recommendations given are based on common sense. Therefore, in this viewpoint, we present a brief review of several challenges we are frequently facing during this pandemic and a series of recommendations based on what we have implemented in our clinical practice at a university hospital currently mostly dedicated to COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Le Bon SD, Pisarski N, Verbeke J, et al (2020)

Psychophysical evaluation of chemosensory functions 5 weeks after olfactory loss due to COVID-19: a prospective cohort study on 72 patients.

European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery pii:10.1007/s00405-020-06267-2 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To evaluate the evolution of chemosensation via extended psychophysical testing in patients who suffered from sudden chemosensory loss due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Additionally, this study sought to determine whether odor threshold testing provided additional information on olfactory loss due to COVID-19 compared to the more common odor identification testing.

METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients with sudden chemosensory loss since February 2020 and confirmed COVID-19 infection via RT-PCR or serology testing. Olfactory function was tested extensively using the "Sniffin Sticks" test battery. In addition, we screened gustatory perception and nasal cooling sensations using psychophysical tests.

RESULTS: Seventy-two patients completed the study. After a mean of 37 days, 37% of patients showed olfactory dysfunction, 7% were dysgeusic, and 48% showed signs of low sensitivity for cooling sensation. A longer duration of anosmia before smell improvement was correlated with lower olfactory function at 5 weeks. Odor threshold detection was more affected by COVID-19 compared to odor identification.

CONCLUSION: Five weeks after developing sudden chemosensory loss due to COVID-19, a high proportion of patients were dysosmic and showed signs of low nasal cooling sensitivity, whereas most of them had normal taste function. SARS-CoV-2 affected mainly odor thresholds, possibly suggesting that the major cause of loss of smell lies at the level of the olfactory neuroepithelium, rather than in the central nervous system.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Chikazawa K, K Tomoyuki (2020)

Why not use "Twitter" of core clinical journals for rapid dissemination of medical information during the COVID-19 pandemic?.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Marino Gammazza A, Légaré S, Lo Bosco G, et al (2020)

Human molecular chaperones share with SARS-CoV-2 antigenic epitopes potentially capable of eliciting autoimmunity against endothelial cells: possible role of molecular mimicry in COVID-19.

Cell stress & chaperones pii:10.1007/s12192-020-01148-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of COVID-19 disease, has the potential to elicit autoimmunity because mimicry of human molecular chaperones by viral proteins. We compared viral proteins with human molecular chaperones, many of which are heat shock proteins, to determine if they share amino acid-sequence segments with immunogenic-antigenic potential, which can elicit cross-reactive antibodies and effector immune cells with the capacity to damage-destroy human cells by a mechanism of autoimmunity. We identified the chaperones that can putatively participate in molecular mimicry phenomena after SARS-CoV-2 infection, focusing on those for which endothelial cell plasma-cell membrane localization has already been demonstrated. We also postulate that post-translational modifications, induced by physical (shear) and chemical (metabolic) stress caused respectively by the risk factors hypertension and diabetes, might have a role in determining plasma-cell membrane localization and, in turn, autoimmune-induced endothelial damage.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Gross CP, Essien UR, Pasha S, et al (2020)

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Population-Level Covid-19 Mortality.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Sim HS, CH How (2020)

Mental health and psychosocial support during healthcare emergencies - COVID-19 pandemic.

Singapore medical journal, 61(7):357-362.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Lee W, Hwang SS, Song I, et al (2020)

COVID-19 in South Korea: epidemiological and spatiotemporal patterns of the spread and the role of aggressive diagnostic tests in the early phase.

International journal of epidemiology pii:5880756 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: South Korea experienced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in the early period; thus data from this country could provide significant implications for global mitigation strategies. This study reports how COVID-19 has spread in South Korea and examines the effects of rapid widespread diagnostic testing on the spread of the disease in the early epidemic phase.

METHODS: We collected daily data on the number of confirmed cases, tests and deaths due to COVID-19 from 20 January to 13 April 2020. We estimated the spread pattern with a logistic growth model, calculated the daily reproduction number (Rt) and examined the fatality pattern of COVID-19.

RESULTS: From the start date of the epidemic in Korea (18 February 2020), the time to peak and plateau were 15.2 and 25 days, respectively. The initial Rt was 3.9 [95% credible interval (CI) 3.7 to 4.2] and declined to <1 after 2 weeks. The initial epidemic doubling time was 3.8 days (3.4 to 4.2 days). The aggressive testing in the early days of the epidemic was associated with reduction in transmission speed of COVID-19. In addition, as of 13 April, the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in Korea was 2.1%, suggesting a positive effect of the targeted treatment policy for severe patients and medical resources.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important information for establishing and revising action plans based on testing strategies and severe patient care systems, needed to address the unprecedented pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Volpi S, Ali JM, Suleman A, et al (2020)

Pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 patients: a case series of a rare complication.

European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery pii:5880814 [Epub ahead of print].

Pneumomediastinum is a rare clinical finding, but one which can be the source of significant concern for clinicians. By presenting 3 such cases, we highlight that pneumomediastinum can complicate the course of a severe coronavirus disease 2019 infection but emphasize that conservative management is the first-line method of treatment, with gradual resorption of the air from the tissues. It is important to be alert to the development of pneumothorax, which will require drainage.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Mann DL (2020)

Warped Speed: How COVID-19 Transfected and Transformed Medical Journals.

JACC. Basic to translational science, 5(7):752-754 pii:S2452-302X(20)30269-2.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Ahmad J, Ikram S, Ahmad F, et al (2020)

SARS-CoV-2 RNA Dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) - A drug repurposing study.

Heliyon, 6(7):e04502 pii:e04502.

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019 in China subsequently lead to a pandemic. Lack of vaccine and specific anti-viral drugs started a global health disaster. For a sustained control and protection, development of potential anti-viral drugs is one of the targeted approach. Although, designing and developing a panel of new drugs molecules are always encouraged. However, in the current emergency, drug repurposing study is one of the most effective and fast track option. The crystal structure of a SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp) has recently been deciphered through X-ray crystallography. The single-chain of core RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase relies on virus-encoded cofactors nsp7 and two units of nsp8 for its optimum function. This study explored the FDA approved database of 7922 molecules and screened against the core polymerase along with cofactors. Here we report a panel of FDA approved drugs that show substantial interactions with key amino acid residues of the active site. Interestingly, some of the identified drugs (Ornipressin, Lypressin, Examorelin, Polymyxin B1) bind strongly within the binding pockets of both forms of RdRp. Besides, we found strong candidates for the complex form as well which include Nacortocin, Cistinexine, Cisatracurium (among others). These drugs have the potential to be considered while contriving therapeutic options.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Ammirati E, Travi G, Orcese C, et al (2020)

Heart-Kidney Transplanted patient affected by COVID-19 pneumonia treated with tocilizumab on top of immunosuppressive maintenance therapy.

International journal of cardiology. Heart & vasculature, 29:100596 pii:100596.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Chérif MY, de Filette JMK, André S, et al (2020)

Coronavirus disease 2019-related Kawasaki-like disease in an adult: A case report.

JAAD case reports, 6(8):780-782 pii:S2352-5126(20)30451-3.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Akintande O, O Olubusoye (2020)

Datasets on how misinformation promotes immune perception of COVID-19 pandemic in Africa.

Data in brief, 31:106031 pii:106031.

The dataset investigates the magnitude of the misinformation content influencing scepticisms about the novel COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. The data is collected via an electronic questionnaire method and twenty-one Africa countries randomly participated. Responses were received from all the five regions of Africa. The data is structured to identify some leading misinformation been propagated in the media. For data, in brief, we performed a descriptive analysis of the data and also examine the degree of each selected misinformation contents on the immune perception of respondents using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Another research can use the dataset to investigate how misinformation and religion misconception promote ignorance about disease or pandemic in Africa or the dataset could serve as supplementary material for further investigation of COVID-19 pandemic in Africa.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Kutsuna S, Suzuki T, Hayakawa K, et al (2020)

SARS-CoV-2 Screening Test for Japanese Returnees From Wuhan, China, January 2020.

Open forum infectious diseases, 7(7):ofaa243 pii:ofaa243.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was found to be the causative microorganism of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which started to spread in Wuhan, China. This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of questionnaire, symptoms-based screening, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of returnees from COVID-19-endemic areas on a chartered flight, to examine the proportion of infected persons and the proportion of asymptomatic persons among infected persons who returned from Wuhan.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done in 7 tertiary medical institutions in Japan. A total of 566 Japanese who returned from Wuhan participated in the study.

Results: Overall, 11 of the 566 passengers had a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result for pharyngeal swabs and 6 were asymptomatic. Only fever differed between SARS-CoV-2-positive and -negative individuals (P < .043). Six of the 11 PCR-positive individuals were asymptomatic; 4 remained positive on day 10, and 1 asymptomatic person tested positive up to day 27. Two of the 11 were negative on the first PCR test and positive on the second.

Conclusions: Our results will be important insights on screening returnees from locked-down cities, as well as providing important data on the proportion of asymptomatic individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. A 13-day observation period and a second round of PCR may be effective to screen patients, including asymptomatic infections.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Thompson Iii GR, Cornely OA, Pappas PG, et al (2020)

Invasive Aspergillosis as an Under-recognized Superinfection in COVID-19.

Open forum infectious diseases, 7(7):ofaa242 pii:ofaa242.

Pulmonary aspergillosis has been increasingly reported following severe respiratory viral infections. Millions have been infected by SARS-CoV-2, placing large numbers of patients at-risk for COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Prompt recognition of this syndrome and is paramount to improve outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Hong XW, Chi ZP, Liu GY, et al (2020)

Characteristics of Renal Function in Patients Diagnosed With COVID-19: An Observational Study.

Frontiers in medicine, 7:409.

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of renal function in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included all confirmed cases of COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in Guangdong, China from January 20, 2020 to March 20, 2020. Blood and urine laboratory findings related to renal function were summarized, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) were also calculated to assess the renal function. Results: A total of 12 admitted hospital patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, included 3 severe cases, and 9 common cases. Serum creatinine (Scr) was not abnormally elevated in all of the patients, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was abnormally elevated in only 25.0% of the patients. However, compared with the recovery period, the patient's Scr and BUN increased significantly in peak of disease (p-scr = 0.002 & p-bun < 0.001). By observing the fluctuations in Scr and BUN from admission to recovery, it was found that the peak of Scr and BUN appeared within the first 14 day of the course of the disease. Urinary microprotein detection indicated that the abnormally elevated rates of urine microalbumin (UMA), α1-microglobulin (A1M), urine immunoglobulin-G (IGU), and urine transferring (TRU) standardized by urinary creatinine in peak of disease were 41.7, 41.7, 50.0, and 16.7%, respectively. The abnormal rates of the calculated eGFR and Ccr were 66.7 and 41.7%. Conclusion: Scr and BUN were generally increased during the course of COVID-19. Detection of urinary microproteins and application of multiple indicators assessment could be helpful for discovering abnormal renal function in patients with COVID-19. However, the evidence is limited due to the small sample size and observational nature. Additional studies, especially large prospective cohort studies, are required to confirm these findings.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Hindilerden F, Yonal-Hindilerden I, Sevtap S, et al (2020)

Immune Thrombocytopenia in a Very Elderly Patient With Covid-19.

Frontiers in medicine, 7:404.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a decreased number of platelets and mucocutaneous bleeding. Many viruses have been identified as triggers of the autoimmune process, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus, rubella, and measles. Association with the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 infection (Covid-19 infection) has been rarely reported. Here, we report the oldest case of ITP patient triggered by the novel coronavirus infection. He showed inadequate response to IVIG but responded to corticosteroids with no severe adverse events. Further studies are warranted to determine the optimal therapeutic strategies for ITP with the Covid-19 infection.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Rezasoltani S, Hatami B, Yadegar A, et al (2020)

How Patients With Chronic Liver Diseases Succeed to Deal With COVID-19?.

Frontiers in medicine, 7:398.

The human pathogenic coronaviruses cause infections of the respiratory tract from mild to severe ranges. Mild cases may look like the common cold, while cases with severe disease may represent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, COVID-19 is a rapidly emerging infection and the number of COVID-19 cases and its associated deaths are quickly growing around the world. COVID-19 infection can involve multiple body organs other than respiratory tract and lungs such as liver. It is hypothesized that COVID-19-associated liver injury can hamper the host drug metabolism and excretion. Liver involvement present with the elevation of enzymatic levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) accompanied by enhanced total bilirubin and decreased albumin levels has been reported in COVID-19 cases. One of the major concerns during COVID-19 outbreak is the population with a history of pre-existing liver disorders including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), autoimmune hepatitis, hepatic compensated, and decompensated cirrhosis. Herein, we discussed the probable correlation between COVID-19 infection and liver damages, particularly chronic and pre-existing liver diseases during COVID-19 outbreak. Furthermore, we explained about the liver transplant recipients and post-transplant drugs used in patients with COVID-19 infection. Finally, we discussed about the therapeutic medications administered in COVID-19 patients with underlying liver injuries and their significant considerations.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Li H, Wang Y, Ji M, et al (2020)

Transmission Routes Analysis of SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Case Report.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:618.

The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly throughout the world which transmitted among humans through various routes. Asymptomatic (carriers) and possible fecal-oral transmission, resulted into a large-scale spread. These issues pose great challenges to disease diagnosis and epidemic control. We obtained data on 29 cases of COVID-19 patients in Jinan, China, and reported the clinical data of asymptomatic patients confirmed with stool samples positive. Some patients with gastrointestinal infections are secondary to pulmonary infections, and during the patients' recovery period, the virus may still existin the patient's gastrointestinal tract over 7 days. We combined with epidemiological and clinical data of asymptomatic patients to analyze the possible routes of viral transmission and infection, including eyes-nose, hands-eyes, fecal-oral, and eyes-oral, et al., thus first presented the two-way transmission through eyes-oral. Through associating infection symptoms with the transmission routes of virus and the patient course of the disease, we expect to provide guidelines for clinical diagnosis and the basis for suppressing the spread of the virus and antiviral treatment.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Kabir MT, Uddin MS, Hossain MF, et al (2020)

nCOVID-19 Pandemic: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Potential Investigational Therapeutics.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:616.

In December 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related epidemic was first observed in Wuhan, China. In 2020, owing to the highly infectious and deadly nature of the virus, this widespread novel coronavirus disease 2019 (nCOVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic. Studies have revealed that various environmental factors including temperature, humidity, and air pollution may also affect the transmission pattern of COVID-19. Unfortunately, still, there is no specific drug that has been validated in large-scale studies to treat patients with confirmed nCOVID-19. However, remdesivir, an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has appeared as an auspicious antiviral drug. Currently, a large-scale study on remdesivir (i.e., 200 mg on first day, then 100 mg once/day) is ongoing to evaluate its clinical efficacy to treat nCOVID-19. Good antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was not observed with the use of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Nonetheless, the combination of umifenovir and LPV/r was found to have better antiviral activity. Furthermore, a combination of hydroxychloroquine (i.e., 200 mg 3 times/day) and azithromycin (i.e., 500 mg on first day, then 250 mg/day from day 2-5) also exhibited good activity. Currently, there are also ongoing studies to evaluate the efficacy of teicoplanin and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, in this article, we have analyzed the genetic diversity and molecular pathogenesis of nCOVID-19. We also present possible therapeutic options for nCOVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Li Z, Han C, Huang H, et al (2020)

Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Treatment With Traditional Chinese Medicine: Response Philosophy in Another Culture.

Frontiers in public health, 8:385.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Ahsan W, Alhazmi HA, Patel KS, et al (2020)

Recent Advancements in the Diagnosis, Prevention, and Prospective Drug Therapy of COVID-19.

Frontiers in public health, 8:384.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV)-2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously called 2019 novel CoV, emerged from China in late December 2019. This virus causes CoV disease-19 (COVID-19), which has been proven a global pandemic leading to a major outbreak. As of June 19, 2020, the data from the World Health Organization (WHO) showed more than 8.7 million confirmed cases in over 200 countries/regions. The WHO has declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020. CoVs cause illnesses that range in severity from the common cold to severe respiratory illnesses and death. Nevertheless, with technological advances and imperative lessons gained from prior outbreaks, humankind is better outfitted to deal with the latest emerging group of CoVs. Studies on the development of in vitro diagnostic tests, vaccines, and drug re-purposing are being carried out in this field. Currently, no approved treatment is available for SARS-CoV-2 given the lack of evidence. The results from preliminary clinical trials have been mixed as far as improvement in the clinical condition and reduction in the duration of treatment are concerned. A number of new clinical trials are currently in progress to test the efficacy and safety of various approved drugs. This review focuses on recent advancements in the field of development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and treatment approaches for COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Yang J, Zhao X, Liu X, et al (2020)

Clinical Characteristics and Eosinophils in Young SARS-CoV-2-Positive Chinese Travelers Returning to Shanghai.

Frontiers in public health, 8:368.

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak, which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, began to spread throughout the world, and now involves over 200 countries. Methods: A total of 37 overseas young and middle-aged people, who tested as SARS-CoV-2 positive upon their return to Shanghai, were enrolled for an analysis of their clinical symptoms, blood routine indexes, and lung CT images. Results: The clinical symptoms were characterized by fever (51.4%), dry cough (13.5%), expectoration (27.0%), hypodynamia (21.6%), pharyngalia (10.8%), pharynoxerosis (8.1%), rhinobyon (13.5%), rhinorrhea (8.1%), muscular soreness (16.2%), and diarrhea (2.7%). In 16.2% of cases, no symptoms were reported. Fever was the most common symptom (51.40%). The pneumonic changes referred to the latticed ground glass imaging and similar white lung imaging accompanied by consolidated shadows. The rate of pneumonia was high (81.10%). We found that the exclusive percent of eosinophils was abnormally low. By analyzing the correlation of eosinophils, fever, and pneumonia, we found that the percentage of eosinophils was low in the COVID-19 patients afflicted with fever or pneumonia (P < 0.01). Additionally, pneumonia and fever were negatively correlated with the percentage of eosinophils and eosinophils/neutrophils ratio (P < 0.01, respectively), but not associated with pneumonia severity (P > 0.05). Fever was not correlated with pneumonia (P > 0.05). Conclusion: A low percentage of eosinophils may be considered as a biomarker of pneumonia of COVID-19, but not as a biomarker of pneumonia severity.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Meyer A, Sadler R, Faverjon C, et al (2020)

Evidence That Higher Temperatures Are Associated With a Marginally Lower Incidence of COVID-19 Cases.

Frontiers in public health, 8:367.

Seasonal variations in COVID-19 incidence have been suggested as a potentially important factor in the future trajectory of the pandemic. Using global line-list data on COVID-19 cases reported until 17th of March 2020 and global gridded weather data, we assessed the effects of air temperature and relative humidity on the daily incidence of confirmed COVID-19 local cases at the subnational level (first-level administrative divisions). After adjusting for surveillance capacity and time since first imported case, average temperature had a statistically significant, negative association with COVID-19 incidence for temperatures of -15°C and above. However, temperature only explained a relatively modest amount of the total variation in COVID-19 cases. The effect of relative humidity was not statistically significant. These results suggest that warmer weather may modestly reduce the rate of spread of COVID-19, but anticipation of a substantial decline in transmission due to temperature alone with onset of summer in the northern hemisphere, or in tropical regions, is not warranted by these findings.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Mallow PJ, M Jones (2020)

When Second Best Might Be the Best: Using Hospitalization Data to Monitor the Novel Coronavirus Pandemic.

Frontiers in public health, 8:348.

The novel coronavirus' high rate of asymptomatic transmission combined with a lack of testing kits call for a different approach to monitor its spread and severity. We proposed the use of hospitalizations and hospital utilization data to monitor the spread and severity. A proposed threshold of a declining 7-day moving average over a 14-day period, "7&14" was set to communicate when a wave of the novel coronavirus may have passed. The state of Ohio was chosen to illustrate this threshold. While not the ideal solution for monitoring the spread of the epidemic, the proposed approach is an easy to implement framework accounting for limitations of the data inherent in the current epidemic. Hospital administrators and policy makers may benefit from incorporating this approach into their decision making.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Deora S, Bhardwaj P, MK Garg (2020)

COVID-19 pandemic: Clinical management protocols for cardiac disease patients at teaching institute in Western Rajasthan.

Journal of family medicine and primary care, 9(5):2186-2187 pii:JFMPC-9-2186.

The world is facing the new pandemic COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The demography and socio-economic condition are highly varied in different parts of the world. India also has braced itself to fight with this novel threat. Patients with COVID-19 may have primary cardiac involvement or may have associated cardiac disease. Therefore, the institution needs a protocol in managing cardiac patients during this pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Sureka B, Sinha A, Tak V, et al (2020)

Customized personal protective equipment (PPE): Solution to conservation and management of supplies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Journal of family medicine and primary care, 9(5):2180-2182 pii:JFMPC-9-2180.

In the COVID-19 pandemic, global health care systems have become overwhelmed with potentially infectious patients seeking testing and care. Preventing spread of infection to and from health care workers (HCWs) and patients relies on effective use of personal protective equipment(PPE). The most critical part in due course of managing this pandemic is adequate supply of PPEs. We have customized a PPE which is economical and reusable after proper disinfection. This customized PPE can be a solution to conservation of supply during this pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Thangaraju P, Gurunthalingam MP, Varthya S, et al (2020)

COVID-19: Older drugs for a novel disease-Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and possible Pentoxifylline-set to start the second innings?.

Journal of family medicine and primary care, 9(5):2172-2175 pii:JFMPC-9-2172.

Currently no drug is approved for the prophylaxis and management of COVID 19. Lots of activities on vaccine and trials with drugs are underway. Some evidence have shown positive results using older established drug in the management of severe cases. We are also of same view and opinion to adopt some emergency measure by pharmacological intervention till a newer drug available in the market.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Singh S (2020)

Disability ethics in the coronavirus crisis.

Journal of family medicine and primary care, 9(5):2167-2171 pii:JFMPC-9-2167.

The disability viewpoint is fundamental for understanding and advancing social justice for everyone in the population. Despite this fact, it is regularly dismissed by public health experts and policymakers. Understanding of disability rights is central in an all-inclusive COVID-19 preparedness. This paper attempts to explore disability ethics in understanding structural discrimination, equitable practices, respect for disability culture and ways to safeguard health care professionals with disabilities in the coronavirus pandemic. In crisis standards of care, resource allocations must not be solely based on a disabled person's subjective quality of life. Health professionals should avoid stereotypes about an individual's disability to ration care. Triage protocol committees and disaster risk reduction working groups should explicitly recruit people with disabilities and chronic illnesses in their response strategies. Disability ethics can reform medical rationing by removing prejudices and safeguarding fair protection of the interests of all patients, including those with a disability.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Raina SK, Kumar R, Galwankar S, et al (2020)

Are we prepared? Lessons from Covid-19 and OMAG position paper on epidemic preparedness.

Journal of family medicine and primary care, 9(5):2161-2166 pii:JFMPC-9-2161.

Covid-19 has once again brought into focus our limited preparedness to deal with epidemics. Most nations, across the globe, have responded with a resolve to come stronger out of this crisis and leaderships across the world have shown great commitment to protecting its people from Covid-19. Covid-19 has also taught us a few things for the future. One such learning has been that a strong shift in focus towards non-communicable diseases driving health infrastructure across the globe for the last few decades has come at neglect of communicable diseases. In that sense, therefore, the current pandemic has been a wake-up call. Organised Medicine Academic Guild (OMAG), an umbrella organization of professional associations gathered a group of health experts to develop a policy document on epidemic preparedness to limit the influence of epidemics like Covid-19.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Sahu KK, R Kumar (2020)

Preventive and treatment strategies of COVID-19: From community to clinical trials.

Journal of family medicine and primary care, 9(5):2149-2157 pii:JFMPC-9-2149.

The latest threat to global health is the form of the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) started as a local outbreak in Wuhan, China but soon tightened its grip on human lives around the globe. So far, we do not have a particularly effective anti-SARS-COV-2 vaccine or antiviral agent against COVID-19. Across the globe, many research organizations such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), United States are studying and testing various drugs and vaccines for their effectiveness against SARS-COV-2. Currently, the principle fighting tool being promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) is the prevention of acquiring SARS-COV-2 infection by following basic health hygiene rules and social distancing. We hereby discuss major non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Romito F, Dellino M, Loseto G, et al (2020)

Psychological Distress in Outpatients With Lymphoma During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:1270.

Cancer patients are a population at high risk of contracting COVID-19 and, also of developing severe complications due to the infection, which is especially true when they are undergoing immunosuppressive treatment. Despite this, they had still to go to hospital to receive chemotherapy during lockdown. In this context, we have evaluated the psychological status of onco-hematological outpatients receiving infusion and not deferrable anti-neoplastic treatment for lymphoproliferative neoplasms, with the aim of both measuring the levels of post-traumatic symptoms, depression, and anxiety during the pandemic and also of investigating the perception of risk of potential nosocomial infection. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered to all patients. Moreover, patients were investigated about their worries regarding the impact of COVID-19 on their lives as onco-hematologic patients. Since the 2nd to the 29th April 2020 (during the first phase of the lockdown period in Italy), 77 outpatients were prospectively evaluated. They were diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/Small lymphocytic lymphoma. The mean age was 56.6 (range 22-85). We found that 36% of patients had anxiety (HADS-A), 31% depression (HADS-D), and 43% were above the cut-off for the HADS-General Scale; 36% fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women and younger patients were found to be more vulnerable to anxiety and PTSD. The study firstly analyzes the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the frail population of patients affected by lymphoproliferative neoplasms, to underly the importance of screening patients for emotional and distress conditions and then offering them psychological support.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Di Cosimo S, Porcu L, Malfettone A, et al (2020)

Commentary: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Patients With Cancer at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Wuhan, China.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:1223.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Pergolizzi JV, Magnusson P, LeQuang JA, et al (2020)

The Current Clinically Relevant Findings on COVID-19 Pandemic.

Anesthesiology and pain medicine, 10(2):e103819.

The emergence of a novel coronavirus and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a challenge to global healthcare. In the past 20 years, this is the third coronavirus that jumped the species barrier and infected humans. It is highly contagious but associated with low pathogenicity. First identified in Wuhan, China, a city of over 11 million, the disease has since spread to every continent except Antarctica. About 15% to 20% of all cases may be called severe, and it is believed many cases are asymptomatic. The average age of a person with COVID has been reported as 49 years. Worse outcomes are associated with geriatric populations and those with underlying diseases such as cardiovascular, respiratory disorders, and/or diabetes. The coronavirus, like other coronaviruses, is highly contagious and has a latency period of about 14 days. Most patients present with fever and a dry cough, but fever may be absent. Differential diagnosis can be challenging since influenza may present with similar symptoms. Chest radiography or computed tomography may be used to find evidence of secondary pneumonia. Nosocomial infection is of concern, and it has been reported that 3.8% of all cases with COVID-19 in that country involve healthcare workers in China. Most patients have mild disease, and supportive care suffices. A variety of repurposed and investigational drugs are being evaluated. There are currently no antiviral therapies or vaccines, even if many therapies are proposed. Hand hygiene, social distancing, and scientifically sound information are the best strategies at the moment to combat this epidemic.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Shams A, Ata F, Mushtaq K, et al (2020)

Coronary thrombosis in a young male with COVID-19.

IDCases, 21:e00923 pii:e00923.

COVID-19 predominantly presents with respiratory symptoms, but other presentations are reported, including cardiac manifestations and thromboembolism. We present a healthy young gentleman with COVID-19 pneumonia, who developed acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to coronary thrombosis. He was managed successfully by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Chong J, Ahmed S, K Hill (2020)

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a pregnant patient with COVID-19 improved after delivery: A case report and brief review.

Respiratory medicine case reports, 31:101171 pii:101171.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) can frequently occur as a complication of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). As the number of COVID-19 cases increases around the world, it is inevitable that COVID-19 and ARDS will complicate some pregnancies. Currently, there is scant data to guide decision-making on the timing of delivery for these patients. We present the case of a 41-year-old patient with severe ARDS from COVID-19 who was also 32 weeks pregnant, whose respiratory status improved dramatically after delivery.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Logan G, Dub L, Drone E, et al (2020)

Hypercoagulable State in COVID-19: A Case Series of Three Patients.

Cureus, 12(6):e8872.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that originated in China in late 2019, has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although fever, cough, and shortness of breath have been recognized as hallmark symptoms, other lesser known complications continue to be described. We report a series of three patients who presented to the emergency department, who tested positive for COVID-19, and were found to have or subsequently developed thromboembolic complications.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Khan I, Ahmed Z, Sarwar A, et al (2020)

The Potential Vaccine Component for COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review of Global Vaccine Development Efforts.

Cureus, 12(6):e8871.

The whole world is concerned about the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), due to fatality of this condition. This has become a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccine and medicine have proven effective in large-sized trials at this time. With the rapidly increasing number of positive cases and deaths, there is a dire need for effective treatments and an effective vaccine for prevention. An urgent unmet need led to the planning and opening of multiple drug development trials for treatment and vaccine development. In this article, we have summarized data on cell receptor interactions and data on prospects of new vaccines targeting the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), and viral minigenes. We have tabulated the available data on various clinical trials testing various aspects of COVID-19 vaccines.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Peisachovich E, Da Silva C, Penhearow NJ, et al (2020)

Implementing Virtual Simulated Person Methodology to Support the Shift to Online Learning: Technical Report.

Cureus, 12(6):e8864.

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed how education is delivered worldwide. The resultant rise of e-learning, whereby teaching is undertaken remotely and on digital platforms, has extensively impacted universities and other higher education organizations around the world. One approach to support this change in education delivery is the use of virtual simulation approaches. Our team at SimXSpace has piloted a virtual workshop using Zoom, an online video-conferencing platform, and virtual simulated persons (SPs) to support communication and interpersonal skills among learners. The main objective of the pilot virtual workshop was to develop and implement the SP methodology remotely via the Zoom platform (Zoom Video Communications, San Jose, California) and to evaluate its effectiveness as an immersive environment for simulation. The virtual workshop involved four instructors who intend to implement virtual SPs within their courses, two workshop facilitators, and two SPs. The workshop was conducted synchronously using Zoom features. The workshop followed a predefined structure and was completed as planned. Outcomes suggest that remote simulation delivery using virtual SPs and delivered online via Zoom is feasible and provides an effective environment in which to conduct SP methodology to teach communication and interpersonal skills. The findings suggest that remote simulation and virtual SPs can support experiential education and provide an effective and engaging learning environment. The virtual workshop was successful and laid a foundation for future online training programs for the use of SP methodology. Moreover, it formed an effective outline for subsequent iterations of this virtual training workshop and prompted discussion of plans for future workshops with various programs across a pan-university context.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Ehtesham M, Almas T, Akbar A, et al (2020)

Towards Effective Management Protocols: A Transnational Review of the State-of-the-Art of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates.

Cureus, 12(6):e8853.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has proliferated rapidly in Pakistan, adversely affecting every province. The grave repercussions that the pandemic has elicited in Pakistan have evoked a dire need for drastic measures to be employed at both the governmental and provincial levels. Due to the inequitable appropriation of healthcare resources with respect to the various provinces, however, a stark contrast in terms of morbidity and mortality persists. Furthermore, considering that Pakistani citizens constitute a noteworthy proportion of expatriates residing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the close proximity of the two countries, due consideration of the situation in the UAE is also warranted. We present a transnational review to delineate the current state-of-the-art in Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates and evaluate pragmatic management protocols that remain at the epicenter of a national healthcare conundrum.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Neupane K, Ahmed Z, Pervez H, et al (2020)

Potential Treatment Options for COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review of Global Pharmacological Development Efforts.

Cureus, 12(6):e8845.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), first reported in China during December of 2019, is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infection later spread very rapidly around the globe with over 8,708,008 cases reported, including more than 461,715 deaths reported across at least 216 countries by June 20, 2020. It was declared as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. With the rapidly increasing number of positive cases and deaths, there is a dire need for effective treatment. An urgent unmet need led to the planning and opening of multiple drug development trials for treatment and vaccine development. In this article, we have compiled comprehensive data on many candidate drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, umifenovir, arbidol, lopinavir, ritonavir, baricitinib, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, azithromycin, baloxavir, oseltamivir, losartan, and tocilizumab. We have tabulated available data on various clinical trials testing various aspects of COVID-19 therapeutics.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Sheikh MM, Ahmad E, Jeelani HM, et al (2020)

COVID-19 Pneumonia: An Emerging Cause of Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone.

Cureus, 12(6):e8841.

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the leading cause of hyponatremia. We, herein, report a case of a patient with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who developed sudden exertional dyspnea and hypoxia and was found to be hyponatremic. A diagnosis of SIADH was made due to COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient was managed conservatively with a significant improvement during the course of hospitalization and on follow-up.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Jain U (2020)

Risk of COVID-19 due to Shortage of Personal Protective Equipment.

Cureus, 12(6):e8837.

The supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) is inadequate throughout the United States and the world. This is especially true of N95 respirators. The cost of PPE is high. There are numerous cases of providers working with inadequate PPE and being disciplined on complaining. In the United States, thousands of providers have contracted COVID-19, in part due to inadequate PPE. Extended use and reuse of N95 respirators has been permitted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The N95 respirators can be sterilized utilizing vaporized hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, or dry heat at 70°C-80°C. The risk to providers due to inadequate PPE increases with their age and presence of comorbidities. African-Americans and Latinos are at a greater risk. CDC recommends that in the absence of appropriate PPE, "exclude healthcare personnel at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19 from contact with known or suspected COVID-19 patients." Providing care without appropriate PPE should not be a condition of employment for any provider, especially for the ones in high-risk category.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Angileri SA, Petrillo M, Meglio LD, et al (2020)

Adverse Events in Coronavirus Disease Patients Management: A Pictorial Essay.

Journal of clinical imaging science, 10:42 pii:JCIS-10-42.

Clinical manifestation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) varies from asymptomatic to severe clinical forms that can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome or in multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. There are no guidelines, based on randomized controlled trials, for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The treatment is based on antiviral drugs, invasive and non-invasive ventilation supports, and anticoagulant therapy. This is a pictorial essay covering the multiple adverse events encountered during the treatment of COVID-19 patients in an area with a high pandemic incidence. Adverse events are defined as unexpected events following treatment for the infection. The cases described would be useful in aiding early diagnosis, limiting and improving the management of serious complications for patients, and allowing rapid and appropriate treatment.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Bagnera S, Bisanti F, Tibaldi C, et al (2020)

Performance of Radiologists in the Evaluation of the Chest Radiography with the Use of a "new software score" in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia Suspected Patients.

Journal of clinical imaging science, 10:40 pii:JCIS-10-40.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of radiologists using a new software called "COVID-19 score" when performing chest radiography on patients potentially infected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Chest radiography (or chest X-ray, CXR) and CT are important for the imaging diagnosis of the coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). CXR mobile devices are efficient during epidemies, because allow to reduce the risk of contagion and are easy to sanitize.

Material and Methods: From February-April 2020, 14 radiologists retrospectively evaluated a pool of 312 chest X-ray exams to test a new software function for lung imaging analysis based on radiological features and graded on a three-point scale. This tool automatically generates a cumulative score (0-18). The intra- rater agreement (evaluated with Fleiss's method) and the average time for the compilation of the banner were calculated.

Results: Fourteen radiologists evaluated 312 chest radiographs of COVID-19 pneumonia suspected patients (80 males and 38 females) with an average age of 64, 47 years. The inter-rater agreement showed a Fleiss' kappa value of 0.53 and the intra-group agreement varied from Fleiss' Kappa value between 0.49 and 0.59, indicating a moderate agreement (considering as "moderate" ranges 0.4-0.6). The years of work experience were irrelevant. The average time for obtaining the result with the automatic software was between 7 s (e.g., zero COVID-19 score) and 21 s (e.g., with COVID-19 score from 6 to 12).

Conclusion: The use of automatic software for the generation of a CXR "COVID-19 score" has proven to be simple, fast, and replicable. Implementing this tool with scores weighed on the number of lung pathological areas, a useful parameter for clinical monitoring could be available.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Lakissian Z, Sabouneh R, Zeineddine R, et al (2020)

In-situ simulations for COVID-19: a safety II approach towards resilient performance.

Advances in simulation (London, England), 5:15 pii:137.

Background: COVID-19 has taken the world by surprise; even the most sophisticated healthcare systems have been unable to cope with the volume of patients and lack of resources. Yet the gradual spread of the virus in Lebanon has allowed healthcare facilities critical time to prepare. Simulation is the most practical avenue not only for preparing the staff but also for troubleshooting system's latent safety threats (LSTs) and for understanding these challenges via Hollnagel's safety I-II approaches.

Methods: This is a quality improvement initiative: daily in situ simulations were conducted across various departments at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), a tertiary medical care center in Beirut, Lebanon. These simulations took place in the hospital with native multidisciplinary teams of 3-5 members followed by debriefing with good judgment using the modified PEARLS (Promoting Excellence and Reflective Learning in Simulation) for systems integration. All participants completed the simulation effectiveness tool (SET-M) to assess the simulation. Debriefings were analyzed qualitatively for content based on the Safety Model and LST identification, and the SET-Ms were analyzed quantitatively.

Results: Twenty-two simulations have been conducted with 131 participants. SET-M results showed that the majority (78-87%) strongly agreed to the effectiveness of the intervention. We were able to glean several clinical and human factor safety I-II components and LSTs such as overall lack of preparedness and awareness of donning/doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE), delayed response time, lack of experience in rapid sequence intubation, inability to timely and effectively assign roles, and lack of situational awareness. On the other hand, teams quickly recognized the patient's clinical status and often communicated effectively.

Conclusion: This intervention allowed us to detect previously unrecognized LSTs, prepare our personnel, and offer crucial practical hands-on experience for an unprecedented healthcare crisis.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Melidis C, M Vantsos (2020)

[Comment] Ethical and practical considerations on cancer recommendations during COVID-19 pandemic.

Molecular and clinical oncology, 13(3):5.

National and international authorities and societies have recently published important cancer treatment recommendations in order to propose extra measures that should be taken during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as prioritisation of intend-to-cure treatments and younger patients, omission of non-urgent cases, and reduction of personnel present. These measures raise important ethical considerations, since they prioritise protection of Health Systems and Professionals without seemingly taking cancer patient feelings of stress into consideration. This could lead to an erosion of the physician-patient relationship, which is considered the core element of medical ethics. Moreover, they raise practical concerns about the continuous education of Health Professionals, the status of reference centres and the evaluation of the hitherto cancer treatments.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Hussein NR, Naqid IA, Saleem ZSM, et al (2020)

A sharp increase in the number of COVID-19 cases and case fatality rates after lifting the lockdown in Kurdistan region of Iraq.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 57:140-142 pii:S2049-0801(20)30212-0.

With the appearance of first cases of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), strict control measures were implemented in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq to combat the infection. These measures included the closure of schools and universities, the closure of borders and airports, cancellation of public and religious gatherings, and mandatory quarantine for persons returning from traveling abroad. Such measures have played a major role in the control of COVID-19 spread. However, due to social and economic pressures, the government relaxed the lockdown. After relaxing the measures, a sharp increase in the number of patients was noticed. Besides, there was a significant increase in the number of symptomatic patients and the case fatality rate was doubled. In addition, the outbreak and outbreak response led to the loss of trust and a breakdown in relations between the society and local authority. To minimize the consequences for population health, local authority should have a plan that balances between health imperatives and socioeconomic imperatives. Finally, to be successful in controlling the infection, the government must rebuild public trust in the handling of COVID-19 outbreak and compensate people for lost earnings.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Balhareth A, AlDuhileb MA, Aldulaijan FA, et al (2020)

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on residency and fellowship training programs in Saudi Arabia: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 57:127-132 pii:S2049-0801(20)30207-7.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has profoundly impacted residency and fellowship training and education. However, how and to what extent the daily involvement of trainees in clinical and surgical activities was compromised by the COVID-19 pandemic is currently unknown.

Materials and methods: We conducted an electronic survey. An invitation was sent through the executive training administration of the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS) randomly to 400 residents and fellows over two weeks period from April 23, 2020 until May 6, 2020. Descriptive statistics were presented using counts and proportions (%). The comparison between the trainees among the socio-demographic and the characteristics of trainees toward the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on their training had been conducted using the Chi-square test. A p-value cut off point of 0.05 at 95% Confidence Interval (CI) used to determine statistical significance.

Results: Out of the 400 questionnaires distributed, 240 trainees responded, resulting in a response rate of 60%. The most frequently cited specialty was surgical (41.3%) and medical (38.3%). Approximately 43% of them had direct contact with patients with COVID-19, and 43.8% had enough training regarding the proper use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). There were seven responders (2.9%) who had been infected by the disease. Among them, 6 (2.5%) members of their family had also been infected. Approximately 84.6% reported a reduction in training activities due to the current pandemic. Of those with surgical specialties, almost all (97%) reported that their surgical exposure reduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion: The adoption of smart learning is critical. For those who have been affected by examination delays, we recommend continuing to revise steadily using webinars, podcasts, prerecorded sessions, and social media. Routine activities such as journal clubs and departmental teaching should continue through webinars, if possible.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Lester M, Sahin A, A Pasyar (2020)

The use of dexamethasone in the treatment of COVID-19.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 56:218-219 pii:S2049-0801(20)30178-3.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Atalan A (2020)

Erratum to "Is the lockdown important to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic? Effects on psychology, environment and economy-perspective" [Ann. Med. Surg. 56 (2020) 38-42].

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 56:217 pii:S2049-0801(20)30175-8.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.amsu.2020.06.010.].

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Yogeswaran A, Gall H, Tello K, et al (2020)

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on pulmonary hypertension out-patient clinics in Germany: a multi-centre study.

Pulmonary circulation, 10(3):2045894020941682 pii:10.1177_2045894020941682.

Pulmonary hypertension is frequently underdiagnosed, and referral is delayed with subsequent impact on outcomes. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, restrictions on daily life and changes in hospitals' daily routine care were introduced in Germany. This multi-centre study provides evidence for a negative influence of these restrictions on patient care in pulmonary hypertension expert referral centres.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Manyanga D, Byabamazima C, Masvikeni B, et al (2020)

Assessment of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance performance in East and Southern African countries 2012 - 2019.

The Pan African medical journal, 36:71 pii:PAMJ-36-71.

Introduction: polio eradication initiatives started in 1988, this is almost the past 32 years following the WHA resolution 41.8 of eradicating polio by the year 2000. As of 2019, only 3 countries remained to be polio endemic globally, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria. The east and southern sub-region countries had shown progressive achievement towards polio eradication and to start with the African regional certification. The availability of sensitive AFP surveillance performance is among important strategies in the achievement of polio eradication. We, therefore, decided to conduct this assessment of AFP performance from 2012 to 2019 in the ESA sub-region have evidence documentation and support the certification process of the WHO AFRO region.

Methods: we reviewed all reported acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases from 19 countries in the ESA sub region with the date of onset of paralysis from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2019. The data were run to descriptive analysis based on the personal characteristics and AFP surveillance performance indicators parameters.

Results: a total of 46,014 AFP cases were reported from 19 countries in the ESA countries who were paralyzed from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2019. The most affected age group was children aged 0 to 3 years old where 19,740 children with acute paralysis were reported representing 42.9% of the total reported AFP for the period. The overall assessment of the non-polio AFP rate, there is an increase from a rate of 2.7 in 2012 to 3.5 in 2019 per 100,000 population aged less than 15 years, reflects a significant change with a p-value of 0.040 (95% C.I. ranges from 0.035 to 1.564). Furthermore, the percentage of stool adequacy raised from 86.4% in 2012 to 88.5% in 2019, with an observed 2.1% difference and no significant change over the 8 years.

Conclusion: we observed an overall increase in the sensitivity of the AFP surveillance performance for the ESA sub-region countries from 2012 to 2019 using the national performance indicators. The COVID-19 pandemic paused an operational challenge for AFP surveillance performances from 2020. A further subnational surveillance performance analysis is suggested.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Begam N, MA Bashar (2020)

Olfactory and Taste Disorders in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 24(3):e391-e392.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Motta G, Passali D, Passali GC, et al (2020)

The Italian Society Indication for Rhinologists during Covid-19: Italy Phase 2.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 24(3):e388-e390.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Rajendra Santosh AB, Krishnamurthy K, VRR Baddam (2020)

Proposal of Research Model for the Detection of COVID-19 among Asymptomatic Carriers.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 24(3):e376-e378.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic and rapidly progressing infectious disease that represents a global health care emergency due to severe acute respiratory syndrome. Rapid tests detect antigen or antibody presence, which is useful for patient care and for assisting in disease surveillance and epidemiological research. The complicating aspect of the COVID-19 spread may be due to asymptomatic individuals. Unfortunately, asymptomatic individuals are not detected in the early stages of infection, which could help to prevent community spread. The present paper shares an opinion through the proposal of a research model for detecting COVID-19 among asymptomatic carriers.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Jotz GP, Stein A, Sirena S, et al (2020)

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Planetary Health. A Critical Review of Epidemiology, Prevention, Clinical Characteristics and Treatments for Oral, Head and Neck Health Professionals. Do We Have a Roadmap?.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 24(3):e351-e358.

Introduction Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is potentially the greatest global public health crisis of this century. This disease emerged as an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan, the capital city of the Hubei province in China, in December 2019. Otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons and dentists are at an increased risk of occupational disease. Objective The present review summarizes currently published evidence of Covid-19 epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment and prevention. No proven effective treatments for this disease currently exist. Data Synthesis COVID-19 started from a zoonotic transmission event associated with a large seafood market that also traded in live wild animals, and it soon became clear that efficient person-to-person transmission was also occurring. Symptoms are varied, and not all patients develop all of them. Conclusion Social distancing seems to have been successful in several places in the world. However, this recommendation alone is not enough to contain the disease, and it is not a long-term solution. Large-scale testing by health professionals of representative samples of the population may give an estimate of the progression of the disease. Different treatments are under test and bring hope of a cure to the population. However, no current treatments (April 27, 2020) have been proven to be the key to success in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Planetary health is a useful concept to understand the current drivers of this pandemic and to draw a roadmap for science and healthcare that may guide actions to fight economic depression and ensure a healthy recovery.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Johnson J, Chung MT, Carron MA, et al (2020)

Novel Changes in Resident Education during a Pandemic: Strategies and Approaches to Maximize Residency Education and Safety.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 24(3):e267-e271.

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a reduction in surgical and clinical volume, which has altered the traditional training experience of the otolaryngology resident. Objective To describe the strategies we utilized to maximize resident education as well as ensure patient and staff safety during the pandemic. Methods We developed a system that emphasized three key elements. First and foremost, patient care remained the core priority. Next, clinical duties were restructured to avoid unnecessary exposure of residents. The third component was ensuring continuation of resident education and maximizing learning experiences. Results To implement these key elements, our residency divided up our five hospitals into three functional groups based on geographical location and clinical volume. Each team works for three days at their assigned location before being replaced by the next three-person team at our two busiest sites. Resident teams are kept completely separate from each other, so that they do not interact with those working at other sites. Conclusions Despite the daily challenges encountered as we navigate through the COVID-19 pandemic, our otolaryngology residency program has been able to establish a suitable balance between maintenance of resident safety and well-being without compromise to patient care.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Kowalski LP, Imamura R, Castro Junior G, et al (2020)

Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Activity of Physicians Working in the Areas of Head and Neck Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 24(3):e258-e266.

Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute infection caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and it is highly transmissible, especially through respiratory droplets. To prepare the health system for the care of these patients also led to a restriction in the activity of several medical specialties. Physicians who work with patients affected by diseases of the head and neck region constitute one of the populations most vulnerable to COVID-19 and also most affected by the interruption of their professional activities. Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the practice of head and neck surgeons and otorhinolaryngologists in Brazil. Methods An anonymous online survey of voluntary participation was applied, containing 30 questions regarding demographic aspects, availability of personal protective equipment (PPE), and impact on the routine of head and neck surgeons and otorhinolaryngologists, as well as clinical oncologists and radiation oncologists who work with head and neck diseases. Results Seven hundred and twenty-nine answers were received in a period of 4 days, ∼ 40 days after the 1 st confirmed case in Brazil. With professionals working in public and private services, there was a high level of concerns with the disease and its consequences, limited availability of PPE and a significant decrease in the volume of specialized medical care. Conclusion The study demonstrated a direct impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical practice of specialties related to the treatment of patients with diseases of the head and neck region already in the beginning of the illness management in Brazil.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Jotz GP, AG Bittencourt (2020)

Why We Need to Use and which Mask Types are Effective against the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)?.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 24(3):e255-e257.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Brook I (2020)

Prevention of COVID-19 Infection in Neck Breathers, Including Laryngectomees.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 24(3):e253-e254.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Dahab M, van Zandvoort K, Flasche S, et al (2020)

COVID-19 control in low-income settings and displaced populations: what can realistically be done?.

Conflict and health, 14:54 pii:296.

COVID-19 prevention strategies in resource limited settings, modelled on the earlier response in high income countries, have thus far focused on draconian containment strategies, which impose movement restrictions on a wide scale. These restrictions are unlikely to prevent cases from surging well beyond existing hospitalisation capacity; not withstanding their likely severe social and economic costs in the long term. We suggest that in low-income countries, time limited movement restrictions should be considered primarily as an opportunity to develop sustainable and resource appropriate mitigation strategies. These mitigation strategies, if focused on reducing COVID-19 transmission through a triad of prevention activities, have the potential to mitigate bed demand and mortality by a considerable extent. This triade is based on a combination of high-uptake of community led shielding of high-risk individuals, self-isolation of mild to moderately symptomatic cases, and moderate physical distancing in the community. We outline a set of principles for communities to consider how to support the protection of the most vulnerable, by shielding them from infection within and outside their homes. We further suggest three potential shielding options, with their likely applicability to different settings, for communities to consider and that would enable them to provide access to transmission-shielded arrangements for the highest risk community members. Importantly, any shielding strategy would need to be predicated on sound, locally informed behavioural science and monitored for effectiveness and evaluating its potential under realistic modelling assumptions. Perhaps, most importantly, it is essential that these strategies not be perceived as oppressive measures and be community led in their design and implementation. This is in order that they can be sustained for an extended period of time, until COVID-19 can be controlled or vaccine and treatment options become available.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Han L, Wei XX, Zheng YJ, et al (2020)

Potential mechanism prediction of Cold-Damp Plague Formula against COVID-19 via network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking.

Chinese medicine, 15:78 pii:360.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new global public health emergency. The therapeutic benefits of Cold‒Damp Plague Formula (CDPF) against COVID-19, which was used to treat "cold‒dampness stagnation in the lung" in Trial Versions 6 and 7 of the "Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19", have been demonstrated, but the effective components and their mechanism of action remain unclear.

Methods: In this study, a network pharmacology approach was employed, including drug-likeness evaluation, oral bioavailability prediction, protein‒protein interaction (PPI) network construction and analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation, and virtual docking, to predict the bioactive components, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment.

Results: The active compound of herbs in CDPF and their candidate targets were obtained through database mining, and an herbs-ingredients-targets network was constructed. Subsequently, the candidate targets of the active compounds were compared to those relevant to COVID-19, to identify the potential targets of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment. Subsequently, the PPI network was constructed, which provided a basis for cluster analysis and hub gene screening. The seed targets in the most significant module were selected for further functional annotation. GO enrichment analysis identified four main areas: (1) cellular responses to external stimuli, (2) regulation of blood production and circulation, (3) free radical regulation, (4) immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects. KEGG pathway analysis also revealed that CDPF could play pharmacological roles against COVID-19 through "multi components‒multi targets‒multi pathways" at the molecular level, mainly involving anti-viral, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory pathways; consequently, a "CDPF-herbs-ingredients-targets-pathways-COVID-19" network was constructed. In hub target analysis, the top hub target IL6, and ACE2, the receptor via which SARS-CoV-2 typically enters host cells, were selected for molecular docking analyses, and revealed good binding activities.

Conclusions: This study revealed the active ingredients and potential molecular mechanism by which CDPF treatment is effective against COVID-19, and provides a reference basis for the wider application and further mechanistic investigations of CDPF in the fight against COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Abdollahi A, Mahmoudi-Aliabadi M, Mehrtash V, et al (2020)

The Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Vulnerability Association with ABO/Rh Blood Types.

Iranian journal of pathology, 15(3):156-160.

Background & Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the most recent emerging viral disease. Defining the epidemiological aspects and factors influencing the susceptibility of the patients to COVID-19 has been an ongoing struggle. In the present study, we have investigated the connection between ABO histo-blood group phenotypes and the COVID-19.

Methods: This study was conducted on 397 patients with confirmed diagnoses of COVID-19 admitted to our center. Also, 500 individuals were selected to form the controls, all of whom had been disclosed to the same medical center in June 2019, before the onset of the outbreak.

Results: Our results demonstrated ABO histo-blood phenotypes are correlated with patients' susceptibility to the infection. A higher rate of infection was observed among patients with the AB histo-blood group, while patients with the O histo-blood group have shown a lower rate of infection. The Rh blood group phenotype was not statistically significant in determining a patient's vulnerability.

Conclusion: Similar to several previous studies about other viral diseases' association with ABO histo-blood groups, we have concluded that an individual's ABO histo-blood group phenotype and his/her susceptibility to COVID-19 are indeed connected. So far, only one research has been conducted about this association. Interestingly, while we observed a decreased vulnerability to the disease among patients with an O histo-blood group, we have reached discordant results regarding the increased susceptibility among individuals with an AB histo-blood group, unlike A histo-blood group in the previous study.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Jalali Nadoushan M, Ahmadi S, P Jalali Nadoushan (2020)

Serology Testing for SARS-CoV-2: Benefits and Challenges.

Iranian journal of pathology, 15(3):154-155.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Marín-Sánchez A (2020)

[Basic clinical characteristics in the first 100 fatal cases of COVID-19 in Colombia].

Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health, 44:e87 pii:RPSP.2020.87.

The basic clinical characteristics of the first 100 fatal cases from COVID-19 in Colombia were analyzed based on reports from the National Institute of Health (INS) since the beginning of the pandemic. Since the INS records do not include clinical variables of comorbidity in the total number of cases reported as positive, but only in patients with fatal outcome, comorbidities, age and sex available in the daily INS reports were reviewed. Their frequency was identified and mortality risk behavior for the analyzed variables was established and compared with the behavior described in the international literature. Of the 100 cases, 63 were male, the mean age was 65.75 ± 18.11 years, and in 22 of them no comorbidity had been reported. The most frequently reported comorbidities were arterial hypertension (35%), diabetes mellitus (21%), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (19%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (16%), obesity (12%), smoking (9%) and thyroid disease (8%). Patients over 60 years of age presented a higher risk of mortality (OR 10.31, IC95% 6.67-15.94, p < 0.0001). Ten percent of the deceased patients were under 60 years of age and did not present comorbidity.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Sola A, Rodríguez S, Cardetti M, et al (2020)

[Perinatal COVID-19 in Latin America].

Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health, 44:e47 pii:RPSP.2020.47.

Objective: To evaluate and report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns in Latin America.

Methods: Descriptive study based on the prospective report of the units of the Ibero-American Society of Neonatology Network.

Results: Of 86 pregnant women with COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR in seven countries (6 from Latin America, and Equatorial Guinea) 68% (59) were asymptomatic. Of 32% of symptomatic women, 89% (24) had mild symptoms and 3.5% (3) had severe respiratory symptoms. No women died. The cesarean section rate was 38%; gestational age was < 37 weeks in 6% of cases. RT-PCR was performed on all newborns between 16 and 36 hours of age; 6 (7%) were positive. All of them presented mild and transient respiratory distress; none died. Two newborns with negative RT-PCR died from other causes. Breastfeeding was authorized in only 24% of mothers; in 13% milk was expressed and 63% of newborns were fed with formula. In 76% of cases the motherchild pair was separated, and in 95% of cases the mother could not be accompanied at delivery or during the postpartum period.

Conclusions: The lack of maternal accompaniment, the low rate of breastfeeding and the frequent separation of the mother-child dyad are of concern. The health care team must reflect on the need to defend humanized and family-centered care during this pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Mayor-Ibarguren A, Busca-Arenzana C, Á Robles-Marhuenda (2020)

A Hypothesis for the Possible Role of Zinc in the Immunological Pathways Related to COVID-19 Infection.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1736.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Wessels I, Rolles B, L Rink (2020)

The Potential Impact of Zinc Supplementation on COVID-19 Pathogenesis.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1712.

During the current corona pandemic, new therapeutic options against this viral disease are urgently desired. Due to the rapid spread and immense number of affected individuals worldwide, cost-effective, globally available, and safe options with minimal side effects and simple application are extremely warranted. This review will therefore discuss the potential of zinc as preventive and therapeutic agent alone or in combination with other strategies, as zinc meets all the above described criteria. While a variety of data on the association of the individual zinc status with viral and respiratory tract infections are available, study evidence regarding COVID-19 is so far missing but can be assumed as was indicated by others and is detailed in this perspective, focusing on re-balancing of the immune response by zinc supplementation. Especially, the role of zinc in viral-induced vascular complications has barely been discussed, so far. Interestingly, most of the risk groups described for COVID-19 are at the same time groups that were associated with zinc deficiency. As zinc is essential to preserve natural tissue barriers such as the respiratory epithelium, preventing pathogen entry, for a balanced function of the immune system and the redox system, zinc deficiency can probably be added to the factors predisposing individuals to infection and detrimental progression of COVID-19. Finally, due to its direct antiviral properties, it can be assumed that zinc administration is beneficial for most of the population, especially those with suboptimal zinc status.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Tang Y, Liu J, Zhang D, et al (2020)

Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: The Current Evidence and Treatment Strategies.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1708.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) is the pathogen that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As of 25 May 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 has caused 347,192 deaths around the world. The current evidence showed that severely ill patients tend to have a high concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, compared to those who are moderately ill. The high level of cytokines also indicates a poor prognosis in COVID-19. Besides, excessive infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells, mainly involving macrophages and T-helper 17 cells, has been found in lung tissues of patients with COVID-19 by postmortem examination. Recently, increasing studies indicate that the "cytokine storm" may contribute to the mortality of COVID-19. Here, we summarize the clinical and pathologic features of the cytokine storm in COVID-19. Our review shows that SARS-Cov-2 selectively induces a high level of IL-6 and results in the exhaustion of lymphocytes. The current evidence indicates that tocilizumab, an IL-6 inhibitor, is relatively effective and safe. Besides, corticosteroids, programmed cell death protein (PD)-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition, cytokine-adsorption devices, intravenous immunoglobulin, and antimalarial agents could be potentially useful and reliable approaches to counteract cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Jewett A (2020)

The Potential Effect of Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 on NK Cells; A Perspective on Potential Therapeutic Interventions.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1692.

Coronavirus-induced disease-2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. While studies on SARS-CoV-2 effects on immune cell function continue to progress, we know very little about the significance of depletion of key immune effectors by the virus in the mortality and morbidity of the disease. This commentary outlines what is the reported literature thus far on the effect of virus on NK cells known to kill virally infected cells. It also underscores the necessity for the future comprehensive studies of NK cells in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and animal models to better understand the role and significance of reported NK cell depletion and functional inactivation in disease morbidity and mortality, in hope to design effective therapeutic interventions for the disease.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Choudhary S, Malik YS, S Tomar (2020)

Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Inhibitors by Drug Repurposing Using in silico Structure-Based Virtual Screening Approach.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1664.

The rapidly spreading, highly contagious and pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) associated Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The novel 2019 SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cell by binding of the viral surface spike glycoprotein (S-protein) to cellular angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The virus specific molecular interaction with the host cell represents a promising therapeutic target for identifying SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs. The repurposing of drugs can provide a rapid and potential cure toward exponentially expanding COVID-19. Thereto, high throughput virtual screening approach was used to investigate FDA approved LOPAC library drugs against both the receptor binding domain of spike protein (S-RBD) and ACE2 host cell receptor. Primary screening identified a few promising molecules for both the targets, which were further analyzed in details by their binding energy, binding modes through molecular docking, dynamics and simulations. Evidently, GR 127935 hydrochloride hydrate, GNF-5, RS504393, TNP, and eptifibatide acetate were found binding to virus binding motifs of ACE2 receptor. Additionally, KT203, BMS195614, KT185, RS504393, and GSK1838705A were identified to bind at the receptor binding site on the viral S-protein. These identified molecules may effectively assist in controlling the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 by not only potentially inhibiting the virus at entry step but are also hypothesized to act as anti-inflammatory agents, which could impart relief in lung inflammation. Timely identification and determination of an effective drug to combat and tranquilize the COVID-19 global crisis is the utmost need of hour. Further, prompt in vivo testing to validate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 inhibition efficiency by these molecules could save lives is justified.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Naz A, Shahid F, Butt TT, et al (2020)

Designing Multi-Epitope Vaccines to Combat Emerging Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by Employing Immuno-Informatics Approach.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1663.

A recent pandemic caused by a single-stranded RNA virus, COVID-19, initially discovered in China, is now spreading globally. This poses a serious threat that needs to be addressed immediately. Genome analysis of SARS-CoV-2 has revealed its close relation to SARS-coronavirus along with few changes in its spike protein. The spike protein aids in receptor binding and viral entry within the host and therefore represents a potential target for vaccine and therapeutic development. In the current study, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was explored for potential immunogenic epitopes to design multi-epitope vaccine constructs. The S1 and S2 domains of spike proteins were analyzed, and two vaccine constructs were prioritized with T-cell and B-cell epitopes. We adapted a comprehensive predictive framework to provide novel insights into immunogenic epitopes of spike proteins, which can further be evaluated as potential vaccine candidates against COVID-19. Prioritized epitopes were then modeled using linkers and adjuvants, and respective 3D models were constructed to evaluate their physiochemical properties and their possible interactions with ACE2, HLA Superfamily alleles, TLR2, and TLR4.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Bhaskar S, Sinha A, Banach M, et al (2020)

Cytokine Storm in COVID-19-Immunopathological Mechanisms, Clinical Considerations, and Therapeutic Approaches: The REPROGRAM Consortium Position Paper.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1648.

Cytokine storm is an acute hyperinflammatory response that may be responsible for critical illness in many conditions including viral infections, cancer, sepsis, and multi-organ failure. The phenomenon has been implicated in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus implicated in COVID-19. Critically ill COVID-19 patients experiencing cytokine storm are believed to have a worse prognosis and increased fatality rate. In SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, cytokine storm appears important to the pathogenesis of several severe manifestations of COVID-19: acute respiratory distress syndrome, thromboembolic diseases such as acute ischemic strokes caused by large vessel occlusion and myocardial infarction, encephalitis, acute kidney injury, and vasculitis (Kawasaki-like syndrome in children and renal vasculitis in adult). Understanding the pathogenesis of cytokine storm will help unravel not only risk factors for the condition but also therapeutic strategies to modulate the immune response and deliver improved outcomes in COVID-19 patients at high risk for severe disease. In this article, we present an overview of the cytokine storm and its implications in COVID-19 settings and identify potential pathways or biomarkers that could be targeted for therapy. Leveraging expert opinion, emerging evidence, and a case-based approach, this position paper provides critical insights on cytokine storm from both a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Clementi N, Criscuolo E, Diotti RA, et al (2020)

Combined Prophylactic and Therapeutic Use Maximizes Hydroxychloroquine Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Effects in vitro.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1704.

While the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is heavily hitting the world, it is of extreme importance that significant in vitro observations guide the quick set up of clinical trials. In this study, we evidence that the anti-SARS-CoV2 activity of a clinically achievable hydroxychloroquine concentration is maximized only when administered before and after the infection of Vero E6 and Caco-2 cells. This suggests that only a combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of hydroxychloroquine may be effective in limiting viral replication in patients.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Li Y, Shi J, Xia J, et al (2020)

Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Patients With Non-severe Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Have Similar Clinical Features and Virological Courses: A Retrospective Single Center Study.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1570.

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been defined as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and virological course of non-severe COVID-19 patients with or without symptoms who were admitted to a Chinese cabin hospital. In this retrospective single center study, we reviewed 252 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients treated at one temporary cabin hospital in Wuhan, China. Demographic, clinical, serial chest computed tomography (CT), and serial viral test data were compared between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. The association between clinical features and symptomatic status or patient referral status was analyzed. Among all 252 patients, 74 (29.4%) were asymptomatic and 138 (54.76%) had more than two family members who developed COVID-19. The probability for family clustering was similar between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients (59.70 vs. 61.64%, P = 0.79). Asymptomatic patients and symptomatic patients were equally likely to reach a virus-free state during their stay at the cabin hospital (93.15 vs. 86.44%, P = 0.13). The initial chest CT screening showed that 81 (32.1%) patients had no visible pneumonia, 52 (20.6%) had unilateral pneumonia, and 119 (47.2%) had bilateral pneumonia. Symptomatic patients had a higher chance to have bilateral pneumonia (P < 0.0001) and were less likely to show improvement on the follow-up CT scan (P = 0.0002). In total, 69 (27.4%) patients were referred to the designated hospital and only 23 (9.1%) patients were referred due to the progression of pneumonia. Non-severe COVID-19 patients can transmit the disease regardless of their symptomatic status. It is highly recommended that asymptomatic patients be identified and quarantined to eliminate the transmission of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Zhang J, Kong W, Xia P, et al (2020)

Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes Are Related to Higher Risks of Complications and Mortality Among Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 11:525.

Background: Diabetes correlates with poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19, but very few studies have evaluated whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is also a risk factor for the poor outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Here we aimed to examine the associations between IFG and diabetes at admission with risks of complications and mortality among patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 312 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 5 hospitals in Wuhan from Jan 1 to Mar 17, 2020. Clinical information, laboratory findings, complications, treatment regimens, and mortality status were collected. The associations between hyperglycemia and diabetes status at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: The median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range 38-66), and 172 (55%) were women. At the time of hospital admission, 84 (27%) had diabetes (and 36 were new-diagnosed), 62 (20%) had IFG, and 166 (53%) had normal fasting glucose (NFG) levels. Compared to patients with NFG, patients with IFG and diabetes developed more primary composite end-point events (9 [5%], 11 [18%], 26 [31%]), including receiving mechanical ventilation (5 [3%], 6 [10%], 21 [25%]), and death (4 [2%], 9 [15%], 20 [24%]). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed diabetes was associated increased risks of primary composite end-point events (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 1.48-8.40) and mortality (6.25; 1.91-20.45), and IFG was associated with an increased risk of mortality (4.11; 1.15-14.74), after adjusting for age, sex, hospitals and comorbidities. Conclusion: IFG and diabetes at admission were associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes among patients with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Fan S, Xiao M, Han F, et al (2020)

Neurological Manifestations in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: A Retrospective Study.

Frontiers in neurology, 11:806.

Background: The complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involved multiple organs or systems, especially in critically ill patients. We aim to investigate the neurological complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: This retrospective single-center case series analyzed critically ill patients with COVID-19 at the intensive care unit of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China from February 5 to April 2, 2020. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory findings, comorbidities and treatments were collected and analyzed. Results: Among 86 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 54 patients (62.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 66.6 (11.1) years. Overall, 65% patients presented with at least one neurological symptom. Twenty patients (23.3%) had symptoms involving the central nervous system, including delirium, cerebrovascular diseases and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, while 6 patients (7%) had neuromuscular involvement. Seven of 86 patients exhibited new stroke and 6 (7%) cases were ischemic. A significantly higher prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies was observed in patients with ischemic stroke than in those without stroke (83.3 vs. 26.9%, p < 0.05). Patients with ischemic stroke were more likely to have a higher myoglobulin level, and a lower hemoglobin level. Conclusions: The clinical spectrum of neurological complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 was broad. Stroke, delirium and neuromuscular diseases are common neurological complications of COVID-19. Physicians should pay close attention to neurological complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Radmard S, Epstein SE, Roeder HJ, et al (2020)

Inpatient Neurology Consultations During the Onset of the SARS-CoV-2 New York City Pandemic: A Single Center Case Series.

Frontiers in neurology, 11:805.

Objective: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily causes respiratory illness. However, neurological sequelae from novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can occur. Patients with neurological conditions may be at higher risk of developing worsening of their underlying problem. Here we document our initial experiences as neurologic consultants at a single center quaternary hospital at the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was a retrospective case series of adult patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 who required neurological evaluation in the form of a consultation or primary neurological care from March 13, 2020 to April 1, 2020. Results: Thirty-three patients (ages 17-88 years) with COVID-19 infection who required neurological or admission to a primary neurology team were included in this study. The encountered neurological problems associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were encephalopathy (12 patients, 36.4%), seizure (9 patients, 27.2%), stroke (5 patients, 15.2%), recrudescence of prior neurological disease symptoms (4 patients, 12.1%), and neuromuscular (3 patients, 9.1%). The majority of patients who required evaluation by neurology had elevated inflammatory markers. Twenty-one (63.6%) patients were discharged from the hospital and 12 (36.4%) died from COVID-19 related complications. Conclusion: This small case series of our initial encounters with COVID-19 infection describes a range of neurological complications which are similar to presentations seen with other critical illnesses. COVID-19 infection did not change the overall management of neurological problems.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Gentili C, IA Cristea (2020)

Challenges and Opportunities for Human Behavior Research in the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic.

Frontiers in psychology, 11:1786.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


Order from Amazon

With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )