Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Topologically Associating Domains

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 Jun 2019 at 01:35 Created: 

Topologically Associating Domains

"Recent studies have shown that chromosomes in a range of organisms are compartmentalized in different types of chromatin domains. In mammals, chromosomes form compartments that are composed of smaller Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). TADs are thought to represent functional domains of gene regulation but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of their formation and how they exert their regulatory effect on embedded genes. Further, similar domains have been detected in other organisms, including flies, worms, fungi and bacteria. Although in all these cases these domains appear similar as detected by 3C-based methods, their biology appears to be quite distinct with differences in the protein complexes involved in their formation and differences in their internal organization." QUOTE FROM: Dekker Job and Heard Edith (2015), Structural and functional diversity of Topologically Associating Domains, FEBS Letters, 589, doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.044

Created with PubMed® Query: "Topologically Associating Domains" OR "Topologically Associating Domain" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-06-19

Cuadrado A, Giménez-Llorente D, Kojic A, et al (2019)

Specific Contributions of Cohesin-SA1 and Cohesin-SA2 to TADs and Polycomb Domains in Embryonic Stem Cells.

Cell reports, 27(12):3500-3510.e4.

Cohesin exists in two variants carrying either STAG/SA1 or SA2. Here we have addressed their specific contributions to the unique spatial organization of the mouse embryonic stem cell genome, which ensures super-enhancer-dependent transcription of pluripotency factors and repression of lineage-specification genes within Polycomb domains. We find that cohesin-SA2 facilitates Polycomb domain compaction through Polycomb repressing complex 1 (PRC1) recruitment and promotes the establishment of long-range interaction networks between distant Polycomb-bound promoters that are important for gene repression. Cohesin-SA1, in contrast, disrupts these networks, while preserving topologically associating domain (TAD) borders. The diverse effects of both complexes on genome topology may reflect two modes of action of cohesin. One, likely involving loop extrusion, establishes overall genome arrangement in TADs together with CTCF and prevents excessive segregation of same-class compartment regions. The other is required for organization of local transcriptional hubs such as Polycomb domains and super-enhancers, which define cell identity.

RevDate: 2019-06-17

Cattoglio C, Pustova I, Walther N, et al (2019)

Determining cellular CTCF and cohesin abundances to constrain 3D genome models.

eLife, 8: pii:40164.

Achieving a quantitative and predictive understanding of 3D genome architecture remains a major challenge, as it requires quantitative measurements of the key proteins involved. Here, we report the quantification of CTCF and cohesin, two causal regulators of topologically associating domains (TADs) in mammalian cells. Extending our previous imaging studies (Hansen et al., 2017), we estimate bounds on the density of putatively DNA loop-extruding cohesin complexes and CTCF binding site occupancy. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation studies of an endogenously tagged subunit (Rad21) suggest the presence of cohesin dimers and/or oligomers. Finally, based on our cell lines with accurately measured protein abundances, we report a method to conveniently determine the number of molecules of any Halo-tagged protein in the cell. We anticipate that our results and the established tool for measuring cellular protein abundances will advance a more quantitative understanding of 3D genome organization, and facilitate protein quantification, key to comprehend diverse biological processes.

RevDate: 2019-06-17

Holzmann J, Politi AZ, Nagasaka K, et al (2019)

Absolute quantification of cohesin, CTCF and their regulators in human cells.

eLife, 8: pii:46269 [Epub ahead of print].

The organisation of mammalian genomes into loops and topologically associating domains (TADs) contributes to chromatin structure, gene expression and recombination. TADs and many loops are formed by cohesin and positioned by CTCF. In proliferating cells, cohesin also mediates sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Current models of chromatin folding and cohesion are based on assumptions of how many cohesin and CTCF molecules organise the genome. Here we have measured absolute copy numbers and dynamics of cohesin, CTCF, NIPBL, WAPL and sororin by mass spectrometry, fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in HeLa cells. In G1-phase there are ~250,000 nuclear cohesin complexes, of which ~160,000 are chromatin-bound. Comparison with chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing data implies that some genomic cohesin and CTCF enrichment sites are unoccupied in single cells at any one time. We discuss the implications of these findings for how cohesin can contribute to genome organisation and cohesion.

RevDate: 2019-06-15

Shukron O, Piras V, Noordermeer D, et al (2019)

Statistics of chromatin organization during cell differentiation revealed by heterogeneous cross-linked polymers.

Nature communications, 10(1):2626 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-10402-x.

Chromatin of mammalian nucleus folds into discrete contact enriched regions such as Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). Folding hierarchy and internal organization of TADs is highly dynamic throughout cellular differentiation, and are correlated with gene activation and silencing. To account for multiple interacting TADs, we developed a parsimonious randomly cross-linked (RCL) polymer model that maps high frequency Hi-C encounters within and between TADs into direct loci interactions using cross-links at a given base-pair resolution. We reconstruct three TADs of the mammalian X chromosome for three stages of differentiation. We compute the radius of gyration of TADs and the encounter probability between genomic segments. We found 1) a synchronous compaction and decompaction of TADs throughout differentiation and 2) high order organization into meta-TADs resulting from weak inter-TAD interactions. Finally, the present framework allows to infer transient properties of the chromatin from steady-state statistics embedded in the Hi-C/5C data.

RevDate: 2019-06-14

Zheng H, W Xie (2019)

The role of 3D genome organization in development and cell differentiation.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology pii:10.1038/s41580-019-0132-4 [Epub ahead of print].

In eukaryotes, the genome does not exist as a linear molecule but instead is hierarchically packaged inside the nucleus. This complex genome organization includes multiscale structural units of chromosome territories, compartments, topologically associating domains, which are often demarcated by architectural proteins such as CTCF and cohesin, and chromatin loops. The 3D organization of chromatin modulates biological processes such as transcription, DNA replication, cell division and meiosis, which are crucial for cell differentiation and animal development. In this Review, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the general principles of chromatin folding, its regulation and its functions in mammalian development. Specifically, we discuss the dynamics of 3D chromatin and genome organization during gametogenesis, embryonic development, lineage commitment and stem cell differentiation, and focus on the functions of chromatin architecture in transcription regulation. Finally, we discuss the role of 3D genome alterations in the aetiology of developmental disorders and human diseases.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Qi Y, B Zhang (2019)

Predicting three-dimensional genome organization with chromatin states.

PLoS computational biology, 15(6):e1007024 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-18-02053 [Epub ahead of print].

We introduce a computational model to simulate chromatin structure and dynamics. Starting from one-dimensional genomics and epigenomics data that are available for hundreds of cell types, this model enables de novo prediction of chromatin structures at five-kilo-base resolution. Simulated chromatin structures recapitulate known features of genome organization, including the formation of chromatin loops, topologically associating domains (TADs) and compartments, and are in quantitative agreement with chromosome conformation capture experiments and super-resolution microscopy measurements. Detailed characterization of the predicted structural ensemble reveals the dynamical flexibility of chromatin loops and the presence of cross-talk among neighboring TADs. Analysis of the model's energy function uncovers distinct mechanisms for chromatin folding at various length scales and suggests a need to go beyond simple A/B compartment types to predict specific contacts between regulatory elements using polymer simulations.

RevDate: 2019-06-03

Elias MS, Wright SC, Remenyi J, et al (2019)

EMSY expression affects multiple components of skin barrier with relevance to atopic dermatitis.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(19)30741-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, complex and highly heritable inflammatory skin disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) offer opportunities to identify molecular targets for drug development. A risk locus on chromosome 11q13.5 lies between two candidate genes - EMSY and LRRC32 - but the functional mechanisms affecting risk of AD remain unclear.

OBJECTIVES: To apply a combination of genomic and molecular analytical techniques to investigate which genes are responsible for genetic risk at this locus and to define mechanisms contributing to atopic skin disease.

METHODS: Interrogation of available genomic and chromosome conformation (Hi-C) data in keratinocytes; siRNA-mediated knockdown in skin organotypic culture and functional assessment of barrier parameters; mass-spectrometry global proteomic analysis and quantitative lipid analysis; electron microscopy of organotypic skin and immunohistochemistry of human skin samples.

RESULTS: Genomic data indicate active promoters in the GWAS locus and upstream of EMSY; EMSY, LRRC32 and the intergenic variants may all be within a single topologically associating domain. siRNA-knockdown of EMSY in organotypic culture leads to enhanced development of barrier function, reflecting increased expression of structural and functional proteins, including filaggrin and filaggrin-2, as well as long-chain ceramides. Conversely, over-expression of EMSY in keratinocytes leads to a reduction in markers of barrier formation. Skin biopsy samples from patients with AD show greater EMSY staining in the nucleus, consistent with increased functional effect of this transcriptional control protein.

CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate an important role for EMSY in transcriptional regulation and skin barrier formation, supporting EMSY inhibition as a therapeutic approach.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

van Bemmel JG, Galupa R, Gard C, et al (2019)

The bipartite TAD organization of the X-inactivation center ensures opposing developmental regulation of Tsix and Xist.

Nature genetics, 51(6):1024-1034.

The mouse X-inactivation center (Xic) locus represents a powerful model for understanding the links between genome architecture and gene regulation, with the non-coding genes Xist and Tsix showing opposite developmental expression patterns while being organized as an overlapping sense/antisense unit. The Xic is organized into two topologically associating domains (TADs) but the role of this architecture in orchestrating cis-regulatory information remains elusive. To explore this, we generated genomic inversions that swap the Xist/Tsix transcriptional unit and place their promoters in each other's TAD. We found that this led to a switch in their expression dynamics: Xist became precociously and ectopically upregulated, both in male and female pluripotent cells, while Tsix expression aberrantly persisted during differentiation. The topological partitioning of the Xic is thus critical to ensure proper developmental timing of X inactivation. Our study illustrates how the genomic architecture of cis-regulatory landscapes can affect the regulation of mammalian developmental processes.

RevDate: 2019-06-06

Redolfi J, Zhan Y, Valdes-Quezada C, et al (2019)

DamC reveals principles of chromatin folding in vivo without crosslinking and ligation.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 26(6):471-480.

Current understanding of chromosome folding is largely reliant on chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based experiments, where chromosomal interactions are detected as ligation products after chromatin crosslinking. To measure chromosome structure in vivo, quantitatively and without crosslinking and ligation, we implemented a modified version of DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) named DamC, which combines DNA methylation-based detection of chromosomal interactions with next-generation sequencing and biophysical modeling of methylation kinetics. DamC performed in mouse embryonic stem cells provides the first in vivo validation of the existence of topologically associating domains (TADs), CTCF loops and confirms 3C-based measurements of the scaling of contact probabilities. Combining DamC with transposon-mediated genomic engineering shows that new loops can be formed between ectopic and endogenous CTCF sites, which redistributes physical interactions within TADs. DamC provides the first crosslinking- and ligation-free demonstration of the existence of key structural features of chromosomes and provides novel insights into how chromosome structure within TADs can be manipulated.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Bompadre O, G Andrey (2019)

Chromatin topology in development and disease.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 55:32-38 pii:S0959-437X(18)30150-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The discovery of domains of preferential interaction or Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) has provided a framework to understand the relation between enhancers and promoters within intricate regulatory landscapes. It has also enabled the conceptualization of the effect of non-coding structural variants on TADs structure and insulation and reveal new patho-mechanisms leading to disease. Here, we will review current knowledge on enhancer-promoter communication in relation to TAD structure. In particular, we will discuss how enhancer-promoter interaction dynamics is established within or outside of TADs. We will further provide an overview of how mutations affect the normal organization of the genome and how it impacts the normal ability of enhancers to induce transcription at their cognate promoters in disease. Finally, we will discuss the future directions to be explored to understand the mutual influences between 3D chromatin topology and gene regulation.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Borsos M, Perricone SM, Schauer T, et al (2019)

Genome-lamina interactions are established de novo in the early mouse embryo.

Nature, 569(7758):729-733.

In mammals, the emergence of totipotency after fertilization involves extensive rearrangements of the spatial positioning of the genome1,2. However, the contribution of spatial genome organization to the regulation of developmental programs is unclear3. Here we generate high-resolution maps of genomic interactions with the nuclear lamina (a filamentous meshwork that lines the inner nuclear membrane) in mouse pre-implantation embryos. We reveal that nuclear organization is not inherited from the maternal germline but is instead established de novo shortly after fertilization. The two parental genomes establish lamina-associated domains (LADs)4 with different features that converge after the 8-cell stage. We find that the mechanism of LAD establishment is unrelated to DNA replication. Instead, we show that paternal LAD formation in zygotes is prevented by ectopic expression of Kdm5b, which suggests that LAD establishment may be dependent on remodelling of H3K4 methylation. Our data suggest a step-wise assembly model whereby early LAD formation precedes consolidation of topologically associating domains.

RevDate: 2019-06-01

Dellino GI, Palluzzi F, Chiariello AM, et al (2019)

Release of paused RNA polymerase II at specific loci favors DNA double-strand-break formation and promotes cancer translocations.

Nature genetics, 51(6):1011-1023.

It is not clear how spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) form and are processed in normal cells, and whether they predispose to cancer-associated translocations. We show that DSBs in normal mammary cells form upon release of paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at promoters, 5' splice sites and active enhancers, and are processed by end-joining in the absence of a canonical DNA-damage response. Logistic and causal-association models showed that Pol II pausing at long genes is the main predictor and determinant of DSBs. Damaged introns with paused Pol II-pS5, TOP2B and XRCC4 are enriched in translocation breakpoints, and map at topologically associating domain boundary-flanking regions showing high interaction frequencies with distal loci. Thus, in unperturbed growth conditions, release of paused Pol II at specific loci and chromatin territories favors DSB formation, leading to chromosomal translocations.

RevDate: 2019-05-22

Lesage A, Dahirel V, Victor JM, et al (2019)

Polymer coil-globule phase transition is a universal folding principle of Drosophila epigenetic domains.

Epigenetics & chromatin, 12(1):28 pii:10.1186/s13072-019-0269-6.

BACKGROUND: Localized functional domains within chromosomes, known as topologically associating domains (TADs), have been recently highlighted. In Drosophila, TADs are biochemically defined by epigenetic marks, this suggesting that the 3D arrangement may be the "missing link" between epigenetics and gene activity. Recent observations (Boettiger et al. in Nature 529(7586):418-422, 2016) provide access to structural features of these domains with unprecedented resolution thanks to super-resolution experiments. In particular, they give access to the distribution of the radii of gyration for domains of different linear length and associated with different transcriptional activity states: active, inactive or repressed. Intriguingly, the observed scaling laws lack consistent interpretation in polymer physics.

RESULTS: We develop a new methodology conceived to extract the best information from such super-resolution data by exploiting the whole distribution of gyration radii, and to place these experimental results on a theoretical framework. We show that the experimental data are compatible with the finite-size behavior of a self-attracting polymer. The same generic polymer model leads to quantitative differences between active, inactive and repressed domains. Active domains behave as pure polymer coils, while inactive and repressed domains both lie at the coil-globule crossover. For the first time, the "color-specificity" of both the persistence length and the mean interaction energy are estimated, leading to important differences between epigenetic states.

CONCLUSION: These results point toward a crucial role of criticality to enhance the system responsivity, resulting in both energy transitions and structural rearrangements. We get strong indications that epigenetically induced changes in nucleosome-nucleosome interaction can cause chromatin to shift between different activity states.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Battle SL, Doni Jayavelu N, Azad RN, et al (2019)

Enhancer Chromatin and 3D Genome Architecture Changes from Naive to Primed Human Embryonic Stem Cell States.

Stem cell reports, 12(5):1129-1144.

During mammalian embryogenesis, changes in morphology and gene expression are concurrent with epigenomic reprogramming. Using human embryonic stem cells representing the preimplantation blastocyst (naive) and postimplantation epiblast (primed), our data in 2iL/I/F naive cells demonstrate that a substantial portion of known human enhancers are premarked by H3K4me1, providing an enhanced open chromatin state in naive pluripotency. The 2iL/I/F enhancer repertoire occupies 9% of the genome, three times that of primed cells, and can exist in broad chromatin domains over 50 kb. Enhancer chromatin states are largely poised. Seventy-seven percent of 2iL/I/F enhancers are decommissioned in a stepwise manner as cells become primed. While primed topologically associating domains are largely unaltered upon differentiation, naive 2iL/I/F domains expand across primed boundaries, affecting three-dimensional genome architecture. Differential topologically associating domain edges coincide with 2iL/I/F H3K4me1 enrichment. Our results suggest that naive-derived 2iL/I/F cells have a unique chromatin landscape, which may reflect early embryogenesis.

RevDate: 2019-05-08

Delaneau O, Zazhytska M, Borel C, et al (2019)

Chromatin three-dimensional interactions mediate genetic effects on gene expression.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 364(6439):.

Studying the genetic basis of gene expression and chromatin organization is key to characterizing the effect of genetic variability on the function and structure of the human genome. Here we unravel how genetic variation perturbs gene regulation using a dataset combining activity of regulatory elements, gene expression, and genetic variants across 317 individuals and two cell types. We show that variability in regulatory activity is structured at the intra- and interchromosomal levels within 12,583 cis-regulatory domains and 30 trans-regulatory hubs that highly reflect the local (that is, topologically associating domains) and global (that is, open and closed chromatin compartments) nuclear chromatin organization. These structures delimit cell type-specific regulatory networks that control gene expression and coexpression and mediate the genetic effects of cis- and trans-acting regulatory variants on genes.

RevDate: 2019-05-10

Yu J, Hu M, C Li (2019)

Joint analyses of multi-tissue Hi-C and eQTL data demonstrate close spatial proximity between eQTLs and their target genes.

BMC genetics, 20(1):43 pii:10.1186/s12863-019-0744-x.

BACKGROUND: Gene regulation is important for cells and tissues to function. It has been studied from two aspects at the genomic level, the identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and identification of long-range chromatin interactions. It is important to understand their relationship, such as whether eQTLs regulate their target genes through physical chromatin interaction. Although chromatin interactions have been widely believed to be one of the main mechanisms underlying eQTLs, most evidence came from studies of cell lines and yet no direct evidence exists for tissues.

RESULTS: We performed various joint analyses of eQTL and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) data from 11 human primary tissue types and 2 human cell lines. We found that chromatin interaction frequency is positively associated with the number of genes that have eQTLs and that eQTLs and their target genes tend to fall into the same topologically associating domain (TAD). These results are consistent across all tissues and cell lines we evaluated. Moreover, in 6 out of 11 tissues (aorta, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, pancreas, small bowel, and spleen), tissue-specific eQTLs are significantly enriched in tissue-specific frequently interacting regions (FIREs).

CONCLUSIONS: Our data have demonstrated the close spatial proximity between eQTLs and their target genes among multiple human primary tissues.

RevDate: 2019-05-02

Majumder K, Boftsi M, DJ Pintel (2019)

Viral Chromosome Conformation Capture (V3C) Assays for Identifying Trans-interaction Sites between Lytic Viruses and the Cellular Genome.

Bio-protocol, 9(6):.

The folding mechanisms of the mammalian genome package our genetic material into the nucleus, and in doing so, dictate its appropriate replication and expression. Chromosome conformation capture technology has enabled the dissection of the folding principles of the cellular genome. This has led to a better understanding of the role played by architectural proteins in forming and dissolving 3D-chromatin-structure. These assays are based on the principle of crosslinking distant cellular sites that are proximal to each other in 3D space using formaldehyde followed by digestion of formed hybrid DNA junctions. Invading viruses, such as the lytic parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM), establish distinct replication centers within the nuclear environment at cellular sites that preferentially undergo DNA damage, but do not integrate into the cellular DNA. We have adapted chromosome conformation capture technology to study the trans-interaction between MVM and the cellular genome, which we have dubbed V3C, which can be extended to a whole-genome analysis we term V3C-seq. This protocol describes the procedure for performing, as well as analyzing V3C-seq assays, and can be adapted for mapping the cellular interaction sites of any non-integrating DNA virus.

RevDate: 2019-05-22

Liu G, A Dean (2019)

Enhancer long-range contacts: The multi-adaptor protein LDB1 is the tie that binds.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Gene regulatory mechanisms, 1862(6):625-633.

The eukaryotic genome is organized at varying levels into chromosome territories, transcriptional compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), which are architectural features largely shared between different cell types and across species. In contrast, within TADs, chromatin loops connect enhancers and their target genes to establish unique transcriptomes that distinguish cells and tissues from each other and underlie development and differentiation. How these tissue-specific and temporal stage-specific long-range contacts are formed and maintained is a fundamental question in biology. The widely expressed Lim domain binding 1 protein, LDB1, plays a critical role in connecting enhancers and genes by forming complexes with cell-type specificity across diverse developmental pathways including neurogenesis, cardiogenesis, retinogenesis and hematopoiesis. Here we review the multiple roles of LDB1 in cell fate determination and in chromatin loop formation, with an emphasis on mammalian systems, to illuminate how LDB1 functions in normal cells and in diseases such as cancer.

RevDate: 2019-05-26

Paulsen J, Liyakat Ali TM, Nekrasov M, et al (2019)

Long-range interactions between topologically associating domains shape the four-dimensional genome during differentiation.

Nature genetics, 51(5):835-843.

Genomic information is selectively used to direct spatial and temporal gene expression during differentiation. Interactions between topologically associating domains (TADs) and between chromatin and the nuclear lamina organize and position chromosomes in the nucleus. However, how these genomic organizers together shape genome architecture is unclear. Here, using a dual-lineage differentiation system, we report long-range TAD-TAD interactions that form constitutive and variable TAD cliques. A differentiation-coupled relationship between TAD cliques and lamina-associated domains suggests that TAD cliques stabilize heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery. We also provide evidence of dynamic TAD cliques during mouse embryonic stem-cell differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming and of inter-TAD associations in single-cell high-resolution chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data. TAD cliques represent a level of four-dimensional genome conformation that reinforces the silencing of repressed developmental genes.

RevDate: 2019-05-08

Ma CY, Madden P, Gontarz P, et al (2019)

FeatSNP: An Interactive Database for Brain-Specific Epigenetic Annotation of Human SNPs.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:262.

FeatSNP is an online tool and a curated database for exploring 81 million common SNPs' potential functional impact on the human brain. FeatSNP uses the brain transcriptomes of the human population to improve functional annotation of human SNPs by integrating transcription factor binding prediction, public eQTL information, and brain specific epigenetic landscape, as well as information of Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). FeatSNP supports both single and batched SNP searching, and its interactive user interface enables users to explore the functional annotations and generate publication-quality visualization results. FeatSNP is freely available on the internet at with all major web browsers supported.

RevDate: 2019-04-18

Szabo Q, Bantignies F, G Cavalli (2019)

Principles of genome folding into topologically associating domains.

Science advances, 5(4):eaaw1668 pii:aaw1668.

Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chromosome folding within cell nuclei is essential to determine the relationship between genome structure and function. The recent application of "chromosome conformation capture" techniques has revealed that the genome of many species is organized into domains of preferential internal chromatin interactions called "topologically associating domains" (TADs). This chromosome chromosome folding has emerged as a key feature of higher-order genome organization and function through evolution. Although TADs have now been described in a wide range of organisms, they appear to have specific characteristics in terms of size, structure, and proteins involved in their formation. Here, we depict the main features of these domains across species and discuss the relation between chromatin structure, genome activity, and epigenome, highlighting mechanistic principles of TAD formation. We also consider the potential influence of TADs in genome evolution.

RevDate: 2019-04-15

Luo H, Sobh A, Vulpe CD, et al (2019)

HOX Loci Focused CRISPR/sgRNA Library Screening Identifying Critical CTCF Boundaries.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-mediated stable topologically associating domains (TADs) play a critical role in constraining interactions of DNA elements that are located in neighboring TADs. CTCF plays an important role in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HOX genes that control embryonic development, body patterning, hematopoiesis, and leukemogenesis. However, it remains largely unknown whether and how HOX loci associated CTCF boundaries regulate chromatin organization and HOX gene expression. In the current protocol, a specific sgRNA pooled library targeting all CTCF binding sites in the HOXA/B/C/D loci has been generated to examine the effects of disrupting CTCF-associated chromatin boundaries on TAD formation and HOX gene expression. Through CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screening, the CTCF binding site located between HOXA7/HOXA9 genes (CBS7/9) has been identified as a critical regulator of oncogenic chromatin domain, as well as being important for maintaining ectopic HOX gene expression patterns in MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Thus, this sgRNA library screening approach provides novel insights into CTCF mediated genome organization in specific gene loci and also provides a basis for the functional characterization of the annotated genetic regulatory elements, both coding and noncoding, during normal biological processes in the post-human genome project era.

RevDate: 2019-05-03

Laugsch M, Bartusel M, Rehimi R, et al (2019)

Modeling the Pathological Long-Range Regulatory Effects of Human Structural Variation with Patient-Specific hiPSCs.

Cell stem cell, 24(5):736-752.e12.

The pathological consequences of structural variants disrupting 3D genome organization can be difficult to elucidate in vivo due to differences in gene dosage sensitivity between mice and humans. This is illustrated by branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), a rare congenital disorder caused by heterozygous mutations within TFAP2A, a neural crest regulator for which humans, but not mice, are haploinsufficient. Here, we present a BOFS patient carrying a heterozygous inversion with one breakpoint located within a topologically associating domain (TAD) containing enhancers essential for TFAP2A expression in human neural crest cells (hNCCs). Using patient-specific hiPSCs, we show that, although the inversion shuffles the TFAP2A hNCC enhancers with novel genes within the same TAD, this does not result in enhancer adoption. Instead, the inversion disconnects one TFAP2A allele from its cognate enhancers, leading to monoallelic and haploinsufficient TFAP2A expression in patient hNCCs. Our work illustrates the power of hiPSC differentiation to unveil long-range pathomechanisms.

RevDate: 2019-04-29
CmpDate: 2019-04-29

Yang M, Vesterlund M, Siavelis I, et al (2019)

Proteogenomics and Hi-C reveal transcriptional dysregulation in high hyperdiploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Nature communications, 10(1):1519 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-09469-3.

Hyperdiploidy, i.e. gain of whole chromosomes, is one of the most common genetic features of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but its pathogenetic impact is poorly understood. Here, we report a proteogenomic analysis on matched datasets from genomic profiling, RNA-sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based analysis of >8,000 genes and proteins as well as Hi-C of primary patient samples from hyperdiploid and ETV6/RUNX1-positive pediatric ALL. We show that CTCF and cohesin, which are master regulators of chromatin architecture, display low expression in hyperdiploid ALL. In line with this, a general genome-wide dysregulation of gene expression in relation to topologically associating domain (TAD) borders were seen in the hyperdiploid group. Furthermore, Hi-C of a limited number of hyperdiploid childhood ALL cases revealed that 2/4 cases displayed a clear loss of TAD boundary strength and 3/4 showed reduced insulation at TAD borders, with putative leukemogenic effects.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Ye Y, Gao L, S Zhang (2019)

MSTD: an efficient method for detecting multi-scale topological domains from symmetric and asymmetric 3D genomic maps.

Nucleic acids research pii:5426476 [Epub ahead of print].

The chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique and its variants have been employed to reveal the existence of a hierarchy of structures in three-dimensional (3D) chromosomal architecture, including compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), sub-TADs and chromatin loops. However, existing methods for domain detection were only designed based on symmetric Hi-C maps, ignoring long-range interaction structures between domains. To this end, we proposed a generic and efficient method to identify multi-scale topological domains (MSTD), including cis- and trans-interacting regions, from a variety of 3D genomic datasets. We first applied MSTD to detect promoter-anchored interaction domains (PADs) from promoter capture Hi-C datasets across 17 primary blood cell types. The boundaries of PADs are significantly enriched with one or the combination of multiple epigenetic factors. Moreover, PADs between functionally similar cell types are significantly conserved in terms of domain regions and expression states. Cell type-specific PADs involve in distinct cell type-specific activities and regulatory events by dynamic interactions within them. We also employed MSTD to define multi-scale domains from typical symmetric Hi-C datasets and illustrated its distinct superiority to the-state-of-art methods in terms of accuracy, flexibility and efficiency.

RevDate: 2019-06-04
CmpDate: 2019-06-04

Braun R, Ronquist S, Wangsa D, et al (2019)

Single Chromosome Aneuploidy Induces Genome-Wide Perturbation of Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression.

Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), 21(4):401-412.

Chromosomal aneuploidy is a defining feature of carcinomas and results in tumor-entity specific genomic imbalances. For instance, most sporadic colorectal carcinomas carry extra copies of chromosome 7, an aneuploidy that emerges already in premalignant adenomas, and is maintained throughout tumor progression and in derived cell lines. A comprehensive understanding on how chromosomal aneuploidy affects nuclear organization and gene expression, i.e., the nucleome, remains elusive. We now analyzed a cell line established from healthy colon mucosa with a normal karyotype (46,XY) and its isogenic derived cell line that acquired an extra copy of chromosome 7 as its sole anomaly (47,XY,+7). We studied structure/function relationships consequent to aneuploidization using genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), RNA sequencing and protein profiling. The gain of chromosome 7 resulted in an increase of transcript levels of resident genes as well as genome-wide gene and protein expression changes. The Hi-C analysis showed that the extra copy of chromosome 7 is reflected in more interchromosomal contacts between the triploid chromosomes. Chromatin organization changes are observed genome-wide, as determined by changes in A/B compartmentalization and topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries. Most notably, chromosome 4 shows a profound loss of chromatin organization, and chromosome 14 contains a large A/B compartment switch region, concurrent with resident gene expression changes. No changes to the nuclear position of the additional chromosome 7 territory were observed when measuring distances of chromosome painting probes by interphase FISH. Genome and protein data showed enrichment in signaling pathways crucial for malignant transformation, such as the HGF/MET-axis. We conclude that a specific chromosomal aneuploidy has profound impact on nuclear structure and function, both locally and genome-wide. Our study provides a benchmark for the analysis of cancer nucleomes with complex karyotypes.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Huynh L, F Hormozdiari (2019)

TAD fusion score: discovery and ranking the contribution of deletions to genome structure.

Genome biology, 20(1):60 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1666-7.

Deletions that fuse two adjacent topologically associating domains (TADs) can cause severe developmental disorders. We provide a formal method to quantify deletions based on their potential disruption of the three-dimensional genome structure, denoted as the TAD fusion score. Furthermore, we show that deletions that cause TAD fusion are rare and under negative selection in the general population. Finally, we show that our method correctly gives higher scores to deletions reported to cause various disorders, including developmental disorders and cancer, in comparison to the deletions reported in the 1000 Genomes Project. The TAD fusion score tool is publicly available at .

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Nagai LAE, Park SJ, K Nakai (2019)

Analyzing the 3D chromatin organization coordinating with gene expression regulation in B-cell lymphoma.

BMC medical genomics, 11(Suppl 7):127 pii:10.1186/s12920-018-0437-8.

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotes compact chromosomes densely and non-randomly, forming three-dimensional structures. Alterations of the chromatin structures are often associated with diseases. In particular, aggressive cancer development from the disruption of the humoral immune system presents abnormal gene regulation which is accompanied by chromatin reorganizations. How the chromatin structures orchestrate the gene expression regulation is still poorly understood. Herein, we focus on chromatin dynamics in normal and abnormal B cell lymphocytes, and investigate its functional impact on the regulation of gene expression.

METHODS: We conducted an integrative analysis using publicly available multi-omics data that include Hi-C, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq experiments with normal B cells, lymphoma and ES cells. We processed and re-analyzed the data exhaustively and combined different scales of genome structures with transcriptomic and epigenetic features.

RESULTS: We found that the chromatin organizations are highly preserved among the cells. 5.2% of genes at the specific repressive compartment in normal pro-B cells were switched to the permissive compartment in lymphoma along with increased gene expression. The genes are involved in B-cell related biological processes. Remarkably, the boundaries of topologically associating domains were not enriched by CTCF motif, but significantly enriched with Prdm1 motif that is known to be the key factor of B-cell dysfunction in aggressive lymphoma.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows evidence of a complex relationship between chromatin reorganization and gene regulation. However, an unknown mechanism may exist to restrict the structural and functional changes of genomic regions and cognate genes in a specific manner. Our findings suggest the presence of an intricate crosstalk between the higher-order chromatin structure and cancer development.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Chen D, EP Lei (2019)

Function and regulation of chromatin insulators in dynamic genome organization.

Current opinion in cell biology, 58:61-68 pii:S0955-0674(18)30098-X [Epub ahead of print].

Chromatin insulators are DNA-protein complexes that play a crucial role in regulating chromatin organization. Within the past two years, a plethora of genome-wide conformation capture studies have helped reveal that insulators are necessary for proper genome-wide organization of topologically associating domains, which are formed in a manner distinct from that of compartments. These studies have also provided novel insights into the mechanics of how CTCF/cohesin-dependent loops form in mammals, strongly supporting the loop extrusion model. In combination with single-cell imaging approaches in both Drosophila and mammals, the dynamics of insulator-mediated chromatin interactions are also coming to light. Insulator-dependent structures vary across individual cells and tissues, highlighting the need to study the regulation of insulators in particular temporal and spatial contexts throughout development.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Liu T, Porter J, Zhao C, et al (2019)

TADKB: Family classification and a knowledge base of topologically associating domains.

BMC genomics, 20(1):217 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5551-2.

BACKGROUND: Topologically associating domains (TADs) are considered the structural and functional units of the genome. However, there is a lack of an integrated resource for TADs in the literature where researchers can obtain family classifications and detailed information about TADs.

RESULTS: We built an online knowledge base TADKB integrating knowledge for TADs in eleven cell types of human and mouse. For each TAD, TADKB provides the predicted three-dimensional (3D) structures of chromosomes and TADs, and detailed annotations about the protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) existent in each TAD. Besides the 3D chromosomal structures inferred by population Hi-C, the single-cell haplotype-resolved chromosomal 3D structures of 17 GM12878 cells are also integrated in TADKB. A user can submit query gene/lncRNA ID/sequence to search for the TAD(s) that contain(s) the query gene or lncRNA. We also classified TADs into families. To achieve that, we used the TM-scores between reconstructed 3D structures of TADs as structural similarities and the Pearson's correlation coefficients between the fold enrichment of chromatin states as functional similarities. All of the TADs in one cell type were clustered based on structural and functional similarities respectively using the spectral clustering algorithm with various predefined numbers of clusters. We have compared the overlapping TADs from structural and functional clusters and found that most of the TADs in the functional clusters with depleted chromatin states are clustered into one or two structural clusters. This novel finding indicates a connection between the 3D structures of TADs and their DNA functions in terms of chromatin states.

CONCLUSION: TADKB is available at .

RevDate: 2019-04-05
CmpDate: 2019-04-05

Ulianov SV, Doronin SA, Khrameeva EE, et al (2019)

Nuclear lamina integrity is required for proper spatial organization of chromatin in Drosophila.

Nature communications, 10(1):1176 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-09185-y.

How the nuclear lamina (NL) impacts on global chromatin architecture is poorly understood. Here, we show that NL disruption in Drosophila S2 cells leads to chromatin compaction and repositioning from the nuclear envelope. This increases the chromatin density in a fraction of topologically-associating domains (TADs) enriched in active chromatin and enhances interactions between active and inactive chromatin. Importantly, upon NL disruption the NL-associated TADs become more acetylated at histone H3 and less compact, while background transcription is derepressed. Two-colour FISH confirms that a TAD becomes less compact following its release from the NL. Finally, polymer simulations show that chromatin binding to the NL can per se compact attached TADs. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a dual function of the NL in shaping the 3D genome. Attachment of TADs to the NL makes them more condensed but decreases the overall chromatin density in the nucleus by stretching interphase chromosomes.

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Al Bkhetan Z, Kadlof M, Kraft A, et al (2019)

Machine learning polymer models of three-dimensional chromatin organization in human lymphoblastoid cells.

Methods (San Diego, Calif.) pii:S1046-2023(18)30334-7 [Epub ahead of print].

We present machine learning models of human genome three-dimensional structure that combine one dimensional (linear) sequence specificity, epigenomic information, and transcription factor binding profiles, with the polymer-based biophysical simulations in order to explain the extensive long-range chromatin looping observed in ChIA-PET experiments for lymphoblastoid cells. Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM), and Deep Learning models were constructed and evaluated, when predicting high-resolution interactions within Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). The predicted interactions are consistent with the experimental long-read ChIA-PET interactions mediated by CTCF and RNAPOL2 for GM12878 cell line. The contribution of sequence information and chromatin state defined by epigenomic features to the prediction task is analyzed and reported, when using them separately and combined. Furthermore, we design three-dimensional models of chromatin contact domains (CCDs) using real (ChIA-PET) and predicted looping interactions. Initial results show a similarity between both types of 3D computational models (constructed from experimental or predicted interactions). This observation confirms the association between genome sequence, epigenomic and transcription factor profiles, and three-dimensional interactions.

RevDate: 2019-04-05

Zaborowski R, B Wilczyński (2019)

BPscore: An Effective Metric for Meaningful Comparisons of Structural Chromosome Segmentations.

Journal of computational biology : a journal of computational molecular cell biology, 26(4):305-314.

Studying the three-dimensional structure of chromosomes is an emerging field flourishing in recent years because of rapid development of experimental approaches for studying chromosomal contacts. This has led to numerous studies providing results of segmentation of chromosome sequences of different species into so-called topologically associating domains (TADs). As the number of such studies grows steadily and many of them make claims about the perceived differences between TAD structures observed in different conditions, there is a growing need for good measures of similarity (or dissimilarity) between such segmentations. We provide here a bipartite (BP) score, which is a relatively simple distance metric based on the bipartite matching between two segmentations. In this article, we provide the rationale behind choosing specifically this function and show its results on several different data sets, both simulated and experimental. We show that not only the BP score is a proper metric satisfying the triangle inequality, but also that it is providing good granularity of scores for typical situations occurring between different TAD segmentations. We also introduce local variant of the BP metric and show that in actual comparisons between experimental data sets, the local BP score is correlating with the observed changes in gene expression and genome methylation. In summary, we consider the BP score a good foundation for analyzing the dynamics of chromosome structures. The methodology we present in this study could be used by many researchers in their ongoing analyses, making it a popular and useful tool.

RevDate: 2019-03-03

Wang C, Nanni L, Novakovic B, et al (2019)

Extensive epigenomic integration of the glucocorticoid response in primary human monocytes and in vitro derived macrophages.

Scientific reports, 9(1):2772 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-39395-9.

Glucocorticoid receptor is a transcription factor that is ubiquitously expressed. Glucocorticoids are circadian steroids that regulate a wide range of bodily functions, including immunity. Here we report that synthetic glucocorticoids affect 1035 mRNAs in isolated healthy human blood monocytes but only 165 in the respective six day-old monocyte-derived macrophages. The majority of the glucocorticoid response in monocytes concerns genes that are dynamic upon monocyte to macrophage differentiation, whereby macrophage-like mRNA levels are often reached in monocytes within four hours of treatment. Concomitantly, over 5000 chromosomal H3K27ac regions undergo remodelling, of which 60% involve increased H3K27ac signal. We find that chromosomal glucocorticoid receptor binding sites correlate with positive but not with negative local epigenomic effects. To investigate further we assigned our data to topologically associating domains (TADs). This shows that about 10% of macrophage TADs harbour at least one GR binding site and that half of all the glucocorticoid-induced H3K27ac regions are confined to these TADs. Our analyses are therefore consistent with the notion that TADs naturally accommodate information from sets of distal glucocorticoid response elements.

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Finn EH, Pegoraro G, Brandão HB, et al (2019)

Extensive Heterogeneity and Intrinsic Variation in Spatial Genome Organization.

Cell, 176(6):1502-1515.e10.

Several general principles of global 3D genome organization have recently been established, including non-random positioning of chromosomes and genes in the cell nucleus, distinct chromatin compartments, and topologically associating domains (TADs). However, the extent and nature of cell-to-cell and cell-intrinsic variability in genome architecture are still poorly characterized. Here, we systematically probe heterogeneity in genome organization. High-throughput optical mapping of several hundred intra-chromosomal interactions in individual human fibroblasts demonstrates low association frequencies, which are determined by genomic distance, higher-order chromatin architecture, and chromatin environment. The structure of TADs is variable between individual cells, and inter-TAD associations are common. Furthermore, single-cell analysis reveals independent behavior of individual alleles in single nuclei. Our observations reveal extensive variability and heterogeneity in genome organization at the level of individual alleles and demonstrate the coexistence of a broad spectrum of genome configurations in a cell population.

RevDate: 2019-06-08

Cardozo Gizzi AM, Cattoni DI, Fiche JB, et al (2019)

Microscopy-Based Chromosome Conformation Capture Enables Simultaneous Visualization of Genome Organization and Transcription in Intact Organisms.

Molecular cell, 74(1):212-222.e5.

Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized in multiple scales, from nucleosomes to chromosome territories. Recently, genome-wide methods identified an intermediate level of chromosome organization, topologically associating domains (TADs), that play key roles in transcriptional regulation. However, these methods cannot directly examine the interplay between transcriptional activation and chromosome architecture while maintaining spatial information. Here we present a multiplexed, sequential imaging approach (Hi-M) that permits simultaneous detection of chromosome organization and transcription in single nuclei. This allowed us to unveil the changes in 3D chromatin organization occurring upon transcriptional activation and homologous chromosome unpairing during awakening of the zygotic genome in intact Drosophila embryos. Excitingly, the ability of Hi-M to explore the multi-scale chromosome architecture with spatial resolution at different stages of development or during the cell cycle will be key to understanding the mechanisms and consequences of the 4D organization of the genome.

RevDate: 2019-03-09

Alavattam KG, Maezawa S, Sakashita A, et al (2019)

Attenuated chromatin compartmentalization in meiosis and its maturation in sperm development.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 26(3):175-184.

Germ cells manifest a unique gene expression program and regain totipotency in the zygote. Here, we perform Hi-C analysis to examine 3D chromatin organization in male germ cells during spermatogenesis. We show that the highly compartmentalized 3D chromatin organization characteristic of interphase nuclei is attenuated in meiotic prophase. Meiotic prophase is predominated by short-range intrachromosomal interactions that represent a condensed form akin to that of mitotic chromosomes. However, unlike mitotic chromosomes, meiotic chromosomes display weak genomic compartmentalization, weak topologically associating domains, and localized point interactions in prophase. In postmeiotic round spermatids, genomic compartmentalization increases and gives rise to the strong compartmentalization seen in mature sperm. The X chromosome lacks domain organization during meiotic sex-chromosome inactivation. We propose that male meiosis occurs amid global reprogramming of 3D chromatin organization and that strengthening of chromatin compartmentalization takes place in spermiogenesis to prepare the next generation of life.

RevDate: 2019-03-09

Patel L, Kang R, Rosenberg SC, et al (2019)

Dynamic reorganization of the genome shapes the recombination landscape in meiotic prophase.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 26(3):164-174.

In meiotic prophase, chromosomes are organized into compacted loop arrays to promote homolog pairing and recombination. Here, we probe the architecture of the mouse spermatocyte genome in early and late meiotic prophase using chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C). Our data support the established loop array model of meiotic chromosomes, and infer loops averaging 0.8-1.0 megabase pairs (Mb) in early prophase and extending to 1.5-2.0 Mb in late prophase as chromosomes compact and homologs undergo synapsis. Topologically associating domains (TADs) are lost in meiotic prophase, suggesting that assembly of the meiotic chromosome axis alters the activity of chromosome-associated cohesin complexes. While TADs are lost, physically separated A and B compartments are maintained in meiotic prophase. Moreover, meiotic DNA breaks and interhomolog crossovers preferentially form in the gene-dense A compartment, revealing a role for chromatin organization in meiotic recombination. Finally, direct detection of interhomolog contacts genome-wide reveals the structural basis for homolog alignment and juxtaposition by the synaptonemal complex.

RevDate: 2019-03-08

Zheng M, Tian SZ, Capurso D, et al (2019)

Multiplex chromatin interactions with single-molecule precision.

Nature, 566(7745):558-562.

The genomes of multicellular organisms are extensively folded into 3D chromosome territories within the nucleus1. Advanced 3D genome-mapping methods that combine proximity ligation and high-throughput sequencing (such as chromosome conformation capture, Hi-C)2, and chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques (such as chromatin interaction analysis by paired-end tag sequencing, ChIA-PET)3, have revealed topologically associating domains4 with frequent chromatin contacts, and have identified chromatin loops mediated by specific protein factors for insulation and regulation of transcription5-7. However, these methods rely on pairwise proximity ligation and reflect population-level views, and thus cannot reveal the detailed nature of chromatin interactions. Although single-cell Hi-C8 potentially overcomes this issue, this method may be limited by the sparsity of data that is inherent to current single-cell assays. Recent advances in microfluidics have opened opportunities for droplet-based genomic analysis9 but this approach has not yet been adapted for chromatin interaction analysis. Here we describe a strategy for multiplex chromatin-interaction analysis via droplet-based and barcode-linked sequencing, which we name ChIA-Drop. We demonstrate the robustness of ChIA-Drop in capturing complex chromatin interactions with single-molecule precision, which has not been possible using methods based on population-level pairwise contacts. By applying ChIA-Drop to Drosophila cells, we show that chromatin topological structures predominantly consist of multiplex chromatin interactions with high heterogeneity; ChIA-Drop also reveals promoter-centred multivalent interactions, which provide topological insights into transcription.

RevDate: 2019-05-30
CmpDate: 2019-05-30

Wang Y, Wang H, Zhang Y, et al (2019)

Reprogramming of Meiotic Chromatin Architecture during Spermatogenesis.

Molecular cell, 73(3):547-561.e6.

Chromatin organization undergoes drastic reconfiguration during gametogenesis. However, the molecular reprogramming of three-dimensional chromatin structure in this process remains poorly understood for mammals, including primates. Here, we examined three-dimensional chromatin architecture during spermatogenesis in rhesus monkey using low-input Hi-C. Interestingly, we found that topologically associating domains (TADs) undergo dissolution and reestablishment in spermatogenesis. Strikingly, pachytene spermatocytes, where synapsis occurs, are strongly depleted for TADs despite their active transcription state but uniquely show highly refined local compartments that alternate between transcribing and non-transcribing regions (refined-A/B). Importantly, such chromatin organization is conserved in mouse, where it remains largely intact upon transcription inhibition. Instead, it is attenuated in mutant spermatocytes, where the synaptonemal complex failed to be established. Intriguingly, this is accompanied by the restoration of TADs, suggesting that the synaptonemal complex may restrict TADs and promote local compartments. Thus, these data revealed extensive reprogramming of higher-order meiotic chromatin architecture during mammalian gametogenesis.

RevDate: 2019-02-28

Skibbens RV (2019)

Condensins and cohesins - one of these things is not like the other!.

Journal of cell science, 132(3): pii:132/3/jcs220491.

Condensins and cohesins are highly conserved complexes that tether together DNA loci within a single DNA molecule to produce DNA loops. Condensin and cohesin structures, however, are different, and the DNA loops produced by each underlie distinct cell processes. Condensin rods compact chromosomes during mitosis, with condensin I and II complexes producing spatially defined and nested looping in metazoan cells. Structurally adaptive cohesin rings produce loops, which organize the genome during interphase. Cohesin-mediated loops, termed topologically associating domains or TADs, antagonize the formation of epigenetically defined but untethered DNA volumes, termed compartments. While condensin complexes formed through cis-interactions must maintain chromatin compaction throughout mitosis, cohesins remain highly dynamic during interphase to allow for transcription-mediated responses to external cues and the execution of developmental programs. Here, I review differences in condensin and cohesin structures, and highlight recent advances regarding the intramolecular or cis-based tetherings through which condensins compact DNA during mitosis and cohesins organize the genome during interphase.

RevDate: 2019-04-19

Chathoth KT, NR Zabet (2019)

Chromatin architecture reorganization during neuronal cell differentiation in Drosophila genome.

Genome research, 29(4):613-625.

The organization of the genome into topologically associating domains (TADs) was shown to have a regulatory role in development and cellular function, but the mechanism involved in TAD establishment is still unclear. Here, we present the first high-resolution contact map of Drosophila neuronal cells (BG3) and identify different classes of TADs by comparing this to genome organization in embryonic cells (Kc167). We find that only some TADs are conserved in both cell lines, whereas the rest are cell-type-specific. This is supported by a change in the enrichment of architectural proteins at TAD borders, with BEAF-32 present in embryonic cells and CTCF in neuronal cells. Furthermore, we observe strong divergent transcription, together with RNA Polymerase II occupancy and an increase in DNA accessibility at the TAD borders. TAD borders that are specific to neuronal cells are enriched in enhancers controlled by neuronal-specific transcription factors. Our results suggest that TADs are dynamic across developmental stages and reflect the interplay between insulators, transcriptional states, and enhancer activities.

RevDate: 2019-04-10

Zheng Y, Ay F, S Keles (2019)

Generative modeling of multi-mapping reads with mHi-C advances analysis of Hi-C studies.

eLife, 8: pii:38070.

Current Hi-C analysis approaches are unable to account for reads that align to multiple locations, and hence underestimate biological signal from repetitive regions of genomes. We developed and validated mHi-C, a multi-read mapping strategy to probabilistically allocate Hi-C multi-reads. mHi-C exhibited superior performance over utilizing only uni-reads and heuristic approaches aimed at rescuing multi-reads on benchmarks. Specifically, mHi-C increased the sequencing depth by an average of 20% resulting in higher reproducibility of contact matrices and detected interactions across biological replicates. The impact of the multi-reads on the detection of significant interactions is influenced marginally by the relative contribution of multi-reads to the sequencing depth compared to uni-reads, cis-to-trans ratio of contacts, and the broad data quality as reflected by the proportion of mappable reads of datasets. Computational experiments highlighted that in Hi-C studies with short read lengths, mHi-C rescued multi-reads can emulate the effect of longer reads. mHi-C also revealed biologically supported bona fide promoter-enhancer interactions and topologically associating domains involving repetitive genomic regions, thereby unlocking a previously masked portion of the genome for conformation capture studies.

RevDate: 2019-04-11

Chapski DJ, Rosa-Garrido M, Hua N, et al (2018)

Spatial Principles of Chromatin Architecture Associated With Organ-Specific Gene Regulation.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 5:186.

Packaging of the genome in the nucleus is a non-random process that is thought to directly contribute to cell type-specific transcriptomes, although this hypothesis remains untested. Epigenome architecture, as assayed by chromatin conformation capture techniques, such as Hi-C, has recently been described in the mammalian cardiac myocyte and found to be remodeled in the setting of heart failure. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the structural features of the epigenome are conserved between different cell types by investigating Hi-C and RNA-seq data from heart and liver. Investigation of genes with enriched expression in heart or liver revealed nuanced interaction paradigms between organs: first, the log2 ratios of heart:liver (or liver:heart) intrachromosomal interactions are higher in organ-specific gene sets (p = 0.009), suggesting that organ-specific genes have specialized chromatin structural features. Despite similar number of total interactions between cell types, intrachromosomal interaction profiles in heart but not liver demonstrate that genes forming promoter-to-transcription-end-site loops in the cardiac nucleus tend to be involved in cardiac-related pathways. The same analysis revealed an analogous organ-specific interaction profile for liver-specific loop genes. Investigation of A/B compartmentalization (marker of chromatin accessibility) revealed that in the heart, 66.7% of cardiac-specific genes are in compartment A, while 66.1% of liver-specific genes are found in compartment B, suggesting that there exists a cardiac chromatin topology that allows for expression of cardiac genes. Analyses of interchromosomal interactions revealed a relationship between interchromosomal interaction count and organ-specific gene localization (p = 2.2 × 10-16) and that, for both organs, regions of active or inactive chromatin tend to segregate in 3D space (i.e., active with active, inactive with inactive). 3D models of topologically associating domains (TADs) suggest that TADs tend to interact with regions of similar compartmentalization across chromosomes, revealing trans structural interactions contributing to genomic compartmentalization at distinct structural scales. These models reveal discordant nuclear compaction strategies, with heart packaging compartment A genes preferentially toward the center of the nucleus and liver exhibiting preferential arrangement toward the periphery. Taken together, our data suggest that intra- and interchromosomal chromatin architecture plays a role in orchestrating tissue-specific gene expression.

RevDate: 2019-05-18
CmpDate: 2019-04-24

Donaldson-Collier MC, Sungalee S, Zufferey M, et al (2019)

EZH2 oncogenic mutations drive epigenetic, transcriptional, and structural changes within chromatin domains.

Nature genetics, 51(3):517-528.

Chromatin is organized into topologically associating domains (TADs) enriched in distinct histone marks. In cancer, gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 protein (EZH2) lead to a genome-wide increase in histone-3 Lys27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) associated with transcriptional repression. However, the effects of these epigenetic changes on the structure and function of chromatin domains have not been explored. Here, we found a functional interplay between TADs and epigenetic and transcriptional changes mediated by mutated EZH2. Altered EZH2 (p.Tyr646* (EZH2Y646X)) led to silencing of entire domains, synergistically inactivating multiple tumor suppressors. Intra-TAD gene silencing was coupled with changes of interactions between gene promoter regions. Notably, gene expression and chromatin interactions were restored by pharmacological inhibition of EZH2Y646X. Our results indicate that EZH2Y646X alters the topology and function of chromatin domains to promote synergistic oncogenic programs.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Yamamoto T, N Saitoh (2019)

Non-coding RNAs and chromatin domains.

Current opinion in cell biology, 58:26-33 pii:S0955-0674(18)30096-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Large-scale transcriptome analyses have identified a variety of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are not translated into proteins. Many of them are in the nucleus, where they associate with chromatin and regulate its structure and function. Interphase chromosomes are intricately folded into multiple layers and composed of domains. Recent studies using Hi-C technologies have identified a mega-base self-associating chromatin domain: the topologically associating domain (TAD). The domain boundaries are demarcated with the chromatin regulatory proteins CTCF and cohesin, which are often bound to or recruited by ncRNAs. Some ncRNAs form RNA clouds in the nucleus and coordinate the transcription of multiple genes in a chromatin domain. In this review, we describe the emerging link between long ncRNAs and chromatin domains in the nucleus.

RevDate: 2019-05-03

Fritz AJ, Sehgal N, Pliss A, et al (2019)

Chromosome territories and the global regulation of the genome.

Genes, chromosomes & cancer, 58(7):407-426.

Spatial positioning is a fundamental principle governing nuclear processes. Chromatin is organized as a hierarchy from nucleosomes to Mbp chromatin domains (CD) or topologically associating domains (TADs) to higher level compartments culminating in chromosome territories (CT). Microscopic and sequencing techniques have substantiated chromatin organization as a critical factor regulating gene expression. For example, enhancers loop back to interact with their target genes almost exclusively within TADs, distally located coregulated genes reposition into common transcription factories upon activation, and Mbp CDs exhibit dynamic motion and configurational changes in vivo. A longstanding question in the nucleus field is whether an interactive nuclear matrix provides a direct link between structure and function. The findings of nonrandom radial positioning of CT within the nucleus suggest the possibility of preferential interaction patterns among populations of CT. Sequential labeling up to 10 CT followed by application of computer imaging and geometric graph mining algorithms revealed cell-type specific interchromosomal networks (ICN) of CT that are altered during the cell cycle, differentiation, and cancer progression. It is proposed that the ICN correlate with the global level of genome regulation. These approaches also demonstrated that the large scale 3-D topology of CT is specific for each CT. The cell-type specific proximity of certain chromosomal regions in normal cells may explain the propensity of distinct translocations in cancer subtypes. Understanding how genes are dysregulated upon disruption of the normal "wiring" of the nucleus by translocations, deletions, and amplifications that are hallmarks of cancer, should enable more targeted therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2019-01-25

Ohno M, Ando T, Priest DG, et al (2019)

Sub-nucleosomal Genome Structure Reveals Distinct Nucleosome Folding Motifs.

Cell, 176(3):520-534.e25.

Elucidating the global and local rules that govern genome-wide, hierarchical chromatin architecture remains a critical challenge. Current high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technologies have identified large-scale chromatin structural motifs, such as topologically associating domains and looping. However, structural rules at the smallest or nucleosome scale remain poorly understood. Here, we coupled nucleosome-resolved Hi-C technology with simulated annealing-molecular dynamics (SA-MD) simulation to reveal 3D spatial distributions of nucleosomes and their genome-wide orientation in chromatin. Our method, called Hi-CO, revealed distinct nucleosome folding motifs across the yeast genome. Our results uncovered two types of basic secondary structural motifs in nucleosome folding: α-tetrahedron and β-rhombus analogous to α helix and β sheet motifs in protein folding. Using mutants and cell-cycle-synchronized cells, we further uncovered motifs with specific nucleosome positioning and orientation coupled to epigenetic features at individual loci. By illuminating molecular-level structure-function relationships in eukaryotic chromatin, our findings establish organizational principles of nucleosome folding.

RevDate: 2019-05-29
CmpDate: 2019-05-29

Oomen ME, Hansen AS, Liu Y, et al (2019)

CTCF sites display cell cycle-dependent dynamics in factor binding and nucleosome positioning.

Genome research, 29(2):236-249.

CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) plays a key role in the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs) and loops in interphase. During mitosis TADs are absent, but how TAD formation is dynamically controlled during the cell cycle is not known. Several contradicting observations have been made regarding CTCF binding to mitotic chromatin using both genomics- and microscopy-based techniques. Here, we have used four different assays to address this debate. First, using 5C, we confirmed that TADs and CTCF loops are readily detected in interphase, but absent during prometaphase. Second, ATAC-seq analysis showed that CTCF sites display greatly reduced accessibility and lose the CTCF footprint in prometaphase, suggesting loss of CTCF binding and rearrangement of the nucleosomal array around the binding motif. In contrast, transcription start sites remain accessible in prometaphase, although adjacent nucleosomes can also become repositioned and occupy at least a subset of start sites during mitosis. Third, loss of site-specific CTCF binding was directly demonstrated using CUT&RUN. Histone modifications and histone variants are maintained in mitosis, suggesting a role in bookmarking of active CTCF sites. Finally, live-cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and single molecule tracking showed that almost all CTCF chromatin binding is lost in prometaphase. Combined, our results demonstrate loss of CTCF binding to CTCF sites during prometaphase and rearrangement of the chromatin landscape around CTCF motifs. This, combined with loss of cohesin, would contribute to the observed loss of TADs and CTCF loops during mitosis and reveals that CTCF sites, key architectural cis-elements, display cell cycle stage-dependent dynamics in factor binding and nucleosome positioning.

RevDate: 2019-02-26
CmpDate: 2019-02-26

Tan ZW, Guarnera E, IN Berezovsky (2018)

Exploring chromatin hierarchical organization via Markov State Modelling.

PLoS computational biology, 14(12):e1006686 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-18-00774.

We propose a new computational method for exploring chromatin structural organization based on Markov State Modelling of Hi-C data represented as an interaction network between genomic loci. A Markov process describes the random walk of a traveling probe in the corresponding energy landscape, mimicking the motion of a biomolecule involved in chromatin function. By studying the metastability of the associated Markov State Model upon annealing, the hierarchical structure of individual chromosomes is observed, and corresponding set of structural partitions is identified at each level of hierarchy. Then, the notion of effective interaction between partitions is derived, delineating the overall topology and architecture of chromosomes. Mapping epigenetic data on the graphs of intra-chromosomal effective interactions helps in understanding how chromosome organization facilitates its function. A sketch of whole-genome interactions obtained from the analysis of 539 partitions from all 23 chromosomes, complemented by distributions of gene expression regulators and epigenetic factors, sheds light on the structure-function relationships in chromatin, delineating chromosomal territories, as well as structural partitions analogous to topologically associating domains and active / passive epigenomic compartments. In addition to the overall genome architecture shown by effective interactions, the affinity between partitions of different chromosomes was analyzed as an indicator of the degree of association between partitions in functionally relevant genomic interactions. The overall static picture of whole-genome interactions obtained with the method presented in this work provides a foundation for chromatin structural reconstruction, for the modelling of chromatin dynamics, and for exploring the regulation of genome function. The algorithms used in this study are implemented in a freely available Python package ChromaWalker (

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Sima J, Chakraborty A, Dileep V, et al (2019)

Identifying cis Elements for Spatiotemporal Control of Mammalian DNA Replication.

Cell, 176(4):816-830.e18.

The temporal order of DNA replication (replication timing [RT]) is highly coupled with genome architecture, but cis-elements regulating either remain elusive. We created a series of CRISPR-mediated deletions and inversions of a pluripotency-associated topologically associating domain (TAD) in mouse ESCs. CTCF-associated domain boundaries were dispensable for RT. CTCF protein depletion weakened most TAD boundaries but had no effect on RT or A/B compartmentalization genome-wide. By contrast, deletion of three intra-TAD CTCF-independent 3D contact sites caused a domain-wide early-to-late RT shift, an A-to-B compartment switch, weakening of TAD architecture, and loss of transcription. The dispensability of TAD boundaries and the necessity of these "early replication control elements" (ERCEs) was validated by deletions and inversions at additional domains. Our results demonstrate that discrete cis-regulatory elements orchestrate domain-wide RT, A/B compartmentalization, TAD architecture, and transcription, revealing fundamental principles linking genome structure and function.

RevDate: 2019-04-15
CmpDate: 2019-04-15

Negi S, Bolt CC, Zhang H, et al (2019)

An extended regulatory landscape drives Tbx18 activity in a variety of prostate-associated cell lineages.

Developmental biology, 446(2):180-192.

The evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, Tbx18, is expressed in a dynamic pattern throughout embryonic and early postnatal life and plays crucial roles in the development of multiple organ systems. Previous studies have indicated that this dynamic function is controlled by an expansive regulatory structure, extending far upstream and downstream of the gene. With the goal of identifying elements that interact with the Tbx18 promoter in developing prostate, we coupled chromatin conformation capture (4C) and ATAC-seq from embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) mouse urogenital sinus (UGS), where Tbx18 is highly expressed. The data revealed dozens of active chromatin elements distributed throughout a 1.5 million base pair topologically associating domain (TAD). To identify cell types contributing to this chromatin signal, we used lineage tracing methods with a Tbx18 Cre "knock-in" allele; these data show clearly that Tbx18-expressing precursors differentiate into wide array of cell types in multiple tissue compartments, most of which have not been previously reported. We also used a 209 kb Cre-expressing Tbx18 transgene, to partition enhancers for specific precursor types into two rough spatial domains. Within this central 209 kb compartment, we identified ECR1, previously described to regulate Tbx18 expression in ureter, as an active regulator of UGS expression. Together these data define the diverse fates of Tbx18+ precursors in prostate-associated tissues for the first time, and identify a highly active TAD controlling the gene's essential function in this tissue.

RevDate: 2019-02-15
CmpDate: 2019-02-04

Liu T, Z Wang (2018)

Reconstructing high-resolution chromosome three-dimensional structures by Hi-C complex networks.

BMC bioinformatics, 19(Suppl 17):496 pii:10.1186/s12859-018-2464-z.

BACKGROUND: Hi-C data have been widely used to reconstruct chromosomal three-dimensional (3D) structures. One of the key limitations of Hi-C is the unclear relationship between spatial distance and the number of Hi-C contacts. Many methods used a fixed parameter when converting the number of Hi-C contacts to wish distances. However, a single parameter cannot properly explain the relationship between wish distances and genomic distances or the locations of topologically associating domains (TADs).

RESULTS: We have addressed one of the key issues of using Hi-C data, that is, the unclear relationship between spatial distances and the number of Hi-C contacts, which is crucial to understand significant biological functions, such as the enhancer-promoter interactions. Specifically, we developed a new method to infer this converting parameter and pairwise Euclidean distances based on the topology of the Hi-C complex network (HiCNet). The inferred distances were modeled by clustering coefficient and multiple other types of constraints. We found that our inferred distances between bead-pairs within the same TAD were apparently smaller than those distances between bead-pairs from different TADs. Our inferred distances had a higher correlation with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, fitted the localization patterns of Xist transcripts on DNA, and better matched 156 pairs of protein-enabled long-range chromatin interactions detected by ChIA-PET. Using the inferred distances and another round of optimization, we further reconstructed 40 kb high-resolution 3D chromosomal structures of mouse male ES cells. The high-resolution structures successfully illustrate TADs and DNA loops (peaks in Hi-C contact heatmaps) that usually indicate enhancer-promoter interactions.

CONCLUSIONS: We developed a novel method to infer the wish distances between DNA bead-pairs from Hi-C contacts. High-resolution 3D structures of chromosomes were built based on the newly-inferred wish distances. This whole process has been implemented as a tool named HiCNet, which is publicly available at .

RevDate: 2018-12-20

Rhie SK, Schreiner S, Witt H, et al (2018)

Using 3D epigenomic maps of primary olfactory neuronal cells from living individuals to understand gene regulation.

Science advances, 4(12):eaav8550 pii:aav8550.

As part of PsychENCODE, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) epigenomic map of primary cultured neuronal cells derived from olfactory neuroepithelium (CNON). We mapped topologically associating domains and high-resolution chromatin interactions using Hi-C and identified regulatory elements using chromatin immunoprecipitation and nucleosome positioning assays. Using epigenomic datasets from biopsies of 63 living individuals, we found that epigenetic marks at distal regulatory elements are more variable than marks at proximal regulatory elements. By integrating genotype and metadata, we identified enhancers that have different levels corresponding to differences in genetic variation, gender, smoking, and schizophrenia. Motif searches revealed that many CNON enhancers are bound by neuronal-related transcription factors. Last, we combined 3D epigenomic maps and gene expression profiles to predict enhancer-target gene interactions on a genome-wide scale. This study not only provides a framework for understanding individual epigenetic variation using a primary cell model system but also contributes valuable data resources for epigenomic studies of neuronal epithelium.

RevDate: 2019-04-25
CmpDate: 2019-04-25

Le Dily F, Vidal E, Cuartero Y, et al (2019)

Hormone-control regions mediate steroid receptor-dependent genome organization.

Genome research, 29(1):29-39.

In breast cancer cells, some topologically associating domains (TADs) behave as hormonal gene regulation units, within which gene transcription is coordinately regulated in response to steroid hormones. Here we further describe that responsive TADs contain 20- to 100-kb-long clusters of intermingled estrogen receptor (ESR1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) binding sites, hereafter called hormone-control regions (HCRs). In T47D cells, we identified more than 200 HCRs, which are frequently bound by unliganded ESR1 and PGR. These HCRs establish steady long-distance inter-TAD interactions between them and organize characteristic looping structures with promoters in their TADs even in the absence of hormones in ESR1+-PGR+ cells. This organization is dependent on the expression of the receptors and is further dynamically modulated in response to steroid hormones. HCRs function as platforms that integrate different signals, resulting in some cases in opposite transcriptional responses to estrogens or progestins. Altogether, these results suggest that steroid hormone receptors act not only as hormone-regulated sequence-specific transcription factors but also as local and global genome organizers.

RevDate: 2019-04-23
CmpDate: 2019-01-14

Wang D, Liu S, Warrell J, et al (2018)

Comprehensive functional genomic resource and integrative model for the human brain.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 362(6420):.

Despite progress in defining genetic risk for psychiatric disorders, their molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Addressing this, the PsychENCODE Consortium has generated a comprehensive online resource for the adult brain across 1866 individuals. The PsychENCODE resource contains ~79,000 brain-active enhancers, sets of Hi-C linkages, and topologically associating domains; single-cell expression profiles for many cell types; expression quantitative-trait loci (QTLs); and further QTLs associated with chromatin, splicing, and cell-type proportions. Integration shows that varying cell-type proportions largely account for the cross-population variation in expression (with >88% reconstruction accuracy). It also allows building of a gene regulatory network, linking genome-wide association study variants to genes (e.g., 321 for schizophrenia). We embed this network into an interpretable deep-learning model, which improves disease prediction by ~6-fold versus polygenic risk scores and identifies key genes and pathways in psychiatric disorders.

RevDate: 2019-04-25
CmpDate: 2019-04-25

Amat R, Böttcher R, Le Dily F, et al (2019)

Rapid reversible changes in compartments and local chromatin organization revealed by hyperosmotic shock.

Genome research, 29(1):18-28.

Nuclear architecture is decisive for the assembly of transcriptional responses. However, how chromosome organization is dynamically modulated to permit rapid and transient transcriptional changes in response to environmental challenges remains unclear. Here we show that hyperosmotic stress disrupts different levels of chromosome organization, ranging from A/B compartment changes to reduction in the number and insulation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Concomitantly, transcription is greatly affected, TAD borders weaken, and RNA Polymerase II runs off from hundreds of transcription end sites. Stress alters the binding profiles of architectural proteins, which explains the disappearance of local chromatin organization. These processes are dynamic, and cells rapidly reconstitute their default chromatin conformation after stress removal, uncovering an intrinsic organization. Transcription is not required for local chromatin reorganization, while compartment recovery is partially transcription-dependent. Thus, nuclear organization in mammalian cells can be rapidly modulated by environmental changes in a reversible manner.

RevDate: 2019-05-30
CmpDate: 2019-05-30

Chen X, Hao Y, Cui Y, et al (2019)

LncVar: Deciphering Genetic Variations Associated with Long Noncoding Genes.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1870:189-198.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in various species and play important roles in many biological processes. The biological functions of most lncRNAs remain to be explored. Previous studies have revealed that a large amount of disease-associated variations are located in the lncRNA gene regions. To evaluate the effects of genetic variations on lncRNAs, we constructed a database of genetic variations associated with long noncoding genes, LncVar. In this chapter, we describe the process of collecting data (including lncRNAs, transcription factor binding sites and m6A modification sites of lncRNAs, putatively translated open reading frames in lncRNAs) and steps of evaluating the effects of variations on the transcriptional regulation and modification of lncRNAs.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Nash AJ, B Lenhard (2018)

A Novel Measure of Non-coding Genome Conservation Identifies Genomic Regulatory Blocks Within Primates.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5233000 [Epub ahead of print].

Motivation: Clusters of extremely conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) mark genomic regions devoted to cis-regulation of key developmental genes in Metazoa. We have recently shown that their span coincides with that of topologically associating domains (TADs), making them useful for estimating conserved TAD boundaries in the absence of Hi-C data. The standard approach - detecting CNEs in genome alignments and then establishing the boundaries of their clusters - requires tuning of several parameters and breaks down when comparing closely related genomes.

Results: We present a novel, kurtosis-based measure of pairwise non-coding conservation that requires no pre-set thresholds for conservation level and length of CNEs. We show that it performs robustly across a large span of evolutionary distances, including across the closely related genomes of primates for which standard approaches fail. The method is straightforward to implement and enables detection and comparison of clusters of CNEs and estimation of underlying TADs across a vastly increased range of Metazoan genomes.

Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-04-24
CmpDate: 2019-04-24

Fanucchi S, Fok ET, Dalla E, et al (2019)

Immune genes are primed for robust transcription by proximal long noncoding RNAs located in nuclear compartments.

Nature genetics, 51(1):138-150.

Accumulation of trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) on immune-related gene promoters underlies robust transcription during trained immunity. However, the molecular basis for this remains unknown. Here we show three-dimensional chromatin topology enables immune genes to engage in chromosomal contacts with a subset of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) we have defined as immune gene-priming lncRNAs (IPLs). We show that the prototypical IPL, UMLILO, acts in cis to direct the WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5)-mixed lineage leukemia protein 1 (MLL1) complex across the chemokine promoters, facilitating their H3K4me3 epigenetic priming. This mechanism is shared amongst several trained immune genes. Training mediated by β-glucan epigenetically reprograms immune genes by upregulating IPLs in manner dependent on nuclear factor of activated T cells. The murine chemokine topologically associating domain lacks an IPL, and the Cxcl genes are not trained. Strikingly, the insertion of UMLILO into the chemokine topologically associating domain in mouse macrophages resulted in training of Cxcl genes. This provides strong evidence that lncRNA-mediated regulation is central to the establishment of trained immunity.

RevDate: 2019-05-28
CmpDate: 2019-05-28

Sun F, Chronis C, Kronenberg M, et al (2019)

Promoter-Enhancer Communication Occurs Primarily within Insulated Neighborhoods.

Molecular cell, 73(2):250-263.e5.

Metazoan chromosomes are sequentially partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs) and then into smaller sub-domains. One class of sub-domains, insulated neighborhoods, are proposed to spatially sequester and insulate the enclosed genes through self-association and chromatin looping. However, it has not been determined functionally whether promoter-enhancer interactions and gene regulation are broadly restricted to within these loops. Here, we employed published datasets from murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to identify insulated neighborhoods that confine promoter-enhancer interactions and demarcate gene regulatory regions. To directly address the functionality of these regions, we depleted estrogen-related receptor β (Esrrb), which binds the Mediator co-activator complex, to impair enhancers of genes within 222 insulated neighborhoods without causing mESC differentiation. Esrrb depletion reduces Mediator binding, promoter-enhancer looping, and expression of both nascent RNA and mRNA within the insulated neighborhoods without significantly affecting the flanking genes. Our data indicate that insulated neighborhoods represent functional regulons in mammalian genomes.

RevDate: 2019-03-07
CmpDate: 2019-03-07

Zufferey M, Tavernari D, Oricchio E, et al (2018)

Comparison of computational methods for the identification of topologically associating domains.

Genome biology, 19(1):217 pii:10.1186/s13059-018-1596-9.

BACKGROUND: Chromatin folding gives rise to structural elements among which are clusters of densely interacting DNA regions termed topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs have been characterized across multiple species, tissue types, and differentiation stages, sometimes in association with regulation of biological functions. The reliability and reproducibility of these findings are intrinsically related with the correct identification of these domains from high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) experiments.

RESULTS: Here, we test and compare 22 computational methods to identify TADs across 20 different conditions. We find that TAD sizes and numbers vary significantly among callers and data resolutions, challenging the definition of an average TAD size, but strengthening the hypothesis that TADs are hierarchically organized domains, rather than disjoint structural elements. Performances of these methods differ based on data resolution and normalization strategy, but a core set of TAD callers consistently retrieve reproducible domains, even at low sequencing depths, that are enriched for TAD-associated biological features.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a reference for the analysis of chromatin domains from Hi-C experiments and useful guidelines for choosing a suitable approach based on the experimental design, available data, and biological question of interest.

RevDate: 2019-02-02

Pękowska A, Klaus B, Xiang W, et al (2018)

Gain of CTCF-Anchored Chromatin Loops Marks the Exit from Naive Pluripotency.

Cell systems, 7(5):482-495.e10.

The genome of pluripotent stem cells adopts a unique three-dimensional architecture featuring weakly condensed heterochromatin and large nucleosome-free regions. Yet, it is unknown whether structural loops and contact domains display characteristics that distinguish embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from differentiated cell types. We used genome-wide chromosome conformation capture and super-resolution imaging to determine nuclear organization in mouse ESC and neural stem cell (NSC) derivatives. We found that loss of pluripotency is accompanied by widespread gain of structural loops. This general architectural change correlates with enhanced binding of CTCF and cohesins and more pronounced insulation of contacts across chromatin boundaries in lineage-committed cells. Reprogramming NSCs to pluripotency restores the unique features of ESC domain topology. Domains defined by the anchors of loops established upon differentiation are enriched for developmental genes. Chromatin loop formation is a pervasive structural alteration to the genome that accompanies exit from pluripotency and delineates the spatial segregation of developmentally regulated genes.

RevDate: 2019-02-15
CmpDate: 2019-02-12

Haloupek N (2018)

Job Dekker: 2018 Edward Novitski Prize.

Genetics, 210(3):745-746.

The Genetics Society of America's (GSA) Edward Novitski Prize is awarded to researchers who have solved challenging problems in genetics through experiments that demonstrate exceptional creativity and ingenuity. Job Dekker of the University of Massachusetts Medical School has been selected for the 2018 award in recognition of his innovative approach to understanding chromosome interactions and nuclear organization. Among Dekker's contributions are the development of the now-ubiquitous approach of chromosome conformation capture and the discovery of topologically associating domains.

RevDate: 2019-01-30

Racko D, Benedetti F, Dorier J, et al (2019)

Are TADs supercoiled?.

Nucleic acids research, 47(2):521-532.

Topologically associating domains (TADs) are megabase-sized building blocks of interphase chromosomes in higher eukaryotes. TADs are chromosomal regions with increased frequency of internal interactions. On average a pair of loci separated by a given genomic distance contact each other 2-3 times more frequently when they are in the same TAD as compared to a pair of loci located in two neighbouring TADs. TADs are also functional blocks of chromosomes as enhancers and their cognate promoters are normally located in the same TAD, even if their genomic distance from each other can be as large as a megabase. The internal structure of TADs, causing their increased frequency of internal interactions, is not established yet. We survey here experimental studies investigating presence of supercoiling in interphase chromosomes. We also review numerical simulation studies testing whether transcription-induced supercoiling of chromatin fibres can explain how TADs are formed and how they can assure very efficient interactions between enhancers and their cognate promoters located in the same TAD.

RevDate: 2019-05-08

Rowley MJ, VG Corces (2018)

Organizational principles of 3D genome architecture.

Nature reviews. Genetics, 19(12):789-800.

Studies of 3D chromatin organization have suggested that chromosomes are hierarchically organized into large compartments composed of smaller domains called topologically associating domains (TADs). Recent evidence suggests that compartments are smaller than previously thought and that the transcriptional or chromatin state is responsible for interactions leading to the formation of small compartmental domains in all organisms. In vertebrates, CTCF forms loop domains, probably via an extrusion process involving cohesin. CTCF loops cooperate with compartmental domains to establish the 3D organization of the genome. The continuous extrusion of the chromatin fibre by cohesin may also be responsible for the establishment of enhancer-promoter interactions and stochastic aspects of the transcription process. These observations suggest that the 3D organization of the genome is an emergent property of chromatin and its components, and thus may not be only a determinant but also a consequence of its function.

RevDate: 2019-06-10
CmpDate: 2018-12-19

Bintu B, Mateo LJ, Su JH, et al (2018)

Super-resolution chromatin tracing reveals domains and cooperative interactions in single cells.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 362(6413):.

The spatial organization of chromatin is pivotal for regulating genome functions. We report an imaging method for tracing chromatin organization with kilobase- and nanometer-scale resolution, unveiling chromatin conformation across topologically associating domains (TADs) in thousands of individual cells. Our imaging data revealed TAD-like structures with globular conformation and sharp domain boundaries in single cells. The boundaries varied from cell to cell, occurring with nonzero probabilities at all genomic positions but preferentially at CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)- and cohesin-binding sites. Notably, cohesin depletion, which abolished TADs at the population-average level, did not diminish TAD-like structures in single cells but eliminated preferential domain boundary positions. Moreover, we observed widespread, cooperative, multiway chromatin interactions, which remained after cohesin depletion. These results provide critical insight into the mechanisms underlying chromatin domain and hub formation.

RevDate: 2019-01-23

Murcia Pienkowski V, Kucharczyk M, Młynek M, et al (2019)

Mapping of breakpoints in balanced chromosomal translocations by shallow whole-genome sequencing points to EFNA5, BAHD1 and PPP2R5E as novel candidates for genes causing human Mendelian disorders.

Journal of medical genetics, 56(2):104-112.

BACKGROUND: Mapping the breakpoints in de novo balanced chromosomal translocations (BCT) in symptomatic individuals provides a unique opportunity to identify in an unbiased way the likely causative genetic defect and thus find novel human disease candidate genes. Our aim was to fine-map breakpoints of de novo BCTs in a case series of nine patients.

METHODS: Shallow whole-genome mate pair sequencing (SGMPS) together with long-range PCR and Sanger sequencing. In one case (BCT disrupting BAHD1 and RET) cDNA analysis was used to verify expression of a fusion transcript in cultured fibroblasts.

RESULTS: In all nine probands 11 disrupted genes were found, that is, EFNA5, EBF3, LARGE, PPP2R5E, TXNDC5, ZNF423, NIPBL, BAHD1, RET, TRPS1 and SLC4A10. Five subjects had translocations that disrupted genes with so far unknown (EFNA5, BAHD1, PPP2R5E, TXNDC5) or poorly delineated impact on the phenotype (SLC4A10, two previous reports of BCT disrupting the gene). The four genes with no previous disease associations (EFNA5, BAHD1, PPP2R5E, TXNDC5), when compared with all human genes by a bootstrap test, had significantly higher pLI (p<0.017) and DOMINO (p<0.02) scores indicating enrichment in genes likely to be intolerant to single copy damage. Inspection of individual pLI and DOMINO scores, and local topologically associating domain structure suggested that EFNA5, BAHD1 and PPP2R5E were particularly good candidates for novel disease loci. The pathomechanism for BAHD1 may involve deregulation of expression due to fusion with RET promoter.

CONCLUSION: SGMPS in symptomatic carriers of BCTs is a powerful approach to delineate novel human gene-disease associations.

RevDate: 2019-04-03
CmpDate: 2019-04-03

Hug CB, JM Vaquerizas (2018)

Generation of Genome-wide Chromatin Conformation Capture Libraries from Tightly Staged Early Drosophila Embryos.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Investigating the three-dimensional architecture of chromatin offers invaluable insight into the mechanisms of gene regulation. Here, we describe a protocol for performing the chromatin conformation capture technique in situ Hi-C on staged Drosophila melanogaster embryo populations. The result is a sequencing library that allows the mapping of all chromatin interactions that occur in the nucleus in a single experiment. Embryo sorting is done manually using a fluorescent stereo microscope and a transgenic fly line containing a nuclear marker. Using this technique, embryo populations from each nuclear division cycle, and with defined cell cycle status, can be obtained with very high purity. The protocol may also be adapted to sort older embryos beyond gastrulation. Sorted embryos are used as inputs for in situ Hi-C. All experiments, including sequencing library preparation, can be completed in five days. The protocol has low input requirements and works reliably using 20 blastoderm stage embryos as input material. The end result is a sequencing library for next generation sequencing. After sequencing, the data can be processed into genome-wide chromatin interaction maps that can be analyzed using a wide range of available tools to gain information about topologically associating domain (TAD) structure, chromatin loops, and chromatin compartments during Drosophila development.

RevDate: 2018-12-21

Schuetzmann D, Walter C, van Riel B, et al (2018)

Temporal autoregulation during human PU.1 locus SubTAD formation.

Blood, 132(25):2643-2655.

Epigenetic control of gene expression occurs within discrete spatial chromosomal units called topologically associating domains (TADs), but the exact spatial requirements of most genes are unknown; this is of particular interest for genes involved in cancer. We therefore applied high-resolution chromosomal conformation capture sequencing to map the three-dimensional (3D) organization of the human locus encoding the key myeloid transcription factor PU.1 in healthy monocytes and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. We identified a dynamic ∼75-kb unit (SubTAD) as the genomic region in which spatial interactions between PU.1 gene regulatory elements occur during myeloid differentiation and are interrupted in AML. Within this SubTAD, proper initiation of the spatial chromosomal interactions requires PU.1 autoregulation and recruitment of the chromatin-adaptor protein LDB1 (LIM domain-binding protein 1). However, once these spatial interactions have occurred, LDB1 stabilizes them independently of PU.1 autoregulation. Thus, our data support that PU.1 autoregulates its expression in a "hit-and-run" manner by initiating stable chromosomal loops that result in a transcriptionally active chromatin architecture.

RevDate: 2019-03-29
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Jorgenson E, Matharu N, Palmer MR, et al (2018)

Genetic variation in the SIM1 locus is associated with erectile dysfunction.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(43):11018-11023.

Erectile dysfunction affects millions of men worldwide. Twin studies support the role of genetic risk factors underlying erectile dysfunction, but no specific genetic variants have been identified. We conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of erectile dysfunction in 36,649 men in the multiethnic Kaiser Permanente Northern California Genetic Epidemiology Research in Adult Health and Aging cohort. We also undertook replication analyses in 222,358 men from the UK Biobank. In the discovery cohort, we identified a single locus (rs17185536-T) on chromosome 6 near the single-minded family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (SIM1) gene that was significantly associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction (odds ratio = 1.26, P = 3.4 × 10-25). The association replicated in the UK Biobank sample (odds ratio = 1.25, P = 6.8 × 10-14), and the effect is independent of known erectile dysfunction risk factors, including body mass index (BMI). The risk locus resides on the same topologically associating domain as SIM1 and interacts with the SIM1 promoter, and the rs17185536-T risk allele showed differential enhancer activity. SIM1 is part of the leptin-melanocortin system, which has an established role in body weight homeostasis and sexual function. Because the variants associated with erectile dysfunction are not associated with differences in BMI, our findings suggest a mechanism that is specific to sexual function.

RevDate: 2019-01-08

Voutsadakis IA (2018)

Molecular Lesions of Insulator CTCF and Its Paralogue CTCFL (BORIS) in Cancer: An Analysis from Published Genomic Studies.

High-throughput, 7(4): pii:ht7040030.

CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is a transcription regulator with hundreds of binding sites in the human genome. It has a main function as an insulator protein, defining together with cohesins the boundaries of areas of the genome called topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs contain regulatory elements such as enhancers which function as regulators of the transcription of genes inside the boundaries of the TAD while they are restricted from regulating genes outside these boundaries. This paper will examine the most common genetic lesions of CTCF as well as its related protein CTCFL (CTCF-like also called BORIS) in cancer using publicly available data from published genomic studies. Cancer types where abnormalities in the two genes are more common will be examined for possible associations with underlying repair defects or other prevalent genetic lesions. The putative functional effects in CTCF and CTCFL lesions will also be explored.

RevDate: 2019-05-16

He M, Li Y, Tang Q, et al (2018)

Genome-Wide Chromatin Structure Changes During Adipogenesis and Myogenesis.

International journal of biological sciences, 14(11):1571-1585.

The recently developed high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) technology enables us to explore the spatial architecture of genomes, which is increasingly considered an important regulator of gene expression. To investigate the changes in three-dimensional (3D) chromatin structure and its mediated gene expression during adipogenesis and myogenesis, we comprehensively mapped 3D chromatin organization for four cell types (3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, 3T3-L1-D adipocytes, C2C12 myoblasts, and C2C12-D myotubes). We demonstrate that the dynamic spatial genome architecture affected gene expression during cell differentiation. A considerable proportion (~22%) of the mouse genome underwent compartment A/B rearrangement during adipogenic and myogenic differentiation, and most (~80%) upregulated marker genes exhibited an active chromatin state with B to A switch or stable A compartment. More than half (65.4%-73.2%) of the topologically associating domains (TADs) are dynamic. The newly formed TAD and intensified local interactions in the Fabp gene cluster indicated more precise structural regulation of the expression of pro-differentiation genes during adipogenesis. About half (32.39%-59.04%) of the differential chromatin interactions (DCIs) during differentiation are promoter interactions, although these DCIs only account for a small proportion of genome-wide interactions (~9.67% in adipogenesis and ~4.24% in myogenesis). These differential promoter interactions were enriched with promoter-enhancer interactions (PEIs), which were mediated by typical adipogenic and myogenic transcription factors. Differential promoter interactions also included more differentially expressed genes than nonpromoter interactions. Our results provide a global view of dynamic chromatin interactions during adipogenesis and myogenesis and are a resource for studying long-range chromatin interactions mediating the expression of pro-differentiation genes.

RevDate: 2019-01-17

Luzhin AV, Flyamer IM, Khrameeva EE, et al (2019)

Quantitative differences in TAD border strength underly the TAD hierarchy in Drosophila chromosomes.

Journal of cellular biochemistry, 120(3):4494-4503.

Chromosomes in many organisms, including Drosophila and mammals, are folded into topologically associating domains (TADs). Increasing evidence suggests that TAD folding is hierarchical, wherein subdomains combine to form larger superdomains, instead of a sequence of nonoverlapping domains. Here, we studied the hierarchical structure of TADs in Drosophila. We show that the boundaries of TADs of different hierarchical levels are characterized by the presence of different portions of active chromatin, but do not vary in the binding of architectural proteins, such as CCCTC binding factor or cohesin. The apparent hierarchy of TADs in Drosophila chromosomes is not likely to have functional importance but rather reflects various options of long-range chromatin folding directed by the distribution of active and inactive chromatin segments and may represent population average.

RevDate: 2019-03-22
CmpDate: 2019-03-22

Shrestha S, Oh DH, McKowen JK, et al (2018)

4C-seq characterization of Drosophila BEAF binding regions provides evidence for highly variable long-distance interactions between active chromatin.

PloS one, 13(9):e0203843.

Chromatin organization is crucial for nuclear functions such as gene regulation, DNA replication and DNA repair. Insulator binding proteins, such as the Drosophila Boundary Element-Associated Factor (BEAF), are involved in chromatin organization. To further understand the role of BEAF, we detected cis- and trans-interaction partners of four BEAF binding regions (viewpoints) using 4C (circular chromosome conformation capture) and analyzed their association with different genomic features. Previous genome-wide mapping found that BEAF usually binds near transcription start sites, often of housekeeping genes, so our viewpoints were selected to reflect this. Our 4C data show the interaction partners of our viewpoints are highly variable and generally enriched for active chromatin marks. The most consistent association was with housekeeping genes, a feature in common with our viewpoints. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the long-distance interactions occur even in the absence of BEAF. These data are most consistent with a model in which BEAF is redundant with other factors found at active promoters. Our results point to principles of long-distance interactions made by active chromatin, supporting a previously proposed model in which condensed chromatin is sticky and associates into topologically associating domains (TADs) separated by active chromatin. We propose that the highly variable long-distance interactions we detect are driven by redundant factors that open chromatin to promote transcription, combined with active chromatin filling spaces between TADs while packing of TADs relative to each other varies from cell to cell.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Cook PR, D Marenduzzo (2018)

Transcription-driven genome organization: a model for chromosome structure and the regulation of gene expression tested through simulations.

Nucleic acids research, 46(19):9895-9906.

Current models for the folding of the human genome see a hierarchy stretching down from chromosome territories, through A/B compartments and topologically-associating domains (TADs), to contact domains stabilized by cohesin and CTCF. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this folding, and the way folding affects transcriptional activity, remain obscure. Here we review physical principles driving proteins bound to long polymers into clusters surrounded by loops, and present a parsimonious yet comprehensive model for the way the organization determines function. We argue that clusters of active RNA polymerases and their transcription factors are major architectural features; then, contact domains, TADs and compartments just reflect one or more loops and clusters. We suggest tethering a gene close to a cluster containing appropriate factors-a transcription factory-increases the firing frequency, and offer solutions to many current puzzles concerning the actions of enhancers, super-enhancers, boundaries and eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci). As a result, the activity of any gene is directly influenced by the activity of other transcription units around it in 3D space, and this is supported by Brownian-dynamics simulations of transcription factors binding to cognate sites on long polymers.

RevDate: 2019-02-06

Miura H, Poonperm R, Takahashi S, et al (2018)

Practical Analysis of Hi-C Data: Generating A/B Compartment Profiles.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1861:221-245.

Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and chromosome conformation capture (3C) analysis have led to the development of Hi-C, a genome-wide version of the 3C method. Hi-C has identified new levels of chromosome organization such as A/B compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs) as well as large megadomains on the inactive X chromosome, while allowing the identification of chromatin loops at the genome scale. Despite its powerfulness, Hi-C data analysis is much more involved compared to conventional NGS applications such as RNA-seq or ChIP-seq and requires many more steps. This presents a significant hurdle for those who wish to implement Hi-C technology into their laboratory. On the other hand, genomics data repository sites sometimes contain processed Hi-C data sets, allowing researchers to perform further analysis without the need for high-spec workstations and servers. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description on how to calculate A/B compartment profiles from processed Hi-C data on the autosomes and the active/inactive X chromosomes.

RevDate: 2019-06-03

Sun JH, Zhou L, Emerson DJ, et al (2018)

Disease-Associated Short Tandem Repeats Co-localize with Chromatin Domain Boundaries.

Cell, 175(1):224-238.e15.

More than 25 inherited human disorders are caused by the unstable expansion of repetitive DNA sequences termed short tandem repeats (STRs). A fundamental unresolved question is why some STRs are susceptible to pathologic expansion, whereas thousands of repeat tracts across the human genome are relatively stable. Here, we discover that nearly all disease-associated STRs (daSTRs) are located at boundaries demarcating 3D chromatin domains. We identify a subset of boundaries with markedly higher CpG island density compared to the rest of the genome. daSTRs specifically localize to ultra-high-density CpG island boundaries, suggesting they might be hotspots for epigenetic misregulation or topological disruption linked to STR expansion. Fragile X syndrome patients exhibit severe boundary disruption in a manner that correlates with local loss of CTCF occupancy and the degree of FMR1 silencing. Our data uncover higher-order chromatin architecture as a new dimension in understanding repeat expansion disorders.

RevDate: 2019-01-08

Karki S, Kennedy DE, Mclean K, et al (2018)

Regulated Capture of Vκ Gene Topologically Associating Domains by Transcription Factories.

Cell reports, 24(9):2443-2456.

Expression of vast repertoires of antigen receptors by lymphocytes, with each cell expressing a single receptor, requires stochastic activation of individual variable (V) genes for transcription and recombination. How this occurs remains unknown. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and allelic variation, we show that individual pre-B cells monoallelically transcribe divergent arrays of Vκ genes, thereby opening stochastic repertoires for subsequent Vκ-Jκ recombination. Transcription occurs upon translocation of Vκ genes to RNA polymerase II arrayed on the nuclear matrix in transcription factories. Transcription is anchored by CTCF-bound sites or E2A-loaded Vκ promotors and continues over large genomic distances delimited only by topological associating domains (TADs). Prior to their monoallelic activation, Vκ loci are transcriptionally repressed by cyclin D3, which prevents capture of Vκ gene containing TADs by transcription factories. Cyclin D3 also represses protocadherin, olfactory, and other monoallelically expressed genes, suggesting a widely deployed mechanism for coupling monoallelic gene activation with cell cycle exit.

RevDate: 2018-12-17
CmpDate: 2018-12-17

Pascual-Reguant L, Blanco E, Galan S, et al (2018)

Lamin B1 mapping reveals the existence of dynamic and functional euchromatin lamin B1 domains.

Nature communications, 9(1):3420.

Lamins (A/C and B) are major constituents of the nuclear lamina (NL). Structurally conserved lamina-associated domains (LADs) are formed by genomic regions that contact the NL. Lamins are also found in the nucleoplasm, with a yet unknown function. Here we map the genome-wide localization of lamin B1 in an euchromatin-enriched fraction of the mouse genome and follow its dynamics during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Lamin B1 associates with actively expressed and open euchromatin regions, forming dynamic euchromatin lamin B1-associated domains (eLADs) of about 0.3 Mb. Hi-C data link eLADs to the 3D organization of the mouse genome during EMT and correlate lamin B1 enrichment at topologically associating domain (TAD) borders with increased border strength. Having reduced levels of lamin B1 alters the EMT transcriptional signature and compromises the acquisition of mesenchymal traits. Thus, during EMT, the process of genome reorganization in mouse involves dynamic changes in eLADs.

RevDate: 2018-11-02
CmpDate: 2018-11-02

Petryk N, Dalby M, Wenger A, et al (2018)

MCM2 promotes symmetric inheritance of modified histones during DNA replication.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 361(6409):1389-1392.

During genome replication, parental histones are recycled to newly replicated DNA with their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Whether sister chromatids inherit modified histones evenly remains unknown. We measured histone PTM partition to sister chromatids in embryonic stem cells. We found that parental histones H3-H4 segregate to both daughter DNA strands with a weak leading-strand bias, skewing partition at topologically associating domain (TAD) borders and enhancers proximal to replication initiation zones. Segregation of parental histones to the leading strand increased markedly in cells with histone-binding mutations in MCM2, part of the replicative helicase, exacerbating histone PTM sister chromatid asymmetry. This work reveals how histones are inherited to sister chromatids and identifies a mechanism by which the replication machinery ensures symmetric cell division.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Li A, Yin X, Xu B, et al (2018)

Decoding topologically associating domains with ultra-low resolution Hi-C data by graph structural entropy.

Nature communications, 9(1):3265.

Submegabase-size topologically associating domains (TAD) have been observed in high-throughput chromatin interaction data (Hi-C). However, accurate detection of TADs depends on ultra-deep sequencing and sophisticated normalization procedures. Here we propose a fast and normalization-free method to decode the domains of chromosomes (deDoc) that utilizes structural information theory. By treating Hi-C contact matrix as a representation of a graph, deDoc partitions the graph into segments with minimal structural entropy. We show that structural entropy can also be used to determine the proper bin size of the Hi-C data. By applying deDoc to pooled Hi-C data from 10 single cells, we detect megabase-size TAD-like domains. This result implies that the modular structure of the genome spatial organization may be fundamental to even a small cohort of single cells. Our algorithms may facilitate systematic investigations of chromosomal domains on a larger scale than hitherto have been possible.

RevDate: 2019-04-11
CmpDate: 2019-04-11

Crémazy FG, Rashid FM, Haycocks JR, et al (2018)

Determination of the 3D Genome Organization of Bacteria Using Hi-C.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1837:3-18.

The spatial organization of genomes is based on their hierarchical compartmentalization in topological domains. There is growing evidence that bacterial genomes are organized into insulated domains similar to the Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) detected in eukaryotic cells. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technologies are used to analyze in vivo DNA proximity based on ligation of distal DNA segments crossed-linked by bridging proteins. By combining 3C and high-throughput sequencing, the Hi-C method reveals genome-wide interactions within topological domains and global genome structure as a whole. This chapter provides detailed guidelines for the preparation of Hi-C sequencing libraries for bacteria.

RevDate: 2018-12-12
CmpDate: 2018-12-12

Shi G, Liu L, Hyeon C, et al (2018)

Interphase human chromosome exhibits out of equilibrium glassy dynamics.

Nature communications, 9(1):3161.

Fingerprints of the three-dimensional organization of genomes have emerged using advances in Hi-C and imaging techniques. However, genome dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we create the chromosome copolymer model (CCM) by representing chromosomes as a copolymer with two epigenetic loci types corresponding to euchromatin and heterochromatin. Using novel clustering techniques, we establish quantitatively that the simulated contact maps and topologically associating domains (TADs) for chromosomes 5 and 10 and those inferred from Hi-C experiments are in good agreement. Chromatin exhibits glassy dynamics with coherent motion on micron scale. The broad distribution of the diffusion exponents of the individual loci, which quantitatively agrees with experiments, is suggestive of highly heterogeneous dynamics. This is reflected in the cell-to-cell variations in the contact maps. Chromosome organization is hierarchical, involving the formation of chromosome droplets (CDs) on genomic scale, coinciding with the TAD size, followed by coalescence of the CDs, reminiscent of Ostwald ripening.

RevDate: 2019-05-02
CmpDate: 2019-05-02

Krefting J, Andrade-Navarro MA, J Ibn-Salem (2018)

Evolutionary stability of topologically associating domains is associated with conserved gene regulation.

BMC biology, 16(1):87.

BACKGROUND: The human genome is highly organized in the three-dimensional nucleus. Chromosomes fold locally into topologically associating domains (TADs) defined by increased intra-domain chromatin contacts. TADs contribute to gene regulation by restricting chromatin interactions of regulatory sequences, such as enhancers, with their target genes. Disruption of TADs can result in altered gene expression and is associated to genetic diseases and cancers. However, it is not clear to which extent TAD regions are conserved in evolution and whether disruption of TADs by evolutionary rearrangements can alter gene expression.

RESULTS: Here, we hypothesize that TADs represent essential functional units of genomes, which are stable against rearrangements during evolution. We investigate this using whole-genome alignments to identify evolutionary rearrangement breakpoints of different vertebrate species. Rearrangement breakpoints are strongly enriched at TAD boundaries and depleted within TADs across species. Furthermore, using gene expression data across many tissues in mouse and human, we show that genes within TADs have more conserved expression patterns. Disruption of TADs by evolutionary rearrangements is associated with changes in gene expression profiles, consistent with a functional role of TADs in gene expression regulation.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results indicate that TADs are conserved building blocks of genomes with regulatory functions that are often reshuffled as a whole instead of being disrupted by rearrangements.

RevDate: 2019-05-23
CmpDate: 2019-02-25

Majumder K, Wang J, Boftsi M, et al (2018)

Parvovirus minute virus of mice interacts with sites of cellular DNA damage to establish and amplify its lytic infection.

eLife, 7:.

We have developed a generally adaptable, novel high-throughput Viral Chromosome Conformation Capture assay (V3C-seq) for use in trans that allows genome-wide identification of the direct interactions of a lytic virus genome with distinct regions of the cellular chromosome. Upon infection, we found that the parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) genome initially associated with sites of cellular DNA damage that in mock-infected cells also exhibited DNA damage as cells progressed through S-phase. As infection proceeded, new DNA damage sites were induced, and virus subsequently also associated with these. Sites of association identified biochemically were confirmed microscopically and MVM could be targeted specifically to artificially induced sites of DNA damage. Thus, MVM established replication at cellular DNA damage sites, which provide replication and expression machinery, and as cellular DNA damage accrued, virus spread additionally to newly damaged sites to amplify infection. MVM-associated sites overlap significantly with previously identified topologically-associated domains (TADs).

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Menghi F, Barthel FP, Yadav V, et al (2018)

The Tandem Duplicator Phenotype Is a Prevalent Genome-Wide Cancer Configuration Driven by Distinct Gene Mutations.

Cancer cell, 34(2):197-210.e5.

The tandem duplicator phenotype (TDP) is a genome-wide instability configuration primarily observed in breast, ovarian, and endometrial carcinomas. Here, we stratify TDP tumors by classifying their tandem duplications (TDs) into three span intervals, with modal values of 11 kb, 231 kb, and 1.7 Mb, respectively. TDPs with ∼11 kb TDs feature loss of TP53 and BRCA1. TDPs with ∼231 kb and ∼1.7 Mb TDs associate with CCNE1 pathway activation and CDK12 disruptions, respectively. We demonstrate that p53 and BRCA1 conjoint abrogation drives TDP induction by generating short-span TDP mammary tumors in genetically modified mice lacking them. Lastly, we show how TDs in TDP tumors disrupt heterogeneous combinations of tumor suppressors and chromatin topologically associating domains while duplicating oncogenes and super-enhancers.

RevDate: 2019-02-26
CmpDate: 2019-02-26

Ogiyama Y, Schuettengruber B, Papadopoulos GL, et al (2018)

Polycomb-Dependent Chromatin Looping Contributes to Gene Silencing during Drosophila Development.

Molecular cell, 71(1):73-88.e5.

Interphase chromatin is organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). Within TADs, chromatin looping interactions are formed between DNA regulatory elements, but their functional importance for the establishment of the 3D genome organization and gene regulation during development is unclear. Using high-resolution Hi-C experiments, we analyze higher order 3D chromatin organization during Drosophila embryogenesis and identify active and repressive chromatin loops that are established with different kinetics and depend on distinct factors: Zelda-dependent active loops are formed before the midblastula transition between transcribed genes over long distances. Repressive loops within polycomb domains are formed after the midblastula transition between polycomb response elements by the action of GAGA factor and polycomb proteins. Perturbation of PRE function by CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering affects polycomb domain formation and destabilizes polycomb-mediated silencing. Preventing loop formation without removal of polycomb components also decreases silencing efficiency, suggesting that chromatin architecture can play instructive roles in gene regulation during development. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

RevDate: 2019-05-08

Franke M, JL Gómez-Skarmeta (2018)

An evolutionary perspective of regulatory landscape dynamics in development and disease.

Current opinion in cell biology, 55:24-29.

The organization of animal genomes into topologically associating domains (TADs) provides a structural scaffold in which cis-regulatory elements (CREs) operate on their target genes. Determining the position of CREs and genes relative to TADs has become instrumental to trace gene expression changes during evolution and in diseases. Here we will review recent studies and discuss TADs as structural units with respect to their conservation and stability during genome reorganization. Furthermore, we describe how TAD restructuring contributed to morphological novelties during evolution but also their deleterious effects associated with disease. Despite considering TADs as structural units, the nested and dynamic scaffold within TADs contributes to tissue-specific gene expression, implying that such changes can also account for gene expression differences during evolution.

RevDate: 2019-05-05

Hou J, X Wang (2019)

The polycomb group proteins functions in epithelial to mesenchymal transition in lung cancer.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 90:138-143.

Polycomb group proteins (PcG) play important roles in the maintenance of DNA sequencing and multi-dimensional organization of genome. The main PcG complexes are consisted of Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2, of which the diversity is dependent upon target gene sequences and functions. The present review initially explores the mechanism-based relationship and functional roles of PcG proteins in the interplay between epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chromatin dynamics in lung cancer. PcG proteins regulate the target genes by modifying histone and chromosome conformation and influencing chromatin looping and long-range interactions between topologically associating domains (TADs). PcG proteins regulate target genes expression and long-distance interactions between TADs in nucleus in the development of EMT and lung cancer. PcG plays decisive regulatory roles in epithelial differentiation and transition or signaling and activation of oncogenes, by promoting the isoforms at the transcriptional levels, to drive EMT to greater invasive ability and carcinogenesis. With the development of single cell systems biology and gene editing, PcG roles in 3D genome organization, heterogeneity, and EMT will be furthermore understood at single cell levels.

RevDate: 2018-07-11

Malik L, R Patro (2018)

Rich Chromatin Structure Prediction from Hi-C Data.

IEEE/ACM transactions on computational biology and bioinformatics [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies involving the 3-dimensional conformation of chromatin have revealed the important role it has to play in different processes within the cell. These studies have also led to the discovery of densely interacting segments of the chromosome, called topologically associating domains. The accurate identification of these domains from Hi-C interaction data is an interesting and important computational problem for which numerous methods have been proposed. Unfortunately, most existing algorithms designed to identify these domains assume that they are non-overlapping whereas there is substantial evidence to believe a nested structure exists. We present a methodology to predict hierarchical chromatin domains using chromatin conformation capture data. Our method predicts domains at different resolutions, calculated using intrinsic properties of the chromatin data, and effectively clusters these to construct the hierarchy. At each individual level, the domains are non-overlapping in such a way that the intra-domain interaction frequencies are maximized. We show that our predicted structure is highly enriched for actively transcribing housekeeping genes and various chromatin markers, including CTCF, around the domain boundaries. We also show that large-scale domains, at multiple resolutions within our hierarchy, are conserved across cell types and species. We also provide comparisons against existing tools for extracting hierarchical domains. Our software, Matryoshka, is written in and licensed under GPL v3; it is available at

RevDate: 2019-05-05

Zhang L, Song D, Zhu B, et al (2019)

The role of nuclear matrix protein HNRNPU in maintaining the architecture of 3D genome.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 90:161-167.

The complexity of higher eukaryote genomes is far from being explained by linear information. There is a need to understand roles of genome regulation at the organism level through defining a comprehensive profile of chromosomal organization. Chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based studies reveal that higher-order of chromatin include not only long-range chromatin loops, but also compartments and topologically associating domains as the basis of genome structure and functions. However, the molecular machinery how the genome is spatially organized is still inadequate. Exciting progress has been made with the development of today's technology, we find that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, initially identified as a structural nuclear protein, plays important role in three-dimensional (3D) genome organization by high-throughput assays. The disruption of this protein not only results in compartment switching on of the genome, it also reduces of TAD boundary strengths at borders between two types of compartments, and regulates chromatin loop by decrease its intensities. In addition, HNRNPU mainly binds to active chromatin. Most of HNRNPU peaks is consistent with CTCF or RAD21.It also plays an irreplaceable role in the processes of mitosis. This review aims to discuss the role of HNRNPU in maintaining the 3D chromatin architecture, as well as the recent development and human diseases involved in this nuclear matrix (NM)-associated protein.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Kaaij LJT, van der Weide RH, Ketting RF, et al (2018)

Systemic Loss and Gain of Chromatin Architecture throughout Zebrafish Development.

Cell reports, 24(1):1-10.e4.

The spatial organization of chromosomes is critical in establishing gene expression programs. We generated in situ Hi-C maps throughout zebrafish development to gain insight into higher-order chromatin organization and dynamics. Zebrafish chromosomes segregate in active and inactive chromatin (A/B compartments), which are further organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). Zebrafish A/B compartments and TADs have genomic features similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, including evolutionary conservation and enrichment of CTCF binding sites at TAD borders. At the earliest time point, when there is no zygotic transcription, the genome is highly structured. After zygotic genome activation (ZGA), the genome loses structural features, which are re-established throughout early development. Despite the absence of structural features, we see clustering of super-enhancers in the 3D genome. Our results provide insight into vertebrate genome organization and demonstrate that the developing zebrafish embryo is a powerful model system to study the dynamics of nuclear organization.

RevDate: 2019-02-13
CmpDate: 2018-09-18

Nuebler J, Fudenberg G, Imakaev M, et al (2018)

Chromatin organization by an interplay of loop extrusion and compartmental segregation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(29):E6697-E6706.

Mammalian chromatin is spatially organized at many scales showing two prominent features in interphase: (i) alternating regions (1-10 Mb) of active and inactive chromatin that spatially segregate into different compartments, and (ii) domains (<1 Mb), that is, regions that preferentially interact internally [topologically associating domains (TADs)] and are central to gene regulation. There is growing evidence that TADs are formed by active extrusion of chromatin loops by cohesin, whereas compartmentalization is established according to local chromatin states. Here, we use polymer simulations to examine how loop extrusion and compartmental segregation work collectively and potentially interfere in shaping global chromosome organization. A model with differential attraction between euchromatin and heterochromatin leads to phase separation and reproduces compartmentalization as observed in Hi-C. Loop extrusion, essential for TAD formation, in turn, interferes with compartmentalization. Our integrated model faithfully reproduces Hi-C data from puzzling experimental observations where altering loop extrusion also led to changes in compartmentalization. Specifically, depletion of chromatin-associated cohesin reduced TADs and revealed finer compartments, while increased processivity of cohesin strengthened large TADs and reduced compartmentalization; and depletion of the TAD boundary protein CTCF weakened TADs while leaving compartments unaffected. We reveal that these experimental perturbations are special cases of a general polymer phenomenon of active mixing by loop extrusion. Our results suggest that chromatin organization on the megabase scale emerges from competition of nonequilibrium active loop extrusion and epigenetically defined compartment structure.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Sauerwald N, C Kingsford (2018)

Quantifying the similarity of topological domains across normal and cancer human cell types.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 34(13):i475-i483.

Motivation: Three-dimensional chromosome structure has been increasingly shown to influence various levels of cellular and genomic functions. Through Hi-C data, which maps contact frequency on chromosomes, it has been found that structural elements termed topologically associating domains (TADs) are involved in many regulatory mechanisms. However, we have little understanding of the level of similarity or variability of chromosome structure across cell types and disease states. In this study, we present a method to quantify resemblance and identify structurally similar regions between any two sets of TADs.

Results: We present an analysis of 23 human Hi-C samples representing various tissue types in normal and cancer cell lines. We quantify global and chromosome-level structural similarity, and compare the relative similarity between cancer and non-cancer cells. We find that cancer cells show higher structural variability around commonly mutated pan-cancer genes than normal cells at these same locations.

Software for the methods and analysis can be found at

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-11-12

Lumley T, Brody J, Peloso G, et al (2018)

FastSKAT: Sequence kernel association tests for very large sets of markers.

Genetic epidemiology, 42(6):516-527.

The sequence kernel association test (SKAT) is widely used to test for associations between a phenotype and a set of genetic variants that are usually rare. Evaluating tail probabilities or quantiles of the null distribution for SKAT requires computing the eigenvalues of a matrix related to the genotype covariance between markers. Extracting the full set of eigenvalues of this matrix (an 4 , this step becomes a major bottleneck in its use in practice. We therefore propose fastSKAT, a new computationally inexpensive but accurate approximations to the tail probabilities, in which the k largest eigenvalues of a weighted genotype covariance matrix or the largest singular values of a weighted genotype matrix are extracted, and a single term based on the Satterthwaite approximation is used for the remaining eigenvalues. While the method is not particularly sensitive to the choice of k, we also describe how to choose its value, and show how fastSKAT can automatically alert users to the rare cases where the choice may affect results. As well as providing faster implementation of SKAT, the new method also enables entirely new applications of SKAT that were not possible before; we give examples grouping variants by topologically associating domains, and comparing chromosome-wide association by class of histone marker.

RevDate: 2019-01-07
CmpDate: 2018-10-24

Lazar NH, Nevonen KA, O'Connell B, et al (2018)

Epigenetic maintenance of topological domains in the highly rearranged gibbon genome.

Genome research, 28(7):983-997.

The relationship between evolutionary genome remodeling and the three-dimensional structure of the genome remain largely unexplored. Here, we use the heavily rearranged gibbon genome to examine how evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements impact genome-wide chromatin interactions, topologically associating domains (TADs), and their epigenetic landscape. We use high-resolution maps of gibbon-human breaks of synteny (BOS), apply Hi-C in gibbon, measure an array of epigenetic features, and perform cross-species comparisons. We find that gibbon rearrangements occur at TAD boundaries, independent of the parameters used to identify TADs. This overlap is supported by a remarkable genetic and epigenetic similarity between BOS and TAD boundaries, namely presence of CpG islands and SINE elements, and enrichment in CTCF and H3K4me3 binding. Cross-species comparisons reveal that regions orthologous to BOS also correspond with boundaries of large (400-600 kb) TADs in human and other mammalian species. The colocalization of rearrangement breakpoints and TAD boundaries may be due to higher chromatin fragility at these locations and/or increased selective pressure against rearrangements that disrupt TAD integrity. We also examine the small portion of BOS that did not overlap with TAD boundaries and gave rise to novel TADs in the gibbon genome. We postulate that these new TADs generally lack deleterious consequences. Last, we show that limited epigenetic homogenization occurs across breakpoints, irrespective of their time of occurrence in the gibbon lineage. Overall, our findings demonstrate remarkable conservation of chromatin interactions and epigenetic landscape in gibbons, in spite of extensive genomic shuffling.

RevDate: 2019-04-23
CmpDate: 2019-04-03

Wang CY, Jégu T, Chu HP, et al (2018)

SMCHD1 Merges Chromosome Compartments and Assists Formation of Super-Structures on the Inactive X.

Cell, 174(2):406-421.e25.

Mammalian chromosomes are partitioned into A/B compartments and topologically associated domains (TADs). The inactive X (Xi) chromosome, however, adopts a distinct conformation without evident compartments or TADs. Here, through exploration of an architectural protein, structural-maintenance-of-chromosomes hinge domain containing 1 (SMCHD1), we probe how the Xi is reconfigured during X chromosome inactivation. A/B compartments are first fused into "S1" and "S2" compartments, coinciding with Xist spreading into gene-rich domains. SMCHD1 then binds S1/S2 compartments and merges them to create a compartment-less architecture. Contrary to current views, TADs remain on the Xi but in an attenuated state. Ablating SMCHD1 results in a persistent S1/S2 organization and strengthening of TADs. Furthermore, loss of SMCHD1 causes regional defects in Xist spreading and erosion of heterochromatic silencing. We present a stepwise model for Xi folding, where SMCHD1 attenuates a hidden layer of Xi architecture to facilitate Xist spreading.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

daSilva LF, Beckedorff FC, Ayupe AC, et al (2018)

Chromatin Landscape Distinguishes the Genomic Loci of Hundreds of Androgen-Receptor-Associated LincRNAs From the Loci of Non-associated LincRNAs.

Frontiers in genetics, 9:132.

Cell signaling events triggered by androgen hormone in prostate cells is dependent on activation of the androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor. Androgen hormone binding to AR promotes its displacement from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AR binding to DNA motifs, thus inducing activatory and inhibitory transcriptional programs through a complex regulatory mechanism not yet fully understood. In this work, we performed RNA-seq deep-sequencing of LNCaP prostate cancer cells and found over 7000 expressed long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs), of which ∼4000 are novel lincRNAs, and 258 lincRNAs have their expression activated by androgen. Immunoprecipitation of AR, followed by large-scale sequencing of co-immunoprecipitated RNAs (RIP-Seq) has identified in the LNCaP cell line a total of 619 lincRNAs that were significantly enriched (FDR < 10%, DESeq2) in the anti-Androgen Receptor (antiAR) fraction in relation to the control fraction (non-specific IgG), and we named them Androgen-Receptor-Associated lincRNAs (ARA-lincRNAs). A genome-wide analysis showed that protein-coding gene neighbors to ARA-lincRNAs had a significantly higher androgen-induced change in expression than protein-coding genes neighboring lincRNAs not associated to AR. To find relevant epigenetic signatures enriched at the ARA-lincRNAs' transcription start sites (TSSs) we used a machine learning approach and identified that the ARA-lincRNA genomic loci in LNCaP cells are significantly enriched with epigenetic marks that are characteristic of in cis enhancer RNA regulators, and that the H3K27ac mark of active enhancers is conspicuously enriched at the TSS of ARA-lincRNAs adjacent to androgen-activated protein-coding genes. In addition, LNCaP topologically associating domains (TADs) that comprise chromatin regions with ARA-lincRNAs exhibit transcription factor contents, epigenetic marks and gene transcriptional activities that are significantly different from TADs not containing ARA-lincRNAs. This work highlights the possible involvement of hundreds of lincRNAs working in synergy with the AR on the genome-wide androgen-induced gene regulatory program in prostate cells.

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-10-09

Lecellier CH, Wasserman WW, A Mathelier (2018)

Human Enhancers Harboring Specific Sequence Composition, Activity, and Genome Organization Are Linked to the Immune Response.

Genetics, 209(4):1055-1071.

The FANTOM5 consortium recently characterized 65,423 human enhancers from 1829 cell and tissue samples using the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression technology. We showed that the guanine and cytosine content at enhancer regions distinguishes two classes of enhancers harboring distinct DNA structural properties at flanking regions. A functional analysis of their predicted gene targets highlighted one class of enhancers as significantly enriched for associations with immune response genes. Moreover, these enhancers were specifically enriched for regulatory motifs recognized by transcription factors involved in immune response. We observed that enhancers enriched for links to immune response genes were more cell-type specific, preferentially activated upon bacterial infection, and with specific response activity. Looking at chromatin capture data, we found that the two classes of enhancers were lying in distinct topologically associating domains and chromatin loops. Our results suggest that specific nucleotide compositions encode for classes of enhancers that are functionally distinct and specifically organized in the human genome.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
21454 NE 143rd Street
Woodinville, WA 98077

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )