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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 Oct 2020 at 01:42 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2020-10-24

Li W, Chen C, Chen M, et al (2020)

Salted and Unsalted Zhàcài (Brassica juncea var. tumida) Alleviated High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia by Regulating Gut Microbiota: A Multiomics Study.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: Zhàcài, a salting-processed Brassica juncea var. tumida vegetable, is widely consumed as a pickle, but little is known about the health benefits of both salted and unsalted Zhàcài as a whole food.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The preventive effects of salted and unsalted Zhàcài against dyslipidemia wereassessed in high-fat diet (HF)-fed mice. HF intake for 12 continuous weeks caused dyslipidemia in mice, as evidenced by the elevations in serum total triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 30%, 66% and 117%, respectively. Metabolomics analysis and the 16S rRNA genes sequencing suggested that dietary administration of salted and unsalted Zhàcài (2.5% w/w) alleviates HF-induced dyslipidemia, metabolic disorders of short-chain fatty acids, and disturbance of intestinal flora in mice. These positive effects of unsalted Zhàcài werestronger than those of salted Zhàcài. Moreover, fecal bacteria transplantation confirmed the antidyslipidemia of Zhàcài.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that consumption of Zhàcài may prevent HF-induced dyslipidemia by regulating gut microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-10-23
CmpDate: 2020-10-23

García-Fernández S, Frentrup M, Steglich M, et al (2019)

Whole-genome sequencing reveals nosocomial Clostridioides difficile transmission and a previously unsuspected epidemic scenario.

Scientific reports, 9(1):6959 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-43464-4.

To trace the routes and frequencies of transmission of Clostridioides difficile in a tertiary-care hospital in Madrid (Spain), we sequenced the genomes from all C. difficile isolates collected over 36 months (2014-2016) that were indistinguishable from any other isolate by PCR ribotyping. From a total of 589 C. difficile infection cases, we cultivated and PCR-ribotyped 367 C. difficile isolates (62%), of which 265 were genome-sequenced. Based on close relatedness of successively collected isolates (≤2 SNPs difference in their genomes), whole-genome sequencing revealed a total of 17 independent, putative transmission clusters, caused by various C. difficile strains and each containing 2 to 18 cases, none of which had been detected previously by standard epidemiological surveillance. Proportions of linked isolates varied widely among PCR ribotypes, from 3% (1/36) for ribotype 014/020 to 60% (12/20) for ribotype 027, suggesting differential aptitudes for nosocomial spread. Remarkably, only a minority (17%) of transmission recipients had direct ward contact to their presumed donors and specific C. difficile genome types frequently went undetectable for several months before re-emerging later, suggesting reservoirs for the pathogen outside of symptomatic patients. Taken together, our analysis based on genome sequencing suggested considerable within-hospital epidemic spread of C. difficile, even though epidemiological data initially had been inconspicuous.

RevDate: 2020-10-22

Kang DW, Adams JB, Vargason T, et al (2020)

Distinct Fecal and Plasma Metabolites in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Modulation after Microbiota Transfer Therapy.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Accumulating evidence has strengthened a link between dysbiotic gut microbiota and autism. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a promising therapy to repair dysbiotic gut microbiota. We previously performed intensive FMT called microbiota transfer therapy (MTT) for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and observed a substantial improvement of gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms. We also reported modulation of the gut microbiome toward a healthy one. In this study, we report comprehensive metabolite profiles from plasma and fecal samples of the children who participated in the MTT trial. With 619 plasma metabolites detected, we found that the autism group had distinctive metabolic profiles at baseline. Eight metabolites (nicotinamide riboside, IMP, iminodiacetate, methylsuccinate, galactonate, valylglycine, sarcosine, and leucylglycine) were significantly lower in the ASD group at baseline, while caprylate and heptanoate were significantly higher in the ASD group. MTT drove global shifts in plasma profiles across various metabolic features, including nicotinate/nicotinamide and purine metabolism. In contrast, for 669 fecal metabolites detected, when correcting for multiple hypotheses, no metabolite was significantly different at baseline. Although not statistically significant, p-cresol sulfate was relatively higher in the ASD group at baseline, and after MTT, the levels decreased and were similar to levels in typically developing (TD) controls. p-Cresol sulfate levels were inversely correlated with Desulfovibrio, suggesting a potential role of Desulfovibrio on p-cresol sulfate modulation. Further studies of metabolites in a larger ASD cohort, before and after MTT, are warranted, as well as clinical trials of other therapies to address the metabolic changes which MTT was not able to correct.IMPORTANCE Despite the prevalence of autism and its extensive impact on our society, no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is available for this complex neurobiological disorder. Based on mounting evidences that support a link between autism and the gut microbiome, we previously performed a pioneering open-label clinical trial using intensive fecal microbiota transplant. The therapy significantly improved gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms. Comprehensive metabolomic measurements in this study showed that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had different levels of many plasma metabolites at baseline compared to those in typically developing children. Microbiota transfer therapy (MTT) had a systemic effect, resulting in substantial changes in plasma metabolites, driving a number of metabolites to be more similar to those from typically developing children. Our results provide evidence that changes in metabolites are one mechanism of the gut-brain connection mediated by the gut microbiota and offer plausible clinical evidence for a promising autism treatment and biomarkers.

RevDate: 2020-10-22

Yiu JHC, Chan KS, Cheung J, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota-Associated Activation of TLR5 Induces Apolipoprotein A1 Production in the Liver.

Circulation research, 127(10):1236-1252.

RATIONALE: Dysbiosis of gut microbiota plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases but the molecular mechanisms are complex. An association between gut microbiome and the variance in HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) level was suggested in a human study. Besides, dietary fat was shown to increase both HDL-C and LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) levels. We speculate that certain types of gut bacteria responding to dietary fat may help to regulate HDL-C level and potentially affect atherosclerotic development.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether and how high-fat diet (HFD)-associated gut microbiota regulated HDL-C level.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We found that HFD increased gut flagellated bacteria population in mice. The increase in HDL-C level was adopted by mice receiving fecal microbiome transplantation from HFD-fed mouse donors. HFD led to increased hepatic but not circulating flagellin, and deletion of TLR5 (Toll-like receptor 5), a receptor sensing flagellin, suppressed HFD-stimulated HDL-C and ApoA1 (apolipoprotein A1) levels. Overexpression of TLR5 in the liver of TLR5-knockout mice was able to partially restore the production of ApoA1 and HDL-C levels. Mechanistically, TLR5 activation by flagellin in primary hepatocytes stimulated ApoA1 production through the transcriptional activation responding to the binding of NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) on Apoa1 promoter region. Furthermore, oral supplementation of flagellin was able to stimulate hepatic ApoA1 production and HDL-C level and decrease atherosclerotic lesion size in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice without triggering hepatic and systemic inflammation. The stimulation of ApoA1 production was also seen in human ApoA1-transgenic mice treated with oral flagellin.

CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggests that commensal flagellated bacteria in gut can facilitate ApoA1 and HDL-C productions in liver through activation of TLR5 in hepatocytes. Hepatic TLR5 may be a potential drug target to increase ApoA1.

RevDate: 2020-10-22
CmpDate: 2020-10-22

Ciocan D, AM Cassard (2020)

[Intestinal bacteria involved in nutritional liver disease killed by phagotherapy: a new therapeutic target].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 36(4):310-312.

RevDate: 2020-10-21

Uzan-Yulzari A, Morr M, Tareef-Nabwani H, et al (2020)

The intestinal microbiome, weight, and metabolic changes in women treated by adjuvant chemotherapy for breast and gynecological malignancies.

BMC medicine, 18(1):281 pii:10.1186/s12916-020-01751-2.

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy induces weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in about a third of women. The mechanisms underlying these events have not been defined. This study assessed the association between the microbiome and weight gain in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast and gynecological cancers.

METHODS: Patients were recruited before starting adjuvant therapy. Weight and height were measured before treatment and 4-6 weeks after treatment completion. Weight gain was defined as an increase of 3% or more in body weight. A stool sample was collected before treatment, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed. Data regarding oncological therapy, menopausal status, and antibiotic use was prospectively collected. Patients were excluded if they were treated by antibiotics during the study. Fecal transplant experiments from patients were conducted using Swiss Webster germ-free mice.

RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were recruited; of them, 9 gained 3.5-10.6% of baseline weight. The pretreatment microbiome of women who gained weight following treatment was significantly different in diversity and taxonomy from that of control women. Fecal microbiota transplantation from pretreatment samples of patients that gained weight induced metabolic changes in germ-free mice compared to mice transplanted with pretreatment fecal samples from the control women.

CONCLUSION: The microbiome composition is predictive of weight gain following adjuvant chemotherapy and induces adverse metabolic changes in germ-free mice, suggesting it contributes to adverse metabolic changes seen in patients. Confirmation of these results in a larger patient cohort is warranted.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Zhang J, Rodríguez F, Navas MJ, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation from warthog to pig confirms the influence of the gut microbiota on African swine fever susceptibility.

Scientific reports, 10(1):17605 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-74651-3.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of a devastating hemorrhagic disease (ASF) that affects both domestic pigs and wild boars. Conversely, ASFV circulates in a subclinical manner in African wild pigs, including warthogs, the natural reservoir for ASFV. Together with genetic differences, other factors might be involved in the differential susceptibility to ASF observed among Eurasian suids (Sus scrofa) and African warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Preliminary evidence obtained in our laboratory and others, seems to confirm the effect that environmental factors might have on ASF infection. Thus, domestic pigs raised in specific pathogen-free (SPF) facilities were extremely susceptible to highly attenuated ASFV strains that were innocuous to genetically identical domestic pigs grown on conventional farms. Since gut microbiota plays important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, regulating immune system maturation and the functionality of the innate/adaptive immune responses, we decided to examine whether warthog fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to domestic pigs affects host susceptibility to ASFV. The present work demonstrates that warthog FMT is not harmful for domestic weaned piglets, while it modifies their gut microbiota; and that FMT from warthogs to pigs confers partial protection against attenuated ASFV strains. Future work is needed to elucidate the protective mechanisms exerted by warthog FMT.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Hamamoto Y, Ouhara K, Munenaga S, et al (2020)

Effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection on gut dysbiosis and resultant arthritis exacerbation in mouse model.

Arthritis research & therapy, 22(1):249 pii:10.1186/s13075-020-02348-z.

BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) infection causes periodontal disease and exacerbates rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is reported that inoculation of periodontopathogenic bacteria (i.e., Pg) can alter gut microbiota composition in the animal models. Gut microbiota dysbiosis in human has shown strong associations with systemic diseases, including RA, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, this study investigated dysbiosis-mediated arthritis by Pg oral inoculation in an experimental arthritis model mouse.

METHODS: Pg inoculation in the oral cavity twice a week for 6 weeks was performed to induce periodontitis in SKG mice. Concomitantly, a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of laminarin (LA) was administered to induce experimental arthritis (Pg-LA mouse). Citrullinated protein (CP) and IL-6 levels in serum as well as periodontal, intestinal, and joint tissues were measured by ELISA. Gut microbiota composition was determined by pyrosequencing the 16 s ribosomal RNA genes after DNA purification of mouse feces. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed by transferring Pg-LA-derived feces to normal SKG mice. The effects of Pg peptidylarginine deiminase (PgPAD) on the level of citrullinated proteins and arthritis progression were determined using a PgPAD knockout mutant.

RESULTS: Periodontal alveolar bone loss and IL-6 in gingival tissue were induced by Pg oral infection, as well as severe joint destruction, increased arthritis scores (AS), and both IL-6 and CP productions in serum, joint, and intestinal tissues. Distribution of Deferribacteres and S24-7 was decreased, while CP was significantly increased in gingiva, joint, and intestinal tissues of Pg-inoculated experimental arthritis mice compared to experimental arthritis mice without Pg inoculation. Further, FMT from Pg-inoculated experimental arthritis mice reproduced donor gut microbiota and resulted in severe joint destruction with increased IL-6 and CP production in joint and intestinal tissues. The average AS of FMT from Pg-inoculated experimental arthritis was much higher than that of donor mouse. However, inoculation of the PgPAD knockout mutant inhibited the elevation of arthritis scores and ACPA level in serum and reduced CP amount in gingival, joint, and intestinal tissues compared to Pg wild-type inoculation.

CONCLUSION: Pg oral infection affected gut microbiota dysbiosis and joint destruction via increased CP generation.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Evrensel A, KN Tarhan (2020)

Emerging role of Gut-microbiota-brain axis in depression and therapeutic implication.

Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry pii:S0278-5846(20)30454-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The human body can be considered a superorganism in which it's eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic microorganisms coexist. Almost every organ system of the body lives a symbiotic life with these commensal bacteria. Intestinal microbiota has an important role in shaping, organizing and maintaining mental functions from as early as the intrauterine period. Microbiota-based approaches are becoming more prominent in understanding and treating the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression. Antidepressant drugs, which are the first-line option in the treatment of depression today, also contain antimicrobial and immunomodulatory mechanisms of action. Treatment options for directly modifying the microbiota composition include prebiotics, probiotics (psychobiotics) and fecal microbiota transplantation. There are few preclinical and clinical studies on the efficacy and reliability of these treatment options in depression. This article will review pertinent studies on the role of intestinal microbiota in depression and discuss the treatment potential of altering ones gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Mossad O, D Erny (2020)

The microbiota-microglia axis in CNS disorders.

Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland) [Epub ahead of print].

The innate immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) is mainly represented by specialized tissue-resident macrophages, called microglia. In the past years, various species-, host- and tissue-specific as well as environmental factors were recognized that essentially affect microglial properties and functions in the healthy and diseased brain. Host microbiota are mostly residing in the gut and contribute to microglial activation states e.g. via short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands. Thereby, the gut microorganisms are deemed to influence numerous CNS diseases mediated by microglia. In this review we summarize recent findings of the interaction between the host microbiota and the CNS in health and disease, where we specifically highlight the resident gut microbiota as a crucial environmental factor for microglial function as what we coin "the microbiota-microglia axis".

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Schierová D, Březina J, Mrázek J, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiome Changes in Patients with Active Left-Sided Ulcerative Colitis after Fecal Microbiome Transplantation and Topical 5-aminosalicylic Acid Therapy.

Cells, 9(10): pii:cells9102283.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease, and intestinal bacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. The administration of aminosalicylates (5-ASA) is a conventional treatment that targets the mucosa, while fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is a novel treatment that directly targets the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to identify changes in fecal bacterial composition after both types of treatments and evaluate clinical responses. Sixteen patients with active left-sided UC underwent enema treatment using 5-ASA (n = 8) or FMT (n = 8) with a stool from a single donor. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing, and clinical indices were used to assess the efficacy of treatments. 5-ASA therapy resulted in clinical remission in 50% (4/8) of patients, but no correlation with changes in fecal bacteria was observed. In FMT, remission was achieved in 37.5% (3/8) of patients and was associated with a significantly increased relative abundance of the families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae of the phylum Firmicutes, and Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae of the phylum Actinobacteria. At the genus level, Faecalibacterium, Blautia, Coriobacteria, Collinsela, Slackia, and Bifidobacterium were significantly more frequent in patients who reached clinical remission. However, the increased abundance of beneficial taxa was not a sufficient factor to achieve clinical improvement in all UC patients. Nevertheless, our preliminary results indicate that FMT as non-drug-using method is thought to be a promising treatment for UC patients.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Suganya K, BS Koo (2020)

Gut-Brain Axis: Role of Gut Microbiota on Neurological Disorders and How Probiotics/Prebiotics Beneficially Modulate Microbial and Immune Pathways to Improve Brain Functions.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(20): pii:ijms21207551.

The gut microbiome acts as an integral part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that has the largest and vulnerable surface with desirable features to observe foods, nutrients, and environmental factors, as well as to differentiate commensals, invading pathogens, and others. It is well-known that the gut has a strong connection with the central nervous system (CNS) in the context of health and disease. A healthy gut with diverse microbes is vital for normal brain functions and emotional behaviors. In addition, the CNS controls most aspects of the GI physiology. The molecular interaction between the gut/microbiome and CNS is complex and bidirectional, ensuring the maintenance of gut homeostasis and proper digestion. Besides this, several mechanisms have been proposed, including endocrine, neuronal, toll-like receptor, and metabolites-dependent pathways. Changes in the bidirectional relationship between the GIT and CNS are linked with the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal and neurological disorders; therefore, the microbiota/gut-and-brain axis is an emerging and widely accepted concept. In this review, we summarize the recent findings supporting the role of the gut microbiota and immune system on the maintenance of brain functions and the development of neurological disorders. In addition, we highlight the recent advances in improving of neurological diseases by probiotics/prebiotics/synbiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation via the concept of the gut-brain axis.

RevDate: 2020-10-16

Arulsamy A, Tan QY, Balasubramaniam V, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota and Epilepsy: A Systematic Review on Their Relationship and Possible Therapeutics.

ACS chemical neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Dysbiosis of gut microbiota may lead to a range of diseases including neurological disorders. Thus, it is hypothesized that regulation of the intestinal microbiota may prevent or treat epilepsy. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence investigating the relationship between gut microbiota and epilepsy and possible interventions. A systematic review of the literature was done on four databases (PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science). Study selection was restricted to original research articles while following the PRISMA guidelines. Six studies were selected. These studies cohesively support the interaction between gut microbiota and epileptic seizures. Gut microbiota analysis identified increases in Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Fusobacteria with decreases in Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria in epileptic patients. Ketogenic diet, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) improved the dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and seizure activity. However, the studies either had a small sample size, lack of subject variability, or short study or follow-up period, which may question their reliability. Nevertheless, these limited studies conclusively suggest that gut microbiota diversity and dysbiosis may be involved in the pathology of epilepsy. Future studies providing more reliable and in depth insight into the gut microbial community will spark promising alternative therapies to current epilepsy treatment.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Steed DB, Wang T, Raheja D, et al (2020)

Gram-Negative Taxa and Antimicrobial Susceptibility after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has promising applications in reducing multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization and antibiotic resistance (AR) gene abundance. However, data on clinical microbiology results after FMT are limited. We examined the changes in antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in patients with Gram-negative infections in the year before and the year after treatment with FMT for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (RCDI). We also examined whether a history of FMT changed health care provider behavior with respect to culture ordering and antibiotic prescription. Medical records for RCDI patients who underwent FMT at Emory University between July 2012 and March 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. FMT-treated patients with Gram-negative culture data in the 1-year period preceding and the 1-year period following FMT were included. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted, including CDI history, frequency of Gram-negative cultures, microbiological results, and antibiotic prescription in response to positive cultures in the period following FMT. Twelve patients were included in this case series. We pooled data from infections at all body sites and found a decrease in the number of total and Gram-negative cultures post-FMT. We compared susceptibility profiles across taxa given the potential for horizontal transmission of AR elements and observed increased susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and the aminoglycosides. FMT did not drastically influence health care provider ordering of bacterial cultures or antibiotic prescribing practices. We observed a reduction in Gram-negative cultures and a trend toward increased antimicrobial susceptibility. This study supports further investigation of FMT as a means of improving antimicrobial susceptibility.IMPORTANCE Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is highly efficacious in treating recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI), has a promising application in decolonization of multidrug-resistant organisms, reduction of antibiotic resistance gene abundance, and restoration of healthy intestinal microbiota. However, data representing clinical microbiology results after FMT are limited. We sought to characterize the differences in culture positivity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in patients with Gram-negative infections in the year before and the year after FMT for RCDI. Drawing on prior studies that had demonstrated the success of FMT in eradicating extraintestinal infections and the occurrence of patient-level interspecies transfer of resistance elements, we employed an agnostic analytic approach of reviewing the data irrespective of body site or species. In a small RCDI population, we observed an improvement in the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Gram-negative bacteria following FMT, which supports further study of FMT as a strategy to combat antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2020-10-15

Sarin SK, S Sharma (2020)

Predictors of steroid non-response and new approaches in severe alcoholic hepatitis.

Clinical and molecular hepatology, 26(4):639-651.

Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) remains a disease with high mortality. Steroid is the main stay and has been shown to give modest 28-day survival benefit in carefully selected patients, but no 90-day survival benefit. Since non-responders have high incidence of infections and increased mortality, it would be worthwhile to identify them before starting steroid therapy. A high and rising bilirubin, urinary acetyl carnitine >2,500 ng/mL, high asiloglycoprotein positive microparticles, and specific features in liver biopsy could predict steroid non-response at baseline. There is an ever-growing need to find new and effective therapies for SAH patients. Besides aggressive nutrition, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, fecal microbiota transplantation, and plasma exchange appear promising therapies and provide a hope for steroid ineligible or steroid non-responsive patients. Suppression of hepatic inflammation, preventing new bacterial or fungal infections, and enhancing liver regeneration will remain the key targets for next generation therapies.

RevDate: 2020-10-14

Wang H, Liu L, Rao X, et al (2020)

Integrated phosphoproteomic and metabolomic profiling reveals perturbed pathways in the hippocampus of gut microbiota dysbiosis mice.

Translational psychiatry, 10(1):346 pii:10.1038/s41398-020-01024-9.

The dysbiosis of gut microbiota is an important environmental factor that can induce mental disorders, such as depression, through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. Here we utilized mass spectrometry to identify the global phosphorylation dynamics in hippocampus tissue in germ-free mice and specific pathogen-free mice (GF vs SPF), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) model ("depression microbiota" and the "healthy microbiota" recipient mice). As a result, 327 phosphosites of 237 proteins in GF vs SPF, and 478 phosphosites of 334 proteins in "depression microbiota" vs "healthy microbiota" recipient mice were identified as significant. These phosphorylation dysregulations were consistently associated with glutamatergic neurotransmitter system disturbances. The FMT mice exhibited disturbances in lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism in both the periphery and brain through integrating phosphoproteomic and metabolomic analysis. Moreover, CAMKII-CREB signaling pathway, in response to these disturbances, was the primary common perturbed cellular process. In addition, we demonstrated that the spliceosome, never directly implicated in mental disorders previously, was a substantially neuronal function disrupted by gut microbiota dysbiosis, and the NCBP1 phosphorylation was identified as a novel pathogenic target. These results present a new perspective to study the pathologic mechanisms of gut microbiota dysbiosis related depression and highlight potential gut-mediated therapies for depression.

RevDate: 2020-10-16
CmpDate: 2020-10-16

Anonymous (2020)

Translating Microbiome Research into Therapies: The Path Ahead.

Cell, 181(1):20-21.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Barbara G, G Ianiro (2020)

Faecal microbial transplantation in IBS: ready for prime time?.

Gut, 69(5):795-796.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Bajaj JS, Salzman N, Acharya C, et al (2019)

Microbial functional change is linked with clinical outcomes after capsular fecal transplant in cirrhosis.

JCI insight, 4(24):.

BACKGROUNDHepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with poor outcomes. A prior randomized, pilot trial demonstrated safety after oral capsular fecal microbial transplant (FMT) in HE, with favorable changes in microbial composition and cognition. However, microbial functional changes are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of FMT on the gut-brain axis compared with placebo, using microbial function based on bile acids (BAs), inflammation (serum IL-6, LPS-binding protein [LBP]), and their association with EncephalApp.METHODSTwenty cirrhotic patients were randomized 1:1 into groups that received 1-time FMT capsules from a donor enriched in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae or placebo capsules, with 5-month follow-up for safety outcomes. Stool microbiota and BA; serum IL-6, BA, and LBP; and EncephalApp were analyzed at baseline and 4 weeks after FMT/placebo. Correlation networks among microbiota, BAs, EncephalApp, IL-6, and LBP were performed before/after FMT.RESULTSFMT-assigned participants had 1 HE recurrence and 2 unrelated infections. Six placebo-assigned participants developed negative outcomes. FMT, but not placebo, was associated with reduced serum IL-6 and LBP and improved EncephalApp. FMT-assigned participants demonstrated higher deconjugation and secondary BA formation in feces and serum compared with baseline. No change was seen in placebo. Correlation networks showed greater complexity after FMT compared with baseline. Beneficial taxa, such as Ruminococcaceae, Verrucomicrobiaceae, and Lachnospiraceae, were correlated with cognitive improvement and decrease in inflammation after FMT. Fecal/serum secondary/primary ratios and PiCRUST secondary BA pathways did not increase in participants who developed poor outcomes.CONCLUSIONGut microbial function in cirrhosis is beneficially affected by capsular FMT, with improved inflammation and cognition. Lower secondary BAs in FMT recipients could select for participants who develop negative outcomes.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicaltrials.gov NCT03152188.FUNDINGNational Center for Advancing Translational Sciences NIH grant R21TR002024, VA Merit Review grant 2I0CX001076, the United Kingdom National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Facility at Imperial College London, the British Heart Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and King's College London.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Binyamin D, Werbner N, Nuriel-Ohayon M, et al (2020)

The aging mouse microbiome has obesogenic characteristics.

Genome medicine, 12(1):87 pii:10.1186/s13073-020-00784-9.

BACKGROUND: During aging, there is a physiological decline, an increase of morbidity and mortality, and a natural change in the gut microbiome. In this study, we investigated the influence of the gut microbiome on different metabolic parameters in adult and aged mice.

METHODS: Fecal and blood samples from adult (n = 42, 100-300 days) and aging (n = 32, 550-750 days) mice were collected. Microbiome analysis was done using QIIME2. Mouse weight and body composition were measured using NMR, and insulin and leptin levels in the blood were measured with Mouse Adipokine Magnetic Bead Panel kit. Fecal microbiota transplantation experiments from adult and aged mice into young germ-free mice were carried out in order to examine the effect of the gut microbiome of adult and aging mice on weight, body composition, insulin, and leptin.

RESULTS: We demonstrate that the microbiomes from adult and aged mice are distinguishable. We also report changes in metabolic parameters as we observed significantly higher weight and fat mass and low lean mass in aged compared to adult mice along with high insulin and leptin levels in the blood. The transplanted gut microbiome from aged mice transferred part of the phenotypes seen in aged mice. Fat body mass and insulin levels were higher in the mice who received feces from aged mice than mice receiving feces from adult mice. In addition, they consumed more food and had a higher respiratory quotient compared to mice receiving adult feces.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that aged mice have a gut microbiota with obesogenic characteristics. In addition, the gut bacterial population itself is sufficient to induce some of the manifestations of obesity.

RevDate: 2020-10-13
CmpDate: 2020-10-13

Zheng YM, He XX, Xia HH, et al (2020)

Multi-donor multi-course faecal microbiota transplantation relieves the symptoms of chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctitis: A case report.

Medicine, 99(39):e22298.

RATIONALE: There are many treatments for chronic hemorrhagic radiation colorectal inflammation, but only a few treatments are supported by high-quality research evidence. Studies have shown that the occurrence and development of radiation proctitis are closely associated with the intestinal flora. Animal studies have indicated that faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can improve radiation enteropathy in a mouse model.

PATIENT CONCERNS: A 45-year-old female patient suffered from recurrent hematochezia and diarrhea for half a year after radiotherapy and underwent recurrent transfusion treatments. Colonoscopy showed obvious congestion of the sigmoid colon and rectal mucosa, a smooth surface, and bleeding that was easily induced by touch, which are consistent with radiation proctitis. The pathological findings revealed chronic mucosal inflammation. The magnetic resonance imaging examination of the pelvic cavity with a plain scan and enhancement showed changes after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and no obvious tumor recurrence or metastasis was found. The laboratory examinations excluded pathogen infection.

DIAGNOSES: Based on the history and examinations, the final diagnosis of this patient was chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctitis.

INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with a total of 4 individual courses of FMT.

OUTCOMES: After the six-month follow-up, her hematochezia, abdominal pain and diarrhea were relieved. Furthermore, 16S rRNA sequencing of the feces showed that the intestinal bacterial composition of the patient obviously changed after FMT and became similar to that of the donors.

LESSONS: This case report shows that FMT can relieve the symptoms of hematochezia and diarrhea by changing the bacterial community structure in patients with chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctitis.

RevDate: 2020-10-12

Gerdes LA, Yoon H, A Peters (2020)

[Microbiota and multiple sclerosis].

Der Nervenarzt pii:10.1007/s00115-020-01012-w [Epub ahead of print].

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system driven by autoreactive lymphocytes. Due to its close contact with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the intestinal microbiota and/or their metabolites may be one of the factors that influence the activation of autoreactive lymphocytes. This article summarizes and discusses the current research efforts to characterize the microbiome of MS patients using human material. In addition, we present research studies that utilized classical or humanized animal models to determine the influence of certain microbiota species or compositions of microbiota on the immune system and disease progression and to define possible causal associations.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Xu Y, Wang N, Tan HY, et al (2020)

Panax notoginseng saponins modulate the gut microbiota to promote thermogenesis and beige adipocyte reconstruction via leptin-mediated AMPKα/STAT3 signaling in diet-induced obesity.

Theranostics, 10(24):11302-11323.

Background: Activation of the thermogenic program in white and brown adipocytes presents a promising avenue for increasing energy expenditure during the treatment of obesity. The endogenous mechanism for promoting thermogenesis in brown adipocytes or browning in white adipocytes has indicated that the gut microbiota is a crucial regulator of the host energy balance. However, whether the effects of the therapeutic intervention-induced modulation of the gut microbiota on adipocyte browning involved the regulation of leptin remains unclear. Method: The adipose features were analyzed by body composition analysis, infrared camera observations, transmission electron microscopy and H&E staining. The gene and protein expression in adipose tissue were detected by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. The gut microbiome signature was identified by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and both mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and mice with antibiotics-induced microbiome depletion were subjected to fecal microbiota transplantation. Results: Treatment with Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) shaped the murine gut microbiome by increasing the abundances of Akkermansia muciniphila and Parabacteroides distasonis, and as a result, DIO mice harbored a distal gut microbiota with a significantly increased capacity to reduce host adiposity. The PNS-induced modulation of the gut microbiota in DIO mice could increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and beige adipocyte reconstruction by activating the leptin-AMPK/STAT3 signaling pathway, which results in the promotion of energy expenditure. Leptin has an essential influence on the anti-obesity effects of PNS. In cases of leptin deficiency, the PNS-induced modulation of the gut microbiota exerts negative effects on thermogenesis and browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), which indicates that PNS fail to reduce obesity in leptin gene-deficient mice. The PNS-induced modulation of the gut microbiota exerted a minimal effect on DIO mice with antibiotic-induced microbiome depletion, which confirmed the correlation between altered gut microbiota and the remodeling of adipose tissues in DIO mice. The direct influence of leptin on browning via the AMPKα/STAT3 signaling pathway in C3H101/2 cells supported our in vivo results that signalling through the leptin-AMPK/STAT3 pathway induced by the PNS-modulated gut microbiota was involved in beige adipocyte reconstruction. Conclusion: Our results revealed that leptin signaling is critical for alterations in microbiota-fat crosstalk and provide promising avenues for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of obesity.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Macpherson ME, Hov JR, Ueland T, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota-Dependent Trimethylamine N-Oxide Associates With Inflammation in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:574500.

A substantial proportion of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have inflammatory and autoimmune complications of unknown etiology. We have previously shown that systemic inflammation in CVID correlates with their gut microbial dysbiosis. The gut microbiota dependent metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to several metabolic and inflammatory disorders, but has hitherto not been investigated in relation to CVID. We hypothesized that TMAO is involved in systemic inflammation in CVID. To explore this, we measured plasma concentrations of TMAO, inflammatory markers, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 104 CVID patients and 30 controls. Gut microbiota profiles and the bacterial genes CutC and CntA, which encode enzymes that can convert dietary metabolites to trimethylamine in the colon, were examined in fecal samples from 40 CVID patients and 86 controls. Furthermore, a food frequency questionnaire and the effect of oral antibiotic rifaximin on plasma TMAO concentrations were explored in these 40 patients. We found CVID patients to have higher plasma concentrations of TMAO than controls (TMAO 5.0 [2.9-8.6] vs. 3.2 [2.2-6.3], p = 0.022, median with IQR). The TMAO concentration correlated positively with tumor necrosis factor (p = 0.008, rho = 0.26), interleukin-12 (p = 0.012, rho = 0.25) and LPS (p = 0.034, rho = 0.21). Dietary intake of meat (p = 0.678), fish (p = 0.715), egg (p = 0.138), dairy products (p = 0.284), and fiber (p = 0.767) did not significantly impact on the TMAO concentrations in plasma, nor did a 2-week course of the oral antibiotic rifaximin (p = 0.975). However, plasma TMAO concentrations correlated positively with gut microbial abundance of Gammaproteobacteria (p = 0.021, rho = 0.36). Bacterial gene CntA was present in significantly more CVID samples (75%) than controls (53%), p = 0.020, potentially related to the increased abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in these samples. The current study demonstrates that elevated TMAO concentrations are associated with systemic inflammation and increased gut microbial abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in CVID patients, suggesting that TMAO could be a link between gut microbial dysbiosis and systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota composition could thus be a potential therapeutic target to reduce systemic inflammation in CVID.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Tan P, Li X, Shen J, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Update.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 11:574533.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has successfully been applied for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), which has led to studies on its application to other gastrointestinal diseases and extraintestinal diseases associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Recently, the results of FMT for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been encouraging. However, studies have not fully clarified the clinical application of this emerging therapy. Here, we aimed to review the current knowledge in this fast-growing field and characterize the effectiveness, safety and mechanisms of FMT for the treatment of IBD patients.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Li X, Lin Y, Li X, et al (2020)

Tyrosine supplement ameliorates murine aGVHD by modulation of gut microbiome and metabolome.

EBioMedicine, 61:103048 pii:S2352-3964(20)30424-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities and their metabolic components in the gut are of vital importance for immune homeostasis and have an influence on the susceptibility of the host to a number of immune-mediated diseases like acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, little is known about the functional connections between microbiome and metabolome in aGVHD due to the complexity of the gastrointestinal environment.

METHOD: Initially, gut microbiota and fecal metabolic phenotype in aGVHD murine models were unleashed by performing 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based metabolomics.

FINDINGS: The group with aGVHD experienced a significant drop in Lachnospiraceae_unclassified but an increase in the relative abundance of Clostridium XI, Clostridium XIVa and Enterococcus. Meanwhile, a lower content of tyrosine was observed in the gut of aGVHD mice. The correlation analysis revealed that tyrosine-related metabolites were inversely correlated with Clostridium XIVa, besides, Blautia and Enterococcus also displayed the negative tendency in aGVHD condition. Apart from exploring the importance and function of tyrosine, different tyrosine diets were offered to mice during transplantation. Additional tyrosine supplements can improve overall survival, ameliorate symptoms at the early stage of aGVHD and change the structure and composition of gut microbiota and fecal metabolic phenotype. In addition, aGVHD mice deprived from tyrosine displayed worse manifestations than the vehicle diet group.

INTERPRETATION: The results demonstrated the roles and mechanisms of gut microbiota, indispensable metabolites and tyrosine in the progression of aGVHD, which can be an underlying biomarker for aGVHD diagnosis and treatment.

FUNDING: This research was funded by the International Cooperation and Exchange Program (81520108002), the National Key R&D Program of China, Stem Cell and Translation Research (2018YFA0109300), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81670169, 81670148, 81870080 and 91949115) and Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LQ19H080006).

RevDate: 2020-10-09

Brown EG, SM Goldman (2020)

Modulation of the Microbiome in Parkinson's Disease: Diet, Drug, Stool Transplant, and Beyond.

Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics pii:10.1007/s13311-020-00942-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The gastrointestinal microbiome is altered in Parkinson's disease and likely plays a key role in its pathophysiology, affecting symptoms and response to therapy and perhaps modifying progression or even disease initiation. Gut dysbiosis therefore has a significant potential as a therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease, a condition elusive to disease-modifying therapy thus far. The gastrointestinal environment hosts a complex ecology, and efforts to modulate the relative abundance or function of established microorganisms are still in their infancy. Still, these techniques are being rapidly developed and have important implications for our understanding of Parkinson's disease. Currently, modulation of the microbiome can be achieved through non-pharmacologic means such as diet, pharmacologically through probiotic, prebiotic, or antibiotic use and procedurally through fecal transplant. Novel techniques being explored include the use of small molecules or genetically engineered organisms, with vast potential. Here, we review how some of these approaches have been used to date, important areas of ongoing research, and how microbiome modulation may play a role in the clinical management of Parkinson's disease in the future.

RevDate: 2020-10-10

Nie X, Chen J, Ma X, et al (2020)

A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiome and visceral fat accumulation.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 18:2596-2609.

Purpose: Visceral fat is an independent risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The study aimed to investigate the associations between gut microbiome and visceral fat.

Methods: We recruited 32 obese adults and 30 healthy controls at baseline. Among the obese subjects, 14 subjects underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and were followed 6 months after surgery. Abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Waist, hipline, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) were included as simple obese parameters. Gut microbiome was analyzed by metagenomic sequencing.

Results: Among the obese parameters, VFA had the largest number of correlations with the species that were differentially enriched between obese and healthy subjects, following by waist, WHR, BMI, hipline, and SFA. Within the species negatively correlated with VFA, Eubacterium eligens had the strongest correlation, following by Clostridium citroniae, C. symbiosum, Bacteroides uniformis, E. ventriosum, Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16, C. hathewayi, etc. C. hathewayi and C. citroniae were increased after LSG. Functional analyses showed that among all the obese parameters, VFA had strongest correlation coefficients with the obesity-related microbial pathways. Microbial pathways involved in carbohydrate fermentation and biosynthesis of L-glutamate and L-glutamine might contribute to visceral fat accumulation.

Conclusions: Visceral fat was more closely correlated with gut microbiome compared with subcutaneous fat, suggesting an intrinsic connection between gut microbiome and metabolic cardiovascular diseases. Specific microbial species and pathways which were closely associated with visceral fat accumulation might contribute to new targeted therapies for metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Arnoriaga-Rodríguez M, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Burokas A, et al (2020)

Obesity Impairs Short-Term and Working Memory through Gut Microbial Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids.

Cell metabolism, 32(4):548-560.e7.

The gut microbiome has been linked to fear extinction learning in animal models. Here, we aimed to explore the gut microbiome and memory domains according to obesity status. A specific microbiome profile associated with short-term memory, working memory, and the volume of the hippocampus and frontal regions of the brain differentially in human subjects with and without obesity. Plasma and fecal levels of aromatic amino acids, their catabolites, and vegetable-derived compounds were longitudinally associated with short-term and working memory. Functionally, microbiota transplantation from human subjects with obesity led to decreased memory scores in mice, aligning this trait from humans with that of recipient mice. RNA sequencing of the medial prefrontal cortex of mice revealed that short-term memory associated with aromatic amino acid pathways, inflammatory genes, and clusters of bacterial species. These results highlight the potential therapeutic value of targeting the gut microbiota for memory impairment, specifically in subjects with obesity.

RevDate: 2020-10-09

Wu YN, Zhang L, Chen T, et al (2020)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor protects mice against hepatocellular carcinoma by ameliorating intestinal dysbiosis and attenuating inflammation.

World journal of gastroenterology, 26(36):5420-5436.

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The gut microbiota can help maintain healthy metabolism and immunity. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a critical factor in promoting health and homeostasis; it promotes intestinal immunity, stimulates bone marrow precursors to generate macrophage colonies, and enhances the antibacterial and antitumor activity of circulating monocytes. As such, GM-CSF may protect against HCC development by regulating immunity as well as intestinal microecology.

AIM: To investigate the impact of GM-CSF on the gut microbiome and metabolic characteristics of HCC.

METHODS: Thirty-six male BALB/c nude mice were divided into three groups: Control (n = 10), HCC (n = 13), and HCC + GM-CSF (GM-CSF overexpression, n = 13). We utilized HCC cells to establish orthotopic transplantation tumor models of HCC with normal and over-expressing GM-CSF. Liver injury, immune inflammatory function and intestinal barrier function were evaluated. The fecal microbiome and metabolome were studied using 16S rRNA absolute quantification sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: GM-CSF overexpression significantly affected the gut microbiome of mice with HCC and resulted in a high abundance of organisms of the genera Roseburia, Blautia and Butyricimonass, along with a significant reduction in Prevotella, Parabacteroides, Anaerotruncus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, and Mucispirillum. Likewise, GM-CSF overexpression resulted in a substantial increase in fecal biotin and oleic acid levels, along with a prominent decrease in the fecal succinic acid, adenosine, fumaric acid, lipoic acid, and maleic acid levels. Correlation analysis revealed that the intestinal microbiota and fecal metabolites induced by GM-CSF were primarily involved in pathways related to reducing the inflammatory response, biotin metabolism, and intestinal barrier dysfunction.

CONCLUSION: GM-CSF can protect against HCC development by regulating immunity and modulating the abundance of specific intestinal microorganisms and their metabolites. This study provides new insights into the therapeutic approaches for HCC.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Qureshi F, Adams J, Hanagan K, et al (2020)

Multivariate Analysis of Fecal Metabolites from Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Gastrointestinal Symptoms before and after Microbiota Transfer Therapy.

Journal of personalized medicine, 10(4): pii:jpm10040152.

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) holds significant promise for patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Prior work has demonstrated that plasma metabolite profiles of children with ASD become more similar to those of their typically developing (TD) peers following this treatment. This work measures the concentration of 669 biochemical compounds in feces of a cohort of 18 ASD and 20 TD children using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Subsequent measurements were taken from the ASD cohort over the course of 10-week Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT) and 8 weeks after completion of this treatment. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis techniques were used to characterize differences in metabolites before, during, and after treatment. Using Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA), it was possible to attain multivariate metabolite models capable of achieving a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 95% after cross-validation. Observations made following MTT indicate that the fecal metabolite profiles become more like those of the TD cohort. There was an 82-88% decrease in the median difference of the ASD and TD group for the panel metabolites, and among the top fifty most discriminating individual metabolites, 96% report more comparable values following treatment. Thus, these findings are similar, although less pronounced, as those determined using plasma metabolites.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Jung CY, JM Bae (2020)

Pathophysiology and protective approaches of gut injury in critical illness.

Yeungnam University journal of medicine pii:yujm.2020.00703 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut is a complex organ that has played an important role in digestion, absorption, endocrine functions, and immunity. The gut mucosal barriers consist of the immunologic barrier and nonimmunologic barrier. During critical illnesses, the gut is susceptible to injury due to the induction of intestinal hyperpermeability. Gut hyperpermeability and barrier dysfunction may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Additionally, gut microbiota are altered during critical illnesses. The etiology of such microbiome alterations in critical illnesses is multifactorial. The interaction or systemic host defense modulation between distant organs and the gut microbiome is increasingly studied in disease research. No treatment modality exists to significantly enhance the gut epithelial integrity, permeability, or mucus layer in critically ill patients. However, multiple helpful approaches including clinical and preclinical strategies exist. Enteral nutrition is associated with an increased mucosal barrier in animal and human studies. The trophic effects of enteral nutrition might help to maintain the intestinal physiology, prevent atrophy of gut villi, reduce intestinal permeability, and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. The microbiome approach such as the use of probiotics, fecal microbial transplantation, and selective decontamination of the digestive tract has been suggested. However, its evidence does not have a high quality. To promote rapid hypertrophy of the small bowel, various factors have been reported, including the epidermal growth factor, membrane permeant inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, mucus surrogate, pharmacologic vagus nerve agonist, immune-enhancing diet, and glucagon-like peptide-2 as preclinical strategies. However, the evidence remains unclear.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Yu X, Lv K, Guan S, et al (2020)

Long-term exposure to phenanthrene at environmental-level induces intestinal dysbiosis and disrupted hepatic lipid metabolism in mice.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 268(Pt B):115738 pii:S0269-7491(20)36427-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Phenanthrene (Phe), among the most ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existing in nature and foodstuffs, has severe effects on hepatic lipids metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism involved is still unknown. For environmental chemicals can disturb intestinal microbiota, which plays a vital role in lipids metabolism, we hypothesized that oral exposure to Phe may disrupt the intestinal microbiota, leading to the induction of an abnormal inflammatory response and lipid metabolism dysfunction. Herein, male mice were orally exposed to Phe (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/kg/2d) for ten weeks and the results showed that long term exposure to Phe induced significant alteration in relative Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria abundance in male mice. Histopathological anomalies, and significantly increased hepatic levels of free fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride were observed as well. The expression of hepatic proteins linked to lipid metabolism including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver X receptor β (LXRβ) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) were upregulated. The importance of the gut microbiota in Phe-altered lipid metabolism disorder was further confirmed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). FMT intervention boosted microbial diversity and attenuated Phe-induced elevation in liver somatic index and hepatic total lipids levels. These results demonstrated that environmental-level Phe altered the composition of gastrointestinal bacteria and subsequently induced hepatic lipid metabolism disorder. These results would be helpful for understanding the health risk posed by Phe.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Engen PA, Zaferiou A, Rasmussen H, et al (2020)

Single-Arm, Non-randomized, Time Series, Single-Subject Study of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Multiple Sclerosis.

Frontiers in neurology, 11:978.

Emerging evidence suggests intestinal microbiota as a central contributing factor to the pathogenesis of Relapsing-Remitting-Multiple-Sclerosis (RRMS). This novel RRMS study evaluated the impact of fecal-microbiota-transplantation (FMT) on a broad array of physiological/clinical outcomes using deep metagenome sequencing of fecal microbiome. FMT interventions were associated with increased abundances of putative beneficial stool bacteria and short-chain-fatty-acid metabolites, which were associated with increased/improved serum brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor levels and gait/walking metrics. This proof-of-concept single-subject longitudinal study provides evidence of potential importance of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of MS, and scientific rationale to help design future randomized controlled trials assessing FMT in RRMS patients.

RevDate: 2020-10-04

Kelly CR, Yen EF, Grinspan AM, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplant is Highly Effective in Real-World Practice: Initial Results from the FMT National Registry.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(20)35221-5 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is commonly used for treatment of C. difficile infections (CDI), although prospective safety data are limited and real-world FMT practice and outcomes are not well described. The FMT National Registry was designed to assess FMT methods and both safety and effectiveness outcomes from North American FMT providers.

METHODS: Patients undergoing FMT in clinical practices across North America are eligible. Participating investigators enter de-identified data into an online platform including FMT protocol, baseline patient characteristics, CDI cure and recurrence, and short and long-term safety outcomes.

RESULTS: Of the first 259 participants enrolled at 20 sites, 222 have completed short-term follow-up at 1 month, and 123 have follow-up to 6 months; 171 (66%) are female. All FMTs were done for CDI, and 249 (96%) used an unknown donor (e.g., stool bank). One-month cure occurred in 200 (90%); of these, 197 (98%) received only a single FMT. Among 112 with initial cure who were followed to 6 months, 4 (4%) had CDI recurrence. Severe symptoms reported within 1-month of FMT included diarrhea (5 (2%)) and abdominal pain (4 (2%)); 3 (1%) had hospitalizations possibly related to FMT. At 6 months, new diagnoses of irritable bowel syndrome were made in 2 (1%) and inflammatory bowel disease in 2 (1%).

CONCLUSIONS: This prospective real-world study demonstrated high effectiveness of FMT for CDI with a good safety profile. Assessment of new conditions at long-term follow-up is planned as this registry grows and will be important for determining the full safety profile of FMT.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Zhao Y, Tang Y, Chen L, et al (2020)

Restraining the TiO2 nanoparticles-induced intestinal inflammation mediated by gut microbiota in juvenile rats via ingestion of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 206:111393 pii:S0147-6513(20)31230-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Human were given a lot of opportunities to ingest TiO2 NPs in the environment. Children have low, sensitive intestinal tolerance, and they could be exposed to higher levels of TiO2 NPs than adults. Few studies have been conducted on the interaction between TiO2 NPs and juvenile intestine phase models. Thus, in this work, weaning rats were orally exposed to TiO2 NPs for 7 and 14 days. Results indicate that Ti accumulated in the intestine, liver, and feces. Inflammatory infiltration damage was observed in the colonic epithelial tissue, and gut microbiota fluctuated with a decreased abundance of Lactobacilli in feces. Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) lessened TiO2 NPs-induced colonic inflammatory injury, which might due to downregulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Meanwhile, LGG maintained normal intestinal microbiome homeostasis, thereby improving TiO2 NPs-induced colon injury in juvenile rats. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) experiment indicated possible TiO2 NPs-induced intestinal microbiota disorder led to colonic inflammation. Our works suggested the urgent need for additional studies on the risk safety assessment, mechanism, and prevention of juvenile health damage from exposure to TiO2 NPs.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Korpela K, Helve O, Kolho KL, et al (2020)

Maternal Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Cesarean-Born Infants Rapidly Restores Normal Gut Microbial Development: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(20)31089-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Infants born by vaginal delivery are colonized with maternal fecal microbes. Cesarean section (CS) birth disturbs mother-to-neonate transmission. In this study (NCT03568734), we evaluated whether disturbed intestinal microbiota development could be restored in term CS-born infants by postnatal, orally delivered fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We recruited 17 mothers, of whom seven were selected after careful screening. Their infants received a diluted fecal sample from their own mothers, taken 3 weeks prior to delivery. All seven infants had an uneventful clinical course during the 3-month follow-up and showed no adverse effects. The temporal development of the fecal microbiota composition of FMT-treated CS-born infants no longer resembled that of untreated CS-born infants but showed significant similarity to that of vaginally born infants. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the intestinal microbiota of CS-born infants can be restored postnatally by maternal FMT. However, this should only be done after careful clinical and microbiological screening.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Hyde MK, BM Masser (2020)

Eligible blood donors' decisions about donating stool for fecal microbiota transplantation: Does ambivalence play a role?.

Transfusion [Epub ahead of print].

Blood collection agencies (BCAs) are expanding core business by inviting blood donors to donate stool for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). However, whether blood donors also want to donate stool is unclear since, despite its benefits, stool donation is viewed by many as unpleasant. This study examined the prevalence, contributors to, and role of these mixed feelings (ambivalence) in stool donation intentions.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed Australian residents aged 18 years or more who believed themselves eligible to donate blood and met broad criteria for prescreening as a stool donor (eg, healthy, not taking medication). Survey questions assessed attitude, norms, self-efficacy, motives, disgust, ambivalence, and intentions to donate stool.

RESULTS: A total of 382 eligible blood donors aged not more than 50 years (mean, 28.71 years; 48% female, 62% "healthy" body mass index) participated. Six percent indicated no ambivalence about donating stool. In regression, significant determinants of ambivalence were less awareness of FMT, lower self-efficacy, motivated by ensuring that stool is available for loved ones, and more disgust about stool donation. Higher ambivalence contributed to decreased donation intention. Self-efficacy and disgust differentiated participants with moderate ambivalence, a group likely responsive to intervention, from those with low or high ambivalence.

CONCLUSION: Ambivalence about donating stool was common among eligible blood donors. BCAs should raise awareness about stool donation and FMT before requesting donation. BCAs may increase cost savings and donor retention by giving clear guidance about donation requirements and implementing processes that build confidence. Early screening of potential donors for ambivalence and disgust will enable BCAs to provide decision support.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Patel SD, Hung YC, Hashmi ZG, et al (2020)

Surgical Management of Diverticulitis-Associated Clostridioides Difficile Infection.

Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract pii:10.1007/s11605-020-04812-2 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Ianiro G, Bibbò S, Masucci L, et al (2020)

Maintaining standard volumes, efficacy and safety, of fecal microbiota transplantation for C. difficile infection during the COVID-19 pandemic: A prospective cohort study.

Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver pii:S1590-8658(20)30474-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can be a life-saving treatment against recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). It is therefore necessary to maintain this procedure available for these patients during the COVID-19 pandemic while keeping high efficacy and safety standards.

AIMS: To report outcomes of a FMT service that has adapted its operational workflow during COVID-19 pandemic to continue offering FMT to patients with CDI.

METHODS: All patients with CDI referred to our center for FMT during pandemic were prospectively included. Each step of the FMT working protocol was adapted with specific security measures to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

RESULTS: Of 26 patients evaluated for FMT, 21 were treated for recurrent or refractory CDI. Eighteen patients completed the 8-week follow-up, and no one recurred after FMT. Follow-up is ongoing in 3 patients, although in all of them diarrhea disappeared after the first procedure. No serious adverse events were reported. Two patients had also COVID-19-related pneumonia, and were cured both from CDI and COVID-19.

CONCLUSION: This is the first report to show that it is possible to maintain standard volumes, efficacy and safety of FMT for recurrent CDI during the COVID-19 pandemic, by adopting specific changes in the operational workflow.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Heimesaat MM, Genger C, Klove S, et al (2020)

The Host-Specific Intestinal Microbiota Composition Impacts Campylobacter coli Infection in a Clinical Mouse Model of Campylobacteriosis.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 9(10): pii:pathogens9100804.

Human Campylobacter-infections are progressively rising globally. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying C. coli-host interactions are incompletely understood. In this study, we surveyed the impact of the host-specific intestinal microbiota composition during peroral C. coli infection applying an established murine campylobacteriosis model. Therefore, microbiota-depleted IL-10-/- mice were subjected to peroral fecal microbiota transplantation from murine versus human donors and infected with C. coli one week later by gavage. Irrespective of the microbiota, C. coli stably colonized the murine gastrointestinal tract until day 21 post-infection. Throughout the survey, C. coli-infected mice with a human intestinal microbiota displayed more frequently fecal blood as their murine counterparts. Intestinal inflammatory sequelae of C. coli-infection could exclusively be observed in mice with a human intestinal microbiota, as indicated by increased colonic numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells and innate as well as adaptive immune cell subsets, which were accompanied by more pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the colon and mesenteric lymph nodes versus mock controls. However, in extra-intestinal, including systemic compartments, pro-inflammatory responses upon pathogen challenge could be assessed in mice with either microbiota. In conclusion, the host-specific intestinal microbiota composition has a profound effect on intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory immune responses during C. coli infection.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Fan Q, Guan X, Hou Y, et al (2020)

Paeoniflorin modulates gut microbial production of indole-3-lactate and epithelial autophagy to alleviate colitis in mice.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 79:153345 pii:S0944-7113(20)30177-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Total glucosides of peony (TGP), extracted from the root and rhizome of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has well-confirmed immunomodulatory efficacy in the clinic. However, the mechanism and active ingredients remain largely unclear.

HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Our previous study revealed a low systemic exposure but predominant gut distribution of TGP components. The aim of this study was to investigate involvement of the gut microbiota in the immunoregulatory effects and identify the active component.

METHODS: Mice received 3% DSS to establish a model of colitis. The treatment group received TGP or single paeoniflorin (PF) or albiflorin (AF). Body weight, colon length, inflammatory and histological changes were assessed. Gut microbiota structure was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing. Antibiotic treatment and fecal transplantation were used to explore the involvement of gut microbiota. Metabolomic assay of host and microbial metabolites in colon was performed.

RESULTS: TGP improved colonic injury and gut microbial dysbiosis in colitis mice, and PF was responsible for the protective effects. Fecal microbiota transfer from TGP-treated mice conferred resilience to colitis, while antibiotic treatment abrogated the protective effects. Both TGP and PF decreased colonic indole-3-lactate (ILA), a microbial tryptophan metabolite. ILA was further identified as an inhibitor of epithelial autophagy and ILA supplementation compromised the benefits of TGP.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TGP acts in part through a gut microbiota-ILA-epithelial autophagy axis to alleviate colitis.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Ortigão R, Pimentel-Nunes P, Dinis-Ribeiro M, et al (2020)

Gastrointestinal Microbiome - What We Need to Know in Clinical Practice.

GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology, 27(5):336-351.

Human gut microbiota plays an important role in individual health. When the balance between host and gut microbiota is disrupted, changes in microbiota composition and function occur, which is referred as dysbiosis. Environmental factors as diet, proton pump inhibitors, and antibiotics can lead to a permanent dysbiotic disruption. Clarification of these imbalances was made possible by recent advances in genome sequencing methods that supported acknowledgment of the interplay between microbiome and intestinal and extraintestinal disorders. This review focuses on the microbiota impact in inflammatory bowel disease, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Furthermore, novel therapies are summarized. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a successful and established therapy in recurrent CDI, and its application in other dysbiosis-related diseases is attracting enormous interest. Pre- and probiotics target microbial rebalance and have positive effects mainly in NAFLD, ulcerative colitis, IBS, and CDI patients. Promising anticarcinogenic effects have also been demonstrated in animal models. The literature increasingly describes microbial changes in many dysbiotic disorders and shows what needs to be treated. However, probiotics and FMT application in clinical practice suffers from a shortage of randomized controlled trials with standardized therapy regimens to support their recommendation.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Li Q, Guo L, Wang L, et al (2020)

Composition of "gold juice" using an ancient method based on intestinal microecology.

The Journal of international medical research, 48(9):300060520931288.

OBJECTIVE: To identify potentially effective bacterial components of gold juice, a traditional Chinese medicine treatment used for fecal microbiota transplantation.

METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from five healthy children (two boys and three girls; mean age, 7.52 ± 2.31 years). The children had no history of antibiotic use or intestinal microecological preparation in the preceding 3 months. Fresh fecal samples were collected from children to prepare gold juice in mid-to-late November, in accordance with traditional Chinese medicine methods, then used within 7 days. Finally, 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used to identify potentially effective bacterial components of gold juice. QIIME software was used for comparisons of microbial species among gold juice, diluent, filtrate, and loess samples.

RESULTS: Microflora of gold juice exhibited considerable changes following "ancient method" processing. Microbial components significantly differed between gold juice and filtrate samples. The gold juice analyzed in our study consisted of microbes that synthesize carbohydrates and amino acids by degrading substances, whereas the filtrate contained probiotic flora, Bacteroides, and Prevotella 9.

CONCLUSIONS: This study of microbial components in gold juice and filtrate provided evidence regarding effective bacterial components in gold juice, which may aid in clinical decisions concerning fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Quagliariello A, Del Chierico F, Reddel S, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Two Ulcerative Colitis Pediatric Cases: Gut Microbiota and Clinical Course Correlations.

Microorganisms, 8(10): pii:microorganisms8101486.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The clinical effects of this practice are still largely unknown and unpredictable. In this study, two children affected by mild and moderate ulcerative colitis (UC), were pre- and post-FMT monitored for clinical conditions and gut bacterial ecology. Microbiota profiling relied on receipts' time-point profiles, donors and control cohorts' baseline descriptions. After FMT, the improvement of clinical conditions was recorded for both patients. After 12 months, the mild UC patient was in clinical remission, while the moderate UC patient, after 12 weeks, had a clinical worsening. Ecological analyses highlighted an increase in microbiota richness and phylogenetic distance after FMT. This increase was mainly due to Collinsella aerofaciens and Eubacterium biforme, inherited by respective donors. Moreover, a decrease of Proteus and Blautia producta, and the increment of Parabacteroides, Mogibacteriaceae, Bacteroides eggerthi, Bacteroides plebeius, Ruminococcus bromii, and BBacteroidesovatus were associated with remission of the patient's condition. FMT results in a long-term response in mild UC, while in the moderate form there is probably need for multiple FMT administrations. FMT leads to a decrease in potential pathogens and an increase in microorganisms correlated to remission status.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Goll R, Johnsen PH, Hjerde E, et al (2020)

Effects of fecal microbiota transplantation in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome are mirrored by changes in gut microbiome.

Gut microbes, 12(1):1794263.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder of the lower gastrointestinal tract. The pathophysiology is far from settled, but a gut microbial dysbiosis is hypothesized to be a contributing factor. We earlier published a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial on fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for IBS - the REFIT trial. The present data set describes the engraftment and includes participants from the study who received active FMT; 14 participants with effect of FMT (Effect) and 8 without (No effect). Samples were collected at baseline, after 6 and 12 months. Samples from the transplants (Donor) served as a comparator. In total 66 recipient samples and 17 donor samples were subjected to deep metagenomic sequencing, and taxonomic and functional analyses were performed. Alpha diversity measures showed a significantly increased diversity and evenness in the IBS groups compared to the donors. Taxonomic profiles showed higher relative abundance of phylum Firmicutes, and lower relative abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, compared to donors at baseline. This profile was shifted toward the donor profile following FMT. Imputed growth rates showed that the resulting growth pattern was a conglomerate of donor and recipient activity. Thirty-four functional subclasses showed distinct differences between baseline samples and donors, most of which were shifted toward a donor-like profile after FMT. All of these changes were less pronounced in the No effect group. We conclude that FMT induces long-term changes in gut microbiota, and these changes mirror the clinical effect of the treatment. The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02154867).

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Yoshifuji K, Inamoto K, Kiridoshi Y, et al (2020)

Prebiotics protect against acute graft-versus-host disease and preserve the gut microbiota in stem cell transplantation.

Blood advances, 4(19):4607-4617.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Therefore, management of aGVHD is important for successful transplantation. Mucosal damage and alteration of the gut microbiota after allo-HSCT are key factors in the development of aGVHD. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the ability of prebiotics, which can alleviate mucosal damage and manipulate the gut microbiota, to mitigate posttransplantation complications, including aGVHD. Resistant starch (RS) and a commercially available prebiotics mixture, GFO, were administered to allo-HSCT recipients from pretransplantation conditioning to day 28 after allo-HSCT. Prebiotic intake mitigated mucosal injury and reduced the incidence of all aGVHD grades combined and of aGVHD grades 2 to 4. The cumulative incidence of skin aGVHD was markedly decreased by prebiotics intake. Furthermore, the gut microbial diversity was well maintained and butyrate-producing bacterial population were preserved by prebiotics intake. In addition, the posttransplantation fecal butyrate concentration was maintained or increased more frequently in the prebiotics group. These observations indicate that prebiotic intake may be an effective strategy for preventing aGVHD in allo-HSCT, thereby improving treatment outcomes and the clinical utility of stem cell transplantation approaches. This study was registered on the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) clinical trials registry (https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm) as #UMIN000027563.

RevDate: 2020-09-29

Khanna S, CS Kraft (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Tales of Caution.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5912975 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Schwartz DJ, Langdon AE, G Dantas (2020)

Understanding the impact of antibiotic perturbation on the human microbiome.

Genome medicine, 12(1):82.

The human gut microbiome is a dynamic collection of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses that performs essential functions for immune development, pathogen colonization resistance, and food metabolism. Perturbation of the gut microbiome's ecological balance, commonly by antibiotics, can cause and exacerbate diseases. To predict and successfully rescue such perturbations, first, we must understand the underlying taxonomic and functional dynamics of the microbiome as it changes throughout infancy, childhood, and adulthood. We offer an overview of the healthy gut bacterial architecture over these life stages and comment on vulnerability to short and long courses of antibiotics. Second, the resilience of the microbiome after antibiotic perturbation depends on key characteristics, such as the nature, timing, duration, and spectrum of a course of antibiotics, as well as microbiome modulatory factors such as age, travel, underlying illness, antibiotic resistance pattern, and diet. In this review, we discuss acute and chronic antibiotic perturbations to the microbiome and resistome in the context of microbiome stability and dynamics. We specifically discuss key taxonomic and resistance gene changes that accompany antibiotic treatment of neonates, children, and adults. Restoration of a healthy gut microbial ecosystem after routine antibiotics will require rationally managed exposure to specific antibiotics and microbes. To that end, we review the use of fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics to direct recolonization of the gut ecosystem. We conclude with our perspectives on how best to assess, predict, and aid recovery of the microbiome after antibiotic perturbation.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Proença IM, Allegretti JR, Bernardo WM, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation improves metabolic syndrome parameters: systematic review with meta-analysis based on randomized clinical trials.

Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.), 83:1-14 pii:S0271-5317(20)30488-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity and metabolic syndrome are important health problems that can lead to significant morbidity/mortality as well as subsequent health concerns. Alterations in the gut microbiota have been implicated in both obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a new promising therapeutic approach aimed at manipulating the gut microbiota in various chronic diseases. Randomized clinical trials assessing the use of FMT in obese and metabolic syndrome patients have been reported. The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis using randomized clinical trials (RCT) is to evaluate the role of FMT for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome and its impact on clinically relevant parameters. We searched the main databases, as well as the gray literature, to identify RCTs comparing FMT from lean donor(s) vs placebo for obese/metabolic syndrome patients. We included all studies that utilized any form of placebo (sham, saline, autologous FMT, or placebo capsules). Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included for final analysis with a total of 154 patients. We looked for clinically significant parameters related to obesity and metabolic syndrome and organized the findings into early (2-6 weeks after intervention) and late (12 weeks after intervention) outcomes. Two to 6 weeks after intervention, mean HbA1c was lower in the FMT group (MD = -1.69 mmol/L, CI [-2.88, -0.56], P = .003) and mean HDL cholesterol was higher in the FMT group (MD = 0.09 mmol/L, CI [0.02, 0.15], P = .008). There was no difference in obesity parameters 6 to 12 weeks after intervention. No serious adverse events were reported. The findings for this meta-analysis show that FMT may have a role for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, but there is currently not enough evidence to support its use in clinical practice. High-quality well-powered RCTS with longer follow-up are necessary to clarify the role of FMT in this patient cohort.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Goo N, Bae HJ, Park K, et al (2020)

The effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on autistic-like behaviors in Fmr1 KO mice.

Life sciences, 262:118497 pii:S0024-3205(20)31250-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The importance of alterations in bidirectional communication between gut and brain has become obvious in neuropsychiatric disorders. Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances are very common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and the GI microbiota profiles in children with ASD are significantly different from those in the general population. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inheritable developmental disability in humans, and patients with FXS exhibit autistic behaviors such as mental retardation and impaired social communication or interaction. We hypothesized that an increase in specific gut microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) would mitigate autistic-like behaviors. To test this hypothesis, we measured the effects of FMT from normal mice to Fmr1 KO mice on autistic-like behaviors using several behavioral tests. Because the amounts of A. muciniphila in Fmr1 KO mice was very low, we assessed A. muciniphila population, tested the expression of MUC2, and analyzed goblet cells in the gut after the FMT. We found that FMT ameliorated autistic-like behaviors, especially memory deficits and social withdrawal, and we observed that the levels of A. muciniphila were normalized to wild-type levels. In addition, FMT attenuated the increased levels of TNFα and Iba1 in the brains of Fmr1 KO mice. These results suggest that FMT could be a useful tool for the treatments of cognitive deficits and social withdrawal symptoms observed in FXS or ASD because it increases the population of A. muciniphila and decreases TNFα and Iba1 levels.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Azimirad M, Yadegar A, Gholami F, et al (2020)

Treatment of Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Using Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Iranian Patients with Underlying Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Journal of inflammation research, 13:563-570.

Purpose: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment option for patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding its efficacy and safety in patients with rCDI and concurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we present a single-center experience of FMT for treatment of rCDI in Iranian patients with IBD.

Patients and Methods: Eight patients with established IBD (7 with ulcerative colitis and 1 with Crohn's disease) who underwent at least one FMT via colonoscopy for treatment of rCDI were enrolled in this study. Demographics, pre-FMT and post-FMT IBD activity, efficacy for rCDI and adverse events (AEs) were assessed during a 6-month follow-up period. All patients had experienced 3 episodes of rCDI and were refractory to conventional therapies with metronidazole and vancomycin. Primary cure and secondary cure rates were assessed after FMT treatments.

Results: A total of 10 FMTs were performed via colonoscopy in 8 patients (6/8; 75% men) with a median age of 35 years (range: 22-60). Two patients received a second FMT. Overall, the primary and secondary cure rates were 75% and 100%, respectively. Two patients developed CPE-producing C. perfringens diagnoses after second FMTs. There were no other AEs, and no patient experienced IBD flare.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that FMT appears to be an effective, safe and rational therapeutic alternative for resolution of rCDI in patients with underlying IBD. Furthermore, we suggest implementing the CPE-producing C. perfringens testing in the screening of FMT donors.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Martínez Pizarro S (2020)

Transplantation of fecal microbiota in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization and infection.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Gulati M, Singh SK, Corrie L, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplant: Latest Addition to Arsenal Against Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection.

Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery pii:PRI-EPUB-110215 [Epub ahead of print].

An infectious disease of colon, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) is hitherto considered insurmountable leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Gut dysbiosis, generally resulting from frequent use of antibiotics is considered to be responsible for the etiopathogenesis of rCDI. Ironically, the conventional treatment strategies for the disease also include the use of anti-infective drugs such as metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomycin. As a result of the efforts to overcome the limitations of these treatment options to control recurrence of disease, Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) has emerged as an effective and safe alternative. It is pertinent to add here that FMT is defined as the process of engraftment of fecal suspension from the healthy person into the gastrointestinal tract of the diseased individual aiming at the restoration of gut microbiota. FMT has proved to be quite successful in the treatment of recurrent and resistant Clostridium difficile infections (RCDI). In last three decades a lot of information has been generated on the use of FMT for RCDI. A number of clinical trials have been reported with generally very high success rates. However, very small number of patents could be found in the area indicating that there still exists lacuna in the knowledge about FMT with respect to its preparation, regulation, mode of delivery and safety. The current review attempts to dive deeper to discuss the patents available in the area while supporting the information contained therein with the non-patent literature.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Shaffer SR, Witt J, Targownik LE, et al (2020)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of a fecal microbiota transplant center for treating recurrent C.difficile infection.

The Journal of infection pii:S0163-4453(20)30618-6 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of establishing a fecal microbial transplant (FMT) unit in Canada for the treatment of recurrent CDI.

DESIGN: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine the number of patients with recurrent CDI needed to treat (NNT) annually to make establishing a FMT unit cost-effective. We compared treating patients for their second recurrence of CDI with FMT in a jurisdiction with a FMT unit, compared to being treated with antibiotics; then sent to a medical center with FMT available for the third recurrence. We used a willingness to pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted-life-year gained.

RESULTS: The minimum annual NNT was 15 for FMT via colonoscopy, 17 for FMT via capsule, and 44 for FMT via enema compared with vancomycin, and 16, 18, and 47 compared with fidaxomicin, respectively. A medical center's minimum catchment area when establishing a FMT unit would have to be 56,849 if using FMT via colonoscopy, or 64,429 if using capsules.

CONCLUSION: We report the minimum number of patients requiring treatment annually with FMT to achieve cost-effectiveness, when including start-up and ongoing costs. FMT is cost-effective in Canada in populations with a sufficient number of eligible patients, ranging from 15 to 47 depending on the FMT modality used. This is crucial for medical jurisdictions making decisions about establishing a FMT unit for the treatment of recurrent CDI. The cost-effectiveness can be generalized in other countries.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Coman V, DC Vodnar (2020)

Gut microbiota and old age: Modulating factors and interventions for healthy longevity.

Experimental gerontology, 141:111095 pii:S0531-5565(20)30443-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Our gut microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem with a paramount role in shaping our metabolic and immunological functions. Recent research suggests that aging may negatively affect the composition, diversity, and function of our microbiota mainly due to alterations in diet and immunologic reactivity (i.e. immunosenescence), and increased incidence of certain diseases and, therefore, increased exposure to certain medication (e.g. antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors). In turn, this aging-related gut dysbiosis may contribute to the initiation and/or progress of other metabolic diseases, and consequently, to a decrease in healthy longevity. On the positive side, promising therapeutic interventions, such as diet supplementation with prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics, or fecal microbiota transplantation, aimed to counteract these aging-related deleterious consequences, could improve our health, and extend our healthy lifespan. In this context, the current review aims to assess the latest progress in identifying the key elements affecting the gut microbiota of the older adults and their mechanism of action, and the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring the diversity and healthy functions of the gut microbiota in older individuals.

RevDate: 2020-09-25

Saha S, Mara K, Pardi DS, et al (2020)

Durability Of Response To Fecal Microbiota Transplantation After Exposure to Risk Factors for Recurrence In Patients With Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5911669 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is highly effective for preventing recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Durability (no recurrence despite additional risk factor exposure) of FMT protection is largely unknown. We studied the durability of FMT in patients with recurrent CDI.

METHODS: A retrospective study of adults undergoing FMT for recurrent CDI was conducted. Data collected included demographics, CDI risk factors (comorbidities, healthcare exposure, systemic non-CDI antibiotic use, acid suppressant medications) and future CDI episodes. Durable response to FMT was defined as lack of CDI episodes within 1 year post-FMT despite risk factor exposure. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression were used as applicable. Two tailed p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: Overall 460 patients were included [median age 57 (18-94) years, 65.2% female]. Comorbidities included chronic liver disease, 12.8% (n=59), cancer, 11.7% (n=54), chronic kidney disease, 3.9% (n=18) and inflammatory bowel disease, 21.9% (n=101). Overall, 31.3% (n=144) received antibiotics, 21.7% (n=100) received acid suppressants, 76.8% (n=350) had healthcare exposure after FMT. Of 374 patients with risk factor exposure, 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 72.7%-84.0%] had durable response to FMT at one year. On multivariable analysis, antibiotic use was independently associated with decreased durability of FMT [hazard ratio 0.27 (95% CI, 0.15-0.49), p<0.001].

CONCLUSION: Majority of patients had a durable response to FMT despite exposure to CDI risk factors. Antibiotic exposure after FMT independently predicted loss of durability of FMT. Larger studies are needed to define predictors of durable response in patients with and without exposure to antibiotics.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Cai TT, Ye XL, Li RR, et al (2020)

Resveratrol Modulates the Gut Microbiota and Inflammation to Protect Against Diabetic Nephropathy in Mice.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 11:1249.

Oral administration of resveratrol is able to ameliorate the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Recent evidence suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the metabolism therapeutics. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the anti-DN effects of resveratrol are mediated through modulation of the gut microbiota using the genetic db/db mouse model of DN. We demonstrate that resveratrol treatment of db/db mice relieves a series of clinical indicators of DN. We then show that resveratrol improves intestinal barrier function and ameliorates intestinal permeability and inflammation. The composition of the gut microbiome was significantly altered in db/db mice compared to control db/m mice. Dysbiosis in db/db mice characterized by low abundance levels of Bacteroides, Alistipes, Rikenella, Odoribacter, Parabacteroides, and Alloprevotella genera were reversed by resveratrol treatment, suggesting a potential role for the microbiome in DN progression. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation, derived from healthy resveratrol-treated db/m mice, was sufficient to antagonize the renal dysfunction, rebalance the gut microbiome and improve intestinal permeability and inflammation in recipient db/db mice. These results indicate that resveratrol-mediated changes in the gut microbiome may play an important role in the mechanism of action of resveratrol, which provides supporting evidence for the gut-kidney axis in DN.

RevDate: 2020-10-03

Wang L, An J, Song S, et al (2020)

Electroacupuncture preserves intestinal barrier integrity through modulating the gut microbiota in DSS-induced chronic colitis.

Life sciences, 261:118473 pii:S0024-3205(20)31226-1 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 has been verified to ameliorate experimental acute colitis. However, the effect of EA on chronic colitis and its mechanism has not yet been explored. This study aimed to assess the protective effect of EA against chronic colitis and the related mechanisms.

MAIN METHODS: Chronic colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice, and EA was applied throughout the entire experiment. Colonic inflammation and intestinal barrier integrity were evaluated. Alterations in the gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment was used to further confirm the effect of the gut microbiota on the barrier protective effect of EA. The potential molecular mechanisms were explored by western blotting.

KEY FINDINGS: (1) EA lowered the disease activity index (DAI) and histological scores, decreased the levels of TNFα, IL1β, IL6 and iNOS, and increased the IL10 level in DSS-induced chronic colitis. (2) EA upregulated the protein expression of ZO-1, Occludin, E-Cadherin and mucin2 (MUC2), reduced the apoptosis and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and intestinal permeability. (3) EA enhanced the gut microbiota diversity and restored the community structure. (4) Both the low-frequency EA (LEA) FMT and high-frequency EA (HEA) FMT maintained the intestinal barrier integrity. (5) EA promoted activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.

SIGNIFICANCE: EA can relieve chronic experimental colitis, and this effect may depend on activation of the MAPK signaling pathway through modulation of the gut microbiota to preserve the intestinal barrier.

RevDate: 2020-09-24

Ross CN, KR Reveles (2020)

Feasibility of fecal microbiota transplantation via oral gavage to safely alter gut microbiome composition in marmosets.

American journal of primatology [Epub ahead of print].

Disruption of microbial communities within human hosts has been associated with infection, obesity, cognitive decline, cancer risk and frailty, suggesting that microbiome-targeted therapies may be an option for improving healthspan and lifespan. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of delivering fecal microbiota transplants (FMTs) to marmosets via oral gavage and to evaluate if alteration of the gut microbiome post-FMT could be achieved. This was a prospective study of marmosets housed at the Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies in San Antonio, Texas. Eligible animals included healthy young adult males (age 2-5 years) with no recent medication use. Stool from two donors was combined and administered in 0.5 ml doses to five young recipients once weekly for 3 weeks. Safety outcomes and alterations in the gut microbiome composition via 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing were compared at baseline and monthly up to 6 months post-FMT. Overall, significant differences in the percent relative abundance was seen in FMT recipients at the phylum and family levels from baseline to 1 month and baseline to 6 months post-FMT. In permutational multivariate analysis of variance analyses, treatment status (donor vs. recipient) (p = .056) and time course (p = .019) predicted β diversity (p = .056). The FMT recipients did not experience any negative health outcomes over the course of the treatment. FMT via oral gavage was safe to administer to young adult marmosets. The marmoset microbiome may be altered by FMT; however, progressive changes in the microbiome are strongly driven by the host and its baseline microbiome composition.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Cold F, Kousgaard SJ, Halkjaer SI, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Chronic Pouchitis: A Systematic Review.

Microorganisms, 8(9): pii:microorganisms8091433.

The objective was to evaluate available literature on treatment of chronic pouchitis with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) focusing on clinical outcomes, safety, and different approaches to FMT preparation and delivery. A systematic review of electronic databases was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Library from inception through April 2020. Human studies of all study types reporting results of FMT to treat chronic pouchitis were included. Nine studies, reporting FMT treatment of 69 patients with chronic pouchitis were found eligible for the review. Most studies were case series and cohort studies rated as having fair to poor quality due to high risk of bias and small sample size. Only one randomized controlled trial was included, finding no beneficial effect of FMT. In total clinical response after FMT was reported in 14 (31.8%) out of 44 evaluated patients at various timepoints after FMT, and clinical remission in ten (22.7%) patients. Only minor self-limiting adverse events were reported. FMT varied greatly regarding preparation, length of treatment, and route of delivery. The effects of FMT on symptoms of chronic pouchitis are not established, though some studies show promising results. Future controlled well-designed studies are warranted.

RevDate: 2020-10-05
CmpDate: 2020-10-05

Mao D, Jiang Q, Sun Y, et al (2020)

Treatment of intestinal graft-versus-host disease with unrelated donor fecal microbiota transplantation capsules: A case report.

Medicine, 99(38):e22129.

INTRODUCTION: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), administering fecal suspensions via a nasoduodenal tube, has achieved a promising effect in the treatment of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in some pilot studies. In this study, oral FMT capsules from unrelated donor were used for the first time in the treatment of intestinal GvHD. Patient concerns: A 31-year-old male who was diagnosed as "myelodysplastic syndromes with excess blasts II" (intermediate risk 2 of international prognostic scoring system) received human leukocyte antigen -matched sibling donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient developed diarrhea, vomiting, and bloody stool on 28 days after transplantation.

DIAGNOSIS: Intestinal acute GvHD was diagnosed clinically with histological confirmation by colonoscopy and pathological biopsy.

INTERVENTIONS: This patient was treated with first cycle of oral FMT capsules after failure to initial treatment of methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/d) combined with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α receptorII: IgG Fc fusion protein (25 mg, biw). The symptoms of intestinal GvHD were relieved but recurred 11 days later. Second cycle of oral FMT capsules was carried out.

OUTCOMES: After 2 cycles of fecal bacteria transplantation, intestinal GvHD was gradually controlled and did not recur again during the 2-month follow-up. The diversity and structure of the intestinal flora after FMT was closer to that of healthy donors than that before.

CONCLUSION: Our case showed oral FMT capsules could be used as a treatment option for corticosteroid refractory intestinal GvHD. Further studies are warranted to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of oral FMT capsules in the treatment of intestinal GvHD.

RATIONALE: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), administering fecal suspensions via a nasoduodenal tube, has achieved a promising effect in the treatment of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in some pilot studies. In this study, oral FMT capsules from unrelated donor were used for the first time in the treatment of intestinal GvHD.

PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old male who was diagnosed as "myelodysplastic syndromes with excess blasts II" (intermediate risk 2 of international prognostic scoring system) received human leukocyte antigen -matched sibling donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient developed diarrhea, vomiting, and bloody stool on 28 days after transplantation.

DIAGNOSES: Intestinal acute GvHD was diagnosed clinically with histological confirmation by colonoscopy and pathological biopsy.

INTERVENTIONS: This patient was treated with first cycle of oral FMT capsules after failure to initial treatment of methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/d) combined with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-a receptorII: IgG Fc fusion protein (25 mg, biw). The symptoms of intestinal GvHD were relieved but recurred 11 days later. Second cycle of oral FMT capsules was carried out.

OUTCOMES: After 2 cycles of fecal bacteria transplantation, intestinal GvHD was gradually controlled and did not recur again during the 2-month follow-up. The diversity and structure of the intestinal flora after FMT was closer to that of healthy donors than that before.

CONCLUSION: Our case showed oral FMT capsules could be used as a treatment option for corticosteroid refractory intestinal GvHD. Further studies are warranted to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of oral FMT capsules in the treatment of intestinal GvHD.

LESSONS: There is still a possibility of recurrence after the treatment of GvHD with capsule fecal microbiota transplantation. How to optimize the dosage and treatment course of fecal microbiota capsule administration needs further exploration.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Li Q, Ding X, Liu K, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Ulcerative Colitis: The Optimum Timing and Gut Microbiota as Predictors for Long-Term Clinical Outcomes.

Clinical and translational gastroenterology, 11(8):e00224.

INTRODUCTION: The previous researches aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) in a short-term observation. The present study aimed to explore the optimum timing of FMT for maintaining the long-term clinical benefits and to target the gut microbiota that may help to predict the long-term success or failure of FMT in UC.

METHODS: Two hundred two patients with UC were recruited from November 2012 to September 2018. The primary endpoint of this study was the maintaining time of the first and second courses of FMT. Relapse was defined as partial Mayo score ≥2 after achieving clinical remission and an increase of partial Mayo score ≥1 after achieving clinical response. The stool samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

RESULTS: The median maintaining time of the efficacy was 120 days (IQR, 45-180) and 182.5 days (IQR, 105-311.25) from the first course and second course of FMT, respectively. No FMT-related serious adverse events were observed. The differences of the relative abundance in Eggerthella, Lactobacillus, and Ruminococcus between pre-FMT and 5 days post-FMT were remarkably correlated with the long-term clinical remission (P < 0.05).

DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that patients with UC should undergo the second course of FMT within 4 months after the first course of FMT for maintaining the long-term clinical benefits. The short-term alterations of microbiota after FMT may be conducive to predicting the long-term efficacy of FMT in UC (see Visual Abstract, Supplementary Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/CTG/A363).

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Ianiro G, Segal JP, Mullish BH, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in gastrointestinal and extraintestinal disorders.

Future microbiology, 15:1173-1183.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the infusion of feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to treat a dysbiosis-related disease. FMT has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment for Clostridioides difficile infection, but increasing evidence supports the role of FMT in other gastrointestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The aim of this review is to paint the landscape of current evidence of FMT in different fields of application (including irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, decolonization of multidrug-resistant bacteria, metabolic disorders and neurological disorders), as well as to discuss the current regulatory scenario of FMT, and hypothesize future directions of FMT.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Zhong M, Sun Y, Wang HG, et al (2020)

Awareness and attitude of fecal microbiota transplantation through transendoscopic enteral tubing among inflammatory bowel disease patients.

World journal of clinical cases, 8(17):3786-3796.

BACKGROUND: Transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET) has been used in China as a novel delivery route for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) into the whole colon with a high degree of patient satisfaction among adults.

AIM: To explore the recognition and attitudes of FMT through TET in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire, evaluating their awareness and attitudes toward FMT and TET was distributed among IBD patients in two provinces of Eastern and Southwestern China. Question formats included single-choice questions, multiple-choice questions and sorting questions. Patients who had not undergone FMT were mainly investigated for their cognition and acceptance of FMT and TET. Patients who had experience of FMT, the way they underwent FMT and acceptance of TET were the main interest. Then all the patients were asked whether they would recommend FMT and TET. This study also analyzed the preference of FMT delivery in IBD patients and the patient-related factors associated with it.

RESULTS: A total of 620 eligible questionnaires were included in the analysis. The survey showed that 44.6% (228/511) of patients did not know that FMT is a therapeutic option in IBD, and 80.6% (412/511) of them did not know the concept of TET. More than half (63.2%, 323/511) of the participants stated that they would agree to undergo FMT through TET. Of the patients who underwent FMT via TET [62.4% (68/109)], the majority [95.6% (65/68)] of them were satisfied with TET. Patients who had undergone FMT and TET were more likely to recommend FMT than patients who had not (94.5% vs 86.3%, P = 0.018 and 98.5% vs 87.8%, P = 0.017). Patients' choice for the delivery way of FMT would be affected by the type of disease and whether the patient had the experience of FMT. When compared to patients without experience of FMT, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients who had experience of FMT preferred mid-gut TET (P < 0.001) and colonic TET (P < 0.001), respectively.

CONCLUSION: Patients' experience of FMT through TET lead them to maintain a positive attitude towards FMT. The present findings highlighted the significance of patient education on FMT and TET.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Caldeira LF, Borba HH, Tonin FS, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in inflammatory bowel disease patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PloS one, 15(9):e0238910.

OBJECTIVES: Current evidence on fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease is inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review to gather evidence on the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease.

METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Clinical remission was considered as the primary endpoint. Pairwise meta-analyses were performed for the randomized controlled studies (Mantel Haenszel, random effects model). Proportion meta-analyses, accounting for weighted pooled rates reported in the interventional studies, were conducted using the mixed effects model. Subgroup analyses considering the type of stool, donor type, and disease subtype were also performed. Cumulative meta-analyses to assess further needs of evidence were conducted.

RESULTS: Sixty studies were included, from which 36 could be synthesized in the quantitative analyses. Pairwise meta-analyses of six controlled trials showed significant differences in favor of fecal microbiota transplantation compared with placebo (clinical remission: RR 1.70 [95% CI 1.12, 2.56]; clinical response: RR 1.68 [95% CI 1.04, 2.72]). An overall clinical remission of 37%, overall clinical response of 54%, and a prevalence of 29% of adverse events were found for the interventional studies. Frozen fecal material and universal donors were related to better efficacy outcomes. In addition, Crohn's disease patients seemed to benefit more from the procedure.

CONCLUSIONS: The comparative analyses demonstrated that frozen fecal material from universal donors may be related to a higher rate of clinical remission, especially for Crohn's disease.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

El-Salhy M, Valeur J, Hausken T, et al (2020)

Changes in fecal short-chain fatty acids following fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) may play a role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study analyzed fecal SCFAs after performing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the IBS patients who were included in our previous study of the efficacy of FMT.

METHODS: This study included 142 of the 164 IBS patients who participated in our previous study. They were belonging to three groups: placebo (own feces), 30-g (superdonor feces), and 60-g (superdonor feces) FMT. The patients completed the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) Birmingham IBS Symptom, Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS), the IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QoL) and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI) questionnaires and delivered fecal samples at the baseline and 1 month after FMT. The SCFA levels were determined by vacuum distillation followed by gas chromatography.

KEY RESULTS: The fecal butyric acid level was significantly increased after FMT in both the 30-g and 60-g groups (both P ≤ 0.001). In the 60-g group, the levels of total SCFAs and isobutyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids increased after FMT. Butyric acid levels in the responders in both the 30-g and 60-g FMT groups were significantly inversely correlated with IBS-SSS and FAS scores (P = 0.001, r = -0.3 and P = 0.0001. r=- 0.3, respectively). There were no differences in the SCFA levels in the placebo group after FMT.

CONCLUSION AND INFERENCES: FMT increases the fecal SCFA levels in IBS patients. The increase in the butyric acid level is inversely correlated with symptoms in IBS patients following FMT, suggesting that SCFAs might play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. www.clini​caltr​ials.gov (NCT03822299).

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Xie Z, Jiang H, Liu W, et al (2020)

The triterpenoid sapogenin (2α-OH-Protopanoxadiol) ameliorates metabolic syndrome via the intestinal FXR/GLP-1 axis through gut microbiota remodelling.

Cell death & disease, 11(9):770.

Gypenosides, extracts of Gynostemma yixingense, have been traditionally prescribed to improve metabolic syndrome in Asian folk and local traditional medicine hospitals. However, the mechanism of its action remains unclarified. In this work, our results indicated that chronic administration of 2α-OH-protopanoxadiol (GP2), a metabolite of gypenosides in vivo, protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity and improved glucose tolerance by improving intestinal L-cell function. Mechanistically, GP2 treatment inhibited the enzymatic activity of bile salt hydrolase and modulated the proportions of the gut microbiota, which led to an increase in the accumulation of tauro-β-muricholic acid (TβMCA) in the intestine. TβMCA induced GLP-1 production and secretion by reducing the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Transplantation of GP2-remodelled fecal microbiota into antibiotic-treated mice also increased the intestinal TβMCA content and improved intestinal L-cell function. These findings demonstrate that GP2 ameliorates metabolic syndrome at least partly through the intestinal FXR/GLP-1 axis via gut microbiota remodelling and also suggest that GP2 may serve as a promising oral therapeutic agent for metabolic syndrome.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Stebel R, Vojtilová L, P Husa (2020)

Clostridium difficile Infection: an update on treatment and prevention.

Vnitrni lekarstvi, 66(2):58-62.

Disruption of the colonic microflora is one of the most significant adverse effects of antibiotic (ATB) therapy. Excessive multiplication of toxigenic Clostridioides difficile strains is responsible for about 20 % of cases of post-antibiotic diarrhoea. The global trend of Clostridium colitis incidence, severity, mortality and in particular therapeutic failure keeps rising. At the Department of Infectious Diseases we work on long-term monitoring of the most important colitis-associated risk factors and evaluation of individual therapeutic and preventive procedures (selective ATB therapy, faecal bacteriotherapy). A diligent analysis of risk factors and knowledge of pathogenesis are a prerequisite to practical implementation of effective and rational precautions to curb spreading of this illness. In the future, we anticipate increased use of fecal microbiota transplant, improvements in faecal transplant administration, wider use of probiotics and selective ATBs and further introduction of passive and active immunization into practice.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Masetti R, Zama D, Leardini D, et al (2020)

The gut microbiome in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Pediatric blood & cancer [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome (GM) has been associated with different clinical outcomes in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Large multicenter cohort studies in adults have found significant correlations with overall survival, relapse, and incidence of complications. Moreover, GM is already a promising target for therapeutic interventions. However, few data are available in children, a population presenting unique features and challenges. During childhood, the GM evolves rapidly with large structural fluctuations, alongside with the maturation of the immune system. Furthermore, the HSCT procedure presents significant differences in children. These considerations underline the importance of a specific focus on the pediatric setting, and the role of GM and its age-dependent trajectory in influencing the immunity reconstitution and clinical outcomes. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the available evidence in the field of GM and pediatric HSCT, highlighting age-specific issues and discussing GM-based therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Ebell MH (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplant Effective for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

American family physician, 102(6):377.

RevDate: 2020-09-16

Wu J, Wei Z, Cheng P, et al (2020)

Rhein modulates host purine metabolism in intestine through gut microbiota and ameliorates experimental colitis.

Theranostics, 10(23):10665-10679.

Background: Gut microbiota, which plays a crucial role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), might have therapeutic benefits for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Targeting gut microbiota represents a new treatment strategy for IBD patients. Rhein is one of the main components of rhubarb and exhibits poor oral bioavailability but still exerts anti-inflammatory effects in some diseases. Therefore, we investigated the effect of rhein on colitis and studied its possible mechanisms. Methods: The chronic mouse colitis model was induced by four rounds of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment. The mice were treated with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg rhein daily, body weight, colon length, histological score, inflammatory cytokines in serum or intestine, and fecal lipocalin 2 concentration were determined. Th17 cell, Th1 cell and Th2 cell infiltration in the mesenteric lymph node were analyzed by flow cytometry. Metabolic profiles were collected by non-targeted metabolomics and key metabolic pathways were identified using MetaboAnalyst 4.0. We also assessed intestinal barrier permeability and performed 16s rDNA sequencing. Lactobacillus sp. was cultured, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was employed to evaluate the contribution of gut microbiota. Results: Rhein could significantly alleviate DSS-induced chronic colitis. Uric acid was identified as a crucial modulator of colitis and rhein treatment led to decreased uric acid levels. We determined that rhein changed purine metabolism indirectly, while the probiotic Lactobacillus was involved in the regulation of host metabolism. Uric acid resulted in a worsened intestinal barrier, which could be rescued by rhein. We further confirmed that rhein-treated gut microbiota was sufficient to relieve DSS-induced colitis by FMT. Conclusion: We showed that rhein could modulate gut microbiota, which indirectly changed purine metabolism in the intestine and subsequently alleviated colitis. Our study has identified a new approach to the clinical treatment of colitis.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Jeney SES, Lane F, Oliver A, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Treatment of Refractory Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

Obstetrics and gynecology, 136(4):771-773.

RevDate: 2020-09-14

Liu Y, Qin S, Feng Y, et al (2020)

Perturbations of gut microbiota in gestational diabetes mellitus patients induce hyperglycemia in germ-free mice.

Journal of developmental origins of health and disease pii:S2040174420000768 [Epub ahead of print].

Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Lin Z, Iqbal Z, Ortiz JF, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection: Is it Superior to Other Conventional Methods?.

Cureus, 12(8):e9653.

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive species of spore-forming bacteria. C. difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections in the United States, mainly caused by the use of recent antibiotics that leads to intestinal dysbiosis. Recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI) often occurs after the successful treatment of CDI. Approximately, 30% of patients experience a clinical recurrence of prior symptoms within eight weeks of antibiotic cessation. This present literature review covers the current pathophysiology of CDI, risk factors for infection, diagnostic methods, several treatment modalities, and the potential use of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) for patients with multiple recurrent CDIs. Recent studies have focused on FMT, with an efficacy rate of nearly 90% in multiple recurrent CDI settings. Despite its efficacy, it is not commonly used as first-line treatment. More studies are needed to establish this therapy as the first option in patients with rCDI.

RevDate: 2020-09-16

Kreft L, Hoffmann C, C Ohnmacht (2020)

Therapeutic Potential of the Intestinal Microbiota for Immunomodulation of Food Allergies.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1853.

Food allergy is an atopic disease that is caused by the immune system targeting harmless food antigens that can result in life-threatening anaphylaxis. As humans and microbes have co-evolved, inevitably commensal microbes have a tremendous impact on our health. As such, the gut with its enormous microbial richness reflects a highly tolerogenic environment at steady state, in which immune cells are educated to react in a well-calibrated manner to food and microbial antigens. Recent evidence indicates that the susceptibility to food allergy is critically linked to microbial dysbiosis and can be transmitted by microbial transfer from humans to mice. Experimental work and epidemiological studies further point toward a critical time window in early childhood during which the immune system is imprinted by microbial colonization. Particularly, Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells turn out to be key players, acting as rheostats for controlling the magnitude of food allergic reactions. An increasing number of bacterial metabolites has recently been shown to regulate directly or indirectly the differentiation of peripherally induced Tregs, most of which co-express the RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt). Genetic ablation provided additional direct evidence for the importance of RORγt+ Tregs in food allergy. Future strategies for the stratification of food allergic patients with the aim to manipulate the intestinal microbiota by means of fecal transplantation efforts, pre- or probiotic regimens or for boosting oral immunotherapy may improve diagnosis and therapy. In this review some of the key underlying mechanisms are summarized and future directions for potential microbial therapy are explored.

RevDate: 2020-10-03

Zhang L, Zhou W, Zhan L, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation alters the susceptibility of obese rats to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Aging, 12(17):17480-17502 [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity is one of the susceptibility factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), both of which could accelerate the aging of the body and bring many hazards. A causal relationship is present between intestinal microbiota and body metabolism, but how the microbiota play a role in the progression of obesity to T2DM has not been elucidated. In this study, we transplanted healthy or obese-T2DM intestinal microbiota to ZDF and LZ rats, and used 16S rRNA and targeted metabonomics to evaluate the directional effect of the microbiota on the susceptibility of obese rats to T2DM. The glycolipid metabolism phenotype could be changed bidirectionally in obese rats instead of in lean ones. One possible mechanism is that the microbiota and metabolites alter the structure of the intestinal tract, and improve insulin and leptin resistance through JAK2 / IRS / Akt pathway. It is worth noting that 7 genera, such as Lactobacillus, Clostridium and Roche, can regulate 15 metabolites, such as 3-indolpropionic acid, acetic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and have a significant improvement on glycolipid metabolism phenotype. Attention to intestinal homeostasis may be the key to controlling obesity and preventing T2DM.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Seong H, Lee SK, Cheon JH, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for multidrug-resistant organism: Efficacy and Response prediction.

The Journal of infection pii:S0163-4453(20)30597-1 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO) is increasing the frequency of poor clinical outcomes, prolonging hospitalizations, and raising healthcare costs. This study evaluated the eradication efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and identified microbial and functional biomarkers of MDRO decolonization.

METHODS: Fecal solution obtained from healthy unrelated donors was infused in the participants' guts which had been colonized with carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriacea (CPE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), or both CPE and VRE. Fecal samples from recipients were collected and microbiome changes before and after FMT were assessed.

RESULTS: Twenty-four (68.6%) out of 35 patients were decolonized within one year of receiving FMT. Multivariate analysis showed that FMT (FMT: hazard ratio (HR) = 5.343, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.877-15.212, p = 0.002) and MDRO types (CPE: HR = 11.146, 95% CI = 2.420-51.340, p = 0.002; CPE/VRE: HR = 2.948, 95% CI = 1.200-7.246, p = 0.018; VRE served as the reference) were significant independent factors associated with time to decolonization. Microbiota analysis showed higher richness and biodiversity before FMT resulted in VRE decolonization. The species Clostridium ramosum and the genuses Anaerostipes and Eisenbergiella could serve as taxonomic biomarkers and K02017 could serve as a functional biomarker for VRE clearance.

CONCLUSION: FMT is an effective way to decolonize MDRO and its effectiveness may be predicted by microbiome analysis.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Apartsin K, V Smirnova (2020)

Convalescent fecal microbiota transplantation as a possible treatment for COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-09-10

Vicente Dueñas C, Janssen S, Oldenburg M, et al (2020)

An intact gut microbiome protects genetically predisposed mice against leukemia.

Blood pii:463729 [Epub ahead of print].

The majority of childhood leukemias are precursor B cell-acute lymphoblastic leukemias (pB-ALL) caused by a combination of prenatal genetic predispositions and oncogenic events occurring after birth. Although genetic predispositions are frequent in children (>1-5%), fewer than 1% of genetically predisposed carriers will develop pB-ALL. While infectious stimuli are believed to play a major role in leukemogenesis, the critical determinants are not well defined. Here, employing murine models of pB-ALL, we show that microbiome disturbances incurred by antibiotic treatment early in life were sufficient to induce leukemia in genetically predisposed mice even in the absence of infectious stimuli and independent of T-cells. Using V4 and full-length 16S rRNA sequencing of a series of fecal samples, we found that genetic predisposition to pB-ALL (Pax5 heterozygosity or ETV6-RUNX1 fusion) shaped a distinct gut microbiome. Machine learning accurately (96.8%) predicted genetic predisposition using 40 of 3,983 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) as proxies for bacterial species. Transplantation of either wild type (WT) or Pax5+/- hematopoietic bone marrow cells into WT recipient mice revealed that the microbiome is shaped and determined in a donor-genotype-specific manner. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses of sera from WT and Pax5+/- mice demonstrated the presence of a genotype-specific distinct metabolomic profile. Taken together, our data indicate that it is a lack of commensal microbiota rather than the presence of specific bacteria that promotes leukemia in genetically predisposed mice. Future large-scale longitudinal studies are required to determine whether targeted microbiome modification in children predisposed to pB-ALL could become a successful prevention strategy.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Chen M, Liu XL, Zhang YJ, et al (2020)

Efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation by washed preparation in patients with moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis.

Journal of digestive diseases [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) by washed preparation for moderate to severely active UC.

METHODS: An open-label prospective trial was conducted in an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) tertiary referral center from April 2016 to March 2018. Patients with moderate to severely active UC were randomly assigned to undergo FMT thrice on day 1, 3 and 5 by nasojejunal tube (NJT) or transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET). The primary end-point was a clinical response at week 2 post-FMT. The secondary end-points were clinical and endoscopic remission at week 12 post-FMT, safety and disease progression.

RESULTS: Of the nine patients included, 77.8% (7/9) achieved a clinical response at week 2. And 55.6% (5/9) and 33.3% (3/9), respectively, achieved clinical remission and endoscopic remission at week 12. In two patients who had no response to FMT, one switched to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, and the other underwent a colectomy. FMT was delivered through NJT in 44.4% (4/9) of the patients, while TET was used in 55.6% (5/9). The clinical outcomes did not differ significantly based on the delivery route (P > 0.05). Adverse events, all mild and self-limiting, were observed in 33.3% (3/9) of the patients.

CONCLUSIONS: FMT by washed preparation appears to be a safe and effective adjunct therapy for moderate to severely active UC during a short-term follow-up. The efficacy did not differ significantly between the NJT or TET delivery routes. Further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

RevDate: 2020-10-09

Park JC, SH Im (2020)

Of men in mice: the development and application of a humanized gnotobiotic mouse model for microbiome therapeutics.

Experimental & molecular medicine pii:10.1038/s12276-020-0473-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Considerable evidence points to the critical role of the gut microbiota in physiology and disease. The administration of live microbes as a therapeutic modality is increasingly being considered. However, key questions such as how to identify candidate microorganisms and which preclinical models are relevant to recapitulate human microbiota remain largely unanswered. The establishment of a humanized gnotobiotic mouse model through the fecal microbiota transplantation of human feces into germ-free mice provides an innovative and powerful tool to mimic the human microbial system. However, numerous considerations are required in designing such a model, as various elements, ranging from the factors pertaining to human donors to the mouse genetic background, affect how microbes colonize the gut. Thus, it is critical to match the murine context to that of human donors to provide a continuous and faithful progression of human flora in mice. This is of even greater importance when the need for accuracy and reproducibility across global research groups are taken into account. Here, we review the key factors that affect the formulation of a humanized mouse model representative of the human gut flora and propose several approaches as to how researchers can effectively design such models for clinical relevance.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Roussin L, Prince N, Perez-Pardo P, et al (2020)

Role of the Gut Microbiota in the Pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Clinical and Preclinical Evidence.

Microorganisms, 8(9): pii:microorganisms8091369.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 160 people in the world. Although there is a strong genetic heritability to ASD, it is now accepted that environmental factors can play a role in its onset. As the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is four-times higher in ASD patients, the potential implication of the gut microbiota in this disorder is being increasingly studied. A disturbed microbiota composition has been demonstrated in ASD patients, accompanied by altered production of bacterial metabolites. Clinical studies as well as preclinical studies conducted in rodents have started to investigate the physiological functions that gut microbiota might disturb and thus underlie the pathophysiology of ASD. The first data support an involvement of the immune system and tryptophan metabolism, both in the gut and central nervous system. In addition, a few clinical studies and a larger number of preclinical studies found that modulation of the microbiota through antibiotic and probiotic treatments, or fecal microbiota transplantation, could improve behavior. Although the understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in the physiopathology of ASD is only in its early stages, the data gathered in this review highlight that this role should be taken in consideration.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Cheung MK, Yue GGL, Tsui KY, et al (2020)

Discovery of an interplay between the gut microbiota and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in mice.

American journal of cancer research, 10(8):2409-2427.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the main type of esophageal cancer (EC) worldwide, causing half a million deaths each year. Recent evidence has demonstrated the role of the gut microbiota in health and disease. However, our current understanding of the gut microbiome in EC remains scarce. Here, we characterized the gut and esophageal microbiome in a metastatic mouse model of ESCC and examined the functional roles of the gut microbiota in EC development in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments. Nude mice intraperitoneally xenografted with human EC-109 cells showed significant alterations in the overall structure, but not alpha diversity, of the gut and esophageal microbiome as compared to naïve control mice. Xenograft of EC cells depleted the order Pasteurellales in the gut microbiome, and enriched multiple predicted metabolic pathways, including those involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, in the esophageal microbiome. FMT of stool from healthy mice to antibiotic-treated xenograft-bearing mice significantly attenuated liver metastasis, suggesting a protective role of the commensal gut microbiota in EC. Moreover, we showed that combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and the anti-EC medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata (AP) differentially affected the gut and esophageal microbiome in EC. FMT experiment revealed a reduced anti-metastatic efficacy of AP on liver metastasis in antibiotic-treated xenograft-bearing mice, suggesting a role of the commensal gut microbiota in the anti-metastatic efficacy of the herb. In conclusion, our findings reveal for the first time an interplay between the gut microbiota and EC and provide insights into the treatment strategies for EC.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Lozupone M, D'Urso F, Piccininni C, et al (2020)

The relationship between epigenetics and microbiota in neuropsychiatric diseases.

Epigenomics, 12(17):1559-1568.

Microbiota might be considered as a pool for environmental epigenetic factors. Evidence is accumulating that environmental exposures - including microbes, diet, drugs - play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are complex, involving the sensitive interplay of genetics with epigenetics, neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. Modifications of microbiota affect neurogenesis and the maturation of microglia, influencing social behavior, stress-related responses and fear learning mechanisms. The excitatory neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex appear to play a key role. The mechanisms through which antibiotics administration may modulate microbiota and, therefore, behavior and neuropsychiatric disorders, may be influenced by several variables such as pre-existing gastrointestinal inflammation, the baseline microbiota composition, diet and stress perception. Probiotics, individualized diet, antibiotics and fecal transplantation could positively modulate the effects of epigenetic factors on neuropsychiatric disorders.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Wang SC, Chen YC, Chen SJ, et al (2020)

Alcohol Addiction, Gut Microbiota, and Alcoholism Treatment: A Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(17):.

Alcohol addiction is a leading risk factor for personal death and disability. In 2016, alcohol use caused 2.2% of female deaths and 6.8% of male deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were 2.3% in female and 8.9% in male. Individuals with alcohol use disorder are at high risk of anxiety, depression, impaired cognition performance, and illicit drug use and are comorbid with liver disease, such as alcoholic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, which is a major cause of personal death and disability worldwide. Psychological interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy and motivational interviewing, as well as medical treatments, such as disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate, and nalmefene, are used for the treatment of alcohol addiction in Europe and the United States. However, the effect of current interventions is limited, and the need for additional interventions is substantial. Alcohol use impairs the intestinal barrier and causes changes to the intestinal permeability as well as the gut microbiota composition. Emerging studies have tried to reveal the role of the gut-brain axis among individuals with alcohol use disorder with or without alcohol liver disease. Bacterial products penetrate the impaired intestinal barrier and cause central inflammation; changes to the gut microbiota impair enterohepatic circulation of bile acids; alcohol abuse causes shortage of vital nutrients such as thiamine. Several studies have suggested that probiotics, through either oral administration or fecal microbiota transplantation, increased intestinal levels of potentially beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, improving the levels of liver-associated enzymes in patients with mild alcoholic hepatitis, and demonstrating beneficial psychotropic effects on anxiety and depression. In addition to medications for alcohol addiction, gene editing therapy such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) may be another potential research target. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which are associated with ADH and ALDH genes, are major enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism, and gene editing approaches may have the potential to directly modify specific genes to treat alcoholism caused by genetic defects. Further research is needed to study the effect of the combined treatment for alcohol addiction.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Galan-Ros J, Ramos-Arenas V, P Conesa-Zamora (2020)

Predictive values of colon microbiota in the treatment response to colorectal cancer.

Pharmacogenomics, 21(14):1045-1059.

The crosstalk between the colon mucosa and the microbiota represents a complex and delicate equilibrium. Gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with a state of altered microbiota composition known as dysbiosis, which seems to play a causative role in some of these illnesses. Recent reports have shown that the colorectal microbiome is responsible for the response and safety to treatments against CRC, especially immunotherapy, hence opening the possibility to use bacteria as a predictive marker and also as a therapeutic agent. The review objective is to summarize updated reports about the the implication of the colorectal microbiome in the development of CRC, in treatment response and its potential as a therapeutic approach.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Martinez-Gili L, McDonald JAK, Liu Z, et al (2020)

Understanding the mechanisms of efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant in treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection and beyond: the contribution of gut microbial-derived metabolites.

Gut microbes, 12(1):1810531.

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a highly-effective therapy for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI), and shows promise for certain non-CDI indications. However, at present, its mechanisms of efficacy have remained poorly understood. Recent studies by our laboratory have noted the particular key importance of restoration of gut microbe-metabolite interactions in the ability of FMT to treat rCDI, including the impact of FMT upon short chain fatty acid (SCFAs) and bile acid metabolism. This includes a significant impact of these metabolites upon the life cycle of C. difficile directly, along with potential postulated additional benefits, including effects upon host immune response. In this Addendum, we first present an overview of these recent advancements in this field, and then describe additional novel data from our laboratory on the impact of FMT for rCDI upon several gut microbial-derived metabolites which had not previously been implicated as being of relevance.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Dawoodbhoy FM, Patel BK, Patel K, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis as a Target for Improved Post-Surgical Outcomes and Improved Patient Care. A Review of Current Literature.

Shock (Augusta, Ga.) [Epub ahead of print].

Critical illness results in significant changes in the human gut microbiota, leading to the breakdown of the intestinal barrier function, which plays a role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction. Patients with sepsis/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have a profoundly distorted intestinal microbiota rhythm, which plays a considerable role in the development of gut-derived infections and intestinal dysbiosis. Despite recent medical developments, post-surgical complications are associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Bacterial translocation (BT), which is the movement of bacteria and bacterial products across the intestinal barrier, was shown to be a mechanism behind sepsis. Current research is focusing on a solution by addressing significant factors that contribute to intestinal dysbiosis, which subsequently leads to multiple organ failure and, thus, mortality. It may, however, be challenging to manipulate the microbiota in critically ill patients for enhanced therapeutic gain. Probiotic manipulation is advantageous for maintaining the gut-barrier defense and for modulating the immune response. Based on available published research, this review aims to address the application of potential strategies in the intensive care unit (ICU), supplemented with current therapeutics by the administration of probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplant, to reduce post-surgical complications of sepsis/ARDS in critically ill patients.

RevDate: 2020-10-05
CmpDate: 2020-10-05

Labuschaigne M, Slabbert M, Budree S, et al (2020)

The ethicolegal framework relevant to human faecal microbiota transplants in South Africa: Part 3. Stool as a 'drug' or medicine.

South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde, 110(8):819-821.

The purpose of this article, the last in a series of three exploring the legal framework for the regulation of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in South Africa (SA), is to determine the regulatory framework that applies to microbial-based treatments involving a level of manipulation that exceeds that of basic stool transplantation, e.g. processed FMT-derived products in capsule form. The article highlights the legal requirements for the registration of these products as biological medicines in SA law. Although human stool banks are not regulated in terms of the National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) and regulations, the earlier articles point out that human stool fits the definition of human tissue and human biological material as defined by the NHA. For this reason, stool banks should be considered tissue banks in terms of the NHA and regulations. Healthcare practitioners and researchers involved in FMT banking and transplantation should strive to comply with these regulations in the absence of clear legal direction at present.

RevDate: 2020-10-05
CmpDate: 2020-10-05

Labuschaigne M, Slabbert M, Budree S, et al (2020)

The ethicolegal framework relevant to human faecal microbiota transplants in South Africa: Part 2. Human stool as tissue?.

South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde, 110(8):816-818.

Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. The purpose of this article, the second of a series of three articles, is to explore the legal framework governing human FMT in South Africa (SA). FMT involves different modes of administration that require different regulatory considerations. The focus of this article is to explore the legal classification of human stool as tissue in terms of the National Health Act 61 of 2003, as well as the regulation of human stool banks as tissue banks. The article concludes with specific recommendations aimed at improving the current regulatory vacuum relating to the regulation of FMT in SA.

RevDate: 2020-10-05
CmpDate: 2020-10-05

Labuschaigne M, Slabbert M, Budree S, et al (2020)

The ethicolegal framework relevant to human faecal microbiota transplants in South Africa: Part 1. A legal vacuum.

South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde, 110(8):812-815.

The legal regulation of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in South Africa (SA) is currently unclear. The purpose of this article, the first of three in a series, is to explore the nature, role and clinical application of FMT in SA in order to determine, from a legal perspective, the appropriate regulatory pathways governing FMT as a procedure that may combine approaches for the treatment of drugs, human tissue for transplantation, or clinical treatment as part of the practice of medicine. FMT has been shown to be a novel, safe and effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Stool banks are instrumental in enabling access to FMT for patients and clinicians and help to catalyse research in the microbiome. However, the regulatory landscape in SA remains unclear. Microbial therapies such as FMT are necessary, especially in a time of rising microbiome-associated inflammatory diseases and increasing resistance to traditional antibiotics. FMT is now considered as part of the standard of care for recurrent CDI overseas, but is currently only being used for research purposes in a minority of clinical cases of CDI in SA. This article, which lays the foundation for consideration of this question in three parts, suggests that the relevant regulatory system would depend on the categorisation of human stool as tissue, the exact composition of the FMT, how it is administered to patients, and the relevant levels of manipulation of the stool for FMT-derived products.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Yue B, Yu ZL, Lv C, et al (2020)

Regulation of the intestinal microbiota: An emerging therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease.

World journal of gastroenterology, 26(30):4378-4393.

The rapid development of metagenomics, metabolomics, and metatranscriptomics provides novel insights into the intestinal microbiota factors linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Multiple microorganisms play a role in intestinal health; these include bacteria, fungi, and viruses that exist in a dynamic balance to maintain mucosal homeostasis. Perturbations in the intestinal microbiota disrupt mucosal homeostasis and are closely related to IBD in humans and colitis in mice. Therefore, preventing or correcting the imbalance of microbiota may serve as a novel prevention or treatment strategy for IBD. We review the most recent evidence for direct or indirect interventions targeting intestinal microbiota for treatment of IBD in order to overcome the current limitations of IBD therapies and shed light on personalized treatment options.

RevDate: 2020-09-14
CmpDate: 2020-09-14

Xue LJ, Yang XZ, Tong Q, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation therapy for Parkinson's disease: A preliminary study.

Medicine, 99(35):e22035.

Imbalances in the gut microbiota mediate the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being explored as a potential therapy for PD. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of FMT on PD. Fifteen PD patients were included, 10 of them received FMT via colonoscopy (colonic FMT group) and 5 received FMT via nasal-jejunal tube (nasointestinal FMT group). The score of PSQI, HAMD, HAMA, PDQ-39, NMSQ and UPDRS-III significantly decreased after FMT treatment (all P < .05). Colonic FMT group showed significant improvement and longer maintenance of efficacy compared with nasointestinal FMT (P = .002). Two patients achieved self-satisfying outcomes that last for more than 24 months. However, nasointestinal FMT group had no significant therapeutic effect, although UPDRS-III score slightly reduced. There were no patients were satisfied with nasointestinal FMT for more than 3 months. Among 15 PD patients, there were 5 cases had adverse events (AEs), including diarrhea (2 cases), abdominal pain (2 cases) and flatulence (1 case). These AEs were mild and self-limiting. We conclude that FMT can relieve the motor and non-motor symptoms with acceptable safety in PD. Compared with nasointestinal FMT, colonic FMT seems better and preferable.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Marcondes Ávila PR, Fiorot M, Michels M, et al (2020)

Effects of microbiota transplantation and the role of the vagus nerve in gut-brain axis in animals subjected to chronic mild stress.

Journal of affective disorders, 277:410-416 pii:S0165-0327(20)32609-4 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is a growing emphasis on the study of intestinal signaling as an influencer in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, and the gut-brain axis is recognized as a communication route through endocrine, immune, and neural pathways (vagus nerve). Studies have shown that diets that modify the microbiota can reduce stress-related behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Investigators have used fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) approaches to demonstrate that stress-related microbiota composition plays a causal role in behavioral changes.

AIM: We hypothesized that FMT may present immunomodulatory, biochemical, endocrine, cognitive, and behavioral benefits in stress situations and that these changes can be mediated via the vagus nerve.

METHODS: Animals were subjected to a chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol. In one experiment, animals were divided into five groups: control, control + FMT, control + FMT + CMS, CMS + saline, and CMS + FMT. The animals received FMT, and behavioral tests were performed; cytokine and carbonyl levels were measured. In a second experiment, animals were submitted to vagotomy and divided into two groups: CMS + FMT and CMS + vagotomy + FMT.

RESULTS: Animals submitted to the CMS protocol or that received FMT from stressed animals showed behavioral changes and changes in neuroactive substances (increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels and carbonyl proteins). The FMT of healthy donors improved the analyzed parameters. In addition, vagotomy influenced beneficial FMT results, confirmed by behavioral testing and protein carbonyl in the hippocampus.

CONCLUSION: Manipulation of the microbiota reversed the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by the CMS protocol, and the vagus nerve influenced the gut-brain axis response.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Magruder M, Edusei E, Zhang L, et al (2020)

Gut commensal microbiota and decreased risk for Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria and urinary tract infection.

Gut microbes, 12(1):1805281.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication in kidney transplant recipients and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence supports a role for the gut as a source for UTIs but little is known about the relationship between gut commensal bacteria and UTI development. We hypothesized that the abundance of gut commensal bacteria is associated with a lower risk of developing bacteriuria and UTIs. We performed gut microbiome profiling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V4-V5 hypervariable region on 510 fecal specimens in 168 kidney transplant recipients. Fifty-one kidney transplant recipients (30%) developed Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria within the first 6 months after transplantation (Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group) and 117 did not (No Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group). The relative abundances of Faecalibacterium and Romboutsia were significantly higher in the fecal specimens from the No Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group than those from the Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group (Adjusted P value<.01). The combined relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Romboutsia was inversely correlated with the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (r = -0.13, P = .003). In a multivariable Cox Regression, a top tercile cutoff of the combined relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Romboutsia of ≥13.7% was independently associated with a decreased risk for Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria (hazard ratio 0.3, P = .02) and Enterobacteriaceae UTI (hazard ratio 0.4, P = .09). In conclusion, we identify bacterial taxa associated with decreased risk for Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria and Enterobacteriaceae UTI in kidney transplant recipients, which supports future studies on modulating the gut microbiota as a novel treatment for preventing UTIs.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Raghu Subramanian C, Talluri S, Khan SU, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients With Multiple Comorbidities: Long-Term Safety and Efficacy Results From a Tertiary Care Community Hospital.

Gastroenterology research, 13(4):138-145.

Background: Cure rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) have been promising. However, there is debate regarding success of FMT in patients with comorbidities.

Methods: Electronic chart review was done to collect data on patients who underwent FMT from January 2015 to August 2017. Charts were analyzed in November 2018 with a median follow-up of 25.4 months (interquartile range 20 - 31 months).

Results: Twenty patients underwent FMT. The primary success rate at our institution was 90% and overall success rate was 100%. Six patients (43%) had FMT failure (two early and four late).

Conclusions: This case series is a description of our center's initial experience with FMT for treatment of recurrent CDI. Our high success rate reiterates the efficacy and safety of FMT in this population including patients with comorbidities.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Kwak S, Choi J, Hink T, et al (2020)

Impact of investigational microbiota therapeutic RBX2660 on the gut microbiome and resistome revealed by a placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Microbiome, 8(1):125.

BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota restoration can be achieved by complementing a subject's perturbed microbiota with that of a healthy donor. Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) is one key application of such treatment. Another emerging application of interest is reducing antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) and organisms (AROs). In this study, we investigated fecal specimens from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b study of microbiota-based investigational drug RBX2660. Patients were administered either placebo, 1 dose of RBX2660 and 1 placebo, or 2 doses of RBX2660 via enema and longitudinally tracked for changes in their microbiome and antibiotic resistome.

RESULTS: All patients exhibited significant recovery of gut microbiome diversity and a decrease of ARG relative abundance during the first 7 days post-treatment. However, the microbiome and resistome shifts toward average configurations from unperturbed individuals were more significant and longer-lasting in RBX2660 recipients compared to placebo. We quantified microbiome and resistome modification by RBX2660 using a novel "transplantation index" metric. We identified taxonomic and metabolic features distinguishing the baseline microbiome of non-transplanted patients and taxa specifically enriched during the process of transplantation. We elucidated the correlation between resistome and taxonomic transplantations and post-treatment dynamics of patient-specific and RBX2660-specific ARGs. Whole genome sequencing of AROs cultured from RBX2660 product and patient samples indicate ARO eradication in patients via RBX2660 administration, but also, to a lesser extent, introduction of RBX2660-derived AROs.

CONCLUSIONS: Through shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we elucidated the effects of RBX2660 in the microbiome and resistome. Antibiotic discontinuation alone resulted in significant recovery of gut microbial diversity and reduced ARG relative abundance, but RBX2660 administration more rapidly and completely changed the composition of patients' microbiome, resistome, and ARO colonization by transplanting RBX2660 microbiota into the recipients. Although ARGs and AROs were transmitted through RBX2660, the resistome post-RBX2660 more closely resembled that of the administered product-a proxy for the donor-than an antibiotic perturbed state.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02299570 . Registered 19 November 2014 Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2020-09-23

Zhang F, Zhang X, Yu J, et al (2020)

The gut microbiota confers the lipid-lowering effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) In high-fat diet (HFD)-Induced hyperlipidemic mice.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 131:110667 pii:S0753-3322(20)30860-X [Epub ahead of print].

The bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a medical food with well-documented hypoglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Previous studies showed that the M. charantia fruit (MC) could modulate the gut microbiota, but whether this modulation is essential for MC's pharmacological effects is largely unknown. Here, we assessed the causality of gut microbes in MC-elicited anti-hyperlipidemic effects for the first time. Oral administration of MC significantly prevented hyperlipidemia, but this amelioration substantially diminished when co-treated with antibiotics. Transplantation of gut flora from MC-treated donor mice also significantly decreased serum lipids. The microbiological analysis revealed that MC moderately increased diversity and shifted the overall structure of gut microbiota. It selectively enhanced the relative abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs)-producing genera and increased fecal SCFAs content. These results demonstrate that M. charantia fruit (MC) may exert an anti-hyperlipidemic effect through modulating gut microbes and increasing SCFAs production.

RevDate: 2020-08-29

Rinott E, Youngster I, Meir AY, et al (2020)

Effects of Diet-Modulated Autologous Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Weight Regain.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(20)35111-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of diet-modulated autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (aFMT) for treatment of weight regain after the weight loss phase.

METHODS: In the DIRECT-PLUS weight loss trial (May 2017 through July 2018), abdominally obese or dyslipidemic participants in Israel were randomly assigned to (1)healthy dietary guidelines, (2)Mediterranean diet, and (3)green-Mediterranean diet weight-loss groups. All groups received free gym membership and physical activity guidelines. Both iso-caloric Mediterranean groups consumed 28g/day walnuts (+440mg/d polyphenols provided). The green-Mediterranean dieters further consumed green tea (3-4 cups/day) and a Wolffia-globosa (Mankai strain;100g/day) green shake (+800mg/day polyphenols provided). After 6 months (weight-loss phase), 90 eligible participants (mean age, 52 years; mean weight loss, 8.3 kg) provided a fecal sample that was processed into aFMT by frozen, opaque and odorless capsules. The participants were then randomly assigned to groups that received 100 capsules containing their own fecal microbiota or placebo until month 14. The primary outcome was regain of the lost weight over the expected weight regain phase (months 6-14). Secondary outcomes were gastrointestinal symptoms, waist-circumference, glycemic status and changes in the gut microbiome, as measured by metagenomic sequencing and 16s-rRNA. We validated the results in a parallel in-vivo study of mice specifically fed with Mankai, as compared to control chow diet.

RESULTS: Of the 90 participants in the aFMT trial, 96% ingested at least 80 of 100 oral aFMT or placebo frozen capsules over the transplantation period. No aFMT-related adverse events or symptoms were observed. For the primary outcome, although no significant differences in weight regain were observed among the participants in the different lifestyle interventions during months 6-14 (aFMT, 30.4% vs. placebo, 40.6%;P=.28), aFMT significantly attenuated weight regain in the green-Mediterranean group (aFMT, 17.1%, vs placebo, 50%; P=.02), but not in the dietary guidelines (P=.57) or Mediterranean diet (P=.64) groups (P for the interaction=.03). Accordingly, aFMT attenuated waist circumference gain (aFMT, 1.89cm vs placebo, 5.05cm;P=.01) and insulin rebound (aFMT, 1.46±3.6μIU/ml vs placebo, 1.64±4.7μIU/ml;P=.04) in the green Mediterranean group but not in the dietary guidelines or Mediterranean diet (P for the interaction=.04 and .03, respectively). The green-Mediterranean diet was the only intervention to induce a significant change in microbiome composition during the weight loss phase, and to prompt preservation of weight loss-associated specific bacteria and microbial metabolic pathways (mainly microbial sugar transport) following the aFMT. In mice, Mankai-modulated aFMT in the weight loss phase, compared with control diet aFMT, significantly prevented weight regain, and resulted in better glucose tolerance, during a high-fat-diet induced regain phase (P<.05 for all).

CONCLUSIONS: Autologous FMT, collected during the weight loss phase and administrated in the regain phase, might preserve weight loss and glycemic control and is associated with specific microbiome signatures. High-polyphenols, green plant-based or Mankai diet better optimizes the microbiome for an aFMT procedure. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03020186).

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ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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