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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jun 2020 at 01:40 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Assimakopoulos SF, Papadopoulou I, Bantouna D, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Hydrocortisone Ameliorate Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction and Improve Survival in a Rat Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture-Induced Sepsis.

Shock (Augusta, Ga.) [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome which can progress to multiple organ dysfunction with high mortality. Intestinal barrier failure exerts a central role in the pathophysiological sequence of events that lead from sepsis to multiple organ dysfunction. The present study investigated the role of hydrocortisone (HC) administration and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in several parameters of the gut barrier integrity, immune activation and survival, in a model of polymicrobial sepsis in rats.

METHODS: Forty adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham (group I), cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (group II), CLP + HC (2.8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally single dose at 6 hours) (group III) and CLP + FMT at 6 hours (group IV). At 24 h post-CLP, ileal tissues were harvested for histological and immunohistochemical analyses while endotoxin, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in systemic circulation were determined. In a second experiment the same groups were observed for seven days for mortality, with daily administration of hydrocortisone (group III) and FMT (group IV) in surviving rats.

RESULTS: HC administration and FMT significantly reduced mortality of septic rats by 50%. These interventions totally reversed intestinal mucosal atrophy by increasing villous density and mucosal thickness (μm, mean ± SD: Group I: 620 ± 35, Group II: 411 ± 52, Group III: 622 ± 19, Group IV:617 ± 44). HC and FMT reduced the apoptotic body count in intestinal crypts whereas increased the mitotic/apoptotic index. Activated caspase-3 expression in intestinal crypts was significantly reduced by HC or FMT (activated caspase-3 (+) enterocytes/10 crypts, mean ± SD: Group I: 1,6 ± 0,5, Group II: 5,8 ± 2,4, Group III: 3,6 ± 0,9, Group IV:2,3 ± 0,6). Both treatments increased Paneth cell count and decreased intraepithelial CD3(+) T lymphocytes and inflammatory infiltration of lamina propria to control levels. In the sham group almost the total of intestinal epithelial cells expressed occludin (92 ± 8%) and claudin-1 (98 ± 4%) and CLP reduced this expression to 34 ± 12% for occludin and 35 ± 7% for claudin-1. Administration of HC significantly increased occludin (51 ± 17%) and claudin-1 (77 ± 9%) expression. FMT exerted also a significant restoring effect in TJ by increasing occludin (56 ± 15%) and claudin-1 (84 ± 7%) expression. The beneficial effects of these treatments on gut barrier function led to significant reduction of systemic endotoxemia (EU/ml, mean ± SD: Group I: 0,93 ± 0,36, Group II: 2,14 ± 1,74, Group III: 1,48 ± 0,53, Group IV: 1,61 ± 0,58,), while FMT additionally decreased IL-6 and IL-10 levels.

CONCLUSION: Fecal microbiota transplantation and stress dose hydrocortisone administration in septic rats induce a multifactorial improvement of the gut mechanical and immunological barriers, preventing endotoxemia and leading to improved survival.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Rasmussen TS, Koefoed AK, Jakobsen RR, et al (2020)

Bacteriophage-mediated manipulation of the gut microbiome - promises and presents limitations.

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:5851274 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiome (GM) composition and function are linked to human health and disease, and routes for manipulating the GM have become an area of intense research. Due to its high treatment efficacy, the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is generally accepted as a promising experimental treatment for patients suffering from GM imbalances (dysbiosis), e.g. caused by recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI). Mounting evidence suggests that bacteriophages (phages) play a key role in successful FMT treatment by restoring the dysbiotic bacterial GM. As a refinement to FMT, removing the bacterial component of donor feces by sterile filtration, also referred to as fecal virome transplantation (FVT), decreases the risk of invasive infections caused by bacteria. However, eukaryotic viruses and prophage-encoded virulence factors remain a safety issue. Recent in vivo studies show how cascading effects are initiated when phage communities are transferred to the gut by e.g. FVT, which leads to changes in the GM composition, host metabolome, and improve host health such as alleviating symptoms of obesity and type-2-diabetes (T2D). In this review, we discuss the promises and limitations of FVT along with the perspectives of using FVT to treat various diseases associated with GM dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Chinna Meyyappan A, R Milev (2020)

The Safety, Efficacy, and Tolerability of Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic-2 in People With Major Depression and/or Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Protocol for a Phase 1, Open-Label Study.

JMIR research protocols, 9(6):e17223 pii:v9i6e17223.

BACKGROUND: The bidirectional signaling between the gut microbiota and the brain, known as the gut-brain axis, is being heavily explored in current neuropsychiatric research. Analyses of the human gut microbiota have shown considerable individual variability in bacterial content, which is hypothesized to influence brain function, and potentially mood and anxiety symptoms, through gut-brain axis communication. Preclinical and clinical research examining these effects suggests that fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) may aid in improving the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms by recolonizing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with healthy bacteria. The microbial ecosystem therapeutic (ie, microbial ecosystem therapeutic-2 [MET-2]) used in this study is an alternative treatment to FMT, which comprises 40 different strains of gut bacteria from a healthy donor.

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to assess subjective changes in mood and anxiety symptoms before, during, and after administration of MET-2. The secondary objectives of this study are to assess the changes in metabolic functioning and the level of repopulation of healthy gut bacteria, the safety and tolerability of MET-2, and the effects of early stress on biomarkers of depression/anxiety and the response to treatment.

METHODS: Adults experiencing depressive or anxiety symptoms will be recruited from the Kingston area. These participants will orally consume an encapsulated MET-2 once daily-containing 40 strains of purified and laboratory-grown bacteria from a single healthy donor-for 8 weeks, followed by a 2-week treatment-free follow-up period. Participants will undergo a series of clinical assessments measuring mood, anxiety, and GI symptoms using validated clinical scales and questionnaires. Molecular data will be collected from blood and fecal samples to assess metabolic changes, neurotransmitter levels, inflammatory markers, and the level of engraftment of the fecal samples that may predict outcomes in depression or anxiety.

RESULTS: Given the association between the gut bacteria and the risk factors of depression, we expect to observe an improvement in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms following treatment, and we expect that this improvement is mediated by the recolonization of the GI tract with healthy bacteria. The recruitment for this study has been completed, and the data obtained are currently being analyzed.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time MET-2 is being tested in psychiatric indications, specifically depression and anxiety. As such, this may be the first study to show the potential effects of microbial therapy in alleviating psychiatric symptoms as well as its safety and tolerability.

DERR1-10.2196/17223.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Trang-Poisson C, Kerdreux E, Poinas A, et al (2020)

Impact of fecal microbiota transplantation on chronic recurrent pouchitis in ulcerative colitis with ileo-anal anastomosis: study protocol for a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

Trials, 21(1):455 pii:10.1186/s13063-020-04330-1.

BACKGROUND: Almost 15% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) will require a proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) as a result of fulminant colitis, dysplasia, cancer, or medical refractory diseases. Around 50% will experience pouchitis, an idiopathic inflammatory condition involving the ileal reservoir, responsible for digestive symptoms, deterioration in quality of life, and disability. Though the majority of initial cases of pouchitis are easily managed with a short course of antibiotics, in about 10% of cases, inflammation of the pouch becomes chronic with very few treatments available. Previous studies have suggested that manipulating the composition of intestinal flora through antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics achieved significant results for treating acute episodes of UC-associated pouchitis. However, there is currently no established effective treatment for chronic antibiotic-dependent pouchitis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a novel therapy involving the transfer of normal intestinal flora from a healthy donor to a patient with a medical condition potentially caused by the disrupted homeostasis of intestinal microbiota or dysbiosis.

METHODS: Our project aims to compare the delay of relapse of chronic recurrent pouchitis after FMT versus sham transplantation. Forty-two patients with active recurrent pouchitis after having undergone an IPAA for UC will be enrolled at 12 French centers. The patients who respond to antibiotherapy will be randomized at a ratio of 1:1 to receive either FMT or sham transplantation.

DISCUSSION: On April 30, 2014, the World Health Organization published an alarming report on antibiotic resistance. Finding an alternative medical treatment to antibiotics in order to prevent relapses of pouchitis is therefore becoming increasingly important given the risk posed by multiresistant bacteria. Moreover, if the results of this study are conclusive, FMT, which is less expensive than biologics, could become a routine treatment in the future.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03524352. Registered on 14 May 2018.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Gulati M, Singh SK, Corrie L, et al (2020)

Delivery routes for faecal microbiota transplants: Available, anticipated and aspired.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(20)31262-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has seen a historic emergence in last decade with its sojourn recently entering into a chequered path, due to a few reports of infection and subsequent mortality. Though FMT has been extensively reported, there is no comprehensive report on the delivery routes available for this non-pharmacological treatment option. Safety, efficacy and cost of FMT not only depend on the quality of contents but also on the delivery route employed. A number of delivery routes are in use for conducting FMT, which include upper gastrointestinal routes (UGI) i.e. nasogastric/nasojejunal tube, endoscopy, oral capsules and lower gastrointestinal routes (LGI) like retention enema, sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Capsules, both conventional as well as colon targeted have been the most commonly used formulations. Surprisingly, the success rates with conventional gastric delivery capsules and colon targeted capsules were found to be quite similar indicating the sufficiency of the inoculum size to withstand the microbial loss in the gastric milieu. Patient compliance, cost effectiveness, comfort of administration, level of invasiveness, patient's hospital admission, risk of aspiration and infections, multiplicity of administration required, recurrence rate are the main factors that seem to influence the choice for route of administration of physicians. The best route for FMT has not been established yet. Extensive studies are required to understand the interplay of route adopted, type of donor, physical nature of sample (fresh or frozen), patient compliance and cost effectiveness to design an approach for the risk free, convenient and cost-effective administration route for FMT.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Adelman MW, Woodworth MH, Langelier C, et al (2020)

The gut microbiome's role in the development, maintenance, and outcomes of sepsis.

Critical care (London, England), 24(1):278 pii:10.1186/s13054-020-02989-1.

The gut microbiome regulates a number of homeostatic mechanisms in the healthy host including immune function and gut barrier protection. Loss of normal gut microbial structure and function has been associated with diseases as diverse as Clostridioides difficile infection, asthma, and epilepsy. Recent evidence has also demonstrated a link between the gut microbiome and sepsis. In this review, we focus on three key areas of the interaction between the gut microbiome and sepsis. First, prior to sepsis onset, gut microbiome alteration increases sepsis susceptibility through several mechanisms, including (a) allowing for expansion of pathogenic intestinal bacteria, (b) priming the immune system for a robust pro-inflammatory response, and (c) decreasing production of beneficial microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids. Second, once sepsis is established, gut microbiome disruption worsens and increases susceptibility to end-organ dysfunction. Third, there is limited evidence that microbiome-based therapeutics, including probiotics and selective digestive decontamination, may decrease sepsis risk and improve sepsis outcomes in select patient populations, but concerns about safety have limited uptake. Case reports of a different microbiome-based therapy, fecal microbiota transplantation, have shown correlation with gut microbial structure restoration and decreased inflammatory response, but these results require further validation. While much of the evidence linking the gut microbiome and sepsis has been established in pre-clinical studies, clinical evidence is lacking in many areas. To address this, we outline a potential research agenda for further investigating the interaction between the gut microbiome and sepsis.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Okahara K, Ishikawa D, Nomura K, et al (2020)

Matching between Donors and Ulcerative Colitis Patients Is Important for Long-Term Maintenance after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Journal of clinical medicine, 9(6): pii:jcm9061650.

We previously demonstrated that fresh fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) following triple antibiotic therapy (amoxicillin, fosfomycin, metronidazole (AFM); A-FMT) resulted in effective colonization of Bacteroidetes species, leading to short-term clinical response in ulcerative colitis (UC). Its long-term efficacy and criteria for donor selection are unknown. Here, we analyzed the long-term efficacy of A-FMT compared to AFM monotherapy (mono-AFM). AFM was administered to patients with mild to severe UC for 2 weeks until 2 days before fresh FMT. Clinical response and efficacy maintenance were defined by the decrease and no exacerbation in clinical activity index. The population for intention-to-treat analysis comprised 92 patients (A-FMT, n = 55; mono-AFM, n = 37). Clinical response was observed at 4 weeks post-treatment (A-FMT, 56.3%; mono-AFM, 48.6%). Maintenance rate of responders at 24 months post-treatment was significantly higher with A-FMT than mono-AFM (p = 0.034). Significant differences in maintenance rate according to the age difference between donors and patients were observed. Additionally, sibling FMT had a significantly higher maintenance rate than parent-child FMT. Microbial analysis of patients who achieved long-term maintenance showed that some exhibited similarity to their donors, particularly Bacteroidetes species. Thus, A-FMT exhibited long-term efficacy. Therefore, matching between donors and UC patients may be helpful in effectively planning the FMT regimen.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Wang MX, Lin L, Chen YD, et al (2020)

Evodiamine has therapeutic efficacy in ulcerative colitis by increasing Lactobacillus acidophilus levels and acetate production.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(20)31286-X [Epub ahead of print].

Emerging evidence implicates gut microbiota have an important role in ulcerative colitis (UC). Previous study indicated that Evodiamine (EVO) can alleviate colitis through downregulating inflammatory pathways. However, specific relationship between EVO-treated colitis relief and regulation of gut microbiota is still unclear. Here, our goal was to determine the potential role of gut microbiota in the relief of UC by EVO. By using pathology-related indicators, 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomics profiling, we assessed the pharmacological effect of EVO on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis rats as well as on the change of gut microbiota and metabolism. Fecal derived from EVO-treated rats was transplanted into colitis rats to verify the effect of EVO on gut microbiota, and 'driver bacteria' was found and validated by 16S rRNA sequencing, metagenome and qRT-PCR. The effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) was investigated by vivo experiment, microbiota analysis, Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) quantification and colon transcriptomics. EVO reduced the susceptibility to DSS-induced destruction of epithelial integrity and severe inflammatory response, and regulated the gut microbiota and metabolites. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) alleviated DSS-induced colitis, increased the abundance of L. acidophilus and the level of acetate. Furthermore, gavaged with L. acidophilus reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, promoted the increase of goblet cells and the secretion of antimicrobial peptides, regulated the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and increased the level of acetate. Our results indicated that EVO mitigation of DSS-induced colitis is associated with increased in L. acidophilus and protective acetate production, which may be a promising strategy for treating UC.

RevDate: 2020-05-25
CmpDate: 2020-05-25

Aroniadis OC, Brandt LJ, Oneto C, et al (2019)

Faecal microbiota transplantation for diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 4(9):675-685.

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown promise in alleviating the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, controlled data on this technique are scarce. The aim of this clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of FMT in alleviating diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D).

METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial in patients aged 18-65 years with moderate-to-severe IBS-D defined by an IBS-Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS) of more than 175, recruited from three US centres. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) in blocks of four with a computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive FMT capsules followed by identical-appearing placebo capsules, or placebo capsules followed by FMT capsules. All participants and study team members were masked to randomisation. An independent staff member assigned the treatments according to consecutive numbers. Patients received either 75 FMT capsules (each capsule contained approximately 0·38 g of minimally processed donor stool) or 75 placebo capsules over 3 days (25 capsules per day). All patients crossed over to the alternate treatment at 12 weeks. The primary outcome was difference in IBS-SSS between the groups at 12 weeks. Intention-to-treat analyses were done and all patients who received study drug were included in an adverse events analysis. The trial was terminated during recruitment because results from an interim analysis revealed futility. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02328547.

FINDINGS: From May 28, 2015, to April 21, 2017, 48 patients were randomly assigned to receive FMT first (n=25) or placebo first (n=23). Three participants were lost to follow-up in the FMT group. IBS-SSS did not differ between FMT recipients (mean 221 [SD 105]) and placebo recipients (236 [95]) at 12 weeks (p=0·65), after adjustment for baseline scores. The most common drug-related adverse events included abdominal pain (five [10%] of the 48 participants while receiving FMT capsules vs four [8%] while receiving placebo), nausea (four [8%] vs two [4%]), and exacerbation of diarrhoea (three [6%] vs eight [17%]). One serious adverse event that was unrelated to study drug (acute cholecystitis) was reported in a patient while receiving placebo capsules.

INTERPRETATION: FMT was safe, but did not induce symptom relief at 12 weeks compared with placebo. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of FMT for IBS-D.

FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.

RevDate: 2020-06-01
CmpDate: 2020-06-01

Wang Y, Zhao W, Shi J, et al (2019)

Intestinal microbiota contributes to altered glucose metabolism in simulated microgravity mouse model.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 33(9):10140-10151.

Exposure to space environment induces alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism that contribute to muscular atrophy, bone loss, and cardiovascular disorders. Intestinal microbiota is also changed, but its impact on spaceflight-related metabolic disorder is not clear. We investigated the relationship between glucose metabolic changes and gut dysbiosis in a hind limb-unloading (HU) mouse model, a well-accepted ground-based spaceflight analog. Impaired body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and peripheral insulin resistance were found in 2-4-wk HU mice. Reduced abundance of gut Bifidobacterium spp. and Akkermansia muciniphila was observed within 3 d of HU. The ground-based control (Ctrl) mice that were cohoused with HU mice showed similar patterns of dysbiosis and metabolic changes. Compared with the Ctrls, higher levels of plasma LPS-binding protein and altered transcription of Tnfa and glucose metabolism-related genes in the liver were observed in HU mice. The supplementation of Bifidobacterium spp. suppressed endotoxemia and liver inflammation and improved glucose tolerance in HU mice. The results indicate a close relationship between dysbiosis and altered glucose metabolism in the HU model and also emphasize the importance of evaluating intestinal microbiota in astronauts and its effect on glucose metabolism.-Wang, Y., Zhao, W., Shi, J., Wang, J., Hao, J., Pang, X., Huang, X., Chen, X., Li, Y., Jin, R., Ge, Q. Intestinal microbiota contributes to altered glucose metabolism in simulated microgravity mouse model.

RevDate: 2020-06-01
CmpDate: 2020-06-01

Duan Y, Zhong Y, Xiao H, et al (2019)

Gut microbiota mediates the protective effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) against obesity induced by high-fat diets.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 33(9):10019-10033.

Obesity increases the risk of developing insulin resistance and diabetes and is a major public health concern. Our previous study shows that dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves lipid metabolism in a pig model. However, it remains unclear whether HMB blocks obesity through gut microbiota. In this study, we found that HMB reduced body weight, alleviated the whitening of brown adipose tissue, and improved insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). High-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA demonstrated that HMB administration significantly reversed the gut microbiota dysbiosis in HFD-fed mice, including the diversity of gut microbiota and relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Moreover, microbiota transplantation from HMB-treated mice attenuated HFD-induced lipid metabolic disorders. Furthermore, HFD-fed mice showed lower short-chain fatty acids, whereas administration of HMB increased the propionic acid production. Correlation analysis identified a significant correlation between propionic acid production and the relative Bacteroidetes abundance. Sodium propionate treatment also attenuated HFD-induced lipid metabolic disorders. Collectively, our results indicated that HMB might be used as a probiotic agent to reverse HFD-induced obesity, and the potential mechanism was associated with reprogramming gut microbiota and metabolism, especially Bacteroidetes-mediated propionic acid production. In future studies, more efforts should be made to confirm and expand the beneficial effects of HMB to human models.-Duan, Y., Zhong, Y., Xiao, H., Zheng, C., Song, B., Wang, W., Guo, Q., Li, Y., Han, H., Gao, J., Xu, K., Li, T., Yin, Y., Li, F., Yin, J., Kong, X. Gut microbiota mediates the protective effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) against obesity induced by high-fat diets.

RevDate: 2020-05-31

Lin H, Wang Q, Yuan M, et al (2020)

The prolonged disruption of a single-course amoxicillin on mice gut microbiota and resistome, and recovery by inulin, Bifidobacterium longum and fecal microbiota transplantation.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 265(Pt A):114651 pii:S0269-7491(20)30456-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The usages of antibiotics in treating the pathogenic infections could alter the gut microbiome and associated resistome, causing long term adverse impact on human health. In this study, mice were treated with human-simulated regimen 25.0 mg kg-1 of amoxicillin for seven days, and their gut microbiota and resistome were characterized using the 16S rRNA amplicons sequencing and the high-throughput qPCR, respectively. Meanwhile, the flora restorations after individual applications of inulin, Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum), and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) were analyzed for up to 35 days. The results revealed the prolonged negative impact of single course AMX exposure on mice gut microbiota and resistome. To be specific, pathobionts of Klebsiella and Escherichia-Shigella were significantly enriched, while prebiotics of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were dramatically depleted. Furthermore, β-lactam resistance genes and efflux resistance genes were obviously enriched after amoxicillin exposure. Compared to B. longum, FMT and inulin were demonstrated to preferably restore the gut microbiota via reconstituting microbial community and stimulating specific prebiotic respectively. Such variation of microbiome caused their distinct alleviations on resistome alteration. Inulin earned the greatest elimination on AMX induced ARG abundance and diversity enrichment. FMT and B. longum caused remove of particular ARGs such as ndm-1, blaPER. Network analysis revealed that most of the ARGs were prone to be harbored by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. In general, gut resistome shift was partly associated with the changing bacterial community structures and transposase and integron. Taken together, these results demonstrated the profound disruption of gut microbiota and resistome after single-course amoxicillin treatment and different restoration by inulin, B. longum and FMT.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Kragsnaes MS, Nilsson AC, Kjeldsen J, et al (2020)

How do I establish a stool bank for fecal microbiota transplantation within the blood- and tissue transplant service?.

Transfusion [Epub ahead of print].

Worldwide, there is a rising demand for thoroughly screened, high-quality fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) products that can be obtained at a reasonable cost. In the light of this evolving therapeutic area of the intestinal microbiota, both private and public stool banks have emerged. However, some of the larger difficulties when establishing stool banks are caused by the absence of or international disagreement on regulation and legislative formalities. In this context, the establishment of a stool bank within a nonprofit blood and tissue transplant service has several advantages. Especially, this setting can ensure that every step of the donation process, laboratory handling, and donor-traceability is in agreement with the current expert guidelines and meets the requirements of the European Union's regulative directives on human cells and tissues. Although safety and documentation are the top priority of the stool bank setup presented here, cost-effectiveness of the production is possible due to a high donor screening success rate and the knowhow, infrastructure, facilities, personnel, and laboratory- and quality-management systems that were already in place. Overall, our experience is that a centralized, nonprofit, blood and tissue transplant service is an ideal and safe facility to run a stool bank of high quality FMT products that are based on stool donations from volunteer, unpaid, healthy, blood donors.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Jian X, Zhu Y, Ouyang J, et al (2020)

Alterations of gut microbiome accelerate multiple myeloma progression by increasing the relative abundances of nitrogen-recycling bacteria.

Microbiome, 8(1):74 pii:10.1186/s40168-020-00854-5.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiome alterations are closely related to human health and linked to a variety of diseases. Although great efforts have been made to understand the risk factors for multiple myeloma (MM), little is known about the role of the gut microbiome and alterations of its metabolic functions in the development of MM.

RESULTS: Here, in a cohort of newly diagnosed patients with MM and healthy controls (HCs), significant differences in metagenomic composition were discovered, for the first time, with higher bacterial diversity in MM. Specifically, nitrogen-recycling bacteria such as Klebsiella and Streptococcus were significantly enriched in MM. Also, the bacteria enriched in MM were significantly correlated with the host metabolome, suggesting strong metabolic interactions between microbes and the host. In addition, the MM-enriched bacteria likely result from the regulation of urea nitrogen accumulated during MM progression. Furthermore, by performing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) into 5TGM1 mice, we proposed a mechanistic explanation for the interaction between MM-enriched bacteria and MM progression via recycling urea nitrogen. Further experiments validated that Klebsiella pneumoniae promoted MM progression via de novo synthesis of glutamine in mice and that the mice fed with glutamine-deficient diet exhibited slower MM progression.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings unveil a novel function of the altered gut microbiome in accelerating the malignant progression of MM and open new avenues for novel treatment strategies via manipulation of the intestinal microbiota of MM patients. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Nance CL, Deniskin R, Diaz VC, et al (2020)

The Role of the Microbiome in Food Allergy: A Review.

Children (Basel, Switzerland), 7(6): pii:children7060050.

Food allergies are common and estimated to affect 8% of children and 11% of adults in the United States. They pose a significant burden-physical, economic and social-to those affected. There is currently no available cure for food allergies. Emerging evidence suggests that the microbiome contributes to the development and manifestations of atopic disease. According to the hygiene hypothesis, children growing up with older siblings have a lower incidence of allergic disease compared with children from smaller families, due to their early exposure to microbes in the home. Research has also demonstrated that certain environmental exposures, such as a farming environment, during early life are associated with a diverse bacterial experience and reduced risk of allergic sensitization. Dysregulation in the homeostatic interaction between the host and the microbiome or gut dysbiosis appears to precede the development of food allergy, and the timing of such dysbiosis is critical. The microbiome affects food tolerance via the secretion of microbial metabolites (e.g., short chain fatty acids) and the expression of microbial cellular components. Understanding the biology of the microbiome and how it interacts with the host to maintain gut homeostasis is helpful in developing smarter therapeutic approaches. There are ongoing trials evaluating the benefits of probiotics and prebiotics, for the prevention and treatment of atopic diseases to correct the dysbiosis. However, the routine use of probiotics as an intervention for preventing allergic disease is not currently recommended. A new approach in microbial intervention is to attempt a more general modification of the gut microbiome, such as with fecal microbiota transplantation. Developing targeted bacterial therapies for food allergy may be promising for both the treatment and prevention of food allergy. Similarly, fecal microbiota transplantation is being explored as a potentially beneficial interventional approach. Overall, targeted bacterial therapies for food allergy may be promising for both the treatment and prevention of food allergy.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Li M, Li C, Wu X, et al (2020)

Microbiota-driven interleukin-17 production provides immune protection against invasive candidiasis.

Critical care (London, England), 24(1):268 pii:10.1186/s13054-020-02977-5.

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in human health, which could affect host immunity and the susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the role of intestinal microbiota in the immunopathology of invasive candidiasis remains unknown.

METHODS: In this work, an antibiotic cocktail was used to eliminate the intestinal microbiota of conventional-housed (CNV) C57/BL6 mice, and then both antibiotic-treated (ABX) mice and CNV mice were intravenously infected with Candida albicans to investigate their differential responses to infection. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was applied to ABX mice in order to assess its effects on host immunity against invasive candidiasis after restoring the intestinal microbiota, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was conducted on fecal samples from both uninfected ABX and CNV group of mice to analyze their microbiomes.

RESULTS: We found that ABX mice displayed significantly increased weight loss, mortality, and organ damage during invasive candidiasis when compared with CNV mice, which could be alleviated by FMT. In addition, the level of IL-17A in ABX mice was significantly lower than that in the CNV group during invasive candidiasis. Treatment with recombinant IL-17A could improve the survival of ABX mice during invasive candidiasis. Besides, the microbial diversity of ABX mice was significantly reduced, and the intestinal microbiota structure of ABX mice was significantly deviated from the CNV mice.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that intestinal microbiota plays a protective role in invasive candidiasis by enhancing IL-17A production in our model system.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Abhyankar MM, Ma JZ, Scully KW, et al (2020)

Immune Profiling To Predict Outcome of Clostridioides difficile Infection.

mBio, 11(3): pii:mBio.00905-20.

There is a pressing need for biomarker-based models to predict mortality from and recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Risk stratification would enable targeted interventions such as fecal microbiota transplant, antitoxin antibodies, and colectomy for those at highest risk. Because severity of CDI is associated with the immune response, we immune profiled patients at the time of diagnosis. The levels of 17 cytokines in plasma were measured in 341 CDI inpatients. The primary outcome of interest was 90-day mortality. Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL-5), suppression of tumorigenicity 2 receptor (sST-2), IL-8, and IL-15 predicted mortality by univariate analysis. After adjusting for demographics and clinical characteristics, the mortality risk (as indicated by the hazard ratio [HR]) was higher for patients in the top 25th percentile for TNF-α (HR = 8.35, P = 0.005) and IL-8 (HR = 4.45, P = 0.01) and lower for CCL-5 (HR = 0.18, P ≤ 0.008). A logistic regression risk prediction model was developed and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.91 for 90-day mortality and 0.77 for 90-day recurrence. While limited by being single site and retrospective, our work resulted in a model with a substantially greater predictive ability than white blood cell count. In conclusion, immune profiling demonstrated differences between patients in their response to CDI, offering the promise for precision medicine individualized treatment.IMPORTANCEClostridioides difficile infection is the most common health care-associated infection in the United States with more than 20% patients experiencing symptomatic recurrence. The complex nature of host-bacterium interactions makes it difficult to predict the course of the disease based solely on clinical parameters. In the present study, we built a robust prediction model using representative plasma biomarkers and clinical parameters for 90-day all-cause mortality. Risk prediction based on immune biomarkers and clinical variables may contribute to treatment selection for patients as well as provide insight into the role of immune system in C. difficile pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka K, Daca A, Fic M, et al (2020)

Therapeutic methods of gut microbiota modification in colorectal cancer management - fecal microbiota transplantation, prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics.

Gut microbes [Epub ahead of print].

The link between gut microbiota and the development of colorectal cancer has been investigated. An imbalance in the gut microbiota promotes the progress of colorectal carcinogenesis via multiple mechanisms, including inflammation, activation of carcinogens, and tumorigenic pathways as well as damaging host DNA. Several therapeutic methods are available with which to alter the composition and the activity of gut microbiota, such as administration of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics; these can confer various benefits for colorectal cancer patients. Nowadays, fecal microbiota transplantation is the most modern way of modulating the gut microbiota. Even though data regarding fecal microbiota transplantation in colorectal cancer patients are still rather limited, it has been approved as a clinical method of treatment-recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, which may also occur in these patients. The major benefits of fecal microbiota transplantation include modulation of immunotherapy efficacy, amelioration of bile acid metabolism, and restoration of intestinal microbial diversity. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, the impact of gut microbiota on the efficiency of anti-cancer therapy and colorectal cancer patients' overall survival is also discussed.

RevDate: 2020-05-26
CmpDate: 2020-05-26

Li J, FB Hu (2019)

Research digest: reshaping the gut microbiota.

The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology, 7(9):671.

RevDate: 2020-05-25

Castro Rocha FA, Duarte-Monteiro AM, Henrique da Mota LM, et al (2020)

Microbes, helminths, and rheumatic diseases.

Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology pii:S1521-6942(20)30045-0 [Epub ahead of print].

There has been a progressive interest on modifications of the human defense system following insults occurring in the interface between our body and the external environment, as they may provoke or worsen disease states. Studies suggest that billions of germs, which compose the gut microbiota influence one's innate and adaptive immune responses at the intestinal level, but these microorganisms may also impact rheumatic diseases. The microbiota of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tracts may also be relevant in rheumatology. Evidence indicates that changes in the gut microbiome alter the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis but also of other disorders like atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis. Therapeutic strategies to modify the microbiota, including probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation, have been received with skepticism, which, in turn, has drawn attention back to previously developed interventions such as antibiotics. Helminths adapted to humans over the evolution process, but their role in disease modulation, particularly immune-mediated diseases, remains to be understood. The present review focuses on data concerning modifications of the immune system induced by interactions with microbes and pluricellular organisms, namely helminths, and their impact on rheumatic diseases. Practical aspects, including specific microbiota-targeted therapies, are also discussed.

RevDate: 2020-05-25
CmpDate: 2020-05-25

Tixier EN, Verheyen E, Ungaro RC, et al (2019)

Faecal microbiota transplant decreases mortality in severe and fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection in critically ill patients.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 50(10):1094-1099.

BACKGROUND: Severe and fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection is associated with high mortality rates. While faecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be effective for recurrent C difficile infection, there is little data on the utility of faecal microbiota transplant in severe or fulminant C difficile infection.

AIM: To compare the outcomes of antibiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation vs antibiotics alone (standard of care) in critically ill patients with severe or fulminant C difficile infection.

METHODS: This was a retrospective, matched cohort study in one urban tertiary academic care centre including 48 patients hospitalised with severe or fulminant C difficile infection who required care in intensive care unit.

RESULTS: Patients who received faecal microbiota transplantation (n = 16) had a 77% decrease in odds for mortality (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.97) with a number needed to treat of 3 to prevent one death.

CONCLUSIONS: Faecal microbiota transplantation provides mortality benefit over standard of care for severe and fulminant C difficile infection and should be considered in critically ill patients.

RevDate: 2020-05-19
CmpDate: 2020-05-19

Pebenito AM, Liu M, Nazzal L, et al (2019)

Development of a Humanized Murine Model for the Study of Oxalobacter formigenes Intestinal Colonization.

The Journal of infectious diseases, 220(11):1848-1858.

BACKGROUND: Oxalobacter formigenes are bacteria that colonize the human gut and degrade oxalate, a component of most kidney stones. Findings of clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that O. formigenes colonization reduces the risk for kidney stones. We sought to develop murine models to allow investigating O. formigenes in the context of its native human microbiome.

METHODS: For humanization, we transplanted pooled feces from healthy, noncolonized human donors supplemented with a human O. formigenes strain into recipient mice. We transplanted microbiota into mice that were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics to suppress their native microbiome, were germ free, or received humanization without pretreatment or received sham gavage (controls).

RESULTS: All humanized mice were stably colonized with O. formigenes through 8 weeks after gavage, whereas mice receiving sham gavage remained uncolonized (P < .001). Humanization significantly changed the murine intestinal microbial community structure (P < .001), with humanized germ-free and antibiotic-treated groups overlapping in β-diversity. Both germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice had significantly increased numbers of human species compared with sham-gavaged mice (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Transplanting mice with human feces and O. formigenes introduced new microbial populations resembling the human microbiome, with stable O. formigenes colonization; such models can define optimal O. formigenes strains to facilitate clinical trials.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Kløve S, Genger C, Mousavi S, et al (2020)

Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dependent Intestinal and Systemic Sequelae Following Peroral Campylobacter coli Infection of IL10 Deficient Mice Harboring a Human Gut Microbiota.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:pathogens9050386.

Zoonotic Campylobacter, including C. jejuni and C. coli, are among the most prevalent agents of food-borne enteritis worldwide. The immunopathological sequelae of campylobacteriosis are caused by Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4)-dependent host immune responses, induced by bacterial lipooligosaccharide (LOS). In order to investigate C. coli-host interactions, including the roles of the human gut microbiota and TLR4, upon infection, we applied a clinical acute campylobacteriosis model, and subjected secondary abiotic, TLR4-deficient IL10-/- mice and IL10-/- controls to fecal microbiota transplantation derived from human donors by gavage, before peroral C. coli challenge. Until day 21 post-infection, C. coli could stably colonize the gastrointestinal tract of human microbiota-associated (hma) mice of either genotype. TLR4-deficient IL10-/- mice, however, displayed less severe clinical signs of infection, that were accompanied by less distinct apoptotic epithelial cell and innate as well as adaptive immune cell responses in the colon, as compared to IL10-/- counterparts. Furthermore, C. coli infected IL10-/-, as opposed to TLR4-deficient IL10-/-, mice displayed increased pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in intestinal and, strikingly, systemic compartments. We conclude that pathogenic LOS might play an important role in inducing TLR4-dependent host immune responses upon C. coli infection, which needs to be further addressed in more detail.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Elsalem L, Jum'ah AA, Alfaqih MA, et al (2020)

The Bacterial Microbiota of Gastrointestinal Cancers: Role in Cancer Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Perspectives.

Clinical and experimental gastroenterology, 13:151-185 pii:243337.

The microbiota has an essential role in the pathogenesis of many gastrointestinal diseases including cancer. This effect is mediated through different mechanisms such as damaging DNA, activation of oncogenic pathways, production of carcinogenic metabolites, stimulation of chronic inflammation, and inhibition of antitumor immunity. Recently, the concept of "pharmacomicrobiomics" has emerged as a new field concerned with exploring the interplay between drugs and microbes. Mounting evidence indicates that the microbiota and their metabolites have a major impact on the pharmacodynamics and therapeutic responses toward anticancer drugs including conventional chemotherapy and molecular-targeted therapeutics. In addition, microbiota appears as an attractive target for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we discuss the role of bacterial microbiota in the pathogenesis of different cancer types affecting the gastrointestinal tract system. We also scrutinize the evidence regarding the role of microbiota in anticancer drug responses. Further, we discuss the use of probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and antibiotics, either alone or in combination with anticancer drugs for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal tract cancers.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Fretheim H, Chung BK, Didriksen H, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in systemic sclerosis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial.

PloS one, 15(5):e0232739 pii:PONE-D-19-18770.

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an auto-immune, multi organ disease marked by severe gastrointestinal (GI) involvement and gut dysbiosis. Here, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using commercially-available anaerobic cultivated human intestinal microbiota (ACHIM) in SSc.

METHODS: Ten patients with SSc were randomized to ACHIM (n = 5) or placebo (n = 5) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled 16-week pilot. All patients had mild to severe upper and lower GI symptoms including diarrhea, distention/bloating and/or fecal incontinence at baseline. Gastroduodenoscopy transfer of ACHIM or placebo was performed at weeks 0 and 2. Primary endpoints were safety and clinical efficacy on GI symptoms assessed at weeks 4 and 16. Secondary endpoints included changes in relative abundance of total, immunoglobulin (Ig) A- and IgM-coated fecal bacteria measured by 16s rRNA sequencing.

RESULTS: ACHIM side effects were mild and transient. Two placebo controls experienced procedure-related serious adverse events; one developed laryngospasms at week 0 gastroduodenoscopy necessitating study exclusion whilst one encountered duodenal perforation during gastroduodenoscopy at the last study visit (week 16). Decreased bloating, diarrhea and/or fecal incontinence was observed in four of five patients in the FMT group (week 4 or/and 16) and in two of four in the placebo group (week 4 or 16). Relative abundance, richness and diversity of total and IgA-coated and IgM-coated bacteria fluctuated more after FMT, than after placebo.

CONCLUSIONS: FMT of commercially-available ACHIM is associated with gastroduodenoscopy complications but reduces lower GI symptoms by possibly altering the gut microbiota in patients with SSc.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Xiao HW, Cui M, Li Y, et al (2020)

Gut microbiota-derived indole 3-propionic acid protects against radiation toxicity via retaining acyl-CoA-binding protein.

Microbiome, 8(1):69 pii:10.1186/s40168-020-00845-6.

BACKGROUND: We have proved fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an efficacious remedy to mitigate acute radiation syndrome (ARS); however, the mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. Here, we aimed to tease apart the gut microbiota-produced metabolites, underpin the therapeutic effects of FMT to radiation injuries, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms.

RESULTS: FMT elevated the level of microbial-derived indole 3-propionic acid (IPA) in fecal pellets from irradiated mice. IPA replenishment via oral route attenuated hematopoietic system and gastrointestinal (GI) tract injuries intertwined with radiation exposure without precipitating tumor growth in male and female mice. Specifically, IPA-treated mice represented a lower system inflammatory level, recuperative hematogenic organs, catabatic myelosuppression, improved GI function, and epithelial integrity following irradiation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and subsequent analyses showed that irradiated mice harbored a disordered enteric bacterial pattern, which was preserved after IPA administration. Notably, iTRAQ analysis presented that IPA replenishment retained radiation-reprogrammed protein expression profile in the small intestine. Importantly, shRNA interference and hydrodynamic-based gene delivery assays further validated that pregnane X receptor (PXR)/acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) signaling played pivotal roles in IPA-favored radioprotection in vitro and in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS: These evidences highlight that IPA is a key intestinal microbiota metabolite corroborating the therapeutic effects of FMT to radiation toxicity. Owing to the potential pitfalls of FMT, IPA might be employed as a safe and effective succedaneum to fight against accidental or iatrogenic ionizing ARS in clinical settings. Our findings also provide a novel insight into microbiome-based remedies toward radioactive diseases. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Khanna S, D Pardi (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: The COVID-19 Era.

The American journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Craven L, Rahman A, Nair Parvathy S, et al (2020)

Allogenic Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Improves Abnormal Small Intestinal Permeability: A Randomized Control Trial.

The American journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-related disorder that is rapidly increasing in incidence and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiome plays a role in metabolism and maintaining gut barrier integrity. Studies have found differences in the microbiota between NAFLD and healthy patients and increased intestinal permeability in patients with NAFLD. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can be used to alter the gut microbiome. It was hypothesized that an FMT from a thin and healthy donor given to patients with NAFLD would improve insulin resistance (IR), hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF), and intestinal permeability.

METHODS: Twenty-one patients with NAFLD were recruited and randomized in a ratio of 3:1 to either an allogenic (n = 15) or an autologous (n = 6) FMT delivered by using an endoscope to the distal duodenum. IR was calculated by HOMA-IR, hepatic PDFF was measured by MRI, and intestinal permeability was tested using the lactulose:mannitol urine test. Additional markers of metabolic syndrome and the gut microbiota were examined. Patient visits occurred at baseline, 2, 6 weeks, and 6 months post-FMT.

RESULTS: There were no significant changes in HOMA-IR or hepatic PDFF in patients who received the allogenic or autologous FMT. Allogenic FMT patients with elevated small intestinal permeability (>0.025 lactulose:mannitol, n = 7) at baseline had a significant reduction 6 weeks after allogenic FMT.

DISCUSSION: FMT did not improve IR as measured by HOMA-IR or hepatic PDFF but did have the potential to reduce small intestinal permeability in patients with NAFLD.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Sun Z, Li J, Dai Y, et al (2020)

Indigo Naturalis Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats via Altering Gut Microbiota.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:731.

Ulcerative colitis is a gastrointestinal disorder intricately associated with intestinal dysbiosis, but effective treatments are currently limited. Indigo naturalis, a traditional Chinese medicine derived from indigo plants, has been widely used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. However, the specific mechanisms have not yet been identified. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of indigo naturalis on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Our results showed that indigo naturalis potently alleviated DSS-induced colitis in rats, and reversed DSS-induced intestinal dysbiosis using bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The protective effects of indigo naturalis were gut microbiota dependent, as demonstrated by antibiotic treatments and fecal microbiota transplantation. Depletion of the gut microbiota through a combination of antibiotic treatments blocked the anti-inflammatory effect of indigo naturalis on the DSS-induced colitis, and the recipients of the gut microbiota from indigo naturalis-treated rats displayed a significantly attenuated intestinal inflammation, which was actively responsive to therapeutic interventions with indigo naturalis. Notably, supplement with indigo naturalis greatly increased the levels of feces butyrate, which was positively correlated with the relative abundances of Ruminococcus_1 and Butyricicoccus. We further showed that indigo naturalis-dependent attenuation of colitis was associated with elevated expression of short-chain fatty acid-associated receptors GPR41 and GPR43. Collectively, these results suggested that indigo naturalis alleviates DSS-induced colitis in rats through a mechanism of the microbiota-butyrate axis, particularly alterations in Ruminococcus_1 and Butyricicoccus abundances, and target-specific microbial species may have unique therapeutic promise for ulcerative colitis.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Zhang W, Zou G, Li B, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) alleviates experimental colitis in mice by gut microbiota regulation.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.4014/jmb.2002.02044 [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an increasing global burden and a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Although a number of treatment options are available, the side effects could be considerable. Studies on the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as an IBD intervention protocol require further validation as the underlying mechanisms for its attenuating effects remain unclear. This study thus aims to demonstrate the ameliorative role of FMT in an ulcerative colitis (UC) model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and elucidate its relative mechanisms in a mouse model. It was shown that FMT intervention decreased disease activity index (DAI) levels and increased the body weight, colon weight and colon length of experimental animals. It also alleviated histopathological changes, reduced key cytokine expression and oxidative status in the colon. A down-regulated expression level of genes associated with NF-κB signaling pathway was also observed. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that FMT intervention restored the gut microbiota to the pattern of the control group by increasing the relative abundance of Firmicutes and decreasing the abundances of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. The relative abundances of the genera Lactobacillus, Butyricicoccus, Lachnoclostridium, Olsenella and Odoribacter were upregulated but Helicobacter, Bacteroides and Clostridium were reduced after FMT administration. Furthermore, FMT administration elevated the contents of SCFAs in the colon. In conclusion, FMT intervention could be suitable for UC control, but further validations via clinical trials are recommended.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Akash MSH, Fiayyaz F, Rehman K, et al (2019)

Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders: Advances in Therapeutic Interventions.

Critical reviews in immunology, 39(4):223-237.

Human gut microbiota consist of numerous microorganisms, but the most abundant species are Bacteroides and Firmicutes. Each human possesses a specific gut microbiota, which can be altered by diet, antibiotics, lifestyle, and genetic background. Gut microbiota perform vital functions, but in this article, we aimed to elaborate the effects of modified composition of microbiota on host metabolism. Ligands for G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) located on endocrine glands, epithelial cells, and adipocytes. SCFAs are produced in the distal gut by bacterial fermentation of nondigestible polysaccharides; they induce the various beneficial effects including decrease serum glucose level, insulin resistance, as well as inflammation; and they increase glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF) is suppressed by gut microbiota and results in the increased storage of fatty acids in the adipose tissues and liver. An increased lipopolysaccharide level due to altered gut microflora cause the initiation of inflammation associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia are considered key mechanisms that seem to be associated with the development of T2DM and obesity. Therapeutic interventions that can be used for the treatment of diabetes include metformin, dietary modulation, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation and bariatric surgery.

RevDate: 2020-05-20
CmpDate: 2020-05-20

Koopman N, Molinaro A, Nieuwdorp M, et al (2019)

Review article: can bugs be drugs? The potential of probiotics and prebiotics as treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 50(6):628-639.

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver condition. A major current research effort is ongoing to find potential strategies to treat NAFLD-non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with special attention to the gut microbiota. Multiple animal studies and pilot clinical trials are assessing different gut microbiota modulating strategies such as faecal microbiota transplantation, antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics.

AIM: To review the role of microbiota in NAFLD-NASH and determine whether pro- and prebiotics have potential as treatment METHODS: Information was obtained from critically reviewing literature on PubMed on targeting the gut microbiota in NAFLD. Search terms included NAFLD, NASH, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis; combined with microbiome, microbiota, gut bacteria, probiotics and prebiotics.

RESULTS: Animal studies and the first emerging studies in humans show promising results for both the common probiotics Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococci as for short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate-producing bacteria. Also, prebiotics have positive effects on different mechanisms underlying NAFLD-NASH.

CONCLUSIONS: The most promising strategies thus far developed to alter the microbiome in NAFLD-NASH are probiotics and prebiotics. However, pre- and probiotic treatment of NAFLD-NASH is relatively new and still under development. Actual understanding of the involved mechanisms is lacking and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition after treatment are rarely measured. Furthermore, large clinical trials with comparative endpoints are unavailable. Personalised treatment based on metagenomics gut microbiota analysis will probably be part of the future diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD-NASH.

RevDate: 2020-05-19
CmpDate: 2020-05-19

Ooijevaar RE, van Rossen TM, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CMJE, et al (2019)

[Faecal transplants for children with recurrent infections].

Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 163:.

BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile infection is a relatively rare cause of diarrhoea in children, but there are frequent recurrences when it occurs, despite targeted antibiotic treatment.

CASE DESCRIPTIONS: A 2-year-old boy with concomitant motility disorder and a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome experienced several infections with C. difficile, respectively after the use of antibiotics for otitis media and extended use of antibiotics in addition to chemotherapy. Both were treated successfully with faecal transplants.

CONCLUSION: Clostridioides difficile infections occur in children, mainly after extended use of antibiotics or when the immune system is impaired. In case of recurring C. difficile infections, children can be treated safely and effectively with faecal transplants.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Talley NJ, M Irani (2020)

In irritable bowel syndrome, fecal microbiota transplantation improved symptoms at 3 months.

Annals of internal medicine, 172(10):JC52.

SOURCE CITATION: El-Salhy M, Hatlebakk JG, Gilja OH, Bråthen Kristoffersen A, Hausken T. Efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation for patients with irritable bowel syndrome in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gut. 2020;69:859-67. 31852769.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Bauer CM, Zhang X, Long MD, et al (2020)

Characteristics of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Use in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort.

Crohn's & colitis 360, 2(2):otaa024.

Background: There is a growing interest in the role of gut bacteria in a number of diseases and an emerging hypothesis that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is triggered by microbial dysbiosis in genetically susceptible individuals. Currently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is utilized for the treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis. Data on the efficacy of FMT for IBD are mixed, but patients are interested in its use for the treatment of IBD. We sought to describe the use of FMT (self or medical professional administered) in individuals with IBD using IBD Partners, an Internet-based cohort.

Methods: Patients enrolled in the IBD Partners cohort were offered the opportunity to complete an optional survey on the use of FMT between January 2017 to September 2018 (n = 5430). A cross-sectional analysis was performed within patients who completed the survey and did not have a pouch or ostomy. Patients' demographic characteristics, disease activity and phenotype, mode of FMT delivery, and patient-reported efficacy were compared.

Results: Among 3274 eligible patients, 51 (1.6%) responded that they had an FMT in the past. Of patients undergoing FMT, 22 patients had the FMT for C. difficile while 29 reported that the FMT was for another indication. Most patients receiving FMT for an indication other than C. difficile had ulcerative colitis/indeterminate colitis (25, 86.2%). Colonoscopy (68.2%) and nasogastric tube (18.2%) were the most common routes of administration for patients receiving FMT for C. difficile colitis. Self-administration (72.4%) and enemas (17.2%) were the most common routes of administration in patients receiving FMT for an alternate indication. Patients reporting FMT for an indication other than C. difficile were less likely to have a physician directing their FMT treatment (20.6%) as compared to patients receiving FMT for C. difficile (86.3%). Patient-reported efficacy was lower for FMT given for a non-C. difficile indication.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing FMT for an indication other than C. difficile infection were more likely to have ulcerative colitis, self-administer FMT, and were less likely to be receiving FMT under the guidance of a medical professional. FMT was not as effective for symptoms when given for a non-C. difficile indication. Patients should be counseled on potential harms and lack of proven benefit associated with FMT for IBD indications to try to discourage self-administered FMT without proper medical oversite.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Liu Y, Luo L, Luo Y, et al (2020)

The Prebiotic Properties of Green and Dark Tea Contribute to The Protective Effects in Chemical-Induced Colitis in Mice: A Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Study.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Green and dark tea extract (GTE/DTE) ameliorate chemical induced-colitis in mice; however, the role of gut microbiota on the anti-colitis effects of green and dark tea in mice remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of modulations in gut microbes mediated by green and dark tea in colitis mice by a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Our results indicated that GTE and DTE (5 mg/kg bodyweight/day for 4 weeks) exhibited prebiotic effects on the donor mice. Moreover, the FMT treatments (transferring the microbiota daily from the 1g/kg bodyweight fecal sample to each recipient) indicated that, compared with the fecal microbiota from the normal diet treated donor mice, the fecal microbiota from the GTE and DTE treated donor mice significantly ameliorate colitis-related symptoms (e.g., loss of bodyweight, colonic inflammation, loss of barrier integrity, and gut microbiota dysbiosis) and downregulated TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Collectively, GTE and DTE ameliorate chemical induced-colitis by modulating gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Sharma RK, Oliveira AC, Yang T, et al (2020)

Gut Pathology and Its Rescue by ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) in Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension.

Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) [Epub ahead of print].

Therapeutic advances for pulmonary hypertension (PH) have been incremental because of the focus on the pulmonary vasculature in PH pathology. Here, we evaluate the concept that PH is, rather, a systemic disorder involving interplay among multiorgan systems, including brain, gut, and lungs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that PH is associated with a dysfunctional brain-gut-lung axis and that global overexpression of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) rebalances this axis and protects against PH. ACE2 knockin and wild-type (WT; C57BL/6) mice were subjected to chronic hypoxia (10% FIO2) or room air for 4 weeks. Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, histology, immunohistochemistry, and fecal 16S rRNA microbial gene analyses were evaluated. Hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressure, sympathetic activity as well as the number and activation of microglia in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in WT mice. This was associated with a significant increase in muscularis layer thickening and decreases in both villi length and goblet cells and altered gut microbiota. Global overexpression of ACE2 prevented changes in hypoxia-induced pulmonary and gut pathophysiology and established distinct microbial communities from WT hypoxia mice. Furthermore, WT mice subjected to fecal matter transfer from ACE2 knockin mice were resistant to hypoxia-induced PH compared with their controls receiving WT fecal matter transfer. These observations demonstrate that ACE2 ameliorates these hypoxia-induced pathologies and attenuates PH. The data implicate dysfunctional brain-gut-lung communication in PH and provide novel avenues for therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2020-05-18
CmpDate: 2020-05-18

Lavoie S, Conway KL, Lassen KG, et al (2019)

The Crohn's disease polymorphism, ATG16L1 T300A, alters the gut microbiota and enhances the local Th1/Th17 response.

eLife, 8:.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is driven by dysfunction between host genetics, the microbiota, and immune system. Knowledge gaps remain regarding how IBD genetic risk loci drive gut microbiota changes. The Crohn's disease risk allele ATG16L1 T300A results in abnormal Paneth cells due to decreased selective autophagy, increased cytokine release, and decreased intracellular bacterial clearance. To unravel the effects of ATG16L1 T300A on the microbiota and immune system, we employed a gnotobiotic model using human fecal transfers into ATG16L1 T300A knock-in mice. We observed increases in Bacteroides ovatus and Th1 and Th17 cells in ATG16L1 T300A mice. Association of altered Schaedler flora mice with B. ovatus specifically increased Th17 cells selectively in ATG16L1 T300A knock-in mice. Changes occur before disease onset, suggesting that ATG16L1 T300A contributes to dysbiosis and immune infiltration prior to disease symptoms. Our work provides insight for future studies on IBD subtypes, IBD patient treatment and diagnostics.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Chen H, Xu C, Zhang F, et al (2020)

The gut microbiota attenuates muscle wasting by regulating energy metabolism in chemotherapy-induced malnutrition rats.

Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology pii:10.1007/s00280-020-04060-w [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common clinical symptom in cancer patients after chemotherapy, which is characterized by muscle wasting and metabolic dysregulation. The regulation of muscle metabolism by gut microbiota has been studied recently. However, there is no direct convincing evidence proving that manipulating gut microbiota homeostasis could regulate muscle metabolic disorder caused by chemotherapy. Here, we investigate the potential role of gut microbiota in the regulation of the muscle metabolism in 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-induced malnutrition rat model.

METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 8/group): control group and 5-Fu group. In the 5-Fu group, rats received 5-Fu (40 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal injection for 4 days, and all rats were raised for 8 days. Nutritional status, muscle function, muscle metabolites, and gut microbiota were assessed. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was applied to explore the potential regulation of gut microbiota on muscle metabolism.

RESULTS: 5-Fu-treated rats exhibited loss of body weight and food intake compared to control group. 5-Fu decreased the levels of total protein and albumin in serum, and significantly increased the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in muscle tissue. Rats that received 5-Fu displayed concurrent reduction of muscle function and fiber size. Moreover, 5-Fu group showed a distinct profile of gut microbiota compared to control group, including the relative lower abundance of Firmicutes and a higher abundance of Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Fourteen differential muscle metabolites were identified between two groups, which were mainly related to glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, and TCA cycle pathway. Furthermore, fecal transplantation from healthy rats improved nutritional status and muscle function in 5-Fu-treated rats. Notably, FMT inhibited the inflammatory response in muscle, and reversed the changes of several differential muscle metabolites and energy metabolism in 5-Fu-treated rats.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that gut microbiota played an important role in the regulation of muscle metabolism and promoting muscle energy production in 5-Fu-induced malnutrition rats, suggesting the potential attenuation of chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting by manipulating gut microbiota homeostasis.

RevDate: 2020-05-15
CmpDate: 2020-05-15

Moayyedi P (2019)

Faecal microbiota transplantation for IBS: still a long way to go.

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 4(9):656-657.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Pereira FV, Melo ACL, Silva MB, et al (2020)

Interleukin-6 and the Gut Microbiota Influence Melanoma Progression in Obese Mice.

Nutrition and cancer [Epub ahead of print].

There is a strong correlation between obesity and cancer. Here, we investigated the influence of IL-6 and gut microbiota of obese mice in melanoma development. We first evaluated B16F10 melanoma growth in preclinical models for obesity: mice deficient for leptin (ob/ob) or adiponectin (AdpKO) and in wild-type mice (WT, C57BL/6J) fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from fat) for 12 weeks. The survival rates of ob/ob and HFD-fed mice were lower than those of their respective controls. AdpKO mice also died earlier than WT control mice. We then verified the involvement of IL-6 signaling in obese mice that were inoculated with melanoma cells. Both ob/ob and AdpKO mice had higher circulating IL-6 levels than wild-type mice. Melanoma tumor volumes in IL-6 KO mice fed an HFD were reduced compared to those of WT mice subjected to the same diet. Also evaluated the effect of microbiota in tumor development. Cohousing and fecal matter transfer experiments revealed that microbiota from ob/ob mice can stimulate tumor development in lean WT mice. Taken together, our data show that in some conditions IL-6 and the gut microbiota are key mediators that link obesity and melanoma.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Wilcox MH, McGovern BH, GA Hecht (2020)

The Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Recurrent Clostridiumdifficile Infection: Current Understanding and Gap Analysis.

Open forum infectious diseases, 7(5):ofaa114 pii:ofaa114.

The leading risk factor for Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is broad-spectrum antibiotics, which lead to low microbial diversity, or dysbiosis. Current therapeutic strategies for CDI are insufficient, as they do not address the key role of the microbiome in preventing C. difficile spore germination into toxin-producing vegetative bacteria, which leads to symptomatic disease. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) appears to reduce the risk of recurrent CDI through microbiome restoration. However, a wide range of efficacy rates have been reported, and few placebo-controlled trials have been conducted, limiting our understanding of FMT efficacy and safety. We discuss the current knowledge gaps driven by questions around the quality and consistency of clinical trial results, patient selection, diagnostic methodologies, use of suppressive antibiotic therapy, and methods for adverse event reporting. We provide specific recommendations for future trial designs of FMT to provide improved quality of the clinical evidence to better inform treatment guidelines.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Fan LD, Liu YM, ML Cheng (2020)

[Probiotics enhance the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in severe acute liver injury].

Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology, 28(4):345-350.

Objective: To observe the changes of gut flora in mice, and explore the outcome of fecal microbiota transplantation combined with probiotics in the intervention of severe acute liver injury. Methods: Forty male BALB/c mice were selected and randomly divided into blank control group (10 mice), model group (10 mice), ordinary fecal microbiota transplantation group (10 mice), and fecal microbiota + probiotics transplantation group (10 mice). An intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine (D-GalN 3.0g/kg) was given to every group except the blank control group to induce severe acute liver injury model. Simultaneously, ordinary fecal microbiota transplantation group and fecal microbiota + probiotics transplantation group and modeling group were given enema solutions (once a day). After 48 hours, fetched serum was taken to detect alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and total bilirubin, and liver tissue was taken for pathological detection. The colonic content was used to extract DNA for 16S V3-V4 high-throughput sequencing. The results of sequencing were analyzed by using bioinformatics analysis; including OTU cluster analysis, α diversity analysis, β diversity analysis, and linear discriminant analysis effect size (Lefse) to find the bacteria with different colonic content characteristics in different groups of mice. Differences in clinical biochemical indicators between groups were compared using t-test, and the differences between 16S V3-V4 region sequencing results were compared using Wilcoxon test. Results: Model group mice serum biochemical parameters were higher than the other three groups, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). HE staining of liver sections showed severe inflammatory changes under the microscope in the model group. Ordinary fecal microbiota transplantation group and fecal microbiota + probiotic microbiota transplantation group had low levels of inflammation than the model group. The analysis results of 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing showed that there was no statistically significant difference in Shannon's index between the blank control and the other three groups. Observed Species difference was statistically significant, and the gut flora composition varied greatly. Species number in the mice gut flora was increased with fecal microbiota transplantation. The results of β - diversity analysis showed that the difference between the blank control group and the other three groups was greater than that between the disease groups. The difference in the structure of the gut flora of the diseased mice in the fecal microbiota + probiotic transplantation group was mostly butyrate-producing bacteria. Conclusion: Fecal microbiota + probiotics enhance the therapeutic effect of fecal microbiota transplantation, improve liver inflammation, and increase the number of butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut.

RevDate: 2020-05-14
CmpDate: 2020-05-14

Ianiro G, Eusebi LH, Black CJ, et al (2019)

Systematic review with meta-analysis: efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 50(3):240-248.

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in the aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment against recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and may be beneficial in ulcerative colitis. However, its efficacy in IBS is uncertain.

AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine this issue.

METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMBASE Classic, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrials.gov through to March 2019. RCTs recruiting adults with IBS, which compared FMT with placebo, were eligible. Dichotomous symptom data were pooled to obtain a relative risk (RR) of remaining symptomatic after therapy, with a 95% CI.

RESULTS: The search strategy identified 322 citations. Five RCTs were eligible for inclusion, containing 267 patients. Overall, 92.2% of included patients had IBS-D or IBS-M, and only 7.8% IBS-C. When data were pooled for all patients, irrespective of stool type, the RR of IBS symptoms not improving was 0.98 (95% CI 0.58-1.66). Placebo capsules administered orally were superior to capsules containing donor stool in two pooled trials (RR = 1.96; 95% CI 1.19-3.20). FMT from donor stool delivered via colonoscopy was superior to autologous stool in two pooled RCTs (RR = 0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.93). FMT from donor stool via nasojejunal tube showed a trend towards a benefit over autologous stool in one trial (RR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.46-1.02).

CONCLUSIONS: Fresh or frozen donor stool delivered via colonoscopy or nasojejunal tube may be beneficial in IBS. Larger, more rigorously conducted trials of FMT in IBS are needed.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Shan B, Ai Z, Zeng S, et al (2020)

Gut microbiome-derived lactate promotes to anxiety-like behaviors through GPR81 receptor-mediated lipid metabolism pathway.

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 117:104699 pii:S0306-4530(20)30118-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic stress could perturb the composition of the gut microbiota and induce host anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. In particular, microorganism-derived products that can directly or indirectly signal to the nervous system. This study sought to investigate whether high levels of Lactobacillus and lactate in the gut of rats under chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) were the factors leading to anxiety behavior. We collected faeces and blood samples in a sterile laboratory bench to study the microbiome and plasma metabolome from adult male rats age and environment matched healthy individuals. We sequenced the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene from faeces samples. UPLC-MS metabolomics were used to examine plasma samples. Search for potential biomarkers by combining the different data types. Finally, we found a regulated signaling pathway through the relative expression of protein and mRNA. Both lactate feeding and fecal microbiota transplantation caused behavioral abnormalities such as psychomotor malaise, impaired learning and memory in the recipient animals. These rats also showed inhibition of the adenylate cyclase (AC)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway of lipolysis after activation of G protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81) by lactate in the liver, as well as increased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we showed that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) protein expression in hippocampus was reduced in chronic unpredictable stress compared to control group and its expression negatively correlates with symptom severity. Our study suggest that the gut microbiome-derived lactate promotes to anxiety-like behaviors through GPR81 receptor-mediated lipid metabolism pathway.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

DeFilipp Z, Bloom PP, Hohmann EL, et al (2020)

Drug-Resistant Bacteremia after Fecal Microbiota Transplant. Reply.

The New England journal of medicine, 382(20):1961-1962.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Bleibtreu A, Kapel N, Galperine T, et al (2020)

Drug-Resistant Bacteremia after Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

The New England journal of medicine, 382(20):1961.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Chiu CH, CT Chiu (2020)

Drug-Resistant Bacteremia after Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

The New England journal of medicine, 382(20):1960-1961.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Janket SJ, Ackerson LK, EP Diamandis (2020)

Drug-Resistant Bacteremia after Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

The New England journal of medicine, 382(20):1960.

RevDate: 2020-05-13
CmpDate: 2020-05-13

Khoruts A, MJ Sadowsky (2019)

Letter to the Editor.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 69(12):2232-2233.

RevDate: 2020-05-13
CmpDate: 2020-05-13

Khanna S, Tariq R, DS Pardi (2019)

Reply to Khoruts and Sadowsky.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 69(12):2233-2234.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Kim SM, DeFazio JR, Hyoju SK, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplant rescues mice from human pathogen mediated sepsis by restoring systemic immunity.

Nature communications, 11(1):2354 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-15545-w.

Death due to sepsis remains a persistent threat to critically ill patients confined to the intensive care unit and is characterized by colonization with multi-drug-resistant healthcare-associated pathogens. Here we report that sepsis in mice caused by a defined four-member pathogen community isolated from a patient with lethal sepsis is associated with the systemic suppression of key elements of the host transcriptome required for pathogen clearance and decreased butyrate expression. More specifically, these pathogens directly suppress interferon regulatory factor 3. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) reverses the course of otherwise lethal sepsis by enhancing pathogen clearance via the restoration of host immunity in an interferon regulatory factor 3-dependent manner. This protective effect is linked to the expansion of butyrate-producing Bacteroidetes. Taken together these results suggest that fecal microbiota transplantation may be a treatment option in sepsis associated with immunosuppression.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Iruzubieta P, Medina JM, Fernández-López R, et al (2020)

A Role for Gut Microbiome Fermentative Pathways in Fatty Liver Disease Progression.

Journal of clinical medicine, 9(5): pii:jcm9051369.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial disease in which environmental and genetic factors are involved. Although the molecular mechanisms involved in NAFLD onset and progression are not completely understood, the gut microbiome (GM) is thought to play a key role in the process, influencing multiple physiological functions. GM alterations in diversity and composition directly impact disease states with an inflammatory course, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, how the GM influences liver disease susceptibility is largely unknown. Similarly, the impact of strategies targeting the GM for the treatment of NASH remains to be evaluated. This review provides a broad insight into the role of gut microbiota in NASH pathogenesis, as a diagnostic tool, and as a therapeutic target in this liver disease. We highlight the idea that the balance in metabolic fermentations can be key in maintaining liver homeostasis. We propose that an overabundance of alcohol-fermentation pathways in the GM may outcompete healthier, acid-producing members of the microbiota. In this way, GM ecology may precipitate a self-sustaining vicious cycle, boosting liver disease progression.

RevDate: 2020-05-11

Chen HT, Huang HL, Li YQ, et al (2020)

Therapeutic advances in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A microbiota-centered view.

World journal of gastroenterology, 26(16):1901-1911.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent metabolic disorder with steadily increasing incidence rates worldwide, especially in the West. There are no drugs available at present to treat NAFLD, and the primary therapeutic options include weight loss and the combination of healthy diet and exercise. Therefore, novel interventions are required that can target the underlying risk factors. Gut microbiota is an "invisible organ" of the human body and vital for normal metabolism and immuno-modulation. The number and diversity of microbes differ across the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, and is most abundant in the intestine. Since dysregulated gut microbiota is an underlying pathological factor of NAFLD, it is a viable therapeutic target that can be modulated by antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and microbial metabolites. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies against NAFLD in clinical and experimental studies, and critically evaluate novel targets and strategies for treating NAFLD.

RevDate: 2020-05-11
CmpDate: 2020-05-11

Le Roy T, Lécuyer E, Chassaing B, et al (2019)

The intestinal microbiota regulates host cholesterol homeostasis.

BMC biology, 17(1):94.

BACKGROUND: Management of blood cholesterol is a major focus of efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate how the gut microbiota affects host cholesterol homeostasis at the organism scale.

RESULTS: We depleted the intestinal microbiota of hypercholesterolemic female Apoe-/- mice using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Measurement of plasma cholesterol levels as well as cholesterol synthesis and fluxes by complementary approaches showed that the intestinal microbiota strongly regulates plasma cholesterol level, hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and enterohepatic circulation. Moreover, transplant of the microbiota from humans harboring elevated plasma cholesterol levels to recipient mice induced a phenotype of high plasma cholesterol levels in association with a low hepatic cholesterol synthesis and high intestinal absorption pattern. Recipient mice phenotypes correlated with several specific bacterial phylotypes affiliated to Betaproteobacteria, Alistipes, Bacteroides, and Barnesiella taxa.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota determines the circulating cholesterol level and may thus represent a novel therapeutic target in the management of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases.

RevDate: 2020-05-11
CmpDate: 2020-05-11

Wang S, Lv D, Jiang S, et al (2019)

Quantitative reduction in short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease.

Clinical science (London, England : 1979), 133(17):1857-1870 pii:CS20190171.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 10-15% of the population worldwide, results in high morbidity and mortality, and requires costly treatment and renal replacement therapy. Glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and persistent intestinal flora disturbance are common in CKD. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by the intestinal microbiota, have been previously reported to ameliorate kidney injury; however, the specific concentrations and types that are required to improve renal function remain unknown. The present study aims to evaluate the levels of SCFAs in healthy and CKD patients, and to test the hypothesis that SCFAs play a critical role in delaying CKD progression. One hundred and twenty-seven patients with CKD and 63 healthy controls from China were enrolled in the present study. Butyrate, which is considered beneficial to humans, was almost three-times higher in healthy volunteers than that in CKD5 subjects (P=0.001). Moreover, the serum SCFA levels in controls were significantly higher than that in CKD patients (P<0.05), and the butyrate level among CKD5 patients (1.48 ± 0.60 μmol/l) was less than half of that in controls (3.44 ± 2.12 μmol/l, P<0.001). In addition, we observed an inverse correlation between butyrate level and renal function (P<0.05). A CKD rat model transplanted with microbiota obtained from CKD patients exhibited accelerated CKD progression via increased production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which was reversed by supplementation with extra butyrate. Our results showed that SCFA levels were reduced in CKD patients and that butyrate supplementation might delay CKD progression.

RevDate: 2020-05-11
CmpDate: 2020-05-11

Kirby TO, Brown M, Ochoa-Repáraz J, et al (2019)

Microbiota Manipulation as a Metagenomic Therapeutic Approach for Rare Inherited Metabolic Disorders.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 106(3):505-507.

RevDate: 2020-05-11
CmpDate: 2020-05-11

Alrafas HR, Busbee PB, Nagarkatti M, et al (2019)

Resveratrol modulates the gut microbiota to prevent murine colitis development through induction of Tregs and suppression of Th17 cells.

Journal of leukocyte biology, 106(2):467-480.

Inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with microbial dysbiosis. Thus, dietary interactions with intestinal microbiota, to maintain homeostasis, play a crucial role in regulation of clinical disorders such as colitis. In the current study, we investigated if resveratrol, a polyphenol found in a variety of foods and beverages, would reverse microbial dysbiosis induced during colitis. Administration of resveratrol attenuated colonic inflammation and clinical symptoms in the murine model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Resveratrol treatment in mice with colitis led to an increase in CD4+ FOXP3+ and CD4+ IL-10+ T cells, and a decrease in CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD4+ IL-17+ T cells. 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate alterations in the gut microbiota revealed that TNBS caused significant dysbiosis, which was reversed following resveratrol treatment. Analysis of cecal flush revealed that TNBS administration led to an increase in species such as Bacteroides acidifaciens, but decrease in species such as Ruminococcus gnavus and Akkermansia mucinphilia, as well as a decrease in SCFA i-butyric acid. However, resveratrol treatment restored the gut bacteria back to homeostatic levels, and increased production of i-butyric acid. Fecal transfer experiments confirmed the protective role of resveratrol-induced microbiota against colitis inasmuch as such recipient mice were more resistant to TNBS-colitis and exhibited polarization toward CD4+ FOXP3+ T cells and decreases in CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD4+ IL-17+ T cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that resveratrol-mediated attenuation of colitis results from reversal of microbial dysbiosis induced during colitis and such microbiota protect the host from colonic inflammation by inducing Tregs while suppressing inflammatory Th1/Th17 cells.

RevDate: 2020-05-10

Wang P, Wang J, Li D, et al (2020)

Targeting the gut microbiota with resveratrol: a demonstration of novel evidence for the management of hepatic steatosis.

The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 81:108363 pii:S0955-2863(19)30989-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that has been reported to reduce the risk of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent evidence has demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the protection against NAFLD and other metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on the amelioration of NAFLD in mice. We observed marked decreases in body weight and liver steatosis and improved insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice treated with resveratrol. Furthermore, we found that resveratrol treatment alleviated NAFLD in HFD-fed mice by improving the intestinal microenvironment, including gut barrier function and gut microbiota composition. On the one hand, resveratrol improved gut intestinal barrier integrity through the repair of intestinal mucosal morphology and increased the expression of physical barrier- and physiochemical barrier-related factors in HFD-fed mice. On the other hand, in HFD-fed mice, resveratrol supplementation modulated the gut bacterial composition. The resveratrol-induced gut microbiota was characterized by a decreased abundance of harmful bacteria, including Desulfovibrio, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A316_group and Alistipes, as well as an increased abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, such as Allobaculum, Bacteroides and Blautia. Moreover, transplantation of the HFDR-microbiota into HFD-fed mice sufficiently decreased body weight, liver steatosis and low-grade inflammation and improved hepatic lipid metabolism. Collectively, resveratrol would provide a potentially dietary intervention strategy against NAFLD through modulating the intestinal microenvironment.

RevDate: 2020-05-07

Zhang T, Long C, Cui B, et al (2020)

Colonic transendoscopic tube-delivered enteral therapy (with video): a prospective study.

BMC gastroenterology, 20(1):135 pii:10.1186/s12876-020-01285-0.

BACKGROUND: Colonic transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET) refers to colonic transendoscopic tube-delivered enteral therapy. Colonic TET has been successfully used for frequent colonic administration of drugs or multiple fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs). This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate possible factors affecting methodology, feasibility and safety of colonic TET.

METHODS: Patients who underwent colonic TET at our center from October 2014 to November 2018 were included. The feasibility, efficacy, and safety of TET were evaluated.

RESULTS: In total, 224 patients were analyzed. The success rate of TET was 100%. The median retention time of TET tube within the colonic lumen was 8.5 (IQR 7-11) days in 158 patients with tube falling out spontaneously, and the maximum retention time was up to 28 days. These patients were divided into the short-retention group (≤ 8.5 days) and the long-retention group (> 8.5 days). Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the type of endoscopic clip (p = 0.001) was an independent factor for the retention time. The larger clips as well as a greater number of clips significantly affected the retention time (p = 0.013). No severe adverse event was observed during and after TET.

CONCLUSIONS: Colonic TET is a feasible, practical, and safe colon-targeted drug delivery technique with a high degree of patients' satisfaction. Two to four large endoscopic clips are recommended to maintain stability of the TET tube within the colon for over 7 days.

RevDate: 2020-05-07
CmpDate: 2020-05-07

Lavelle A, Hoffmann TW, Pham HP, et al (2019)

Baseline microbiota composition modulates antibiotic-mediated effects on the gut microbiota and host.

Microbiome, 7(1):111.

BACKGROUND: Normal mammalian development and homeostasis are dependent upon the gut microbiota. Antibiotics, essential for the treatment and prophylaxis of bacterial infections, can have collateral effects on the gut microbiota composition, which can in turn have far-reaching and potentially deleterious consequences for the host. However, the magnitude and duration of such collateral effects appear to vary between individuals. Furthermore, the degree to which such perturbations affect the host response is currently unclear. We aimed to test the hypothesis that different human microbiomes have different responses to a commonly prescribed antibiotic and that these differences may impact the host response.

METHODS: Germ-free mice (n = 30) humanized with the microbiota of two unrelated donors (A and B) were subjected to a 7-day antibiotic challenge with amoxicillin-clavulanate ("co-amoxiclav"). Microbiome and colonic transcriptome analysis was performed, pre (day 0) and post antibiotics (day 8) and subsequently into recovery (days 11 and 18).

RESULTS: Unique community profiles were evident depending upon the donor, with donor A recipient mice being dominated by Prevotella and Faecalibacterium and donor B recipient mice dominated by Bacteroides and Parabacteroides. Donor A mice underwent a marked destabilization of their microbiota following antibiotic treatment, while donor B mice maintained a more stable profile. Dramatic and overlapping alterations in the host transcriptome were apparent following antibiotic challenge in both groups. Despite this overlap, donor A mice experienced a more significant alteration in gene expression and uniquely showed correlations between host pathways and key microbial genera.

CONCLUSIONS: Germ-free mice humanized by different donor microbiotas maintain distinct microbiome profiles, which respond in distinct ways to antibiotic challenge and evince host responses that parallel microbiome disequilibrium. These results suggest that inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota may contribute to personalized host responses following microbiota perturbation.

RevDate: 2020-05-07
CmpDate: 2020-05-07

Paetzold B, Willis JR, Pereira de Lima J, et al (2019)

Skin microbiome modulation induced by probiotic solutions.

Microbiome, 7(1):95.

BACKGROUND: The skin is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, most of which are beneficial or harmless. However, disease states of skin have specific microbiome compositions that are different from those of healthy skin. Gut microbiome modulation through fecal transplant has been proven as a valid therapeutic strategy in diseases such as Clostridium difficile infections. Therefore, techniques to modulate the skin microbiome composition may become an interesting therapeutic option in diseases affecting the skin such as psoriasis or acne vulgaris.

METHODS: Here, we have used mixtures of different skin microbiome components to alter the composition of recipient skin microbiomes.

RESULTS: We show that after sequential applications of a donor microbiome, the recipient microbiome becomes more similar to the donor. After intervention, an initial week-long phase is characterized by the dominance of donor strains. The level of engraftment depends on the composition of the recipient and donor microbiomes, and the applied bacterial load. We observed higher engraftment using a multi-strain donor solution with recipient skin rich in Cutibacterium acnes subtype H1 and Leifsonia.

CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the use of living bacteria to modulate skin microbiome composition.

RevDate: 2020-05-07
CmpDate: 2020-05-07

Benavent Boladeras R, S Ariño Blasco (2019)

[Faecal transplantation in geriatrics].

Revista espanola de geriatria y gerontologia, 54(2):119-120.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Liu YJ, Tang B, Wang FC, et al (2020)

Parthenolide ameliorates colon inflammation through regulating Treg/Th17 balance in a gut microbiota-dependent manner.

Theranostics, 10(12):5225-5241 pii:thnov10p5225.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a global health problem in which gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important pathogenic role. However, the current drugs for IBD treatment are far from optimal. Previous researches indicated that parthenolide (PTL) had not only anti-cancer properties but also strong anti-inflammatory activities. Rationale: To investigate the protective effect of PTL on colon inflammation and demonstrate the underlying gut microbiota-dependent mechanism. Methods: Colon inflammation severity in mouse model was measured by body weight change, mortality, colon length, disease activity index (DAI) score, H&E staining and colonoscopy evaluation. Gut microbiota alteration and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production were analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing and targeted metabolomics. Luminex cytokine microarray and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were conducted to measure the colon cytokines profile. The frequency of immune cells in lamina propria (LP) and spleen were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Results: The PTL-treated mice showed significantly relieved colon inflammation, as evidenced by a reduction in body weight loss, survival rate, shortening of colon length, DAI score, histology score and colonoscopy score. Notably, when the gut microbiota was depleted using antibiotic cocktails, the protective effect of PTL on colon inflammation disappeared. PTL treatment downregulated the level of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A and upregulated the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 in colon tissue. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that PTL-treated mice exhibited much more abundant gut microbial diversity and flora composition. Targeted metabolomics analysis manifested the increased SCFAs production in PTL-treated mice. Additionally, PTL administration selectively upregulated the frequency of colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as downregulated the ratio of colonic T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, improving the Treg/Th17 balance to maintain intestinal homeostasis. Gut microbiota depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to confirm this gut microbiota-dependent mechanism. Conclusions: PTL ameliorated colon inflammation in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. The underlying protective mechanism was associated with the improved Treg/Th17 balance in intestinal mucosa mediated through the increased microbiota-derived SCFAs production. Collectively, our results demonstrated the role of PTL as a potential gut microbiota modulator to prevent and treat IBD.

RevDate: 2020-05-06
CmpDate: 2020-05-06

Kuijper EJ, Coia JE, Vehreschild MJGT, et al (2019)

Treatment of (recurrent) Clostridioides difficile Infections in Children and Adults.

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 69(2):e57-e58.

RevDate: 2020-05-06
CmpDate: 2020-05-06

Kociolek LK, Davidovics ZH, Kahn SA, et al (2019)

Response to: Treatment of (Recurrent) Clostridioides difficile Infections in Children and Adults.

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 69(2):e58-e59.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Nakov R, Segal JP, Settanni CR, et al (2020)

Microbiome: what intensivists should know.

Minerva anestesiologica pii:S0375-9393.20.14278-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The standard conditions of critical illness (including sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiorgan failure) cause enormous global mortality and a growing economic burden. Increasing evidence suggests that critical illness may be associated with loss of commensal microbes and overgrowth of potentially pathogenic and inflammatory bacteria. This state could be associated with poor outcomes. Therefore, microbiota-targeted interventions are potentially attractive novel treatment options. Although the precise mechanisms of microbiome-directed treatments such as prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation remain to be determined, they can be utilized in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. The current review aims to offer intensivists an evidenced-based approach on what we currently know about the role of the microbiome in critical illness and how the microbiome could be targeted in the clinical practice to improve ICU-related outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-05-05
CmpDate: 2020-05-04

Peri R, Aguilar RC, Tüffers K, et al (2019)

The impact of technical and clinical factors on fecal microbiota transfer outcomes for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections in Germany.

United European gastroenterology journal, 7(5):716-722.

Introduction: Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is highly effective in the treatment and prevention of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) with cure rates of about 80% after a single treatment. Nevertheless, the reasons for failure in the remaining 20% remain largely elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate different potential clinical predictors of response to FMT in Germany.

Methods: Information was extracted from the MicroTrans Registry (NCT02681068), a retrospective observational multicenter study, collecting data from patients undergoing FMT for recurrent or refractory CDI in Germany. We performed binary logistic regression with the following covariates: age, gender, ribotype 027, Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group score, immunosuppression, preparation for FMT by use of proton pump inhibitor, antimotility agents and bowel lavage, previous recurrences, severity of CDI, antibiotic induction treatment, fresh or frozen FMT preparation, and route of application.

Results: Treatment response was achieved in 191/240 evaluable cases (79.6%) at day 30 (D30) post FMT and 78.1% at day 90 (D90) post FMT. Assessment of clinical predictors for FMT failure by forward and confirmatory backward-stepwise regression analysis yielded higher age as an independent predictor of FMT failure (p = 0.001; OR 1.060; 95%CI 1.025-1.097).

Conclusion: FMT in Germany is associated with high cure rates at D30 and D90. No specific pre-treatment, preparation or application strategy had an impact on FMT success. Only higher age was identified as an independent risk factor for treatment failure. Based on these and external findings, future studies should focus on the assessment of microbiota and microbiota-associated metabolites as factors determining FMT success.

RevDate: 2020-05-05
CmpDate: 2020-05-05

Jimenez M, Langer R, G Traverso (2019)

Microbial therapeutics: New opportunities for drug delivery.

The Journal of experimental medicine, 216(5):1005-1009.

With >40 clinical trials underway, we are nearing the first FDA-approved live microbial therapeutic. Here, Giovanni Traverso, MIT and Harvard Medical School Assistant Professor, and colleagues Miguel Jimenez and Institute Professor Robert Langer from MIT discuss the significant challenges of administering live microorganisms to patients and the opportunities for drug delivery of these new complex therapeutics.

RevDate: 2020-05-04

Chaitman J, Ziese AL, Pilla R, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbial and Metabolic Profiles in Dogs With Acute Diarrhea Receiving Either Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Oral Metronidazole.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 7:192.

The aim was to characterize differences in fecal consistency, and fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles in dogs with acute diarrhea (AD) treated with either fecal microbiota transplantation as enema (FMT; n = 11) or oral metronidazole (MET; n = 7) for 7 days. On days 0, 7, and 28 fecal samples were obtained. Fecal samples from healthy dogs (HC; n = 14) were used for comparison. Samples were analyzed by the previously validated qPCR based canine Dysbiosis Index (DI; increased values indicate microbiota dysbiosis) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The fecal metabolome was analyzed using a previously validated targeted canine assay for fecal unconjugated bile acids, and untargeted metabolomics. Fecal consistency improved significantly in dogs treated with FMT and MET by day 7 and day 28 (p < 0.01) compared to day 0. However, on day 28 fecal consistency was significantly better in FMT compared to MET (p = 0.040). At day 0, dogs with AD had an altered microbiota indicated by significantly increased DI, decreased alpha-diversity, and altered beta-diversity. In the FMT group, the DI decreased over time, while MET led to a significant increase in the dysbiosis index at day 7 and 28 compared to FMT. Sequencing data revealed that in FMT microbial diversity and beta-diversity was similar to HC at day 28, while in MET these parameters were still significantly different from HC. In dogs treated with FMT, a decrease in cholic acid and the percentage of primary bile acids was observed, whereas treatment with metronidazole led to an increase in cholic acid at day 7 and an increase in percentage of primary bile acids over time. Based on untargeted metabolomics, dogs with AD had an altered fecal metabolome compared to HC. Dogs treated with FMT clustered closer to HC at day 28, while dogs treated with MET did not. In this pilot study, dogs with AD had significant differences in fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles. Dogs treated with MET still had altered microbial and metabolic profiles at day 28 compared to dogs treated with FMT or healthy dogs.

RevDate: 2020-05-03

Frisbee AL, WA Petri (Jr) (2020)

Considering the Immune System during Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Trends in molecular medicine, 26(5):496-507.

Our understanding and utilization of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has jump-started over the past two decades. Recent technological advancements in sequencing and metabolomics have allowed for better characterization of our intestinal microbial counterparts, triggering a surge of excitement in the fields of mucosal immunology and microbiology. This excitement is well founded, as demonstrated by 90% relapse-free cure rates in FMT treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. Growing evidence suggests that in addition to bacterial factors, the host immune response during C. difficile infection greatly influences disease severity. In this review, we discuss recent advancements in understanding the interplay between immune cells and the microbiota and how they may relate to recovery from C. difficile through FMT therapy.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Li Y, Ning L, Yin Y, et al (2020)

Age-related shifts in gut microbiota contribute to cognitive decline in aged rats.

Aging, 12: pii:103093 [Epub ahead of print].

Cognitive function declines during the aging process, meanwhile, gut microbiota of the elderly changed significantly. Although previous studies have reported the effect of gut microbiota on learning and memory, all the reports were based on various artificial interventions to change the gut microbiota without involvement of aging biological characteristics. Here, we investigated the effect of aged gut microbiota on cognitive function by using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from aged to young rats. Results showed that FMT impaired cognitive behavior in young recipient rats; decreased the regional homogeneity in medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus; changed synaptic structures and decreased dendritic spines; reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit, and synaptophysin; increased expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE). All these behavioral, brain structural and functional alterations induced by FMT reflected cognitive decline. In addition, FMT increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in young rats, indicating that inflammation and oxidative stress may underlie gut-related cognitive decline in aging. This study provides direct evidence for the contribution of gut microbiota to the cognitive decline during normal aging and suggests that restoring microbiota homeostasis in the elderly may improve cognitive function.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Agrawal G (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides difficile in High-Risk Older Adults: Treat Early, Treat Often.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Arnoriaga-Rodríguez M, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Burokas A, et al (2020)

Gut bacterial ClpB-like gene function is associated with decreased body weight and a characteristic microbiota profile.

Microbiome, 8(1):59 pii:10.1186/s40168-020-00837-6.

BACKGROUND: The chaperone ClpB, a bacterial protein, is a conformational antigen-mimetic of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) implicated in body weight regulation in mice. We here investigated the potential associations of gut bacterial ClpB-like gene function with obesity status and gut microbiota in humans.

RESULTS: Gut microbiota ClpB KEGG function was negatively associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and total fat mass (DEXA). The relative abundance (RA) of several phyla and families directly associated with ClpB was decreased in subjects with obesity. Specifically, the RA of Rikenellaceae, Clostridiaceae and not assigned Firmicutes were lower in subjects with obesity and positively associated with gut bacterial ClpB-like gene function (not assigned Firmicutes (r = 0.405, FDR = 2.93 × 10-2), Rikenellaceae (r = 0.217, FDR = 0.031), and Clostridiaceae (r = 0.239, FDR = 0.017)). The gut bacterial ClpB-like gene function was also linked to specific plasma metabolites (hippuric acid and 3-indolepropionic acid) and fecal lupeol. The α-MSH-like epitope similar to that of Escherichia coli ClpB was also identified in some sequences of those bacterial families. After fecal transplantation from humans to mice, the families that more contributed to ClpB-like gene function in humans were also associated with ClpB-like gene function in mice after adjusting for the donor's body mass index (not assigned Firmicutes (r = 0.621, p = 0.003), Prevotellaceae (r = 0.725, p = 4.1 × 10-7), Rikenellaceae (r = 0.702, p = 3.9 × 10-4), and Ruminococcaceae (r = 0.526, p = 0.014)). Clostridiaceae (r = - 0.445, p = 0.038) and Prevotellaceae RA (r = - 0.479, p = 0.024) and were also negatively associated with weight gain in mice. The absolute abundance (AA) of Prevotellaceae in mice was also positively associated with the gut bacterial ClpB-like gene function in mice. DESeq2 identified species of Prevotellaceae, both negatively associated with mice' weight gain and positively with gut bacterial ClpB-like gene function.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, gut bacterial ClpB-like gene function is associated with obesity status, a specific gut microbiota composition and a plasma metabolomics profile in humans that could be partially transplanted to mice. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Lee J, d'Aigle J, Atadja L, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids Promote Post-Stroke Recovery in Aged Mice.

Circulation research [Epub ahead of print].

Rationale: The elderly experience profound systemic responses after stroke, which contribute to higher mortality and more severe long-term disability. Recent studies have revealed that stroke outcomes can be influenced by the composition of gut microbiome. However, the potential benefits of manipulating the gut microbiome after injury is unknown. Objective:To determine if restoring youthful gut microbiota after stroke aids in recovery in aged subjects, we altered the gut microbiome through young fecal transplant gavage (young FTG) in aged mice after experimental stroke. Further, the effect of direct enrichment of selective bacteria producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was tested as a more targeted and refined microbiome therapy. Methods and Results: Aged male mice (18-20 months) were subjected to ischemic stroke by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We performed FTG three days after MCAO using young donor biome (2-3 months) or aged biome (18-20 months). At day 14 after stroke, aged stroke mice receiving young FTG had less behavioral impairment, and reduced brain and gut inflammation. Based on data from microbial sequencing and metabolomics analysis demonstrating that young fecal transplants contained much higher SCFA levels and related bacterial strains, we selected four SCFA-producers (Bifidobacterium longum, Clostridium symbiosum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus fermentum) for transplantation. These SCFA-producers alleviated post-stroke neurological deficits and inflammation, and elevated gut, brain and plasma SCFA concentrations in aged stroke mice. Conclusions:This is the first study suggesting that the poor stroke recovery in aged mice can be reversed via "post-stroke bacteriotherapy" following the replenishment of youthful gut microbiome via modulation of immunologic, microbial and metabolomic profiles in the host.

RevDate: 2020-04-30

Payen M, Nicolis I, Robin M, et al (2020)

Functional and phylogenetic alterations in gut microbiome are linked to graft-versus-host disease severity.

Blood advances, 4(9):1824-1832.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the main complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Changes in gut microbiota composition have been associated with subsequent aGVHD, and reconstitution of healthy microbiota is currently being explored as a therapeutic approach. However, the specific actors in the intestinal ecosystem involved in the pathologic process at the time of aGVHD onset are not yet fully known. We prospectively collected stool samples from patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. Patients sampled at aGVHD onset were compared with non-GVHD patients. To identify phylogenetic and functional signatures of the disease process, we determined fecal short-chain fatty acid (SFCA) profiles and used high-throughput DNA sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to assess the microbiota composition. Microbiota alterations were highly specific of gastrointestinal (GI) aGVHD severity. Bacterial biomass and α-diversity were lower in severe aGVHD. We identified several bacterial signatures associated with severe aGVHD at disease onset; a negative correlation was observed with anaerobic bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae, especially the Blautia genus, and Ruminococcaceae families. In parallel, in severe aGVHD patients, we showed a dramatic decrease in the levels of the main SFCAs: acetate (75.8%), propionate (95.8%), and butyrate (94.6%). Mild aGVHD patients were characterized by conserved levels of propionate and Blautia propionate producers. Butyrate was significantly decreased in all GI aGVHD stages, representing a potential diagnostic marker of the disease. Specific microbiota and metabolic alterations were thus associated with aGVHD severity and may be useful for diagnostic and pathophysiologic purposes.

RevDate: 2020-04-30

Korach-Rechtman H, Hreish M, Fried C, et al (2020)

Intestinal Dysbiosis in Carriers of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

mSphere, 5(2): pii:5/2/e00173-20.

Infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has become an important challenge in health care settings and a growing concern worldwide. Since infection is preceded by colonization, an understanding of the latter may reduce CRE infections. We aimed to characterize the gut microbiota in CRE carriers, assuming that microbiota alterations precede CRE colonization. We evaluated the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing extracted of fecal samples collected from hospitalized CRE carriers and two control groups, hospitalized noncarriers and healthy adults. The microbiota diversity and composition in CRE-colonized patients differed from those of the control group participants. These CRE carriers displayed lower phylogenetic diversity and dysbiotic microbiota, enriched with members of the family Enterobacteriaceae Concurrent with the enrichment in Enterobacteriaceae, a depletion of anaerobic commensals was observed. Additionally, changes in several predicted metabolic pathways were observed for the CRE carriers. Concomitantly, we found higher prevalence of bacteremia in the CRE carriers. Several clinical factors that might induce changes in the microbiota were examined and found to be insignificant between the groups. The compositional and functional changes in the microbiota of CRE-colonized patients are associated with increased risk for systemic infection. Our study results provide justification for attempts to restore the dysbiotic microbiota with probiotics or fecal transplantation.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota plays important roles in the host's normal function and health, including protection against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Alterations in the gut microbial profile can potentially serve as an early diagnostic tool, as well as a therapeutic strategy against colonization by and carriage of harmful bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Here, we show that the microbiota of hospitalized patients demonstrated specific taxa which differed between carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and noncarriers. The difference in the microbiota also dictates alterations in microbiome-specific metabolic capabilities, in association with increased prevalence of systemic infection. Reintroducing specific strains and/or correction of dysbiosis with probiotics or fecal transplantation may potentially lead to colonization by bacterial taxa responsible for protection against or depletion of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

RevDate: 2020-04-29

Zhang Y, Liu Q, Yu Y, et al (2020)

Early and Short-Term Interventions in the Gut Microbiota Affects Lupus Severity, Progression, and Treatment in MRL/lpr Mice.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:628.

There have been attempts to reveal the possible associations between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and gut microbiota. Using MRL/lpr mice, this study was performed to reveal whether early and short-term interventions in gut microbiota affect lupus. MRL/lpr mice were treated with antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) before onset. Then, prednisone was used to treat the lupus mice with initially different gut microbiota compositions. The compositions of gut microbiota were assessed by the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Early and short-term antibiotics exposure aggravated lupus severity by depleting beneficial gut microbiota for lupus, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and enriching harmful gut microbiota for lupus, such as Klebsiella and Proteus. FMT alleviated lupus severity by renovating the antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in the following 1 week after antibiotics exposure. Besides, short-term antibiotics exposure before onset imposed no significant effects on lupus progression, but the following one week of FMT suppressed lupus progression. Moreover, the short-term antibiotics or FMT before onset inhibited the therapeutic efficiency of prednisone on lupus from 9 to 13 weeks old of MRL/lpr mice. These data demonstrate that the gut microbiota before onset is important for lupus severity, progression and treatment.

RevDate: 2020-04-29
CmpDate: 2020-04-29

Hill C (2020)

Balancing the risks and rewards of live biotherapeutics.

Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 17(3):133-134.

RevDate: 2020-04-28
CmpDate: 2020-04-28

Pimentel M, Saad RJ, Long MD, et al (2020)

ACG Clinical Guideline: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.

The American journal of gastroenterology, 115(2):165-178.

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is defined as the presence of excessive numbers of bacteria in the small bowel, causing gastrointestinal symptoms. This guideline statement evaluates criteria for diagnosis, defines the optimal methods for diagnostic testing, and summarizes treatment options for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This guideline provides an evidence-based evaluation of the literature through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process. In instances where the available evidence was not appropriate for a formal GRADE recommendation, key concepts were developed using expert consensus.

RevDate: 2020-04-27
CmpDate: 2020-04-27

Sobhani I, Bergsten E, Couffin S, et al (2019)

Colorectal cancer-associated microbiota contributes to oncogenic epigenetic signatures.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(48):24285-24295.

Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a result of complex interactions between the host and its environment. Environmental stressors act by causing host cell DNA alterations implicated in the onset of cancer. Here we investigate the stressor ability of CRC-associated gut dysbiosis as causal agent of host DNA alterations. The epigenetic nature of these alterations was investigated in humans and in mice. Germ-free mice receiving fecal samples from subjects with normal colonoscopy or from CRC patients were monitored for 7 or 14 wk. Aberrant crypt foci, luminal microbiota, and DNA alterations (colonic exome sequencing and methylation patterns) were monitored following human feces transfer. CRC-associated microbiota induced higher numbers of hypermethylated genes in murine colonic mucosa (vs. healthy controls' microbiota recipients). Several gene promoters including SFRP1,2,3, PENK, NPY, ALX4, SEPT9, and WIF1 promoters were found hypermethylated in CRC but not in normal tissues or effluents from fecal donors. In a pilot study (n = 266), the blood methylation levels of 3 genes (Wif1, PENK, and NPY) were shown closely associated with CRC dysbiosis. In a validation study (n = 1,000), the cumulative methylation index (CMI) of these genes was significantly higher in CRCs than in controls. Further, CMI appeared as an independent risk factor for CRC diagnosis as shown by multivariate analysis that included fecal immunochemical blood test. Consequently, fecal bacterial species in individuals with higher CMI in blood were identified by whole metagenomic analysis. Thus, CRC-related dysbiosis induces methylation of host genes, and corresponding CMIs together with associated bacteria are potential biomarkers for CRC.

RevDate: 2020-04-27
CmpDate: 2020-04-27

Zachariassen LF, Hansen AK, Krych L, et al (2019)

Cesarean section increases sensitivity to oxazolone-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice.

Mucosal immunology, 12(6):1348-1357.

Children born by cesarean section (CS) have an increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), possibly due to skewed microbial colonization during birth and consequently impaired bacterial stimulation of the developing immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CS and experimental colitis in a murine model of IBD. It was hypothesized that CS aggravates colonic inflammation due to a change in gut microbiota (GM) composition. C57BL/6 mice, delivered by CS or vaginal delivery (VD), were intra-rectally challenged with oxazolone at 8 weeks of age and monitored for colitis symptoms. The results showed that CS delivered mice experienced an increased body weight loss and colon weight, together with higher colonic concentrations of TNF-α and MPO compared with VD mice. Increased infiltration of inflammatory cells was present in CS delivered mice, as well as a downregulation in expression of the gut integrity genes occludin and tight junction protein 1 indicative of an impaired barrier function. The GM from CS delivered mice without colitis partly contributed to the increase in colitis symptoms when inoculated into germ-free recipient mice. In conclusion, CS increased sensitivity to oxazolone induced colitis in mice.

RevDate: 2020-04-27
CmpDate: 2020-04-27

Spalinger MR, Schwarzfischer M, Hering L, et al (2019)

Loss of PTPN22 abrogates the beneficial effect of cohousing-mediated fecal microbiota transfer in murine colitis.

Mucosal immunology, 12(6):1336-1347.

Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is a very efficient approach for the treatment of severe and recurring C. difficile infections. However, the beneficial effect of FMT in other disorders such as ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease remains unclear. Furthermore, it is currently unknown how disease-associated genetic variants in donors or recipients influence the effect of FMT. We found that bacteria-transfer from wild-type (WT) donors via cohousing was efficient in inducing recovery from colitis in WT mice, but not in mice deficient in protein-tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22), a known risk gene for several chronic inflammatory diseases. Also cohousing of PTPN22-deficient mice with diseased WT mice failed to induce faster recovery. Our data indicate that the genetic background of the donor and the recipient influences the outcome of microbiota transfer, and offers a potential explanation why transfer of fecal microbes from some, but not all donors is efficient in UC patients.

RevDate: 2020-04-27
CmpDate: 2020-04-27

Wallace DJ, Sayre NL, Patterson TT, et al (2019)

Spinal cord injury and the human microbiome: beyond the brain-gut axis.

Neurosurgical focus, 46(3):E11.

In addition to standard management for the treatment of the acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI), implementation of novel neuroprotective interventions offers the potential for significant reductions in morbidity and long-term health costs. A better understanding of the systemic changes after SCI could provide insight into mechanisms that lead to secondary injury. An emerging area of research involves the complex interplay of the gut microbiome and the CNS, i.e., a brain-gut axis, or perhaps more appropriately, a CNS-gut axis. This review summarizes the relevant literature relating to the gut microbiome and SCI. Experimental models in stroke and traumatic brain injury demonstrate the bidirectional communication of the CNS to the gut with postinjury dysbiosis, gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue-mediated neuroinflammatory responses, and bacterial-metabolite neurotransmission. Similar findings are being elucidated in SCI as well. Experimental interventions in these areas have shown promise in improving functional outcomes in animal models. This commensal relationship between the human body and its microbiome, particularly the gut microbiome, represents an exciting frontier in experimental medicine.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Wang H, Zhang S, Yang F, et al (2020)

The gut microbiota confers protection in the CNS against neurodegeneration induced by manganism.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 127:110150 pii:S0753-3322(20)30342-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Among all types of pollution, heavy metals are considered the greatest threat to human health, and heavy metals are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and neurodegenerative disorders. Manganese (Mn) exposure is well reported to exert neurotoxicity and various neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanisms are not clear. The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities. The changes in chemical signaling, metabolism and gut microbiota associated with Mn exposure have provided deeper insight into the neurotoxic mechanism of Mn. We observed that Mn exposure increases host manganic bioaccumulation, and β-amyloid (Aβ), receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and caspase-3 production in the brain, and causes hippocampal degeneration and necrosis. Mn exposure led to decreased gut bacterial richness, especially for Prevotellaceae, Fusobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae. In addition, Mn exposure altered the metabolism of tryptamine, taurodeoxycholic acid, β-hydroxypyruvic acid and urocanic acid. Meanwhile, we found correlations between the abundance of certain bacterial species and the level of tryptamine, taurodeoxycholic acid, β-hydroxypyruvic acid and urocanic acid. Fecal microbiome transplantation from normal rats could alleviate the neurotoxicity of Mn exposure by shaping the gut microbiota. Our findings highlight the role of gut dysbiosis-promoted neurotoxicity in Mn exposure and suggest a novel therapeutic strategy of remodeling the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Nie X, Li L, Yi M, et al (2020)

The Intestinal Microbiota Plays as a Protective Regulator Against Radiation Pneumonitis.

Radiation research [Epub ahead of print].

Radiation pneumonitis is a common complication of thoracic irradiation for lung cancer patients. The healthy gut microbiota plays an important role in the local mucosal defense process as well as pulmonary immunomodulation of the host. However, the effect of the intestinal microbiota on radiation pneumonitis is not well understood. Here we studied how the intestinal microbiota affected the host response to radiation pneumonitis. C57BL/6 mice were administered antibiotics to induce disequilibrium in the gut microbiota, and subsequently irradiated. We found that the intestinal microbiota served as a protective mediator against radiation pneumonitis, as indicated by decreased body weight and increased mortality in antibiotic-treated mice. In mice with gut microbiota disequilibrium, more serious pathological lung damage was observed at two and four weeks postirradiation. Fecal microbiota transplantation into irradiated mice led to improvement from radiation-induced inflammation two weeks postirradiation. High-throughput sequencing of murine feces displayed conversion of flora diversity, bacterial composition and community structure in the absence of normal intestinal flora. We filtered the potentially important species among the gut microbiota and considered that the tissue-type plasminogen activator might be involved in the inflammatory process. This study reveals that the gut microbiota functions as a protective regulator against radiation pneumonitis. Additionally, fecal microbiota transplantation was shown to alleviate lung injury in the irradiated model. The protective role of the healthy gut microbiota and the utilization of the gut-lung axis show potential for innovative therapeutic strategies in radiation-induced lung injury.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Nicco C, Paule A, Konturek P, et al (2020)

From Donor to Patient: Collection, Preparation and Cryopreservation of Fecal Samples for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 8(2): pii:diseases8020009.

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is suggested as an efficacious therapeutic strategy for restoring intestinal microbial balance, and thus for treating disease associated with alteration of gut microbiota. FMT consists of the administration of fresh or frozen fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of diseased patients. At this time, in according to healthcare authorities, FMT is mainly used to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile. Despite the existence of a few existing stool banks worldwide and many studies of the FMT, there is no standard method for producing material for FMT, and there are a multitude of factors that can vary between the institutions. The main constraints for the therapeutic uses of FMT are safety concerns and acceptability. Technical and logistical issues arise when establishing such a non-standardized treatment into clinical practice with safety and proper governance. In this context, our manuscript describes a process of donor safety screening for FMT compiling clinical and biological examinations, questionnaires and interviews of donors. The potential risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus by the use of fecal microbiota for transplantation must be taken urgently into consideration. We discuss a standardized procedure of collection, preparation and cryopreservation of fecal samples through to the administration of material to patients, and explore the risks and limits of this method of FMT. The future success of medicine employing microbiota transplantation will be tightly related to its modulation and manipulation to combat dysbiosis. To achieve this goal, standard and strict methods need to be established before performing any type of FMT.

RevDate: 2020-04-24
CmpDate: 2020-04-24

Quaranta G, Fancello G, Ianiro G, et al (2020)

Laboratory handling practice for faecal microbiota transplantation.

Journal of applied microbiology, 128(3):893-898.

AIMS: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) consists of the infusion of faeces from a healthy donor to the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient patient to treat disease associated with alterations in gut microbiota. The objective of this article was to describe laboratory workflow of an FMT laboratory to provide tips for preparing the faecal suspensions to be infused.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-stool solutions obtained from ten donors were prepared using two different protocols: magnet plate emulsion (MPE) and Seward StomacherTM Emulsion (SSE). We evaluated parameters such as preparation time, handiness, and aerobic and anaerobic microbial count. For three donors, we monitored bacterial counts after defrosting at different time-points. MPE requires more time than SSE. In terms of microbial load, both methods showed similar values, with small and statistically differences (P ≤ 0·05) regarding anaerobes in favour of SSE. Frozen aliquots showed the same bacterial load values after defrosting.

CONCLUSION: Although both methods allow an easy and available preparation of a stool suspension, SSE seems more suitable, particularly for stool banking. Aerobic and anaerobic species are preserved with both protocols; and safety for laboratory operators is guaranteed.

In recent years, FMT has become a fascinating and interesting subject. Nevertheless, there are no real guidelines describing laboratory facilities and procedures. This paper aims to be a useful and simple guide to increase the number FMT centres as much possible.

RevDate: 2020-04-24
CmpDate: 2020-04-24

Seekatz AM (2019)

Development of an alternative animal model to investigate host-microbe interactions.

EBioMedicine, 50:7-8.

RevDate: 2020-04-24
CmpDate: 2020-04-24

Tashiro H, Cho Y, Kasahara DI, et al (2019)

Microbiota Contribute to Obesity-related Increases in the Pulmonary Response to Ozone.

American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology, 61(6):702-712.

Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, especially nonatopic asthma, and attenuates the efficacy of standard asthma therapeutics. Obesity also augments pulmonary responses to ozone, a nonatopic asthma trigger. The purpose of this study was to determine whether obesity-related alterations in gut microbiota contribute to these augmented responses to ozone. Ozone-induced increases in airway responsiveness, a canonical feature of asthma, were greater in obese db/db mice than in lean wild-type control mice. Depletion of gut microbiota with a cocktail of antibiotics attenuated obesity-related increases in the response to ozone, indicating a role for microbiota. Moreover, ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness was greater in germ-free mice that had been reconstituted with colonic contents of db/db than in wild-type mice. In addition, compared with dietary supplementation with the nonfermentable fiber cellulose, dietary supplementation with the fermentable fiber pectin attenuated obesity-related increases in the pulmonary response to ozone, likely by reducing ozone-induced release of IL-17A. Our data indicate a role for microbiota in obesity-related increases in the response to an asthma trigger and suggest that microbiome-based therapies such as prebiotics may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy for obese patients with asthma.

RevDate: 2020-04-23
CmpDate: 2020-04-23

Groves HE, UD Allen (2020)

Winning with poo? Fecal microbiome transplantation as an emerging strategy for the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in children.

Pediatric transplantation, 24(1):e13651.

RevDate: 2020-04-23
CmpDate: 2020-04-23

Tamilarasan AG, Irving P, Meadows CI, et al (2019)

Faecal microbiota transplantation for refractory Clostridiumdifficile infection.

BMJ case reports, 12(11): pii:12/11/e231027.

Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become a part of the treatment algorithm for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), particularly for recurrent infections when antibiotics have diminishing efficacy. Notably, despite a significant proportion of patients suffering from refractory disease, there is a general lack of evidence describing the use of FMT in this patient cohort. We present here a case of successful treatment of refractory CDI in a patient under critical care.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Vangoitsenhoven R, GAM Cresci (2020)

Role of Microbiome and Antibiotics in Autoimmune Diseases.

Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

The global rise in the incidence of autoimmune diseases has paralleled the widespread use of antibiotics. Recently, the gut microbiome has been shown to be key in the development and maturation of a normal immune system, and a range of microbial disturbances have been associated with the development and activity of several autoimmune diseases. Here, we aim to provide an overview of the mechanistic crosstalk between the human microbiome, the immune system, and antibiotics. The disease-associated microbial gut dysbiosis, the potential role of antibiotics in the development and treatment of autoimmune diseases, and the manipulation of the gut microbiome with prebiotics and probiotics is discussed using 2 key autoimmune diseases as an example: inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes. Although some data suggest that widespread use of antibiotics may facilitate autoimmunity through gut dysbiosis, there are also data to suggest antibiotics may hold the potential to improve disease activity. Currently, the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on several autoimmune diseases is being studied in clinical trials, and several preclinical studies are revealing promising results with probiotic and prebiotic therapies.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Takashima S, Tanaka F, Kawaguchi Y, et al (2020)

Proton pump inhibitors enhance intestinal permeability via dysbiosis of gut microbiota under stressed conditions in mice.

Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Intestinal permeability and psychological stress are considered the key mechanism(s) in functional dyspepsia (FD). Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used for the treatment of FD, the effect of PPIs on intestinal permeability has not been elucidated. This study investigated the effect of PPI on intestinal permeability under stressed conditions.

METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to water avoidance stress (WAS) and administered rabeprazole (40 mg/kg) or vehicle treatment (VT). We then evaluated intestinal permeability both in vivo and ex vivo using plasma fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran and by assessing the paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in an Ussing chamber, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of PPI-treated fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) on intestinal permeability in vivo. Microbiota profiles of donor feces were assessed by 16S rRNA gene analysis using MiSeq and QIIME2.

KEY RESULTS: In the WAS treatment, PPI significantly enhanced intestinal permeability in vivo compared to that in VT. Moreover, PPI significantly increased paracellular permeability and decreased TEER in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively, compared to those in VT under stressed conditions. Moreover, both vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist and ketotifen significantly reversed the effect of PPI on intestinal permeability. Furthermore, PPI-treated FMT significantly increased the intestinal permeability in vivo compared to that in vehicle-treated FMT. Proton pump inhibitors treatment altered the gut microbiota composition, indicating that PPI induced dysbiosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Under stressed conditions, PPI enhances intestinal permeability via dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and mast cells are also implicated in the underlying mechanisms.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Gerussi A, Lucà M, Cristoferi L, et al (2020)

New Therapeutic Targets in Autoimmune Cholangiopathies.

Frontiers in medicine, 7:117.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are autoimmune cholangiopathies characterized by limited treatment options. A more accurate understanding of the several pathways involved in these diseases has fostered the development of novel and promising targeted drugs. For PBC, the characterization of the role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and perixosome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) has paved the way to several clinical trials including different molecules with choleretic and antinflammatory action. Conversely, different pathogenetic models have been proposed in PSC such as the "leaky gut" hypothesis, a dysbiotic microbiota or a defect in mechanisms protecting against bile acid toxicity. Along these theories, new treatment approaches have been developed, ranging from drugs interfering with trafficking of lymphocytes from the gut to the liver, fecal microbiota transplantation or new biliary acids with possible immunomodulatory potential. Finally, for both diseases, antifibrotic agents are under investigation. In this review, we will illustrate current understanding of molecular mechanisms in PBC and PSC, focusing on actionable biological pathways for which novel treatments are being developed.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Zhou B, Yuan Y, Zhang S, et al (2020)

Intestinal Flora and Disease Mutually Shape the Regional Immune System in the Intestinal Tract.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:575.

The intestinal tract is the largest digestive organ in the human body. It is colonized by, and consistently exposed to, a myriad of microorganisms, including bifidobacteria, lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, enterococcus, clostridium perfringens, and pseudomonas. To protect the body from potential pathogens, the intestinal tract has evolved regional immune characteristics. These characteristics are defined by its unique structure, function, and microenvironment, which differ drastically from those of the common central and peripheral immune organs. The intestinal microenvironment created by the intestinal flora and its products significantly affects the immune function of the region. In turn, specific diseases regulate and influence the composition of the intestinal flora. A constant interplay occurs between the intestinal flora and immune system. Further, the intestinal microenvironment can be reconstructed by probiotic use or microbiota transplantation, functioning to recalibrate the immune homeostasis, while also contributing to the treatment or amelioration of diseases. In this review, we summarize the relationship between the intestinal flora and the occurrence and development of diseases as an in-turn effect on intestinal immunity. We also discuss improved immune function as it relates to non-specific and specific immunity. Further, we discuss the proliferation, differentiation and secretion of immune cells, within the intestinal region following remodeling of the microenvironment as a means to ameliorate and treat diseases. Finally, we suggest strategies for improved utilization of intestinal flora.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Gryp T, De Paepe K, Vanholder R, et al (2020)

Gut microbiota generation of protein-bound uremic toxins and related metabolites is not altered at different stages of chronic kidney disease.

Kidney international pii:S0085-2538(20)30142-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by accumulation of protein-bound uremic toxins such as p-cresyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate and indole-3-acetic acid, which originate in the gut. Intestinal bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids into p-cresol and indole, (further conjugated in the colon mucosa and liver) and indole-3-acetic acid. Here we measured fecal, plasma and urine metabolite concentrations; the contribution of gut bacterial generation to plasma protein-bound uremic toxins accumulation; and influx into the gut of circulating protein-bound uremic toxins at different stages of CKD. Feces, blood and urine were collected from 14 control individuals and 141 patients with CKD. Solutes were quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. To assess the rate of bacterial generation of p-cresol, indole and indole-3-acetic acid, fecal samples were cultured ex vivo. With CKD progression, an increase in protein-bound uremic toxins levels was observed in plasma, whereas the levels of these toxins and their precursors remained the same in feces and urine. Anaerobic culture of fecal samples showed no difference in ex vivo p-cresol, indole and indole-3-acetic acid generation. Therefore, differences in plasma protein-bound uremic toxins levels between different CKD stages cannot be explained by differences in bacterial generation rates in the gut, suggesting retention due to impaired kidney function as the main contributor to their increased plasma levels. Thus, as fractional clearance decreased with the progression of CKD, tubular clearance appeared to be more affected than the glomerular filtration rate, and there was no net increase in protein-bound uremic toxins influx into the gut lumen with increased plasma levels.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Li J, Yang X, Zhou X, et al (2020)

The role and mechanism of intestinal flora on blood pressure regulation and hypertension development.

Antioxidants & redox signaling [Epub ahead of print].

SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertension (HTN) has a complex etiology characterized by genetic and environmental factors. It has become a global health burden leading to cardiovascular diseases and kidney diseases, ultimately progressing to premature death. Accumulating evidence indicated that gut microbiome was associated with metabolic disorders and inflammation, which were closely linked to HTN. Recent Advances: Recent studies using bacterial genomic analysis and fecal microbiota transplantation as well as many lines of seminal evidence demonstrated that aberrant gut microbiome was significantly associated with HTN. The intestinal microbiome of both patients and animals with HTN had decreased bacterial diversity, disordered microbial structure and functions, and altered end products of fermentation. Gut dysbiosis and metabolites of the gut microbiota play an important role in blood pressure control, and are therefore responsible for developing HTN.

CRITICAL ISSUES: This study aimed to focus on the recent advances in understanding the role played by gut bacteria and the mechanisms underlying the pathological milieu that induced elevated blood pressure and led to HTN pathogenesis. Potential intervention strategies targeting the correction of gut dysbiosis to improve HTN development were summarized.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Larger numbers of fecal transplants from participants with HTN should be carried out to examine the magnitude of blood pressure changes with the replacement of gut microbiome. The proposed mechanisms for gut in regulating blood pressure remain to be verified. Whether intervention strategies using probiotics, dietary interventions, bacteriophages, and fecal transplants are feasible for individuals with HTN remains to be explored.

RevDate: 2020-04-21
CmpDate: 2020-04-21

Stern JM, Urban-Maldonado M, Usyk M, et al (2019)

Fecal transplant modifies urine chemistry risk factors for urinary stone disease.

Physiological reports, 7(4):e14012.

Urinary stone disease (USD) is a major health concern. There is a need for new treatment modalities. Recently, our group provided evidence for an association between the GMB composition and USD. The accessibility of the Gut Microbiome (GMB) makes it an attractive target for investigation and therefore, in these studies we have evaluated the extent to which the whole gut microbial community in fecal transplants can affect urinary stone risk parameters in an animal model. Fresh fecal pellets were collected from Zucker lean rats, homogenized in PBS (100 mg/mL), filtered through a 70 μm strainer and then orally gavaged into C57BL/6NTac germ-free mice. Twenty-four hours urine collections and GMB analysis were performed over time for 1 month. Kidney and gut tissue were harvested from transplanted mice for western blot analysis of expression levels of the Slc26a6 transporter involved in oxalate balance. Urinary calcium decreased after fecal transplant by 55% (P < 0.001). Urinary oxalate levels were on average 24% lower than baseline levels (P < 0.001). Clostridiaceae family was negatively correlated with urinary oxalate at 4 weeks after transplant (r = -0.83, P < 0.01). There was a 0.6 unit average increase in urinary pH from a baseline of 5.85 (SE ± 0.028) to 6.49 (SE ± 0.04) (P < 0.001) after transplant. There was a concomitant 29% increase in gastrointestinal alkali absorption (P < 0.001) 4-weeks after fecal transplant. Slc26a6 expression increased by 90% in the cecum after transplant. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome may impact metabolism, alters urinary chemistry, and thereby may influence USD; the accessibility of the GMB can potentially be leveraged for therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2020-04-20

De Musis C, Granata L, Dallio M, et al (2020)

Inflammatory bowel diseases: the role of gut microbiota.

Current pharmaceutical design pii:CPD-EPUB-105933 [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic multifactorial diseases characterized by partially unclear pathogenic mechanisms including changes in intestinal microbiota. Despite the microbiota alteration is well established in IBD patients, as reported by 16RNA sequencing analysis, an important goal is to define if it is just a consequence of the disease progression or a trigger factor of the disease itself. To date gut microbiota composition and gut microbiota-related metabolites seem to affect the host healthy state both by modulating metabolic pathways or acting on the expression of different genes through epigenetic effects. Because of this, it has been suggested that intestinal microbiota might represent a promising therapeutic target for IBD patients. The aim of this review is to summarize both the most recent acquisitions in the field of gut microbiota and its involvement in intestinal inflammation together with the available strategies for the modulation of microbiota, such as prebiotics and/or probiotics administration or fecal microbiota transplantation.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )