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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 12 Aug 2022 at 01:42 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-08-11

Jin J, Gao L, Zou X, et al (2022)

Gut Dysbiosis Promotes Preeclampsia by Regulating Macrophages and Trophoblasts.

Circulation research [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and is characterized by hypertension, inflammation, and placental dysfunction. Gut microbiota plays key roles in inflammation and hypertension. However, its roles and mechanisms in preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated.

METHODS: 16S rRNA gene sequencing and targeted metabolomics were conducted on stool samples from 92 preeclamptic patients and 86 normal late-pregnant women. Then, fecal microbiota transplantation and in vitro and in vivo functional experiments were performed to explore the roles and mechanisms of gut microbiota in preeclampsia development.

RESULTS: We revealed the gut microbiota dysbiosis in preeclamptic patients, including significant reductions in short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and short-chain fatty acids. The gut microbiota of preeclamptic patients significantly exacerbated pathologies and symptoms of preeclamptic rats, whereas the gut microbiota of healthy pregnant women had significant protective effects. Akkermansia muciniphila, propionate, or butyrate significantly alleviated the symptoms of preeclamptic rats. Mechanistically, they significantly promoted autophagy and M2 polarization of macrophages in placental bed, thereby suppressing inflammation. Propionate also significantly promoted trophoblast invasion, thereby improved spiral arterial remodeling. Additionally, we identified a marker set consisting of Akkermansia, Oscillibacter, and short-chain fatty acids that could accurately diagnose preeclampsia.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that gut microbiota dysbiosis is an important etiology of preeclampsia. Gut microbiota and their active metabolites have great potential for the treatment and diagnosis of preeclampsia. Our findings enrich the gut-placenta axis theory and contribute to the development of microecological products for preeclampsia.

RevDate: 2022-08-11

Xie C, Teng J, Wang X, et al (2022)

Multi-omics analysis reveals gut microbiota-induced intramuscular fat deposition via regulating expression of lipogenesis-associated genes.

Animal nutrition (Zhongguo xu mu shou yi xue hui), 9:84-99 pii:S2405-6545(21)00211-0.

The gut microbiome has great effects on the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of lipids. However, the microbiota composition that can alter the fat deposition and the meat quality of pigs remains unclear. Here, we used Laiwu (LW) pigs (a native Chinese breed with higher intramuscular fat) compared with commercial crossbreed Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) pigs to investigate the effects of microbiota on meat quality, especially in intramuscular fat content. A total of 32 DLY piglets were randomly allotted to 4 groups and transplanted with fecal microbiota from healthy LW pigs. The results indicated that the high dose of fecal microbiota transplantation (HFMT) selectively enhanced fat deposition in longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05) but decreased backfat thickness (P < 0.05) compared with control group. HFMT significantly altered meat color and increased feed conversation ratio (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the multi-omics analysis revealed that Bacteroides uniformis, Sphaerochaeta globosa, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans, and Pyramidobacter piscolens are the core species which can regulate lipid deposition. A total of 140 male SPF C57BL/6j mice were randomly allotted into 7 groups and administrated with these 4 microbes alone or consortium to validate the relationships between microbiota and lipid deposition. Inoculating the bacterial consortium into mice increased intramuscular fat content (P < 0.05) compared with control mice. Increased expressions of lipogenesis-associated genes including cluster of differentiation 36 (Cd36), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were observed in skeletal muscle in the mice with mixed bacteria compared with control mice. Together, our results suggest that the gut microbiota may play an important role in regulating the lipid deposition in the muscle of pigs and mice.

RevDate: 2022-08-11

Zheng L, Ji YY, Wen XL, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in the metabolic diseases: Current status and perspectives.

World journal of gastroenterology, 28(23):2546-2560.

With the development of microbiology and metabolomics, the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and intestinal diseases has been revealed. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a new treatment method, can affect the course of many chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, malignant tumor, autoimmune disease and nervous system disease. Although the mechanism of action of FMT is now well understood, there is some controversy in metabolic diseases, so its clinical application may be limited. Microflora transplantation is recommended by clinical medical guidelines and consensus for the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection, and has been gradually promoted for the treatment of other intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. However, the initial results are varied, suggesting that the heterogeneity of the donor stools may affect the efficacy of FMT. The success of FMT depends on the microbial diversity and composition of donor feces. Therefore, clinical trials may fail due to the selection of ineffective donors, and not to faulty indication selection for FMT. A new understanding is that FMT not only improves insulin sensitivity, but may also alter the natural course of type 1 diabetes by modulating autoimmunity. In this review, we focus on the main mechanisms and deficiencies of FMT, and explore the optimal design of FMT research, especially in the field of cardiometabolic diseases.

RevDate: 2022-08-09

Ma W, Drew DA, K Staller (2022)

The Gut Microbiome and Colonic Motility Disorders: A Practical Framework for the Gastroenterologist.

Current gastroenterology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colonic motility disorders may be influenced by the gut microbiota, which plays a role in modulating sensory and motor function. However, existing data are inconsistent, possibly due to complex disease pathophysiology, fluctuation in symptoms, and difficulty characterizing high-resolution taxonomic composition and function of the gut microbiome.

RECENT FINDINGS: Increasingly, human studies have reported associations between gut microbiome features and colonic motility disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. Several microbial metabolites have been identified as regulators of colonic motility in animal models. Modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplant is a promising avenue for treatment for these diseases. An integration of longitudinal multi-omics data will facilitate further understanding of the causal effects of dysbiosis on disease. Further understanding of the microbiome-driven mechanisms underlying colonic motility disorders may be leveraged to develop personalized, microbiota-based approaches for disease prevention and treatment.

RevDate: 2022-07-19
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Liu M, Sun B, Zhou X, et al (2022)

Disturbed glucose metabolism by perfluorobutanesulfonate pollutant and benefit of young fecal transplantation in aged zebrafish.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 241:113721.

Perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) is an environmental pollutant of emerging concern, which significantly impacts the metabolism and health of animals. Because of the loss of functional capacity, the aged animals are regarded more susceptible to the toxicity of environmental pollutants. In the present study, aged zebrafish were employed as the toxicological animal and transplanted with the feces collected from young donors for 14 days, after which the acclimated elderly were exposed to PFBS at environmentally relevant concentrations (0 and 100 μg/L) for another 14 days. When the exposure was concluded, glucose metabolic disturbances of PFBS in the aged and efficacy of young fecal transplant to mitigate the toxicity of PFBS were explored along the gut-liver axis. The results showed that PFBS exposure significantly inhibited the enzymatic activity of α-amylase in the gut, but increased the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the blood of the aged zebrafish, suggesting the impairment of intestinal digestive functions of carbohydrates and the induction of liver damage by PFBS. However, young fecal transplantation successfully ameliorated the toxicity of PFBS on α-amylase and ALT, underlining the benefits conveyed to the health of the elderly. In addition, transplantation of young feces was efficient to alleviate the hyperglycemia symptom in the elderly via stimulating the secretion of insulin. PFBS exposure increased blood glucagon level, disrupted insulin receptor transcription, and depleted hepatic glycogen store, which were all mitigated by young fecal transplant. Hepatic proteomic analysis also found dynamic interactions between young fecal transplantation and PFBS pollutant on the metabolic pathways of glucose and glycogen, involving glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycogenolysis. Overall, the present findings highlighted the beneficial effects of young fecal transplantation to protect the aged from the glucose metabolism toxicity of PFBS, thus providing a plausible measure to improve the health aging status.

RevDate: 2022-08-08

Jung JH, Kim SE, Suk KT, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota-modulating agents in alcoholic liver disease: Links between host metabolism and gut microbiota.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:913842.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) involves a wide spectrum of diseases, including asymptomatic hepatic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis, which leads to morbidity and mortality and is responsible for 0.9% of global deaths. Alcohol consumption induces bacterial translocation and alteration of the gut microbiota composition. These changes in gut microbiota aggravate hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Alteration of the gut microbiota leads to a weakened gut barrier and changes host immunity and metabolic function, especially related to bile acid metabolism. Modulation and treatment for the gut microbiota in ALD has been studied using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and fecal microbial transplantation with meaningful results. In this review, we focused on the interaction between alcohol and gut dysbiosis in ALD. Additionally, treatment approaches for gut dysbiosis, such as abstinence, diet, pro-, pre-, and synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbial transplantation, are covered here under ALD. However, further research through human clinical trials is warranted to evaluate the appropriate gut microbiota-modulating agents for each condition related to ALD.

RevDate: 2022-08-07

Liu Y, Kang W, Liu S, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota-bile acid-intestinal Farnesoid X receptor signaling axis orchestrates cadmium-induced liver injury.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04960-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Cadmium (Cd) is a widely prevalent environmental pollutant that accumulates in the liver and induces liver injury. The mechanism of Cd-induced liver injury remains elusive. Our study aimed to clarify the mechanism by which changes in the gut microbiota contribute to Cd-induced liver injury. Here, a murine model of liver injury induced by chronic Cd exposure was used. Liver injury was assessed by biochemistry and histopathology. Expression profiles of genes involved in bile acid (BA) homeostasis, inflammation and injury were assessed via Realtime-PCR and Western-blot. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics were used to investigate changes in the gut microbiota and its metabolites in the regulation of Cd-induced liver injury. Here, we showed that Cd exposure induced hepatic ductular proliferation, hepatocellular damage and inflammatory infiltration in mice. Cd exposure induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and reduced the fecal bile salt hydrolase activity leading to an increase of tauro-β-muricholic acid levels in the intestine. Cd exposure decreased intestine FXR/FGF-15 signaling and promoted hepatic BA synthesis. Furthermore, the mice receiving fecal microbiota transplantation from Cd-treated mice showed reduced intestinal FXR/FGF-15 signaling, increased hepatic BA synthesis, and liver injury. However, the depletion of the commensal microbiota by antibiotics failed to change these indices in Cd-treated mice. Finally, the administration of the intestine-restricted FXR agonist fexaramine attenuated the liver injury, improved the intestinal barrier, and decreased hepatic BA synthesis in the Cd-treated mice. Our study identified a new mechanism of Cd-induced liver injury. Cd-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, decreased feces BSH activity, and increased intestinal T-βMCA levels led to an inhibition of intestinal FXR/FGF-15 signaling and an increase in hepatic BA synthesis, ultimately facilitating the development of hepatic ductular proliferation, inflammation, and injury in mice. This study expands our understanding of the health hazards caused by environmental Cd pollution.

RevDate: 2022-08-07

Huang J, Liu W, Kang W, et al (2022)

Effects of microbiota on anticancer drugs: Current knowledge and potential applications.

EBioMedicine, 83:104197 pii:S2352-3964(22)00379-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last decade, mounting evidence has revealed the key roles of gut microbiota in modulating the efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs, via mechanisms such as immunomodulation and microbial enzymatic degradation. As such, human microbiota presents as an exciting prospect for developing biomarkers for predicting treatment outcomes and interventional approaches for improving therapeutic effects. In this review, we analyze the current knowledge of the interplays among gut microorganisms, host responses and anticancer therapies (including cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy), with an emphasis on the immunomodulation function of microbiota which facilitates the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Moreover, we propose several microbiota-modulating strategies including fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics, which can be pursued to optimize the use and development of anticancer treatments. We anticipate that future clinical and preclinical studies will highlight the significance of human microbiome as a promising target towards precision medicine in cancer therapies. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China (2020YFA0907800), Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Program (KQTD20200820145822023) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (31900056 and 32000096).

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Chen Y, Lin J, Xiao L, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus: A fuse and a solution.

Journal of autoimmunity, 132:102867 pii:S0896-8411(22)00075-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut commensals help shape and mold host immune system and deeply influence human health. The disease spectrum of mankind that gut microbiome may associate with is ever-growing, but the mechanisms are still enigmas. Characterized by loss of self-tolerance and sustained self-attack, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is labeled with chronic inflammation, production of autoantibodies and multisystem injury, which so far are mostly incurable. Gut microbiota and their metabolites, now known as important environmental triggers of local/systemic immune responses, have been proposed to be involved in SLE development and progression probably through the following mechanisms: translocation beyond their niches; molecular mimicry to cross-activate immune response targeting self-antigens; epitope spreading to expand autoantibodies spectrum; and bystander activation to promote systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota which varies between individuals may also influence the metabolism and bio-transformation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, thus associated with the efficacy and toxicity of these drugs, adding another explanation for heterogenic therapeutic responses. Modulation of gut microbiota via diet, probiotics/prebiotics, antibiotics/phages, fecal microbiota transplantation, or helminth to restore immune tolerance and homeostasis is expected to be a promising neoadjuvant therapy for SLE. We reviewed the advances in this territory and discussed the application prospect of modulating gut microbiota in controlling SLE.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Podlesny D, Durdevic M, Paramsothy S, et al (2022)

Identification of clinical and ecological determinants of strain engraftment after fecal microbiota transplantation using metagenomics.

Cell reports. Medicine pii:S2666-3791(22)00254-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapeutic approach for microbiota-associated pathologies, but our understanding of the post-FMT microbiome assembly process and its ecological and clinical determinants is incomplete. Here we perform a comprehensive fecal metagenome analysis of 14 FMT trials, involving five pathologies and >250 individuals, and determine the origins of strains in patients after FMT. Independently of the underlying clinical condition, conspecific coexistence of donor and recipient strains after FMT is uncommon and donor strain engraftment is strongly positively correlated with pre-FMT recipient microbiota dysbiosis. Donor strain engraftment was enhanced through antibiotic pretreatment and bowel lavage and dependent on donor and recipient ɑ-diversity; strains from relatively abundant species were more likely and from predicted oral, oxygen-tolerant, and gram-positive species less likely to engraft. We introduce a general mechanistic framework for post-FMT microbiome assembly in alignment with ecological theory, which can guide development of optimized, more targeted, and personalized FMT therapies.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Zhu W, Hong Y, Li Y, et al (2022)

Microbial and Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Diet-Related Alterations of Metabolism in Metabolic Disordered Mice.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:923377.

Metabolic disorders are the prelude of metabolic diseases, which are mainly due to the high-energy intake and genetic contribution. High-fat diet (HFD) or high-sucrose diet is widely used for inducing metabolic disorders characterized by increased body weight, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and alteration of gut microbiome. However, the triangle relationship among diets, gut microbiome, and host metabolism is poorly understood. In our study, we investigated the dynamic changes in gut microbiota, and host metabolism in mice that were fed with either chow diet, HFD, or chow diet with 30% sucrose in drinking water (HSD) for continued 12 weeks. The gut microbiota was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing on feces. Hepatic gene expression profile was tested with transcriptomics analysis on liver tissue. The host metabolism was evaluated by measuring body weight, insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism of liver. The results showed that HFD feeding affected body weight, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis more significantly than HSD feeding. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD rapidly and steadily suppressed species richness, altered microbiota structure and function, and increased the abundance of bacteria responsible for fatty acid metabolism and inflammatory signaling. In contrast, HSD had minor impact on the overall bacteria structure or function but activated microbial bile acid biosynthesis. Fecal microbiota transplantation suggested that some metabolic changes induced by HFD or HSD feeding were transferrable, especially in the weight of white adipose tissue and hepatic triglyceride level that were consistent with the phenotypes in donor mice. Moreover, transcriptomic results showed that HFD feeding significantly inhibited fatty acid degradation and increase inflammation, while HSD increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and inhibited primary bile acid synthesis alternative pathway. In general, our study revealed the dynamic and diversified impacts of HFD and HSD on gut microbiota and host metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Yang Z, Liu X, Wu Y, et al (2022)

Effect of the Microbiome on Intestinal Innate Immune Development in Early Life and the Potential Strategy of Early Intervention.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:936300.

Early life is a vital period for mammals to be colonized with the microbiome, which profoundly influences the development of the intestinal immune function. For neonates to resist pathogen infection and avoid gastrointestinal illness, the intestinal innate immune system is critical. Thus, this review summarizes the development of the intestinal microbiome and the intestinal innate immune barrier, including the intestinal epithelium and immune cells from the fetal to the weaning period. Moreover, the impact of the intestinal microbiome on innate immune development and the two main way of early-life intervention including probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) also are discussed in this review. We hope to highlight the crosstalk between early microbial colonization and intestinal innate immunity development and offer some information for early intervention.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

He N, Shen G, Jin X, et al (2022)

Resveratrol suppressed microglia activation and promoted functional recovery of traumatic spinal cord via improving intestinal microbiota.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(22)00322-X [Epub ahead of print].

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can change the intestinal microbiota pattern and modify corresponding metabolites, which in turn affect the prognosis of SCI. Among many metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are critical for neurological recovery after SCI. Recent research showed that resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory properties. But it is unknown if the anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol are associated with intestinal microbiota and metabolites. Here, we thus investigated the alteration in gut microbiota and determined the consequent change of SCFAs following resveratrol treatment. The SCI mouse models with retention of gut microbiota (donor) and depletion of gut microbiota (recipient) were established. Fecal microbiota transplantation from donors to recipients was performed with intragastrical administration. Spinal cord tissues of mice were examined by H&E, Nissl, and immunofluorescence staining. The expressions of the inflammatory profile were examined by qPCR and cytometric bead array. Fecal samples of mice were collected and sent to 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that resveratrol inhibited the microglial activation and promoted the functional recovery of SCI. The analysis of intestinal microbiota and metabolite indicated that SCI caused dysbiosis and the decrease in butyrate, while resveratrol restored microbiota pattern, reversed intestinal dysbiosis, and increased the concentration of butyrate. Both fecal supernatants from resveratrol-treated donors and separate butyrate suppressed the expression of proinflammation genes in BV2 microglia. Our result demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplantation from resveratrol-treated donors had beneficial effects on the functional recovery of SCI. One mechanism of resveratrol effects was to restore the disrupted gut microbiota and butyrate to normal patterns.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Tian B, Zhang Y, Deng C, et al (2022)

Efficacy of Probiotic Consortium Transplantation on Experimental Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

The Journal of surgical research, 279:598-610 pii:S0022-4804(22)00347-X [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapy, but it has not been used to treat neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) due to reports of adverse side effects. Probiotics are considered relatively safe with practicable administrative procedures; however, no systematic research has compared the results of FMT and probiotic consortium transplantation (PCT) on oxidative stress in the intestines of patients with NEC. We conducted this study to provide a basis for optimizing NEC therapy.

METHODS: Eight-day-old newborn C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: the dam-fed group (control group); the NEC induction group (NEC group); the NEC induction and transplantation of Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium infantis consortium group (NEC + PCT group); and the NEC induction and the FMT group (NEC + FMT). Intestinal injury, oxidative stress indexes, intestinal barrier function, and inflammatory cytokines were assessed in the terminal ileum.

RESULTS: FMT more effectively modulates oxidative stress in the intestine than does PCT; however, the difference between the effects of PCT and FMT was not significant. The protective effect was associated with enhanced antioxidant capacity, regulation of the main components of the mucus layer, reduced inflammatory reactions, and improved intestinal integrity.

CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal dysbiosis affects oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and mucosal integrity. Although FMT is more effective than PCT in regulating oxidative stress, PCT may be preferred in pediatrics because the proportion and dose of transplanted bacteria can be standardized and individualized according to individual conditions.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Qin H, Yuan B, Huang W, et al (2022)

Utilizing Gut Microbiota to Improve Hepatobiliary Tumor Treatments: Recent Advances.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:924696.

Hepatobiliary tumors, which include cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and gallbladder cancer, are common cancers that have high morbidity and mortality rates and poor survival outcomes. In humans, the microbiota is comprised of symbiotic microbial cells (10-100 trillion) that belong to the bacterial ecosystem mainly residing in the gut. The gut microbiota is a complicated group that can largely be found in the intestine and has a dual role in cancer occurrence and progression. Previous research has focused on the crucial functions of the intestinal microflora as the main pathophysiological mechanism in HCC development. Intestinal bacteria produce a broad range of metabolites that exhibit a variety of pro- and anticarcinogenic effects on HCC. Therefore, probiotic alteration of the gut microflora could promote gut flora balance and help prevent the occurrence of HCC. Recent evidence from clinical and translational studies suggests that fecal microbiota transplant is one of the most successful therapies to correct intestinal bacterial imbalance. We review the literature describing the effects and mechanisms of the microbiome in the gut in the context of HCC, including gut bacterial metabolites, probiotics, antibiotics, and the transplantation of fecal microbiota, and discuss the potential influence of the microbiome environment on cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer. Our findings are expected to reveal therapeutic targets for the prevention of hepatobiliary tumors, and the development of clinical treatment strategies, by emphasizing the function of the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Huang S, Zheng G, Men H, et al (2022)

The Response of Fecal Microbiota and Host Metabolome in Dairy Cows Following Rumen Fluid Transplantation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:940158.

Rumen fluid transplantation (RFT) has been used to rebuild rumen bacterial homeostasis, reshape rumen function, and restore rumen fermentation, whereas the effect of RFT on fecal microbiota and host metabolism in cows remains poorly understood. In our study, a combination of 16S rRNA sequencing and serum non-targeted metabolomics was performed to investigate the response of fecal microbiota and serum metabolome in dairy cows following RFT. Twenty-four prepartum dairy cows were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 8) for infusion of either saline (Con), fresh rumen fluid (FR), or sterilized rumen fluid (SR) after calving. Fourteen days after calving, fecal microbiota and serum metabolome were analyzed. The sequencing data of fecal samples revealed no changes in alpha diversity and relative abundance of dominant genera such as Ruminococcaceae UCG-005, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut and Eubacterium coprostanoligenes. However, the other genus level taxa, such as Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Anaerorhabdus furcosa, Bacillus and Selenomonas, showed distinct changes following RFT. Serum metabolome analysis showed that FR or SR infusion affected amino acids metabolism, bile acids metabolism and fatty acids metabolism (including linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid). Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that taxa from genera Clostridiales were positively correlated with metabolites involved in tryptophan and bile acid metabolisms, such as OTU1039 from genera unclassified o_Clostridiales was positively correlated to indoleacetic acid and taurolithocholic acid. These results suggest that RFT altered the composition of the fecal microbiota and modulated microbial metabolic pathways, which is vital for the development and safety assessment of rumen microbial intervention strategies.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-07-22

Leonardi I (2022)

Beyond the gut.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 377(6602):165.

Mycobiota modulate immunity and behavior.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Khan MH, Onyeaghala GC, Rashidi A, et al (2022)

Fecal β-glucuronidase activity differs between hematopoietic cell and kidney transplantation and a possible mechanism for disparate dose requirements.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2108279.

The intestinal microbiota produces β-glucuronidase that plays an essential role in the metabolism of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This drug is commonly used in organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), with variations in dosing across transplant types. We hypothesized that β-glucuronidase activity differs between transplant types, which may account for differences in dosing requirements. We evaluated fecal β-glucuronidase activity in patients receiving MMF post-allogeneic HCT and post-kidney transplant. Kidney transplant patients had significantly greater β-glucuronidase activity (8.48 ± 6.21 nmol/hr/g) than HCT patients (3.50 ± 3.29 nmol/hr/g; P = .001). Microbially mediated β-glucuronidase activity may be a critical determinant in the amount of mycophenolate entering the systemic circulation and an important factor to consider for precision dosing of MMF.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Philip S, Tageldin O, Mansoor MS, et al (2022)

Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplant Delivered by Foley Catheter Through a Loop Ileostomy in a Patient With Severe Complicated Clostridioides difficile Infection.

ACG case reports journal, 9(7):e00801 pii:ACGCR-21-0685.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a potentially life-threatening cause of diarrhea that can result in multiple complications. Fulminant CDI that is nonresponsive to antibiotics may require surgical ileostomy or fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). We present a case of a patient with fulminant CDI requiring surgical loop ileostomy who underwent a successful FMT delivered by Foley catheter through the ileostomy with symptom resolution. Delivery of FMT using a foley catheter in a patient with an ileostomy may be safe and effective for patients who are at a higher risk of complications associated with the instillation of FMT through colonoscopy with anesthesia.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Rashidi A, Ebadi M, Rehman TU, et al (2022)

Compilation of longitudinal gut microbiome, serum metabolome, and clinical data in acute myeloid leukemia.

Scientific data, 9(1):468.

Induction chemotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a unique clinical scenario. These patients spend several weeks in the hospital, receiving multiple antibiotics, experiencing gastrointestinal mucosal damage, and suffering severe impairments in their immune system and nutrition. These factors cause major disruptions to the gut microbiota to a level rarely seen in other clinical conditions. Thus, the study of the gut microbiota in these patients can reveal novel aspects of microbiota-host relationships. When combined with the circulating metabolome, such studies could shed light on gut microbiota contribution to circulating metabolites. Collectively, gut microbiota and circulating metabolome are known to regulate host physiology. We have previously deposited amplicon sequences from 566 fecal samples from 68 AML patients. Here, we provide sample-level details and a link, using de-identified patient IDs, to additional data including serum metabolomics (260 samples from 36 patients) and clinical metadata. The detailed information provided enables comprehensive multi-omics analysis. We validate the technical quality of these data through 3 examples and demonstrate a method for integrated analysis.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Liu J, Zhang X, Ta X, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiome transplantation attenuates manganese-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of the apelin signaling pathway by inhibition of autophagy in mouse brain.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 242:113925 pii:S0147-6513(22)00765-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Manganese (Mn) is a common environmental pollutant. Mn exposure can lead to neurodegenerative diseases resembling Parkinson's disease, and has become a major public health concern. However, the mechanism of Mn-induced neurotoxicity in the brain is not clear. Fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) may alleviate the neurotoxicity of Mn exposure by remodeling the gut microbiota. In this study, MnCl2 (manganese chloride) was administered to mice as in drinking water (Mn: 200 mg/L), and fecal matter from donor mice was administered by oral gavage every other day to the recipient mice. The Mn exposure model (Mn group) and FMT model (Mn+FMT group) were established and analyzed 5 weeks post-exposure. The Wipi1 gene exhibited the most significant increase associated with Mn exposure and Mn+FMT treatment groups based on transcriptome analysis. Combined analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics demonstrated that the apelin signaling pathway is the main pathway affected by FMT during Mn exposure. Immunofluorescence and Western blot showed that the expression of key proteins (Beclin-1, LC-3B, and PINK1) associated with autophagy in the hippocampus was robustly activated in the Mn exposure group, but attenuation was observed in Mn+FMT mice, suggesting a critical role of autophagy in neurotoxicity induced by Mn exposure. Our research provides evidence for the neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure through autophagy activation and provides an underlying mechanism of FMT protection against Mn-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of the apelin signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Geng J, Liu C, Xu J, et al (2022)

Potential relationship between Tourette syndrome and gut microbiome.

Jornal de pediatria pii:S0021-7557(22)00086-9 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: In this article, the author aims to discuss and review the relationship between gut microbiota and Tourette syndrome, and whether the change in gut microbiota can affect the severity of Tourette syndrome.

SOURCES: Literature from PubMed, Google Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was mainly reviewed. Both original studies and review articles were discussed. The articles were required to be published as of May 2022.

SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Current studies on the gut microbiome have found that the gut microbiome and brain seem to interact. It is named the brain-gut-axis. The relationship between the brain-gut axis and neurological and psychiatric disorders has been a topic of intense interest. Tourette syndrome is a chronic neurological disease that seriously affects the quality of life of children, and there appears to be an increase in Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroides in the gut of patients with Tourette syndrome. After clinical observation and animal experiments, there appear to be particular gut microbiota changes in Tourette syndrome. It provides a new possible idea for the treatment of Tourette syndrome. Probiotics and fecal microbial transplantation have been tried to treat Tourette syndrome, especially Tourette syndrome which is not sensitive to drugs, and some results have been achieved.

CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between gut microbiota and Tourette syndrome and how to alleviate Tourette syndrome by improving gut microbiota are new topics, more in-depth and larger sample size research is still needed.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Lesniak NA, Tomkovich S, Henry A, et al (2022)

Diluted Fecal Community Transplant Restores Clostridioides difficile Colonization Resistance to Antibiotic-Perturbed Murine Communities.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal communities transplanted into individuals can eliminate recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) with high efficacy. However, this treatment is only used once CDI becomes resistant to antibiotics or has recurred multiple times. We sought to investigate whether a fecal community transplant (FCT) pretreatment could be used to prevent CDI altogether. We treated male C57BL/6 mice with either clindamycin, cefoperazone, or streptomycin and then inoculated them with the microbial community from untreated mice before challenge with C. difficile. We measured colonization and sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to understand the dynamics of the murine fecal community in response to the FCT and C. difficile challenge. Clindamycin-treated mice became colonized with C. difficile but cleared it naturally and did not benefit from the FCT. Cefoperazone-treated mice became colonized by C. difficile, but the FCT enabled clearance of C. difficile. In streptomycin-treated mice, the FCT was able to prevent C. difficile from colonizing. We then diluted the FCT and repeated the experiments. Cefoperazone-treated mice no longer cleared C. difficile. However, streptomycin-treated mice colonized with 1:102 dilutions resisted C. difficile colonization. Streptomycin-treated mice that received an FCT diluted 1:103 became colonized with C. difficile but later cleared the infection. In streptomycin-treated mice, inhibition of C. difficile was associated with increased relative abundance of a group of bacteria related to Porphyromonadaceae and Lachnospiraceae. These data demonstrate that C. difficile colonization resistance can be restored to a susceptible community with an FCT as long as it complements the missing populations. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic use, ubiquitous with the health care environment, is a major risk factor for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), the most common nosocomial infection. When C. difficile becomes resistant to antibiotics, a fecal microbiota transplant from a healthy individual can effectively restore the gut bacterial community and eliminate the infection. While this relationship between the gut bacteria and CDI is well established, there are no therapies to treat a perturbed gut community to prevent CDI. This study explored the potential of restoring colonization resistance to antibiotic-induced susceptible gut communities. We described the effect that gut bacterial community variation has on the effectiveness of a fecal community transplant for inhibiting CDI. These data demonstrated that communities susceptible to CDI can be supplemented with fecal communities but that the effectiveness depended on the structure of the community following the perturbation. Thus, a reduced bacterial community may be able to recover colonization resistance in patients treated with antibiotics.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Huang J, Zheng X, Kang W, et al (2022)

Metagenomic and metabolomic analyses reveal synergistic effects of fecal microbiota transplantation and anti-PD-1 therapy on treating colorectal cancer.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:874922.

Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy has saved numerous lives of cancer patients; however, it only exerts efficacy in 10-15% of patients with colorectal cancer. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential approach to improving the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy, whereas the detailed mechanisms and the applicability of this combination therapy remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic effect of FMT with anti-PD-1 in curing colorectal tumor-bearing mice using a multi-omics approach. Mice treated with the combination therapy showed superior survival rate and tumor control, compared to the mice received anti-PD-1 therapy or FMT alone. Metagenomic analysis showed that composition of gut microbiota in tumor-bearing mice treated with anti-PD-1 therapy was remarkably altered through receiving FMT. Particularly, Bacteroides genus, including FMT-increased B. thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis, and FMT-decreased B. ovatus might contribute to the enhanced efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis upon mouse plasma revealed several potential metabolites that upregulated after FMT, including punicic acid and aspirin, might promote the response to anti-PD-1 therapy via their immunomodulatory functions. This work broadens our understanding of the mechanism by which FMT improves the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy, which may contribute to the development of novel microbiota-based anti-cancer therapies.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Wang J, Jia R, Celi P, et al (2022)

Resveratrol Alleviating the Ovarian Function Under Oxidative Stress by Alternating Microbiota Related Tryptophan-Kynurenine Pathway.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:911381.

Oxidative stress (OS) is a key factor regulating the systemic pathophysiological effects and one of the fundamental mechanisms associated with aging and fertility deterioration. Previous studies revealed that resveratrol (RV) exhibits a preventive effect against oxidative stress in the ovary. However, it remains unknown whether gut microbiota respond to resveratrol during an OS challenge. In Exp. 1, layers received intraperitoneal injection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) (0 or 800 μmol/kg BW) or received resveratrol diets (0 or 600 mg/kg) for 28 days. In Exp. 2, the role of intestinal microbiota on the effects of resveratrol on tBHP-induced oxidative stress was assessed through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The OS challenge reduced the egg-laying rate and exhibited lower pre-hierarchical follicles and higher atretic follicles. Oral RV supplementation ameliorated the egg-laying rate reduction and gut microbiota dysbiosis. RV also reversed the tryptphan-kynurenine pathway, upregulated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and silent information regulator 1(SIRT1) levels, and decreased the expression of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and P53. These findings indicated that the intestinal microbiota-related tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is involved in the resveratrol-induced amelioration of ovary oxidative stress induced by tBHP in the layer model, while SIRT1-P53/FoxO1 and Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway were involved in this process.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Huang T, Xu J, Wang M, et al (2022)

An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

Medicine, 101(30):e29790 pii:00005792-202207290-00032.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a promising therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC) remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficiency and safety of FMT as a treatment for UC.

METHODS: The target studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials and by manual supplementary retrieval. We conducted a general review and quantitative synthesis of included studies. We used the RevMan and Stata programs in the meta-analysis. The outcomes were total remission, clinical remission, steroid-free remission, and serious adverse events. We also performed subgroup analyses based on different populations.

RESULTS: A total of 34 articles were included in the general review. Only 16 articles, including 4 randomized controlled trials, 2 controlled clinical trials, and 10 cohort studies, were selected for the meta-analysis. We found that donor FMT might be more effective than placebo for attaining total remission (risk ratio [RR]: 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54-4.98; P = .0007), clinical remission (RR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.41; P < .05), and steroid-free remission (RR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.57-8.42; P = .003), but found no statistically significant difference in the incidence of serious adverse events (RR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.34-2.31, P = .8). The subgroup analyses revealed significant differences between the pooled clinical remission rates for different regions, degrees of severity of the disease, and patients with steroid- or nonsteroid-dependent UC.

CONCLUSIONS: FMT can achieve clinical remission and clinical response in patients with UC.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Vendrik KEW, de Meij TGJ, Bökenkamp A, et al (2022)

Transmission of Antibiotic-Susceptible Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infections in a Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Recipient: Consequences for Donor Screening?.

Open forum infectious diseases, 9(7):ofac324 pii:ofac324.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported to decrease the incidence of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), presumably by restoring microbiome diversity and/or uropathogen competition. We report a 16-year-old female with recurrent UTIs caused by multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, for which frequent intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment was necessary. The patient was treated with FMT from a well-screened healthy donor without multidrug-resistant bacteria in the feces. After FMT, she developed several UTIs with an antibiotic-susceptible Escherichia coli that could be treated orally. The uropathogenic E. coli could be cultured from donor feces, and whole genome sequencing confirmed donor-to-recipient transmission. Our observation should stimulate discussion on long-term follow-up of all infections after FMT and donor fecal screening for antibiotic-susceptible Enterobacterales.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Cheng Z, Yang L, H Chu (2022)

The Gut Microbiota: A Novel Player in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:947382.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic immune-mediated liver disease distributed globally in all ethnicities with increasing prevalence. If left untreated, the disease will lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, or death. The intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem located in the human intestine, which extensively affects the human physiological and pathological processes. With more and more in-depth understandings of intestinal microbiota, a substantial body of studies have verified that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in a variety of digestive system diseases, including alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, only a few studies have paid attention to evaluate the relationship between AIH and the intestinal microbiota. While AIH pathogenesis is not fully elucidated yet, some studies have indicated that intestinal microbiota putatively made significant contributions to the occurrence and the development of AIH by triggering several specific signaling pathways, altering the metabolism of intestinal microbiota, as well as modulating the immune response in the intestine and liver. By collecting the latest related literatures, this review summarized the increasing trend of the aerobic bacteria abundance in both AIH patients and AIH mice models. Moreover, the combination of specific bacteria species was found distinct to AIH patients, which could be a promising tool for diagnosing AIH. In addition, there were alterations of luminal metabolites and immune responses, including decreased short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), increased pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), imbalanced regulatory T (Treg)/Th17 cells, follicular regulatory T (TFR)/follicular helper T (TFH) cells, and activated natural killer T (NKT) cells. These alterations participate in the onset and the progression of AIH via multiple mechanisms. Therefore, some therapeutic methods based on restoration of intestinal microbiota composition, including probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as well as targeted intestinal microbiota-associated signaling pathways, confer novel insights into the treatment for AIH patients.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Guo L, Guan Q, Duan W, et al (2022)

Dietary Goji Shapes the Gut Microbiota to Prevent the Liver Injury Induced by Acute Alcohol Intake.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:929776.

Diet is a major driver of the structure and function of the gut microbiota, which influences the host physiology. Alcohol abuse can induce liver disease and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Here, we aim to elucidate whether the well-known traditional health food Goji berry targets gut microbiota to prevent liver injury induced by acute alcohol intake. The results showed that Goji supplementation for 14 days alleviated acute liver injury as indicated by lowering serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as lipopolysaccharide content in the liver tissue. Goji maintained the integrity of the epithelial barrier and increased the levels of butyric acid in cecum contents. Furthermore, we established the causal relationship between gut microbiota and liver protection effects of Goji with the help of antibiotics treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments. Both Goji and FMT-Goji increased glutathione (GSH) in the liver and selectively enriched the butyric acid-producing gut bacterium Akkermansia and Ruminococcaceae by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Metabolomics analysis of cecum samples revealed that Goji and its trained microbiota could regulate retinoyl β-glucuronide, vanillic acid, and increase the level of glutamate and pyroglutamic acid, which are involved in GSH metabolism. Our study highlights the communication among Goji, gut microbiota, and liver homeostasis.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Liu Y, Zhang S, Wu X, et al (2022)

Instant messaging client gives the opportunity to recognize gut microbiota and dysbiosis-related disease: An investigation study on WeChat APP.

Digital health, 8:20552076221115018 pii:10.1177_20552076221115018.

Objectives: Gut microbiota and dysbiosis are closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases. It is necessary to popularize gut microbiota-related knowledge to the public. And the instant messaging client on smartphones supplies a perfect tool to achieve this goal. Hence, we will describe the current status of gut microbiota education spread by WeChat official accounts.

Methods: The keywords of "gut microbiota," "fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)," and "probiotics" were searched in the articles published from January 2015 to August 2020 on the WeChat official accounts. And the data were analyzed based on the 10 common gut dysbiosis-related diseases.

Results: A total of 3061 WeChat official accounts have published 11,239 articles on gut microbiota dysbiosis-related diseases, with a rising trend in the total article numbers and the total pageviews. The keywords of "gut microbiota" dominate 50.61%, and the articles on inflammatory bowel disease had the largest proportion. Additionally, articles on the keyword "gut microbiota" also included cancer and obesity, articles on the keyword "FMT" mainly consist of Clostridium difficile infection and psychological disease, and the keyword "probiotics" was mainly related to obesity and irritable bowel syndrome disease. The top three total pageviews were on inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and cancer.

Conclusion: This study indicates the current research hotspots and public concerns on the gut microbiota, and WeChat as an instant messaging client plays an important role in promoting the scientific popularization of gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Mazzawi T (2022)

Gut Microbiota Manipulation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Microorganisms, 10(7): pii:microorganisms10071332.

Increased knowledge suggests that disturbed gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, might promote the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Accordingly, gut microbiota manipulation has evolved in the last decade as a novel treatment strategy in order to improve IBS symptoms. In using different approaches, dietary management stands first in line, including dietary fiber supplements, prebiotics, and probiotics that are shown to change the composition of gut microbiota, fecal short-chain fatty acids and enteroendocrine cells densities and improve IBS symptoms. However, the exact mixture of beneficial bacteria for each individual remains to be identified. Prescribing nonabsorbable antibiotics still needs confirmation, although using rifaximin has been approved for diarrhea-predominant IBS. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently gained a lot of attention, and five out of seven placebo-controlled trials investigating FMT in IBS obtain promising results regarding symptom reduction and gut microbiota manipulation. However, more data, including larger cohorts and studying long-term effects, are needed before FMT can be regarded as a treatment for IBS in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Del Vecchio LE, Fiorani M, Tohumcu E, et al (2022)

Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Management of Clostridioides difficile Infection in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Microorganisms, 10(7): pii:microorganisms10071315.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are two pathologies that share a bidirectional causal nexus, as CDI is known to have an aggravating effect on IBD and IBD is a known risk factor for CDI. The colonic involvement in IBD not only renders the host more prone to an initial CDI development but also to further recurrences. Furthermore, IBD flares, which are predominantly set off by a CDI, not only create a need for therapy escalation but also prolong hospital stay. For these reasons, adequate and comprehensive management of CDI is of paramount importance in patients with IBD. Microbiological diagnosis, correct evaluation of clinical status, and consideration of different treatment options (from antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation to monoclonal antibodies) carry pivotal importance. Thus, the aim of this article is to review the risk factors, diagnosis, and management of CDI in patients with IBD.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Trunfio M, Scabini S, Rugge W, et al (2022)

Concurrent and Subsequent Co-Infections of Clostridioides difficile Colitis in the Era of Gut Microbiota and Expanding Treatment Options.

Microorganisms, 10(7): pii:microorganisms10071275.

We narratively reviewed the physiopathology, epidemiology, and management of co-infections in Clostridioides difficile colitis (CDI) by searching the following keywords in Embase, MedLine, and PubMed: "Clostridium/Clostridioides difficile", "co-infection", "blood-stream infection" (BSI), "fungemia", "Candida", "Cytomegalovirus", "probiotics", "microbial translocation" (MT). Bacterial BSIs (mainly by Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus) and fungemia (mainly by Candida albicans) may occur in up to 20% and 9% of CDI, increasing mortality and length of hospitalization. Up to 68% of the isolates are multi-drug-resistant bacteria. A pivotal role is played by gut dysbiosis, intestinal barrier leakage, and MT. Specific risk factors are represented by CDI-inducing broad-spectrum antibiotics, oral vancomycin use, and CDI severity. Probiotics administration (mainly Saccharomyces and Lactobacillus) during moderate/severe CDI may favor probiotics superinfection. Other co-infections (such as Cytomegalovirus or protozoa) can complicate limited and specific cases. There is mounting evidence that fidaxomicin, bezlotoxumab, and fecal microbiota transplantation can significantly reduce the rate of co-infections compared to historical therapies by interrupting the vicious circle between CDI, treatments, and MT. Bacterial BSIs and candidemia represent the most common co-infections in CDI. Physicians should be aware of this complication to promptly diagnose and treat it and enforce preventive strategies that include a more comprehensive consideration of newer treatment options.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Biazzo M, G Deidda (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation as New Therapeutic Avenue for Human Diseases.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(14): pii:jcm11144119.

The human body is home to a variety of micro-organisms. Most of these microbial communities reside in the gut and are referred to as gut microbiota. Over the last decades, compelling evidence showed that a number of human pathologies are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, thereby suggesting that the reinstatement of physiological microflora balance and composition might ameliorate the clinical symptoms. Among possible microbiota-targeted interventions, pre/pro-biotics supplementations were shown to provide effective results, but the main limitation remains in the limited microbial species available as probiotics. Differently, fecal microbiota transplantation involves the transplantation of a solution of fecal matter from a donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient in order to directly change the recipient's gut microbial composition aiming to confer a health benefit. Firstly used in the 4th century in traditional Chinese medicine, nowadays, it has been exploited so far to treat recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections, but accumulating data coming from a number of clinical trials clearly indicate that fecal microbiota transplantation may also carry the therapeutic potential for a number of other conditions ranging from gastrointestinal to liver diseases, from cancer to inflammatory, infectious, autoimmune diseases and brain disorders, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will summarize the commonly used preparation and delivery methods, comprehensively review the evidence obtained in clinical trials in different human conditions and discuss the variability in the results and the pivotal importance of donor selection. The final aim is to stimulate discussion and open new therapeutic perspectives among experts in the use of fecal microbiota transplantation not only in Clostridioides difficile infection but as one of the first strategies to be used to ameliorate a number of human conditions.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Hong AS, Tun KM, Hong JM, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Decompensated Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review on Safety and Efficacy.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070838.

Background and Aims: Due to increasing knowledge of the "gut-liver axis", there has been growing interest regarding the use of fecal microbiota transplant in the management of chronic liver disease. There are limited data available and current guidelines are mostly based on expert opinions. We aim to perform the first systematic review investigating safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant particularly among high-risk decompensated cirrhosis patient populations. Methods: Literature search was performed using variations of the keywords "fecal microbiota transplant" and "cirrhosis" on PubMed/Medline from inception to 3 October 2021. The resulting 116 articles were independently screened by two authors. In total, 5 qualifying studies, including 2 randomized control trials and 3 retrospective case series, were found to meet established eligibility criteria and have adequate quality of evidence to be included in this review. Results: Of the total 58 qualifying patients, there were 2 deaths post fecal microbiota transplant, 1 of which could not rule out being related (1.7%). Among the remaining 56 participants, 8 serious adverse events were reported, of which 2 could not rule out being related (3.6%). The success rate of fecal microbiota transplantation in treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection among patients with decompensated cirrhosis was 77.8%. The success rate when used as investigational treatment for hepatic encephalopathy was 86.7%, with multiple studies reporting clinically significant improvement in encephalopathy testing scores. Conclusions: We found a marginally higher rate of deaths and serious adverse events from fecal microbiota transplant in our patient population compared with the average immunocompetent population, where it was previously found to have 0 deaths and SAE rate of 2.83%. The efficacy when used for recurrent C.difficile infection was 77.8% and 87% in the decompensated cirrhotic and general populations, respectively. Studies on efficacy in novel treatment of hepatic encephalopathy have been promising. This study concludes that fecal microbiota transplant use in decompensated cirrhosis patients should be used with caution and preferably be limited to research purposes until better data are available.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Shi X, Ma T, Sakandar HA, et al (2022)

Gut microbiome and aging nexus and underlying mechanism.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

According to the United Nations population profile, the number of individuals aged 60 and over in high-income nations is expected to rise from 302 million to over 366 million between 2019 and 2030, so there is an increasing emphasis on nutrition and health in older people. Numerous studies have demonstrated the crucial role that gut microbiota plays in maintaining human health. As a model of healthy aging, centenarians have different gut microbiota from ordinary elderly people. The core microbiome of centenarians in various countries has shown some common characteristics, which are worth further exploration. In this review, the significance of the human gut microbiota to health is briefly discussed, and the characteristics of the gut microbiota of long-lived senior persons of different ages and in different countries are described. Moreover, this review lists dietary interventions and fecal microbiota transplantation. In the end, it discusses the pros and cons of using probiotics to enhance the health of seniors through focused management of the gut microbiota. It aims to pave the way for further investigation into the nexus between gut microbiota, probiotics, and longevity, and then to reveal the underlying mechanism to promote longevity. KEY POINTS: • Gut microbial structure in different age groups and the characteristics of gut microbiota in centenarians. • Dietary interventions, fecal transplants, and probiotics target the modulation of gut microbiota for healthy aging.

RevDate: 2022-07-27
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Manning L, Gosbell IB, Howden B, et al (2022)

The demand-supply gap for faecal microbiota transplantation in Australia and New Zealand: a survey of infectious diseases physicians.

Internal medicine journal, 52(7):1282-1283.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Luo L, Luo J, Cai Y, et al (2022)

Inulin-Type Fructans Change the Gut Microbiota and Prevent the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(22)00312-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease, and few treatment options that prevent the progressive loss of renal function are available. Studies have shown that dietary fiber intake improves kidney diseases and metabolism-related diseases, most likely through short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The present study aimed to examine the protective effects of inulin-type fructans (ITFs) on DN through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The results showed that ITFs supplementation protected against kidney damage in db/db mice and regulated the composition of the gut microbiota. Antibiotic treatment and FMT experiments further demonstrated a key role of the gut microbiota in mediating the beneficial effects of ITFs. The ITFs treatment-induced changes in the gut microbiota led to an enrichment of SCFA-producing bacteria, especially the genera Akkermansia and Candidatus Saccharimonas, which increased the fecal and serum acetate concentrations. Subsequently, acetate supplementation improved glomerular damage and renal fibrosis by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and reducing toxic glucose metabolite levels. In conclusion, ITFs play a renoprotective role by modulating the gut microbiota and increasing acetate production. Furthermore, acetate mediates renal protection by regulating glucose metabolism, decreasing glycotoxic product levels and improving mitochondrial function.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Slomski A (2022)

Durable IBS Response From Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

JAMA, 328(4):322.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Marclay M, Dwyer E, Suchodolski JS, et al (2022)

Recovery of Fecal Microbiome and Bile Acids in Healthy Dogs after Tylosin Administration with and without Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Veterinary sciences, 9(7): pii:vetsci9070324.

Antibiotics cause gut dysbiosis and bile acid dysmetabolism in dogs. The effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on microbiome and metabolome recovery is unknown. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study included sixteen healthy purpose-bred dogs. All dogs received tylosin 20 mg/kg PO once daily (days 1-7) and were randomly assigned to either receive one FMT via enema (day 8), daily oral FMT capsules (days 8-21), or daily placebo capsules (days 8-21). Fecal samples were frozen at regular intervals until day 42. Quantitative PCR for 8 bacterial taxa was performed to calculate the fecal dysbiosis index (FDI) and fecal concentrations of unconjugated bile acids (UBA) were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tylosin altered the abundance of most evaluated bacteria and induced a significant decrease in secondary bile acid concentrations at day 7 in all dogs. However, most parameters returned to their baseline by day 14 in all dogs. In conclusion, tylosin markedly impacted fecal microbiota and bile acid concentrations, although return to baseline values was quick after the antibiotic was discontinued. Overall, FMT did not accelerate recovery of measured parameters. Further studies are warranted to confirm the value of FMT in accelerating microbiota recovery in antibiotic-associated dysbiosis in dogs.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

You H, Deng X, Bai Y, et al (2022)

The Ameliorative Effect of COST on Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism Disorders by Regulating Intestinal Microbiota.

Marine drugs, 20(7): pii:md20070444.

BACKGROUND: Chitosan oligosaccharides, with an average molecular weight ≤ 1000 Da (COST), is a natural marine product that has the potential to improve intestinal microflora and resist lipid metabolism disorders.

METHODS: First, by establishing a mice model of lipid metabolism disorder induced by a high fat and high sugar diet, it is proven that COST can reduce lipid metabolism disorder, which may play a role in regulating intestinal microorganisms. Then, the key role of COST in the treatment of intestinal microorganisms is further confirmed through the method of COST-treated feces and fecal bacteria transplantation.

CONCLUSIONS: intestinal microbiota plays a key role in COST inhibition of lipid metabolism disorder induced by a high fat and high sugar diet. In particular, COST may play a central regulatory role in microbiota, including Bacteroides, Akkermansia, and Desulfovibrio. Taken together, our work suggests that COST may improve the composition of gut microbes, increase the abundance of beneficial bacteria, improve lipid metabolism disorders, and inhibit the development of metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Xian W, Yang S, Deng Y, et al (2022)

Potential of Establishing the Corresponding Human Microbial Community in Pseudo Germ-Free Mice through Fecal Microbe Transfer from Three Urolithin Metabotypes.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Three urolithin metabotypes (UMs) have been defined in the population according to final urolithins converted by gut microbiota. Currently, it is difficult to establish the cause-and-effect relationship between urolithins and microbiota in human studies. Studies on the health effects of ellagic acid (EA) in animal models rarely consider the differences in the urolithin production. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish human microbiota-associated (HMA) mice, imitating the microbiota composition of the three UMs. Antibiotic-induced pseudo germ-free mice were gavaged with fecal bacteria of the three UM donors for four weeks. The results showed that the ability to produce corresponding urolithins was successfully transferred from the donor of the three UMs to HMA mice. The three UM HMA mice adopted a humanized microbiota profile similar to their corresponding donor. The family Eggerthellaceae and genera Eggerthella and Gordonibacter were successfully transferred and colonized from UM-A/B donors to HMA mice. Overall, the three UM HMA mouse models were successfully established, which provide a basis for exploring the health effects of EA.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Thakur PS, Aggarwal D, Takkar B, et al (2022)

Evidence Suggesting the Role of Gut Dysbiosis in Diabetic Retinopathy.

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 63(8):21.

Purpose: Gut dysbiosis has been identified and tested in human trials for its role in diabetes mellitus (DM). The gut-retina axis could be a potential target for retardation of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a known complication of DM. This study reviews the evidence suggesting gut dysbiosis in DR.

Methods: The published literature in the past 5 years was reviewed using predetermined keywords and articles. The review intended to determine changes in gut microbiome in DR, the hypothesized mechanisms linking to the gut-retina axis, its predictive potential for progression of DR, and the possible therapeutic targets.

Results: The gut microbiota of people with DM differ from those without it, and the gut microbiota of people with DR differ from those without it. The difference is more significant in the former (DM versus no DM) and less significant in the latter (DM without DR versus DM with DR). Early research has suggested mechanisms of the gut-retina axis, but these are not different from known changes in the gut microbiome of people with DM. The current evidence on the predictive value of the gut microbiome in the occurrence and progression of DR is low. Therapeutic avenues targeting the gut-retina axis include lifestyle changes, pharmacologic inhibitors, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation.

Conclusions: Investigating the therapeutic utility of the gut ecosystem for DM and its complications like DR is an emerging area of research. The gut-retina axis could be a target for retardation of DR but needs longitudinal regional studies adjusting for dietary habits.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Sindhunata DP, Meijnikman AS, Gerdes VEA, et al (2022)

Dietary fructose as a metabolic risk factor.

American journal of physiology. Cell physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last decades, the role of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases has come forward. In this regard, both composition and function of our intestinal microbiota is highly variable and influenced by multiple factors, of which diet is one of the major elements. Between 1970 and 1990 diet composition has changed and consumption of dietary sugars has increased, of which fructose intake rose by more than tenfold. This increased intake of sugars and fructose is considered as one of the major risk factors in the developments of obesity and several metabolic disturbances. In this review, we describe the association of dietary fructose intake with insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and lipid metabolism. Moreover, we will focus on the potential causality of this altered gut microbiota using fecal transplantation studies in human metabolic disease and whether fecal microbial transplant can reverse this phenotype.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Sen T, RP Thummer (2022)

The Impact of Human Microbiotas in Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Organ Transplantation.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:932228.

The human microbiota heavily influences most vital aspects of human physiology including organ transplantation outcomes and transplant rejection risk. A variety of organ transplantation scenarios such as lung and heart transplantation as well as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is heavily influenced by the human microbiotas. The human microbiota refers to a rich, diverse, and complex ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, archaea, helminths, protozoans, parasites, and viruses. Research accumulating over the past decade has established the existence of complex cross-species, cross-kingdom interactions between the residents of the various human microbiotas and the human body. Since the gut microbiota is the densest, most popular, and most studied human microbiota, the impact of other human microbiotas such as the oral, lung, urinary, and genital microbiotas is often overshadowed. However, these microbiotas also provide critical and unique insights pertaining to transplantation success, rejection risk, and overall host health, across multiple different transplantation scenarios. Organ transplantation as well as the pre-, peri-, and post-transplant pharmacological regimens patients undergo is known to adversely impact the microbiotas, thereby increasing the risk of adverse patient outcomes. Over the past decade, holistic approaches to post-transplant patient care such as the administration of clinical and dietary interventions aiming at restoring deranged microbiota community structures have been gaining momentum. Examples of these include prebiotic and probiotic administration, fecal microbial transplantation, and bacteriophage-mediated multidrug-resistant bacterial decolonization. This review will discuss these perspectives and explore the role of different human microbiotas in the context of various transplantation scenarios.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Sun X, Xue L, Wang Z, et al (2022)

Update to the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease Based on the Gut-Brain Axis Mechanism.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 16:878239.

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms represented by constipation were significant non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and were considered early manifestations and aggravating factors of the disease. This paper reviewed the research progress of the mechanism of the gut-brain axis (GBA) in PD and discussed the roles of α-synuclein, gut microbiota, immune inflammation, neuroendocrine, mitochondrial autophagy, and environmental toxins in the mechanism of the GBA in PD. Treatment of PD based on the GBA theory has also been discussed, including (1) dietary therapy, such as probiotics, vitamin therapy, Mediterranean diet, and low-calorie diet, (2) exercise therapy, (3) drug therapy, including antibiotics; GI peptides; GI motility agents, and (4) fecal flora transplantation can improve the flora. (5) Vagotomy and appendectomy were associated but not recommended.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Liu QH, Ke X, C Xiao (2022)

Current Applications of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Functional Constipation.

Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2022:7931730.

Functional constipation (FC) is a common condition that would be hard to treat in clinical practice with a prevalence incidence in the population. Pharmacotherapy is a common treatment modality. However, clinical effects are limited and patients continue to suffer from it. In recent years, with the gradual increase in research on gut microbiota, it is understood that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is importantly associated with the development of constipation. Recent studies have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective method for restoring gut microbiota, as well as being efficacious in the treatment of FC. This mini review explains the characteristics of gut microbiota in FC patients, the mechanism of action of FMT, treatment modalities, current efficacy, and related problems. The purpose is to provide research directions and references for the future applications of FMT in FC.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Bu F, Yao X, Lu Z, et al (2022)

Pathogenic or Therapeutic: The Mediating Role of Gut Microbiota in Non-Communicable Diseases.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:906349.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) lead to 41 million deaths every year and account for 71% of all deaths worldwide. Increasing evidence indicates that gut microbiota disorders are closely linked to the occurrence and development of diseases. The gut microbiota, as a potential transmission medium, could play a key role in the transmission and treatment of diseases. The gut microbiota makes noncommunicable diseases communicable. New methods of the prevention and treatment of these diseases could be further explored through the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-07-24

Li L, Wang M, Bao J, et al (2022)

Periodontitis may impair the homeostasis of systemic bone through regulation of gut microbiota in ApoE-/- mice.

Journal of clinical periodontology [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To investigate whether periodontitis impacts bone homeostasis via gut microbiota regulation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental periodontitis was induced by ligatures (LIG group). ApoE-/- mice were employed as a model with weakened bone homeostasis. Bone turnover was evaluated through micro-CT, HE-stained sections, osteoblasts and osteoclasts biomarkers in the bone and serum. Gut microbiota was analyzed through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Serum concentrations of cytokines were detected by ELISA. The role of gut microbiota was evaluated through their transplantation into antibiotic-treated mice.

RESULTS: Periodontitis significantly increased the number of osteoclasts and the expression of the osteoclasts biomarkers in the proximal tibia of ApoE-/- mice, with the RANKL/OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/ osteoprotegerin) ratio significantly increased, which indicated the osteoclastic activity overwhelmed osteogenesis. Meanwhile, periodontitis altered the composition of gut microbiota and induced low-grade inflammation in the colon and blood circulation. Interestingly, the concentration of circulating TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17A, and MCP-1 were positively correlated with fecal α1-Antitrypsin and calprotectin, as well as serum OPG and RANKL. Furthermore, transplantation of gut microbiota from mice with periodontitis to antibiotic-treated mice could partially recapitulate the phenotypes in the bone and colon.

CONCLUSION: Periodontitis may impair systemic bone homeostasis through gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Yendrapalli U, Edwards J, Belk M, et al (2022)

Efficacy and safety of commercialized fecal microbiota transplant for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Hamidi Nia L, J Claesen (2022)

Engineered Cancer Targeting Microbes and Encapsulation Devices for Human Gut Microbiome Applications.

Biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota produce specialized metabolites that are important for maintaining host health homeostasis. Hence, unstable production of these metabolites can contribute to diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. While fecal transplantation or dietary modification approaches can be used to correct the gut microbial community's metabolic output, this Perspective focuses on the use of engineered bacteria. We highlight recent advances in bacterial synthetic biology approaches for the treatment of colorectal cancer and systemic tumors and discuss the functionality and biochemical properties of novel containment approaches using hydrogel-based and electronic devices. Synthetic circuitry refinement and incorporation of novel functional modules have enabled more targeted detection of colonic tumors and delivery of anticancer compounds inside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, as well as the design of tumor-homing bacteria capable of recruiting infiltrating T cells. Engineering challenges in these applications include the stability of the genetic circuits, long-term engraftment of the chosen chassis, and containment of the synthetic microbes' activity to the diseased tissues. Hydrogels are well-suited to the encapsulationo of living organisms due to their matrix structure and tunable porosity. The matrix structure allows a dried hydrogel to collect and contain GI contents. Engineered bacteria that sense GI tract inflammation or tumors and release bioactive metabolites to the targeted area can be encapsulated. Electronic devices can be enabled with additional measuring and data processing capabilities. We expect that engineered devices will become more important in the containment and delivery of synthetic microbes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Liu Z, Li C, Liu M, et al (2022)

The Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 6 Pathway in the Treatment of Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Induced by Hypoxia and Intestinal Microbiota through the Wnt/β-catenin Pathway.

International journal of biological sciences, 18(11):4469-4481.

Our study is to explore the key molecular of Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and the related Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulated by LRP6 during the intestinal barrier dysfunction. Colorectal protein profile analysis showed that LRP6 expression was decreased in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice, and mice received fecal bacteria transplantation from stroke patients. Mice with intestinal hypoxia and intestinal epithelial cells cultured in hypoxia showed decreased expression of LRP6. Overexpression of LPR6 or its N-terminus rescued the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway which was inhibited by hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In mice overexpressing of LRP6, the expression of β-catenin and DKK1 increased, Bcl2 decreased, and Bax increased. Mice with LRP6 knockout showed an opposite trend, and the expression of Claudin2, Occludin and ZO-1 decreased. Two drugs, curcumin and auranofin could alleviate intestinal barrier damage in DSS-induced colitis mice by targeting LRP-6. Therefore, gut microbiota dysbiosis and hypoxia can inhibit the LRP6 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and drugs targeting LRP6 can protect the intestinal barrier.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Miao X, Jiang Y, Kong D, et al (2022)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 Ameliorates BEZ235-Induced Intestinal Dysbiosis and Prolongs Cardiac Transplant Survival.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Cardiac allograft rejection remains a major factor limiting long-term engraftment after transplantation. A novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mTOR dual inhibitor, BEZ235, prolonged cardiac allograft survival by effectively suppressing activation of the PI3K/serine/threonine kinase (AKT)/mTOR pathway. However, long-term usage of pharmacological immunosuppressant drugs can cause intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. We established mouse models of allogeneic heterotopic heart transplantation with different treatments. Fecal samples were collected and subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and targeted fecal metabolomic analysis. Graft samples were taken for immune cell detection by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines in serum were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared to single-target approaches (IC-87114 and rapamycin), BEZ235 more efficiently prolongs cardiac transplant survival. Interestingly, BEZ235 reduces the diversity and abundance of the intestinal microbiota community. We demonstrated that Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 rescues the intestinal microbiota imbalance induced by BEZ235. IMPORTANCE Our data confirmed that the combination of BEZ235 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 significantly prolongs cardiac transplant survival. A main metabolic product of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, propionic acid (PA), enriches regulatory T (Treg) cells and serves as a potent immunomodulatory supplement to BEZ235. Our study provides a novel and efficient therapeutic strategy for transplant recipients.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Xue L, Deng Z, Luo W, et al (2022)

Effect of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:759306.

Background and Aims: The clinical efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the variant effects of FMT on lean and obese NAFLD patients remain elusive. Our study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of FMT for patients with NAFLD, elucidating its different influences on lean and obese patients with NAFLD.

Methods: We performed a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Patients in the non-FMT group were administered oral probiotics. In the FMT group, patients were randomized to receive FMT with donor stool (heterologous) via colonoscopy, followed by three enemas over 3 days. Both groups were also required to maintain a healthy diet and keep regular exercise for more than 40 min every day. They returned to the hospital for reexamination 1 month after treatment.

Results: FMT can decrease the fat accumulation in the liver by improving the gut microbiota dysbiosis, thus attenuating fatty liver disease. Significant differences in the clinical features and gut microbiota between lean and obese NAFLD patients were unveiled. Moreover, FMT had better effects on gut microbiota reconstruction in lean NAFLD than in obese NAFLD patients.

Conclusions: FMT could successfully improve the therapeutic effects on patients with NAFLD, and its clinical efficacy was higher in lean NAFLD than in obese NAFLD patients.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Cerquetella M, Marchegiani A, Rossi G, et al (2022)

Case Report: Oral Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Dog Suffering From Relapsing Chronic Diarrhea-Clinical Outcome and Follow-Up.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 9:893342.

The present case report describes the effects of orally administered fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) (frozen capsules) in a dog suffering from relapsing chronic diarrhea, needing a continuous low prednisolone dose to maintain the condition under acceptable control. Through FMT, we aimed at evaluating the possibility of improving the clinical score and/or reducing/suspending steroid administration. During a first period of strict monitoring (21 days), the canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) score passed from mild to clinically insignificant disease. Furthermore, two additional gastrointestinal signs that had been reported, bloating and episodes of painful defecation, rapidly improved (bloating) or even resolved (painful defecation). The patient was then followed for 18 months (to the authors' knowledge, the longest follow-up time ever reported in a dog), during which no serious relapses occurred and no increase in prednisolone dose was necessary. No adverse clinical effects were ever reported during monitoring. The present description provides a further experience increasing those already present in the veterinary literature, in which an agreement on how to use FMT has not yet been achieved although strongly needed and recommended.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Bao P, Zhang Z, Liang Y, et al (2022)

Role of the Gut Microbiota in Glucose Metabolism During Heart Failure.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 9:903316.

Background: Blood glucose disorders are prevalent in heart failure, while the influence of the gut microbiota on this process remains unclear. Here, we used heart failure model mice and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) mice to evaluate the effect of the gut microbiota on the regulation of blood glucose during heart failure.

Methods: Thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) surgery was performed in a heart failure model, while an antibiotic cocktail was used to eliminate the microbiota to establish a germ-free (GF) model. Blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels were measured, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomics were used to evaluate the changes in gut microbiota structure and metabolism induced by TAC. Another group of FMT mice was established to observe the effect of the gut microbiota on host metabolism.

Results: After microbiota clearance, the glucagon concentration, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and the area under the curve (AUC) of the IPGTT were decreased significantly in the TAC germ-free (TAC-GF) group in the third month as compared to the other groups. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that TAC surgery affected the gut microbiota structure, and fecal metabolomics suggested that noradrenaline and adrenaline levels were higher in the TAC group than in the sham group. The FMT mice transplanted with the feces of the TAC (FMT-TAC) mice displayed a higher AUC of IPGTT, accompanied by a higher glucagon level, insulin level, and HOMA-IR than those of the mice in the other groups. The serum metabolomics of the FMT-TAC group showed that noradrenaline levels were significantly higher than those of the FMT-sham group.

Conclusion: The gut microbiota and its metabolism were altered during heart failure, which increased blood glucose and glucagon in the host.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-07-21

He R, Li P, Wang J, et al (2022)

The interplay of gut microbiota between donors and recipients determines the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2100197.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment for microbiota dysbiosis associated diseases, such as Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The engraftment of donor bacteria is essential for the effectiveness of FMT, which to some extent depends on the matching of donors and recipients. However, how different types of donor-derived bacteria affect FMT efficacy has not been fully dissected. We recruited two longitudinal IBD cohorts of 103 FMT recipients and further analyzed 1,280 microbiota datasets from 14 public CDI and IBD studies to uncover the effect of donor-derived microbiota in recipients. We found that two enterotypes, RCPT/E and RCPT/B (dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides, respectively), consistently exist in both CDI and IBD patients. Based on a time-course-based multi-cohort analysis of FMT fecal samples, we observed the interplay between recipient and donor-derived microbiota during FMT, in which the FMT outcome was significantly associated with the enterotype and microbiota distance between donor and recipient after FMT. We proposed a new measurement, the ratio of colonizers to residents after FMT (C2R), to quantify the engraftment of donor-derived bacteria in the recipients, and then constructed an enterotype-based statistical model for donor-recipient matching, which was validated by both cross-validation and an additional IBD FMT cohort (n = 42). We believe that with the accumulation of FMT multi-omics datasets, machine learning-based methods will be helpful for rational donor selection for improving efficacy and precision FMT practices.

RevDate: 2022-07-19
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Rees NP, Shaheen W, Quince C, et al (2022)

Systematic review of donor and recipient predictive biomarkers of response to faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with ulcerative colitis.

EBioMedicine, 81:104088.

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has previously been explored as a treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC) however, biomarkers that predict and / or are associated with clinical response are poorly defined. The aim of this systematic review was to identify donor and recipient clinical, microbial and metabolomic predictive biomarkers of response to FMT in UC.

METHODS: A systematic search of the relevant literature of studies exploring FMT in UC was conducted. Data on microbial diversity, taxonomic changes, metabolic changes, donor and recipient microbiota relationship and baseline predictors was examined.

FINDINGS: 2852 studies were screened, and 25 papers were included in this systematic review. Following FMT, alpha diversity was seen to increase in responders along with increases in the abundance of Clostridiales clusters (order) and Bacteroides genus. Metabolomic analysis revealed short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production as a marker of FMT success. Donors or FMT batches with higher microbial alpha diversity and a greater abundance of taxa belonging to certain Bacteroides and Clostridia clusters were associated with clinical response to FMT. Baseline clinical predictors of response in patients with UC included younger age, less severe disease and possibly shorter disease duration. Baseline recipient microbial predictors at response consisted of higher faecal species richness, greater abundance of Candida and donor microbial profile similarity.

INTERPRETATION: Distinct changes in gut microbiota profiles post-FMT indicate that certain baseline characteristics along with specific microbial and metabolomic alterations may predispose patients towards a successful therapeutic outcome. Opportunities towards a biomarker led precision medicine approach with FMT should be explored in future clinical studies.

FUNDING: There no specific funding to declare.

RevDate: 2022-07-18

Jin X, Liu Y, Yan W, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota from nCAL patients promotes colon anastomotic healing by inducing collagen synthesis in epithelial cells.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colon anastomotic leak (CAL) is considered one of the most feared and serious postoperative complications in Colorectal Cancer (CRC) patients, with no effective prevention strategies to date. Based on previous studies, gut microbiota is associated with anastomotic healing, but its ability to effectively promote anastomotic healing remains largely unknown.

METHODS: We performed a clinical study to analyze the gut microbiota profiling in CRC patients who developed CAL and those who did not (nCAL), using 16S-rRNA-based Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). To investigate these changes in an in vivo model, we performed fecal microbiota transplantation in a colon anastomosis rat experimental model to elucidate the causal-effect between gut microbiota and anastomotic healing. Notably, RNA-seq in the anastomotic tissue of the latter experimental model, was utilized to discover the potential molecular mechanism.

RESULTS: Our analysis implicated that gut microbiota profiling was profoundly different between CAL and nCAL patients. Strikingly, the rat experimental model transplanted with fecal microbiota derived from nCAL patients, demonstrated enhanced anastomotic healing properties. Moreover, collagen synthesis, EMT, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways were up-regulated in the same rats. Concordantly, we discovered that the better anastomotic healing profiling displayed in gut microbiota derived from nCAL patients, is dependent on the TGF-β/Smad-induced EMT in vitro and in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our clinical study identified the postoperative gut microbiota profile is associated with CAL in CRC patients. On the contrary, fecal microbiota from nCAL patients promotes anastomotic healing via TGF-β/Smad-induced EMT, with subsequent collagen synthesis and enhanced anastomosis healing.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Xu X, J Ying (2022)

Gut Microbiota and Immunotherapy.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:945887.

The gut microbiota is the largest microbiota in the body, which is closely related to the immune state of the body. A number of studies have shown that gut microbiota and its metabolites are involved in host immune regulation. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an important drug for the treatment of many malignant tumors, which can significantly improve the prognosis of tumor patients. However, a considerable number of patients cannot benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. At present, the known treatment methods of microbiota manipulation mainly include fecal microbiota transplantation, dietary regulation, prebiotics and so on. Therefore, this paper will discuss the possibility of improving the anti-tumor efficacy of immunotherapy from the perspectives of the gut microbiota and immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Bilinski J, Dziurzynski M, Grzesiowski P, et al (2022)

Fresh Versus Frozen Stool for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation-Assessment by Multimethod Approach Combining Culturing, Flow Cytometry, and Next-Generation Sequencing.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:872735.

The objective of this work was to compare the quality of FMT preparations made from fresh feces with those made from feces frozen at -30°C without any pre-processing or cryopreservation additives. The research hypothesis was that such preservation protocol (frozen whole stool, then thawed and processed) is equipotent to classical fresh FMT preparation. For that, three complementary methods were applied, including: (i) culturing in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, (ii) measuring viability by flow cytometry, and (iii) next-generation sequencing. Flow cytometry with cell staining showed that the applied freezing protocol causes significant changes in all of the observed bacterial fractions. Alive cell counts dropped four times, from around 70% to 15%, while the other two fractions, dead and unknown cell counts quadrupled and doubled, with the unknown fraction becoming the dominant one, with an average contribution of 57.47% per sample. It will be very interesting to uncover what this unknown fraction is (e.g., bacterial spores), as this may change our conclusions (if these are spores, the viability could be even higher after freezing). Freezing had a huge impact on the structure of cultivable bacterial communities. The biggest drop after freezing in the number of cultivable species was observed for Actinobacteria and Bacilli. In most cases, selected biodiversity indices were slightly lower for frozen samples. PCoA visualization built using weighted UniFrac index showed no donor-wise clusters, but a clear split between fresh and frozen samples. This split can be in part attributed to the changes in the relative abundance of Bacteroidales and Clostridiales orders. Our results clearly show that whole stool freezing without any cryoprotectants has a great impact on the cultivability and biodiversity of the bacterial community, and possibly also on the viability of bacterial cells.

RevDate: 2022-07-19
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Chen Z, Yang B, Wang Z, et al (2022)

Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Fufang-Zhenzhu-Tiaozhi Capsule Attenuates Hypertension Induced by a High-Fructose and High-Salt Diet.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:854849.

Hypertension is frequently comorbid with the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. The increased intakes of fructose and salt contribute to the development of hypertension and related metabolic disorders, which are closely associated with gut dysbiosis. Fufang-Zhenzhu-Tiaozhi capsule (FTZ), a traditional Chinese patent medicine commonly used in clinical practice, has recently emerged as a promising drug candidate for metabolic diseases. In this study, FTZ treatment is identified as attenuating blood pressure increase and improving the metabolism of lipid and uric acid in high-fructose and high-salt (HFS) diet-fed rats. FTZ also substantially alleviated renal fibrosis and the mRNA expression of inflammation cytokines, NADPH oxidases, and the renin-angiotensin system in the renal cortex. 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples revealed that FTZ restored HFS-induced gut dysbiosis, seen as increased intestinal microbial richness and diversity. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation also achieved similar therapeutic effects and alterations in gut microbiota profile induced by FTZ. Taken together, this study highlights the efficacy of FTZ in attenuating HFS-induced hypertension and related metabolic disorders and renal injury. The antihypertensive effect is associated with the modulation of gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Park SS, Kim SH, Kim CJ, et al (2022)

Effects of exercise and microbiota transplant on the memory of obesity-induced mice.

Journal of exercise rehabilitation, 18(3):162-170.

This study attempted to investigate the association between changes in the intestinal environment and the brain using a model that received aerobic exercise and microbiome transplantation. All mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat. For the obesity with nonexercise microbiome transplantation group, feces from donors that did not undergo exercise were administered. For the obesity with exercise microbiome trans-plantation group, feces from donors who underwent exercise were administered. Treadmill exercise started 16 weeks after the intake of the high fat feeding and continued for 24 weeks. The short-term memory and spatial learning memory were determined by step-down avoidance test and Morris water maze task, immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein, western blot analysis for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin receptor kinase B were performed in the hippocampus. Exercise was the most effective way to reduce obesity, improve memory function, suppress inflammation, and increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. Intestinal microbiota transplantation was the second most effective after exercise. However, there was no significant difference in the fecal microbiota transplant group according to whether or not exercise was performed.

RevDate: 2022-07-17

Wen S, Zhao Y, Liu S, et al (2022)

Microplastics-perturbed gut microbiota triggered the testicular disorder in male mice: Via fecal microbiota transplantation.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(22)01003-X [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics (MPs), an emerging environmental pollutant, have been clarified to induce testicular disorder in mammals. And current studies have delineated a correlation between gut microbiota and male reproduction. However, it's still unclear whether gut microbiota gets involved in MPs induced reproductive toxicity. In this work, we constructed a mouse model drinking 5 μm polystyrene-MPs (PS-MPs) at the concentrations of 100 μg/L and 1,000 μg/L for 90 days. Evident histological damage, spermatogenetic disorder and hormones synthesis inhibition were observed in PS-MPs exposed mice. With fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) trial, the recipient mice exhibited gut microbial alteration, and elevated abundance of Bacteroides and Prevotellaceae_UCG-001 were positively correlated with testicular disorder according to spearman correlation analysis. Mechanistically, increased proportion of pro-inflammatory bacteria may drive translocation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, resulting in overproduced interleukin (IL)-17A and downstream inflammatory response in both the mice exposed to PS-MPs and corresponding recipient mice. In summary, our findings revealed the critical role of gut microbiota in PS-MPs-induced reproductive toxicity, and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of gut microbial dysregulation-mediated IL-17A signaling pathway. Furthermore, this study also provides research basis for gut microbiota-targeted treatment of male infertility in the future.

RevDate: 2022-07-13
CmpDate: 2022-07-12

Stenberg R, Brummer RJ, T Norén (2022)

Faecal transplantation in a two-year-old child with therapy-resistant Clostridiodes difficileinfection.

Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), 111(8):1628-1629.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Guo W, Zhang Z, Li L, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota induces DNA methylation via SCFAs predisposing obesity-prone individuals to diabetes.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(22)00300-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity-prone (OP) individuals have a significant predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Previously, we have found that OP individuals, despite being normal in weight and BMI, have already exhibited diabetes-related DNA methylation signatures. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we determined the effects of gut microbiota on DNA methylation and investigated the underlying mechanism from microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Diabetes-related DNA methylation loci were screened and validated in a new OP cohort. Moreover, the OP group was revealed to have distinct gut microbiota compositions, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) demonstrated the role of gut microbiota in inducing diabetes-related DNA methylations and glucolipid disorders. UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis indicated a significantly lower level of total fecal SCFAs in the OP group. The gut microbiota from OP subjects yielded markedly decreased total SCFAs, while notably enriched propionate. Additionally, propionate was also identified by variable importance in projection (VIP) score as the most symbolic SCFAs of the OP group. Further cellular experiments verified that propionate could induce hypermethylation at locus cg26345888 and subsequently inhibit the expression of the target gene DAB1, which was crucially associated with clinical vitamin D deficiency and thus may affect the development and progression of diabetes. In conclusion, our study revealed that gut microbiota-derived propionate induces specific DNA methylation, thus predisposing OP individuals to diabetes. The findings partially illuminate the mechanisms of diabetes susceptibility in OP populations, implying gut microbiota and SCFAs may serve as promising targets both for clinical treatment and medication development of diabetes.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Li X, Zhang S, Guo G, et al (2022)

Gut microbiome in modulating immune checkpoint inhibitors.

EBioMedicine, 82:104163 pii:S2352-3964(22)00344-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiome has been increasingly recognized for its influence on a diverse array of human diseases including cancer, and may also influence the outcome of cancer therapies. A prime example is seen in immunotherapy, for which gut microbes determine the therapeutic responses associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in preclinical models and patient cohorts. This evidence hints that inter-individual variations in the gut microbiota may account for the significant heterogeneity in immunotherapeutic responses to ICIs. Understanding the functional role of gut microbiome in regulating not only mucosal but also systemic immunity and cancer is critical to move forward in this era of precision medicine. What's more, microbiota can be modified via several different strategies that are essential for the efforts in expanding immunotherapy efficacy. This review summarizes latest knowledge about the interactions between microbiome, host immunity and cancer, and strategies to modulate the microbiome with implications to be translated into clinic. FUNDING: This study was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2020YFA0509200/2020YFA0509203), RGC Theme-based Res Scheme Hong Kong (T21-705/20-N).

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Gao Y, Ma L, J Su (2022)

Host and microbial-derived metabolites for Clostridioides difficile infection: Contributions, mechanisms and potential applications.

Microbiological research, 263:127113 pii:S0944-5013(22)00153-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), which mostly occurs in hospitalized patients, is the most common and costly health care-associated disease. However, the biology of C. difficile remains incompletely understood. Current therapeutics are still challenged by the frequent recurrence of CDI. Advances in metabolomics facilitate our understanding of the etiology of CDI, which is not merely an alteration in the structure of the gut microbial community but also a dysbiosis metabolic setting promoting the germination, expansion and virulence of C. difficile. Therefore, we summarized the gut microbial and metabolic profiles for CDI under different conditions, such as those of postantibiotic treatment and postfecal microbiota transplantation. The current understanding of the role of host and gut microbial-derived metabolites as well as other nutrients in preventing or alleviating the disease symptoms of CDI will also be provided in this review. We hope that a specific nutrient-centric dietary strategy or the administration of certain nutrients to the colon could serve as an alternate line of investigation for the prophylaxis and mitigation of CDI in the future. Nevertheless, rigorously designed basic studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted to assess the functional mechanisms and effects of such therapeutics.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Pavanello A, Martins IP, Tófolo LP, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation During Lactation Programs the Metabolism of Adult Wistar Rats in a Sex-specific Way.

Archives of medical research pii:S0188-4409(22)00073-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota is involved in many physiological processes. However, the effects of microbiota in metabolic programming still unknow. We evaluated whether the transplantation of fecal microbiota during early life can program health or disease during adulthood in a model of lean and obese male and female Wistar rats.

METHODS: Parental obesity were induced using a small litter (SL, 3 pups/dam) model. At 90 d old, normal litter (NL, 9 pups/dam) and SL males and females (parents) from different litters were mated: NL male vs. NL female; SL male vs. SL female. After birth, male and female offspring rats were also standardized in normal litters or small litters . From the 10th until 25th d of life, the NL and SL male and female offspring received via gavage of a solution containing the diluted feces of the opposite dam (fecal microbiota, M) or saline solution (S). At 90 d of age, biometric and biochemical parameters were assessed.

RESULTS: NLM male rats transplanted with obese microbiota showed increased body weight, and fat pad deposition, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. SLM male rats transplanted with lean microbiota had decreased retroperitoneal and mesenteric fat, triglycerides and VLDL levels and improvement of glucose tolerance. Despite SLM female rats showed higher visceral fat, microbiota transplantation in female rats caused no changes in these parameters compared with control groups.

CONCLUSION: Fecal microbiota transplantation during lactation induces long-term effects on the metabolism of male Wistar rats. However, female rats were resistant to metabolic alterations caused by the treatment.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Chen Q, Xie Q, Jiang C, et al (2022)

Infant formula supplemented with 1,3-olein-2-palmitin regulated the immunity, gut microbiota, and metabolites of mice colonized by healthy infant feces.

Journal of dairy science pii:S0022-0302(22)00376-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Infant formula is currently an important food to cope with insufficient breastfeeding. Although 1,3-olein-2-palmitin (OPO) has been used in infant formula, its effects on the immune system, gut microbiota, and metabolites for infants remain unclear. This study constructed a mouse model of colonizing healthy infant feces using antibiotic treatment and fecal microbial transplantation. Thus, the gap between the infant formula supplemented with OPO and human milk in mouse serum biochemistry, immune system, intestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acid production, and metabolites was evaluated. Our results showed that regarding IL-9, IL-10 levels, fecal secretory IgA, and endotoxin, formula supplemented with OPO and human milk types had comparable levels. Additionally, OPO slightly increased the content of short-chain fatty acids. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and metabonomics analysis demonstrated that feeding different foods affects the gut microbiota of mice; in particular, supplementing formula feeding with OPO enriched the abundance of bifidobacteria. Furthermore, feeding different foods leads to unique intestinal content of metabolites, and the gut microbiota regulates the metabolites' differences. Our results reveal a brand new perspective of OPO regarding gut microbiota and metabolites.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Xue H, Ma J, Wang Y, et al (2022)

Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (SL) and SL Derived-Polysaccharide (PL) Ameliorate the Severity of Diarrhea-Induced by High Lactose via Modification of Colonic Fermentation.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:883355 pii:883355.

In our previous study, we demonstrated that Shen-ling-bai-zhu-san (SL), a classical Chinese herbal formula, could alleviate lactose-induced diarrhea. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying SL action or the efficacy of the polysaccharide (PL) derived from SL. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL and PL on improving the dysregulated luminal and mucosal microbiota in rats with high lactose diet using 16S rRNA analysis. The concentrations of lactose, lactic acid in cecum and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecum and portal vein were measured, meanwhile the expression of ion transporters were ascertained. Our data suggest that the SL, PL and cecal microbiota transplantation (CMT) significantly decreased fecal water content and water intake. In the luminal microbiota there was a significant increase in Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium and Blautia and a lower abundance of Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, and Dubosiella, while the mucosal microbiota showed a significant increase in Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Albaculum, Bilophila, and Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002 and a lower abundance of Enterococcus, Helicobacter, Dubosiella, and Collinsella. Furthermore, the treatments enhanced lactose fermentation and SCFA production, which may be related to the modulation of the luminal microbial community. A lower ratio of phosphorylation Na/H exchanger3/Na/H exchanger3 (pNHE3/NHE3) and a higher sodium monocarboxylate1 (sMCT1) expression were found in the treatment group than in the model group, which may be related to the changes in the mucosal microbial community. Also, the treatments may restore the impacted metabolic pathways of gut microbiota. These results provide an important foundation for mechanism of SL action and developing PL-based treatment for lactose-induced diarrhea.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Cong J, Wu D, Dai H, et al (2022)

Interleukin-37 exacerbates experimental colitis in an intestinal microbiome-dependent fashion.

Theranostics, 12(11):5204-5219 pii:thnov12p5204.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves complicated crosstalk between host immunity and the gut microbiome, whereas the mechanics of how they govern intestinal inflammation remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the contribution of environmental factors to shaping gut microbiota composition in colitis mice that were transgenic for human IL-37, a natural anti-inflammatory cytokine possessing pathogenic and protective functions related to microbiota alterations. Methods: Mice transgenic expressing human IL-37 (IL-37tg) were housed under conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions to develop a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was used for analyzing fecal microbial communities. The efficacy of microbiota in the development of colitis in IL-37tg mice was investigated after antibiotic treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The mechanism by which IL-37 worsened colitis was studied by evaluating intestinal epithelial barrier function, immune cell infiltration, the expression of diverse cytokines and chemokines, as well as activated signaling pathways. Results: We found that IL-37 overexpression aggravated DSS-induced colitis in conventional mice but protected against colitis in SPF mice. These conflicting results from IL-37tg colitis mice are ascribed to a dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in which detrimental bacteria increased in IL-37tg conventional mice. We further identified that the outcome of IL-37-caused colon inflammation is strongly related to intestinal epithelial barrier impairment caused by pathogenic bacteria, neutrophils, and NK cells recruitment in colon lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node to enhance inflammatory responses in IL-37tg conventional mice. Conclusions: The immunoregulatory properties of IL-37 are detrimental in the face of dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, which contributes to exacerbated IBD occurrences that are uncontrollable by the immune system, suggesting that depleting gut pathogenic bacteria or maintaining intestinal microbial and immune homeostasis could be a promising therapeutic strategy for IBD.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Zhang X, Akhtar M, Chen Y, et al (2022)

Chicken jejunal microbiota improves growth performance by mitigating intestinal inflammation.

Microbiome, 10(1):107.

BACKGROUND: Intestinal inflammation is prevalent in chicken, which results in decreased growth performance and considerable economic losses. Accumulated findings established the close relationship between gut microbiota and chicken growth performance. However, whether gut microbiota impacts chicken growth performance by lessening intestinal inflammation remains elusive.

RESULTS: Seven-weeks-old male and female chickens with the highest or lowest body weights were significantly different in breast and leg muscle indices and average cross-sectional area of muscle cells. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated Gram-positive bacteria, such as Lactobacilli, were the predominant species in high body weight chickens. Conversely, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Comamonas, Acinetobacter, Brucella, Escherichia-Shigella, Thermus, Undibacterium, and Allorhizobium-Neorhizobium-Pararhizobium-Rhizobium were significantly abundant in low body weight chickens. Serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level was significantly higher in low body weight chickens (101.58 ± 5.78 ng/mL) compared with high body weight chickens (85.12 ± 4.79 ng/mL). The expression of TLR4, NF-κB, MyD88, and related inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum was significantly upregulated in low body weight chickens, which led to the damage of gut barrier integrity. Furthermore, transferring fecal microbiota from adult chickens with high body weight into 1-day-old chicks reshaped the jejunal microbiota, mitigated inflammatory response, and improved chicken growth performance.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that jejunal microbiota could affect chicken growth performance by mitigating intestinal inflammation. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Hamazaki M, Sawada T, Yamamura T, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a single-center prospective study in Japan.

BMC gastroenterology, 22(1):342.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its efficacy in Japanese IBS patients is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, side effects, and microbiome changes following FMT in Japanese IBS patients.

METHODS: Seventeen Japanese patients with refractory IBS received FMT (4 donors) under colonoscopy. Responders were defined by an improvement in the IBS severity index (IBS-SI) of 50 points or more after 12 weeks. We evaluated the IBS-SI and Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and compared the diversity and microbiome before and 12 weeks after FMT. For the microbiome, we analyzed the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS: IBS-SI decreased an average of 115.58 points after 12 weeks, and 10 patients (58.8%) were considered responders. Eight patients with diarrhea (66.7%) and three patients with constipation (60.0%) showed improvement in the BSFS. Two patients complained of mild abdominal pain, but there were no cases with severe side-effects. α-diversity was increased only in the responder group (p = 0.017). Patients who closely paralleled the donor microbiome had a higher rate of IBS-SI improvement. The relative abundance of Neisseria and Akkermansia increased and Desulfovibrio and Delftia were decreased in the responder group after FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: Following FMT, about 60% of Japanese patients with IBS showed improvement in both the IBS-SI and BSFS, without severe side effects. Increased α-diversity and similarity to the donor microbiome after FMT may be associated with better treatment effects.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registration (UMIN000026363). Registered 31 May 2017, . The study was registered prospectively.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Merli P, Massa M, Russo A, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of steroid-refractory, intestinal, graft-versus-host disease in a pediatric patient.

RevDate: 2022-07-15
CmpDate: 2022-07-15

Konturek PC (2022)

[Gut microbiota and chronic inflammatory bowel disease].

MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 164(Suppl 7):12-15.

Intestinal dysbiosis remains the focus of research into the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The potential role of gut microbiota in the development of IBD includes interaction with the host genome and immune system, as well as various environmental factors, diet, drugs, industrialization, etc. Other organs are negatively affected by intestinal dysbiosis via gut-brain axis. The composition of microbiota and its metabolic activity has a significant impact on the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory therapies. Microbiome-based treatment for IBD includes the use of diet, antibiotics, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, and faecal transplantation (FMT). The development of effective therapies for IBD patients will only be possible once the interactions between the microbiota and its metabolites and the host immune system are better understood.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Balaji A, Sapoval N, Seto C, et al (2022)

KOMB: K-core based de novo characterization of copy number variation in microbiomes.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 20:3208-3222 pii:S2001-0370(22)00233-1.

Characterizing metagenomes via kmer-based, database-dependent taxonomic classification has yielded key insights into underlying microbiome dynamics. However, novel approaches are needed to track community dynamics and genomic flux within metagenomes, particularly in response to perturbations. We describe KOMB, a novel method for tracking genome level dynamics within microbiomes. KOMB utilizes K-core decomposition to identify Structural variations (SVs), specifically, population-level Copy Number Variation (CNV) within microbiomes. K-core decomposition partitions the graph into shells containing nodes of induced degree at least K, yielding reduced computational complexity compared to prior approaches. Through validation on a synthetic community, we show that KOMB recovers and profiles repetitive genomic regions in the sample. KOMB is shown to identify functionally-important regions in Human Microbiome Project datasets, and was used to analyze longitudinal data and identify keystone taxa in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) samples. In summary, KOMB represents a novel graph-based, taxonomy-oblivious, and reference-free approach for tracking CNV within microbiomes. KOMB is open source and available for download at

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Li Y, Zhang T, Sun J, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:899845.

Background: Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) demonstrated several health benefits of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). However, there has been little comprehensive assessment of the strength and quality of evidence. We conducted an umbrella review to summarize the evidence of the association between FMT and health outcomes.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were searched from inception to August 6, 2021. The random-effects model was applied to recalculate the effect estimates. We used AMSTAR 2 and GRADE to assess the methodological quality and to grade the evidence.

Results: A total of 7 meta-analyses comprising 26 RCTs (median [IQR] primary study, 6 [2-7]; median [IQR] sample size, 267 [147-431] participants) were included in the current umbrella review describing 45 unique associations. There were 22 statistically significant associations (49%) demonstrating beneficial outcomes of FMT for antibiotic resistance burden, functional constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, and C. difficile infection. FMT does not appear to be associated with positive outcomes in irritable bowel syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Eight significant associations (36%) were supported by moderate-quality evidence, nine associations (41%) were supported by low-quality evidence, and the remaining associations found to be significant were supported by very low-quality evidence.

Conclusion: Although we found that FMT was positively associated with several outcomes, caution should be exercised in choosing this approach, given the insufficient number of primary studies, low methodological quality, and low quality of evidence. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed to improve the strength and credibility of the evidence base.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Lu G, Wen Q, Cui B, et al (2022)

Washed microbiota transplantation stopped the deterioration of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the first case report and narrative review.

Journal of biomedical research [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is known as a progressive paralysis disorder characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and has an average survival time of three to five years. Growing evidence has suggested the bidirectional link between gut microbiota and neurodegeneration. Here we aimed to report one female case with ALS who benefited from washed microbiota transplantation (WMT), an improved fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), through a transendoscopic enteral tube during a 12-month follow-up. Notedly, the accidental scalp trauma the patient suffered later was treated with prescribed antibiotics which caused ALS deterioration. The subsequent rescue WMTs successfully stopped the progression of the disease with quick improvement. The plateaus and reversals occurred during the whole course of WMT. The stool and blood samples from the first WMT to the last were collected for dynamic microbial and metabolomic analysis. We observed the microbial and metabolomic changing trend consistent with the disease status. This case report for the first time shows the direct clinical evidence on using WMT for treating ALS, indicating that WMT may be the novel treatment strategy for controlling this so-called incurable disease.

RevDate: 2022-07-06

Hoque MN, Rahman MS, Islam T, et al (2022)

Induction of mastitis by cow-to-mouse fecal and milk microbiota transplantation causes microbiome dysbiosis and genomic functional perturbation in mice.

Animal microbiome, 4(1):43.

BACKGROUND: Mastitis pathogenesis involves a wide range of opportunistic and apparently resident microorganims including bacteria, viruses and archaea. In dairy animals, microbes reside in the host, interact with environment and evade the host immune system, providing a potential for host-tropism to favor mastitis pathogenesis. To understand the host-tropism phenomena of bovine-tropic mastitis microbiomes, we developed a cow-to-mouse mastitis model.

METHODS: A cow-to-mouse mastitis model was established by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and milk microbiota transplantation (MMT) to pregnant mice to assess microbiome dysbiosis and genomic functional perturbations through shotgun whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) along with histopathological changes in mice mammary gland and colon tissues.

RESULTS: The cow-to-mouse FMT and MMT from clinical mastitis (CM) cows induced mastitis syndromes in mice as evidenced by histopathological changes in mammary gland and colon tissues. The WMS of 24 samples including six milk (CM = 3, healthy; H = 3), six fecal (CM = 4, H = 2) samples from cows, and six fecal (CM = 4, H = 2) and six mammary tissue (CM = 3, H = 3) samples from mice generating 517.14 million reads (average: 21.55 million reads/sample) mapped to 2191 bacterial, 94 viral and 54 archaeal genomes. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences (p = 0.009) in diversity, composition, and relative abundances in microbiomes between CM- and H-metagenomes. These differences in microbiome composition were mostly represented by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus crispatus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, Pantoea dispersa in CM-cows (feces and milk), and Muribaculum spp., Duncaniella spp., Muribaculum intestinale, Bifidobacterium animalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Massilia oculi, Ralstonia pickettii in CM-mice (feces and mammary tissues). Different species of Clostridia, Bacteroida, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Betaproteobacteria had a strong co-occurrence and positive correlation as the indicator species of murine mastitis. However, both CM cows and mice shared few mastitis-associated microbial taxa (1.14%) and functional pathways regardless of conservation of mastitis syndromes, indicating the higher discrepancy in mastitis-associated microbiomes among lactating mammals.

CONCLUSIONS: We successfully induced mastitis by FMT and MMT that resulted in microbiome dysbiosis and genomic functional perturbations in mice. This study induced mastitis in a mouse model through FMT and MMT, which might be useful for further studies- focused on pathogen(s) involved in mastitis, their cross-talk among themselves and the host.

RevDate: 2022-07-12
CmpDate: 2022-07-12

Tian H, Zhang S, Qin H, et al (2022)

Long-term safety of faecal microbiota transplantation for gastrointestinal diseases in China.

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 7(8):702-703.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Huang WQ, Huang HL, Peng W, et al (2022)

Altered Pattern of Immunoglobulin A-Targeted Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease After Fecal Transplantation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:873018.

Adaptive immune response to the gut microbiota is one of the main drivers of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Under inflammatory conditions, immunoglobulin (Ig)-targeted bacteria are altered. However, changes in Ig-targeted bacteria in Asian patients with IBD with ulcerative colitis (UC) remain unclear. Furthermore, changes in IgA-targeted bacteria in patients with UC treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are unclear. Here, we analyzed fecal samples of patients with IBD and patients with UC before and after FMT by flow cytometry. We found that the percentage of IgA/G-coated bacteria can be used to assess the severity of IBD. Besides oral pharyngeal bacteria such as Streptococcus, we hypothesized that Megamonas, Acinetobacter, and, especially, Staphylococcus might play an important role in IBD pathogenesis. Moreover, we evaluated the influence of FMT on IgA-coated bacteria in patients with UC. We found that IgA-bacterial interactions were re-established in human FMT recipients and resembled those in the healthy fecal donors. Additionally, the IgA targeting was not influenced by delivery methods: gastroscopy spraying and colonic transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET). Then, we established an acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model to explore whether FMT intervention would impact IgA/G memory B cell in the intestine. We found that after FMT, both IgA/G memory B cell and the percentage of IgA/G-targeted bacteria were restored to normal levels in DSS mice.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Rajpurohit S, Musunuri B, Shailesh , et al (2022)

Novel Drugs for the Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Still a Long Journey to Travel.

Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology, 12(4):1200-1214.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the reversible complications of chronic liver disease, associated with a higher mortality rate. In current clinical practice, treatment with rifaximin and lactulose/lactitol is the first line of treatment in HE. With the advance in pathophysiology, a new class of ammonia lowering drugs has been revealed to overcome the hurdle and disease burden. The mechanism of the novel agents differs significantly and includes the alteration in intestinal microbiota, intestinal endothelial integrity, oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and modulation of neurotoxins. Most of the trials have reported promising results in the treatment and prevention of HE with fecal microbiota transplantation, albumin, probiotics, flumazenil, polyethylene glycol, AST-120, glycerol phenylbutyrate, nitazoxanide, branched-chain amino acid, naloxone, and acetyl-l-carnitine. However, their clinical use is limited due to the presence of major drawbacks in their study design, sample size, safety profile, bias, and heterogenicity. This study will discuss the novel therapeutic targets for HE in liver cirrhosis patients with supporting clinical trial data.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Philips CA, Ahamed R, Rajesh S, et al (2022)

Long-term Outcomes of Stool Transplant in Alcohol-associated Hepatitis-Analysis of Clinical Outcomes, Relapse, Gut Microbiota and Comparisons with Standard Care.

Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology, 12(4):1124-1132.

Background: Healthy donor fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was preliminarily shown to have clinical benefits in hepatic encephalopathy (HE), severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (SAH), and alcohol use disorder. However, the long-term outcomes of FMT and the gut microbiota (GM) changes in patients with SAH are unknown.

Methods: Patients with SAH who underwent FMT (N = 35) or standard of care (SoC, N = 26) from May 2017 to June 2018 were included, and their stored stool samples were analyzed prospectively. Clinical outcomes, including infections, hospitalizations, critical illness, alcohol relapse, and survival, were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis was undertaken to identify the relative abundances (Ras) and significant taxa at baseline and post-therapy (up to three years) among survivors between the two groups.

Results: At follow-up, the incidences of ascites, HE, infections, and major hospitalizations were significantly higher in the SoC than in the FMT group (P < 0.05). Alcohol relapse was lower (28.6% versus 53.8%), and the time to relapse was higher in the FMT than in the SoC group (P = 0.04). Three-year survival was higher in the FMT than in the SoC group (65.7% versus 38.5%, P = 0.052). Death due to sepsis was significantly higher in the SoC group (N = 13/16, 81.2%; P = 0.008). GM analysis showed a significant increase in the RA of Bifidobacterium and a reduction in the RA of Acinetobacter in the FMT group. Beyond one to two years, the RA of Porphyromonas was significantly higher and that of Bifidobacterium was lower in the SoC than in the FMT group.

Conclusions: In terms of treatment for patients with SAH, healthy donor FMT is associated with significantly lesser ascites, infections, encephalopathy, and alcohol relapse (with a trend toward higher survival rates) than SoC, associated with beneficial GM modulation. Larger controlled studies on FMT are an unmet need.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Zhu M, Liu X, Ye Y, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota: A Novel Therapeutic Target for Parkinson's Disease.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:937555.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor dysfunction. Growing evidence has demonstrated that gut dysbiosis is involved in the occurrence, development and progression of PD. Numerous clinical trials have identified the characteristics of the changed gut microbiota profiles, and preclinical studies in PD animal models have indicated that gut dysbiosis can influence the progression and onset of PD via increasing intestinal permeability, aggravating neuroinflammation, aggregating abnormal levels of α-synuclein fibrils, increasing oxidative stress, and decreasing neurotransmitter production. The gut microbiota can be considered promising diagnostic and therapeutic targets for PD, which can be regulated by probiotics, psychobiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, diet modifications, and Chinese medicine. This review summarizes the recent studies in PD-associated gut microbiota profiles and functions, the potential roles, and mechanisms of gut microbiota in PD, and gut microbiota-targeted interventions for PD. Deciphering the underlying roles and mechanisms of the PD-associated gut microbiota will help interpret the pathogenesis of PD from new perspectives and elucidate novel therapeutic strategies for PD.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Li P, Gao M, Song B, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Reshapes the Physiological Function of the Intestine in Antibiotic-Treated Specific Pathogen-Free Birds.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:884615.

The topic about the interactions between host and intestinal microbiota has already caught the attention of many scholars. However, there is still a lack of systematic reports on the relationship between the intestinal flora and intestinal physiology of birds. Thus, this study was designed to investigate it. Antibiotic-treated specific pathogen-free (SPF) bird were used to construct an intestinal bacteria-free bird (IBF) model, and then, the differences in intestinal absorption, barrier, immune, antioxidant and metabolic functions between IBF and bacteria-bearing birds were studied. To gain further insight, the whole intestinal flora of bacteria-bearing birds was transplanted into the intestines of IBF birds to study the remodeling effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the intestinal physiology of IBF birds. The results showed that compared with bacteria-bearing birds, IBF birds had a lighter body weight and weaker intestinal absorption, antioxidant, barrier, immune and metabolic functions. Interestingly, FMT contributed to reshaping the abovementioned physiological functions of the intestines of IBF birds. In conclusion, the intestinal flora plays an important role in regulating the physiological functions of the intestine.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Wang X, Zhao J, Feng Y, et al (2022)

Evolutionary Insights Into Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:916543.

The intestinal microbiome plays an essential role in human health and disease status. So far, microbiota transplantation is considered a potential therapeutic approach for treating some chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The diversity of gut microbiota is critical for maintaining resilience, and therefore, transplantation with numerous genetically diverse gut microbiota with metabolic flexibility and functional redundancy can effectively improve gut health than a single probiotic strain supplement. Studies have shown that natural fecal microbiota transplantation or washing microbiota transplantation can alleviate colitis and improve intestinal dysbiosis in IBD patients. However, unexpected adverse reactions caused by the complex and unclear composition of the flora limit its wider application. The evolving strain isolation technology and modifiable pre-existing strains are driving the development of microbiota transplantation. This review summarized the updating clinical and preclinical data of IBD treatments from fecal microbiota transplantation to washing microbiota transplantation, and then to artificial consortium transplantation. In addition, the factors considered for strain combination were reviewed. Furthermore, four types of artificial consortium transplant products were collected to analyze their combination and possible compatibility principles. The perspective on individualized microbiota transplantation was also discussed ultimately.

RevDate: 2022-07-09

Xu B, Hao K, Chen X, et al (2022)

Broussonetia papyrifera Polysaccharide Alleviated Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Regulating the Intestinal Flora.

Nutrients, 14(13): pii:nu14132636.

Liver injury caused by an overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is a major public health problem. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Broussonetia papyrifera polysaccharide (BPP) on liver injury and intestinal flora induced by APAP. The results showed that BPP could protect against APAP-induced liver injury, alleviate liver apoptosis, improve antioxidant capacity and enhance the liver's detoxification ability to APAP. At the same time, BPP improved the intestinal flora disorder caused by APAP. More importantly, we found that the hepatoprotective effect of BPP disappeared after the depletion of gut microbiota in mice. Further, we reconstructed the intestinal flora structure of mice through fecal microbiota transplantation and found that the symptoms of APAP-induced liver injury were effectively alleviated. Overall, BPP was a potential hepatoprotective drug that could protect against APAP-induced liver injury and might be mediated by intestinal flora.

RevDate: 2022-07-09

Rodríguez-Fernández CA, Iglesias MB, de Domingo B, et al (2022)

Microbiome in Immune-Mediated Uveitis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(13): pii:ijms23137020.

In the last decades, personalized medicine has been increasing its presence in different fields of medicine, including ophthalmology. A new factor that can help us direct medicine towards the challenge of personalized treatments is the microbiome. The gut microbiome plays an important role in controlling immune response, and dysbiosis has been associated with immune-mediated diseases such as non-infectious uveitis (NIU). In this review, we gather the published evidence, both in the pre-clinical and clinical studies, that support the possible role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of NIU, as well as the modulation of the gut microbiota as a new possible therapeutic target. We describe the different mechanisms that have been proposed to involve dysbiosis in the causality of NIU, as well as the potential pharmacological tools that could be used to modify the microbiome (dietary supplementation, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, immunomodulators, or biologic drugs) and, consequently, in the control of the NIU. Furthermore, there is increasing scientific evidence suggesting that the treatment with anti-TNF not only restores the composition of the gut microbiota but also that the study of the composition of the gut microbiome will help predict the response of each patient to anti-TNF treatment.

RevDate: 2022-07-09

Elhag DA, Kumar M, Saadaoui M, et al (2022)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treatments and Predictive Biomarkers of Therapeutic Response.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(13): pii:ijms23136966.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with a highly heterogeneous presentation. It has a relapsing and remitting clinical course that necessitates lifelong monitoring and treatment. Although the availability of a variety of effective therapeutic options including immunomodulators and biologics (such as TNF, CAM inhibitors) has led to a paradigm shift in the treatment outcomes and clinical management of IBD patients, some patients still either fail to respond or lose their responsiveness to therapy over time. Therefore, according to the recent Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (STRIDE-II) recommendations, continuous disease monitoring from symptomatic relief to endoscopic healing along with short- and long-term therapeutic responses are critical for providing IBD patients with a tailored therapy algorithm. Moreover, considering the high unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches for IBD patients, various new modulators of cytokine signaling events (for example, JAK/TYK inhibitors), inhibitors of cytokines (for example IL-12/IL-23, IL-22, IL-36, and IL-6 inhibitors), anti-adhesion and migration strategies (for example, β7 integrin, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors, and stem cells), as well as microbial-based therapeutics to decolonize the bed buds (for example, fecal microbiota transplantation and bacterial inhibitors) are currently being evaluated in different phases of controlled clinical trials. This review aims to offer a comprehensive overview of available treatment options and emerging therapeutic approaches for IBD patients. Furthermore, predictive biomarkers for monitoring the therapeutic response to different IBD therapies are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Song C, Duan F, Ju T, et al (2022)

Eleutheroside E supplementation prevents radiation-induced cognitive impairment and activates PKA signaling via gut microbiota.

Communications biology, 5(1):680.

Radiation affects not only cognitive function but also gut microbiota. Eleutheroside E (EE), a principal active compound of Acanthopanax senticosus, has a certain protective effect on the nervous system. Here, we find a four-week EE supplementation to the 60Co-γ ray irradiated mice improves the cognition and spatial memory impairments along with the protection of hippocampal neurons, remodels the gut microbiota, especially changes of Lactobacillus and Helicobacter, and altered the microbial metabolites including neurotransmitters (GABA, NE, ACH, 5-HT) as well as their precursors. Furthermore, the fecal transplantation of EE donors verifies that EE alleviated cognition and spatial memory impairments, and activates the PKA/CREB/BDNF signaling via gut microbiota. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of EE effect on the gut-brain axis and underpin a proposed therapeutic value of EE in cognitive and memory impairments induced by radiation.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Tian Y, Zuo L, Guan B, et al (2022)

Microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis promote colorectal carcinogenesis in mice.

Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 102:111712 pii:S0899-9007(22)00125-3 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Long-term ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with both dysbiosis in intestinal microbiota and predisposition to colorectal cancer. In this study, we investigated whether microbiota from patients with UC could increase colorectal carcinogenesis in mice, generated by azoxymethane through intraperitoneal injection.

METHODS: Mice were gavaged twice per week with intestinal microbiota from patients with UC or healthy individuals. Intestinal tissues were collected from mice and compared by histology, immunohistochemistry, expression microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and flow cytometry analyses. Quantification of bacteria in feces was performed using 16 S ribosomal RNA gene selective quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS: Compared with mice fed microbiota from healthy controls, increased tumorigenesis was observed in mice gavaged with microbiota from patients with UC, including a higher number of colon adenoma and a significantly higher proportion of grade dysplasia. Consistent with tumorigenesis, mice gavaged with microbiota from patients with UC showed an increased expression of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In addition, an increased expression of cytokines and more abundant presence of T helper cells types 1 and 17 was observed in mice receiving microbiota from patients with UC. Moreover, a decrease in the abundance of short-chain fatty acids was detected in the feces, as well as an altered intestinal microbial composition in mice fed with microbiota from patients with UC.

CONCLUSIONS: Fecal microbiota from patients with UC exacerbate tumorigenesis in mice. The disturbance of intestinal microbiota and activation of T helper cells types 1 and 17 cytokines caused by gavaging microbiota from patients with UC both contributed to intestinal carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Tun KM, Hong AS, Batra K, et al (2022)

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy and Clostridioides difficile Infection in Patients With Cirrhosis.

Cureus, 14(5):e25537.

The microbiome of the human gut and liver coexists by influencing the health and disease state of each system. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently emerged as a potential treatment for conditions associated with cirrhosis, such as hepatic encephalopathy and recurrent/refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). We have conducted a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of FMT in treating hepatic encephalopathy and rCDI. A literature search was performed using variations of the keywords "fecal microbiota transplant" and "cirrhosis" on PubMed/MEDLINE from inception to October 3, 2021. The resulting 116 articles were independently reviewed by two authors. Eight qualifying studies were included in the systematic review. A total of 127 cirrhotic patients received FMT. Hepatic encephalopathy was evaluated by cognitive tests, such as the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and EncephalApp Stroop test. Not only was there an improvement in the cognitive performance in the FMT cohort, but the improvement was also maintained throughout long-term follow-up. In the treatment of rCDI, the FMT success rate is similar between cirrhotic patients and the general population, although more than one dose may be needed in the former. The rate of serious adverse events and adverse events in the cirrhotic cohort was slightly higher than that in the general population but was low overall. We found evidence that supports the therapeutic potential and safety profile of FMT to treat hepatic encephalopathy and rCDI in cirrhotic patients. Further research will be beneficial to better understand the role of FMT in cirrhosis.

RevDate: 2022-07-07

Sinha A, Li Y, Mirzaei MK, et al (2022)

Transplantation of bacteriophages from ulcerative colitis patients shifts the gut bacteriome and exacerbates the severity of DSS colitis.

Microbiome, 10(1):105.

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by chronic and debilitating gut inflammation. Altered bacterial communities of the intestine are strongly associated with IBD initiation and progression. The gut virome, which is primarily composed of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages, phages), is thought to be an important factor regulating and shaping microbial communities in the gut. While alterations in the gut virome have been observed in IBD patients, the contribution of these viruses to alterations in the bacterial community and heightened inflammatory responses associated with IBD patients remains largely unknown.

RESULTS: Here, we performed in vivo microbial cross-infection experiments to follow the effects of fecal virus-like particles (VLPs) isolated from UC patients and healthy controls on bacterial diversity and severity of experimental colitis in human microbiota-associated (HMA) mice. Shotgun metagenomics confirmed that several phages were transferred to HMA mice, resulting in treatment-specific alterations in the gut virome. VLPs from healthy and UC patients also shifted gut bacterial diversity of these mice, an effect that was amplified during experimental colitis. VLPs isolated from UC patients specifically altered the relative abundance of several bacterial taxa previously implicated in IBD progression. Additionally, UC VLP administration heightened colitis severity in HMA mice, as indicated by shortened colon length and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, this effect was dependent on intact VLPs.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings build on recent literature indicating that phages are dynamic regulators of bacterial communities in the gut and implicate the intestinal virome in modulating intestinal inflammation and disease. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-07-07

Huang C, Yi P, Zhu M, et al (2022)

Erratum to "Safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: An EXPLORER trial" [J. Autoimmun. 130, June 2022, 102844].

RevDate: 2022-07-07

Luo Y, Zhang Y, Han X, et al (2022)

Akkermansia muciniphila prevents cold-related atrial fibrillation in rats by modulation of TMAO induced cardiac pyroptosis.

EBioMedicine, 82:104087 pii:S2352-3964(22)00268-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Cold exposure is one of the most important risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF), and closely related to the poor prognosis of AF patients. However, the mechanisms underlying cold-related AF are poorly understood.

METHODS: Various techniques including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, fecal microbiota transplantation, and electrophysiological examination were used to determine whether gut microbiota dysbiosis promotes cold-related AF. Metabonomics were performed to investigate changes in fecal trimethylamine (TMA) and plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) during cold exposure. The detailed mechanism underlying cold-related AF were examined in vitro. Transgenic mice were constructed to explore the role of pyroptosis in cold-related AF. The human cohort was used to evaluate the correlation between A. muciniphila and cold-related AF.

FINDINGS: We found that cold exposure caused elevated susceptibility to AF and reduced abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) in rats. Intriguingly, oral supplementation of A. muciniphila ameliorated the pro-AF property induced by cold exposure. Mechanistically, cold exposure disrupted the A. muciniphila, by which elevated the level of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) through modulation of the microbial enzymes involved in trimethylamine (TMA) synthesis. Correspondingly, progressively increased plasma TMAO levels were validated in human subjects during cold weather. Raised TMAO enhanced the infiltration of M1 macrophages in atria and increased the expression of Casp1-p20 and cleaved-GSDMD, ultimately causing atrial structural remodeling. Furthermore, the mice with conditional deletion of caspase1 exhibited resistance to cold-related AF. More importantly, a cross-sectional clinical study revealed that the reduction of A. muciniphila abundance was an independent risk factor for cold-related AF in human subjects.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings revealed a novel causal role of aberrant gut microbiota and metabolites in pathogenesis of cold-related AF, which raises the possibility of selectively targeting microbiota and microbial metabolites as a potential therapeutic strategy for cold-related AF.

FUNDING: This work was supported by grants from the State Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81830012), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.82070336, No.81974024), Youth Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81900374, No.81900302), and Excellent Young Medical Talents supporting project in the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (No. HYD2020YQ0001).

RevDate: 2022-07-07

Chen C, Liang H, Wang J, et al (2022)

Heterophyllin B an Active Cyclopeptide Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis by Modulating Gut Microbiota and Repairing Intestinal Mucosal Barrier via AMPK Activation.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: Advances in pathology broaden our perception of the intimate interaction between gut microbiota dysbiosis and the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), but the potential modulating roles remain to be elucidated.

METHODS AND RESULTS: DSS-induced colitis was used to investigate the effect of Heterophyllin B (HB), a typical active cyclopeptide extracted from Pseudostellaria heterophylla, on colitis and gut microbiota. Administration of HB substantially mitigated the symptoms of UC as evidenced by increasing body weight and colon length, as well as decreased macrophages infiltration in the colon. Meanwhile, HB significantly alleviated intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction by reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines, while all the mentioned beneficial effects were significantly eliminated by co-treatment with compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor. In addition, 16S rDNA gene analyses and fecal microbiota transplantation also revealed that HB dramatically prevented against UC by reshaping intestinal dysbiosis, especially elevated the relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila.

CONCLUSION: These findings illustrated that HB prominently improved intestinal epithelial homeostasis via activating AMPK and ameliorated the colonic inflammation in a gut microbiota-dependent manner, which provide evidence for microbial contribution to UC pathogenesis and suggesting a novel approach for colitis prevention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-07-07

Tan XY, Xie YJ, Liu XL, et al (2022)

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2022:8266793.

Objectives: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapy that modifies the patient's gut microbiota by transplanting feces from a healthy donor to achieve disease remission. However, its efficacy and safety need to be further investigated.

Methods: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and Google Scholar databases (up to 8th November 2021) were searched and literature was screened by title and abstract as well as full text. The primary outcome was clinical remission, with the clinical response as a secondary outcome. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported.

Results: A total of 14 trials were included in this study. In terms of clinical remission, FMT had a significant effect compared to placebo (RR = 1.44, 95 CI%: 1.03 to 2.02, I 2 = 38%, P=0.03), with no significant risk of study heterogeneity. Moreover, FMT led to significant results in clinical response compared to placebo with moderate between-study heterogeneity (RR = 1.34, 95 CI%: 0.92 to 1.94, I 2 = 51%, P=0.12). Subgroup analysis showed a higher clinical remission for fresh fecal FMT (40.9%) than that for frozen fecal FMT (32.2%); the efficacy of gastrointestinal (GI) pretreatment, the severity of disease, route of administration, and the donor selection remain unclear and require more extensive study. Safety analysis concluded that most adverse events were mild and self-resolving. The microbiological analysis found that the patient's gut microbiota varied in favor of the donor, with increased flora diversity and species richness.

Conclusion: FMT is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated therapy. Studies have found that fresh fecal microbiota transplant can increase clinical remission rates. However, more randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-ups are needed to assess its long-term effectiveness and safety.

RevDate: 2022-07-06

Avolio E, Olivito I, Rosina E, et al (2022)

Modifications of behavior and inflammation in mice following transplant with fecal microbiota from children with autism.

Neuroscience pii:S0306-4522(22)00341-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder displaying the modification of complex human behaviors, characterized by social interaction impairments, stereotypical/repetitive activities and emotional dysregulation. In this study, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) via gavage from autistic children donors to mice, leads to the colonization of ASD-like microbiota and autistic behaviors compared to the offspring of pregnant females exposed to valproic acid (VPA). Such variations seemed to be tightly associated with increased populations of Tenericutes plus a notable reduction (p<0.001) of Actinobacteria and Candidatus S. in the gastrointestinal region of FMT mice compared to controls. Indeed altered behaviors of FMT mice was reported when evaluated in the different maze tests (light dark, novel object, three chamber tests, novel cage test). Contextually, FMT accounted for elevated expression levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, COX-1 and TNF-α in both brain and small intestine. Villous atrophy and inflammatory infiltration (Caspase 3 and Ki67) were increased in the small intestine of FMT and VPA mice compared to controls. Moreover, the observed FMT-dependent alterations were probably due to a decrease in the methylation status. Overall, findings of the present study corroborate a key role of gut microbiota in ASD. However, further investigations are required before any possible manipulation of gut bacteria with appropriate diets or probiotics in ASD individuals.

RevDate: 2022-07-06

Xu H, Wang L, Chen B, et al (2022)

[Fecal Microbiota Transplantation:Traditional Chinese Medicine Meets Western Medicine].

Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae, 44(3):472-476.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a therapy of transplanting the functional flora from the feces of a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient to reconstruct the normal flora.The application of FMT in western medicine dates from the 1950s.After decades of development,the efficacy of FMT has been proven in a variety of diseases.The record of FMT in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) dates early from the 3rd century A.D.,and relevant theories have been recorded in many TCM works in the past dynasties.FMT as a therapy that has been written into guidelines has been accepted by some countries and regions such as the United States and the United Kingdom in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection,and its clinical indications are expanding.TCM and western medicine,with different medical thoughts,meet in the application of FMT.Exploring a normative and effective FMT procedure reflects not only the patient-centered principle but also the mutual promotion of TCM and western medicine.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )