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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Dec 2022 at 11:47 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-12-08

Corriero A, Gadaleta RM, Puntillo F, et al (2022)

The central role of the gut in intensive care.

Critical care (London, England), 26(1):379.

Critically ill patients undergo early impairment of their gut microbiota (GM) due to routine antibiotic therapies and other environmental factors leading to intestinal dysbiosis. The GM establishes connections with the rest of the human body along several axes representing critical inter-organ crosstalks that, once disrupted, play a major role in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases and their complications. Key players in this communication are GM metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, neurotransmitters, hormones, interleukins, and toxins. Intensivists juggle at the crossroad of multiple connections between the intestine and the rest of the body. Harnessing the GM in ICU could improve the management of several challenges, such as infections, traumatic brain injury, heart failure, kidney injury, and liver dysfunction. The study of molecular pathways affected by the GM in different clinical conditions is still at an early stage, and evidence in critically ill patients is lacking. This review aims to describe dysbiosis in critical illness and provide intensivists with a perspective on the potential as adjuvant strategies (e.g., nutrition, probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics supplementation, adsorbent charcoal, beta-lactamase, and fecal microbiota transplantation) to modulate the GM in ICU patients and attempt to restore eubiosis.

RevDate: 2022-12-07

Kanlioz M, Ekici U, MF Ferhatoğlu (2022)

Total Gastrointestinal Flora Transplantation in the Treatment of Leaky Gut Syndrome and Flora Loss.

Cureus, 14(11):e31071.

Introduction The aim of this work was to treat patients with leaky gut syndrome (LGS) and gastrointestinal flora loss in a simple, inexpensive, permanent and effective way without the need for further treatment. Methods A total gastrointestinal flora transplantation (TGFT) procedure is performed by simultaneously transferring the "flora" taken from approximately 30 different anatomical sites, from the mouth to the anus, of healthy donors to the corresponding anatomical site of the patient using the endoscopic lavage method. Results Of the patients, 25 (44.6%) were female and 31 (55.4%) were male, totaling 56 (100%). The mean age was 32.88±15.78 years. Among the 56 patients enrolled in the study, TGFT had no efficacy in one patient, five patients underwent repeat TGFT during a mean follow-up period of 23.73±16.74 months, and the treatment was permanent in 50 patients; our success rate during the follow-up period was 89.3%. Conclusion In LGS, TGFT should be the gold standard treatment.

RevDate: 2022-12-07

Wang D, Pham VT, Steinert RE, et al (2022)

Microbial vitamin production mediates dietary effects on diabetic risk.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2154550.

Adequate levels of essential vitamins are important for the prevention of diabetes. While the main efforts to address this are currently focused on the intake of vitamin supplements, improving and maintaining intrinsic vitamin production capacity, which is determined by gut microbes, has received insufficient attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the relationship between gut microbial vitamin production and factors related to diabetes and cardiometabolic health in a deeply phenotyped cohort, Lifelines-DEEP (N = 1,135). We found that blood glucose-related factors, lipids, circulating inflammation, and fecal short-chain fatty acids are associated with gut microbial vitamin production. Use of laxatives and metformin are associated with increased levels of vitamin B1/B6 biosynthesis pathways. We further reveal a mediatory role for microbial vitamin B1/B2 production on the influence of fruit intake on diabetes risk. This study provides preliminary evidence for microbiome-targeted vitamin metabolism interventions to promote health.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Liu CS, Hu YX, Luo ZY, et al (2022)

Xianglian pill modulates gut microbial production of succinate and induces regulatory T cells to alleviate ulcerative colitis in rats.

Journal of ethnopharmacology pii:S0378-8741(22)01046-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Xianglian pill (XLP), a traditional Chinese formula, is widely used as treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC) in China. However, the mechanism of its therapeutic effect is still unclear.

AIM OF THE STUDY: Our previous studies showed a low oral bioavailability and a predominant distribution of major XLP ingredients in the gut. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of action of XLP on UC with respect to the regulation of gut microecology.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: UC model rats established using 5% dextran sulfate sodium were treated with XLP. After the treatment period, bodyweight, colon length, histopathology, and inflammatory changes were evaluated. Further, changes in gut microbiota structure were detected via 16S rRNA sequencing, and microbial metabolites in feces were analyzed via a metabolomic assay. Antibiotic intervention and fecal microbiota transplantation were also employed to explore the involvement of gut microbiota, while the level of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mesenteric lymph nodes was determined via flow cytometry. Transcriptome sequencing was also performed to determine colonic gene changes.

RESULTS: XLP alleviated colonic injury, inflammation, and gut microbial dysbiosis in UC model rats and also changed microbial metabolite levels. Particularly, it significantly decreased succinate level in the tyrosine pathway. We also observed that fecal microbiota derived from XLP-treated rats conferred resilience to UC model rats. However, this therapeutic effect of XLP on UC was inhibited by succinate. Moreover, XLP increased the level of anti-inflammatory cellular Tregs via gut microbiota. However, this beneficial effect was counteracted by succinate supplementation. Further, XLP induced the differentiation of Treg possibly by the regulation of the PHD2/HIF-1α pathway via decreasing microbial succinate production.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that XLP exerts its therapeutic effects on UC mainly via the gut microbiota-succinate-Treg differentiation axis.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Zádori ZS, Király K, Al-Khrasani M, et al (2022)

Interactions between NSAIDs, opioids and the gut microbiota - Future perspectives in the management of inflammation and pain.

Pharmacology & therapeutics pii:S0163-7258(22)00221-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The composition of intestinal microbiota is influenced by a number of factors, including medications, which may have a substantial impact on host physiology. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioid analgesics are among those widely used medications that have been shown to alter microbiota composition in both animals and humans. Although much effort has been devoted to identify microbiota signatures associated with these medications, much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Mucosal inflammation, changes in intestinal motility, luminal pH and bile acid metabolism, or direct drug-induced inhibitory effect on bacterial growth are all potential contributors to NSAID- and opioid-induced dysbiosis, however, only a few studies have addressed directly these issues. In addition, there is a notable overlap between the microbiota signatures of these drugs and certain diseases in which they are used, such as spondyloarthritis (SpA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and neuropathic pain associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the present review are threefold. First, we aim to provide a comprehensive up-to-date summary on the bacterial alterations caused by NSAIDs and opioids. Second, we critically review the available data on the possible underlying mechanisms of dysbiosis. Third, we review the current knowledge on gut dysbiosis associated with SpA, RA and neuropathic pain in T2D, and highlight the similarities between them and those caused by NSAIDs and opioids. We posit that drug-induced dysbiosis may contribute to the persistence of these diseases, and may potentially limit the therapeutic effect of these medications by long-term use. In this context, we will review the available literature data on the effect of probiotic supplementation and fecal microbiota transplantation on the therapeutic efficacy of NSAIDs and opioids in these diseases.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Gan B, Sun N, Lai J, et al (2022)

Dynamic Monitoring of Changes in Fecal Flora of Giant Pandas in Mice: Co-Occurrence Network Reconstruction.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Giant pandas are uniquely vulnerable mammals in western China. It is important to develop an animal model to explore the intestinal flora of giant pandas to understand the relationship between digestive diseases and flora. Existing animal models of intestinal flora focus on human flora-associated animals, such as mice, and there is a very limited amount of knowledge regarding giant panda flora-associated animals. To fill this gap, fecal microorganisms from giant pandas were transplanted into pseudosterile and germfree mice using single and multiple gavages. Fecal samples were collected from mice at four time points after transplantation for microbial community analysis. We determined that compared to pseudosterile mice, the characteristics of intestinal flora in pandas were better reproduced in germfree mice. There was no significant difference in microbial diversity between germfree mice and giant panda gut microbes from day 3 to day 21. Germfree mice at the phylum level possessed large amounts of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and at the genus level, Escherichia-Shigella, Clostridium sensu stricto 1, and Streptococcus dominated the intestinal flora structure. The microbial community co-occurrence network based on indicator species indicated that germfree mice transplanted with fecal bacteria tended to form a microbial community co-occurrence network similar to that of giant pandas, while pseudosterile mice tended to restore the microbial community co-occurrence network originally present in these mice. Our data are helpful for the study of giant panda flora-associated animals and provide new insights for the in vitro study of giant panda intestinal flora. IMPORTANCE The giant panda is a unique vulnerable mammal in western China, and its main cause of death is digestive system diseases regardless of whether these animals are in the wild or in captivity. The relationship between the intestinal flora and the host exerts a significant impact on the nutrition and health of the giant pandas. However, the protected status of the giant panda has made in vivo, repeatable, and large-sample sampling studies of their intestinal flora difficult. This greatly hinders the research depth of the giant panda intestinal flora from the source. The development and utilization of specific animal models to simulate the structure and characteristics of the intestinal flora provide another means to deal with these research limitations. However, current research examining giant panda flora-associated animals is limited. This study is the first to reveal dynamic changes in the fecal flora of giant pandas in mice after transplantation.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Zhang B, Yang L, Ning H, et al (2022)

A Matching Strategy To Guide Donor Selection for Ulcerative Colitis in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Meta-Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) targeting gut microbiota has recently been applied to the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, preliminary trials showed that only a subset of patients responded to FMT, and the heterogeneity in donor gut microbiota probably played important roles in patients' responses, implying the significance of matching an appropriate donor to a specified patient. We developed a strategy to build a donor-recipient matching model to guide rational donor selection for UC in FMT. We collected and uniformly reanalyzed 656 fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing samples (350 from UC patients and 306 from healthy subjects) from 9 studies. Significantly lower α-diversity indexes were observed in UC patients by random effects model. Thirty-four bacterial genera and 34 predicted pathways were identified with significant odds ratios and classification potentials for UC patients. Based on six bacterial indicators, including richness, overall distance, genera, and pathways (beneficial and harmful), the analytic hierarchy process-based donor-recipient matching model was set to rank and select appropriate donors for patients with UC. Finally, the model showed favorable classification powers (>70%) for FMT effectiveness in two previous clinical trials. This study revealed the dysbiosis of fecal bacterial diversity, composition, and predicted pathways of patients with UC by meta-analysis and hereby developed a donor-recipient matching strategy to guide donor selection for UC in FMT. This strategy can also be applied to other diseases associated with gut microbiota. IMPORTANCE Modulation of gut microbiota by FMT from donors has been applied to the treatment of UC and yielded variable effectiveness in clinical trials. One possibility is that this variable effectiveness was related to donor selection, as a patient's response to FMT may rely on the capability of the used donor's microbiota to restore the specific gut disturbances of the patient. However, the biggest issues on the practical level are what should be considered in the selection process and how to set up such a donor-recipient matching model. In this study, we presented a bacterial profile-based donor-recipient matching strategy to guide donor selection for UC in FMT by first meta-analysis of 656 fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing samples from 9 studies to identify significant indicators and then setting up the model by an analytic hierarchy process. The applicability and accuracy of this model were verified in the data sets from two previous FMT clinical studies. Our data indicate that the donor-recipient matching model built in this study enables researchers to rationally select donors for UC patients in FMT clinical practice, although it needs more samples and prospective trials for validation. The strategy adopted in this study to leverage existing data sets to build donor-recipient matching models for precision FMT is feasible for other diseases associated with gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Pande A, Sharma S, Khillan V, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation compared with prednisolone in severe alcoholic hepatitis patients: a randomized trial.

Hepatology international [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) has high 90-day mortality. Prednisolone therapy has shown modest survival benefits over placebo at 28 but not 90 days. Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has shown promise in these patients. We compared the efficacy and safety of the two therapies in SAH patients.

METHODS: Steroid eligible SAH patients were randomized in an open-label study to prednisolone (n = 60) 40 mg/day for 28 days (assessed at day-7 for continuation) or healthy donor FMT (n = 60) through naso-duodenal tube, daily for seven days. Primary outcome of study was day-90 survival.

RESULTS: Patients in prednisolone and FMT arms were comparable at baseline (discriminant function score 65 ± 16.2 and 68 ± 14, MELD score 17.1 and 16.5, respectively). Of 120 patients, 112 [prednisolone-57; FMT-55] completed trial. As per intention-to-treat analysis, 90-day survival was achieved by 56.6% (34/60) patients in prednisolone and 75% (45/60) in FMT group (p = 0.044, FMT HR = 0.528, 95%CI 0.279-0.998). Secondary outcome of 28-day survival [78.33% (47/60) and 88.33% (53/60) (p = 0.243, FMT HR = 0.535, 95%CI 0.213-1.34)] with comparable severity scores over time between both arms. Infections accounted for 11 (19.3%) and 2 (3.6%) deaths in prednisolone and FMT groups, respectively (p = 0.01). Path-tracing showed a slow establishment of microbiota and alpha diversity (Shannon index) improvement by day-28 (p = 0.029). FMT resulted in 23 new taxa by day-28, reduction from baseline in pathogenic taxa [Campylobacter (19-fold, p = 0.035), anaerobes (Parcubacteria, Weisella and Leuconostocaceae)], and increase of Alphaproteobacteria [~ sevenfold, p = 0.047] and Thaumarcheota (known ammonia oxidizer, p = 0.06). Lachnospiraceae (p = 0.008), Prevotella and Viellonella communities in gut favored survival (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: In severe alcoholic hepatitis, FMT is safe and improves 90-day survival and reduces infections by favorably modulating microbial communities. It can be a useful alternative to prednisolone therapy.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Sankararaman S, Noriega K, Velayuthan S, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Obesity and Obesity-Related Disorders.

Current gastroenterology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Gut microbiota intimately influence host energy metabolism, and immune response. Studies indicate a prominent role of gut dysbiosis in propagating inflammation that is associated with the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This article will review the current literature on gut microbiome and its impact on obesity and obesity-related disorders.

RECENT FINDINGS: An altered gut microbial composition in obesity and obesity-related disorders is associated with enhanced energy extraction from the non-digestible dietary carbohydrates, increased gut permeability, increased production of proinflammatory metabolites, such as lipopolysaccharides, resulting in systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Gut microbiota modulation can be achieved either by dietary manipulation or by administration of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and/or fecal microbiota transplantation aiming at the improvement of the gut dysbiosis in obesity and metabolic disorders. Further clinical trials are required to better elucidate the dose, and frequency of these interventions and also their long-term impact on host metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Zhang B, Zhao C, Zhang X, et al (2022)

An Elemental Diet Enriched in Amino Acids Alters the Gut Microbial Community and Prevents Colonic Mucus Degradation in Mice with Colitis.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The role of dietary amino acids or intact proteins in the progression of colitis remains controversial, and the mechanism involving gut microbes is unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of an elemental diet (ED) enriched in amino acids and a polymeric diet enriched in intact protein on the pathogenesis of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Our results showed that the ED induced remission of colitis in mice. Notably, ED treatment reduced the abundance of the mucolytic bacteria Akkermansia and Bacteroides, which was attributed to decreased colonic protein fermentation. Consistently, the activities of mucolytic enzymes were decreased, leading to protection against mucus layer degradation and microbial invasion. Fecal microbiota transplantation from ED-fed mice reshaped microbial ecology and alleviated intestinal inflammation in recipient mice. The ED failed to induce remission of colitis in pseudogermfree mice. Together, our results demonstrate the critical role of the gut microbiota in the prevention of colitis by an ED. IMPORTANCE The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease is rapidly increasing and has become a global burden. Several specific amino acids have been shown to benefit mucosal healing and colitis remission. However, the role of amino acids or intact proteins in diets and enteral nutrition formulas is controversial, and the mechanisms involving gut microbes remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of an elemental diet (ED) enriched in amino acids and a polymeric diet enriched in intact protein on the pathogenesis of colitis in mice. The underlying mechanisms were explored by utilizing fecal microbiota transplantation and pseudogermfree mice. ED treatment reduced the abundance of mucolytic bacteria, thereby protecting the mucus layer from microbial invasion and degradation. For the first time, we convincingly demonstrated the critical role of gut microbiota in the effects of the ED. This study may provide new insights into the gut microbiota-diet interaction and its role in human health.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Yang L, Li W, Zhang X, et al (2022)

The evaluation of different types fecal bacteria products for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Frontiers in surgery, 9:927970.

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of different types of fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (RCDAD).

METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China Biomedical Medicine (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WanFang database. We also tracked the references found in systematic reviews of RCDAD treated with fecal microbiota transplantation. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different types of fecal microbiota transplantation with other methods for the treatment of RCDAD. The search period was from the date of inception of this treatment method to January 16, 2022. Two reviewers independently screened the published literature, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Systematic review and network meta-analysis were conducted using RevMan 5.4, Stata 16.0 and R 4.1.2 software.

RESULTS: Ten RCTs involving 765 patients were included in this network meta-analysis. The results showed that treatment with fresh fecal bacteria and frozen fecal bacteria were better than vancomycin, fresh vs. vancomycin [odds ratio, (OR) = 8.98, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) (1.84, 43.92)], frozen vs. vancomycin [OR = 7.44, 95% CI (1.39, 39.75)]. However, there were no statistically significant differences in cure rate [fresh vs. frozen: OR = 1.21, 95% CI (0.22, 6.77); fresh vs. lyophilized, OR = 1.95, 95% CI (0.20, 19.44); frozen vs. lyophilized, OR = 1.62, 95% CI (0.30, 8.85)]. The Surface Under the Cumulative Ranking (SUCRA) indicated that fresh fecal bacteria were the best treatment for RCDAD.

CONCLUSIONS: Fresh fecal bacteria are the best treatment of RCDAD, frozen fecal bacteria and lyophilized fecal bacteria can achieve the same effect. Fecal microbiota transplantation is worthy of clinical and commercial application.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Dong YH, Hu JJ, Deng F, et al (2022)

Use of dexmedetomidine to alleviate intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury via intestinal microbiota modulation in mice.

Annals of translational medicine, 10(21):1161.

BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious condition with unacceptable mortality rates. Our previous study revealed a protective effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on intestinal I/R injury, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Gut microbiota imbalance is associated with the progression of I/R injury. We hypothesized that DEX would attenuate intestinal I/R injury via modulating gut microbiota.

METHODS: An I/R injury model was established in C57BL/6 mice in the presence or absence of DEX preconditioning. Some mice were treated with antibiotics to deplete intestinal bacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed by transplanting the feces of DEX-pretreated mice into a new batch of I/R mice. We analyzed the expression of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in feces, survival rate, and inflammatory cytokines.

RESULTS: DEX reversed I/R-induced bacterial abnormalities by increasing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes [DEX + I/R 3.02±0.36 vs. normal saline (NS) + I/R 0.82±0.15; 95% CI: 0.80-3.60; P<0.05] and was accompanied by increased 72-hour survival (0.40±0.16 vs. 0.10±0.09; P<0.05). The protective effect of DEX did not significantly differ from that of DEX + antibiotics. Furthermore, the bacteria of the DEX-pretreated mice decreased the release of inflammatory factors.

CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that DEX can alleviate intestinal I/R injury through a microbiota-related mechanism, providing a potential avenue for the management of intestinal I/R injury.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Wang R, Liu M, Ren G, et al (2022)

Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu Capsules' Effects on ischemic stroke: An assessment using fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted serum metabolomics.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:1052110.

Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu capsule (ZHTC) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine compound for the treatment of ischemic stroke, which is widely used in clinical ischemic stroke patients. However, it is uncertain whether ZHTC affects ischemic stroke through gut microbiota and serum metabolites. In this study, a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was prepared. By evaluating motor nerve function score, cerebral infarct size, brain tissue damage and intestinal barrier damage, it was found that ZHTC improved stroke-related symptoms in MCAO rats. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), untargeted metabolomics, and spearman correlation analysis of gut microbiota and serum metabolites, we found that ZHTC can regulate the abundance of p_Firmicutes, p_Bacteroidota,p_Proteobacteria, g_Prevotella, and g_Lactobacillus, and regulated 23 differential metabolites. Spearman correlation analysis found that Arginine was positively correlated with p_Firmicutes, o_Clostridiales, c_Clostridia, and negatively correlated with p_Bacteroidetes, c_Bacteroidia,o_Bacteroidales; L-Lysine was negatively correlated with f_Christensenellaceae; L-methionine was positively correlated with o_Lactobacillales, f_Lactobacillaceae, and g_Lactobacillus. Altogether, this study shows for the first time that ZHTC can ameliorate ischemic stroke by modulating gut microbiota and metabolic disturbances. This lays the foundation for further revealing the causal relationship between ZHTC, gut dysbiosis, plasma metabolite levels and ischemic stroke, and provides a scientific explanation for the ameliorating effect of ZHTC on ischemic stroke.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

El Haddad L, Mendoza JF, C Jobin (2022)

Bacteriophage-mediated manipulations of microbiota in gastrointestinal diseases.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1055427.

Although some gastrointestinal diseases could be managed using various antibiotics regimen, this therapeutic approach lacks precision and damages the microbiota. Emerging literature suggests that phages may play a key role in restoring the gut microbiome balance and controlling disease progression either with exogenous phage intervention or filtered fecal transplantation or even engineered phages. In this review, we will discuss the current phage applications aiming at controlling the bacterial population and preventing infection, inflammation, and cancer progression in the context of gastrointestinal diseases.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Wang Y, Zhang Z, Liu B, et al (2022)

A study on the method and effect of the construction of a humanized mouse model of fecal microbiota transplantation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1031758.

The gestation period is critical for the health of the mother and fetus. Malnutrition or over nutrition during pregnancy may cause gestational diseases that can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can be used to re-establish new gut microbiota to treat a variety of diseases and construct a model to investigate the nutritional health during pregnancy. Therefore, this study investigated whether human-derived gut microbiota during pregnancy could colonize the intestines of mice. Moreover, we determined the time and method of intervention for FMT. Based on this information, a humanized mouse model of FMT was constructed to simulate the human intestinal microecology during pregnancy, and serve as a useful animal model for the study of nutritional health and disease during pregnancy. Germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen free (SPF) C57BL/6J mice were selected for humanized gestational FMT and the transplantation outcomes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the gestational intestinal microbiota colonized the intestines of mice, allowing researchers to construct a humanized mouse model of gestational FMT. The main intestinal flora of the gestational period were transplanted into GF mice, with the gestational flora being similar to the flora of GF mice after transplantation. However, antibiotics could not eliminate the original microbial flora in SPF mice, and the flora was complex and variable after FMT with little increase in abundance. Background flora had a significant impact on the outcomes assessment. The results were better in GF mice than in SPF mice, and after microbiota transplantation, a superior effect was observed on day 21 compared to days 7 and 14.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Wei W, Wang S, Xu C, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota, pathogenic proteins and neurodegenerative diseases.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:959856.

As the world's population ages, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have brought a great burden to the world. However, effective treatment measures have not been found to alleviate the occurrence and development of NDs. Abnormal accumulation of pathogenic proteins is an important cause of NDs. Therefore, effective inhibition of the accumulation of pathogenic proteins has become a priority. As the second brain of human, the gut plays an important role in regulate emotion and cognition functions. Recent studies have reported that the disturbance of gut microbiota (GM) is closely related to accumulation of pathogenic proteins in NDs. On the one hand, pathogenic proteins directly produced by GM are transmitted from the gut to the central center via vagus nerve. On the other hand, The harmful substances produced by GM enter the peripheral circulation through intestinal barrier and cause inflammation, or cross the blood-brain barrier into the central center to cause inflammation, and cytokines produced by the central center cause the production of pathogenic proteins. These pathogenic proteins can produced by the above two aspects can cause the activation of central microglia and further lead to NDs development. In addition, certain GM and metabolites have been shown to have neuroprotective effects. Therefore, modulating GM may be a potential clinical therapeutic approach for NDs. In this review, we summarized the possible mechanism of NDs caused by abnormal accumulation of pathogenic proteins mediated by GM to induce the activation of central microglia, cause central inflammation and explore the therapeutic potential of dietary therapy and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in NDs.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Elokil AA, Chen W, Mahrose K, et al (2022)

Early life microbiota transplantation from highly feed-efficient broiler improved weight gain by reshaping the gut microbiota in laying chicken.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1022783.

Starting phase of laying chicken life is the building stone for rearing and production stages. Since, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) regulates the gut microbial diversity and affects the productive performance of the bird. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FMT from feed-efficient broiler chicken could program the diversity of gut microbiota and growth of recipient native slow growing egg-laying chicks. For this, a total of 150 (one-day-old) Jing Hong chicks were randomly assigned into two groups, each group consisted of 5 replicates (n = 15 bird/ replicate). The control group (CON) and FMT recipient birds (FMT) fed on basal diet, the FMT group received an oral daily dose of FMT prepared from Cobb-500 chickens. The FMT performed from the 1d to 28d of age, through the experimental period, feed intake and body weight were recorded weekly. At the end of a 28-day trial, carcass traits were assessed and cecal samples were collected for microbiome assessment via 16S rRNA-based metagenomic analysis to characterize the diversity and functions of microbial communities. The data were statistically analyzed using R software. Body weight and body weight gain increased, and FCR decreased (p = 0.01) in FMT group. The relative abundance of Firmicutes and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio were increased due to FMT administration (p = 0.01). A higher relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Bifidobacterium were presented in the FMT group. Meanwhile, Enterococcus, Helicobacter, and Bacteroides were more abundant in the CON group (p < 0.01). Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways for microbial functions regarding amino acid metabolism, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and enzyme families, cofactors, and vitamins were significantly annotated in the FMT group. Overall, FMT administration from the donor of highly feed-efficient broilers improved weight gain by reshaping a distinct gut microbiome, which may be related to the metabolism and health in the recipients laying chicks, providing new insight on the application of the FMT technique for early life programming of laying chickens.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Liu X, Zhang Y, Li W, et al (2022)

Differential responses on gut microbiota and microbial metabolome of 2'-fucosyllactose and galactooligosaccharide against DSS-induced colitis.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 162(Pt B):112072.

Prebiotics are effective in modulating gut microbiota and may further benefit colitis remission. 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) are the main prebiotics in human and animal milk, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the colitis-preventing effects of 2'FL and GOS, and explore the underlying mechanisms involving the gut microbiota. The chronic colitis was induced by 1.5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 4 consecutive cycles and manifested as aggravation of colitis symptoms, gut barrier disruption, and colonic inflammation. We found that 2'FL was more effective than GOS against colitis at the same dosage (500 mg/kg bw). 2'FL and GOS have a differential response on gut microbiota, reflecting the inhibition of Romboutsia and the enrichment of Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibaculum, and unclassified_f_Lachnosipiaceae. In addition, the differential response on microbial metabolome was reflected in the elevation of secondary bile acids, which activated Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and further suppressed the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Furthermore, fecal bacterial transplantation confirmed the critical role of gut microbiota in the prevention of colitis by 2'FL and GOS. Overall, microbiota and microbial metabolites are essential parts of 2'FL and GOS against colitis, and their differential responses may account for different effects in alleviating colitis.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Tang Q, Wang C, Jin G, et al (2022)

Early life dietary emulsifier exposure predisposes the offspring to obesity through gut microbiota-FXR axis.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 162(Pt A):111921.

The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly around the world, and there is growing evidence that obesity is closely related to diet and gut microbiota. Early life adverse exposures have profound effects on gut microbiota. However, the effects of maternal emulsifier polysorbate 80 (P80) exposure in early life on obesity of offspring remains unclear. Female C57BL/6 mice were free access to water containing 1 % P80 during pregnancy and lactation to investigate the effects of maternal P80 exposure on gut microbiota and obesity susceptibility of offspring, while bile acid composition and the FGF15-FXR axis were also analyzed. Maternal P80 exposure significantly impaired intestinal development and barrier function and increased intestinal low-grade inflammation in offspring mice. Maternal P80 exposure led to gut dysbiosis in offspring at 3 weeks of age, which was characterized by increased potentially harmful bacteria, Prevotella, Helicobacter and Ruminococcus and Mucin degrading bacteria, Akkermansia. Interestingly, mice transplanted with the fecal microbiota of offspring exposed to maternal P80 showed more serious intestinal barrier impairment and increased low-grade inflammation than that received microbiota of offspring fed with normal diet. After a high-fat diet, Maternal P80 exposed offspring showed more severe in gut dysbiosis and obesity, accompanied by alternation in bile acid profile and up regulation of the FXR-FGF15 axis. Conclusively, early life emulsifier exposure predisposes the offspring to obesity through gut microbiota-FXR axis. The findings will provide new insights into effects of P80 on health.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Wu L, Lu XJ, Lin DJ, et al (2022)

Washed microbiota transplantation improves patients with metabolic syndrome in South China.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1044957.

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a growing public health problem worldwide. The clinical impact of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donors in MS patients is unclear, especially in southern Chinese populations. This study aimed to investigate the effect of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) in MS patients in southern China.

METHODS: The clinical data of patients with different indications receiving 1-3 courses of WMT were retrospectively collected. The changes of BMI, blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure and other indicators before and after WMT were compared, such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL-c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), etc. At the same time, comprehensive efficacy evaluation and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) grade assessment were performed on MS patients. Finally, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed on fecal samples of MS patients before and after transplantation.

RESULTS: A total of 237 patients were included, including 42 in the MS group and 195 in the non-MS group. For MS patients, WMT significantly improved the comprehensive efficacy of MS in short term 40.48% (p<0.001), medium term 36.00% (p=0.003), and long term 46.15% (p=0.020). Short-term significantly reduced FBG (p=0.023), TG (p=0.030), SBP (p=0.026) and BMI (p=0.031), and increased HDL-c (p=0.036). The medium term had a significant reduction in FBG (p=0.048), TC (p=0.022), LDL-c (p=0.043), non-HDL-c (p=0.024) and BMI (p=0.048). WMT had a significant short term (p=0.029) and medium term (p=0.011) ASCVD downgrading effect in the high-risk group of MS patients. WMT improved gut microbiota in MS patients.

CONCLUSION: WMT had a significant improvement effect on MS patients and a significant downgrade effect on ASCVD risk in the high-risk group of patients with MS. WMT could restore gut microbiota homeostasis in MS patients. Therefore, the regulation of gut microbiota by WMT may provide a new clinical approach for the treatment of MS.

RevDate: 2022-12-01

Liu H, Kang X, Yang X, et al (2022)

Compound Probiotic Ameliorates Acute Alcoholic Liver Disease in Mice by Modulating Gut Microbiota and Maintaining Intestinal Barrier.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a worldwide health threaten lack of effective treatment. Gut dysbiosis and concomitant augmented intestinal permeability are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD. Research on the protective effect of probiotics on ALD is limited, and more effective intestinal microecological regulators and the related mechanisms still need to be further explored. In the present study, the protective effects and mechanisms of a compound probiotic against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in vivo were explod. It was showed that the compound probiotic ameliorated liver injury in acute ALD mice and stabilized the levels of ALT, AST, and TG in serum. The compound probiotic reversed acute alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis and maintained the intestinal barrier integrity by upregulating the production of mucus and the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and thus reduced LPS level in liver. Meanwhile, the compound probiotic reduced inflammation level by inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and suppressed oxidative stress level in liver. Furthermore, the compound probiotic alleviated liver lipid accumulation by regulating fatty acid metabolism-associated genes and AMPK-PPARα signaling pathway. Noteworthy, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) realized comparable protective effect with that of compound probiotic. In conclusion, present study demonstrates the beneficial effects and underlying mechanism of the compound probiotic against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. It provides clues for development of novel strategy for treatment of ALD.

RevDate: 2022-12-01

Cumpelik A, Cody E, Yu SM, et al (2022)

Cutting Edge: Neutrophil Complement Receptor Signaling Is Required for BAFF-Dependent Humoral Responses in Mice.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) pii:237560 [Epub ahead of print].

T cell-independent (TI) B cell responses to nonprotein Ags involve multiple cues from the innate immune system. Neutrophils express complement receptors and activated neutrophils can release BAFF, but mechanisms effectively linking neutrophil activation to TI B cell responses are incompletely understood. Using germline and conditional knockout mice, we found that TI humoral responses involve alternative pathway complement activation and neutrophil-expressed C3a and C5a receptors (C3aR1/C5aR1) that promote BAFF-dependent B1 cell expansion and TI Ab production. Conditional absence of C3aR1/C5aR1 on neutrophils lowered serum BAFF levels, led to fewer Peyer's patch germinal center B cells, reduced germinal center B cells IgA class-switching, and lowered fecal IgA levels. Together, the results indicate that sequential activation of complement on neutrophils crucially supports humoral TI and mucosal IgA responses through upregulating neutrophil production of BAFF.

RevDate: 2022-12-02
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

Chen Q, Zhang Z, Bei S, et al (2022)

Efficacy of oral fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent bowel disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine, 101(47):e31477.

BACKGROUND: Recurrent bowel disease (RBD) refers to the chronic, recurrent intestinal diseases, including recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection (rCDI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), etc., these diseases have similar clinical characteristics, that is, abdominal pain, diarrhea, repeated attacks, prolonged recovery, etc. Clinically, there are relevant reports on the use of oral capsule fecal microbiota transplantation (oFMT) to treat RBD. However, both the advantages and disadvantages of clinical efficacy have been reported; there are some contradictions, the study sample size is too small, and the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral capsule fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of RBD.

METHODS: This systematic review will include articles identified through electronic searches of the PubMed, EMbase, and Cochrane Library. From inception to July 1, 2022. Two reviewers will independently search the database to conduct data extraction and assessment of study quality. Based on heterogeneity tests, data will be integrated using fixed or random effect models. RevMan V.5.4 will be used for data analysis. The results are expressed as the risk ratio of dichotomous data and the mean difference of continuous data.

RESULTS: We analyzed the clinical remission or cure rate, IBS-SSS, quality of life, anxiety, depression, total adverse effects, and total severe adverse effects (TSAE) in patients with RBD.

CONCLUSION: This systematic review evaluated the efficacy and safety of oFMT in the treatment of RBD to provide more comprehensive evidence.

RevDate: 2022-11-30

Thomas AR, Liu C, Tong YT, et al (2022)

Characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients with pre-existing microscopic colitis after exposure to PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors.

Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are frequently associated with adverse events, often affecting the gastrointestinal tract. We conducted this study to determine the characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients with pre-existing microscopic colitis (MC) who underwent ICI treatment.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, we identified 10 patients with pre-existing MC who received ICIs at our center 01/2010-06/2020. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were recorded.

RESULTS: Of 124 screened patients with MC before ICI exposure, 10 had sufficient data to be included in the study. Melanoma (40%) and lung cancer (30%) were the most prevalent cancer types, with 70% of stage IV cancer. Patients received either anti-programmed death 1 regimen (8, 80%) or anti-programmed death ligand 1 agent (2, 20%). Six patients (60%) had collagenous colitis, and 4 (40%) had lymphocytic colitis. The median time from MC diagnosis to ICI initiation was 4 years, with 1 patient on budesonide within 2 months of ICI initiation. Eight patients (80%) developed colitis exacerbations after ICI  and required selective immunosuppression. One patient received a compassionate-use fecal transplantation. The median time from ICI to colitis exacerbation was 14 days, with 40% and 50% of patients experiencing grade 3 diarrhea and grade 2 colitis, respectively, leading to hospitalization in 3 patients. Six patients received steroids and vedolizumab with no colitis recurrence. Of 8 patients who had colitis exacerbation, 6 resumed ICI therapy afterward; with 5 receiving concomitant vedolizumab for secondary prophylaxis.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that ICI exposure increases the risk of exacerbation of underlying colitis necessitating and responding to potent immunosuppression therapy.

RevDate: 2022-12-03
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

Xiao L, Zhou Y, Bokoliya S, et al (2022)

Bone loss is ameliorated by fecal microbiota transplantation through SCFA/GPR41/ IGF1 pathway in sickle cell disease mice.

Scientific reports, 12(1):20638.

Bone loss is common in sickle cell disease (SCD), but the molecular mechanisms is unclear. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was low in SCD subjects and SCD mice. To determine if decreased IGF1 associated with low bone mass in SCD is due to reduced SCFA production by gut microbiota, we performed reciprocal fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) between healthy control (Ctrl) and SCD mice. uCT and histomorphometry analysis of femur showed decreased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), osteoblast surface/bone surface (Ob.S/BS), mineralizing surface/ bone surface (MS/BS), inter-label thickness (Ir.L.Th) in SCD mice were significantly improved after receiving Ctrl feces. Bone formation genes Alp, Col1, Runx2, and Dmp1 from SCD mice were significantly decreased and were rescued after FMT from Ctrl feces. Transplantation of Ctrl feces increased the butyrate, valerate, and propionate levels in cecal content of SCD mice. Decreased G-coupled protein receptors 41 and 43 (GPR41 and GPR43) mRNA in tibia and lower IGF1 in bone and serum of SCD mice were partially restored after FMT from Ctrl feces. These data indicate that the healthy gut microbiota of Ctrl mice is protective for SCD bone loss through regulating IGF1 in response to impaired bacterial metabolites SCFAs.

RevDate: 2022-11-30

Ousey J, Boktor JC, SK Mazmanian (2022)

Gut microbiota suppress feeding induced by palatable foods.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(22)01750-X [Epub ahead of print].

Feeding behaviors depend on intrinsic and extrinsic factors including genetics, food palatability, and the environment.[1][,][2][,][3][,][4][,][5] The gut microbiota is a major environmental contributor to host physiology and impacts feeding behavior.[6][,][7][,][8][,][9][,][10][,][11][,][12] Here, we explored the hypothesis that gut bacteria influence behavioral responses to palatable foods and reveal that antibiotic depletion (ABX) of the gut microbiota in mice results in overconsumption of several palatable foods with conserved effects on feeding dynamics. Gut microbiota restoration via fecal transplant into ABX mice is sufficient to rescue overconsumption of high-sucrose pellets. Operant conditioning tests found that ABX mice exhibit intensified motivation to pursue high-sucrose rewards. Accordingly, neuronal activity in mesolimbic brain regions, which have been linked with motivation and reward-seeking behavior,[3] was elevated in ABX mice after consumption of high-sucrose pellets. Differential antibiotic treatment and functional microbiota transplants identified specific gut bacterial taxa from the family S24-7 and the genus Lactobacillus whose abundances associate with suppression of high-sucrose pellet consumption. Indeed, colonization of mice with S24-7 and Lactobacillus johnsonii was sufficient to reduce overconsumption of high-sucrose pellets in an antibiotic-induced model of binge eating. These results demonstrate that extrinsic influences from the gut microbiota can suppress the behavioral response toward palatable foods in mice.

RevDate: 2022-11-30
CmpDate: 2022-11-30

Karakavuk T, Gül C, Karakavuk M, et al (2022)

Biotechnological Based Recombinant Protein Vaccines Developed Against Toxoplasmosis.

Turkiye parazitolojii dergisi, 46(4):342-357.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) that can infect most warm-blooded animals and humans, is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite with a wide host range. About one-third of the world's population is infected with this parasite. While toxoplasmosis progresses asymptomatically in individuals with a strong immune system, it can cause serious clinical manifestations and death in immunocompromised individuals. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the consumption of water and food contaminated with cat feces, as well as raw or undercooked animal products, congenital infection and blood/organ transplantation. Additionally, T. gondii is often observed in farm animals such as sheep and goats. Clinical manifestations and abortions caused by T. gondii in sheep and goats lead to enormous economic loss worldwide. There is a commercial vaccine against T. gondii, called Toxovax (MSD, New Zealand) that can only be used in sheep. For these reasons, there is a need for innovative T. gondii vaccine that is harmless, easily produced, which can prevent losses and be used in all living things. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, genetic, biotechnology and proteomics bring new perspectives to vaccine studies. Studies in innovative vaccine studies against T. gondii have accelerated with the discovery of new antigens by in vitro screenings, and bioinformatic analyzes, the use of various expression systems and new adjuvant types. Recombinant protein vaccines are biotechnological vaccines that are frequently preferred due to their rapid and easy production in various expression systems, availability of very and high purity products, ease of manipulation and stimulation of both cellular and humoral immune responses. Recombinant protein vaccines, developed by biotechnological methods, are promising tools for providing a protective immune response against toxoplasmosis. In this review, an overview of the parasite complex life cycle, its pathogenesis, humoral and cellular immune responses in the host, and recombinant protein vaccine studies developed against the parasite are presented.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Liu C, Song C, Wang Y, et al (2022)

Deep-fried Atractylodes lancea rhizome alleviates spleen deficiency diarrhea-induced short-chain fatty acid metabolic disorder in mice by remodeling the intestinal flora.

Journal of ethnopharmacology pii:S0378-8741(22)01006-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. is a Chinese herb that has been commonly used to treat spleen-deficiency diarrhea (SDD) in China for over a thousand years. However, the underlying mechanism of its antidiarrheal activity is not fully understood.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The antidiarrheal effects of the ethanol extract of deep-fried A. lancea rhizome (EEDAR) due to spleen deficiency induced by folium sennae (SE) were determined on the regulation of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabonomics induced by the intestinal flora.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of EEDAR on a SE-induced mouse model of SDD were evaluated by monitoring the animal weight, fecal water content, diarrhea-grade rating, goblet cell loss, and pathological changes in the colon. The expression of inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-10), aquaporins (AQP3, AQP4, and AQP8), and tight junction markers (ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1) in colon tissues were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. SCFA metabonomics in the feces of mice treated with EEDAR was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, 16S rDNA sequencing was used to determine the effect of EEDAR on the intestinal flora of SDD mice, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to confirm whether the intestinal flora was essential for the anti-SDD effect of EEDAR.

RESULTS: Treatment with EEDAR significantly improved the symptoms of mice with SDD by inhibiting the loss of colonic cup cells, alleviating colitis, and promoting the expression of AQPs and tight junction markers. More importantly, the effect of EEDAR on the increase of SCFA content in mice with SDD was closely related to the gut microbiota composition. EEDAR intervention did not significantly improve intestinal inflammation or the barrier of germ-free SDD mice, but FMT was effective.

CONCLUSION: EEDAR alleviated SE-induced SDD in mice, as well as the induced SCFA disorder by regulating the imbalance of the intestinal microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Bishop EJ, R Tiruvoipati (2022)

Management of Clostridioides difficile infection in adults and challenges in clinical practice: review and comparison of current IDSA/SHEA, ESCMID and ASID guidelines.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy pii:6849560 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) remains a significant clinical challenge both in the management of severe and severe-complicated disease and the prevention of recurrence. Guidelines released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (IDSA/SHEA) and ESCMID had some consensus as well as some discrepancies in disease severity classification and treatment recommendations. We review and compare the key clinical strategies from updated IDSA/SHEA, ESCMID and current Australasian guidelines for CDI management in adults and discuss relevant issues for clinicians, particularly in the management of severe-complicated infection. Updated IDSA/SHEA and ESCMID guidelines now reflect the increased efficacy of fidaxomicin in preventing recurrence and have both promoted fidaxomicin to first-line therapy with an initial CDI episode in both non-severe and severe disease and endorsed the role of bezlotoxumab in the prevention of recurrent infection. Vancomycin remains acceptable therapy and metronidazole is not preferred. For severe-complicated infection the IDSA/SHEA recommends high-dose oral ± rectal vancomycin and IV metronidazole, whilst in an important development, ESCMID has endorsed fidaxomicin and tigecycline as part of combination anti-CDI therapy, for the first time. The role of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in second CDI recurrence is now clearer, but timing and mode of FMT in severe-complicated refractory disease still requires further study.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Zhang H, Duan Y, Cai F, et al (2022)

Next-Generation Probiotics: Microflora Intervention to Human Diseases.

BioMed research international, 2022:5633403.

With the development of human genome sequencing and techniques such as intestinal microbial culture and fecal microbial transplantation, newly discovered microorganisms have been isolated, cultured, and researched. Consequently, many beneficial probiotics have emerged as next-generation probiotics (NGPs). Currently, "safety," "individualized treatment," and "internal interaction within the flora" are requirements of a potential NGPs. Furthermore, in the complex ecosystem of humans and microbes, it is challenging to identify the relationship between specific strains, specific flora, and hosts to warrant a therapeutic intervention in case of a disease. Thus, this review focuses on the progress made in NGPs and human health research by elucidating the limitations of traditional probiotics; summarizing the functions and strengths of Akkermansia muciniphila, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides fragilis, Eubacterium hallii, and Roseburia spp. as NGPs; and determining the role of their intervention in treatment of certain diseases. Finally, we aim to provide a reference for developing new probiotics in the future.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Li Z, Ke H, Wang Y, et al (2022)

Global trends in Akkermansia muciniphila research: A bibliometric visualization.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1037708.

BACKGROUND: Akkermansia muciniphila is a member of the gut microbiome, using mucin as sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Since the first discovery of this unique bacterium in 2004, A. muciniphila has been extensively studied. It is considered a promising "next-generation beneficial microbe." The purpose of this paper is to sort out the research status and summarize the hotspots through bibliometric analysis of the publications of A. muciniphila.

METHODS: The publications about A. muciniphila from January 2004 to February 2022 were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection. Visualization analyses were performed using three bibliometric tools and GraphPad Prism.

RESULTS: A total of 1,478 published documents were analyzed. Annual publication number grew from 1 in 2004 to 336 in 2021, with China being the leading producer (33.36%). De Vos, Willem M was the most productive author with the highest H-index (documents = 56, H-index = 37), followed by Cani, Patrice D (documents = 35, H-index = 25). And Scientific Reports published the most papers. PNAS was the keystone taxa in this field, with high betweenness centrality (0.11) and high frequency. The keywords with high frequency in recent years include: oxidative stress, diet, metformin, fecal microbiota transplantation, short-chain fatty acids, polyphenols, microbiota metabolites and so on. The keyword "oxidative stress" was observed to be increasing in frequency recently.

CONCLUSION: Over time, the scope of the research on the clinical uses of A. muciniphila has gradually increased, and was gradually deepened and developed toward a more precise level. A. muciniphila is likely to remain a research hotspot in the foreseeable future and may contribute to human health.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Zhang F, Yang P, Chen Y, et al (2022)

Bibliometric and visual analysis of fecal microbiota transplantation research from 2012 to 2021.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1057492.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapy for diseases associated with intestinal flora imbalance that has attracted increasing attention in recent years. This study aims to provide an overview of research trends in the field, and act as a reference point for future scientific research by analyzing the state of current research, identifying hotspots, and potential frontiers of FMT.

METHODS: Articles relating to FMT that were published between the years 2012 and 2021 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection. Bibliometric analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel and CiteSpace.

RESULTS: A total of 2,403 English language articles relating to FMT research were published over the last ten years. Most of this research was carried out in the United States of America, with Harvard Medical school being the most productive institution. Much of the research was published in the PLoS One journal. Alexander Khoruts was identified as a prominent, productive researcher in the field. Keyword analysis revealed that research hot spots included gut microbiota, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and diseases. Burst detection indicated that future research frontiers include clinical practice guidelines and strategies.

CONCLUSION: Our analysis explored hot spots and emerging trends in the FMT field. Indications for use of FMT extended from digestive system diseases to other systemic diseases. Additionally, areas such as risk assessment and control, along with application methods were also a focus of current research. Moreover, research relating to optimization of clinical practice has excellent prospects.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Wang J, Chen J, M Chen (2022)

Commentary: Effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized clinical trial.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1056394.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Orr MR (2022)

The biodiversity dose-response curve translates theory and practice from ecological restoration into research and clinical priorities for fecal microbiota transplantation.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:1059148.

Discoveries of the beneficial effects of gut microbiota have led to efforts to cultivate healthy gut flora to treat disease. The field of ecological restoration specializes on reestablishment of desired species in disturbed ecosystems, which suggests that it may be applicable to microbe restoration in the gut. Common language can lower barriers to interdisciplinary insights. Here I introduce the concept of a "biodiversity dose-response curve" to translate ideas from ecological restoration into research and clinical priorities for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The curve is based on a relationship between ecosystem structure, measured as species diversity found in both nature and gut ecosystems, and ecosystem function, which are the measurable parameters that contribute to ecosystem and human health. I explain why the biodiversity dose-response curve may follow the ecological model of a "rivet-redundancy" relationship, in which the overlap of multiple organisms' functional contributions to a system mask the impact of initial losses of diversity, but, at a certain level of loss, function declines sharply. (Imagine an airplane that flies with a few rivets missing, until it loses enough to fail.) The biodiversity dose-response curve indicates that seemingly healthy individuals may be suboptimal donors; it highlights the importance of recipient diet in FMT success; and it introduces the concept of "passive restoration" into the field of gut medicine. These insights, which may help to explain low success rates of FMT in the treatment of non-Clostridium dificile conditions, are less apparent in the absence of interdisciplinary integration.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Tang W, Yuan M, Li Z, et al (2022)

Polyphenol-Rich Liupao Tea Extract Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced MAFLD by Modulating the Gut Microbiota.

Nutrients, 14(22): pii:nu14224930.

The modulation of gut microbiota dysbiosis might regulate the progression of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Here, we found that polyphenol-rich Liupao tea extract (PLE) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MAFLD in ApoE[-/-] male mice accompanied by protection of the intestinal barrier and downregulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-related Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling in the liver. Fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) from PLE-and-HFD-treated mice delayed MAFLD development significantly compared with FMT from HFD-treated mice. In this case, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that Rikenellaceae and Odoribacter were significantly enriched and that Helicobacter was significantly decreased in not only the HFD+PLE group but also the HFD+PLE-FMT group. Furthermore, the level of 3-sulfodeoxycholic acid was significantly decreased in the HFD+PLE-FMT group compared with the HFD-FMT group. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that PLE could modulate the MAFLD phenotype in mice and that this effect is partly mediated through modulation of the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Zhi W, Yuan X, Song W, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation May Represent a Good Approach for Patients with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Brief Report.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(22): pii:jcm11226700.

This is the first report of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with chronic kidney disease. The patient was subjected to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), with onset in April 2021. The main manifestation featured abnormal renal function and no proteinuria at the level of nephrotic syndrome. In May 2021, she showed biopsy-proven FSGS and was treated with glucocorticoid. However, after glucocorticoid reduction, the patient's serum creatinine increased again, so she adjusted the dosage and continued use until now. In April 2022, the patient was prescribed the FMT capsules. After FMT, the renal function remained stable, urinary protein decreased, reaching the clinical standard of complete remission, and there was no recurrence after glucocorticoid reduction. Furthermore, the patient showed significantly decreased hyperlipidemia, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) after FMT. During FMT, the level of cytokines fluctuated slightly, but returned to the pre-transplantation level after three months. From this, we conclude that FMT is a potential adjuvant therapy for FSGS, and patients can benefit from improving renal function and dyslipidemia.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Qi X, Liu Y, Hussein S, et al (2022)

The Species of Gut Bacteria Associated with Antitumor Immunity in Cancer Therapy.

Cells, 11(22): pii:cells11223684.

Both preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that the modulation of gut microbiota could be a promising strategy for enhancing antitumor immune responses and reducing resistance to immunotherapy in cancer. Various mechanisms, including activation of pattern recognition receptors, gut commensals-produced metabolites and antigen mimicry, have been revealed. Different gut microbiota modulation strategies have been raised, such as fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, and dietary selection. However, the identification of gut bacteria species that are either favorable or unfavorable for cancer therapy remains a major challenge. Herein, we summarized the findings related to gut microbiota species observed in the modulation of antitumor immunity. We also discussed the different mechanisms underlying different gut bacteria's functions and the potential applications of these bacteria to cancer immunotherapy in the future.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Fang J, Yu CH, Li XJ, et al (2022)

Gut dysbiosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic implications.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:997018.

The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing recently and has become one of the most common clinical liver diseases. Since the pathogenesis of NAFLD has not been completely elucidated, few effective therapeutic drugs are available. As the "second genome" of human body, gut microbiota plays an important role in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of food and drugs. Gut microbiota can act as an important driver to advance the occurrence and development of NAFLD, and to accelerate its progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Growing evidence has demonstrated that gut microbiota and its metabolites directly affect intestinal morphology and immune response, resulting in the abnormal activation of inflammation and intestinal endotoxemia; gut dysbiosis also causes dysfunction of gut-liver axis via alteration of bile acid metabolism pathway. Because of its composition diversity and disease-specific expression characteristics, gut microbiota holds strong promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for NAFLD. Intervening intestinal microbiota, such as antibiotic/probiotic treatment and fecal transplantation, has been a novel strategy for preventing and treating NAFLD. In this article, we have reviewed the emerging functions and association of gut bacterial components in different stages of NAFLD progression and discussed its potential implications in NAFLD diagnosis and therapy.

RevDate: 2022-11-26

Seekatz AM, Safdar N, S Khanna (2022)

The role of the gut microbiome in colonization resistance and recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 15:17562848221134396.

UNLABELLED: The species composition of the human gut microbiota is related to overall health, and a healthy gut microbiome is crucial in maintaining colonization resistance against pathogens. Disruption of gut microbiome composition and functionality reduces colonization resistance and has been associated with several gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal diseases. One prime example is Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and subsequent recurrent infections that occur after the development of systemic antibiotic-related dysbiosis. Standard-of-care antibiotics used for both acute and recurrent infections do not address dysbiosis and often worsen the condition. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies, recommended in conjunction with standard-of-care antibiotics for the prevention of recurrent CDI in patients at high risk of recurrence, reduce recurrences but do not address the underlying dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an evolving therapeutic strategy in which microbes are harvested from healthy donor stool and transplanted into the gut of a recipient to restore the gut microbiome. Although effective in the prevention of recurrent CDI, some existing challenges include screening and the standardization of stool acquisition and processing. Recent safety alerts by the US Food and Drug Administration raised concern about the possibility of transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 via FMT. Increased knowledge that microbes are beneficial in restoring the gut microbiome has led to the clinical development of several newer biotherapeutic formulations that are more regulated than FMT, which may allow for improved restoration of the gut microbiome and prevention of CDI recurrence. This review focuses on mechanisms by which gut microbiome restoration could influence colonization resistance against the pathogen C. difficile.

PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Clostridioides difficile Infection Introduction: A rich and diverse gut microbiome is key to immune system regulation and colonization resistance against pathogens.A disruption in the gut microbiome composition can make the gut more vulnerable to diseases such as Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), caused by the bacterium C. difficile.CDI management presents a therapeutic dilemma, as it is usually treated with antibiotics that can treat the infection but also can damage the microbiome.Treatment of CDI using antibiotics can further reduce microbial diversity and deplete beneficial bacteria from the gut leading to a condition called dysbiosis.Antibiotic treatment can be followed by therapies that restore the gut microbiota, boost colonization resistance, and prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance.It is important to evaluate treatment options to determine their safety and effectiveness. Methods: The researchers provided an overview of the mechanisms that the gut microbiome uses to prevent colonization of the gut by pathogens.They subsequently reviewed the efficacy and shortcomings of the following treatments for CDI: - Antibiotics- Monoclonal antibodies- Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) Results: Commensal intestinal bacteria prevent colonization of the gut by pathogens using mechanisms such as: - Competition for key nutrients- Production of inhibitory bile acids- Short-chain fatty acid production- Lowering the luminal pH- Production of bacteriocinsAntibiotic therapy is recommended as a standard treatment for CDI. However, patients are vulnerable to recurrent CDI after discontinuation of the therapy.Monoclonal antibodies that inactivate C. difficile toxins may be recommended along with antibiotics to prevent recurrent CDI. However, this approach does not restore the microbiome.FMT is one method of microbial restoration, where stool is harvested from a healthy donor and transplanted into a patient's colon.Although FMT has shown some efficacy in the treatment of recurrent CDI, the procedure is not standardized.Safety concerns have been raised about the possibility of transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens via FMT. Conclusion: Treatment methods that can efficiently restore the diversity of the gut microbiome are crucial in preventing recurrence of CDI.

RevDate: 2022-11-25

Rastogi S, Singh A, Nandy A, et al (2022)

Can the Therapeutic Spectrum of Probiotics be Extended: Exploring Potential of Gut Microbiome.

Recent advances in anti-infective drug discovery pii:RAAIDD-EPUB-127816 [Epub ahead of print].

Natural therapeutic microorganisms provide a potent alternative healthcare treatment nowadays, with the potential to prevent several human diseases. These health-boosting living organisms, probiotics mostly belong to Gram-positive bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, Saccharomyces, Bacillus and Enterococcus. Initiated almost a century ago, the probiotic application has come a long way. The present review is focused on the potential therapeutic role of probiotics in ameliorating multiple infections, such as upper respiratory tract infections and viral respiratory infections, including Covid-19; liver diseases and hepatic encephalopathy; neurological and psychiatric disorders; autoimmune diseases, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Apart from these, the therapeutic exacerbations of probiotics in urinary tract infections have been extremely promising, and several approaches are reviewed and presented here. We also present upcoming and new thrust areas where probiotic therapeutic interventions are showing promising results, like faecal microbial transplant and vaginal microbial transplant.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Gu X, Miao Z, Wang Y, et al (2022)

New Baitouweng decoction combined with fecal microbiota transplantation alleviates DSS-induced colitis in rats by regulating gut microbiota metabolic homeostasis and the STAT3/NF-κB signaling pathway.

BMC complementary medicine and therapies, 22(1):307.

AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to elucidate the synergistic effect and potential mechanism of New Baitouweng Decoction (NBD) combined with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in rats with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis (UC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colitis was induced by 5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. NBD or NBD combined with FMT were administered to the colitis rats. Body weight and disease activity index were measured, and the colon histological change was imaged to further examine the efficacy of NBD and FMT. The specific effects of NBD on STAT3/NF-κB signaling pathway and gut microbiota in rats with UC were also investigated.

RESULTS: The efficacy of NBD in combination with FMT was demonstrated by the lower disease activity index scores; increased tight junction proteins expression; and a lower expression of macrophage marker (F4/80) in colon tissues. NBD combined with FMT elevated the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and inhibited activation of the JAK2/STAT3/NF-κB related proteins. Furthermore, 16SrDNA sequencing indicated that the gut microbiota in rats with UC was perturbed, in contrast to that in healthy rats. After treatment with NBD and FMT, the diversity and abundance of intestinal flora showed clear improvements. Spearman correlation analysis indicated a strong correlation between specific microbiota and fecal concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate.

CONCLUSIONS: The protective mechanism of NBD combined with FMT may be linked to regulation NF-κB/STAT3 and restoration of the intestinal flora.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Franc A, Vetchý D, N Fülöpová (2022)

Commercially Available Enteric Empty Hard Capsules, Production Technology and Application.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 15(11):.

Currently, there is a growing need to prepare small batches of enteric capsules for individual therapy or clinical evaluation since many acidic-sensitive substances should be protected from the stomach's acidic environment, including probiotics or fecal material, in the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) process. A suitable method seems to be the encapsulation of drugs or lyophilized alternatively frozen biological suspensions in commercial hard enteric capsules prepared by so-called Enteric Capsule Drug Delivery Technology (ECDDT). Manufacturers supply these types of capsules, made from pH-soluble polymers, in products such as AR Caps[®], EnTRinsic[TM], and Vcaps[®] Enteric, or capsules made of gelling polymers that release their content as the gel erodes over time when passing through the digestive tract. These include DRcaps[®], EMBO CAPS[®] AP, BioVXR[®], or ACGcaps™ HD. Although not all capsules in all formulations meet pharmaceutical requirements for delayed-release dosage forms in disintegration and dissolution tests, they usually find practical application. This literature review presents their composition and properties. Since ECDDT is a new technology, this article is based on a limited number of references.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Zhuang Y, Zeng R, Liu X, et al (2022)

Neoagaro-Oligosaccharides Ameliorate Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Depression by Increasing 5-HT and BDNF in the Brain and Remodeling the Gut Microbiota of Mice.

Marine drugs, 20(11):.

Neoagaro-oligosaccharides (NAOs) belong to the algae oligosaccharides. NAOs have been found to have diverse biological activities. However, the effects of NAOs on depression and their underlying mechanism have not been thoroughly studied. A chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced C57BL/6J mouse model was used to assess the antidepressant effects of NAOs. Anxiety and depression behaviors were assessed by open field tests (OFT) and forced swimming tests (FST), while interleukin 18 (IL-18), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were the molecular biomarkers of depression. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed. The results showed that NAO treatment significantly improved the body weight of depressed mice and reduced the central area time in the OFT and immobility time in the FST. NAO treatment decreased the levels of IL-18 in the serum and increased the levels of 5-HT in the serum and whole brain and of BDNF in the whole brain. NAO treatment mitigated the gut microbiota dysbiosis in the depressed mice and reversed the decreased levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecum of the depressed mice. FMT indicated that the gut microbiota is, indeed, linked to depression, which was reflected in the changes in weight gain and behaviors. In a word, NAOs effectively reversed the CRS-induced mice model of depression, which depended on the changes in the gut microbiota and SCFAs, as well as its modulation of 5-HT and BDNF.

RevDate: 2022-11-25

Zhang LN, Yuan WL, Ye M, et al (2022)

Changes in the intestinal microbiota of patients with Parkinson's disease and their clinical significance.

International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics pii:189845 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences and their clinical significance in the intestinal microbiota in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in comparison to those in healthy controls.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 patients with PD who received treatment in the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College between January 2019 and December 2019 were selected as the research subjects to form the PD group, while 20 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were selected as the control group. Fecal samples from the two groups were collected, and the V4 region of 16S-ribosomal ribonucleic acid was selected for high-throughput sequencing analysis to explore any differences, as well as their significance, in the intestinal microbiota abundance at the class, family, and genus levels between the two study groups.

RESULTS: The operational taxonomic unit cluster analysis revealed a high degree of overlap between the patients with PD and the controls. Compared with the controls, the relative abundance of Coriobacteriia and Coriobacteriaceae was increased in the PD group (p < 0.01), while the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae was significantly lower (p < 0.01). The relative abundance of Collinsella, Escherichia, and Fusobacterium in the PD group was significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Compared with the healthy subjects, the abundance of specific microflora was significantly different in the PD patients at the class, family, and genus level. Intestinal flora may act as a potential biomarker for PD and provide a theoretical basis for microflora transplantation therapy.

RevDate: 2022-11-25
CmpDate: 2022-11-25

Wang X, Li L, Bai M, et al (2022)

Dietary supplementation with Tolypocladium sinense mycelium prevents dyslipidemia inflammation in high fat diet mice by modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:977528.

Obesity is a risk factor for many serious health problems, associated with inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and gut dysbiosis. Prevention of obesity is especially important for human health. Tolypocladium sinense is one of the fungi isolated from Chinese caterpillar fungus, which is a traditional Chinese medicine with putative gut microbiota modulation effects. Here, we established a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemia mice model, which was supplemented with lyophilized T. sinense mycelium (TSP) daily to evaluate its anti-obesity effects. The results indicated that TSP supplementation can effectively alleviate the inflammatory response and oxidative stress levels caused by obesity. TSP significantly prevented obesity and suppressed dyslipidemia by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism genes in the liver. TSP is also effective in preventing the HFD-induced decline in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content. Gut microbiota profiling showed that TSP supplementation reversed HFD diet-induced bacterial abundance and also altered the metabolic pathways of functional microorganisms, as revealed by KEGG analysis. It is noteworthy that, correlation analysis reveals the up-regulated gut microbiota (Lactobacillus and Prevotella_9) are closely correlated with lipid metabolism parameters, gene expression of liver lipid metabolism and inflammatory. Additionally, the role of TSP in the regulation of lipid metabolism was reconfirmed by fecal microbiota transplantation. To sum up, our results provide the evidence that TSP may be used as prebiotic agents to prevent obesity by altering the gut microbiota, alleviating the inflammatory response and regulating gene expression of liver lipid metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Zou MY, Wang YJ, Liu Y, et al (2022)

Huangshan Floral Mushroom Polysaccharide Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Modulating Th17/Treg Balance in a Gut Microbiota-Dependent Manner.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic recurrent inflammatory bowel disease. This study attempts to reveal the improvement mechanism of floral mushroom polysaccharide (FMPS) on UC from the perspective of coordinated interaction between intestinal microbes and intestinal helper T cell 17 (Th17)/regulatory T cell (Treg) balance.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice model is used for the experiment. The results suggest that FMPS up-regulated the expression of occludin, ZO-1, and MUC2, and down-regulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in colitis mice. Importantly, FMPS restores intestinal Th17/Treg balance. Meanwhile, FMPS can regulate intestinal microorganisms and improve the level of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in colitis mice. Intestinal microbial depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments reveal that FMPS ameliorated UC is mediated by intestinal microbiome. Flow cytometry further proves that FMPS restores intestinal Th17/Treg balance in a microbial-dependent manner.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that FMPS has the potential to improve UC, and its mechanism depends on the restoration of Th17/Treg balance mediated by intestinal microorganisms. Therefore, it is suggested that FMPS dietary supplement can be potentially used to intervene UC.

RevDate: 2022-11-25
CmpDate: 2022-11-25

Zhao C, Bao L, Qiu M, et al (2022)

Commensal cow Roseburia reduces gut-dysbiosis-induced mastitis through inhibiting bacterial translocation by producing butyrate in mice.

Cell reports, 41(8):111681.

The precise mechanism by which gut dysbiosis contributes to the pathogenesis of extraintestinal diseases and how commensal microbes mediate these processes remain unclear. Here, we show that cows with mastitis had marked gut dysbiosis, characterized by the enrichment of opportunistic pathogenic Escherichia_Shigella and the depletion of commensal Roseburia. Fecal microbiota transplantation from donor cows with mastitis (M-FMT) to recipient mice significantly caused mastitis and changed the gut and mammary microbiota in mice. Notably, M-FMT facilitated the translocation of pathobiont from the gut into the mammary gland, and the depletion of Enterobacteriaceae alleviated M-FMT-induced mastitis in mice. In contrast, commensal Roseburia intestinalis improved M-FMT-induced mastitis and microbial dysbiosis in the gut and mammary gland and limited bacterial translocation by producing butyrate, which was associated with inflammatory signaling inhibition and barrier repair. Our research suggests that commensal Roseburia alleviates gut-dysbiosis-induced mastitis, although further studies in dairy cows and humans are needed.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Liu Q, Xu Z, Dai M, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantations and the role of bacteriophages.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(22)00579-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Bacteriophages are a major component of the human gut microbiota. Emerging evidence suggests that gut bacteriophages play important roles in the intricate dynamics with bacteria and their transfer may be associated with the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

OBJECTIVES: To summarize our current knowledge of the changes in gut bacteriophage communities during FMT and their association with FMT outcome.

SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for articles on FMT and bacteriophages published between May 2013 and Jan 2022.

CONTENT: Preclinical and clinical studies have reported associations between gut bacteriophage profiles and FMT. FMT was associated with donor-specific engraftment of bacteriophages, characterized by increased viral diversity and richness and the bacteriophage composition resembled the donor's profile after FMT. Limited studies showed that cure after FMT was more likely when an increased fraction of the recipient enteric virome was occupied by donor-derived taxa including Caudovirales in Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Fecal virome transplant (FVT) involving the transfer of the gut virome communities alone may also induce phenotypical and microbiome improvement in various diseases.

IMPLICATIONS: The accumulating evidence that bacteriophages play roles in FMT efficacy has attracted considerable interest. Better characterization of bacteriophages and understanding of their underlying mechanisms in FMT are warranted.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Lee EH, Lee SK, Cheon JH, et al (2022)

Comparing the efficacy of different methods of faecal microbiota transplantation via oral capsule, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, or gastric tube.

The Journal of hospital infection pii:S0195-6701(22)00359-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) carriage poses major challenges to medicine as healthcare costs increase. Recently, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been discussed as a novel and effective method for decolonising MDRO.

AIM: To compare the efficacy of different FMT methods to optimise the success rate of decolonisation in patients with MDRO carriage.

METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients with MDRO carriages from 2018 to 2021. Patients underwent FMT via one of the following methods: oral capsule, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, or gastric tube.

FINDINGS: A total of 57 patients underwent FMT for MDRO decolonisation. The colonoscopy group required the shortest time for decolonisation, whereas the EGD group required the longest (24.9 vs. 190.4 days, p = 0.022). The decolonisation rate in the oral capsule group was comparable to that in the EGD group (84.6% vs. 85.7%, p = 0.730). An important clinical factor associated with decolonisation failure was antibiotic use after FMT (odds ratio = 6.810, p = 0.008). All four groups showed reduced proportions of MDRO species in microbiome analysis after FMT.

CONCLUSION: Compared to other conventional methods, the oral capsule is an effective FMT method for patients who can tolerate an oral diet. The discontinuation of antibiotics after FMT is a key factor in the success of decolonisation.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Mahmoudi H, H Hossainpour (2022)

Application and development of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases: A review.

Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association pii:361161 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) restores a balanced intestinal flora, which helps to cure recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDI). FMT has also been used to treat other gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and chronic constipation, as well as a variety of non-GI disorders. The purpose of this review is to discuss gut microbiota and FMT treatment of GI and non-GI diseases. An imbalanced gut microbiota is known to predispose one to Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), IBD, and IBS. However, the complex role of the gut microbiota in maintaining health is a newer concept that is being increasingly studied. The microbiome plays a major role in cellular immunity and metabolism and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-GI autoimmune diseases, chronic fatigue syndrome, obesity, and even some neuropsychiatric disorders. Many recent studies have reported that viral gastroenteritis can affect intestinal epithelial cells, and SARS-CoV-2 virus has been identified in the stool of infected patients. FMT is a highly effective cure for RCDI, but a better understanding of the gut microbiota in maintaining health and controlled studies of FMT in a variety of conditions are needed before FMT can be accepted and used clinically.

RevDate: 2022-11-23
CmpDate: 2022-11-23

Chen X, Hashimoto D, Ebata K, et al (2022)

Reactive granulopoiesis depends on T-cell production of IL-17A and neutropenia-associated alteration of gut microbiota.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(48):e2211230119.

Granulopoiesis in the bone marrow adjusts cellular output as demand for neutrophils changes. Reactive granulopoiesis is induced by profound neutropenia, but its mechanism remains to be clarified. We herein explored its mechanisms using mouse models of syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and 5-fluorouracil-induced neutropenia. After SCT, T cell production of IL-17A was up-regulated. Neutrophil recovery was significantly delayed in IL-17A-deficient or T cell-deficient RAG1[-/-] mice, and adoptive transfer of wild-type (WT) T cells facilitated neutrophil engraftment. Gut decontamination with oral antibiotics suppressed T cell production of IL-17A and impaired neutrophil recovery. Transplantation of fecal microbiota collected from neutropenic, not naive, mice promoted neutrophil recovery in these mice, suggesting that neutropenia-associated microbiota had a potential to stimulate reactive granulopoiesis. Our study uncovered a cross talk between gut microbiota and neutropenia after SCT and chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2022-11-21

Wang L, Shao L, Chen MY, et al (2022)

Panax notoginseng Alleviates Colitis via the Regulation of Gut Microbiota.

The American journal of Chinese medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota are significantly associated with the occurrence and development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) could be used for colitis and to modulate gut microbiota. However, the mechanism behind the effects of PNS on anti-colitis that are pertinent to gut microbiota is largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-colitis effects of PNS and explore the involved mechanism as it is related to gut microbiota. Results showed that PNS significantly alleviated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Meanwhile, after PNS treatment, the tight junction proteins were enhanced and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-[Formula: see text], IL-6, IL-1[Formula: see text], and IL-17, were decreased. Furthermore, Bacteroides spp. were significantly increased after modeling, while PNS reduced their abundance and significantly increased the amount of Akkermansia spp. in vivo. Importantly, Akkermansia spp. and Bacteroides spp. were correlated with the IBD disease indicators. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments confirmed that PNS-reshaped gut microbiota significantly alleviated DSS-induced colitis, while A. muciniphila significantly reduced the levels of the LPS-induced cellular inflammatory factors IL-1[Formula: see text] and TNF-[Formula: see text]. In conclusion, PNS alleviated colitis pertinent to the upregulation of Akkermania spp. and downregulation of Bacteroides spp. in the gut.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Melamed E, Palmer JL, C Fonken (2022)

Advantages and limitations of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in breaking down the role of the gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis.

Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 15:1019877.

Since the first model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was introduced almost a century ago, there has been an ongoing scientific debate about the risks and benefits of using EAE as a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). While there are notable limitations of translating EAE studies directly to human patients, EAE continues to be the most widely used model of MS, and EAE studies have contributed to multiple key breakthroughs in our understanding of MS pathogenesis and discovery of MS therapeutics. In addition, insights from EAE have led to a better understanding of modifiable environmental factors that can influence MS initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss how MS patient and EAE studies compare in our learning about the role of gut microbiome, diet, alcohol, probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiome transplant in neuroinflammation. Ultimately, the combination of rigorous EAE animal studies, novel bioinformatic approaches, use of human cell lines, and implementation of well-powered, age- and sex-matched randomized controlled MS patient trials will be essential for improving MS patient outcomes and developing novel MS therapeutics to prevent and revert MS disease progression.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Hashim HM, S Makpol (2022)

A review of the preclinical and clinical studies on the role of the gut microbiome in aging and neurodegenerative diseases and its modulation.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 16:1007166.

As the world population ages, the burden of age-related health problems grows, creating a greater demand for new novel interventions for healthy aging. Advancing aging is related to a loss of beneficial mutualistic microbes in the gut microbiota caused by extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as diet, sedentary lifestyle, sleep deprivation, circadian rhythms, and oxidative stress, which emerge as essential elements in controlling and prolonging life expectancy of healthy aging. This condition is known as gut dysbiosis, and it affects normal brain function via the brain-gut microbiota (BGM) axis, which is a bidirectional link between the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to the emergence of brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we reviewed the role of the gut microbiome in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as provided a comprehensive review of recent findings from preclinical and clinical studies to present an up-to-date overview of recent advances in developing strategies to modulate the intestinal microbiome by probiotic administration, dietary intervention, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and physical activity to address the aging process and prevent neurodegenerative diseases. The findings of this review will provide researchers in the fields of aging and the gut microbiome design innovative studies that leverage results from preclinical and clinical studies to better understand the nuances of aging, gut microbiome, and neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Li J, Lv JL, Cao XY, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota dysbiosis as an inflammaging condition that regulates obesity-related retinopathy and nephropathy.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1040846.

Diabetes-specific microvascular disease is a leading cause of blindness, renal failure and nerve damage. Epidemiological data demonstrated that the high morbidity of T2DM occurs as a result of obesity and gradually develops into serious complications. To date, the mechanisms that underlie this observation are still ill-defined. In view of the effect of obesity on the gut microflora, Lepr[db/db] mice underwent antibiotic treatment and microbiota transplants to modify the gut microbiome to investigate whether microbes are involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and/or diabetic retinopathy (DR). The mouse feces were collected for bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Cytokines including TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-10, and VEGFA were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, real-time PCR and immunofluorescent assay. Eyes and kidney were collected for histopathological assay. Intestinal permeability was also detected using Evans Blue. The results showed that obesity influenced metabolic variables (including fast/fed glucose, insulin, and triglyceride), retinopathy and nephropathy, and the gut microbiota. Obesity mainly reduced the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and influenced relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spirochetes. Obesity also increased intestinal permeability, metabolic endotoxemia, cytokines, and VEGFA. Microbiota transplants confirm that obesity aggravates retinopathy and nephropathy through the gut microbiota. These findings suggest that obesity exacerbates retinopathy and nephropathy by inducing gut microbiota dysbiosis, which further enhanced intestinal permeability and chronic low-grade inflammation.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Samuthpongtorn C, Kantagowit P, Pittayanon R, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in irritable bowel syndrome: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:1039284.

INTRODUCTION: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been proposed as a potential treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the consensus regarding its efficacy and safety is limited.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, and Cochrane. Meta-analyses were conducted in relative risk (RR) or standard mean difference (SMD) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). Cochrane risk-of-bias 2 tool (RoB2) was employed to evaluate the study quality.

RESULT: Of 2,589 potential records, 7 studies with 9 cohorts involving 505 participants were included. Meta-analyses showed no significant difference in the short-term (12 weeks) and long-term (12 months) global improvement of IBS symptoms of FMT vs. placebo (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39-1.00 and RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.53-1.45, respectively). There were statistically significant differences of short-term IBS-SSS improvement (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -1.09 to -0.88) and short-term IBS-QoL improvement (SMD 0.67, 95% CI 0.43-0.91). Eight from 9 studies (88.9%) had a low risk of bias. The subgroup analysis revealed the short-term global symptoms improvement in studies with low-risk of bias (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.35-0.81), studies with well-defined donors (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.72), and studies with FMT using colonoscopy (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.92). Major FMT adverse events are transient and rapidly self-limiting.

CONCLUSION: FMT significantly improved IBS-SSS and IBS-QoL in the short-term period in IBS patients. However, global symptom improvement showed no significance. Well-defined donors and appropriate fecal administration routes appear to be important factors for the successful outcomes of FMT in IBS.

[], identifier [CRD42021246101].

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Yadegar A, Nabavi-Rad A, Ochoa-Repáraz J, et al (2022)

Editorial: Gut microbiota and gastrointestinal disorders.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:1079787.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Ponce DM, Alousi AM, Nakamura R, et al (2022)

A phase 2 study of Interleukin-22 and systemic corticosteroids as initial treatment for acute GVHD of the lower GI tract.

Blood pii:493280 [Epub ahead of print].

Graft vs. host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. In experimental models, Interleukin-22 promotes epithelial regeneration and induces innate antimicrobial molecules. We conducted a multicenter single-arm phase 2 study evaluating safety and efficacy of a novel recombinant human Interleukin-22 dimer, F-652, used in combination with systemic corticosteroids for treatment of newly diagnosed lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD (NCT02406651; The most common adverse events were cytopenias and electrolyte abnormalities, and there were no dose-limiting toxicities. 19/27 patients (70%; 80% CI: 56-79) achieved a day-28 treatment response, meeting the prespecified primary endpoint. Responders exhibited a distinct fecal microbiota composition characterized by expansion of commensal anaerobes, which correlated with increased overall microbial α-diversity, suggesting improvement of GVHD-associated dysbiosis. This work demonstrates a potential approach for combining immunosuppression with tissue-supportive strategies to enhance recovery of damaged mucosa and promote microbial health in patients with gastrointestinal GVHD. This work was supported by funding from Evive Biotech., The Society of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the National Institutes of Health.

RevDate: 2022-11-19

Han J, Zeng A, Hou Z, et al (2022)

Identification of diagnostic markers related to fecal and plasma metabolism in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

American journal of translational research, 14(10):7378-7390.

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnostic techniques for patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are needed. This study aimed to investigate new biomarkers related to fecal and plasma metabolism from pSS patients.

METHODS: The feces and plasma of 21 pSS patients and 18 controls admitted to the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University were collected for analysis. Metabolites in feces and plasma were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolic pathway alterations caused by pSS were studied and the expression of metabolites in the intersecting pathway was analyzed in the feces and plasma of pSS patients. Metabolites that showed the same alterations in feces and plasma in pSS patients were considered as diagnostic markers and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to analyze the sensitivity of these markers in diagnosing pSS.

RESULTS: There were 114 and 92 upregulated metabolites and 54 and 125 downregulated metabolites in the feces and plasma of pSS patients, respectively. These metabolites were enriched in 8 pathways for feces and 12 pathways for plasma. Arginine biosynthesis, Linoleic acid metabolism, Tyrosine metabolism, Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were pathways enriched by metabolites in both samples. Twelves metabolites were enriched in the above four pathways, while only 9,10-12,13-Diepoxyoctadecanoate, Tyramine, 9-OxoODE and 2-Hydroxyethanesulfonate showed the same trend. The candidate diagnostic markers were all predictive, with better diagnostic sensitivity in plasma samples.

CONCLUSIONS: 9,10-12,13-Diepoxyoctadecanoate, Tyramine, 9-OxoODE, 2-Hydroxyethanesulfonate were metabolism-related diagnostic markers for pSS feces and plasma.

RevDate: 2022-11-21

Ninkov M, Schmerk CL, Moradizadeh M, et al (2022)

Improved MAIT cell functions following fecal microbiota transplantation for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII [Epub ahead of print].

Strategies to modify the gut microbiome in cancer patients using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have gained momentum as a therapeutic intervention. However, how FMT impacts innate-like, antimicrobial T lymphocytes is unclear. In this study, we assessed peripheral blood (PB) mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell frequencies and functions in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) before and seven days after they received FMT as part of a clinical trial. We found comparable MAIT cell frequencies in healthy controls and mRCC patients. In contrast, γδ T cells exhibited a numerical decline in mRCC, which was partially reversed by FMT. We also found a significant increase in the PB CD4[+] MAIT cell compartment of mRCC patients with or without FMT. Paired sample analyses revealed CD69 upregulation on MAIT cells accompanied by decreased PD-1 levels post-FMT. These changes were unique to MAIT cells as non-MAIT T lymphocytes showed either no trend or a trend in the opposite direction. Importantly, FMT did not render MAIT cells exhausted as also judged by their stable expression of TIM-3, LAG-3, BTLA, CTLA-4, TIGIT and VISTA. These findings were corroborated in functional assays in which MAIT cells were stimulated with MR1 ligands or with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18 to produce inflammatory cytokines and granzyme B. Indeed, when stimulated ex vivo with IL-12 and IL-18, MAIT cells mounted a more rigorous TNF-α response post-FMT. In conclusion, FMT improves MAIT cell functions, which should serve patients well in subsequent microbial challenges in the face of cancer-elicited immunosuppression. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT04163289 (registration date: November 14, 2019).

RevDate: 2022-12-02

Zhang W, Huang J, Gao F, et al (2022)

Lactobacillus reuteri normalizes altered fear memory in male Cntnap4 knockout mice.

EBioMedicine, 86:104323 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disease, characterized by deficits in social communication, restricted and repetitive behaviours, and impaired fear memory processing. Severe gastrointestinal dysfunction and altered gut microbiome have been reported in ASD patients and animal models. Contactin associated protein-like 4 (CNTNAP4) has been suggested to be a novel risk gene, though its role in ASD remains unelucidated.

METHODS: Cntnap4[-/-] mice were generated to explore its role in ASD-related behavioural abnormalities. Electrophysiological recording was employed to examine GABAergic transmission in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and prefrontal cortex. RNA-sequencing was performed to assess underlying mechanisms. 16S rDNA analysis was performed to explore changes in faecal microbial composition. Male Cntnap4[-/-] mice were fed with Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) or faecal microbiota to evaluate the effects of microbiota supplementation on the impaired fear conditioning mediated by Cntnap4 deficiency.

FINDINGS: Male Cntnap4[-/-] mice manifested deficiency in social behaviours and tone-cue fear conditioning. Notably, reduced GABAergic transmission and GABA receptor expression were found in the BLA but not the prefrontal cortex. In addition, gut Lactobacillus were less abundant in male Cntnap4[-/-] mice, and L. reuteri treatment or faecal microbiota transplantation rescued abnormal tone-cued fear memory and improved local GABAergic transmission in the BLA of male Cntnap4[-/-] mice.

INTERPRETATION: Cntnap4 shapes GABAergic transmission of amygdala and fear conditioning, and microbial intervention represents a promising therapy in ASD intervention.

FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangzhou, Guangzhou Medical University, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

RevDate: 2022-11-30
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Fedotova MM, Prokopyeva VD, Dochkin VA, et al (2022)

[Methods of gut microbiota correction for treatment and prevention of food allergy: a review of current research].

Voprosy pitaniia, 91(5):16-28.

Food allergy (FA) is an actual problem in pediatric practice. The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in food sensitization development, since the maturation of immune system occurs under the influence of intestinal microorganisms. Immunoregulatory activity of gut microbiota is associated with the increase of IgA production and promotion of the barrier function of intestinal epithelium. Gut microbiota influence the activity of T-regulatory cells, as well. Violation of gut biocenosis, which occurs under the influence of various factors (artificial feeding, past diseases, the use of antibiotics, etc.), can lead to a shift in the balance of the immune system towards the increase of Th2-profile cytokines and the subsequent formation of hypersensitivity to food allergens. In this regard, the correction of the gut microbiome is a promising method of FA control, due to the ability of intestinal bacteria influence the production of T-regulatory cells and thus suppress allergy immune response. The aim of the review is to analyze experimental and clinical studies exploring effectiveness of methods modifying intestinal microbiota in order to treat and prevent FA. Material and methods. The analysis of the literature in eLIBRARY, MedLine and PubMed databases was carried out. Results. The analysis revealed the lack of rigorous evidence that pre-, pro- and synbiotics significantly increase the effectiveness of standard therapy of FA. However, the use of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, lactic acid bacteria, in combination with the basic therapy of FA has general positive effect on the clinical outcome, especially in case of gastrointestinal symptoms. Also, the results of some studies indicate the effectiveness of synbiotics (Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in combination with oligosaccharides) for the prevention of FA in patients at risk of developing allergic diseases in the long-term period. Conclusion. At present, fecal microbiota transplantation is promising method for FA treatment. Polysaccharides fermented by the microflora, are also actively studied. Experimental studies and clinical trials are required to obtain substantiated conclusions about feasibility of these methods for treatment and prevention of FA.

RevDate: 2022-11-22
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Fujimoto K, S Uematsu (2022)

Phage therapy for Clostridioides difficile infection.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1057892.

Clostridioides difficile is endemic in the intestinal tract of healthy people. However, it is responsible for many healthcare-associated infections, such as nosocomial diarrhea following antibiotic treatment. Importantly, there have been cases of unsuccessful treatment and relapse related to the emergence of highly virulent strains of C. difficile and resistance to antimicrobial agents. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is considered an effective therapy for recurrent C. difficile infection. However, its safety is of concern because deaths caused by antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections after FMT were reported. Therefore, the development of effective C. difficile-specific treatments is urgently needed. In this review, we summarize the importance of phage therapy against C. difficile, and describe a novel next-generation phage therapy developed using metagenomic data.

RevDate: 2022-11-22
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Zhou G, Zhang N, Meng K, et al (2022)

Interaction between gut microbiota and immune checkpoint inhibitor-related colitis.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1001623.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a promising therapeutic strategy for malignant tumors, improving patient prognosis, along with a spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including gastrointestinal toxicity, ICI-related colitis (IRC), and diarrhea. The gut microbiota has been suggested as an important regulator in the pathogenesis of IRC, and microbiota modulations like probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation have been explored to treat the disease. This review discusses the interaction between the gut microbiota and IRC, focusing on the potential pathogenic mechanisms and promising interventions.

RevDate: 2022-11-22
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Zou X, Wang L, Xiao L, et al (2022)

Gut microbes in cerebrovascular diseases: Gut flora imbalance, potential impact mechanisms and promising treatment strategies.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:975921.

The high morbidity, mortality, and disability rates associated with cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) pose a severe danger to human health. Gut bacteria significantly affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of CeVD. Gut microbes play a critical role in gut-brain interactions, and the gut-brain axis is essential for communication in CeVD. The reflection of changes in the gut and brain caused by gut bacteria makes it possible to investigate early warning biomarkers and potential treatment targets. We primarily discussed the following three levels of brain-gut interactions in a systematic review of the connections between gut microbiota and several cerebrovascular conditions, including ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, intracranial aneurysm, cerebral small vessel disease, and cerebral cavernous hemangioma. First, we studied the gut microbes in conjunction with CeVD and examined alterations in the core microbiota. This enabled us to identify the focus of gut microbes and determine the focus for CeVD prevention and treatment. Second, we discussed the pathological mechanisms underlying the involvement of gut microbes in CeVD occurrence and development, including immune-mediated inflammatory responses, variations in intestinal barrier function, and reciprocal effects of microbial metabolites. Finally, based on the aforementioned proven mechanisms, we assessed the effectiveness and potential applications of the current therapies, such as dietary intervention, fecal bacterial transplantation, traditional Chinese medicine, and antibiotic therapy.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Dong W, Zheng J, Huang Y, et al (2022)

Sodium butyrate treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation provide relief from ulcerative colitis-induced prostate enlargement.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1037279.

The ability to regulate the gut environment has resulted in remarkable great breakthroughs in the treatment of several diseases. Several studies have found that the regulation of the gut environment might provide relief from the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, the correlation between the gut microenvironment and the colon and prostate glands is still unknown. We found that ulcerative colitis (UC) induced an increase in prostate volumes that could be reversed by sodium butyrate (NaB) and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The mechanism by which UC induced changes in the prostate gland was examined via RNA-Seq. The results show that the expression level of GPER was significantly lower in the prostate gland of UC mices than in normal mices. The expression of GPER could be increased via treatment with NaB or FMT. We found that prostate tissues exhibited higher butryic acid levels after they were treated with NaB or FMT. In experiments conducted in vitro, NaB or the fecal filtrate (FF) from healthy mice up-regulated of the expression of GPER, inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis in BPH-1 cells. These changes could be alleviated by treatment with the G15 or in GPER-silenced cells.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Acharya KD, Friedline RH, Ward DV, et al (2022)

Differential effects of Akkermansia-enriched fecal microbiota transplant on energy balance in female mice on high-fat diet.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:1010806.

Estrogens protect against weight gain and metabolic disruption in women and female rodents. Aberrations in the gut microbiota composition are linked to obesity and metabolic disorders. Furthermore, estrogen-mediated protection against diet-induced metabolic disruption is associated with modifications in gut microbiota. In this study, we tested if estradiol (E2)-mediated protection against obesity and metabolic disorders in female mice is dependent on gut microbiota. Specifically, we tested if fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from E2-treated lean female mice, supplemented with or without Akkermansia muciniphila, prevented high fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight gain, fat mass gain, and hyperglycemia in female recipients. FMT from, and cohousing with, E2-treated lean donors was not sufficient to transfer the metabolic benefits to the E2-deficient female recipients. Moreover, FMT from lean donors supplemented with A. muciniphila exacerbated HFD-induced hyperglycemia in E2-deficient recipients, suggesting its detrimental effect on the metabolic health of E2-deficient female rodents fed a HFD. Given that A. muciniphila attenuates HFD-induced metabolic insults in males, the present findings suggest a sex difference in the impact of this microbe on metabolic health.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Liu TH, Zhao L, Zhang CY, et al (2022)

Gut microbial evidence chain in high-salt diet exacerbates intestinal aging process.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:1046833.

Although excessive salt consumption appears to hasten intestinal aging and increases susceptibility to cardiovascular disease, the molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, mutual validation of high salt (HS) and aging fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in C56BL/6 mice was used to clarify the molecular mechanism by which excessive salt consumption causes intestinal aging. Firstly, we observed HS causes vascular endothelial damage and can accelerate intestinal aging associated with decreased colon and serum expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and increased malondialdehyde (MDA); after transplantation with HS fecal microbiota in mice, vascular endothelial damage and intestinal aging can also occur. Secondly, we also found intestinal aging and vascular endothelial damage in older mice aged 14 months; and after transplantation of the older mice fecal microbiota, the same effect was observed in mice aged 6-8 weeks. Meanwhile, HS and aging significantly changed gut microbial diversity and composition, which was transferable by FMT. Eventually, based on the core genera both in HS and the aging gut microbiota network, a machine learning model was constructed which could predict HS susceptibility to intestinal aging. Further investigation revealed that the process of HS-related intestinal aging was highly linked to the signal transduction mediated by various bacteria. In conclusion, the present study provides an experimental basis of potential microbial evidence in the process of HS related intestinal aging. Even, avoiding excessive salt consumption and actively intervening in gut microbiota alteration may assist to delay the aging state that drives HS-related intestinal aging in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Lane VA, Lall A, B Jaffray (2022)

Single institution experience of cloacal malformation.

Journal of pediatric surgery pii:S0022-3468(22)00696-0 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to report on the outcomes of patients born with cloacal malformation, managed at a single institution more than the last 28 years. The focus of this study is the long term renal and colorectal outcomes.

METHODS: Patients were identified from the departmental database from 1994 to 2021. The medical records and operative notes were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS: Twenty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Eleven long common channel (LCC) and ten short common channel (SCC) cloacae patients were identified. Median age at the time of primary reconstruction was 11 months in both groups. In the LCC group, seven (63.6%) patients underwent a Total Urogenital Mobilisation (TUM), and 4 (36.4%) required a vaginal replacement. 6/11 (54.5%) of patients required drainage of a hydrocolpos. In the SCC group, four patients required a TUM, two patients underwent mobilisation of the rectum and vagina alone, and three underwent rectal mobilisation alone. Two patients have required renal transplant for congenital renal dysplasia, and two have developed chronic renal failure associated with the sequalae of vesicoureteric reflux. Eleven (52.3%) of the patients manage their bowels with an antegrade continent enema (ACE), and two of the LCC cloaca are defunctioned with a colostomy. Clean intermittent catheterisation is performed by 12 (57%) of the patients, either per urethra or via a Mitrofanoff channel.

CONCLUSION: The urinary and faecal continence are the main challenges in the management of cloaca patients. Many require surgical intervention to achieve social continence.


RevDate: 2022-11-18
CmpDate: 2022-11-18

Schwabkey ZI, Wiesnoski DH, Chang CC, et al (2022)

Diet-derived metabolites and mucus link the gut microbiome to fever after cytotoxic cancer treatment.

Science translational medicine, 14(671):eabo3445.

Not all patients with cancer and severe neutropenia develop fever, and the fecal microbiome may play a role. In a single-center study of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant (n = 119), the fecal microbiome was characterized at onset of severe neutropenia. A total of 63 patients (53%) developed a subsequent fever, and their fecal microbiome displayed increased relative abundances of Akkermansia muciniphila, a species of mucin-degrading bacteria (P = 0.006, corrected for multiple comparisons). Two therapies that induce neutropenia, irradiation and melphalan, similarly expanded A. muciniphila and additionally thinned the colonic mucus layer in mice. Caloric restriction of unirradiated mice also expanded A. muciniphila and thinned the colonic mucus layer. Antibiotic treatment to eradicate A. muciniphila before caloric restriction preserved colonic mucus, whereas A. muciniphila reintroduction restored mucus thinning. Caloric restriction of unirradiated mice raised colonic luminal pH and reduced acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Culturing A. muciniphila in vitro with propionate reduced utilization of mucin as well as of fucose. Treating irradiated mice with an antibiotic targeting A. muciniphila or propionate preserved the mucus layer, suppressed translocation of flagellin, reduced inflammatory cytokines in the colon, and improved thermoregulation. These results suggest that diet, metabolites, and colonic mucus link the microbiome to neutropenic fever and may guide future microbiome-based preventive strategies.

RevDate: 2022-11-16

Tian D, Xu W, Pan W, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation enhances cell therapy in a rat model of hypoganglionosis by SCFA-induced MEK1/2 signaling pathway.

The EMBO journal [Epub ahead of print].

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), one of several neurocristopathies in children, is characterized by nerve loss in the large intestine and is mainly treated by surgery, which causes severe complications. Enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) transplantation is a potential therapeutic strategy; however, so far with poor efficacy. Here, we assessed whether and how fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could improve ENCC transplantation in a rat model of hypoganglionosis; a condition similar to HSCR, with less intestinal innervation. We found that the hypoganglionosis intestinal microenvironment negatively influenced the ENCC functional phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Combining 16S rDNA sequencing and targeted mass spectrometry revealed microbial dysbiosis and reduced short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the hypoganglionic gut. FMT increased the abundance of Bacteroides and Clostridium, SCFA production, and improved outcomes following ENCC transplantation. SCFAs alone stimulated ENCC proliferation, migration, and supported ENCC transplantation. Transcriptome-wide mRNA sequencing identified MAPK signaling as the top differentially regulated pathway in response to SCFA exposure, and inhibition of MEK1/2 signaling abrogated the SCFA-mediated effects on ENCC. This study demonstrates that FMT improves cell therapy for hypoganglionosis via short-chain fatty acid metabolism-induced MEK1/2 signaling.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Fang X, Miao R, Wei J, et al (2022)

Advances in multi-omics study of biomarkers of glycolipid metabolism disorder.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 20:5935-5951.

Glycolipid metabolism disorder are major threats to human health and life. Genetic, environmental, psychological, cellular, and molecular factors contribute to their pathogenesis. Several studies demonstrated that neuroendocrine axis dysfunction, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, chronic inflammatory response, and gut microbiota dysbiosis are core pathological links associated with it. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets of glycolipid metabolism disorder remain to be elucidated. Progress in high-throughput technologies has helped clarify the pathophysiology of glycolipid metabolism disorder. In the present review, we explored the ways and means by which genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and gut microbiomics could help identify novel candidate biomarkers for the clinical management of glycolipid metabolism disorder. We also discuss the limitations and recommended future research directions of multi-omics studies on these diseases.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Nassar ST, Tasha T, Desai A, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Role in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review.

Cureus, 14(10):e29968.

Alzheimer's, a neurodegenerative disease that starts slowly and worsens progressively, is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Recent studies have linked the brain with the gut and its microbiota through the microbiota-gut-brain axis, opening the door for gut-modifying agents (e.g., prebiotics and probiotics) to influence our brain's cognitive function. This review aims to identify and summarize the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a gut-microbiota-modifying agent on the progressive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This systematic review is based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. A systematic search was done using Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, and ScienceDirect databases in June 2022. The predefined criteria upon which the studies were selected are English language, past 10 years of narrative reviews, observational studies, case reports, and animal studies involving Alzheimer's subjects as no previous meta-analysis or systematic reviews were done on this subject. Later, a quality assessment was done using the available assessment tool based on each study type. The initial search generated 4,302 studies, yielding 13 studies to be included in the final selection: 1 cohort, 2 case reports, 2 animal studies, and 8 narrative reviews. Our results showed that FMT positively affected AD subjects (whether mice or humans). In humans, the FMT effect was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), showing improvement in Alzheimer's symptoms of mood, memory, and cognition. However, randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials are essential for more conclusive results.

RevDate: 2022-11-20
CmpDate: 2022-11-18

Yan J, Pan Y, Shao W, et al (2022)

Beneficial effect of the short-chain fatty acid propionate on vascular calcification through intestinal microbiota remodelling.

Microbiome, 10(1):195.

BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification is a major cause of the high morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and is closely associated with the intestinal microbiota. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are derived from the intestinal microbiota and can also regulate intestinal microbiota homeostasis. However, it remains unclear whether exogenous supplementation with propionate, a SCFA, can ameliorate vascular calcification by regulating the intestinal microbiota. This study was conducted to explore the roles of propionate and the intestinal microbiota in the process of vascular calcification.

METHODS: In total, 92 patients were enrolled consecutively as the observational cohort to analyse the relationship between SCFAs and vascular calcification in both blood and faecal samples. A rat model of vascular calcification was induced by vitamin D3 and nicotine (VDN) to validate the effect of propionate. Differences in the intestinal microbiota were analysed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Faecal microbiota transplantation and Akkermansia muciniphila transplantation experiments were performed to evaluate the functions of the intestinal microbiota.

RESULTS: The results of the observational cohort study revealed that the levels of SCFAs (particularly propionate) in both blood and faecal samples independently correlated negatively with calcification scores (P < 0.01). To verify the activities of propionate, it was provided to VDN-treated rats, and oral or rectal propionate delivery reshaped the intestinal microbiota, resulted in elevated SCFA production, improved intestinal barrier function and alleviated inflammation, ultimately ameliorating vascular calcification. Furthermore, we demonstrated that transplantation of the propionate-modulated intestinal microbiota induced beneficial outcomes similar to those with oral or rectal propionate administration. Interestingly, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed that oral or rectal propionate administration and propionate-modulated intestinal microbiota transplantation both enriched primarily Akkermansia. Subsequently, we demonstrated that Akkermansia supplementation could ameliorate VDN-induced vascular calcification in rats.

CONCLUSIONS: Propionate can significantly ameliorate vascular calcification in VDN-treated rats, and this effect is mediated by intestinal microbiota remodelling. The findings in our study indicate that the intestinal tract-vessel axis is a promising target for alleviating vascular calcification. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-11-20
CmpDate: 2022-11-18

Zhang C, Shi Y, Burch M, et al (2022)

Transfer efficiency and impact on disease phenotype of differing methods of gut microbiota transfer.

Scientific reports, 12(1):19621.

To test causal relationships between complex gut microbiota (GM) and host outcomes, researchers frequently transfer GM between donor and recipient mice via embryo transfer (ET) rederivation, cross-fostering (CF), and co-housing. In this study, we assess the influence of the transfer method and the differences in baseline donor and recipient microbiota richness, on transfer efficiency. Additionally, recipient mice were subjected to DSS-induced chronic colitis to determine whether disease severity was affected by GM transfer efficiency or features within the GM. We found that the recipient's genetic background, the baseline richness of donor and recipient GM, and the transfer method all influenced the GM transfer efficiency. Recipient genetic background and GM both had significant effects on DSS colitis severity and, unexpectedly, the transfer method was strongly associated with differential disease severity regardless of the other factors.

RevDate: 2022-11-25
CmpDate: 2022-11-25

Lordick F, Hacker U, Hoffmeister A, et al (2022)

[What is confirmed in the treatment of colon cancer?].

Innere Medizin (Heidelberg, Germany), 63(12):1250-1256.

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in Germany and is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death in both males and females. The majority of colorectal cancers occur via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of origin. This means that colorectal cancers can be endoscopically detected in premalignant stages and can be curatively treated within the framework of early detection. Screening colonoscopy and, to a lesser extent, fecal occult blood testing, have led to a reduction in the colon cancer-related incidence and mortality. The acceptance and the use of screening colonoscopy should therefore be developed further. Treatment strategies for colorectal cancer are based on TNM staging, supplemented by anatomical and histopathological risk features as well as individual patient characteristics and treatment preferences. The molecular tumor profile is increasingly used to complement decision-making in the surgical, adjuvant and palliative treatment of colorectal cancer. Colon and rectal cancer have many similarities; however, they differ in the preoperative, surgical and adjuvant treatment strategies. This article focuses on colon cancer.

RevDate: 2022-12-01
CmpDate: 2022-12-01

Liu X, Zhang Y, Li W, et al (2022)

Fucoidan Ameliorated Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Modulating Gut Microbiota and Bile Acid Metabolism.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 70(47):14864-14876.

Gut dysbiosis and bile acid (BA) metabolism disturbance are involved in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fucoidan on BA metabolism and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice. Our results showed that fucoidan effectively suppressed colonic inflammation and repaired the gut barrier. In addition, fucoidan increased the relative abundance of the Lachnospiraceae family, such as Turicibacter, Muribaculum, Parasutterella, and Colidextribacter, followed by an increase in short-chain fatty acids, especially in butyrate. Moreover, fucoidan modulated bile acid metabolism by elevating cholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid and decreasing β-muricholic acid, which led to activation of FXR and TGR5 and further enhanced the gut barrier and suppressed colonic inflammation. Our results revealed that the effect of fucoidan alleviating colitis was largely mediated by gut microbiota, which was confirmed by the fecal transplantation experiment. Collectively, these findings provided the basis for fucoidan as a potential functional food for colitis.

RevDate: 2022-11-18
CmpDate: 2022-11-16

Zhu H, Li G, Liu J, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota is associated with the effect of photoperiod on seasonal breeding in male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii).

Microbiome, 10(1):194.

BACKGROUND: Seasonal breeding in mammals has been widely recognized to be regulated by photoperiod, but the association of gut microbiota with photoperiodic regulation of seasonal breeding has never been investigated.

RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the association of gut microbiota with photoperiod-induced reproduction in male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) through a long-day and short-day photoperiod manipulation experiment and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment. We found photoperiod significantly altered reproductive hormone and gene expression levels, and gut microbiota of voles. Specific gut microbes were significantly associated with the reproductive hormones and genes of voles during photoperiod acclimation. Transplantation of gut microbes into recipient voles induced similar changes in three hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone) and three genes (hypothalamic Kiss-1, testicular Dio3, and Dio2/Dio3 ratio) to those in long-day and short-day photoperiod donor voles and altered circadian rhythm peaks of recipient voles.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study firstly revealed the association of gut microbiota with photoperiodic regulation of seasonal breeding through the HPG axis, melatonin, and Kisspeptin/GPR54 system. Our results may have significant implications for pest control, livestock animal breeding, and human health management. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-11-14

Piovezani Ramos G, M Camilleri (2022)

Current and Future Therapeutic Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea and Functional Diarrhea.

Digestive diseases and sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and functional diarrhea are disorders of gut-brain interaction presenting with chronic diarrhea; they have significant impact on quality of life. The two conditions may exist as a continuum and their treatment may overlap. Response to first-line therapy with antispasmodics and anti-diarrheal agents is variable, leaving several patients with suboptimal symptom control and need for alternative therapeutic options. Our aim was to discuss current pharmacologic options and explore alternative therapeutic approaches and future perspectives for symptom management in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and functional diarrhea. We conducted a search of PubMed, Cochrane,, major meeting abstracts for publications on current, alternative, and emerging drugs for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and functional diarrhea. Currently approved therapeutic options for patients with first-line refractory irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and functional diarrhea include serotonin-3 receptor antagonists, eluxadoline and rifaximin. Despite their proven efficacy, cost and availability worldwide impact their utilization. One-third of patients with disorders of gut-brain interaction with diarrhea have bile acid diarrhea and may benefit from drugs targeting bile acid synthesis and excretion. Further understanding of underlying pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea and functional diarrhea related to bile acid metabolism, gastrointestinal transit, and microbiome has led to evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches, including fecal microbiota transplantation and enterobacterial "crapsules". These opportunities to treat disorders of gut-brain interaction with diarrhea should be followed with formal studies utilizing large samples of well-characterized patients at baseline and validated response outcomes as endpoints for regulatory approval.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Weingarden AR, Treiger O, Ulsh L, et al (2022)

Delivery of Fecal Material to Terminal Ileum Is Associated with Long-Term Success of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Digestive diseases and sciences [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, 10-20% of patients still fail to recover following FMT. There is a need to understand why these failures occur and if there are modifiable factors that can be addressed by clinicians performing FMT.

AIMS: We sought to identify factors related to the FMT procedure itself which could impact FMT outcomes. We also aimed to identify patient demographics which might be associated with FMT outcomes and whether any factors were associated with early FMT failure compared to late CDI recurrence.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort analysis of FMT procedures between October 2005 and November 2020. We collected data on patient demographics, details of the FMT procedure, and procedure outcomes. Using univariate and multivariate regression, we evaluated whether these factors were associated with long-term FMT success, early FMT failure (less than 60 days following procedure), or late CDI recurrence (more than 60 days following procedure).

RESULTS: Long-term success of FMT was strongly correlated with any delivery of stool to the terminal ileum (Odds Ratio [OR] 4.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.359-17.167) and underlying neurologic disease (OR 8.012, 95% CI 1.041-61.684). Lower bowel prep quality was significantly associated with both early FMT failure (p = 0.034) and late CDI recurrence (p = 0.050).

CONCLUSIONS: Delivery of stool to the terminal ileum is significantly associated with long-term success following FMT. This is a relatively safe practice which could easily be incorporated into the standard of care for colonoscopic FMT.

RevDate: 2022-11-19

Xiang Q, Yan X, Shi W, et al (2022)

Early gut microbiota intervention in premature infants: Application perspectives.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(22)00252-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in children under the age of five. One of the major factors contributing to the high risk of diseases and deaths in premature infants is the incomplete development of the intestinal immune system. The gut microbiota has been widely recognized as a critical factor in promoting the development and function of the intestinal immune system after birth. However, the gut microbiota of premature infants is at high risk of dysbiosis, which is highly associated with adverse effects on the development and education of the early life immune system. Early intervention can modulate the colonization and development of gut microbiota and has a long-term influence on the development of the intestinal immune system.

AIM OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the characterization, interconnection, and underlying mechanism of gut microbiota and intestinal innate immunity in premature infants, and to discuss the status, applicability, safety, and prospects of different intervention strategies in premature infants, thus providing an overview and outlook of the current applications and remaining gaps of early intervention strategies in premature infants.

This review is focused on three key concepts. Firstly, the gut microbiota of premature infants is at high risk of dysbiosis, resulting in dysfunctional intestinal immune system processes. Secondly, contributing roles of early intervention have been observed in improving the intestinal environment and promoting gut microbiota colonization, which is significant in the development and function of gut immunity in premature infants. Thirdly, different strategies of early intervention, such as probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and nutrients, show different safety, applicability, and outcome in premature infants, and the underlying mechanism is complex and poorly understood.

RevDate: 2022-12-02

Yao Y, Sun S, Gu J, et al (2022)

Roux-en-Y reconstruction alleviates radical gastrectomy-induced colitis via down-regulation of the butyrate/NLRP3 signaling pathway.

EBioMedicine, 86:104347 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Different methods for digestive tract reconstruction have a complex impact on the nutritional status of gastric cancer (GC) patients after radical gastrectomy. Previous studies reported that Roux-en-Y (R-Y) reconstruction resulted in obvious weight reduction and improvement in type 2 diabetes in obese patients. We investigated the relationship between R-Y reconstruction, gut microbiota, and the NLRP3 inflammasome in GC patients with poor basic nutrition.

METHODS: Changes in the gut microbiota after radical gastrectomy accomplished by different methods of digestive tract reconstruction were investigated via fecal microbiota transplantation. The underlying mechanisms were also explored by analyzing the role of the microbiota, butyrate, and the NLRP3 inflammasome in the colon tissues of colitis model mice and GC patients after radical gastrectomy.

FINDINGS: R-Y reconstruction effectively relieved intestinal inflammation and facilitated nutrient absorption. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that gavage transplantation with the fecal microbiota of R-Y reconstruction patients could reverse dysbacteriosis triggered by radical gastrectomy and elevate the relative abundance of some short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria. Subsequently, butyrate negatively regulated the NLRP3-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway to inhibit the activation of macrophages and the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1β, decreasing the level of intestinal inflammation and promoting nutrient absorption.

INTERPRETATION: R-Y reconstruction induced colonization with SCFA-producing bacteria to alleviate radical gastrectomy-induced colitis by down-regulating the NLRP3 signaling pathway. This can be a new strategy and theoretical basis for the management of the postoperative nutritional status of GC patients.

FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (81974375), the BoXi cultivation program (BXQN202130), and the Project of Youth Foundation in Science and Education of the Department of Public Health of Suzhou (KJXW2018001).

RevDate: 2022-11-30
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Gu J, Ji H, Liu T, et al (2022)

Detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by digital PCR in stool samples for the non-invasive diagnosis of CMV gastroenteritis.

Virology journal, 19(1):183.

BACKGROUND: CMV gastroenteritis is common in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and it is difficult to distinguish from acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), which has very similar symptoms but needs quite different treatment. CMV gastroenteritis is caused by local infection or reactivation of CMV in the gastrointestinal tract while aGvHD is due to immune rejection. The gold standard of diagnosis of CMV gastroenteritis and aGvHD is gastrointestinal biopsy under endoscopy, which is invasive and can potentially lead to severe side effects. Stool samples testing with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) may be an alternative, while the application in trace level measurements and precision are not all satisfactory enough in reported research.

METHODS: In this study, we designed a novel method that extracted the cell free DNA (cfDNA) from the fecal supernatant to perform digital PCR (dPCR) for the detection of CMV, analyzed the performance and compared it with the total DNA extracted by the current procedure.

RESULTS: Twenty-two paired stool samples using two DNA extraction methods proved that the cfDNA extraction method had markedly higher DNA concentrations and control gene copy number, suggesting that cfDNA may be more informative and more useful for the detection of CMV DNA segment. The dPCR approach in detecting CMV DNA segment also exhibit good linearity (R[2] = 0.997) and higher sensitivity (limit of detection at 50% was 3.534 copies/μL). Eighty-two stool samples from 44 immunocompromised patients were analyzed, CMV-positive rate was 28%, indicating that more than one-quarter of the gastrointestinal symptoms within these patients may be caused by CMV infection or reactivation.

CONCLUSION: The combined results suggest that detection of CMV by dPCR in cfDNA of stool supernatant is a powerful method to identify CMV gastroenteritis and helps in clinical treatment decision making.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Zhou Y, Medik YB, Patel B, et al (2023)

Intestinal toxicity to CTLA-4 blockade driven by IL-6 and myeloid infiltration.

The Journal of experimental medicine, 220(2):.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has revolutionized cancer treatment, yet quality of life and continuation of therapy can be constrained by immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Limited understanding of irAE mechanisms hampers development of approaches to mitigate their damage. To address this, we examined whether mice gained sensitivity to anti-CTLA-4 (αCTLA-4)-mediated toxicity upon disruption of gut homeostatic immunity. We found αCTLA-4 drove increased inflammation and colonic tissue damage in mice with genetic predisposition to intestinal inflammation, acute gastrointestinal infection, transplantation with a dysbiotic fecal microbiome, or dextran sodium sulfate administration. We identified an immune signature of αCTLA-4-mediated irAEs, including colonic neutrophil accumulation and systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) release. IL-6 blockade combined with antibiotic treatment reduced intestinal damage and improved αCTLA-4 therapeutic efficacy in inflammation-prone mice. Intestinal immune signatures were validated in biopsies from patients with ICB colitis. Our work provides new preclinical models of αCTLA-4 intestinal irAEs, mechanistic insights into irAE development, and potential approaches to enhance ICB efficacy while mitigating irAEs.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Abenavoli L, Maurizi V, Rinninella E, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in NAFLD Treatment.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 58(11):.

Introduction: Gut microbiota is not only a taxonomic biologic ecosystem but is also involved in human intestinal and extra-intestinal functions such as immune system modulation, nutrient absorption and digestion, as well as metabolism regulation. The latter is strictly linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology. Materials and methods: We reviewed the literature on the definition of gut microbiota, the concepts of "dysbiosis" and "eubiosis", their role in NAFLD pathogenesis, and the data on fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in these patients. We consulted the main medical databases using the following keywords, acronyms, and their associations: gut microbiota, eubiosis, dysbiosis, bile acids, NAFLD, and FMT. Results: Gut microbiota qualitative and quantitative composition is different in healthy subjects vs. NALFD patients. This dysbiosis is associated with and involved in NAFLD pathogenesis and evolution to non-acoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In detail, microbial-driven metabolism of bile acids (BAs) and interaction with hepatic and intestinal farnesoid nuclear X receptor (FXR) have shown a determinant role in liver fat deposition and the development of fibrosis. Over the use of pre- or probiotics, FMT has shown preclinical and initial clinical promising results in NAFLD treatment through re-modulation of microbial dysbiosis. Conclusions: Promising clinical data support a larger investigation of gut microbiota dysbiosis reversion through FMT in NAFLD using randomized clinical trials to design precision-medicine treatments for these patients at different disease stages.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Nirmalkar K, Qureshi F, Kang DW, et al (2022)

Shotgun Metagenomics Study Suggests Alteration in Sulfur Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Children with Autism and Improvement after Microbiota Transfer Therapy.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(21):.

Links between gut microbiota and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been explored in many studies using 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun sequencing. Based on these links, microbiome therapies have been proposed to improve gastrointestinal (GI) and ASD symptoms in ASD individuals. Previously, our open-label microbiota transfer therapy (MTT) study provided insight into the changes in the gut microbial community of children with ASD after MTT and showed significant and long-term improvement in ASD and GI symptoms. Using samples from the same study, the objective of this work was to perform a deeper taxonomic and functional analysis applying shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analyses revealed that ASD Baseline had many bacteria at lower relative abundances, and their abundance increased after MTT. The relative abundance of fiber consuming and beneficial microbes including Prevotella (P. dentalis, P. enoeca, P. oris, P. meloninogenica), Bifidobacterium bifidum, and a sulfur reducer Desulfovibrio piger increased after MTT-10wks in children with ASD compared to Baseline (consistent at genus level with the previous 16S rRNA gene study). Metabolic pathway analysis at Baseline compared to typically developing (TD) children found an altered abundance of many functional genes but, after MTT, they became similar to TD or donors. Important functional genes that changed included: genes encoding enzymes involved in folate biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism and oxidative stress. These results show that MTT treatment not only changed the relative abundance of important genes involved in metabolic pathways, but also seemed to bring them to a similar level to the TD controls. However, at a two-year follow-up, the microbiota and microbial genes shifted into a new state, distinct from their levels at Baseline and distinct from the TD group. Our current findings suggest that microbes from MTT lead to initial improvement in the metabolic profile of children with ASD, and major additional changes at two years post-treatment. In the future, larger cohort studies, mechanistic in vitro experiments and metatranscriptomics studies are recommended to better understand the role of these specific microbes, functional gene expression, and metabolites relevant to ASD.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Ustianowska K, Ustianowski Ł, Machaj F, et al (2022)

The Role of the Human Microbiome in the Pathogenesis of Pain.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(21):.

Understanding of the gut microbiome's role in human physiology developed rapidly in recent years. Moreover, any alteration of this microenvironment could lead to a pathophysiological reaction of numerous organs. It results from the bidirectional communication of the gastrointestinal tract with the central nervous system, called the gut-brain axis. The signals in the gut-brain axis are mediated by immunological, hormonal, and neural pathways. However, it is also influenced by microorganisms in the gut. The disturbances in the gut-brain axis are associated with gastrointestinal syndromes, but recently their role in the development of different types of pain was reported. The gut microbiome could be the factor in the central sensitization of chronic pain by regulating microglia, astrocytes, and immune cells. Dysbiosis could lead to incorrect immune responses, resulting in the development of inflammatory pain such as endometriosis. Furthermore, chronic visceral pain, associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders, could result from a disruption in the gut microenvironment. Any alteration in the gut-brain axis could also trigger migraine attacks by affecting cytokine expression. Understanding the gut microbiome's role in pain pathophysiology leads to the development of analgetic therapies targeting microorganisms. Probiotics, FODMAP diet, and fecal microbiota transplantation are reported to be beneficial in treating visceral pain.

RevDate: 2022-11-26

Almeida C, Oliveira R, Baylina P, et al (2022)

Current Trends and Challenges of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation-An Easy Method That Works for All?.

Biomedicines, 10(11):.

The gut microbiota refers to bacteria lodges in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that interact through various complex mechanisms. The disturbance of this ecosystem has been correlated with several diseases, such as neurologic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases and cancer. Therefore, the modulation of the gut microbiota has emerged as a potential therapeutic tool; of the various forms of gut microbiota modulation, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the most approached. This recent technique involves introducing fecal material from a healthy donor into the patient's gastrointestinal tract, aiming to restore the gut microbiota and lead to the resolution of symptoms. This procedure implies a careful donor choice, fine collection and handling of fecal material, and a balanced preparation of the recipient and consequent administration of the prepared content. Although FMT is considered a biological therapy with promising effects, side effects such as diarrhea and abdominal pain have also been claimed, making this a significant challenge in the application of FMT. Bearing this in mind, the present review aims to summarize the recent advances in understanding FMT mechanisms, their impact across different pathological conditions, and the associated side effects, emphasizing the most recent published data.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

He Y, Huang J, Li Q, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota and Tumor Immune Escape: A New Perspective for Improving Tumor Immunotherapy.

Cancers, 14(21):.

The gut microbiota is a large symbiotic community of anaerobic and facultative aerobic bacteria inhabiting the human intestinal tract, and its activities significantly affect human health. Increasing evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome plays an important role in tumor-related immune regulation. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), the gut microbiome and its metabolites affect the differentiation and function of immune cells regulating the immune evasion of tumors. The gut microbiome can indirectly influence individual responses to various classical tumor immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and adoptive immunotherapy. Microbial regulation through antibiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) optimize the composition of the gut microbiome, improving the efficacy of immunotherapy and bringing a new perspective and hope for tumor treatment.

RevDate: 2022-12-02
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

Zhang YW, Cao MM, Li YJ, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation as a promising treatment option for osteoporosis.

Journal of bone and mineral metabolism, 40(6):874-889.

Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic bone disease characterized by the descending bone mass and destruction of bone microstructure, which tends to result in the increased bone fragility and associated fractures, as well as high disability rate and mortality. The relation between gut microbiota and bone metabolism has gradually become a research hotspot, and it has been verified that gut microbiota is closely associated with reduction of bone mass and incidence of osteoporosis recently. As a novel "organ transplantation" technique, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) mainly refers to the transplantation of gut microbiota from healthy donors to recipients with gut microbiota imbalance, so that the gut microbiota in recipients can be reshaped and play a normal function, and further prevent or treat the diseases related to gut microbiota disorder. Herein, based on the gut-bone axis and proven regulatory effects of gut microbiota on osteoporosis, this review expounds relevant basic researches and clinical practice of FMT on osteoporosis, thus demonstrating the potentials of FMT as a therapeutic option for osteoporosis and further providing certain reference for the future researches.

RevDate: 2022-12-07
CmpDate: 2022-12-07

Brandt A, Baumann A, Hernández-Arriaga A, et al (2022)

Impairments of intestinal arginine and NO metabolisms trigger aging-associated intestinal barrier dysfunction and 'inflammaging'.

Redox biology, 58:102528.

Aging is considered a state of low grade inflammation, occurring in the absence of any overt infection often referred to as 'inflammaging'. Maintaining intestinal homeostasis may be a target to extend a healthier status in older adults. Here, we report that even in healthy older men low grade bacterial endotoxemia is prevalent. In addition, employing multiple mouse models, we also show that while intestinal microbiota composition changes significantly during aging, fecal microbiota transplantation to old mice does not protect against aging-associated intestinal barrier dysfunction in small intestine. Rather, intestinal NO homeostasis and arginine metabolism mediated through arginase and NO synthesis is altered in small intestine of aging mice. Treatment with the arginase inhibitor norNOHA prevented aging-associated intestinal barrier dysfunction, low grade endotoxemia and delayed the onset of senescence in peripheral tissue e.g., liver. Intestinal arginine and NO metabolisms could be a target in the prevention of aging-associated intestinal barrier dysfunction and subsequently decline and 'inflammaging'.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Tang L, Li J, Sun B, et al (2022)

Transcriptomic Interaction between Young Fecal Transplantation and Perfluorobutanesulfonate in Aged Zebrafish Gonads.

Toxics, 10(11):.

The transfer of young fecal microbiota has been found to significantly refresh the reproductive endocrine system and effectively ameliorate the toxicity of perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) in aged zebrafish recipients. However, the mechanisms underlying the antagonistic action of young fecal microbiota against the reproductive endocrine toxicity of PFBS remain largely unknown. In this study, the aged zebrafish were transplanted with feces from young donors and then exposed to PFBS for 14 days. After exposure, the shift in the transcriptomic fingerprint of the gonads was profiled by using high-throughput sequencing, aiming to provide mechanistic clues into the interactive mode of action between young fecal transplantation and PFBS's innate toxicity. The results showed that the gene transcription pattern associated with protein and lipid synthesis in the gonads of the aged individuals was quite different from the young counterparts. It was intriguing that the transplantation of young feces established a youth-like transcriptomic phenotype in the elderly recipients, thus attenuating the functional decline and maintaining a healthy aging state of the gonads. A sex specificity response was clearly observed. Compared to the aged females, more metabolic pathways (e.g., glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism; pyrimidine metabolism) were significantly enriched in aged males receiving young feces transplants. PFBS dramatically altered the transcriptome of aged testes, while a much milder effect was observable in aged ovaries. Accordingly, a suite of biological processes related to germ cell proliferation were disrupted by PFBS in aged males, including the ECM-receptor interaction, retinol metabolism, and folate biosynthesis. In aged ovaries exposed to PFBS, mainly the fatty acid and arginine biosynthesis pathway was significantly affected. However, these transcriptomic disorders caused by PFBS were largely mitigated in aged gonads by transferring young feces. Overall, the present findings highlighted the potential of young fecal transplantation to prevent the functional compromise of gonads resulting from aging and PFBS.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Yoshikawa S, Taniguchi K, Sawamura H, et al (2022)

A New Concept of Associations between Gut Microbiota, Immunity and Central Nervous System for the Innovative Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Metabolites, 12(11):.

Nerve cell death accounts for various neurodegenerative disorders, in which altered immunity to the integrated central nervous system (CNS) might have destructive consequences. This undesirable immune response often affects the progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It has been shown that commensal gut microbiota could influence the brain and/or several machineries of immune function. In other words, neurodegenerative disorders may be connected to the gut-brain-immune correlational system. The engrams in the brain could retain the information of a certain inflammation in the body which might be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Tactics involving the use of probiotics and/or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are now evolving as the most promising and/or valuable for the modification of the gut-brain-immune axis. More deliberation of this concept and the roles of gut microbiota would lead to the development of stupendous treatments for the prevention of, and/or therapeutics for, various intractable diseases including several neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Deda O, Kachrimanidou M, Armitage EG, et al (2022)

Metabolic Phenotyping Study of Mouse Brain Following Microbiome Disruption by C.difficile Colonization.

Metabolites, 12(11):.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is responsible for an increasing number of cases of post-antibiotic diarrhea worldwide, which has high severity and mortality among hospitalized elderly patients. The disruption of gut microbiota due to antibacterial medication facilitates the intestinal colonization of C. difficile. In the present study, a murine model was used to investigate the potential effects of antibiotic administration and subsequent colonization by C. difficile, as well as the effects of three different 10-day treatments (metronidazole, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation), on the brain metabolome for the first time. Four different metabolomic-based methods (targeted HILIC-MS/MS, untargeted RP-LC-HRMS/MS, targeted GC-MS/MS, and untargeted GC-MS) were applied, resulting in the identification of 217 unique metabolites in the brain extracts, mainly glycerophospholipids, glycerolipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis revealed that CDI, as well as the subsequent treatments, altered significantly several brain metabolites, probably due to gut dysbiosis, and affected the brain through the gut-brain axis. Notably, none of the therapeutic approaches completely restored the brain metabolic profile to the original, healthy, and non-infected phenotype, even after 10 days of treatment.

RevDate: 2022-11-10

Gweon TG, Lee YJ, Yim SK, et al (2022)

Recognition and attitudes of Korean physicians toward fecal microbiota transplantation: a survey study.

The Korean journal of internal medicine pii:kjim.2022.206 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents a treatment option for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Recently, FMT has been investigated in various clinical settings other than CDI. This study examined Korean physicians' recognition of FMT and their attitudes toward this procedure.

METHODS: An online questionnaire included questions on indications for FMT, the FMT process, physicians' attitudes toward FMT for the treatment of CDI and non-CDI diseases, and possible concerns.

RESULTS: Finally, 107 physicians responded to this survey: 66 (61.7%) had experience of performing FMT, and 86 (80.4%) replied that they were willing to perform FMT for CDI. Two-thirds of physicians (63.6%, n = 68) would perform FMT for recurrent CDI on patients who had at least three recurrences. The most common obstacle to performing FMT for the treatment of CDI was the lack of regulations or guidelines (55.1%, n = 59). Seventy-seven (72.0%) physicians would consider FMT for non- CDI diseases when conventional treatment had failed. The most common obstacle for FMT for the treatment of non-CDI diseases was low treatment efficacy (57.0%, n = 61).

CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of Korean physicians had experience of performing FMT, and many performed FMT for recurrent CDI. The results of this study will prove useful to researchers and practitioners in FMT in Korea.

RevDate: 2022-11-13
CmpDate: 2022-11-11

Li Y, Ouyang Y, C He (2022)

Research trends on clinical fecal microbiota transplantation: A biliometric analysis from 2001 to 2021.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:991788.

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have been conducted in the past two decades. We aimed to assess the research trends and hotspots in the field of FMT through a quantitative method.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical studies of FMT published from 2001 to 2021 were extracted from the Web of Science database. We analyzed the countries, institutions, authors, and keywords of these articles and visually illustrated using VOSviewer and CiteSpace software. The current application of FMT in clinical practice, including indications, efficacy, adverse events, as well as its methodology, such as donor, delivery route, were also evaluated.

RESULTS: A total of 227 records were finally identified. The number and rate of annual publications increased gradually. The USA ranked highest in the number of publications. Harvard University was the most influential institution, and Digestive Diseases and Sciences was the most productive journal. Kassam Zain published the most papers, and the high-frequency keywords were mainly related to diseases and techniques. Healthy donors were the most widely used donors, and frozen stool had the highest frequency of use. The predominant delivery route was endoscopy followed by oral capsules and enema. FMT was most frequently performed for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection. The overall efficacy of FMT was 76.88%, and the incidence of minor and severe adverse events were 11.63% and 1.59%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: This study delineated a comprehensive landscape of the advancement in FMT field. Although in its infancy, FMT is a burgeoning option for the treatment of a variety of diseases associated with gut dysbiosis. To improve the efficacy and reduce adverse events, future studies are warranted to optimize the methodology of FMT.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Wei S, Jespersen ML, Baunwall SMD, et al (2022)

Cross-generational bacterial strain transfer to an infant after fecal microbiota transplantation to a pregnant patient: a case report.

Microbiome, 10(1):193.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) effectively prevents the recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Long-term engraftment of donor-specific microbial consortia may occur in the recipient, but potential further transfer to other sites, including the vertical transmission of donor-specific strains to future generations, has not been investigated. Here, we report, for the first time, the cross-generational transmission of specific bacterial strains from an FMT donor to a pregnant patient with CDI and further to her child, born at term, 26 weeks after the FMT treatment.

METHODS: A pregnant woman (gestation week 12 + 5) with CDI was treated with FMT via colonoscopy. She gave vaginal birth at term to a healthy baby. Fecal samples were collected from the feces donor, the mother (before FMT, and 1, 8, 15, 22, 26, and 50 weeks after FMT), and the infant (meconium at birth and 3 and 6 months after birth). Fecal samples were profiled by deep metagenomic sequencing for strain-level analysis. The microbial transfer was monitored using single nucleotide variants in metagenomes and further compared to a collection of metagenomic samples from 651 healthy infants and 58 healthy adults.

RESULTS: The single FMT procedure led to an uneventful and sustained clinical resolution in the patient, who experienced no further CDI-related symptoms up to 50 weeks after treatment. The gut microbiota of the patient with CDI differed considerably from the healthy donor and was characterized as low in alpha diversity and enriched for several potential pathogens. The FMT successfully normalized the patient's gut microbiota, likely by donor microbiota transfer and engraftment. Importantly, our analysis revealed that some specific strains were transferred from the donor to the patient and then further to the infant, thus demonstrating cross-generational microbial transfer.

CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for cross-generational strain transfer following FMT provides novel insights into the dynamics and engraftment of bacterial strains from healthy donors. The data suggests FMT treatment of pregnant women as a potential strategy to introduce beneficial strains or even bacterial consortia to infants, i.e., neonatal seeding. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-11-16

Liu Y, Zhao Y, Qi J, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation combined with ruxolitinib as a salvage treatment for intestinal steroid-refractory acute GVHD.

Experimental hematology & oncology, 11(1):96.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), especially intestinal aGVHD, is one of the most severe complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been applied to the treatment of intestinal steroid-refractory aGVHD (SR-aGVHD). Ruxolitinib is the first drug recommended for SR-aGVHD. Here, we reported the outcome data from 21 patients who had received the combined treatment of FMT with ruxolitinib as a salvage treatment in intestinal SR-aGVHD after HSCT. The overall response rate on day 28 was 71.4% (95% CI 50.4-92.5%), including 10 patients with complete responses. The durable overall response at day 56 in responders was 80%. GVHD relapse rate was 33.3% in responders. The levels of inflammatory cytokines as well as T cells and NK cells activation declined. The diversity of the intestinal microbiota was improved in responders. Viral reactivations and severe cytopenia were the major adverse events (61.9% and 81% respectively). The estimated 6-month overall survival was 57.1% (95% CI: 35.9-78.3%), while event-free survival was 52.4% (95% CI: 21.7%-64.1%). Collectively, FMT with ruxolitinib could be an effective treatment for intestinal SR-aGVHD after HSCT.Trial registration: identifier: NCT03148743.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Xie T, Yang R, Zhang X, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Alleviated Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Obese Rats.

The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-16

Zhong Y, Xiao Y, Gao J, et al (2022)

Curcumin improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice through gut microbiota.

Nutrition & metabolism, 19(1):76.

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance precedes metabolic syndrome which increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is a lack of safe and long-lasting methods for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance. Gut microbiota dysbiosis can lead to insulin resistance and associated glucose and lipid metabolic dysfunction. Thus, the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases has garnered growing interest. Curcumin, the active ingredient of tropical plant Curcuma longa, has excellent prospects for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. However, due to the extremely low bioavailability of curcumin, the mechanisms by which curcumin increases insulin sensitivity remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in mediating the effects of curcumin on improving insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice.

METHODS: Glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance were tested and hepatic triglycerides (TGs) content was measured in HFD-fed mice treated with curcumin (100 mg kg[-1] d[-1], p.o.) or vehicle for 4 weeks and aforementioned mice after gut microbiota depletion via antibiotic treatment for 4 weeks. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was conducted in endogenous gut microbiota-depleted HFD-fed mice. Glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes were also measured in recipient mice colonized microbiota from vehicle- or curcumin-treated HFD-fed mice. The mechanisms underlying the effects of curcumin on increasing insulin sensitivity were testified by Western blotting, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: Curcumin ameliorated HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pyruvate intolerance, and hepatic TGs accumulation, while these effects were mediated by gut microbiota. Curcumin induced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation levels in insulin-regulated peripheral tissues. The inhibitory effects of curcumin on the expressions of genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis were dependent on gut microbiota. Meanwhile, curcumin upregulated the expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) through gut microbiota.

CONCLUSIONS: The effects of curcumin on promoting insulin sensitivity were dependent on gut microbiota in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, curcumin at least partly exerted its effects on increasing insulin sensitivity via FGF15 upregulation. This study provided new ideas on nutritional manipulations of gut microbiota for the treatment of metabolic diseases.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )