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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 01 Apr 2020 at 01:38 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-03-30
CmpDate: 2020-03-30

Kachlíková M, Sabaka P, Koščálová A, et al (2020)

Comorbid status and the faecal microbial transplantation failure in treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection - pilot prospective observational cohort study.

BMC infectious diseases, 20(1):52.

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is currently the most effective treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, up to 20% of patients experience further recurrences after single FMT. The mechanisms that lead to FMT failure and its risk factors are poorly understood. Comorbidity is one of the risk factors of the failure of standard antibiotic therapy of recurrent CDI. It is not known if comorbidity is also associated with the risk of FMT failure.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in order to elucidate if comorbid status is associated with FMT failure. Patients with microbiologically proven recurrent CDI were recruited and underwent FMT via retention enema. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks after FMT for signs and symptoms of CDI recurrence. Single FMT failure was defined as recurrence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for the presence of C. difficile antigen or toxin at any time point during the 12 weeks of follow-up. We assessed the association of single FMT failure with possible manageable and unmanageable risk factors. As a surrogate of comorbid status, we used Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) ≥ 7.

RESULTS: A total of 60 patients that underwent single FMT (34 women, 26 men) were included in the study. Overall, 15 patients (25%) experienced single FMT failure. 24 patients (40%) had CCI ≥ 7, and 45.0% patients with CCI ≥ 7 experienced failure of single FMT. Patients who experienced single FMT failure had a significantly higher CCI and significantly lower albumin concentration as compared to patients who experienced single FMT success. There was no difference in age, C-reactive protein concentration, leukocyte count and time from FMT to first defecation. In multivariate analysis, CCI ≥ 7 was positively associated with the failure of single FMT. Analysis was controlled for sex, age, time from FMT to first defecation, concomitant PPI therapy, severe CDI, hospital-acquired infection and albumin concentration.

CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid status surrogated by CCI is positively associated with the failure of single FMT in the treatment of recurrent CDI.

RevDate: 2020-03-30
CmpDate: 2020-03-30

Bo TB, Zhang XY, Wen J, et al (2019)

The microbiota-gut-brain interaction in regulating host metabolic adaptation to cold in male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii).

The ISME journal, 13(12):3037-3053.

Gut microbiota play a critical role in orchestrating metabolic homeostasis of the host. However, the crosstalk between host and microbial symbionts in small mammals are rarely illustrated. We used male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) to test the hypothesis that gut microbiota and host neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine (NE), interact to regulate energetics and thermogenesis during cold acclimation. We found that increases in food intake and thermogenesis were associated with increased monoamine neurotransmitters, ghrelin, short-chain fatty acids, and altered cecal microbiota during cold acclimation. Further, our pair-fed study showed that cold temperature can alter the cecal microbiota independently of overfeeding. Using cecal microbiota transplant along with β3-adrenoceptor antagonism and PKA inhibition, we confirmed that transplant of cold-acclimated microbiota increased thermogenesis through activation of cAMP-PKA-pCREB signaling. In addition, NE manipulation induced a long-term alteration in gut microbiota structure. These data demonstrate that gut microbiota-NE crosstalk via cAMP signaling regulates energetics and thermogenesis during cold acclimation in male Brandt's voles.

RevDate: 2020-03-29

Dale HF, GA Lied (2020)

Gut microbiota and therapeutic approaches for dysbiosis in irritable bowel syndrome: Recent developments and future perspectives.

Turkish journal of medical sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Increased knowledge regarding the implications of gut microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), suggest that a disturbed intestinal microenvironment (dysbiosis) might promote the development and maintenance of IBS symptoms and effects several pathways in the pathology of this multifactorial disease. Accordingly, manipulation of the gut microbiota in order to improve IBS symptoms has the last decade evolved as a novel treatment strategy. Several different approaches have been investigated in order to improve the gut microbiota composition. Dietary modifications including supplementation with fibers, prebiotics and probiotics are shown to improve symptoms and composition of gut microbiota in IBS, however the exact probiotic mixture beneficial for each individual remains to be identified. The use of antibiotics still needs confirmation, although promising results have been reported with use of rifaximin. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently gained a lot of attention, and several placebo-controlled trials investigating FMT pose promising results regarding symptom reduction and gut microbiota manipulation in IBS. However, more data regarding long-term effects is needed before FMT can be integrated as a customised treatment for IBS in the clinical routine.

RevDate: 2020-03-28

Polimeno L, Barone M, Mosca A, et al (2020)

Soy Metabolism by Gut Microbiota from Patients with Precancerous Intestinal Lesions.

Microorganisms, 8(4): pii:microorganisms8040469.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) requires the presence of a variety of factors predisposing a tumorigenic milieu. Excluding familial clustering and hereditary CRC syndromes, the development of sporadic CRC from precancerous lesions is influenced by tissue inflammation, modulation of intestinal immunity, hormones, dietary habits and gut microbiota composition. As concerning the last two aspects, the intestinal presence of equol, the most biologically active metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein and the presence of a genetic determinant of gut microbiota able to metabolize daidzein, seem to lower the CRC risk. It has been hypothesized that the anaerobic microorganisms of the Bacteroides genus play a role in equol production.

AIM: To evaluate the presence of (i) anaerobic gut microbiota and (ii) the urinary levels of soy isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and equol) in patients with and without precancerous lesions, challenged with a daidzein-rich soy extract.

METHODS: Consecutive subjects undergoing colonoscopy participated to the study. Feces were collected from all patients one week before colonoscopy for gut microbiota studies. After the endoscopy examination and the histological evaluation, 40 subjects, 20 with sporadic colorectal adenomas (SCA/P group) and 20 without proliferative lesions (control group) were enrolled for the study. Urine levels of soy isoflavones daidzein, genistein and their metabolite equol, were determined by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis and gut microbiota analysis was performed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) procedure.

RESULTS: Seventeen different bacterial species were identified in the fecal samples of the forty subjects participating to the study. Ten bacterial species resulted anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, all belonging to the Bacteroides genus. A significant difference of bacteria species was evidenced in the fecal samples of the two groups of subjects. Particularly important was the evidence of Parabacteroidesdistasonis, Clostridiumclostridioforme and Pediococcuspentasaceus only in control fecal samples, such as the presence of Bacteroides fragilis and Prevotellamelaningenica only in SCA/P fecal samples. Concerning the soy isoflavones levels, no statistically significant differences were revealed in the genistein and daidzein urinary levels between the two groups of subjects. On the contrary, urinary equol levels were undetectable in ten SCA/P subjects and in two controls; moreover, when present, the levels of urinary equol were significantly lower in SCA/P subjects compared to controls (0.24 ± 0.27 mg/24 hrs vs. 21.25 ± 4.3 mg/24 hrs, respectively, p = 1.12 × 10-6).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the presence of anaerobic Bacteroides in the colon, and the production of equol from soy, could determine a milieu able to contrast the development of colonic mucosa proliferative lesions.

RevDate: 2020-03-27

Kukla M, Adrych K, Dobrowolska A, et al (2020)

Guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults.

Przeglad gastroenterologiczny, 15(1):1-21.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a serious medical and epidemiological problem, especially in well developed countries. There has been evident increase in incidence and severity of CDI. Prevention, proper diagnosis and effective treatment are necessary to reduce the risk for the patients, deplete the spreading of infection and diminish the probability of recurrent infection. Antibiotics are the fundamental treatment of CDI. In patients who had recurrent CDI fecal microbiota transplantation seems to be promising and efficient strategy. These guidelines systematize existing data and include recent changes implemented in the management of CDI.

RevDate: 2020-03-24

Slomski A (2020)

"Superdonor" Fecal Microbiota Transplant Effective for IBS.

JAMA, 323(12):1124.

RevDate: 2020-03-24

Tsai MC, Liu YY, Lin CC, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Patients with Biopsy-Proven Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan.

Nutrients, 12(3): pii:nu12030820.

The gut microbiota plays a role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but data about gut dysbiosis in Asians with NAFLD remains scarce. We analyzed the differences in fecal microbiota between adults with and without NAFLD. This cross-sectional study examined adults with histology-proven NAFLD (25 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients, 25 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients, and 25 living liver donors (healthy controls)). The taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of stool samples. The NAFL and NASH groups showed lower total bacterial diversity and richness than the controls. NAFLD patients had higher levels of the phylum Bacteroidetes and lower levels of Firmicutes than controls. The genus RuminococcaceaeUCG-010, family Ruminococcaceae, order Clostridiales, and class Clostridia were less abundant in patients with NAFL or NASH than healthy individuals. The lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway was differentially enriched in the NASH group. This study examined the largest number of Asian patients with biopsy-proven NAFL and NASH in terms of dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients. NAFLD patients had higher levels of Bacteroidetes and lower levels of Firmicutes. These results are different from research from western countries and could provide different targets for therapies by region.

RevDate: 2020-03-23

Hui S, Liu Y, Huang L, et al (2020)

Resveratrol enhances brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in part by regulating bile acid metabolism via gut microbiota remodeling.

International journal of obesity (2005) pii:10.1038/s41366-020-0566-y [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Current evidence has linked dietary resveratrol (RSV) intake to the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and induction of white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, which may be a potential means of improving glucose homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

METHODS: A diet containing RSV was fed to db/db mice for 10 weeks, following which the body weight, adipose tissue accumulation, bile acid (BA) profiles, and markers of BA metabolism were analyzed. Oral glucose tolerance testing, immunohistochemistry, and gut microbiota sequencing were also performed.

RESULTS: RSV intervention improved glucose homeostasis in db/db mice, which was linked to the enhanced BAT activity and WAT browning. Moreover, RSV-treated mice exhibited altered plasma and fecal BA compositions and significant remodeling of the gut microbiota, the latter confirmed by a higher level of lithocholic acid (LCA) in the plasma and feces. LCA was identified to be the agonist of Takeda G-protein coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), which mediated the BAT activation and WAT browning by upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Furthermore, depletion of the gut microbiota using antibiotics partially abolished the beneficial effects of RSV against glucose intolerance. Finally, microbiota transplantation experiments demonstrated that the RSV-induced beneficial effects were transferable, indicating that these effects were largely dependent on the gut microbiota.

CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that RSV administration improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing BAT activation and WAT browning, a mechanism that might partially be mediated by the gut microbiota-BA-TGR5/UCP1 pathway.

RevDate: 2020-03-23

Zybura J, Dyla A, W Mielnicki (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation is feasible even in critically ill patients with toxic megacolon due to Clostridium difficile infection.

Anaesthesiology intensive therapy pii:40108 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-03-21

Khoruts A, JS Bajaj (2020)

Intestinal microbiota transplantation: Naming a new paradigm.

RevDate: 2020-03-20

Ianiro G, Mullish BH, Kelly CR, et al (2020)

Screening of faecal microbiota transplant donors during the COVID-19 outbreak: suggestions for urgent updates from an international expert panel.

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology pii:S2468-1253(20)30082-0 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-03-19
CmpDate: 2020-03-19

Lleal M, Sarrabayrouse G, Willamil J, et al (2019)

A single faecal microbiota transplantation modulates the microbiome and improves clinical manifestations in a rat model of colitis.

EBioMedicine, 48:630-641.

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a novel potential therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases, but it is poorly characterised.

METHODS: We evaluated the performance of the mouse and rat as a pre-clinical model for human microbiota engraftment. We then characterised the effect of a single human stool transfer (HST) on a humanised model of DSS-induced colitis. Colonic and faecal microbial communities were analysed using the 16S rRNA approach and clinical manifestations were assessed in a longitudinal setting.

FINDINGS: The microbial community of rats showed greater similarity to that of humans, while the microbiome of mice showed less similarity to that of humans. Moreover, rats captured more human microbial species than mice after a single HST. Using the rat model, we showed that HST compensated faecal dysbiosis by restoring alpha-diversity and by increasing the relative abundance of health-related microbial genera. To some extent, HST also modulated the microbial composition of colonic tissue. These faecal and colonic microbial communities alterations led to a relative restoration of colon length, and a significant decrease in both epithelium damage and disease severity. Remarkably, stopping inflammation by removing DSS before HST caused a faster and greater recovery of both microbiome and clinical manifestation features.

INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that the rat outperforms the mouse as a model for human microbiota engraftment and show that the efficacy of HST can be enhanced when inflammation stimulation is withdrawn. Finally, our findings support a new therapeutic strategy based on the use FMT combined with anti-inflammatory drugs.

RevDate: 2020-03-18

Dorsaz S, Charretier Y, Girard M, et al (2020)

Changes in Microbiota Profiles After Prolonged Frozen Storage of Stool Suspensions.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:77.

Introduction: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is recommended as safe and effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. Freezing the FMT preparation simplifies the process, allowing a single stool sample to be used for multiple receivers and over an extended period of time. We aimed to assess the effect of long-term frozen storage on bacterial taxonomic profiles of a stool suspension prepared for FMT. Methods: DNA was extracted from a stool suspension before freezing and sequentially during the 18-month storage period at -80°C. Two different protocols were used for DNA extraction. The first relied on a classical mechanical and chemical cell disruption to extract both intra- and extracellular DNA; the second included specific pre-treatments aimed at removing free DNA and DNA from human and damaged bacterial cells. Taxonomic profiling of bacterial communities was performed by sequencing of V3-V4 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Results: Microbiota profiles obtained by whole DNA extraction procedure remained relatively stable during frozen storage. When DNA extraction procedure included specific pre-treatments, microbiota similarity between fresh and frozen samples progressively decreased with longer frozen storage times; notably, the abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased in a storage duration-dependent manner. The abundance of Firmicutes, the main butyrate producers in the colon, were not much affected by frozen storage for up to 1 year. Conclusion: Our data show that metataxonomic analysis of frozen stool suspensions subjected to specific pre-treatments prior to DNA extractions might provide an interesting indication of bacterial resistance to stress conditions and thus of chances of survival in FMT recipients.

RevDate: 2020-03-18

Liu X, Lv Q, Ren H, et al (2020)

The altered gut microbiota of high-purine-induced hyperuricemia rats and its correlation with hyperuricemia.

PeerJ, 8:e8664 pii:8664.

Some studies on the hyperuricemia (HUA) have focused on intestinal bacteria. To better understand the correlation between gut microbiota and HUA, we established a HUA rat model with high-purine diet, and used 16S rRNA genes sequencing to analyze gut microbiota changes in HUA rats. To analyze the potential role played by gut microbiota in HUA, we altered the gut microbiota of HUA rats with antibiotics, and compared the degree of uric acid elevation between HUA and antibiotic-fed HUA rats (Ab+HUA). Finally, we established a recipient rat model, in which we transplanted fecal microbiota of HUA and normal rats into recipient rats. Three weeks later, we compared the uric acid content of recipient rats. As a result, the diversity and abundance of the gut microbiota had changed in HUA rats. The Ab-fed HUA rats had significantly lower uric acid content compared to the HUA rats, and gut microbiota from HUA rats increased uric acid content of recipient rats. The genera Vallitalea, Christensenella and Insolitispirillum may associate with HUA. Our findings highlight the association between gut microbiota and HUA, and the potential role played by gut microbiota in HUA. We hope that this finding will promote the isolation and culture of HUA-related bacteria and orient HUA-related studies from being correlational to mechanistic. These steps will therefore make it possible for us to treat HUA using gut microbiota as the target.

RevDate: 2020-03-17

Dang X, Xu M, Liu D, et al (2020)

Assessing the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotic VSL#3 for active ulcerative colitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PloS one, 15(3):e0228846 pii:PONE-D-19-00488.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for many gastrointestinal diseases, such as Clostridium difficile infection and inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. Changes in colonic microflora may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, and improvements in the intestinal microflora may relieve the disease. Fecal bacterial transplants and oral probiotics are becoming important ways to relieve active ulcerative colitis.

PURPOSE: This systematic review with meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of basic treatment combined with fecal microbiota transplantation or mixed probiotics therapy in relieving mild to moderate ulcerative colitis.

METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane libraries (updated September 2019) were searched to identify randomized, placebo-controlled, or head-to-head trials assessing fecal microbiota transplantation or probiotic VSL#3 as induction therapy in active ulcerative colitis. We analyze data using the R program to obtain evidence of direct comparison and to generate intermediate variables for indirect treatment comparisons.

RESULTS: Seven randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were used as the sources of the induction data. All treatments were superior to placebo. In terms of clinical remission and clinical response to active ulcerative colitis, direct comparisons showed fecal microbiota transplantation (OR = 3.47, 95% CI = 1.93-6.25) (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.18-5.21) and mixed probiotics VSL#3 (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.49-3.88) (OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.53-6.25) to have better effects than the placebo. Indirect comparison showed fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotic VSL#3 did not reach statistical significance either in clinical remission (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.70-2.06) or clinical response (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.62-1.45). In terms of safety, fecal microbiota transplantation (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.51-2.61) and VSL #3 (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.33-2.49) showed no statistically significant increase in adverse events compared with the control group. In terms of serious adverse events, there was no statistical difference between the fecal microbiota transplantation group and the control group (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.46-3.57). The probiotics VSL#3 seems more safer than fecal microbiota transplantation, because serious adverse events were not reported in the VSL#3 articles.

CONCLUSIONS: Fecal microbiota transplantation or mixed probiotics VSL#3 achieved good results in clinical remission and clinical response in active ulcerative colitis, and there was no increased risk of adverse reactions. There was no statistical difference between the therapeutic effect of fecal microbiota transplantation and that of mixed probiotics VSL#3. However, the use of fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics still has many unresolved problems in clinical applications, and more randomized controlled trials are required to confirm its efficacy.

RevDate: 2020-03-17

Ávila PRM, Michels M, Vuolo F, et al (2020)

Protective effects of fecal microbiota transplantation in sepsis are independent of the modulation of the intestinal flora.

Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 73:110727 pii:S0899-9007(20)30010-1 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of probiotics and fecal transplantation on inflammatory and oxidative parameters in the intestines of two rat models of sepsis.

METHODS: Rats were treated with prebiotics, probiotics, or symbiotics and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or zymosan after 15 d to induce endotoxemia. Oxidative damage and inflammation were analyzed, and histologic examination of the intestinal tissue was performed. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was carried out in LPS- and zymosan-induced rat models of sepsis.

RESULTS: Supplementation with symbiotics for 15 d effectively reduced the inflammatory parameters compared with supplementation for 7 d. Probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics exerted different effects on the evaluated parameters. In general, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. casei exerted better local protective effects. Evaluation of the role of the intestinal microbiota through FMT revealed its protective effects irrespective of the previous treatment with probiotics.

CONCLUSION: Probiotic strains significantly differ among themselves and exert different effects on the host's health. Symbiotics and FMT could offer additional immunomodulatory benefits to drug therapy, thus serving as a new therapeutic alternative in pediatric patients with sepsis.

RevDate: 2020-03-16

Chen Y, Zhang S, Zeng B, et al (2020)

Transplant of microbiota from long-living people to mice reduces aging-related indices and transfers beneficial bacteria.

Aging, 12: pii:102872 [Epub ahead of print].

A close relationship between age and gut microbiota exists in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Long-living people are a model for studying healthy aging; they also have a distinctive microbiota structure. The relationship between the microbiota of long-living people and aging phenotype remains largely unknown. Herein, the feces of long-living people were transplanted into mice, which were then examined for aging-related indices and beneficial bacteria. Mice transplanted with fecal matter from long-living people (L group) had greater α diversity, more probiotic genera (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium), and short-chain fatty acid producing genera (Roseburia, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus) than the control group. L group mice also accumulated less lipofuscin and β-galactosidase and had longer intestinal villi. This study indicates the effects that the gut microbiota from long-living people have on healthy aging.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Tamez-Torres KM, Ponce-de-Leon A, Torres-Gonzalez P, et al (2020)

High prevalence of MDR gram-negative bacteria in feces of healthy blood donors in Mexico.

European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology pii:10.1007/s10096-020-03858-z [Epub ahead of print].

During the initial stage of a study to recruit universal intestinal microbiota donors in Mexico City, we found multiple "healthy" subjects that colonized with MDRO (Multidrug-resistant organisms). We aimed to describe clinical and demographic characteristics of these individuals. This was a prospective observational study. Participants were consecutively recruited among blood donors. A fecal sample was collected from each subject and analyzed at the same day in search of MDRO through chromographic culture media and, if growth observed, later confirmed by MALDI-TOF and susceptibility testing in Vitek 2 system. From July 2018 to March 2019, 85 individuals were screened for fecal colonization. Median age was 35 years (IQR 27-46 years), and 48/85 (56.4%) were males. Seventy-two (84.7%) subjects harbored at least one MDRO. ESBL-producing microorganisms were found in 72/85 (84.3%) subjects, and E. coli was the most frequent (63/85, 74.1%). Four samples (2 E. coli, 2 P. aeruginosa, 2.4% each) harbored carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), together with an ESBL-producing microorganism. Antibiotic use (p = 0.06) and PPIs or H2-blockers intake (p = 0.03) were more common in the colonized subjects during the previous 6-month period. We report a high incidence of enteric colonization of healthy subjects with MDRO, a condition that may be related to antibiotics or PPIs/H2-blockers consumption. This surprisingly high MDRO colonization rate in potential FMT donors emphasizes the need for careful screening of donors to avoid possible transmission to FMT recipients.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Allegretti JR, Mehta SR, Kassam Z, et al (2020)

Risk Factors that Predict the Failure of Multiple Fecal Microbiota Transplantations for Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Digestive diseases and sciences pii:10.1007/s10620-020-06198-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI); however, a small percentage of patients fail to achieve cure even after two FMTs. This high-risk cohort remains poorly understood.

METHODS: We performed a multicenter, multinational retrospective review of patients that underwent at least one FMT for a CDI indication at four academic FMT referrals. Patients' data including CDI, FMT, and FMT variables were assessed. The primary outcome was FMT failure after a second FMT defined as persistent diarrhea and positive laboratory test for C. difficile (PCR or toxin) despite a second FMT within 8 weeks of the first FMT. A multivariable logistic regression model was performed to determine predictors of second FMT failure.

RESULTS: A total of 540 patients received at least one FMT during the study period, of which 432 patients had success following the first FMT, 108 had documented failure (25%). Among those who failed the first FMT, 63 patients received a second FMT, of which 36 achieved cure, and 24 had documented failure after the second FMT. Patients that failed the first FMT but did not receive a second FMT and those lost to follow-up were excluded leaving 492 patients included in the analysis. The second FMT failure rate was 4.8% (24/492). Risk factors for second FMT failure identified by multivariable logistic regression included: inpatient status (OR 7.01, 95% CI: 2.37-20.78), the presence of pseudomembranes (OR 3.53, 95% CI: 1.1-11.33), and immunocompromised state (OR 3.56, 95% CI: 1.45-8.72) at the time of first FMT.

CONCLUSION: This study identifies clinically relevant risk factors predictive of failing a second FMT. Clinicians can use these variables to help identify high-risk patients and provide a better-informed consent regarding the possibility of needing multiple FMTs.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Li Y, Su X, Gao Y, et al (2020)

The potential role of the gut microbiota in modulating renal function in experimental diabetic nephropathy murine models established in same environment.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease pii:S0925-4439(20)30109-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies have shown that laboratory murine autoimmunity models under the same environment display different outcomes. We established diabetic nephropathy model mice under the same environment using the classic streptozotocin method. Renal dysfunction was different among the mice. Proteinuria was more significant in the severe proteinuria group (SP) than in the mild proteinuria group (MP). We hypothesized a role for the gut microbiota in the outcome and reproducibility of induced DN models. 16S rDNA gene sequencing technology was used to analyze the differences in the gut microbiota between the two groups. Here, through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we verified the role of the gut microbiota and its short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation in DN mouse renal dysfunction. In the SP group, there was a reduced abundance of Firmicutes (P < 0.0001), and the dominant genus Allobaculum [linear discriminant analysis (LDA) >3, P < 0.05] was positively correlated with body weight (Rho = 0.767, P < 0.01) and blood glucose content (Rho = 0.648, P < 0.05), while the dominant genus Anaerosporobacter (LDA > 3, P < 0.05) was positively correlated with 24-hour urinary protein content (Rho = 0.773, P < 0.01). In the MP group, the dominant genus Blautia (LDA > 3, P < 0.05) was negatively correlated with 24-hour urinary protein content (Rho = -0.829, P < 0.05). The results indicated that Allobaculum and Anaerosporobacter may worsen renal function, while Blautia may be a protective factor in DN. These findings suggested that the gut microbiota may contribute to the heterogeneity of the induced response since we observed potential disease-associated microbial taxonomies and correlations with DN.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Jo YJ, Tagele SB, Pham HQ, et al (2020)

In Situ Profiling of the Three Dominant Phyla Within the Human Gut Using TaqMan PCR for Pre-Hospital Diagnosis of Gut Dysbiosis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(6): pii:ijms21061916.

A microbial imbalance called dysbiosis leads to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can include ulcerative colitis (UC). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a novel therapy, has recently been successful in treating gut dysbiosis in UC patients. For the FMT technique to be successful, the gut microbiota of both the healthy donors and UC patients must be characterized. For decades, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to analyze gut microbiota. Despite the popularity of NGS, the cost and time constraints make it difficult to use in emergency services and activities related to the periodic monitoring of microbiota profile alterations. Hence, in this study, we developed a multiplex TaqMan qPCR assay (MTq-PCR) with novel probes to simultaneously determine the relative proportions of the three dominant microbial phyla in the human gut: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The relative proportions of the three phyla in fecal samples of either healthy volunteers or UC patients were similar when assessed NGS and the MTq-PCR. Thus, our MTq-PCR assay could be a practical microbiota profiling alternative for diagnosing and monitoring gut dysbiosis in UC patients during emergency situations, and it could have a role in screening stool from potential FMT donors.

RevDate: 2020-03-13

Yu L, Wang L, Yi H, et al (2020)

Beneficial effects of LRP6-CRISPR on prevention of alcohol-related liver injury surpassed fecal microbiota transplant in a rat model.

Gut microbes [Epub ahead of print].

Alcohol intake can modify gut microbiota composition, increase gut permeability, and promote liver fibrogenesis. LRP6 is a signal transmembrane protein and a co-receptor for the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. This study compared the curative effect of LRP6-CRISPR on alcohol-related liver injury with that of traditional fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) and investigated the alteration of the gut microbiome following the treatment. A rat model of alcohol-related liver injury was established and injected with lentiviral vectors expressing LRP6-CRISPR or administered with fecal filtrate from healthy rats, with healthy rat served as the control. Liver tissues of rats were examined by HE staining, Sirius staining, and Oil red O staining, respectively. The expression of LRP6 and fibrosis biomarkers were tested by PCR. The fecal sample of rats was collected and examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Our data indicated that LRP6-CRISPR was more efficient in the prevention of alcohol-related liver injury than FMT. Microbiome analysis showed that alcohol-related liver injury related to gut microbiota dysbiosis, while treatment with LRP6-CRISPR or FMT increased gut microflora diversity and improved gut symbiosis. Further, bacteria specific to the disease stages were identified. Genera Romboutsia, Escherichia-Shigella, Pseudomonas, Turicibacter, and Helicobacter were prevalent in the intestine of rats with alcohol-related liver injury, while the domination of Lactobacillus was found in rats treated with LRP6-CRISPR or FMT. Besides, Lactobacillus and genera belonging to family Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidales S24-7 group, and Ruminococcaceae were enriched in healthy rats. LRP6-CRISPR and FMT have beneficial effects on the prevention of alcohol-related liver injury, and correspondently, both treatments altered the disrupted gut microflora to a healthy one.

RevDate: 2020-03-13

Ramai D, Zakhia K, Fields PJ, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) with Colonoscopy Is Superior to Enema and Nasogastric Tube While Comparable to Capsule for the Treatment of Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Digestive diseases and sciences pii:10.1007/s10620-020-06185-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Several routes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) administration are available for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI), the most recent of which are capsules.

AIM: To assess the efficacy of colonoscopy, capsule, enema, and nasogastric tube (NGT) FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI.

METHODS: We reported clinical outcomes of colonoscopy, capsule, enema, and NGT FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. During January 2000 to January 2018, three databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Primary outcome was overall cure rate which was assessed using a random effects model; secondary outcomes included adverse effects as well as subgroup analyses comparing donor relationship, sample preparation, and study design.

RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (1309 patients) were included in the study. FMT was administered using colonoscopy in 16 studies (483 patients), NGT in five studies (149 patients), enema in four studies (360 patients), and capsules in four studies (301 patients). The random effects of pooled FMT cure rates were colonoscopy 94.8% (CI 92.4-96.8%; I2 15.6%), capsule 92.1% (CI 88.6-95.0%; I2 7.1%), enema 87.2% (CI 83.4-90.5%; I2 0%), and NGT/NDT 78.1% (CI 71.6-84.1%; I2 0%). On subgroup analysis of colonoscopy FMT, sample preparation methods had comparable cure rates: fresh 94.9% compared to 94.5%. Similarly, cure rates were unaffected by donor relationship: mixed 94.5% compared to unrelated donor 95.7%.

CONCLUSION: CDI cure rates with FMT performed with colonoscopy are superior to enema and NGT FMT, while those with FMT with colonoscopy and capsule are comparable.

RevDate: 2020-03-11

AlQahtani H, Baloch S, D Tabb (2020)

Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Severe Neutropenia Not Responding to Standard Therapy.

Case reports in infectious diseases, 2020:3089023.

One of the most effective strategies in reducing the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). However, several adverse events have been reported post FMT, and data on the efficacy and safety of FMT in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies are rare. This report presents FMT treatment for refractory CDI in a severely immunocompromised patient. A 69-year-old female presented to the emergency department complaining of foul smelling, intractable, watery diarrhea and generalized abdominal pain. She was recently diagnosed with high-risk myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) requiring daily blood transfusions and reported multiple CDI episodes in the past treated successfully with metronidazole and vancomycin as mono- or combotherapy. During this admission, treatment with oral vancomycin (high dose) and intravenous metronidazole was unsuccessful, so FMT was administered. The patient recovered well despite an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 0.25 × 109/L, and chemotherapy was initiated soon after. FMT was successful and safe in this patient, with no relapse and adverse events seen in 8 weeks of follow-up via phone calls and office visits.

RevDate: 2020-03-11

Ren K (2020)

Commentary on Ma et al. Resveratrol brings back happy bug's harmony.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(20)30298-1 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-03-10

McKinney CA, Oliveira BCM, Bedenice D, et al (2020)

The fecal microbiota of healthy donor horses and geriatric recipients undergoing fecal microbial transplantation for the treatment of diarrhea.

PloS one, 15(3):e0230148 pii:PONE-D-19-33915.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), a treatment for certain gastrointestinal conditions associated with dysbiosis in people, is also empirically employed in horses with colitis. This study used microbiota high-throughput sequencing to compare the fecal microbial profile of healthy horses to that of geriatric microbial transplant recipients experiencing diarrhea and tested whether FMT restores microbiota diversity.

METHODS: To evaluate the effect of environment and donor characteristics on the intestinal microbiota, fecal samples were collected per rectum from 15 healthy young-adult (2-12 years) and 15 geriatric (≥20 years) horses. Additionally, FMT was performed for 3 consecutive days in 5 geriatric horses with diarrhea using feces from the same healthy donor. Fecal samples were collected from both donor and recipient prior to each FMT and from recipients 24 hours following the last FMT. The profile of the fecal bacterial microbiota was compared using 16S amplicon sequencing.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to diet and farm location, age did not significantly affect the healthy equine fecal microbiota, indicating that both healthy geriatric and young-adult horses may serve as FMT donors. The fecal microbiota of horses with diarrhea was significantly more variable in terms of β-diversity than that of healthy horses. An inverse correlation between diarrhea score and relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia was identified in surviving FMT recipients. At study completion, the fecal microbiota of horses which responded to FMT had a higher α-diversity than prior to treatment and was phylogenetically more similar to that of the donor.

RevDate: 2020-03-10

Keen EC, Tasoff P, Hink T, et al (2020)

Microbiome Restoration by RBX2660 Does Not Preclude Recurrence of Multidrug-Resistant Urinary Tract Infection Following Subsequent Antibiotic Exposure: A Case Report.

Open forum infectious diseases, 7(3):ofaa042 pii:ofaa042.

A 62-year-old woman received RBX2660, an investigational microbiome restoration therapeutic, for recurrent multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary tract infection (UTI). RBX2660 increased gut microbiome diversity but did not eliminate uropathogen carriage, and MDR UTI recurred after subsequent antibiotic exposure. Thus, restoration of microbiome diversity does not preclude disease recurrence by residual MDR pathogens.

RevDate: 2020-03-10
CmpDate: 2020-03-10

Durgan DJ (2019)

Evidence for a gut-immune-vascular axis in the development of hypertension.

Acta physiologica (Oxford, England), 227(1):e13338.

RevDate: 2020-03-09

Yu EW, Gao L, Stastka P, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for the improvement of metabolism in obesity: The FMT-TRIM double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial.

PLoS medicine, 17(3):e1003051 pii:PMEDICINE-D-19-02285.

BACKGROUND: There is intense interest about whether modulating gut microbiota can impact systemic metabolism. We investigated the safety of weekly oral fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) capsules from healthy lean donors and their ability to alter gut microbiota and improve metabolic outcomes in patients with obesity.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: FMT-TRIM was a 12-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of oral FMT capsules performed at a single US academic medical center. Between August 2016 and April 2018, we randomized 24 adults with obesity and mild-moderate insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] between 2.0 and 8.0) to weekly healthy lean donor FMT versus placebo capsules for 6 weeks. The primary outcome, assessed by intention to treat, was change in insulin sensitivity between 0 and 6 weeks as measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Additional metabolic parameters were evaluated at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, including HbA1c, body weight, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Fecal samples were serially collected and evaluated via 16S V4 rRNA sequencing. Our study population was 71% female, with an average baseline BMI of 38.8 ± 6.7 kg/m2 and 41.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2 in the FMT and placebo groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant improvements in insulin sensitivity in the FMT group compared to the placebo group (+5% ± 12% in FMT group versus -3% ± 32% in placebo group, mean difference 9%, 95% CI -5% to 28%, p = 0.16). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for most of the other secondary metabolic outcomes, including HOMA-IR (mean difference 0.2, 95% CI -0.9 to 0.9, p = 0.96) and body composition (lean mass mean difference -0.1 kg, 95% CI -1.9 to 1.6 kg, p = 0.87; fat mass mean difference 1.2 kg, 95% CI -0.6 to 3.0 kg, p = 0.18), over the 12-week study. We observed variable engraftment of donor bacterial groups among FMT recipients, which persisted throughout the 12-week study. There were no significant differences in adverse events (AEs) (10 versus 5, p = 0.09), and no serious AEs related to FMT. Limitations of this pilot study are the small sample size, inclusion of participants with relatively mild insulin resistance, and lack of concurrent dietary intervention.

CONCLUSIONS: Weekly administration of FMT capsules in adults with obesity results in gut microbiota engraftment in most recipients for at least 12 weeks. Despite engraftment, we did not observe clinically significant metabolic effects during the study.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02530385.

RevDate: 2020-03-09

Gupta A, Saha S, S Khanna (2020)

Therapies to modulate gut microbiota: Past, present and future.

World journal of gastroenterology, 26(8):777-788.

The human gut microbiota comprises of a complex and diverse array of microorganisms, and over the years the interaction between human diseases and the gut microbiota has become a subject of growing interest. Disturbed microbial milieu in the gastrointestinal tract is central to the pathogenesis of several diseases including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Manipulation of this microbial milieu to restore balance by microbial replacement therapies has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for recurrent CDI. There is considerable heterogeneity in various aspects of stool processing and administration for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) across different centers globally, and standardized microbioal replacement therapies offer an attractive alternative. The adverse effects associated with FMT are usually mild. However, there is paucity of data on long term safety of FMT and there is a need for further studies in this regard. With our increasing understanding of the host-microbiome interaction, there is immense potential for microbial replacement therapies to emerge as a treatment option for several diseases. The role of microbioal replacement therapies in diseases other than CDI is being extensively studied in ongoing clinical trials and it may be a potential treatment option for inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, multidrug resistant infections, and neuropsychiatric illnesses. Fecal microbiota transplantation for non-CDI disease states should currently be limited only to research settings.

RevDate: 2020-03-09

Giuffrè M, Campigotto M, Campisciano G, et al (2020)

A Story of Liver and Gut Microbes: How Does the Intestinal Flora Affect Liver Disease? A Review of the Literature.

American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Each individual is endowed with a unique gut microbiota (GM) footprint, which mediates numerous host-related physiological functions such as nutrient metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against microbial pathogens. The rapid scientific interest in GM has recognized its central role in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extra-intestinal conditions. Given the close relationship between the gastro-intestinal tract and the liver, many pathological processes have been investigated in the light of a microbial-centered hypothesis of hepatic damage. In this review, we want to introduce to neophytes the vast world of gut microbes - including prevalent bacterial distribution in healthy individuals, how the microbiota is commonly analyzed, and the current knowledge on the role of GM in liver diseases pathophysiology. Besides, we highlight the potentials and downsides of GM-based therapy.

RevDate: 2020-03-05

Zhang F, Zhai M, Wu Q, et al (2020)

Protective effect of Tong-Qiao-Huo-Xue Decoction on inflammatory injury caused by intestinal microbial disorders in stroke rats.

Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin [Epub ahead of print].

Tong-Qiao-Huo-Xue Decoction (TQHXD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine prescription for treating cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TQHXD on intervening inflammatory response of ischemic stroke by regulating intestinal flora and repairing the intestinal barrier. A rat model of cerebral ischemia was established using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and behavioral scores were performed. Additionally, the high throughput 16S rDNA sequence of intestinal bacteria in fecal samples of rat was also carried out. Our results showed that TQHXD could change the main components of intestinal flora in stroke rats, and reduced the excessive increase of Bacteroidetes, and also regulated the abnormal changes of abundance of some flora as well. In addition, the intestinal epithelial barrier was damaged after stroke, allowing bacterial metabolites to enter the blood, while TQHXD had an improved effect on this phenomenon. Meanwhile, pathological changes in the brain tissue and infarct volume was also alleviated by TQHXD. Due to the disorder of the intestinal flora and the destruction of the barrier, the peripheral immune imbalance caused an inflammatory reaction. TQHXD improved the imbalance of T cells, and inhibited the inflammatory response. Finally, the therapeutic transplantation of fecal microbiota also improved the outcome of stroke in rats. Our presented results suggest that TQHXD may improve the gut microbiota disorder and its induced inflammatory response after stroke, which could be a new target and mechanism for the treatment of stroke.

RevDate: 2020-03-04

Baffy G (2020)

Gut Microbiota and Cancer of the Host: Colliding Interests.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1219:93-107.

Cancer develops in multicellular organisms from cells that ignore the rules of cooperation and escape the mechanisms of anti-cancer surveillance. Tumorigenesis is jointly encountered by the host and microbiota, a vast collection of microorganisms that live on the external and internal epithelial surfaces of the body. The largest community of human microbiota resides in the gastrointestinal tract where commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms interact with the intestinal barrier and gut mucosal lymphoid tissue, creating a tumor microenvironment in which cancer cells thrive or perish. Aberrant composition and function of the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) has been associated with tumorigenesis by inducing inflammation, promoting cell growth and proliferation, weakening immunosurveillance, and altering food and drug metabolism or other biochemical functions of the host. However, recent research has also identified several mechanisms through which gut microbiota support the host in the fight against cancer. These mechanisms include the use of antigenic mimicry, biotransformation of chemotherapeutic agents, and other mechanisms to boost anti-cancer immune responses and improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Further research in this rapidly advancing field is expected to identify additional microbial metabolites with tumor suppressing properties, map the complex interactions of host-microbe 'transkingdom network' with cancer cells, and elucidate cellular and molecular pathways underlying the impact of specific intestinal microbial configurations on immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

RevDate: 2020-03-08

Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo H, Sanaie S, Sadeghpour Heravi F, et al (2020)

From role of gut microbiota to microbial-based therapies in type 2-diabetes.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 81:104268 pii:S1567-1348(20)30099-X [Epub ahead of print].

The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically at an alarming level around the world.T2DM is associated with changeable risk factors in lifestyle as well as genetic and family associated risk factors. More importantly, imbalanced or impaired gut microbial distribution (dysbiosis) has been reported as a contributing risk factor in insulin resistance progression in T2DM. Dysbiosis may restructure the metabolic and functional pathways in the intestine which are involved in the development of T2DM. However, several studies have indicated the constructive and helpful effect of prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the improvement of gut microbiota (GM) and accordingly host metabolism. In this review, the association between GM and T2DM have been evaluated and the role of prebiotics, probiotics and FMT, as potential therapeutic approaches have been discussed. Relevant studies were obtained randomly from online databases such as PubMed/Medline and ISI Web of Science.

RevDate: 2020-03-05

Adamberg K, Raba G, S Adamberg (2020)

Use of Changestat for Growth Rate Studies of Gut Microbiota.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 8:24.

Human colon microbiota, composed of hundreds of different species, is closely associated with several health conditions. Controlled in vitro cultivation and up-to-date analytical methods make possible the systematic evaluation of the underlying mechanisms of complex interactions between the members of microbial consortia. Information on reproducing fecal microbial consortia can be used for various clinical and biotechnological applications. In this study, chemostat and changestat cultures were used to elucidate the effects of the physiologically relevant range of dilution rates on the growth and metabolism of adult fecal microbiota. The dilution rate was kept either at D = 0.05 or D = 0.2 1/h in chemostat cultures, while gradually changing from 0.05 to 0.2 1/h in the A-stat and from 0.2 to 0.05 1/h in the De-stat. Apple pectin as a substrate was used in the chemostat experiments and apple pectin or birch xylan in the changestat experiments, in the presence of porcine mucin in all cases. The analyses were comprised of HPLC for organic acids, UPLC for amino acids, GC for gas composition, 16S-rDNA sequencing for microbial composition, and growth parameter calculations. It was shown that the abundance of most bacterial taxa was determined by the dilution rate on both substrates. Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides vulgatus, and Faecalibacterium were prevalent within the whole range of dilution rates. Akkermansia muciniphila and Ruminococcaceae UCG-013 were significantly enriched at D = 0.05 1/h, while Bacteroides caccae, Lachnospiraceae unclassified and Escherichia coli clearly preferred D = 0.2 1/h. In the chemostat cultures, the production of organic acids and gases from pectin was related to the dilution rate. The ratio of acetate, propionate and butyrate was 5:2:1 (D = 0.05 1/h) and 14:2:1 (D = 0.2 1/h). It was shown that the growth rate-related characteristics of the fecal microbiota were concise in both directions between D = 0.05 and 0.2 1/h. Reproducible adaptation of the fecal microbiota was shown in the continuous culture with a changing dilution rate: changestat. Consortia cultivation is a promising approach for research purposes and several biotechnological applications, including the production of multi-strain probiotics and fecal transplantation mixtures.

RevDate: 2020-03-05

Tsigalou C, Konstantinidis T, Stavropoulou E, et al (2020)

Potential Elimination of Human Gut Resistome by Exploiting the Benefits of Functional Foods.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:50.

Recent advances in technology over the last decades have strived to elucidate the diverse and abundant ecosystem of the human microbiome. The intestinal microbiota represents a densely inhabited environment that offers a plethora of beneficial effects to the host's wellbeing. On the other hand, it can serve as a potential reservoir of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria and their antibiotic-resistant genes (ARgenes), which comprise the "gut resistome." ARgenes, like antibiotics, have been omnipresent in the environment for billions of years. In the context of the gut microbiome, these genes may conflate into exogenous MDR or emerge in commensals due to mutations or gene transfers. It is currently generally accepted that Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. It is of paramount importance that researchers focus on, amongst other parameters, elaborating strategies to manage the gut resistome, particularly focusing on the diminution of AMR. Potential interventions in the gut microbiome field by Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) or functional foods are newly emerged candidates for the uprooting of MDR strains and restoring dysbiosis and resilience. Probiotic nutrition is thought to diminish gut colonization from pathobionts. Yet only a few studies have explored the effects of antibiotics use on the reservoir of AR genes and the demanding time for return to normal by gut microbiota-targeted strategies. Regular administration of probiotic bacteria has recently been linked to restoration of the gut ecosystem and decrease of the gut resistome and AR genes carriers. This review summarizes the latest information about the intestinal resistome and the intriguing methods of fighting against AMR through probiotic-based methods and gut microbial shifts that have been proposed. This study contains some key messages: (1) AMR currently poses a lethal threat to global health, and it is pivotal for the scientific community to do its utmost in fighting against it; (2) human gut microbiome research, within the last decade especially, seems to be preoccupied with the interface of numerous diseases and identifying a potential target for a variety of interventions; (3) the gut resistome, comprised of AR genesis, presents very early on in life and is prone to shifts due to the use of antibiotics or dietary supplements; and (4) future strategies involving functional foods seem promising for the battle against AMR through intestinal resistome diminution.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Neff AS (2020)

Technical and Theoretic Limitations of the Experimental Evidence Supporting a Gut Bacterial Etiology in Mental Illness.

Clinical therapeutics pii:S0149-2918(20)30077-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The impact of gut bacteria on the brain and behavior has become the subject of intense research. The brain is sensitive to biochemical and physiologic changes in the body, for example, changes in blood oxygenation or nutritional status. The collection of microorganisms residing within the digestive tract (the gut microbiome) is increasingly considered a major contributor to human physiology. These 2 considerations have led to the hypothesis that human psychology, including complex constructs like emotion and mental illness, could be influenced by the composition or function of gut bacteria. Five lines of evidence have been used to support the concept, including human correlational research, probiotic supplementation, antibiotic use, germ-free animal research, and fecal transplantation. Results from these experiments do not provide substantial support for the theory that complex human psychology is under the influence of gut bacteria. Placebo-controlled interventional research in humans, in particular fecal microbiota transplantation, will be required before a stronger conclusion can be reached. (Clin Ther. 2020;42:XXX-XXX) © 2020 Elsevier Inc.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Jiménez-Avalos JA, Arrevillaga-Boni G, González-López L, et al (2020)

Classical methods and perspectives for manipulating the human gut microbial ecosystem.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

A healthy Human Gut Microbial Ecosystem (HGME) is a necessary condition for maintaining the orderly function of the whole body. Major alterations in the normal gut microbial composition, activity and functionality (dysbiosis) by an environmental or host-related disruptive event, can compromise metabolic, inflammatory, and neurological processes, causing disorders such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, and depressive episodes. The restore or the maintaining of the homeostatic balance of Gut Microbiota (GM) populations (eubiosis) is possible through diet, the use of probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, and even Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT). Although these "classic methods" represent an effective and accepted way to modulate GM, the complexity of HGME requires new approaches to control it in a more appropriate way. Among the most promising emergent strategies for modulating GM are the use of engineered nanomaterials (metallic nanoparticles (NP), polymeric-NP, quantum dots, micelles, dendrimers, and liposomes); phagotherapy (i.e., phages linked with the CRISPR/Cas9 system), and the use of antimicrobial peptides, non-antibiotic drugs, vaccines, and immunoglobulins. Here we review the current state of development, implications, advantages, disadvantages, and perspectives of the different approaches for manipulating HGME.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Zhao X, Jiang Y, Xi H, et al (2020)

Exploration of the Relationship Between Gut Microbiota and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): a Review.

Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, 80(2):161-171.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine and metabolic syndrome (MS) with a complex etiology, and its pathogenesis is not yet clear. In recent years, the correlation between gut microbiota (GM) and metabolic disease has become a hot topic in research, leading to a number of new ideas about the etiology and pathological mechanisms of PCOS. The literature shows that GM can cause insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome (obesity, diabetes) and may contribute to the development of PCOS by influencing energy absorption, the pathways of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lipopolysaccharides, choline and bile acids, intestinal permeability and the brain-gut axis. As part of the treatment of PCOS, fecal microbiota transplantation, supplementation with prebiotics and traditional Chinese medicine can be used to regulate GM and treat disorders. This article reviews possible mechanisms and treatment options for PCOS, based on methods which target the GM, and offers new ideas for the treatment of PCOS.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Merli P, Putignani L, Ruggeri A, et al (2020)

Decolonization of multi-drug resistant bacteria by fecal microbiota transplantation in five pediatric patients before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: gut microbiota profiling, infectious and clinical outcomes.

Haematologica pii:haematol.2019.244210 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-02-27

Yan PG, JN Li (2020)

Advances in the understanding of the intestinal micro-environment and inflammatory bowel disease.

Chinese medical journal [Epub ahead of print].

The human gastrointestinal tract accommodates an entire micro-environment for divergent physiologic processes, the dysbiosis of this micro-ecology has a strong inter-action with the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the past few years, with the advances in the understanding of microbiome, its metabolites and further application of next generation sequencing, analysis of dynamic alteration of gut micro-environment was realized, which provides numerous information beyond simple microbiota structure or metabolites differences under chronic colitis status. The subsequent intervention strategies targeting the modulation of intestinal micro-environment have been explored as a potential therapy. In this review, we will summarize the recent knowledge about multi-dimensional dysbiosis, the inter-action between fungus and bacteria under inflamed mucosa, and the clinical application of probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation as a promising therapeutic approach in IBD.

RevDate: 2020-03-01

Cheng YW, M Fischer (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Redefining Surgical Management of Refractory Clostridium difficile Infection.

Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 33(2):92-97.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the process of transplanting stool from a healthy donor into the gut of a diseased individual for therapeutic purposes. It has a clearly defined role in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile (reclassified as " Clostridioides difficile ") infection (CDI), with cure rates over 90% and decreased rates of subsequent recurrence compared with anti-CDI antibiotics. There is emerging evidence that FMT is also effective in the treatment of severe and fulminant CDI, with associated decreases in mortality and colectomy rates compared with standard antibiotic therapy. FMT shows promise as salvage therapy for critically-ill CDI patients refractory to maximum medical therapy and not deemed to be surgical candidates. FMT should be considered early in the course of severe CDI and should be delivered immediately in patients with signs of refractory CDI. Expansion of FMT's use along the spectrum of CDI severity has potential to decrease associated rates of mortality and colectomy.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Peled JU, Gomes ALC, Devlin SM, et al (2020)

Microbiota as Predictor of Mortality in Allogeneic Hematopoietic-Cell Transplantation.

The New England journal of medicine, 382(9):822-834.

BACKGROUND: Relationships between microbiota composition and clinical outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation have been described in single-center studies. Geographic variations in the composition of human microbial communities and differences in clinical practices across institutions raise the question of whether these associations are generalizable.

METHODS: The microbiota composition of fecal samples obtained from patients who were undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation at four centers was profiled by means of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. In an observational study, we examined associations between microbiota diversity and mortality using Cox proportional-hazards analysis. For stratification of the cohorts into higher- and lower-diversity groups, the median diversity value that was observed at the study center in New York was used. In the analysis of independent cohorts, the New York center was cohort 1, and three centers in Germany, Japan, and North Carolina composed cohort 2. Cohort 1 and subgroups within it were analyzed for additional outcomes, including transplantation-related death.

RESULTS: We profiled 8767 fecal samples obtained from 1362 patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation at the four centers. We observed patterns of microbiota disruption characterized by loss of diversity and domination by single taxa. Higher diversity of intestinal microbiota was associated with a lower risk of death in independent cohorts (cohort 1: 104 deaths among 354 patients in the higher-diversity group vs. 136 deaths among 350 patients in the lower-diversity group; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.92; cohort 2: 18 deaths among 87 patients in the higher-diversity group vs. 35 deaths among 92 patients in the lower-diversity group; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.90). Subgroup analyses identified an association between lower intestinal diversity and higher risks of transplantation-related death and death attributable to graft-versus-host disease. Baseline samples obtained before transplantation already showed evidence of microbiome disruption, and lower diversity before transplantation was associated with poor survival.

CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of microbiota disruption during allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation were similar across transplantation centers and geographic locations; patterns were characterized by loss of diversity and domination by single taxa. Higher diversity of intestinal microbiota at the time of neutrophil engraftment was associated with lower mortality. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).

RevDate: 2020-02-26

Chen K, Fu Y, Wang Y, et al (2020)

Therapeutic Effects of the In Vitro Cultured Human Gut Microbiota as Transplants on Altering Gut Microbiota and Improving Symptoms Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-020-01494-w [Epub ahead of print].

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a brain-based neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities. Accumulating studies show that the gut microbiota plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of ASD, and gut microbiota transplantation (GMT) is a promising technique for the treatment of ASD. In clinical applications of GMT, it is challenging to obtain effective transplants because of the high costs of donor selection and heterogeneity of donors' gut microbiota, which can cause different clinical responses. In vitro batch culture is a fast, easy-to-operate, and repeatable method to culture gut microbiota. Thus, the present study investigates the feasibility of treating ASD with in vitro cultured gut microbiota as transplants. We cultured gut microbiota via the in vitro batch culture method and performed GMT in the maternal immune activation (MIA)-induced ASD mouse model with original donor microbiota and in vitro cultured microbiota. Open field, three-chamber social, marble burying, and self-grooming tests were used for behavioral improvement assessment. Serum levels of chemokines were detected. Microbial total DNA was extracted from mouse fecal samples, and 16S rDNA was sequenced using Illumina. Our results showed that GMT treatment with original and cultured donor gut microbiota significantly ameliorated anxiety-like and repetitive behaviors and improved serum levels of chemokines including GRO-α (CXCL1), MIP-1α (CCL3), MCP-3 (CCL7), RANTES (CCL5), and Eotaxin (CCL11) in ASD mice. Meanwhile, the gut microbial communities of the two groups that received GMT treatment were changed compared with the ASD mice groups. In the group treated with in vitro cultured donor gut microbiota, there was a significant decrease in the relative abundance of key differential taxa, including S24-7, Clostridiaceae, Prevotella_other, and Candidatus Arthromitus. The relative abundance of these taxa reached close to the level of healthy mice. Prevotella_other also decreased in the group treated with original donor gut microbiota, with a significant increase in Ruminococcaceae and Oscillospira. The present study demonstrated that GMT with in vitro cultured microbiota also improved behavioral abnormalities and chemokine disorders in an ASD mouse model compared with GMT with original donor gut microbiota. In addition, it significantly modified several key differential taxa in gut microbial composition.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Ueckermann V, Hoosien E, De Villiers N, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbial Transplantation for the Treatment of Persistent Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in a Critically Ill Patient.

Case reports in infectious diseases, 2020:8462659.

Dysbiosis of the microbiome is a common finding in critically ill patients, who receive broad-spectrum antibiotics and various forms of organ support. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms are a growing threat in all areas of medicine, but most markedly in the critically ill, where there is both loss of host defences and widespread use of broad spectrum antibiotics. We present a case of a critically ill patient with persistent MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), using stool of a rigorously-screened, healthy donor. FMT for Clostridium difficile colitis has been well described in the literature and is an established therapy for recurrent infections with Clostridium difficile. The use of FMT for other multidrug-resistant organisms is less frequently described, particularly in the context of critically ill patients. In our case, we have culture-documented clearance of the MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae form a patient of FMT.

RevDate: 2020-02-27

Mazzawi T, Eikrem Ø, Lied GA, et al (2020)

Abnormal Uroguanylin Immunoreactive Cells Density in the Duodenum of Patients with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Changes following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Gastroenterology research and practice, 2020:3520686.

Altered densities of enteroendocrine cells play an important role in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Uroguanylin activates guanylate cyclase-C to regulate intestinal electrolyte and water transport. Aim. To quantify uroguanylin immunoreactive cells density in the duodenum of diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients compared to controls and to investigate the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on these cell densities. Method. Twelve patients with IBS-D according to Rome III criteria were included. The cause was identified as post infectious (PI, n = 6) or idiopathic (n = 6). They completed the IBS-symptom questionnaire before and 3 weeks after FMT. Thirty grams of fresh feces donated from healthy relatives were diluted with 60 ml normal saline and instilled via endoscope into the duodenum. Biopsies were taken from the patients' duodenum before and 3 weeks after FMT. Duodenal biopsies taken from eight healthy controls were also included. The biopsies were immunostained for uroguanylin and quantified using computerized image analysis. Results. Uroguanylin immunoreactive cells were found both in duodenal villi and crypts in both controls and IBS-D patients. The densities of uroguanylin immunoreactive cells were significantly lower in the villi (P < 0.0001) and higher in the crypts (P < 0.0001) for the patients than the controls. Following FMT, the densities of uroguanylin immunoreactive cells for the total group and idiopathic subgroup decreased significantly in the duodenal crypts (P = 0.049 and 0.04, respectively) but not in the villi. No significant changes were shown in the PI-IBS subgroups. The cells density in only the crypts correlated with diarrhea (r = 0.97, P = 0.001) and bloating (r = -0.91, P = 0.01) in the PI-IBS subgroup before FMT and with abdominal pain (r = 0.63, P = 0.03) in the total group of IBS-D patients after FMT. Conclusion. Altered uroguanylin immunoreactive cells density was found in IBS-D patients compared to controls. Changes in these cells density following FMT correlated with IBS symptoms (diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain).

RevDate: 2020-02-24

Chen EB, Shapiro KE, Wun K, et al (2020)

Microbial Colonization of Germ-Free Mice Restores Neointimal Hyperplasia Development After Arterial Injury.

Journal of the American Heart Association, 9(5):e013496.

Background The potential role of the gut microbiome in cardiovascular diseases is increasingly evident. Arterial restenosis attributable to neointimal hyperplasia after cardiovascular procedures such as balloon angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgery is a common cause of treatment failure, yet whether gut microbiota participate in the development of neointimal hyperplasia remains largely unknown. Methods and Results We performed fecal microbial transplantation from conventionally raised male C57BL/6 mice to age-, sex-, and strain-matched germ-free mice. Five weeks after inoculation, all mice underwent unilateral carotid ligation. Neointimal hyperplasia development was quantified after 4 weeks. Conventionally raised and germ-free cohorts served as comparison groups. Conclusions Germ-free mice have significantly attenuated neointimal hyperplasia development compared with conventionally raised mice. The arterial remodeling response is restored by fecal transplantation. Our results describe a causative role of gut microbiota in contributing to the pathogenesis of neointimal hyperplasia.

RevDate: 2020-03-09

Lopetuso LR, Ianiro G, Allegretti JR, et al (2020)

Fecal transplantation for ulcerative colitis: current evidence and future applications.

Expert opinion on biological therapy, 20(4):343-351.

Introduction: Established evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a role in ulcerative colitis (UC). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is clearly recognized as a highly effective treatment for patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and has been investigated also in patients with UC, with promising results.Areas covered: Literature review was performed to select publications concerning current evidence on the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of UC, and on the effectiveness of FMT in this disorder.Expert opinion: The randomized controlled trials published investigating the use of FMT suggested a potential role for FMT in the treatment of mild to moderate UC. However, given several unanswered questions regarding donor selection, dose, route of administration and duration of therapy, this is not yet recommended as a viable therapy option. FMT has allowed for more in depth investigation with regards to the role the gut microbiota may be playing in UC. This knowledge is critical to identifying where FMT may appropriately fit in the UC treatment paradigm. As our understanding of the role the microbiome plays in this chronic disease, FMT, and then eventually defined microbes, will hopefully serve in a complementary role to conventional IBD therapies.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Pilmis B, Le Monnier A, JR Zahar (2020)

Gut Microbiota, Antibiotic Therapy and Antimicrobial Resistance: A Narrative Review.

Microorganisms, 8(2): pii:microorganisms8020269.

Antimicrobial resistance is a major concern. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated direct relationships between antibiotic consumption and emergence/dissemination of resistant strains. Within the last decade, authors confounded spectrum activity and ecological effects and did not take into account several other factors playing important roles, such as impact on anaerobic flora, biliary elimination and sub-inhibitory concentration. The ecological impact of antibiotics on the gut microbiota by direct or indirect mechanisms reflects the breaking of the resistance barrier to colonization. To limit the impact of antibiotic therapy on gut microbiota, consideration of the spectrum of activity and route of elimination must be integrated into the decision. Various strategies to prevent (antimicrobial stewardship, action on residual antibiotics at colonic level) or cure dysbiosis (prebiotic, probiotic and fecal microbiota transplantation) have been introduced or are currently being developed.

RevDate: 2020-02-20

Luo Y, Tixier EN, AM Grinspan (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides difficile in High-Risk Older Adults Is Associated with Early Recurrence.

Digestive diseases and sciences pii:10.1007/s10620-020-06147-z [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is highly effective for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). CDI disproportionately affects the elderly; however, there is a paucity of data on FMT effectiveness in older adults, especially subpopulations at highest risk for CDI-related morbidity and mortality.

AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of FMT for CDI in older adults.

METHODS: A retrospective, long-term follow-up study was performed. The high-risk subpopulation included patients who were immunocompromised, patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and patients presenting with severe or fulminant colitis. Outcome measures included primary cure rates, early (< 12 weeks) and late (> 12 weeks) recurrence rates, adverse events, and subgroup analysis of higher-risk populations.

RESULTS: Our cohort included 75 patients (72% female) with a mean age of 76.4 and Charlson comorbidity index score of 5.4. There were 34 patients in our higher-risk subpopulation as defined above with an adjusted recurrence rate of 32.1%. FMT was performed for severe or fulminant disease in 30.6% of patients with a 3-month survival rate of 73.9%. Overall, the adjusted primary cure rate was 67.2% and the adjusted CDI recurrence was 29.9% in our cohort (90% of recurrences occurred early). Most adverse events in our study were rehospitalizations for recurrent CDI.

CONCLUSION: Compared with previous studies of FMT efficacy, our cohort had a lower primary cure rate and higher CDI recurrence rate than previously reported, likely driven by our higher-risk subpopulations. Nevertheless, FMT should be considered early to prevent progression of CDI severity and recurrence, especially in patients who present with severe and fulminant disease.

RevDate: 2020-02-20

Yan X, Jin J, Su X, et al (2020)

Intestinal Flora Modulates Blood Pressure by Regulating the Synthesis of Intestinal-Derived Corticosterone in High Salt-Induced Hypertension.

Circulation research [Epub ahead of print].

Rationale: High-salt diet (HSD) is one of the most important risk factors for hypertension. Intestinal flora has been reported to be associated with high salt-induced hypertension (hSIH). However, the detailed roles of intestinal flora in hSIH pathogenesis have not yet been fully elucidated. Objective: To reveal the roles and mechanisms of intestinal flora in hSIH development. Methods and Results: The above-mentioned issues were investigated using various techniques including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, untargeted metabolomics, selective bacterial culture and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that HSD induced hypertension in Wistar rats. The fecal microbiota of healthy rats could dramatically lower blood pressure (BP) of hypertensive rats, while the fecal microbiota of hSIH rats had opposite effects. The composition, metabolism and interrelationship of intestinal flora in hSIH rats were considerably reshaped, including the increased corticosterone level and reduced Bacteroides and arachidonic acid (AA) levels, which tightly correlated with BP. The serum corticosterone level was also significantly increased in rats with hSIH. Furthermore, the above abnormalities were confirmed in patients with hypertension. The intestinal Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) could inhibit the production of intestinal-derived corticosterone induced by HSD through its metabolite AA. Conclusions: hSIH could be transferred by FMT, indicating the pivotal roles of intestinal flora in hSIH development. HSD reduced the levels of B. fragilis and AA in the intestine, which increased intestinal-derived corticosterone production and corticosterone levels in serum and intestine, thereby promoting BP elevation. This study revealed a novel mechanism different from inflammation/immunity by which intestinal flora regulated BP, namely intestinal flora could modulate BP by affecting steroid hormone levels. These findings enriched the understanding of the function of intestinal flora and its effects on hypertension.

RevDate: 2020-03-05

Liu X, Liu Y, Chen X, et al (2020)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes exacerbate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by altering gut microbiota and pulmonary and colonic macrophage phenotype in mice.

Toxicology, 435:152410 pii:S0300-483X(20)30049-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Epidemiologic studies show that the levels of air pollutants and particulate matter are positively associated with the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Here we demonstrate that the intratracheal instillation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), a standard fine particle, exacerbate doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice through altering gut microbiota and pulmonary and colonic macrophage phenotype. MWCNTs (25 μg/kg per day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks) promoted cardiotoxicity and apoptosis in the DOX (2 mg/kg, twice a week for 5 weeks)-treated C57BL/6 mice. MWCNTs exaggerated DOX-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis characterized by the increased abundances of Helicobacteraceae and Coriobacteriaceae. In addition, MWCNTs promoted DOX-induced M1-like polarization of colonic macrophages with an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β and CC chemokine ligand 2 in peripheral blood. Importantly, treatment with the antibiotics attenuated MWCNTs plus DOX-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and M1-like polarization of colonic macrophages. The fecal microbiota transplantation demonstrated that MWCNTs exaggerated DOX-induced cardiotoxicity with M1-like polarization of colonic macrophages. The conditioned medium from MWCNTs-treated pulmonary macrophages promoted DOX-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and colonic macrophage polarization. Furthermore, the co-culture of macrophages and fecal bacteria promoted M1-like macrophage polarization and their production of TNF-α and IL-1β, and thereby exacerbated the effects of MWCNTs. Moreover, IL-1β and TNF-α blockade, either alone or in combination attenuated MWCNTs-exacerbated cardiotoxicity. In summary, MWCNTs exacerbate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in mice through gut microbiota and pulmonary and colonic macrophage interaction. Our findings identify a novel mechanism of action of inhaled particle-driven cardiotoxicity.

RevDate: 2020-03-04

Xiao J, Wang T, Xu Y, et al (2020)

Long-term probiotic intervention mitigates memory dysfunction through a novel H3K27me3-based mechanism in lead-exposed rats.

Translational psychiatry, 10(1):25.

Chronic lead exposure is associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the long-term memory decline. However, whether this pathogenesis could be prevented through adjusting gut microbiota is not yet understood. To address the issue, pregnant rats and their female offspring were treated with lead (125 ppm) or separately the extra probiotics (1010 organisms/rat/day) till adulthood. For results, memory dysfunction was alleviated by the treatment of multispecies probiotics. Meanwhile, the gut microbiota composition was partially normalized against lead-exposed rats, which in turn mediated the memory repairment via fecal transplantation trials. In the molecular aspect, the decreased H3K27me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 Lys 27) in the adult hippocampus was restored with probiotic intervention, an epigenetic event mediated by EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) at early developmental stage. In a neural cellular model, EZH2 overexpression showed the similar rescue effect with probiotics, whereas its blockade led to the neural re-damages. Regarding the gut-brain inflammatory mediators, the disrupted IL-6 (interleukin 6) expression was resumed by probiotic treatment. Intraperitoneal injection of tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, upregulated the hippocampal EZH2 level and consequently alleviated the memory injuries. In conclusion, reshaping gut microbiota could mitigate memory dysfunction caused by chronic lead exposure, wherein the inflammation-hippocampal epigenetic pathway of IL-6-EZH2-H3K27me3, was first proposed to mediate the studied gut-brain communication. These findings provided insight with epigenetic mechanisms underlying a unique gut-brain interaction, shedding light on the safe and non-invasive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders with environmental etiology.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Wu H, Rao Q, Ma GC, et al (2019)

Effect of Triptolide on Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Ulcerative Colitis and Gut Microbiota in Mice.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 10:1652.

Triptolide is beneficial for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), which is closely related to the gut microbiota. However, whether the therapeutic effects of triptolide involve the regulation of the gut microbiota is still unclear. In the present study, animal models of UC mice induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) were established, the changes of gut microbiota in mice were detected by high-throughput sequencing. The effects of triptolide on DSS-induced UC mouse and its gut microbiota were studied. As a result, we found that triptolide exerted anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effects on UC mice. Sequencing results for the gut microbiota showed that the composition of the gut microbiota from DSS group was disordered as compared with that from the control group, consistent with a decrease in the abundance of flora. Triptolide treatment accelerated the recovery of the population of the gut microbiota and significantly improved the microbial diversity. At the phylum level, the population of Bacteroidetes decreased and that of Firmicutes increased. At the genus level, Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae counts decreased. Thus, triptolide could regulate the composition of the gut microbiota, accelerate the recovery of microbiota, and exert good therapeutic effects in UC mice. Our results also revealed that fecal transplantation from triptolide-treated mice could relieve UC. This study provides a reference for the rational use of triptolide for the treatment of UC.

RevDate: 2020-02-19

Cheng YW, M Fischer (2020)

Clinical management of severe, fulminant, and refractory Clostridioides difficile infection.

Expert review of anti-infective therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: Up to 15% of hospitalized patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) develop severe CDI (SCDI) or Fulminant CDI (FCDI). Due to high rates of mortality in medically-refractory CDI cases, 30% of patients with severe infection historically require surgical intervention. However, colectomy itself is an imperfect solution because it is difficult to predict who will fail medical therapy, patients with SCDI are more likely to have underlying medical conditions that make them poor surgical candidates, and post-surgical mortality still approaches 30-50%.Areas covered: This review will serve as a clinically-based review of severe and fulminant CDI management including discussion of models to predict severe infection, emerging treatments, novel targets for therapy, and innovations in surgical management.Expert opinion: Among the most promising studies to emerge in the last decade have involved fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is already recommended by multiple society guidelines for recurrent CDI (RCDI). In the case of SCDI/FCDI, multiple studies have safely and successfully utilized FMT to produce rates of cure in the 70-90% range. Additionally, patients who have FCDI refractory to medical therapy and are poor candidates for colectomy may benefit from FMT as salvage therapy.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Saurman V, Margolis KG, RA Luna (2020)

Autism Spectrum Disorder as a Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis Disorder.

Digestive diseases and sciences, 65(3):818-828.

While there are numerous medical comorbidities associated with ASD, gastrointestinal (GI) issues have a significant impact on quality of life for these individuals. Recent findings continue to support the relationship between the gut microbiome and both GI symptoms and behavior, but the heterogeneity within the autism spectrum requires in-depth clinical characterization of these clinical cohorts. Large, diverse, well-controlled studies in this area of research are still needed. Although there is still much to discover about the brain-gut-microbiome axis in ASD, microbially mediated therapies, specifically probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation have shown promise in the treatment of GI symptoms in ASD, with potential benefit to the core behavioral symptoms of ASD as well. Future research and clinical trials must increasingly consider complex phenotypes in ASD in stratification of large datasets as well as in design of inclusion criteria for individual therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2020-02-14

Shin JH, Lee YK, Shon WJ, et al (2020)

Gut microorganisms and their metabolites modulate the severity of acute colitis in a tryptophan metabolism-dependent manner.

European journal of nutrition pii:10.1007/s00394-020-02194-4 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Growing evidence shows that nutrient metabolism affects inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) development. Previously, we showed that deficiency of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (Ido1), a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme, reduced the severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. However, the roles played by intestinal microbiota in generating the differences in disease progression between Ido1+/+ and Ido1-/- mice are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the interactions between the intestinal microbiome and host IDO1 in governing intestinal inflammatory responses.

METHODS: Microbial 16s rRNA sequencing was conducted in Ido1+/+ and Ido1-/- mice after DSS treatment. Bacteria-derived tryptophan metabolites were measured in urine. Transcriptome analysis revealed the effects of the metabolite and IDO1 expression in HCT116 cells. Colitis severity of Ido1+/+ was compared to Ido1-/- mice following fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

RESULTS: Microbiome analysis through 16S-rRNA gene sequencing showed that IDO1 deficiency increased intestinal bacteria that use tryptophan preferentially to produce indolic compounds. Urinary excretion of 3-indoxyl sulfate, a metabolized form of gut bacteria-derived indole, was significantly higher in Ido1-/- than in Ido1+/+ mice. Transcriptome analysis showed that tight junction transcripts were significantly increased by indole treatment in HCT116 cells; however, the effects were diminished by IDO1 overexpression. Using FMT experiments, we demonstrated that bacteria from Ido1-/- mice could directly attenuate the severity of DSS-induced colitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that a genetic defect in utilizing tryptophan affects intestinal microbiota profiles, altering microbial metabolites, and colitis development. This suggests that the host and intestinal microbiota communicate through shared nutrient metabolic networks.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Carlson PE (Jr) (2020)

Regulatory Considerations for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Products.

Cell host & microbe, 27(2):173-175.

Fecal microbiota for transplantation (FMT) is being studied as a potential intervention for numerous conditions. The regulation of FMT by the FDA is discussed along with FMT donor screening and manufacturing considerations. The FDA is committed to ensuring that FMT products can be safely tested in clinical trials.

RevDate: 2020-03-02
CmpDate: 2020-03-02

Markey KA, van den Brink MRM, JU Peled (2020)

Therapeutics Targeting the Gut Microbiome: Rigorous Pipelines for Drug Development.

Cell host & microbe, 27(2):169-172.

Restoration of the gut microbiome is a promising preventive and therapeutic strategy in a number of clinical scenarios. We discuss here the scientific and clinical challenges of engineering and implementing these strategies.

RevDate: 2020-02-19

Meighani A, Alimirah M, Ramesh M, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides Difficile Infection in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease.

International journal of hepatology, 2020:1874570.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a well-established therapeutic option for patients with antibiotic resistant Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, the efficacy of FMT in patients with chronic liver disease remains elusive.

Aims: We studied the effect of FMT on chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with CDI at our tertiary medical center.

Methods: A cohort of all patients who received FMT from December 2012 to May 2014 for refractory or recurrent CDI was identified. Patients were monitored for a year after FMT. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare the effect of FMT in patients with and without CLD.

Results: A total of 201 patients with CDI received FMT, 14 of which had a history of CLD. Nine of these patients exhibited cirrhosis of the liver with a mean Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of 8. CDI development in these patients was associated with recent exposure to antibiotics and was observed to be significantly different between both groups (17% of CLD patients vs. 58% in the general cohort, p = 0.01). Four patients with CLD received >1 FMT, of which 2 did not respond to treatment. There was no significant difference between patients with liver disease and the rest of the cohort with regard to FMT response (12/14 (87%) vs. 164/187 (88%), p = 0.01). Four patients with CLD received >1 FMT, of which 2 did not respond to treatment. There was no significant difference between patients with liver disease and the rest of the cohort with regard to FMT response (12/14 (87%) vs. 164/187 (88%).

Conclusion: FMT is a safe and effective therapy against CDI for patients with CLD and cirrhosis.

RevDate: 2020-02-19

Quigley EMM, P Gajula (2020)

Recent advances in modulating the microbiome.

F1000Research, 9:.

We are in the midst of "the microbiome revolution"-not a day goes by without some new revelation on the potential role of the gut microbiome in some disease or disorder. From an ever-increasing recognition of the many roles of the gut microbiome in health and disease comes the expectation that its modulation could treat or prevent these very same diseases. A variety of interventions could, at least in theory, be employed to alter the composition or functional capacity of the microbiome, ranging from diet to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). For some, such as antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics, an extensive, albeit far from consistent, literature already exists; for others, such as other dietary supplements and FMT, high-quality clinical studies are still relatively few in number. Not surprisingly, researchers have turned to the microbiome itself as a source for new entities that could be used therapeutically to manipulate the microbiome; for example, some probiotic strains currently in use were sourced from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans. From all of the extant studies of interventions targeted at the gut microbiome, a number of important themes have emerged. First, with relatively few exceptions, we are still a long way from a precise definition of the role of the gut microbiome in many of the diseases where a disturbed microbiome has been described-association does not prove causation. Second, while animal models can provide fascinating insights into microbiota-host interactions, they rarely recapitulate the complete human phenotype. Third, studies of several interventions have been difficult to interpret because of variations in study population, test product, and outcome measures, not to mention limitations in study design. The goal of microbiome modulation is a laudable one, but we need to define our targets, refine our interventions, and agree on outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Ding X, Li Q, Li P, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation: A promising treatment for radiation enteritis?.

Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology pii:S0167-8140(20)30023-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has indicated that gut microbiota is closely associated with radiation-induced bowel injury. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with chronic radiation enteritis (CRE).

METHODS: A pilot study of FMT for CRE was performed. The primary outcomes were safety and response to FMT which was defined as a ≥1-grade reduction in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG/EORTC) late toxicity grade from baseline, by 8 weeks post-FMT. The secondary outcomes included a decrease in the severity of four common symptoms (diarrhea, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal/rectal pain and fecal incontinence) in CRE and changes in Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score. Microbial analyses were performed by 16S rRNA sequencing.

RESULTS: Five female patients underwent FMT from January to November 2018 with a median age of 58 (range 45-81) years. The median baseline RTOG/EORTC grade was 2 (range 2-4). Three patients responded to FMT and experienced improvement in diarrhea, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal/rectal pain and fecal incontinence as well as a decrease in KPS score. No FMT-related death and infectious complications occurred. One mild FMT-related AE was observed during a follow-up ranged from 8 to 18 months. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that FMT altered the composition of gut microbiota of patients.

CONCLUSION: The present case series first demonstrated that FMT might be safe and effective to improve intestinal symptoms and mucosal injury in patients with CRE for a period of time. Trial registration ID: NCT03516461.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Han J, Wang X, Tang S, et al (2020)

Protective effects of tuna meat oligopeptides (TMOP) supplementation on hyperuricemia and associated renal inflammation mediated by gut microbiota.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Recently, interest in using whole food-derived mixtures to alleviate chronic metabolic syndrome through potential synergistic interactions among different components is increasing. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of tuna meat oligopeptides (TMOP) on hyperuricemia and associated renal inflammation were investigated in mice. Dietary administration of TMOP alleviated hyperuricemia and renal inflammation phenotypes, reprogramed uric acid metabolism pathways, inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways, and suppressed the phosphorylation of p65-NF-κB. In addition, TMOP treatments repaired the intestinal epithelial barrier, reversed the gut microbiota dysbiosis and increased the production of short-chain fatty acids. Moreover, the antihyperuricemia effects of TMOP were transmissible by transplanting the fecal microbiota from TMOP-treated mice, indicating that the protective effects were at least partially mediated by the gut microbiota. Thus, for the first time, we clarify the potential effects of TMOP as a whole food derived ingredient on alleviating hyperuricemia and renal inflammation in mice, and additional efforts are needed to confirm the beneficial effects of TMOP on humans.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Abu-Sbeih H, Y Wang (2020)

Gut Microbiome and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Enterocolitis.

Digestive diseases and sciences, 65(3):797-799.

The gut microbiome is increasingly being described as one of the underlying mechanisms for development of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-induced colitis. Similarities in gut microbiome profiles have been found among various diseases associated with intestinal inflammation, including inflammatory bowel disease. Certain bacterial species have been reported to be preventive for colitis, as well as beneficial for cancer outcome, in patients receiving ICI therapy. Alternatively, other bacterial classes have been shown to be associated with immunologic alterations causing intestinal inflammation with subsequent increase in the risk of ICI-related colitis. Gut microbiome manipulation by fecal transplantation has been proposed as one of the modalities to ameliorate inflammation in patients with ICI-related colitis refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Additional investigations are needed to clarify the role of gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of ICI-related colitis.

RevDate: 2020-02-10

Guo XY, Liu XJ, JY Hao (2020)

Gut Microbiota in Ulcerative Colitis: Insights on Pathogenesis and Treatment.

Journal of digestive diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota constitute the largest reservoir of the human microbiome, and is an abundant and stable ecosystem - based on its diversity, complexity, redundancy, and host interactions. This ecosystem is indispensable for human development and health. The integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier depends on its interactions with gut microbiota. The commensal bacterial community is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease(IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC). The dysbiosis of microbes is characterized by reduced biodiversity, abnormal composition, altered spatial distribution, as well as interactions among microbiota, between different strains of microbiota, and with the host. The defects in microecology, with the related metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms, play a critical role in the innate immunity of the intestinal mucosa in UC. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used to treat many diseases related to gut microbiota, with the most promising outcome reported in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, followed by IBD. This review evaluated the results of various reports of FMT in UC. The efficacy of FMT remains highly controversial, and needs to be regularized by integrated management, standardization of procedures, and individualization of treatment.

RevDate: 2020-03-04

Schwenger KJ, Clermont-Dejean N, JP Allard (2019)

The role of the gut microbiome in chronic liver disease: the clinical evidence revised.

JHEP reports : innovation in hepatology, 1(3):214-226.

Recent research has suggested a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of a wide range of liver diseases. The intestinal microbiota and bacterial products may contribute to the development of liver diseases through multiple mechanisms including increased intestinal permeability, chronic systemic inflammation, production of short-chain fatty acids and changes in metabolism. This suggests a potential role for pre-, pro- and synbiotic products in the prevention or treatment of some liver diseases. In addition, there is emerging evidence on the effects of faecal microbial transplant. Herein, we discuss the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and liver diseases, as well as reviewing intestinal microbiota-based treatment options that are currently being investigated.

RevDate: 2020-03-04

Wang Y, Xu L, Sun X, et al (2020)

Characteristics of the fecal microbiota of high- and low-yield hens and effects of fecal microbiota transplantation on egg production performance.

Research in veterinary science, 129:164-173.

The microbiota that resides in the digestive tract plays pivotal role in maintaining intestinal environmental stability by promoting nutrition digestion and intestinal mucosal immunity. However, whether the intestinal microbiota in laying hens affects egg laying- performance is not known. In this study, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and fecal microbiota transplantation were used to determine the structure of the intestinal microbiota and the effect of the intestinal microbiota on egg production. The results revealed that Firmicutes were dominant in both the H (high egg laying rates) and L (low egg laying rates) groups, while Bacteroides, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were significantly enriched in the L group compared to the H group. The laying rates were weakly affected in H hens transplanted with the fecal microbiota from L hens, except for temporary fluctuation, while the egg laying rates were significantly increased in L hens transplanted with the fecal microbiota from H hens. Therefore, we concluded that the population structure of the intestinal microbiota varied between the H and L groups, and the intestinal microbiota of high-yield laying hens had significant effects on low-yield laying hens performance.

RevDate: 2020-02-06

Park S, Kang Y, Koh H, et al (2020)

Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents: the significance of the environmental factors.

Clinical and experimental pediatrics pii:cep.2019.00500 [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic relapsing immune-mediated disease of the intestinal tract. Although its prevalence is investigated to be lower in Asia than in Western countries, the rapid increase in the incidence rate of inflammatory bowel disease has drawn attention to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease, including genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Specifically, recent studies concerning dietary treatments and intestinal microbiota suggest that these factors may interact with the immune system, and the imbalance of this relationship may lead to the immune dysregulation in inflammatory bowel disease. The changes in diet or alteration in the composition of intestinal microbiota may be associated with the increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia. Here, we aim to review the recent studies on the role of the diet and intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis and the results of the investigations performed to modulate these factors.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Swarte JC, Douwes RM, Hu S, et al (2020)

Characteristics and Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiome in Renal Transplant Recipients.

Journal of clinical medicine, 9(2): pii:jcm9020386.

Renal transplantation is life-changing in many aspects. This includes changes to the gut microbiome likely due to exposure to immunosuppressive drugs and antibiotics. As a consequence, renal transplant recipients (RTRs) might suffer from intestinal dysbiosis. We aimed to investigate the gut microbiome of RTRs and compare it with healthy controls and to identify determinants of the gut microbiome of RTRs. Therefore, RTRs and healthy controls participating in the TransplantLines Biobank and Cohort Study (NCT03272841) were included. We analyzed the gut microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and compared the composition of the gut microbiome of RTRs to healthy controls using multivariate association with linear models (MaAsLin). Fecal samples of 139 RTRs (50% male, mean age: 58.3 ± 12.8 years) and 105 healthy controls (57% male, mean age: 59.2 ± 10.6 years) were collected. Median time after transplantation of RTRs was 6.0 (1.5-12.5)years. The microbiome composition of RTRs was significantly different from that of healthy controls, and RTRs had a lower diversity of the gut microbiome (p < 0.01). Proton-pump inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are significant determinants of the gut microbiome of RTRs (p < 0.05). Use of mycophenolate mofetil correlated to a lower diversity (p < 0.01). Moreover, significant alterations were found in multiple bacterial taxa between RTRs and healthy controls. The gut microbiome of RTRs contained more Proteobacteria and less Actinobacteria, and there was a loss of butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut microbiome of RTRs. By comparing the gut microbiome of RTRs to healthy controls we have shown that RTRs suffer from dysbiosis, a disruption in the balance of the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Kachrimanidou M, E Tsintarakis (2020)

Insights into the Role of Human Gut Microbiota in Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Microorganisms, 8(2): pii:microorganisms8020200.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a major health problem worldwide. A major risk factor for disease development is prior antibiotic use, which disrupts the normal gut microbiota by altering its composition and the gut's metabolic functions, leading to the loss of colonization resistance and subsequent CDI. Data from human studies have shown that the presence of C. difficile, either as a colonizer or as a pathogen, is associated with a decreased level of gut microbiota diversity. The investigation of the gut's microbial communities, in both healthy subjects and patients with CDI, elucidate the role of microbiota and improve the current biotherapeutics for patients with CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation has a major role in managing CDI, aiming at re-establishing colonization resistance in the host gastrointestinal tract by replenishing the gut microbiota. New techniques, such as post-genomics, proteomics and metabolomics analyses, can possibly determine in the future the way in which C. difficile eradicates colonization resistance, paving the way for the development of new, more successful treatments and prevention. The aim of the present review is to present recent data concerning the human gut microbiota with a focus on its important role in health and disease.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Lechner S, Yee M, Limketkai BN, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Chronic Liver Diseases: Current Understanding and Future Direction.

Digestive diseases and sciences, 65(3):897-905.

Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Even though effective treatments are now available for most chronic viral hepatitis, treatment options for other causes of chronic liver disease remain inadequate. Recent research has revealed a previously unappreciated role that the human intestinal microbiome plays in mediating the development and progression of chronic liver diseases. The recent remarkable success of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating Clostridioides difficile demonstrates that the intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to obtain favorable therapeutic benefits and that FMT may become an important component of a total therapeutic approach to effectively treat hepatic disorders.

RevDate: 2020-02-25

Ghimire S, Roy C, Wongkuna S, et al (2020)

Identification of Clostridioides difficile-Inhibiting Gut Commensals Using Culturomics, Phenotyping, and Combinatorial Community Assembly.

mSystems, 5(1):.

A major function of the gut microbiota is to provide colonization resistance, wherein pathogens are inhibited or suppressed below infectious levels. However, the fraction of gut microbiota required for colonization resistance remains unclear. We used culturomics to isolate a gut microbiota culture collection comprising 1,590 isolates belonging to 102 species. This culture collection represents 34.57% of the taxonomic diversity and 70% functional capacity, as estimated by metagenomic sequencing of the fecal samples used for culture. Using whole-genome sequencing, we characterized species representatives from this collection and predicted their phenotypic traits, further characterizing isolates by defining nutrient utilization profiles and short-chain fatty acid production. When screened with a coculture assay, 66 species in our culture collection inhibited Clostridioides difficile Several phenotypes, particularly, growth rate, production of SCFAs, and the utilization of mannitol, sorbitol, or succinate, correlated with C. difficile inhibition. We used a combinatorial community assembly approach to formulate defined bacterial mixes inhibitory to C. difficile We tested 256 combinations and found that both species composition and blend size were important in inhibition. Our results show that the interaction of bacteria with one another in a mix and with other members of gut commensals must be investigated to design defined bacterial mixes for inhibiting C. difficilein vivoIMPORTANCE Antibiotic treatment causes instability of gut microbiota and the loss of colonization resistance, thus allowing pathogens such as Clostridioides difficile to colonize and causing recurrent infection and mortality. Although fecal microbiome transplantation has been shown to be an effective treatment for C. difficile infection (CDI), a more desirable approach would be the use of a defined mix of inhibitory gut bacteria. The C. difficile-inhibiting species and bacterial combinations identified herein improve the understanding of the ecological interactions controlling colonization resistance against C. difficile and could aid in the design of defined bacteriotherapy as a nonantibiotic alternative against CDI.

RevDate: 2020-02-20

You JHS, Jiang X, Lee WH, et al (2020)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at risk for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). We aimed to evaluate the potential health economic and clinical outcomes of four strategies for management of RCDI in IBD patients from the perspective of public health-care provider in Hong Kong.

METHODS: A decision-analytic model was designed to simulate outcomes of adult IBD patients with first RCDI treated with vancomycin, vancomycin plus bezlotoxumab, fidaxomicin and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Model inputs were derived from literature and public data. Primary model outcomes were C. difficile infection (CDI)-related direct medical cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) loss. Base-case and sensitivity analysis were performed.

RESULTS: Comparing to vancomycin, fidaxomicin and vancomycin plus bezlotoxumab, FMT saved 0.00318, 0.00149 and 0.00306 QALYs and reduced cost by USD3180, USD3790 and USD5514, respectively, in base-case analysis. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, FMT was cost-saving when comparing to vancomycin, fidaxomicin and vancomycin plus bezlotoxumab by USD3765 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3732-3798; P < 0.001), USD3854 (95%CI 3827-3883; P < 0.001) and USD6501 (95%CI 6465-6,536; P < 0.001), respectively. The QALYs saved by FMT (vs vancomycin) were 0.00386 QALYs (95%CI 0.00384-0.00388; P < 0.001), (vs fidaxomicin) 0.00179 QALYs (95%CI 0.00177-0.00180; P < 0.001) and (vs vancomycin plus bezlotoxumab) 0.00376 QALYs (95%CI 0.00374-0.00378; P < 0.001). FMT was found to save QALYs at lower cost in 99.3% (vs vancomycin), 99.7% (vs fidaxomicin) and 100.0% (vs vancomycin plus bezlotoxumab) of the 10 000 Monte Carlo simulations.

CONCLUSIONS: FMT for IBD patients with RCDI appeared to save both direct medical cost and QALYs when comparing to vancomycin (with or without bezlotoxumab) and fidaxomicin.

RevDate: 2020-03-04

Peng Y, Thomas AS, Wei D, et al (2020)

An Aggressive Approach Toward a Case of Refractory Ulcerative Colitis With Uncertain Etiology in the Context of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

Inflammatory bowel diseases, 26(4):e26-e27.

RevDate: 2020-02-14

Li B, Yin GF, Wang YL, et al (2020)

Impact of fecal microbiota transplantation on TGF-β1/Smads/ERK signaling pathway of endotoxic acute lung injury in rats.

3 Biotech, 10(2):52.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common clinical disease with high morbidity in both humans and animals. Studies have shown that intestinal microbiota affect the pathology and immune function of respiratory diseases through the "gut-lung axis". The authors investigated the therapeutic effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in rats with ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were treated with FMT, and then measured lung wet/dry ratio, PaO2 in artery, proinflammatory marker, and TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad7, and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) protein levels, as well as a histopathologic analysis and high-throughput sequencing of intestinal microbiota. FMT significantly reduced lung wet/dry ratio and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels, but increased the levels of PaO2 in artery. In addition, FMT significantly decreased the expression of TGF-β1, Smad3, and p-ERK, while increased the levels of Smad7. Lung histopathological analyses showed that FMT reduced the inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial lung exudates. High-throughput sequencing of intestinal microbiota analyses showed that FMT reconstructed the structure of intestinal microbiota, and increased the gene abundance of the bacterial community. Therefore, FMT may act on the TGF-β1/Smads/ERK pathway by regulating intestinal microbiota, inhibiting immune inflammation, reducing the production of inflammatory markers in the body and release, and reducing alveolar epithelial damage and repair, thereby improving the endotoxic ALI in rats induced by LPS.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Sokol H, Landman C, Seksik P, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation to maintain remission in Crohn's disease: a pilot randomized controlled study.

Microbiome, 8(1):12.

BACKGROUND: The role of the gut microbiota in Crohn's disease (CD) is established and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an attractive therapeutic strategy. No randomized controlled clinical trial results are available. We performed a randomized, single-blind, sham-controlled pilot trial of FMT in adults with colonic or ileo-colonic CD.

METHOD: Patients enrolled while in flare received oral corticosteroid. Once in clinical remission, patients were randomized to receive either FMT or sham transplantation during a colonoscopy. Corticosteroids were tapered and a second colonoscopy was performed at week 6. The primary endpoint was the implantation of the donor microbiota at week 6 (Sorensen index > 0.6).

RESULTS: Eight patients received FMT and nine sham transplantation. None of the patients reached the primary endpoint. The steroid-free clinical remission rate at 10 and 24 weeks was 44.4% (4/9) and 33.3% (3/9) in the sham transplantation group and 87.5% (7/8) and 50.0% (4/8; one patient loss of follow-up while in remission at week 12 and considered in flare at week 24) in the FMT group. Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity decreased 6 weeks after FMT (p = 0.03) but not after sham transplantation (p = 0.8). Conversely, the CRP level increased 6 weeks after sham transplantation (p = 0.008) but not after FMT (p = 0.5). Absence of donor microbiota engraftment was associated with flare. No safety signal was identified.

CONCLUSION: The primary endpoint was not reached for any patient. In this pilot study, higher colonization by donor microbiota was associated with maintenance of remission. These results must be confirmed in larger studies (NCT02097797). Video abstract.

RevDate: 2020-02-03

Perler BK, Chen B, Phelps E, et al (2020)

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Journal of clinical gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

GOALS: We investigated the long-term efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI).

BACKGROUND: FMT has emerged as a promising therapy for patients with rCDI unresponsive to standard medical therapy, though long-term efficacy and safety data are scarce.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was performed on patients treated with FMT for rCDI with ≥6 months of clinical follow-up post-FMT. Patients were contacted to document sustained efficacy, potential adverse events, and antibiotic exposure. The electronic medical record was reviewed to confirm patient-reported outcomes and obtain additional data. The primary outcome was sustained cure, as defined by the absence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) at any timepoint after FMT.

RESULTS: Of 528 patients treated, 207 were successfully contacted. The mean follow-up post-FMT was 34 (range: 6 to 84) months. One hundred fifty-seven patients (75.8%) reported sustained cure at the time of follow-up. One hundred patients (48%) reported the use of antibiotics for non-CDI indications post-FMT, of whom 11 (11%) had experienced CDI post-FMT. Fifty-two of the original 528 patients (9.8%) treated with FMT had died at the time of follow-up contact; none were felt attributable to the procedure. New medical conditions or diagnoses post-FMT were reported in 105 patients (50.5%). Fifteen reported improvement post-FMT in previously diagnosed medical conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: In this largest and longest study to date on efficacy and safety after FMT for treatment of rCDI, we found that the majority of patients experienced long-term cure. Although a number of new conditions developed post-FMT, there was no clustering of diseases associated with dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Wang H, Lu Y, Yan Y, et al (2019)

Promising Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Reverses Insulin Resistance and Impaired Islets.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:455.

Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic disorder related to insulin resistance, or deficiency of insulin secretion, caused by decreased insulin sensitivity and destruction of islet structure and function. As the second human genome, the microbiota has been observed to have a growing relationship with diabetes in recent years. Microbiota imbalance has been hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and the inflammatory immune response in diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could alleviate the symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes. To this end, a type 2 diabetes mouse model was first established through the consumption of a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg), and FMT was used to rebuild the gut microbiota of diabetic mice. Fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance tests, and HbA1c levels were monitored, while the hypoglycemic effects of FMT were also observed. Insulin levels were tested by ELISA and related indexes such as HOMA-IR, HOMA-IS, and HOMA-β were calculated. We found that insulin resistance and pancreatic islet β-cells were improved after FMT treatment. Meanwhile, the markers of inflammation in the pancreatic tissue were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, which indicated that inflammatory response decreased following FMT treatment. Furthermore, flow cytometry and western blot results revealed that FMT inhibited the β-cell apoptosis. Here, the effect of FMT on hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes was addressed by improving insulin resistance and repairing impaired islets, thereby providing a potential treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Zama D, Bossù G, Leardini D, et al (2020)

Insights into the role of intestinal microbiota in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

Therapeutic advances in hematology, 11:2040620719896961.

The gut microbiota (GM) is able to modulate the human immune system. The development of novel investigation methods has provided better characterization of the GM, increasing our knowledge of the role of GM in the context of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). In particular, the GM influences the development of the major complications seen after HSCT, having an impact on overall survival. In fact, this evidence highlights the possible therapeutic implications of modulation of the GM during HSCT. Insights into the complex mechanisms and functions of the GM are essential for the rational design of these therapeutics. To date, preemptive and curative approaches have been tested. The current state of understanding of the impact of the GM on HSCT, and therapies targeting the GM balance is reviewed herein.

RevDate: 2020-02-03

Zhou HY, Guo B, Lufumpa E, et al (2020)

Comparative of the Effectiveness and Safety of Biological Agents, Tofacitinib, and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Ulcerative Colitis: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Immunological investigations [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Biological agents are commonly used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). As new treatments, tofacitinib, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have demonstrated efficacy in treating UC. This network meta-analysis aims to determine the efficacy and safety of biological agents, tofacitinib, and FMT.

METHODS: A network meta-analysis was conducted by systematically searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Libraries. According to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological agents, tofacitinib, and FMT in UC. A random-effect model was chosen by the network meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis. Heterogeneity test and publication bias test were performed to determine the efficacy of treatments.

RESULTS: Data were extracted from 16 RCTs and we found that all treatments were more effective than the placebos. A total of 21 comparisons were made to determine efficiency. We found that infliximab, vedolizumab, and FMT performed better curative effect in terms of absolute effects and relative ranks. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in the efficacy of biological agents, tofacitinib, and FMT. Moreover, no treatments were found to increase the occurrence of adverse events when compared with placebos, except infliximab. However, vedolizumab seemed to reduce the occurrence of adverse events compared with infliximab.

CONCLUSION: Of the biological agents, vedolizumab and infliximab were the most effective, suggesting that biological agents are still a better choice. Nevertheless, tofacitinib and FMT may be promising alternatives with high efficacies. However, more safety and maintenance studies need to be conducted in future for the acquisition of more accurate results.Abbreviations: FMT: Fecal microbiota transplantation; UC: Ulcerative colitis; RCTs: Randomized controlled trials; IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease; CD: Crohn's disease; IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome; CDI: Clostridium difficile infections; ITT: Intention-to-treat; RR: Relative risk; CI: Confidence interval; CrI: Credible intervals; IFX: Infliximab; ADA: Adalimumab; TFB: Tofacitinib; GLM: Golimumab; VDZ: Vedolizumab; PBO: Placebo; wk: week; F: Female; M: Male; AEs: Adverse events; SAEs: Serious adverse events; anti-TNF: Anti-tumor necrosis factors.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

DuPont HL, Jiang ZD, DuPont AW, et al (2020)

Abnormal Intestinal Microbiome in Medical Disorders and Potential Reversibility by Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Digestive diseases and sciences, 65(3):741-756.

Reduction in diversity of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis) is being identified in many disease states, and studies are showing important biologic contributions of microbiome to health and disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is being evaluated as a way to reverse dysbiosis in diseases and disorders in an attempt to improve health. The published literature was reviewed to determine the value of FMT in the treatment of medical disorders for which clinical trials have recently been conducted. FMT is effective in treating recurrent C. difficile infection in one or two doses, with many healthy donors providing efficacious fecal-derived products. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), FMT may lead to remission in approximately one-third of moderate-to-severe illnesses with one study suggesting that more durable FMT responses may be seen when used once medical remissions have been achieved. Donor products differ in their efficacy in treatment of IBD. Combining donor products has been one way to increase the potential value of FMT in treating chronic disorders. FMT is being explored in a variety of clinical settings affecting different organ systems outside CDI, with positive preliminary signals, in treatment of functional constipation, immunotherapy-induced colitis, neurodegenerative disease, as well as prevention of cancer-related disorders like graft versus host disease and decolonization of patients with recurrent urinary tract infection due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Currently, intense research is underway to see how the microbiome products like FMT can be harnessed for health benefits.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Oka A, RB Sartor (2020)

Microbial-Based and Microbial-Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Digestive diseases and sciences, 65(3):757-788.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis, are chronic, relapsing intestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by dysregulated immune responses to resident microbiota. Current standard therapies that block immune activation with oral immunosuppressives or biologic agents are generally effective, but each therapy induces a sustained remission in only a minority of patients. Furthermore, these approaches can have severe adverse events. Recent compelling evidence of a role of unbalanced microbiota (dysbiosis) driving immune dysfunction and inflammation in IBD supports the therapeutic rationale for manipulating the dysbiotic microbiota. Traditional approaches using currently available antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have not produced optimal results, but promising outcomes with fecal microbiota transplant provide a proof of principle for targeting the resident microbiota. Rationally designed oral biotherapeutic products (LBPs) composed of mixtures of protective commensal bacterial strains demonstrate impressive preclinical results. Resident microbial-based and microbial-targeted therapies are currently being studied with increasing intensity for IBD primary therapy with favorable early results. This review presents current evidence and therapeutic mechanisms of microbiota modulation, emphasizing clinical studies, and outlines prospects for future IBD treatment using new approaches, such as LBPs, bacteriophages, bacterial function-editing substrates, and engineered bacteria. We believe that the optimal clinical use of microbial manipulation may be as adjuvants to immunosuppressive for accelerated and improved induction of deep remission and as potential safer solo approaches to sustained remission using personalized regimens based on an individual patient's microbial profile.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Mounsey A, Lacy Smith K, Reddy VC, et al (2020)

Clostridioides difficile Infection: Update on Management.

American family physician, 101(3):168-175.

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection have recently been updated. Risk factors include recent exposure to health care facilities or antibiotics, especially clindamycin. C. difficile infection is characterized by a wide range of symptoms, from mild or moderate diarrhea to severe disease with pseudomembranous colitis, colonic ileus, toxic megacolon, sepsis, or death. C. difficile infection should be considered in patients who are not taking laxatives and have three or more episodes of unexplained, unformed stools in 24 hours. Testing in these patients should start with enzyme immunoassays for glutamate dehydrogenase and toxins A and B or nucleic acid amplification testing. In children older than 12 months, testing is recommended only for those with prolonged diarrhea and risk factors. Treatment depends on whether the episode is an initial vs. recurrent infection and on the severity of the infection based on white blood cell count, serum creatinine level, and other clinical signs and symptoms. For an initial episode of nonsevere C. difficile infection, oral vancomycin or oral fidaxomicin is recommended. Metronidazole is no longer recommended as first-line therapy for adults. Fecal microbiota transplantation is a reasonable treatment option with high cure rates in patients who have had multiple recurrent episodes and have received appropriate antibiotic therapy for at least three of the episodes. Good antibiotic stewardship is a key strategy to decrease rates of C. difficile infection. In routine or endemic settings, hands should be cleaned with either soap and water or an alcohol-based product, but during outbreaks soap and water is superior. The Infectious Diseases Society of America does not recommend the use of probiotics for prevention of C. difficile infection.

RevDate: 2020-02-04

Ma Y, Liu S, Shu H, et al (2020)

Resveratrol alleviates temporomandibular joint inflammatory pain by recovering disturbed gut microbiota.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(19)31299-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) often experience persistent facial pain. However, the treatment of TMD pain is still inadequate. In recent years, the disturbance of gut microbiota has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of different neurological diseases including chronic pain. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of gut microbiota in the development of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Intra-temporomandibular joint injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was employed to induce TMJ inflammation. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory property, was used to treat the CFA-induced TMJ inflammation. We observed that CFA injection not only induces persistent joint pain, but also causes the reduction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, including acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) in the gut as well as decreases relevant gut bacteria Bacteroidetes and Lachnospiraceae. Interestingly, systemic administration of RSV (i.p.) dose-dependently inhibits CFA-induced TMJ inflammation, reverses CFA-caused reduction of SCFAs and these gut bacteria. Moreover, CFA injection causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, activates microglia and enhances tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) release in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C). The RSV treatment restores the BBB integrity, inhibits microglial activation and decreases the release of TNFα in the Sp5C. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation with feces from RSV-treated mice significantly diminishes the CFA-induced TMJ inflammation. Taken together, our results suggest that gut microbiome perturbation is critical for the development of TMJ inflammation and that recovering gut microbiome to normal levels could be a new therapeutic approach for treating such pain.

RevDate: 2020-01-31

Pilla R, JS Suchodolski (2019)

The Role of the Canine Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in Health and Gastrointestinal Disease.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 6:498.

The gut microbiome contributes to host metabolism, protects against pathogens, educates the immune system, and, through these basic functions, affects directly or indirectly most physiologic functions of its host. Molecular techniques have allowed us to expand our knowledge by unveiling a wide range of unculturable bacteria that were previously unknown. Most bacterial sequences identified in the canine gastrointestinal (GI) tract fall into five phyla: Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. While there are variations in the microbiome composition along the GI tract, most clinical studies concentrate on fecal microbiota. Age, diet, and many other environmental factors may play a significant role in the maintenance of a healthy microbiome, however, the alterations they cause pale in comparison with the alterations found in diseased animals. GI dysfunctions are the most obvious association with gut dysbiosis. In dogs, intestinal inflammation, whether chronic or acute, is associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Gut dysbiosis happens when such alterations result in functional changes in the microbial transcriptome, proteome, or metabolome. Commonly affected metabolites include short-chain fatty acids, and amino acids, including tryptophan and its catabolites. A recently developed PCR-based algorithm termed "Dysbiosis Index" is a tool that allows veterinarians to quantify gut dysbiosis and can be used to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. Alterations or imbalances in the microbiota affect immune function, and strategies to manipulate the gut microbiome may be useful for GI related diseases. Antibiotic usage induces a rapid and significant drop in taxonomic richness, diversity, and evenness. For that reason, a renewed interest has been put on probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Although probiotics are typically unable to colonize the gut, the metabolites they produce during their transit through the GI tract can ameliorate clinical signs and modify microbiome composition. Another interesting development is FMT, which may be a promising tool to aid recovery from dysbiosis, but further studies are needed to evaluate its potential and limitations.

RevDate: 2020-01-31

Albouery M, Buteau B, Grégoire S, et al (2019)

Age-Related Changes in the Gut Microbiota Modify Brain Lipid Composition.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:444.

Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes observed during aging is a prerequisite to design strategies to prevent age-related diseases. Aging is associated with metabolic changes, including alteration in the brain lipid metabolism. These alterations may contribute to the development of pathophysiological conditions. Modifications in the gut microbiota composition are also observed during aging. As communication axes exist between the gut microbiota and the brain and knowing that microbiota influences the host metabolism, we speculated on whether age-associated modifications in the gut microbiota could be involved in the lipid changes observed in aging brain. For that purpose, germ-free mice were colonized by the fecal microbiota of young or old donor mice. Lipid classes and fatty acid profiles were determined in the brain (cortex), plasma and liver by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel-coated quartz rods and gas chromatography. Gut colonization by microbiota of old mice resulted in a significant increase in total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and a significant decrease in the relative amounts of cholesterol and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the cortex. Among the eight most represented fatty acids in the cortex, the relative abundances of five (C18:1n-9, C22:6n-3, C20:4n-6, C18:1n-7, and C20:1n-9) were significantly altered in mice inoculated with an aged microbiota. Liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the relative abundance of major species among phosphatidyl and plasmenylcholine (PC 16:0/18:1), phosphatidyl and plasmenylethanolamine (PE 18:0/22:6), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE 22:6) and sphingomyelins (SM d18:1/18:0) were significantly altered in the cortex of mice colonized by the microbiota obtained from aged donors. Transplantation of microbiota from old mice also modified the lipid class and fatty acid content in the liver. Finally, we found that the expression of several genes involved in MUFA and PUFA synthesis (Scd1, Fads1, Fads2, Elovl2, and Elovl5) was dysregulated in mice inoculated with an aged microbiota. In conclusion, our data suggest that changes in gut microbiota that are associated with aging can impact brain and liver lipid metabolisms. Lipid changes induced by an aged microbiota recapitulate some features of aging, thus pointing out the potential role of microbiota alterations in the age-related degradation of the health status.

RevDate: 2020-01-31

Xi D, S Michail (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in children does not significantly alter body mass index.

Translational pediatrics, 8(5):398-401.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is nowadays a promising therapy for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and a potential treatment for ulcerative colitis. However, it is still unclear whether the changes in intestinal microbiome will affect energy homeostasis or metabolism. This brings an intriguing question whether FMT from healthy donors affects recipient's body mass index (BMI).

Methods: In our randomized placebo-controlled study children patients with CDI or ulcerative colitis were randomly divided into control and FMT groups. The change of post-FMT BMI percentile at 1, 3, 6, 12 months was calculated. The age range of CDI cohort was 1 to 17 years, while the range was 8 to 21 years for ulcerative colitis cohort.

Results: We found that the BMI percentile was insignificantly changed by ‒0.7%, ‒1.8%, 1.3%, 4.6% in CDI, while by 3.6%, ‒3.3%, 3.7%, 7.1% in ulcerative colitis at 1, 3, 6, 12 months after FMT ("‒" means decrease).

Conclusions: We concluded that FMT from healthy donors does not significantly alter BMI in children with CDI and ulcerative colitis over 12 months.

RevDate: 2020-02-25

Oliphant K, Cochrane K, Schroeter K, et al (2020)

Effects of Antibiotic Pretreatment of an Ulcerative Colitis-Derived Fecal Microbial Community on the Integration of Therapeutic Bacteria In Vitro.

mSystems, 5(1):.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a proposedly useful strategy for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders through remediation of the patient gut microbiota. However, its therapeutic success has been variable, necessitating research to uncover mechanisms that improve patient response. Antibiotic pretreatment has been proposed as one method to enhance the success rate by increasing niche availability for introduced species. Several limitations hinder exploring this hypothesis in clinical studies, such as deleterious side effects and the development of antimicrobial resistance in patients. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an in vitro, bioreactor-based, colonic ecosystem model as a form of preclinical testing by determining how pretreatment with the antibiotic rifaximin influenced engraftment of bacterial strains sourced from a healthy donor into an ulcerative colitis-derived defined microbial community. Distinct species integrated under the pretreated and untreated conditions, with the relative rifaximin resistance of the microbial strains being an important influencer. However, both conditions resulted in the integration of taxa from Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, a concomitant reduction of Proteobacteria, and similar decreases in metabolites associated with poor health status. Our results agree with the findings of similar research in the clinic by others, which observed no difference in primary patient outcomes whether or not patients were given rifaximin prior to FMT. We therefore conclude that our model is useful for screening for antibiotics that could improve efficacy of FMT when used as a pretreatment.IMPORTANCE Patients with gastrointestinal disorders often exhibit derangements in their gut microbiota, which can exacerbate their symptoms. Replenishing these ecosystems with beneficial bacteria through fecal microbiota transplantation is thus a proposedly useful therapeutic; however, clinical success has varied, necessitating research into strategies to improve outcomes. Antibiotic pretreatment has been suggested as one such approach, but concerns over harmful side effects have hindered testing this hypothesis clinically. Here, we evaluate the use of bioreactors supporting defined microbial communities derived from human fecal samples as models of the colonic microbiota in determining the effectiveness of antibiotic pretreatment. We found that relative antimicrobial resistance was a key determinant of successful microbial engraftment with rifaximin (broad-spectrum antibiotic) pretreatment, despite careful timing of the application of the therapeutic agents, resulting in distinct species profiles from those of the control but with similar overall outcomes. Our model had results comparable to the clinical findings and thus can be used to screen for useful antibiotics.

RevDate: 2020-01-29

Feehan A, J Garcia-Diaz (2020)

Bacterial, Gut Microbiome-Modifying Therapies to Defend against Multidrug Resistant Organisms.

Microorganisms, 8(2): pii:microorganisms8020166.

Antibiotics have revolutionized human and animal healthcare, but their utility is reduced as bacteria evolve resistance mechanisms over time. Thankfully, there are novel antibiotics in the pipeline to overcome resistance, which are mentioned elsewhere in this special issue, but eventually bacteria are expected to evolve resistance to most new compounds as well. Multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) that cause infections increase morbidity, mortality, and readmissions as compared with susceptible organisms. Consequently, many research and development pipelines are focused on non-antibiotic strategies, including fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), probiotics and prebiotics, and a range of therapies in between. Studies reviewed here focus on efforts to directly treat or prevent MDRO infections or colonization. The studies were collected through clinicaltrials.gov, PubMed, and the International Conference on the Harmonisation Good Clinical Practice website (ichgcp.net). While the gold standard of clinical research is randomized controlled trials (RCTs), several pilot studies are included because the field is so young. Although a vast preclinical body of research has led to studies in humans, animal and in vitro studies are not within the scope of this review. This narrative review discusses microbiome-modifying therapies targeting MDROs in the gut and includes current results, ongoing clinical trials, companies with therapies in the pipeline specifically for MDROs, and commentary on clinical implementation and challenges.

RevDate: 2020-03-04

Fitzgibbon G, KHG Mills (2020)

The microbiota and immune-mediated diseases: Opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

European journal of immunology, 50(3):326-337.

A multitude of diverse microorganisms, termed the microbiota, reside in the gut, respiratory tract, skin, and genital tract of humans and other animals. Recent advances in metagenomic sequencing and bioinformatics have enabled detailed characterization of these vital microbial communities. Studies in animal models have uncovered vital previously unrecognized roles for the microbiota in normal function of the immune responses, and when perturbed, in the pathogenesis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs, but also at distant sites in the body including the brain. The composition of gut and respiratory microbiota can influence systemic inflammatory responses that mediate asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity-related diseases, and neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative conditions. Experiments in mouse models as well as emerging clinical studies have revealed that therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota, using fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, or engineered probiotics represent effective nontoxic approaches for the treatment or prevention of Clostridium difficile infection, allergy, and autoimmune diseases and may enhance the efficacy of certain cancer immunotherapeutics. This review discusses how commensal bacteria can influence immune responses that mediate a range of human diseases and how the microbiota are being targeted to treat these diseases, especially those resistant to pharmacological therapies.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Schwabkey ZI, RR Jenq (2020)

Microbiome Anomalies in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Annual review of medicine, 71:137-148.

The microbiome is an integrated part of the human body that can modulate a variety of disease processes and affect prognosis, treatment response, complications, and outcomes. The importance of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in cancer treatment has resulted in extensive investigations on the interaction between the microbiome and this treatment modality. These investigations are beginning to lead to clinical trials of microbiome-targeted interventions. Here we review some of these discoveries and describe strategies being investigated to manipulate the microbiome for favorable outcomes, such as the proper selection and timing of antibiotics, type of diet and route of administration, probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2020-02-06
CmpDate: 2020-02-06

Allegretti JR, BH Mullish (2020)

Faecal microbiota transplantations and urinary tract infections - Authors' reply.

Lancet (London, England), 395(10220):271.

RevDate: 2020-02-06
CmpDate: 2020-02-06

Lagier JC, D Raoult (2020)

Faecal microbiota transplantations and urinary tract infections.

Lancet (London, England), 395(10220):270-271.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Stoma I, Littmann ER, Peled JU, et al (2020)

Compositional flux within the intestinal microbiota and risk for bloodstream infection with gram-negative bacteria.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5715406 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bloodstream infections represent a significant complication facing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients, as a result of intestinal translocation during neutropenia. In this study we sought to better understand how the composition of the intestinal microbiota is connected to risk of gram-negative bloodstream infections, expanding on our prior work in these patients.

METHODS: Fecal specimens were collected from recipients of allo-HCT and analyzed using 16SrRNA gene sequencing. Samples and clinical data extending from the pre-transplant conditioning period through stem cell engraftment were used in the analysis. Intestinal domination (relative abundance ≥30%) by gram-negative bacteria was used as predictor of gram-negative bloodstream infection using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Further analysis of microbiota composition was performed at the genus level.

RESULTS: 708 allo-HCT subjects were studied (7.5% develop gram-negative infection), with 4,768 fecal samples for analysis. Gram-negative intestinal domination was associated with subsequent bloodstream infection, which was observed overall and individually at the genus level: Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas. Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis was associated with decreased bloodstream infection and intestinal colonization by gram-negative microbes. In fluoroquinolone-prophylaxed patients, Escherichia coli was more frequently observed as breakthrough, both in terms of intestinal colonization and bloodstream infections, compared with non-prophylaxed patients. Initial colonization by members of Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroidetes were associated with protection against gram-negative bloodstream infection.

CONCLUSION: Gram-negative intestinal colonization is highly predictive of bloodstream infection, in the setting of allo-HCT. Fluoroquinolones appear to reduce these infections by influencing gut colonization.

RevDate: 2020-02-06

Garza-González E, Mendoza-Olazarán S, Morfin-Otero R, et al (2019)

Intestinal Microbiome Changes in Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) vs. FMT Enriched with Lactobacillus in the Treatment of Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Canadian journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 2019:4549298.

Aim: In this study, we conducted a comparative study to explore the differences in therapeutic efficacy and intestinal microbiome of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) vs. FMT in addition with Lactobacillus (FMT-L) for treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (R-CDI).

Methods: We designed a double-blinded randomized comparative two-arm pilot multicenter study to assess the efficacy and impact in the intestinal microbiome of standard capsules of FMT vs. FMT-L enriched with 3 species of Lactobacillus for patients with R-CDI. A 90-day follow-up of 21 patients was performed, starting at the beginning of the study. From the selected patients, fecal samples were obtained at days 0, 3, 7, and 28 after treatment. Fecal samples and FMT were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing.

Results: We included 21 patients (13 in the FMT group and 8 in the FMT-L group). Overall, both groups had a reduction in bowel movements per day, from 8.6 to 3.2 in the first 48 h (62.7% reduction, p=0.001). No severe adverse reactions or recurrences were recorded. Firmicutes were the most abundant phylum in donors. A low relative abundance of Proteobacteria was detected and mostly found in patients even at higher proportions than the donor. The donor's pool also had relatively few Bacteroidetes, and some patients showed a higher abundance of this phylum. Based on the ANOSIM R values, there is a significant difference between the microbial communities of basal samples and samples collected on day 7 (p=0.045) and at day 28 (0.041).

Conclusion: Fecal microbiota transplant by capsules was clinically and genomically similar between traditional FMT and enriched FMT with Lactobacillus spp. Restoration of bacterial diversity and resolution of dysbiosis at days 7 and 28 were observed. Patients with a first episode of recurrence treated with FMT had an excellent response without severe adverse events; FMT should be considered as an early treatment during R-CDI.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Lou JM, Ren ZG, Li A, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation has therapeutic effects on chronic hepatits B patients via altering composition of gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Stalder T, Kapel N, Diaz S, et al (2020)

A systematic review of economic evaluation in fecal microbiota transplantation.

Infection control and hospital epidemiology pii:S0899823X19003714 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). It is only recommended for this indication by European and American guidelines. Other indications of FMT are being studied, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and they have shown promising results.

OBJECTIVES: To identify and review published FMT-related economic evaluations (EEs) to assess their quality and the economic impact of FMT in the treatment of these diseases.

DATA SOURCES: The systematic literature research was conducted in both PubMed and Cochrane to identify EEs published before July 1, 2019.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles were included if they concerned FMT (whatever the disease and its line of treatment), if they reported full or partial EEs, and if they were written in English. Articles were excluded if they did not concern FMT; if they did not report an EE; or if they were a systematic review, editorial, comment, letter to the editor, practice point, or poster.

METHODS: A measurement tool, AMSTAR, was used to optimize the quality of this systematic review. Based on the CHEERS checklist, data were identified and extracted from articles. The quality of each EE was assessed using the Drummond checklist.

RESULTS: Overall, 9 EEs were included: all EEs were full evaluations and 8 were cost-utility analyses (CUAs). All EEs had a Drummond score ≥ 7, which indicated high quality. All CUAs related to rCDI and IBD concluded that FMT was cost-effective compared with other reference treatments, at a threshold ≤$50,000/QALY. One EE about initial CDI showed that FMT was dominated by metronidazole.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite a limited number of EEs, FMT seems to be a promising and cost-effective treatment for rCDI. More EE studies on other diseases like IBD are necessary to address FMT efficiency for new indications. Therefore, our systematic review provides a framework for healthcare decision making.

RevDate: 2020-02-26

Safari Z, Bruneau A, Monnoye M, et al (2020)

Murine Genetic Background Overcomes Gut Microbiota Changes to Explain Metabolic Response to High-Fat Diet.

Nutrients, 12(2): pii:nu12020287.

Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play essential roles in the development of metabolic diseases. A/J and C57BL/6J (C57) are two mouse strains known to display different susceptibilities to metabolic disorders. In this context, we analyzed gut microbiota composition in A/J and C57 mice, and assessed its responses to high-fat diet (HFD) and antibiotic (AB) treatment. We also exchanged the gut microbiota between the two strains following AB treatment to evaluate its impact on the metabolism. We showed that A/J and C57 mice have different microbiome structure and composition at baseline. Moreover, A/J and C57 microbiomes responded differently to HFD and AB treatments. Exchange of the gut microbiota between the two strains was successful as recipients' microbiota resembled donor-strain microbiota. Seven weeks after inoculation, the differences between recipients persisted and were still closer from the donor-strain microbiota. Despite effective microbiota transplants, the response to HFD was not markedly modified in C57 and A/J mice. Particularly, body weight gain and glucose intolerance in response to HFD remained different in the two mouse strains whatever the changes in microbiome composition. This indicated that genetic background has a much stronger impact on metabolic responses to HFD than gut microbiome composition.

RevDate: 2020-01-23

Ekekezie C, Perler BK, Wexler A, et al (2020)

Understanding the Scope of Do-It-Yourself Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

The American journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and is considered an investigational therapy for a number of other diseases. Social media has facilitated widespread exposure of the public to the gut microbiome and FMT, ultimately acting as a catalyst for the Do-It-Yourself (DIY)-FMT movement. The aims of this study were to identify factors that influenced willingness to pursue DIY-FMT including common indications, screening processes, sample preparation, and self-reported efficacy and safety outcomes.

METHODS: A twenty-five-point cross-sectional survey was posted online through the websites and social media pages of the Peggy Lillis Foundation, The Fecal Transplant Foundation, and The Power of Poop. Responses were cataloged through the Research Electronic Data Capture tool, and descriptive analyses were performed.

RESULTS: Eighty-four respondents completed the survey between January 2018 and February 2019. The majority were female (71%) and white (92%). Most (80%) reported performing FMT on themselves; 87% used Internet resources to assist in the process, and 92% knew their stool donor. Inflammatory bowel disease (35%) and irritable bowel syndrome (29%) were the 2 most common conditions that respondents attempted to treat. Only 12% reported adverse events, whereas 82% reported improvement in their condition.

DISCUSSION: DIY-FMT is being used for many indications, including those for which there is little evidence. There was a high self-reported success rate among respondents with few adverse events. There is a need for increased awareness around DIY-FMT and research around this phenomenon, which may impact public health.

RevDate: 2020-02-24

Antushevich H (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in disease therapy.

Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 503:90-98.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the introduction (transplantation) of gut microbiota obtained from the faeces of a healthy donor into the patient's gastrointestinal tract. Most often, such therapy is used the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases caused by the activity of pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, however, recently an increasing number of studies have reported the use of fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer and Parkinson's disease. This review article presents the results of studies concerning the impact of FMT on weight gain, immunological response and the treatment of neurological and gastrointestinal diseases and cancer. The procedure of fecal microbiota transplantation and possible side effects that may appear in FMT recipients are also described.

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ESP Quick Facts

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

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Selected Bibliographies

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