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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 21 Sep 2021 at 01:41 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-09-20

Wah M, Vázquez MAM, FJB Padilla (2021)


Gastroenterologia y hepatologia pii:S0210-5705(21)00253-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. Microbiome is one of the most important factors in its development and affects the different clinical outcomes of IBD patients depending on its composition and different alterations. We conducted a systematic review to discuss the association between microbiome and IBD in terms of immune regulation, and therapies that can modify microbiota. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed through April 2020 in PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Inclusion criteria required IBD immune regulation and alternate therapeutics for IBD. This analysis helps explain the multifactorial origin of microbiome diversity including normal immune regulation, immune pathophysiology of IBD, and shows the evidence of several therapeutic targets to change microbiome in patients with IBD, such as prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplant, and others.

RevDate: 2021-09-20
CmpDate: 2021-09-20

Kragsnaes MS, Kjeldsen J, Horn HC, et al (2021)

Safety and efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation for active peripheral psoriatic arthritis: an exploratory randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 80(9):1158-1167.

OBJECTIVES: Although causality remains to be established, targeting dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota by faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been proposed as a novel treatment for inflammatory diseases. In this exploratory, proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of FMT in psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, superiority trial, we randomly allocated (1:1) adults with active peripheral PsA (≥3 swollen joints) despite ongoing treatment with methotrexate to one gastroscopic-guided FMT or sham transplantation into the duodenum. Safety was monitored throughout the trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing treatment failure (ie, needing treatment intensification) through 26 weeks. Key secondary endpoints were change in Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR20) response at week 26.

RESULTS: Of 97 screened, 31 (32%) underwent randomisation (15 allocated to FMT) and 30 (97%) completed the 26-week clinical evaluation. No serious adverse events were observed. Treatment failure occurred more frequently in the FMT group than in the sham group (9 (60%) vs 3 (19%); risk ratio, 3.20; 95% CI 1.06 to 9.62; p=0.018). Improvement in HAQ-DI differed between groups (0.07 vs 0.30) by 0.23 points (95% CI 0.02 to 0.44; p=0.031) in favour of sham. There was no difference in the proportion of ACR20 responders between groups (7 of 15 (47%) vs 8 of 16 (50%)).

CONCLUSIONS: In this first preliminary, interventional randomised controlled trial of FMT in immune-mediated arthritis, we did not observe any serious adverse events. Overall, FMT appeared to be inferior to sham in treating active peripheral PsA.


RevDate: 2021-09-20
CmpDate: 2021-09-20

Fuhri Snethlage CM, Nieuwdorp M, NMJ Hanssen (2021)

Faecal microbiota transplantation in endocrine diseases and obesity.

Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism, 35(3):101483.

The prevalence of type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has greatly increased worldwide over the last century. Although the exact pathophysiology of both these conditions is distinct and still largely unknown, T1D as well as T2D, have been linked to distinct perturbations of the gut microbiome. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potent, and if performed well, a safe method to modulate the composition of the gut microbiome and thus positively influences the course of these hyperglycaemic conditions in humans. In this review, we provide an overview of how FMT is commonly performed and summarise how this procedure may reduce the insulin-resistance driving T2D, and the underlying auto-immunity driving T1D. Insights derived from FMT studies in T1D and T2D may help identify beneficial microbiota and associated metabolites that may serve as future treatments for these conditions.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Ashraf MF, Tageldin O, Nassar Y, et al (2021)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients With Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Four-Year Single-Center Retrospective Review.

Gastroenterology research, 14(4):237-243.

Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common cause of hospital and community-acquired diarrhea with an annual incidence of 453,000 cases in the USA. The white race, female gender, and age over 65 years are known risk factors. Recurrence of CDI is a major problem in patients taking antibiotics for prolonged periods. These patients are observed to have reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiome. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can restore the healthy flora in the gut, thus breaking the cycle of recurrent infection. Our study aimed to analyze the efficacy of FMT and the recurrence of CDI after FMT. We also aimed to investigate the effects of comorbidities on the outcome of FMT.

Methods: After obtaining approval from the institutional review board, we included 64 patients who had received FMT at our institution from October 2015 to November 2019. All the patients over 16 years of age in both inpatient and outpatient settings were included. Patients under 16 years of age and patients treated without FMT were excluded. Frozen stool from a standardized stool bank (OpenBiome) was used. The thawed specimen was instilled into the terminal ileum or the cecum. Patients were followed up for the next 1 year for analysis of improvement in symptoms, recurrence, and repeat FMT.

Results: On the 2-months follow-up, 75% of patients reported symptomatic improvement, 15.6% reported no improvement while 9.4% did not follow up. Twenty-six (40.6%) patients had CDI recurrence in the following year; and 69.2% of patients with recurrence underwent a repeat FMT. There was no statistically significant correlation between CDI recurrence and the age (P value = 0.68), gender (P value = 0.61), previous use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, P value = 0.11) or antibiotics (P value = 0.45). There was a statistically significant correlation noted with the use of immunosuppressants and recurrence (P value = 0.04).

Conclusions: FMT is a successful treatment modality for refractory and recurrent CDI. Repeat treatments can be beneficial if there is a lack of initial response. Being immunosuppressed with medications is associated with the risk of recurrence.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Zanza C, Romenskaya T, Thangathurai D, et al (2021)

Microbiome in Critical illness: An Unconventional and Unknown Ally.

Current medicinal chemistry pii:CMC-EPUB-117952 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The digestive tract represents an interface between the external environment and the body where the interaction of a complex polymicrobial ecology has an important influence on health and disease. The physiological mechanisms that are altered during the hospitalization and in the intensive care unit (ICU) contribute to the pathobiota's growth. Intestinal dysbiosis occurs within hours of being admitted to ICU. This may be due to different factors, such as alterations of normal intestinal transit, administration of variuos medications or alterations in the intestinal wall which causes a cascade of events that will lead to the increase of nitrates and decrease of oxygen concentration, liberation of free radicals.

OBJECTIVE: This work aims to report the latest updates on the microbiota's contribution to developing sepsis in patients in the ICU department. In this short review were reviewed the latest scientific findings on the mechanisms of intestinal immune defenses performed both locally and systemically. In addition, we considered it necessary to review the literature to report the current best treatment strategies to prevent the infection spread which can bring systemic infections in patients admitted to ICU.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This review has been written to answer at three main questions: what are the main intestinal flora's defense mechanisms that help us to prevent the risk of developing systemic diseases on a day-to-day basis? What are the main dysbiosis' systemic abnormalities? What are the modern strategies that are used in the ICU patients to prevent the infection spread? Using the combination of following keywords: microbiota and ICU, ICU and gut, microbiota and critical illness, microbiota and critical care, microbiota and sepsis, microbiota and infection, gastrointestinal immunity,in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, medline and pubmed, google scholar, ovid/wiley. Finally, we reviewed and selected 72 articles. We also consulted the site to find out studies that are recently conducted or ongoing.

RESULTS: The critical illness can alter intestinal bacterial flora leading to homeostasis disequilibrium. Despite numerous mechanisms, such as epithelial cells with calciform cells that together build a mechanical barrier for pathogenic bacteria, the presence of mucous associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) which stimulates an immune response through the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and THN-a or by stimulating lymphocytes T helper-2 produces anti-inflammatory cytokines. But these defenses can be altered following a hospitalization in ICU and lead to serious complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), health care associated pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), Systemic infection and multiple organ failure (MOF), but also in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, the microbiota has a significant impact on the development of intestinal complications and the severity of the SARS-COVID-19 patients.

CONCLUSION: The microbiota is recognized as one of the important factors that can worsen the clinical conditions of patients who are already very frailty in intensive care unit. At the same time, the microbiota also plays a crucial role in the prevention of ICU associated complications. By using the resources, we have available, such as probiotics, symbiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), we can preserve the integrity of the microbiota and the GUT, which will later help maintain homeostasis in ICU patients.

RevDate: 2021-09-17
CmpDate: 2021-09-17

Gibiino G, Sartini A, Gitto S, et al (2021)

The Other Side of Malnutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Nutrients, 13(8):.

Steatohepatitis and hepatobiliary manifestations constitute some of the most common extra-intestinal manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). On the other hand, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects around 25% of the world's population and is attracting ever more attention in liver transplant programs. To outline the specific pathways linking these two conditions is a pressing task for 21st-century researchers. We are accustomed to expecting the occurrence of fatty liver disease in obese people, but current evidence suggests that there are several different pathways also occurring in underweight patients. Genetic factors, inflammatory signals and microbiota are key players that could help in understanding the entire pathogenesis of NAFLD, with the aim of defining the multiple expressions of malnutrition. In the current review, we summarize the most recent literature regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and future directions for the management of NAFLD in patients affected by IBD.

RevDate: 2021-09-16
CmpDate: 2021-09-16

Montassier E, Valdés-Mas R, Batard E, et al (2021)

Probiotics impact the antibiotic resistance gene reservoir along the human GI tract in a person-specific and antibiotic-dependent manner.

Nature microbiology, 6(8):1043-1054.

Antimicrobial resistance poses a substantial threat to human health. The gut microbiome is considered a reservoir for potential spread of resistance genes from commensals to pathogens, termed the gut resistome. The impact of probiotics, commonly consumed by many in health or in conjunction with the administration of antibiotics, on the gut resistome is elusive. Reanalysis of gut metagenomes from healthy antibiotics-naïve humans supplemented with an 11-probiotic-strain preparation, allowing direct assessment of the gut resistome in situ along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, demonstrated that probiotics reduce the number of antibiotic resistance genes exclusively in the gut of colonization-permissive individuals. In mice and in a separate cohort of humans, a course of antibiotics resulted in expansion of the lower GI tract resistome, which was mitigated by autologous faecal microbiome transplantation or during spontaneous recovery. In contrast, probiotics further exacerbated resistome expansion in the GI mucosa by supporting the bloom of strains carrying vancomycin resistance genes but not resistance genes encoded by the probiotic strains. Importantly, the aforementioned effects were not reflected in stool samples, highlighting the importance of direct sampling to analyse the effect of probiotics and antibiotics on the gut resistome. Analysing antibiotic resistance gene content in additional published clinical trials with probiotics further highlighted the importance of person-specific metagenomics-based profiling of the gut resistome using direct sampling. Collectively, these findings suggest opposing person-specific and antibiotic-dependent effects of probiotics on the resistome, whose contribution to the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes along the human GI tract merit further studies.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Wang M, Zhu Z, Lin X, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota mediated the therapeutic efficacies and the side effects of prednisone in the treatment of MRL/lpr mice.

Arthritis research & therapy, 23(1):240.

BACKGROUND: Growing evidences indicate that the alterations in gut microbiota are associated with the efficacy of glucocorticoids (GCs) in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, there is no evidence to prove whether gut microbiota directly mediates the effects of GCs.

METHODS: Using the MRL/lpr mice, this study firstly addressed the effects of three doses of prednisone on gut microbiota. Then, this study used fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to transfer the gut microbiota of prednisone-treated MRL/lpr mice into the blank MRL/lpr mice to reveal whether the gut microbiota regulated by prednisone had similar therapeutic efficiency and side effects as prednisone.

RESULTS: The effects of prednisone on gut microbiota were dose-dependent in the treatment of MRL/lpr mice. After transplantation into MRL/lpr mice, prednisone-regulated gut microbiota could alleviate lupus, which might be due to decreasing Ruminococcus and Alistipes and retaining the abundance of Lactobacillus. However, prednisone-regulated gut microbiota did not exhibit side effects as prednisone. The reason might be that the pathogens upregulated by prednisone could not survive in the MRL/lpr mice as exogenous microbiota, such as Parasutterella, Parabacteroides, and Escherichia-Shigella.

CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that the transplantation of gut microbiota may be an effective method to obtain the therapeutic effects of GCs and avoid the side effects of GCs.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Chen H, Shen L, Liu Y, et al (2021)

Strength Exercise Confers Protection in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity by Altering the Gut Microbiota.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:628629.

Exercise therapy including endurance training and resistance training is a promising non-pharmacological therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have revealed that exercise exerts beneficial impacts on gut microbiota. However, the role of gut microbiota in the immune benefits of strength exercise (SE; one of resistance training) in central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity is barely known. Here, we observed that 60-min SE ameliorated disease severity and neuropathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. SE increased the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota, and decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio) and intestinal mucosal permeability, and enrichment of several short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria. Furthermore, SE reduced Th17 responses and increased Treg responses in the small intestine lymphoid tissues. Compared to the control group, microbiota-depleted mice receiving SE microbiome fecal transplants had lower disease severity and neuropathology scores. These results uncovered a protective role of SE in neuroimmunomodulation effects partly via changes to the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-09-03
CmpDate: 2021-09-03

Tarasiuk A, G Eibl (2020)

Nutritional Support and Probiotics as a Potential Treatment of IBD.

Current drug targets, 21(14):1417-1427.

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. However, there is growing evidence that the increase in the overall incidence of IBD relates to the improvement of sanitary and hygienic conditions of the society leading to lower exposure to both bacterial and parasitic infections. IBD is incurable and characterized by alternating periods of exacerbation and remission of symptoms. Therefore, the main goal of treatment strategies in IBD patients is the most effective maintenance of clinical and endoscopic remission, which does allow patients to function normally for a significant part of life. Taking into account the evidence from different areas, there is a strong rationale supporting the concept that bacteria are important in gut inflammation and that probiotic bacteria may modulate the host-microbe interaction in a way that is directly beneficial to IBD patients along with nutritional support. In this review, we focus on the potential role of gastrointestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD and the possible value of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics as well as nutritional support in the treatment of IBD.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Singh T, Bedi P, Bumrah K, et al (2021)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Medical Therapy for Clostridium difficile Infection: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Journal of clinical gastroenterology pii:00004836-900000000-97372 [Epub ahead of print].

GOALS: The aim was to assess the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) against medical therapy (MT).

BACKGROUND: FMT has shown good outcomes in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of FMT versus MT for CDI.

STUDY: We performed a comprehensive search to identify randomized controlled trials comparing FMT against MT in patients with CDI. Outcomes of interest were clinical cure as determined by the resolution of diarrhea and/or negative C. difficile testing. Primary CDI is defined as the first episode of CDI confirmed endoscopically or by laboratory analysis. Recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI) is defined as laboratory or endoscopically confirmed episode of CDI after at least 1 course of approved antibiotic regimen.

RESULTS: A total of 7 studies with 238 patients were included in meta-analysis. Compared with MT, FMT did not have a statistically significant difference for clinical cure of combined primary and RCDI after first session [risk ratio (RR): 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 2.58; P=0.12; I2=77%] and multiple sessions of FMT (RR: 1.68; CI: 0.96, 2.94; P=0.07; I2=82%). On subgroup analysis, FMT has statistically higher rate of response than MT (RR: 2.41; CI: 1.20, 4.83; I2=78%) for RCDI. However, for primary CDI there is no statistically significant difference between FMT and MT (RR: 1.00; CI: 0.72, 1.39; I2=0%).

CONCLUSION: As per our analysis, FMT should not be utilized for every patient with CDI. It is more effective in RCDI, but the results were not significant in patients with primary CDI.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Suchodolski JS (2021)

Analysis of the gut microbiome in dogs and cats.

Veterinary clinical pathology [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome is an important immune and metabolic organ. Intestinal bacteria produce various metabolites that influence the health of the intestine and other organ systems, including kidney, brain, and heart. Changes in the microbiome in diseased states are termed dysbiosis. The concept of dysbiosis is constantly evolving and includes changes in microbiome diversity and/or structure and functional changes (eg, altered production of bacterial metabolites). Molecular tools are now the standard for microbiome analysis. Sequencing of microbial genes provides information about the bacteria present and their functional potential but lacks standardization and analytical validation of methods and consistency in the reporting of results. This makes it difficult to compare results across studies or for individual clinical patients. The Dysbiosis Index (DI) is a validated quantitative PCR assay for canine fecal samples that measures the abundance of seven important bacterial taxa and summarizes the results as one single number. Reference intervals are established for dogs, and the DI can be used to assess the microbiome in clinical patients over time and in response to therapy (eg, fecal microbiota transplantation). In situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry allows the identification of mucosa-adherent and intracellular bacteria in animals with intestinal disease, especially granulomatous colitis. Future directions include the measurement of bacterial metabolites in feces or serum as markers for the appropriate function of the microbiome. This article summarizes different approaches to the analysis of gut microbiota and how they might be applicable to research studies and clinical practice in dogs and cats.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Innes AJ, Mullish BH, Ghani R, et al (2021)

Fecal Microbiota Transplant Mitigates Adverse Outcomes Seen in Patients Colonized With Multidrug-Resistant Organisms Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:684659.

The gut microbiome can be adversely affected by chemotherapy and antibiotics prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This affects graft success and increases susceptibility to multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization and infection. We performed an initial retrospective analysis of our use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donors as therapy for MDRO-colonized patients with hematological malignancy. FMT was performed on eight MDRO-colonized patients pre-HCT (FMT-MDRO group), and outcomes compared with 11 MDRO colonized HCT patients from the same period. At 12 months, survival was significantly higher in the FMT-MDRO group (70% versus 36% p = 0.044). Post-HCT, fewer FMT-MDRO patients required intensive care (0% versus 46%, P = 0.045) or experienced fever (0.29 versus 0.11 days, P = 0.027). Intestinal MDRO decolonization occurred in 25% of FMT-MDRO patients versus 11% non-FMT MDRO patients. Despite the significant differences and statistically comparable patient/transplant characteristics, as the sample size was small, a matched-pair analysis between both groups to non-MDRO colonized control cohorts (2:1 matching) was performed. At 12 months, the MDRO group who did not have an FMT had significantly lower survival (36.4% versus 61.9% respectively, p=0.012), and higher non relapse mortality (NRM; 60.2% versus 16.7% respectively, p=0.009) than their paired non-MDRO-colonized cohort. Conversely, there was no difference in survival (70% versus 43.4%, p=0.14) or NRM (12.5% versus 31.2% respectively, p=0.24) between the FMT-MDRO group and their paired non-MDRO cohort. Collectively, these data suggest that negative clinical outcomes, including mortality associated with MDRO colonization, may be ameliorated by pre-HCT FMT, even in the absence of intestinal MDRO decolonization. Further work is needed to explore this observed benefit.

RevDate: 2021-09-11

Pang B, Jin H, Liao N, et al (2021)

Vitamin A supplementation ameliorates ulcerative colitis in gut microbiota-dependent manner.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 148:110568.

Ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal track. The purpose of this study is to explore whether Vitamin A (VA) can treat UC and its mechanisms. A mouse model of UC was established using 3.0% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). VA was used to treat UC by intragastric administration of 5000 international unit (IU) retinyl acetate. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was also used to treat the UC model mice to verify the effect of influenced gut microbiota. The content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal contents was quantitatively detected by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. VA supplementation significantly ameliorated UC. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that VA-treated mice exhibited much more abundant gut microbial diversity and flora composition. Targeted metabolomics analysis manifested the increased production of SCFAs in VA-treated mice. Gut microbiota depletion and FMT results confirmed the gut microbiota-dependent mechanism as that VA relieved UC via regulating gut microbiota: increase in SCFA-producing genera and decrease in UC-related genera. The restore of intestinal barrier and the inhibition of inflammation were also found to contribute to the amelioration of UC by VA. It was concluded that a VA supplement was enough to cause a significant change in gut microbiota and amelioration of UC.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Kim N, Ho Jeon S, Gyoung Ju I, et al (2021)

Transplantation of gut microbiota derived from Alzheimer's disease mouse model impairs memory function and neurogenesis in C57BL/6 mice.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(21)00541-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes memory and cognitive decline. Although many studies have attempted to clarify the causes of AD occurrence, it is not clearly understood. Recently, the emerging role of the gut microbiota in neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, has received much attention. The gut microbiota composition of AD patients and AD mouse models is different from that of healthy controls, and these changes may affect the brain environment. However, the specific mechanisms by which gut microbiota that influence memory decline are currently unclear. In this study, we performed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to clarify the role of 5xFAD mouse-derived microbiota in memory decline. We observed that FMT from 5xFAD mice into normal C57BL/6 mice (5xFAD-FMT) decreased adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and increased p21 expression, resulting in memory impairment. Microglia in the hippocampus of the 5xFAD-FMT mice were activated, which caused the elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β). Moreover, we observed that pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the colon and plasma of 5xFAD-FMT mice. The gut microbiota composition of the 5xFAD-FMT mice was different from that of the control mice or wild type-FMT mice. Collectively, 5xFAD mouse-derived microbiota decreased neurogenesis by increasing colonic inflammation, thereby contributing to memory loss. Our findings provide further evidence concerning the role of gut microbial dysbiosis in AD pathogenesis and suggest that targeting the gut microbiota may be a useful therapeutic strategy for the development of novel candidates for the treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

El Halabi J, Palmer N, Fox K, et al (2021)

Fecal microbiota transplantation and Clostridioides difficile infection among privately insured patients in the United States.

Journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) may be rising in severity in the US over the past decade and its treatment landscape is changing given the recent adoption of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) METHODS: We built a retrospective observational cohort using a database of a national care-plan containing medical claims of over 50 million individuals between 2008 and 2019. We used International Classification of Disease (ICD) and prescription data to identify patients with CDI. We estimated trends in disease burden and FMT use, and evaluated complications post FMT using a phenome-wide association approach.

RESULTS: We identified 38,396 patients with CDI; the median age was 60 years (IQR 45-74) and 60% were female (n = 23,374). The rate of CDI increased from 33.4 to 69.46 cases per 100,000 person-years between 2008 and 2015, and stabilized from 2015 to 2019 (increase of 4.77 cases per 100,000 person-years per year, 95% CI 3.55-5.98 prior to 2015 vs. 2.01 95% CI - 10.16 to 14.18 after 2015). Of the 7715 patients with recurrent CDI, 407 patients (5%) underwent FMT. Gastrointestinal complications were increased within 1 month post FMT (OR 99.60, p < 0.001). Sepsis was identified in two individuals (0.49% 95% CI 0.05-1.7%) within the first month post FMT. The risk of CDI recurrence significantly decreased post FMT compared with anti-CDI antibiotics in the multivariable model (raw-recurrence rate 9.8% vs 36%, aOR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.12-0.53, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: We show that FMT is strongly associated with a decrease in CDI recurrence compared with the usual care with generally mild complications for up to 2 years.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Mjaess G, Karam A, Aoun F, et al (2021)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for immunotherapy-resistant urological tumors: Is it time? An update of the recent literature.

Cancer [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Wu Z, Huang S, Li T, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota from green tea polyphenol-dosed mice improves intestinal epithelial homeostasis and ameliorates experimental colitis.

Microbiome, 9(1):184.

BACKGROUND: Alteration of the gut microbiota may contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major bioactive constituent of green tea, is known to be beneficial in IBD alleviation. However, it is unclear whether the gut microbiota exerts an effect when EGCG attenuates IBD.

RESULTS: We first explored the effect of oral or rectal EGCG delivery on the DSS-induced murine colitis. Our results revealed that anti-inflammatory effect and colonic barrier integrity were enhanced by oral, but not rectal, EGCG. We observed a distinct EGCG-mediated alteration in the gut microbiome by increasing Akkermansia abundance and butyrate production. Next, we demonstrated that the EGCG pre-supplementation induced similar beneficial outcomes to oral EGCG administration. Prophylactic EGCG attenuated colitis and significantly enriched short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria such as Akkermansia and SCFAs production in DSS-induced mice. To validate these discoveries, we performed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and sterile fecal filtrate (SFF) to inoculate DSS-treated mice. Microbiota from EGCG-dosed mice alleviated the colitis over microbiota from control mice and SFF shown by superiorly anti-inflammatory effect and colonic barrier integrity, and also enriched bacteria such as Akkermansia and SCFAs. Collectively, the attenuation of colitis by oral EGCG suggests an intimate involvement of SCFAs-producing bacteria Akkermansia, and SCFAs, which was further demonstrated by prophylaxis and FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first data indicating that oral EGCG ameliorated the colonic inflammation in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. Our findings provide novel insights into EGCG-mediated remission of IBD and EGCG as a potential modulator for gut microbiota to prevent and treat IBD. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Jia X, Xu W, Zhang L, et al (2021)

Impact of Gut Microbiota and Microbiota-Related Metabolites on Hyperlipidemia.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:634780.

Hyperlipidemia, defined as the presence of excess fat or lipids in the blood, has been considered as a high-risk factor and key indicator of many metabolic diseases. The gut microbiota has been reported playing a vital role in regulating host lipid metabolism. The pathogenic role of gut microbiota in the development of hyperlipidemia has been revealed through fecal microbiota transplantation experiment to germ-free mice. The effector mechanism of microbiota-related metabolites such as bile acids, lipopolysaccharide, and short-chain fatty acids in the regulation of hyperlipidemia has been partially unveiled. Moreover, studies on gut-microbiota-targeted hyperlipidemia interventions, including the use of prebiotics, probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and natural herbal medicines, also have shown their efficacy in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this review, we summarize the relationship between gut microbiota and hyperlipidemia, the impact of gut microbiota and microbiota-related metabolites on the development and progression of hyperlipidemia, and the potential therapeutic management of hyperlipidemia targeted at gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Liu X, Cheng Y, Zang D, et al (2021)

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Lung Cancer: From Carcinogenesis to Immunotherapy.

Frontiers in oncology, 11:720842.

The influence of microbiota on host health and disease has attracted adequate attention, and gut microbiota components and microbiota-derived metabolites affect host immune homeostasis locally and systematically. Some studies have found that gut dysbiosis, disturbance of the structure and function of the gut microbiome, disrupts pulmonary immune homeostasis, thus leading to increased disease susceptibility; the gut-lung axis is the primary cross-talk for this communication. Gut dysbiosis is involved in carcinogenesis and the progression of lung cancer through genotoxicity, systemic inflammation, and defective immunosurveillance. In addition, the gut microbiome harbors the potential to be a novel biomarker for predicting sensitivity and adverse reactions to immunotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can enhance the efficacy and depress the toxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors by regulating the gut microbiota. Although current studies have found that gut microbiota closely participates in the development and immunotherapy of lung cancer, the mechanisms require further investigation. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the underlying mechanisms of gut microbiota influencing carcinogenesis and immunotherapy in lung cancer and to provide new strategies for governing gut microbiota to enhance the prevention and treatment of lung cancer.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Roberto M, Carconi C, Cerreti M, et al (2021)

The Challenge of ICIs Resistance in Solid Tumours: Could Microbiota and Its Diversity Be Our Secret Weapon?.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:704942.

The human microbiota and its functional interaction with the human body were recently returned to the spotlight of the scientific community. In light of the extensive implementation of newer and increasingly precise genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics, and culturomic, we now have an extraordinary ability to study the microorganisms that live within the human body. Most of the recent studies only focused on the interaction between the intestinal microbiota and one other factor. Considering the complexity of gut microbiota and its role in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers, our aim was to investigate how microbiota is affected by intestinal microenvironment and how microenvironment alterations may influence the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In this context, we show how diet is emerging as a fundamental determinant of microbiota's community structure and function. Particularly, we describe the role of certain dietary factors, as well as the use of probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, and antibiotics in modifying the human microbiota. The modulation of gut microbiota may be a secret weapon to potentiate the efficacy of immunotherapies. In addition, this review sheds new light on the possibility of administering fecal microbiota transplantation to modulate the gut microbiota in cancer treatment. These concepts and how these findings can be translated into the therapeutic response to cancer immunotherapies will be presented.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Margolis KG, Cryan JF, EA Mayer (2021)

The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: From Motility to Mood.

Gastroenterology, 160(5):1486-1501.

The gut-brain axis plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence signaling along this axis, modulating the function of both the enteric and central nervous systems. More recently the role of the microbiome as an important factor in modulating gut-brain signaling has emerged and the concept of a microbiota-gut-brain axis has been established. In this review, we highlight the role of this axis in modulating enteric and central nervous system function and how this may impact disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and disorders of mood and affect. We examine the overlapping biological constructs that underpin these disorders with a special emphasis on the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a key role in both the gastrointestinal tract and in the brain. Overall, it is clear that although animal studies have shown much promise, more progress is necessary before these findings can be translated for diagnostic and therapeutic benefit in patient populations.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Amenyogbe N, Dimitriu P, Smolen KK, et al (2021)

Biogeography of the Relationship between the Child Gut Microbiome and Innate Immune System.

mBio, 12(1):.

The gut microbiome is a well-recognized modulator of host immunity, and its compositions differ between geographically separated human populations. Systemic innate immune responses to microbial derivatives also differ between geographically distinct human populations. However, the potential role of the microbiome in mediating geographically varied immune responses is unexplored. We here applied 16S amplicon sequencing to profile the stool microbiome and, in parallel, measured whole-blood innate immune cytokine responses to several pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists among 2-year-old children across biogeographically diverse settings. Microbiomes differed mainly between high- and low-resource environments and were not strongly associated with other demographic factors. We found strong correlations between responses to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and relative abundances of Bacteroides and Prevotella populations, shared among Canadian and Ecuadorean children. Additional correlations between responses to TLR2 and bacterial populations were specific to individual geographic cohorts. As a proof of concept, we gavaged germfree mice with human donor stools and found murine splenocyte responses to TLR stimulation were consistent with responses of the corresponding human donor populations. This study identified differences in immune responses correlating to gut microbiomes across biogeographically diverse settings and evaluated biological plausibility using a mouse model. This insight paves the way to guide optimization of population-specific interventions aimed to improve child health outcomes.IMPORTANCE Both the gut microbiome and innate immunity are known to differ across biogeographically diverse human populations. The gut microbiome has been shown to directly influence systemic immunity in animal models. With this, modulation of the gut microbiome represents an attractive avenue to improve child health outcomes associated with altered immunity using population-specific approaches. However, there are very scarce data available to determine which members of the gut microbiome are associated with specific immune responses and how these differ around the world, creating a substantial barrier to rationally designing such interventions. This study addressed this knowledge gap by identifying relationships between distinct bacterial taxa and cytokine responses to specific microbial agonists across highly diverse settings. Furthermore, we provide evidence that immunomodulatory effects of region-specific stool microbiomes can be partially recapitulated in germfree mice. This is an important contribution toward improving global child health by targeting the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Galipeau HJ, Caminero A, Turpin W, et al (2021)

Novel Fecal Biomarkers That Precede Clinical Diagnosis of Ulcerative Colitis.

Gastroenterology, 160(5):1532-1545.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Altered gut microbiota composition and function have been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC), but the causality and mechanisms remain unknown.

METHODS: We applied 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, shotgun metagenomic sequencing, in vitro functional assays, and gnotobiotic colonizations to define the microbial composition and function in fecal samples obtained from a cohort of healthy individuals at risk for inflammatory bowel diseases (pre-UC) who later developed UC (post-UC) and matched healthy control individuals (HCs).

RESULTS: Microbiota composition of post-UC samples was different from HC and pre-UC samples; however, functional analysis showed increased fecal proteolytic and elastase activity before UC onset. Metagenomics identified more than 22,000 gene families that were significantly different between HC, pre-UC, and post-UC samples. Of these, 237 related to proteases and peptidases, suggesting a bacterial component to the pre-UC proteolytic signature. Elastase activity inversely correlated with the relative abundance of Adlercreutzia and other potentially beneficial taxa and directly correlated with known proteolytic taxa, such as Bacteroides vulgatus. High elastase activity was confirmed in Bacteroides isolates from fecal samples. The bacterial contribution and functional significance of the proteolytic signature were investigated in germ-free adult mice and in dams colonized with HC, pre-UC, or post-UC microbiota. Mice colonized with or born from pre-UC-colonized dams developed higher fecal proteolytic activity and an inflammatory immune tone compared with HC-colonized mice.

CONCLUSIONS: We have identified increased fecal proteolytic activity that precedes the clinical diagnosis of UC and associates with gut microbiota changes. This proteolytic signature may constitute a noninvasive biomarker of inflammation to monitor at-risk populations that can be targeted therapeutically with antiproteases.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Hartstra AV, Schüppel V, Imangaliyev S, et al (2020)

Infusion of donor feces affects the gut-brain axis in humans with metabolic syndrome.

Molecular metabolism, 42:101076.

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota play a role in diverse metabolic processes via intestinal butyrate production. Human bariatric surgery data suggest that the gut-brain axis is also involved in this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.

METHODS: We compared the effect of fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) from post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) donors vs oral butyrate supplementation on (123I-FP-CIT-determined) brain dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) binding as well as stable isotope-determined insulin sensitivity at baseline and after 4 weeks in 24 male and female treatment-naïve metabolic syndrome subjects. Plasma metabolites and fecal microbiota were also determined at these time points.

RESULTS: We observed an increase in brain DAT after donor FMT compared to oral butyrate that reduced this binding. However, no effect on body weight and insulin sensitivity was demonstrated after post-RYGB donor feces transfer in humans with metabolic syndrome. Increases in fecal levels of Bacteroides uniformis were significantly associated with an increase in DAT, whereas increases in Prevotella spp. showed an inverse association. Changes in the plasma metabolites glycine, betaine, methionine, and lysine (associated with the S-adenosylmethionine cycle) were also associated with altered striatal DAT expression.

CONCLUSIONS: Although more and larger studies are needed, our data suggest a potential gut microbiota-driven modulation of brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in human subjects with obese metabolic syndrome. These data also suggest the presence of a gut-brain axis in humans that can be modulated.


RevDate: 2021-09-06

Opoku-Acheampong I, McLaud T, OS Anderson (2021)

The Implications of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Dietetics Practice to Prevent and Treat Chronic Disease.

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics pii:S2212-2672(21)01256-9 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Sanlier N, Ş Kocabas (2021)

The effect of probiotic, prebiotic and gut microbiota on ASD: A review and future perspectives.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Autism spectrum disorder is a serious neurodevelopmental disease that affects social communication and behavior, characterized by an increasingly common immune mechanism and various complications in the gastrointestinal system. Symptoms of autism can generally vary according to the genetic background of the individuals, the environment in which they live. The microbiota of individuals with autism is also different from healthy individuals. Recently, probiotics, prebiotic, fecal microbiota transplantation, diet therapy, etc. options have come to the fore. Cofactors are even more important at this stage. Since it is related to the gut microbiota, immune mechanism, gastrointestinal system, attention has been drawn to the relationship between dysbiosis, autism in the intestine. The component of the gut microbiota in individuals with autism has been linked with gastrointestinal symptoms that develop with autism severity. However, the role of the microbiota in diagnosis, follow-up, treatment is not clear yet, and its two-way relationship with the nervous system makes it difficult to establish a cause-effect relationship. Nutritional cofactors required in neurotransmitter synthesis and enzyme activation must be regularly and adequately taken to maximize brain functions in autistic individuals. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the cause-effect relationship of ASD with microbiota and brain-gut axis, probiotic-prebiotic use.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Yang Y, Li X, Yang Y, et al (2021)

Advances in the Relationships Between Cow's Milk Protein Allergy and Gut Microbiota in Infants.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:716667.

Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is an immune response to cow's milk proteins, which is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. It is estimated that 2-3% of infants and young children have CMPA. The diet, gut microbiota, and their interactions are believed to be involved in the alterations of mucosal immune tolerance, which might lead to the development of CMPA and other food allergies. In this review, the potential molecular mechanisms of CMPA, including omics technologies used for analyzing microbiota, impacts of early microbial exposures on CMPA development, and microbiota-host interactions, are summarized. The probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and other modulation strategies for gut microbiota and the potential application of microbiota-based design of diets for the CMPA treatment are also discussed. This review not only summarizes the current studies about the interactions of CMPA with gut microbiota but also gives insights into the possible CMPA treatment strategies by modulating gut microbiota, which might help in improving the life quality of CMPA patients in the future.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Jo S, S Fang (2021)

Therapeutic Strategies for Diabetes: Immune Modulation in Pancreatic β Cells.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 12:716692.

Increased incidence of type I and type II diabetes has been prevailed worldwide. Though the pathogenesis of molecular mechanisms remains still unclear, there are solid evidence that disturbed immune homeostasis leads to pancreatic β cell failure. Currently, autoimmunity and uncontrolled inflammatory signaling pathways have been considered the major factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Many components of immune system have been reported to implicate pancreatic β cell failure, including helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells and gut microbiota. Immune modulation of those components using small molecules and antibodies, and fecal microbiota transplantation are undergoing in many clinical trials for the treatment of type I and type II diabetes. In this review we will discuss the basis of molecular pathogenesis focusing on the disturbed immune homeostasis in type I and type II diabetes, leading to pancreatic β cell destruction. Finally, we will introduce current therapeutic strategies and clinical trials by modulation of immune system for the treatment of type I and type II diabetes patients.

RevDate: 2021-09-04

Wang N, Ma S, L Fu (2021)

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis as One Cause of Osteoporosis by Impairing Intestinal Barrier Function.

Calcified tissue international [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis is closely related to several metabolic diseases such as hypertension, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known about the causal relationship between GM dysbiosis and osteoporosis. In our work, 32 3-month-old female SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) group and the control group. The supernatant of feces from senile osteoporotic rats was transplanted to the FMT group and the same amount of sterile saline was given to the control rats. After 12 and 24 weeks, all rats were sacrificed, and the serum, bone, fecal feces, and intestine tissue were collected for the subsequent analysis. The osteocalcin (OC), CTX, and P1NP of the FMT group increased significantly at 12 and 24 weeks compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the BV, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th decreased significantly in the FMT group (P < 0.05). The alpha diversity (ACE, Chao) of the FMT group was higher than the control at 24 weeks (P < 0.05). The beta diversity was close between the FMT rats and the donor rats. In addition, GM from donor rats changed the GM composition and function of the FMT rats, which was similar to that of the donor rats at 24 weeks. The impaired intestinal structure and the decreased expression of occludin, claudin, and ZO-1 were found in FMT rats. In conclusion, GM dysbiosis by transferring the feces from senile osteoporotic rats to young rats could induce osteoporosis. The changed GM and the impaired intestinal barrier contributed to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Chen S, Wu X, Tang S, et al (2021)

Eugenol Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis Independent of Intestinal Microbiota in Mice.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The present study investigated the effect of eugenol (EUG) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and explored the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were intragastrically administered normal saline or EUG (20 mg/kg body weight) for 17 days, and colitis was induced by using 3% DSS from day 7. The results showed that EUG increased the body weight and reduced the disease activity index score and colon pathological scores in DSS-treated mice (P < 0.05). Further, EUG preserved the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, -12, -21, and -23), lowered (P < 0.05) colonic malondialdehyde (MDA), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression and p65 phosphorylation, and activated (P < 0.05) colonic kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 expressions but did not affect the intestinal microbiota in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, EUG ameliorated colitis in antibiotic-treated mice, while fecal microbiota transplantation from EUG preadministered mice failed to ameliorate colitis. In conclusion, EUG could alleviate colitis by attenuating colonic inflammation and oxidative stress independent of intestinal microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Li JJ, Zhu M, Kashyap PC, et al (2021)

The role of microbiome in pancreatic cancer.

Cancer metastasis reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies of the human microbiome have offered new insights into how the microbiome can impact cancer development and treatment. Specifically, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the microbiota has been shown to modulate PDAC risk, contribute to tumorigenesis, impact the tumor microenvironment, and alter treatment response. These findings provide rationale for further investigations into leveraging the microbiome to develop new strategies to diagnose and treat PDAC patients. There is growing evidence that microbiome analyses have the potential to become easily performed, non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. More excitingly, there is now emerging interest in developing interventions based on the modulation of microbiota. Fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary changes, and antibiotics are all potential strategies to augment the efficacy of current therapeutics and reduce toxicities. While there are still challenges to overcome, this is a rapidly growing field that holds promise for translation into clinical practice and provides a new approach to improving patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-09-03
CmpDate: 2021-09-03

Zatorski H, R Nakov (2020)

Faecal Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Concepts and Future Challenges.

Current drug targets, 21(14):1440-1447.

Dysbiosis has been repeatedly observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is now recognized as an essential factor in the gut inflammatory process. IBD is a significant burden to health-care systems, mainly due to treatment-related costs. Available treatments have several limitations: up to 30% of patients are primary non-responders, and between 10 and 20% lose response per year, requiring a dose-escalation or a switch to another biologic. Hence, the current IBD treatment is not sufficient, and there is an urgent need to introduce new therapies in the management of these patients. Recently, the correction of dysbiosis has become an attractive approach from a therapeutic point of view. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears as a reliable and potentially beneficial therapy in IBD patients. There is developing data that FMT for mild-to-moderately active UC is a safe and efficient therapy for the induction of remission. However, the current studies have different designs and have a short follow up, which makes clinical interpretation significantly difficult. There is a need for RCTs with a well-defined study cohort using FMT for the therapy of CD patients. The location, behavior, and severity of the disease should be taken into account. The goal of this manuscript is to review the data currently available on FMT and IBD, to explain FMT principles and methodology in IBD patients and to discuss some unresolved issues.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Sui G, Jia L, Quan D, et al (2021)

Activation of the gut microbiota-kynurenine-liver axis contributes to the development of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis in nondiabetic adults.

Aging, 13(undefined): pii:203460 [Epub ahead of print].

The contribution of gut-liver signaling to the development of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis (NHS) in non-diabetic adults remains unclear. We therefore performed comprehensive 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and fecal metabolomics analyses in 32 controls and 59 non-diabetic adults with NHS and performed fecal microbiota transplantation into germ-free mice using controls and NHS patients as donors. Compared to controls, the abundance of the genera Collinsella and Acinetobacter were higher, while that of Lachnospira was lower, in NHS subjects. Fecal metabolomics analysis showed decreased L-tryptophan levels and increased abundance of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine in individuals with NHS. Correlation analysis showed that kynurenine levels positively associated with the abundance of Collinsella and Acinetobacter. ROC analysis demonstrated that the combination of tryptophan and kynurenine could discriminate NHS patients from controls with good statistical power [P < 0.05; AUC = 0.833 (95% CI, 0.747 to 0.918)]. Supporting a key role of dysbiotic gut microbiota in NHS development, incipient hepatic steatosis and increased kynurenine levels were observed in GF mice colonized with samples from NHS patients. These results indicate that enhanced kynurenine production resulting from altered gut microbiota composition contributes to NHS in nondiabetic adults and suggest the relevance of tryptophan metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Liu C, Wang YL, Yang YY, et al (2021)

Novel approaches to intervene gut microbiota in the treatment of chronic liver diseases.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 35(10):e21871.

Recent investigations of gut microbiota have contributed to understanding of the critical role of microbial community in pathophysiology. Dysbiosis not only causes disturbance directly to the gastrointestinal tract but also affects the liver through gut-liver axis. Various types of dysbiosis have been documented in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis, and may be crucial for the initiation, progression, or deterioration to end-stage liver disease. A few microbial species have been identified as the causal factors leading to these chronic illnesses that either do not have clear etiologies or lack effective treatment. Notably, cytolysin-producing Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus gallinarum were defined for ALD, NASH, and AIH, respectively. These groundbreaking discoveries drive a rapid development in innovative therapeutics, such as fecal microbial transplantation and implementation of specific bacteriophages in addition to prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics for intervention of dysbiosis. Although most emerging interventions are in preclinical development or early clinical trials, a better delineation of specific dysbiosis in these disorders at metabolic, immunogenic, or molecular levels in establishing particular causal effects aids in modulating or correcting the microbial community which is the part of daily life for human being.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Sun WL, Li XY, Dou HY, et al (2021)

Myricetin supplementation decreases hepatic lipid synthesis and inflammation by modulating gut microbiota.

Cell reports, 36(9):109641.

The relationship between poor in vivo bioavailability and effective pharmacological activity are not yet fully clarified for many flavonoids. The analysis of flavonoids-induced alterations in the gut microbiota represents a promising approach to provide useful clues to elucidate the mechanism of action. Here, we investigate the effect of myricetin supplementation on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and explore the associations with the gut microbiota through high-throughput analyses. The 12-week myricetin supplementation and fecal microbiota transplantation outcomes suggest that myricetin significantly slows the development of NAFLD. Meanwhile, the anti-NAFLD effects of myricetin are associated with the modulation of the gut microbiota composition. Myricetin reduces hepatic lipid synthesis and inflammation through modulations in fecal butyric-acid-related gut microbiota and protection of the gut barrier function. This study may facilitate the elucidation of the action mechanism of flavonoids with low bioavailability.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Bonetto S, Fagoonee S, Battaglia E, et al (2021)

Recent advances in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

Polish archives of internal medicine, 131(7-8):709-715.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder which presents with abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. It affects about 20% of the general population, mainly women, and has a considerable impact on the quality of life and health care costs. Four different entities of IBS have been identified: IBS with constipation (IBS‑ C), IBS with diarrhea (IBS D), IBS with a mixed pattern of constipation and diarrhea, and unclassified IBS. Although the precise pathogenesis of IBS remains unclear, its multifactorial nature is evident and includes environmental and host factors. Management of patients with this disease is challenging and a personalized approach is required. A strong, reassuring physician‑ patient relationship is crucial, followed by patient education, dietary advice, and stress reduction. For nonresponding patients, the therapeutic approach may include nonpharmacological therapies and / or pharmacotherapy. The choice of pharmacological treatment is based on the predominant symptom and a prespecified time point should be planned for effectiveness evaluation and dose adjustment. In patients with IBS‑ D, the therapeutic options include mainly antibiotics, such as rifaximin, peripheral opioid agonists, mixed opioid agonists / antagonists, bile acid sequestrants, and antagonists of serotonin 5‑ hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors. Bulking agents and osmotic laxatives represent the first line therapy for IBS‑ C, while lubiprostone and linaclotide should be reserved for difficult to treat patients. The involvement of gastrointestinal microbiota constitutes a fascinating field of exploration as it offers the potential to be modulated by the use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics as well as fecal microbiota transplantation. This review offers an updated overview on the recent advances in the treatment of IBS.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Abu El-Haija M, Ye Y, Chu Y, et al (2021)

Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 are required for gastric bypass-induced metabolic effects.

Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery pii:S1550-7289(21)00372-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been suggested as one of the forefront cross-communicators between the intestinal bacteria and the host to regulate inflammatory signals and energy homeostasis. High-fat diet-induced inflammation is mediated by changes in gut microbiota and requires a functional TLR-4, the deficiency of which renders mice resistant to diet-induced obesity and its associated metabolic dysfunction. Furthermore, gut microbiota was suggested to play a key role in the beneficial effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), a commonly performed bariatric procedure.

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 8 (MyD88; 1 of its key downstream signaling regulators) and gut microbiota play an integrative role in RYGB-induced metabolic outcomes.

SETTING: Animal- based study.

METHOD: We performed RYGB in TLR4 and MyD88 knock-out (KO) mice and used fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from RYGB-operated animals to these genetic mouse models to address our questions.

RESULTS: We demonstrate that RYGB reduces TLR4 expression explicitly in the small and large intestine of C57Blc/6J mice. We also show that TLR4 KO mice have an attenuated glucoregulatory response to RYGB. In addition, we reveal that MyD88 KO mice fail to respond to all RYGB-induced metabolic effects. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant from RYGB-operated mice into TLR4 KO and MyD88 KO naïve recipients fails to induce a metabolic phenotype similar to that of the donors, as it does in wild-type recipients.

CONCLUSION: TLR4 and MyD88 are required for RYGB-induced metabolic response that is likely mediated by gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Yang J, Wei H, Zhou Y, et al (2021)

High-Fat Diet Promotes Colorectal Tumorigenesis through Modulating Gut Microbiota and Metabolites.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(21)03439-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary fat intake is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the role of high-fat diet (HFD) in driving CRC through modulating gut microbiota and metabolites.

METHODS: HFD or control diet (CD) was fed to mice littermates in CRC mouse models of azoxymethane (AOM) model and Apcmin/+ model, with or without antibiotics cocktail treatment. Germ-free mice for fecal microbiota transplantation were utilized for validation. Gut microbiota and metabolites were respectively detected by metagenomic sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gut barrier function was determined by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) level and transmission electron microscopy.

RESULTS: HFD promoted colorectal tumorigenesis in both AOM-treated mice and Apcmin/+ mice compared with CD-fed mice. Gut microbiota depletion by antibiotics attenuated colon tumor formation in HFD-fed mice. A significant shift of gut microbiota composition with increased pathogenic bacteria Alistipes sp. Marseille-P5997 and Alistipes sp. 5CPEGH6, and depleted probiotic Parabacteroides distasonis, along with impaired gut barrier function was exhibited in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, HFD-modulated gut microbiota promotes colorectal tumorigenesis in AOM-treated germ-free mice, indicating gut microbiota was essential in HFD-associated colorectal tumorigenesis. Gut metabolites alteration including elevated lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) which was confirmed to promote CRC cell proliferation and impair cell junction was also observed in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, transfer of stools from HFD-fed mice to germ-free mice without interference increased colonic cell proliferation, impaired gut barrier function and induced oncogenic genes expression.

CONCLUSION: HFD drives colorectal tumorigenesis through inducing gut microbial dysbiosis, metabolomic dysregulation with elevated LPA, and gut barrier dysfunction in mice.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Zhong HJ, Zeng HL, Cai YL, et al (2021)

Washed Microbiota Transplantation Lowers Blood Pressure in Patients With Hypertension.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:679624.

Background: Although transplantation of the fecal microbiota from normotensive donors has been shown to have an antihypertensive effect in hypertensive animal models, its effect on blood pressure in patients with hypertension is unclear. This study aimed to assess the effect of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) from normotensive donors on blood pressure regulation in hypertensive patients.

Methods: The clinical data of consecutive patients treated with washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) were collected retrospectively. The blood pressures of hypertensive patients before and after WMT were compared. The factors influencing the antihypertensive effect of WMT in hypertensive patients and fecal microbial composition of donors and hypertensive patients were also analyzed.

Results: WMT exhibited an antihypertensive effect on blood pressure: the blood pressure at hospital discharge was significantly lower than that at hospital admission (change in systolic blood pressure: -5.09 ± 15.51, P = 0.009; change in diastolic blood pressure: -7.74 ± 10.42, P < 0.001). Hypertensive patients who underwent WMT via the lower gastrointestinal tract (β = -8.308, standard error = 3.856, P = 0.036) and those not taking antihypertensive drugs (β = -8.969, standard error = 4.256, P = 0.040) had a greater decrease in systolic blood pressure, and hypertensive patients not taking antihypertensive drugs also had a greater decrease in diastolic blood pressure (β = -8.637, standard error = 2.861, P = 0.004). After WMT, the Shannon Diversity Index was higher in six of eight hypertensive patients and the microbial composition of post-WMT samples tended to be closer to that of donor samples.

Conclusion: WMT had a blood pressure-lowering effect in hypertensive patients, especially in those who underwent WMT via the lower gastrointestinal tract and in those not taking antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, modulation of the gut microbiota by WMT may offer a novel approach for hypertension treatment.

RevDate: 2021-08-28

Bloom P, Tapper EB, Young VB, et al (2021)

Microbiome Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Journal of hepatology pii:S0168-8278(21)01998-X [Epub ahead of print].

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication of cirrhosis characterized by neuropsychiatric and motor dysfunction. Microbiota-host interactions have an important role in HE pathogenesis. Therapies targeting microbial community composition and function have been explored for the treatment of HE. Prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) have aimed to increase the abundance of potentially beneficial taxa, while antibiotics have aimed to decrease the abundance of potentially harmful taxa. Other microbiome therapeutics, including postbiotics and absorbents, have been used to target microbial products. Microbiome-targeted therapies for HE have had some success, notably lactulose and rifaximin, with early promise for probiotics and FMT. Microbiome therapeutics face several challenges in HE, including the resilience of the microbiome to sustainable change and unpredictable clinical outcomes from microbiota alterations. Future work in this space should focus on rigorous trial design, microbiome therapy selection, and a personalized approach to HE.

RevDate: 2021-08-28

Desselberger U (2021)

Significance of the Gut Microbiome for Viral Diarrheal and Extra-Intestinal Diseases.

Viruses, 13(8): pii:v13081601.

The composition of the mammalian gut microbiome is very important for the health and disease of the host. Significant correlations of particular gut microbiota with host immune responsiveness and various infectious and noninfectious host conditions, such as chronic enteric infections, type 2 diabetes, obesity, asthma, and neurological diseases, have been uncovered. Recently, research has moved on to exploring the causalities of such relationships. The metabolites of gut microbiota and those of the host are considered in a 'holobiontic' way. It turns out that the host's diet is a major determinant of the composition of the gut microbiome and its metabolites. Animal models of bacterial and viral intestinal infections have been developed to explore the interrelationships of diet, gut microbiome, and health/disease phenotypes of the host. Dietary fibers can act as prebiotics, and certain bacterial species support the host's wellbeing as probiotics. In cases of Clostridioides difficile-associated antibiotic-resistant chronic diarrhea, transplantation of fecal microbiomes has sometimes cured the disease. Future research will concentrate on the definition of microbial/host/diet interrelationships which will inform rationales for improving host conditions, in particular in relation to optimization of immune responses to childhood vaccines.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Socała K, Doboszewska U, Szopa A, et al (2021)

The role of microbiota-gut-brain axis in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(21)00424-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiota play a crucial role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain suggesting that gut microbes may shape neural development, modulate neurotransmission and affect behavior, and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis and/or progression of many neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurological conditions. This review summarizes recent data on the role of microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, Parkinson's disease, migraine, and epilepsy. Also, the involvement of microbiota in gut disorders co-existing with neuropsychiatric conditions is highlighted. We discuss data from both in vivo preclinical experiments and clinical reports including: (1) studies in germ-free animals, (2) studies exploring the gut microbiota composition in animal models of diseases or in humans, (3) studies evaluating the effects of probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics treatment as well as (4) the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Duan L, An X, Zhang Y, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota as the critical correlation of polycystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 142:112094 pii:S0753-3322(21)00877-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota forms a symbiotic relationship with the host and maintains the ecological balance of the internal and external environment of the human body. However, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and immune deficiency, as well as environmental changes, can destroy the host-microbial balance, leading to the occurrence of a variety of diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity. Meanwhile, diseases can also affect gut microbiota, forming a vicious cycle. The role of the intestinal microbiota in different diseases have been proven by several studies; however, as a common target of PCOS and T2DM, there are few reports on the treatment of different diseases through the regulation of intestinal microbiota as the critical correlation. This review analyzed the common mechanisms of intestinal microbiota in PCOS and T2DM, including the dysbiosis of gut microbiota, endotoxemia, short-chain fatty acids, biotransformation of bile acids, and synthesis of amino acid in regulating insulin resistance, obesity, chronic inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The possible therapeutic effects of probiotics and/or prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, bariatric surgery, dietary intervention, drug treatment, and other treatments targeted at regulating intestinal microbiota were also elucidated.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Zhang L, Chu J, Hao W, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Association, Mechanism, and Translational Applications.

Mediators of inflammation, 2021:5110276.

Gut microbiota has attracted widespread attention due to its crucial role in disease pathophysiology, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metabolites and bacterial components of gut microbiota affect the initiation and progression of T2DM by regulating inflammation, immunity, and metabolism. Short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acid, imidazole propionate, branched-chain amino acids, and lipopolysaccharide are the main molecules related to T2DM. Many studies have investigated the role of gut microbiota in T2DM, particularly those butyrate-producing bacteria. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotic capsules are useful strategies in preventing diabetes. In this review, we aim to elucidate the complex association between gut microbiota and T2DM inflammation, metabolism, and immune disorders, the underlying mechanisms, and translational applications of gut microbiota. This review will provide novel insight into developing individualized therapy for T2DM patients based on gut microbiota immunometabolism.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Abuaish S, Al-Otaibi NM, Abujamel TS, et al (2021)

Fecal Transplant and Bifidobacterium Treatments Modulate Gut Clostridium Bacteria and Rescue Social Impairment and Hippocampal BDNF Expression in a Rodent Model of Autism.

Brain sciences, 11(8): pii:brainsci11081038.

Autism is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction and gut microbiota dysbiosis, including an overall increase in Clostridium. Modulation of the gut microbiota is suggested to improve autistic symptoms. In this study, we explored the implementation of two different interventions that target the microbiota in a rodent model of autism and their effects on social behavior: the levels of different fecal Clostridium spp., and hippocampal transcript levels. Autism was induced in young Sprague Dawley male rats using oral gavage of propionic acid (PPA) for three days, while controls received saline. PPA-treated animals were divided to receive either saline, fecal transplant from healthy donor rats, or Bifidobacterium for 22 days, while controls continued to receive saline. We found that PPA attenuated social interaction in animals, which was rescued by the two interventions. PPA-treated animals had a significantly increased abundance of fecal C. perfringens with a concomitant decrease in Clostridium cluster IV, and exhibited high hippocampal Bdnf expression compared to controls. Fecal microbiota transplantation or Bifidobacterium treatment restored the balance of fecal Clostridium spp. and normalized the level of Bdnf expression. These findings highlight the involvement of the gut-brain axis in the etiology of autism and propose possible interventions in a preclinical model of autism.

RevDate: 2021-08-27
CmpDate: 2021-08-27

Camilleri M (2021)

FMT in IBS: a call for caution.

Gut, 70(2):431.

RevDate: 2021-08-25

Nandwana V, S Debbarma (2021)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: A Microbiome Modulation Technique for Alzheimer's Disease.

Cureus, 13(7):e16503.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the fifth leading cause of death among the elderly. AD involves parts of the brain that can lead to progressive memory loss and impaired language skills and cognitive thinking, affecting one's ability to carry out daily activities. Aging, bad dietary habits, family history, as well as altered gut microbiota composition may play a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Although the association between the imbalance of gut microbiota and AD is still difficult to determine, it has been suggested that dysbiosis can lead to the increased secretion of lipopolysaccharides and amyloid, which may impair the permeability of the intestine and the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it can progress the process of neuroinflammation, amyloid-beta formation, and ultimately neuronal death. Microbiota-targeted interventions such as personalized diet, probiotics, or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) might represent a potential therapeutic option for AD. This review article discusses the procedure of FMT and its possible side effects on the recipient's body. In addition, we review the role of FMT in the context of its application in various nervous system-related disorders (AD, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis).

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Jiao X, Pei X, Lu D, et al (2021)

Microbial reconstitution improves aging-driven lacrimal gland circadian dysfunction.

The American journal of pathology pii:S0002-9440(21)00355-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The lacrimal glands are highly susceptible to aging and exhibit age-related structural and functional alterations. However, the mechanisms by which aging affects the lacrimal glands are not well-established. Here, this study explores the crosstalk between the aging process, gut microbiota, and circadian rhythm in age-associated lacrimal gland dysfunction. C57BL/6J mice were divided into young, old, and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT)-treated old groups. The gut bacterial community diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Exorbital lacrimal glands (ELGs) were collected at 3-hour intervals over a 24-hour circadian cycle, and total RNA was subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Rhythmic transcriptional data were analyzed using the Jonckheere-Terpstra-Kendall algorithm and bioinformatics analysis technology. Immunostaining was used to identify lymphocytic infiltration, lipid deposition, and nerve innervation in the ELGs. Compared with young mice, old mice underwent a significant gut microbial community shift. In the old ELGs, the rhythmically transcriptomic profile was significantly reprogrammed over a 24-hour cycle. After intervention with serial FMT from young donors for one month, the gut microbial community of the old mice was rejuvenated. Most alterations in rhythmic transcriptomic profiling were improved. Furthermore, the chronic inflammation, lipid deposition, and aberrant neural response of the aging lacrimal glands were significantly reduced. Thus, the reconstitution of age-associated gut dysbiosis with FMTs from young donors improves aging-driven lacrimal gland circadian dysfunction.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Samuelson DR, Gu M, Shellito JE, et al (2021)

Pulmonary immune cell trafficking promotes host defense against alcohol-associated Klebsiella pneumonia.

Communications biology, 4(1):997.

The intestinal microbiota generates many different metabolites which are critical for the regulation of host signaling pathways. In fact, a wide-range of diseases are associated with increased levels of local or systemic microbe-derived metabolites. In contrast, certain bacterial metabolites, such as tryptophan metabolites, are known to contribute to both local and systemic homeostasis. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by alterations to intestinal microbial communities, and their functional capacities. However, little is known about the role of alcohol-associated dysbiosis on host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Our previous work using fecal transplantation demonstrated that alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis, independent of ethanol consumption, increased susceptibility to Klebsiella pneumonia. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota treatments mitigate the increased risk of alcohol-associated pneumonia. Treatment with the microbial metabolite indole or with probiotics reduced pulmonary and extrapulmonary bacterial burden, restored immune responses, and improved cellular trafficking required for host defense. Protective effects were, in part, mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR), as inhibition of AhR diminished the protective effects. Thus, alcohol appears to impair the production/processing of tryptophan catabolites resulting in immune dysregulation and impaired cellular trafficking. These data support microbiota therapeutics as novel strategies to mitigate the increased risk for alcohol-associated bacterial pneumonia.

RevDate: 2021-08-24
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation-standardization Study Group (2020)

Nanjing consensus on methodology of washed microbiota transplantation.

Chinese medical journal, 133(19):2330-2332.

RevDate: 2021-08-23

de Wouters d'Oplinter A, Rastelli M, Van Hul M, et al (2021)

Gut microbes participate in food preference alterations during obesity.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1959242.

Hypothalamic regulations of food intake are altered during obesity. The dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system, responsible for the hedonic response to food intake, is also affected. Gut microbes are other key players involved in obesity. Therefore, we investigated whether the gut microbiota plays a causal role in hedonic food intake alterations contributing to obesity. We transferred fecal material from lean or diet-induced obese mice into recipient mice and evaluated the hedonic food intake using a food preference test comparing the intake of control and palatable diets (HFHS, High-Fat High-Sucrose) in donor and recipient mice. Obese mice ate 58% less HFHS during the food preference test (p < 0.0001) than the lean donors, suggesting a dysregulation of the hedonic food intake during obesity. Strikingly, the reduction of the pleasure induced by eating during obesity was transferable through gut microbiota transplantation since obese gut microbiota recipient mice exhibited similar reduction in HFHS intake during the food preference test (40% reduction as compared to lean gut microbiota recipient mice, p < 0.01). This effect was associated with a consistent trend in modifications of dopaminergic markers expression in the striatum. We also pinpointed a highly positive correlation between HFHS intake and Parabacteroides (p < 0.0001), which could represent a potential actor involved in hedonic feeding probably through the gut-to-brain axis. We further demonstrated the key roles played by gut microbes in this paradigm since depletion of gut microbiota using broad-spectrum antibiotics also altered HFHS intake during food preference test in lean mice. In conclusion, we discovered that gut microbes regulate hedonic aspects of food intake. Our data demonstrate that gut microbiota modifications associated with obesity participate in dysregulations of the reward and hedonic components of the food intake. These data provide evidence that gut microbes could be an interesting therapeutic target to tackle hedonic disorders related to obesity.

RevDate: 2021-08-23

Schiereck T, Yeldan S, Kranz J, et al (2021)

[Urinary bladder microbiome analysis and probiotic treatment options for women with recurrent urinary tract infections].

Der Urologe. Ausg. A [Epub ahead of print].

Novel preventive measures and therapeutic approaches are needed to reduce the frequency of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) and the associated emergence of multidrug-resistant uropathogens. The aim of this review is to systematically present the available evidence on the urinary bladder microbiome of healthy women and those with rUTIs. In addition, relevant studies on the efficacy of probiotics in rUTIs are presented in a structured manner. This will provide an overview on the current state of research and an outlook on treatment strategies beyond the usual antimicrobial options.

RevDate: 2021-08-22

Kullberg RFJ, Wiersinga WJ, BW Haak (2021)

Gut microbiota and sepsis: from pathogenesis to novel treatments.

Current opinion in gastroenterology pii:00001574-900000000-99016 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in sepsis pathogenesis and outlines the potential role of microbiota-targeted therapies.

RECENT FINDINGS: The composition of the gut microbiome is profoundly distorted during sepsis, with a loss of commensal bacteria and an overgrowth of potential pathogenic micro-organisms. These alterations also extend to nonbacterial intestinal inhabitants. Disruptions of these intestinal communities are associated with both an increased susceptibility to develop sepsis, as well as a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Preclinical studies have characterized the effects of several microbiota-derived metabolites (such as D-lactate, butyrate, and deoxycholic acid) on enhancing the host immune response during critical illness. Microbiota-targeted therapies (e.g. probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation) might be of benefit, but can also be associated with increased risks of bloodstream infections.

SUMMARY: Emerging evidence display an important role of gut micro-organisms (including bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic viruses, and bacteriophages) and their derived metabolites in both the susceptibility to, as well as outcomes of sepsis. Despite recent progress in the mechanistic understanding of microbiota-mediated protection, clinical breakthroughs in the development of microbiota-based prognostic tools or therapies are thus far lacking in the field of sepsis.

RevDate: 2021-08-22

Cheraghmakani H, Rezai MS, Valadan R, et al (2021)

Ciprofloxacin for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy.

Epilepsy research, 176:106742 pii:S0920-1211(21)00195-9 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of short-term treatment with ciprofloxacin in alteration of gut microbiota pattern and reduction of seizure frequency in adult patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

METHODS: In a prospective study, we investigated the effect of a 5-day course of treatment with ciprofloxacin on gut microbiota pattern and seizure frequency of 23 adults with drug-resistant epilepsy. Fecal samples were collected before and after treatment and were analyzed for microbial load and species. Changes in seizure frequency were registered for 12 weeks. Responders were defined as patients who experienced ≥50 % seizure reduction in comparison to baseline. Outcome measures were specified as alteration in fecal microbial burden in days 5-7 and responder rate in 4th and 12th weeks.

RESULTS: The mean baseline frequency of seizures was5.6 ±7.7 per week. All patients were on polytherapy with a mean of 3 ± 1.2 anti-seizure medications. Microbial analysis showed a considerable increase in Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio after treatment. Seizure frequency significantly decreased at the end of first week and the therapeutic effect continued to week 12 (P < 0.001). The responder rate at 4th and 12th weeks were 69.6 % and 73.9 % respectively with a more prominent response in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsy (P:0.06).

CONCLUSION: Alteration of abnormal gut microbiota pattern by methods such as short-course antibiotic therapy, prescription of probiotics and fecal microbiota transplant might be effective in treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy.

RevDate: 2021-08-20

Cao M, Peng Y, Lu Y, et al (2021)

Controls of Hyperglycemia Improves Dysregulated Microbiota in Diabetic Mice.

Transplantation, 105(9):1980-1988.

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by T-cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Evidence shows that patients with T1DM and mice used in specific diabetic models both exhibit changes in their intestinal microbiota and dysregulated microbiota contributes to the pathogenesis of T1DM. Islet transplantation (Tx) is poised to play an important role in the treatment of T1DM. However, whether treatment of T1DM with islet Tx can rescue dysregulated microbiota remains unclear.

METHODS: In this study, we induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice with streptozotocin. Then treatment with either insulin administration, or homogenic or allogenic islet Tx was performed to the diabetic mice. Total DNA was isolated from fecal pellets and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was used to investigate intestinal microbiota composition.

RESULTS: The overall microbial diversity was comparable between control (nonstreptozotocin treated) and diabetic mice. Our results showed the ratio of the Bacteroidetes: Firmicutes between nondiabetic and diabetic mice was significant different. Treatment with islet Tx or insulin partially corrects the dysregulated bacterial composition. At the genus level, Bacteroides, Odoribacter, and Alistipes were associated with the progression and treatment efficacy of the disease, which may be used as a biomarker to predict curative effect of treatment for patients with T1DM.

CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicate that diabetic mice show changed microbiota composition and that treatment with insulin and islet Tx can partially correct the dysregulated microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-08-20

An L, Wuri J, Zheng Z, et al (2021)

Microbiota modulate Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity.

European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences pii:S0928-0987(21)00280-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Chemotherapy has several adverse effects to patients, some of which are life-threatening. We hypothesized that Doxorubicin induced microbiome imbalance and intestinal damage may contribute to Doxorubicin induced cardiac dysfunction. Male adult (2-3 months) C57BL/6 mice were administered 3mg/kg, 5mg/kg, 7.5mg/kg,15mg/kg, 20mg/kg doses of Doxorubicin. Echocardiography was performed at 7 and 14 days after Doxorubicin administration. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to characterize microbiome changes. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to evaluate the role of the microbiota on Doxorubicin induced cardiac dysfunction. Doxorubicin dose dependently increases mortality rate and induces cardiac dysfunction. 5mg/kg-Doxorubicin significantly induces decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fraction shortening (FS) as well as increased cardiac fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress respond without increasing mortality. 5mg/kg-Doxorubicin induces significant decreased colorectum length, increased loss of goblet cells, numbers of ulcers and infiltration of lymphocyte clusters and decreased tight junction protein ZO-1, as well as increased plasma endotoxin level measured by ELISA assay. 16S rRNA microbiota analysis shows that Doxorubicin-induced microbiota dysbiosis with decreased community richness compared with normal control mice. FMT to Doxorubicin-5mg treated mice significantly improved cardiac function by increasing LVEF and FS as well as decreased perivascular and interstitial fibrosis; increased colorectum length, decreased the loss of goblet cells,infiltration of lymphocyte clusters,the number of ulcers and plasma endotoxin level; improved microbiota composition, function and diversity with increased abundance of Alloprevotella, Prevotellaceae_UCG-001 and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group.We find that normal fecal transplantation improves cardiac function, decreases gut damage and alter microbiota composition induced by Doxorubicin. The microbiota appears to contribute to heart-gut interaction.

RevDate: 2021-08-20

Chen B, Huang H, CQ Pan (2021)

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Hepatitis B Disease Progression and Treatment.

Journal of viral hepatitis [Epub ahead of print].

Current therapeutic interventions can only suppress HBV replication or reduce complications without a cure. Therefore, further development of new treatment methods is critical for the global eradication of HBV. Accumulating evidence suggests that the liver and gut share an interconnected relationship referred to as the "Gut-Liver Axis", where exchanges happen bi-directionally. The gut itself is the host to a unique microbiota profile which has metabolic, immunological, neurological, and nutritional functions. Gut microbiota is not only constantly intersecting with the liver but also associated with hepatic injury when dysbiosis occurs. In recent years, there has been increased interest in gut microbiota and its implications on liver disease treatment. Progress has been made in understanding the complex relationship between chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and gut microbiota. New investigative techniques such as colony-free sequencing enabled new perspectives into this field. Mouse models and human studies revealed that HBV infection is associated with significant alteration of gut microbiota, which differ depending on the stage of CHB disease progression. Different mechanisms of the hepatic injury from gut microbiota dysbiosis have also been proposed based on findings of increased intestinal permeability to toxins, disruption of normal bacterial metabolism, and colonization of the gut by oral microbiota. New treatment methods targeting gut microbiota in CHB, such as probiotics and fecal microbiota transplant, have also gained promising results in recent years. The current review recapitulated the most recent investigations into the relationship between gut microbiota and CHB to provide research directions towards the new therapeutic target of CHB.

RevDate: 2021-08-20
CmpDate: 2021-08-20

Holster S, Repsilber D, Geng D, et al (2021)

Correlations between microbiota and metabolites after faecal microbiota transfer in irritable bowel syndrome.

Beneficial microbes, 12(1):17-30.

Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the infusion of donor faecal material into the intestine of a patient with the aim to restore a disturbed gut microbiota. In this study, it was investigated whether FMT has an effect on faecal microbial composition, its functional capacity, faecal metabolite profiles and their interactions in 16 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Faecal samples from eight different time points before and until six months after allogenic FMT (faecal material from a healthy donor) as well as autologous FMT (own faecal material) were analysed by 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GS-MS). The results showed that the allogenic FMT resulted in alterations in the microbial composition that were detectable up to six months, whereas after autologous FMT this was not the case. Similar results were found for the functional profiles, which were predicted from the phylogenetic sequencing data. While both allogenic FMT as well as autologous FMT did not have an effect on the faecal metabolites measured in this study, correlations between the microbial composition and the metabolites showed that the microbe-metabolite interactions seemed to be disrupted after allogenic FMT compared to autologous FMT. This shows that FMT can lead to altered interactions between the gut microbiota and its metabolites in IBS patients. Further research should investigate if and how this affects efficacy of FMT treatments.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Zhu Z, Kaiser T, C Staley (2021)

Antibiotic Conditioning and Single Gavage Allows Stable Engraftment of Human Microbiota in Mice.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2327:281-291.

Mice transplanted with human microbiota are essential tools for studying the role of microbiota in health and disease, striving for the development of microbiota-modulating therapeutics. Traditionally, germ-free mice have been the principal option for establishing human microbiota-associated (HMA) mouse models, leading to significant insights into the composition and function of the human microbiota. However, there are limitations in using germ-free mice as recipients of human microbiota, including considerable resource allocation to establish and maintain the model and incomplete development of their immune system and physiological functions. Thus, antibiotic-treated, non-germ-free mice have been developed as an alternative to satisfy the growing demand for an accessible HMA mouse model. Several methods have been described for creating "humanized" mice. These protocols vary in their key components, mainly antibiotic conditioning and frequency of oral gavage. To address this practical challenge and formulate a simple and repeatable protocol, we established a HMA mouse model with antibiotic-treated conventional and specific-pathogen free (SPF) C57BL/6J mice, revealing that a single oral gavage allows stable engraftment of the human microbiota. In this chapter, we present our simple protocol for antibiotic conditioning to prepare mice for stable engraftment of human gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Yu X, T Zuo (2021)

Editorial: Food Additives, Cooking and Processing: Impact on the Microbiome.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:731040.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Varricchi G, Poto R, Ianiro G, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiome and Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Few Certainties and Many Outstanding Questions.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:712915.

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary antibody immunodeficiency, characterized by reduced serum levels of IgG, IgA, and/or IgM. The vast majority of CVID patients have polygenic inheritance. Immune dysfunction in CVID can frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract and lung. Few studies have started to investigate the gut microbiota profile in CVID patients. Overall, the results suggest that in CVID patients there is a reduction of alpha and beta diversity compared to controls. In addition, these patients can exhibit increased plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and markers (sCD14 and sCD25) of systemic immune cell activation. CVID patients with enteropathy exhibit decreased IgA expression in duodenal tissue. Mouse models for CVID unsatisfactorily recapitulate the polygenic causes of human CVID. The molecular pathways by which gut microbiota contribute to systemic inflammation and possibly tumorigenesis in CVID patients remain poorly understood. Several fundamental questions concerning the relationships between gut microbiota and the development of chronic inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders or cancer in CVID patients remain unanswered. Moreover, it is unknown whether it is possible to modify the microbiome and the outcome of CVID patients through specific therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2021-08-18
CmpDate: 2021-08-18

Madsen AMA, Halkjær SI, Christensen AH, et al (2021)

The effect of faecal microbiota transplantation on abdominal pain, stool frequency, and stool form in patients with moderate-to-severe irritable bowel syndrome: results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology, 56(7):761-769.

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis. Therefore, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been hypothesised to have a positive effect in patients with IBS. In this study, we analysed previously unexamined data from our randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (trial registration number NCT02788071). The objective was to evaluate the effect of FMT on abdominal pain, stool frequency, and stool form.

METHOD: The study included 52 adult patients with moderate-to-severe IBS assigned randomly to treatment with FMT capsules or placebo capsules (1:1) for 12 days. The patients were followed for a total of six months, during which they kept a daily symptom diary tracking their abdominal pain on a scale from 0-10 and their bowel movements using the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS). Diary data were not collected before treatment start.

RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement in stool frequency was found in the FMT group from during treatment to post-treatment and 1 month. No statistically significant differences were found between groups at any time during the study for any of abdominal pain, stool frequency, and stool form (as measured by weighted stool score).

CONCLUSION: In this analysis of results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we found no clinically beneficial effect of FMT on abdominal pain, stool frequency, or stool form. However, since the current literature on the potential role of FMT in treating IBS shows conflicting results, further studies are required. To assess treatment efficacy, we recommend future studies to include daily symptom diaries both before and after treatment intervention.

RevDate: 2021-08-18
CmpDate: 2021-08-18

Leong KSW, O'Sullivan JM, Derraik JGB, et al (2020)

Gut microbiome transfer-Finding the perfect fit.

Clinical endocrinology, 93(1):3-10.

Gut microbiome transfer (GMT; also referred to as faecal microbiota transplantation or FMT) has been propelled from fringe therapy to mainstream science as a highly effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. As a result, there has been great interest in the potential efficacy and safety of GMT in treating other medical conditions, for example inflammatory bowel disease, and more recently as a novel therapy for obesity and metabolic diseases. For these chronic conditions, the results from clinical trials have been mixed. Further, specifically in obesity and metabolic diseases, there are limited available data, with only a few published studies with a small number of participants and short duration of follow-up. Therefore, this review aims to explore the human, microbial and formulation factors that may affect the success of GMT. This includes various aspects in the preparation and administration of GMT, such as stool processing, modes of delivery, pretreatment with antibiotics and/or bowel lavage, frequency of GMT and possible use of precision bacteriotherapy. In addition, we examine the potential use of GMT in obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases based on current available literature, highlighting some recent advances in GMT research in this area, as well as potential adverse effects after GMT therapy.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Chen L, Kan J, Zheng N, et al (2021)

A botanical dietary supplement from white peony and licorice attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by modulating gut microbiota and reducing inflammation.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 91:153693 pii:S0944-7113(21)00236-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-related metabolic disease that is highly associated with gut dysbiosis and inflammation. A botanical dietary supplement, mainly containing an herbal pair of white peony root and licorice as well as grape seeds and broccoli extracts (WLT), exerts auxiliary protection against chemical liver injury. However, it is unclear whether WLT protects against the development of NAFLD induced by a high energy diet.

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective role of WLT against NAFLD development induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and its mechanism of action.

METHODS: We investigated the anti-NAFLD effects of WLT on a HFHS diet-induced NAFLD C57BL/6J mouse model by detecting the hepatic triglyceride (TG) level, performing histological examination of the liver tissue, and evaluating glucose tolerance and systemic inflammation. Then, we analyzed the impact of WLT on gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, followed by fecal microbiota transplantation. Furthermore, we performed hepatic transcriptomic analysis of mice with or without WLT treatment using the RNA sequencing approach.

RESULTS: Our results showed that WLT supplement attenuated body weight gain, hepatic steatosis, glucose tolerance, and systemic inflammation in HFHS-fed mice. Moreover, WLT supplement altered the composition of gut microbiota, which contributed at least in part, to the anti-NAFLD effect. Meanwhile, WLT improved the intestinal integrity and comprehensively modulated the expression of hepatic genes in HFHS mice, particularly reducing the expression of genes in the toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory pathway.

CONCLUSION: WLT is protective against NAFLD formation induced by an HFHS diet, and its effect is associated with the modulation of gut microbiota and inflammation, highlighting the potential of WLT to reduce the risk of metabolic disorders as a functional dietary supplement.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Yao ZW, Yang X, Zhao BC, et al (2021)

Predictive and Preventive Potential of Preoperative Gut Microbiota in Chronic Postoperative Pain in Breast Cancer Survivors.

Anesthesia and analgesia pii:00000539-990000000-00209 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a potential relationship between gut microbiota and chronic postoperative pain (CPP). This study aimed to explore the predictive and preventive potential of preoperative gut microbiota in CPP in breast cancer survivors.

METHODS: In the clinical experiments, we designed a nested case-control study to compared preoperative gut microbiota of breast cancer survivors with and without CPP using 16s rRNA sequencing. The primary outcome was clinically meaningful pain in or around the operative area 3 months after surgery. Logistic prediction models based on previously identified risk factors for CPP in breast cancer survivors were tested with and without differential bacteria to evaluate the model's potential for improvement with the addition of gut microbiota information. In the animal experiments, preoperative fecal microbiota was transplanted from patients with and without CPP to mice, and a spared nerve injury (SNI) model was used to mimic neuropathic pain in CPP. Mechanical hyperalgesia and the expression of markers of spinal microglia and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were assessed.

RESULTS: Sixty-six CPP patients and 66 matched controls were analyzed. Preoperative gut microbiota composition was significantly different in the 2 groups at phylus, family, and genera levels. The discrimination of the clinical prediction model (determined by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) improved by 0.039 and 0.099 after the involvement of differential gut microbiota at the family and genus levels, respectively. After fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), "CPP microbiota" recipient mice exhibited significantly increased mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased expression of Ppar-γ and arginase-1 (Arg-1) in the spinal cord.

CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative gut microbiota has the potential to predict and prevent the development of CPP and plays a causal role in its development via the PPAR-γ-microglia pathway in the spinal cord. Thus, it could be targeted to develop a prevention strategy for CPP in breast cancer survivors.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Olekhnovich EI, Ivanov AB, Ulyantsev VI, et al (2021)

Separation of Donor and Recipient Microbial Diversity Allows Determination of Taxonomic and Functional Features of Gut Microbiota Restructuring following Fecal Transplantation.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently used in medicine to treat recurrent clostridial colitis and other intestinal diseases. However, neither the therapeutic mechanism of FMT nor the mechanism that allows the donor bacteria to colonize the intestine of the recipient has yet been clearly described. From a biological point of view, FMT can be considered a useful model for studying the ecology of host-associated microbial communities. FMT experiments can shed light on the relationship features between the host and its gut microbiota. This creates the need for experimentation with approaches to metagenomic data analysis which may be useful for the interpretation of observed biological phenomena. Here, the recipient intestine colonization analysis tool (RECAST) novel computational approach is presented, which is based on the metagenomic read sorting process per their origin in the recipient's post-FMT stool metagenome. Using the RECAST algorithm, taxonomic/functional annotation, and machine learning approaches, the metagenomes from three FMT studies, including healthy volunteers, patients with clostridial colitis, and patients with metabolic syndrome, were analyzed. Using our computational pipeline, the donor-derived and recipient-derived microbes which formed the recipient post-FMT stool metagenomes (successful microbes) were identified. Their presence is well explained by a higher relative abundance in donor/pre-FMT recipient metagenomes or other metagenomes from the human population. In addition, successful microbes are enriched with gene groups potentially related to antibiotic resistance, including antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, the observed reorganization features are universal and independent of the disease. IMPORTANCE We assumed that the enrichment of successful gut microbes by lantibiotic/antibiotic resistance genes can be related to gut microbiota colonization resistance by third-party microbe phenomena and resistance to bacterium-derived or host-derived antimicrobial substances. According to this assumption, competition between the donor-derived and recipient-derived microbes as well as host immunity may play a key role in the FMT-related colonization and redistribution of recipient gut microbiota structure.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Derosa L, Routy B, Desilets A, et al (2021)

Microbiota-Centered Interventions: The Next Breakthrough in Immuno-Oncology?.

Cancer discovery pii:2159-8290.CD-21-0236 [Epub ahead of print].

The cancer-immune dialogue subject to immuno-oncological intervention is profoundly influenced by microenvironmental factors. Indeed, the mucosal microbiota-and more specifically, the intestinal ecosystem-influences the tone of anticancer immune responses and the clinical benefit of immunotherapy. Antibiotics blunt the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), and fecal microbial transplantation may restore responsiveness of ICI-resistant melanoma. Here, we review the yin and yang of intestinal bacteria at the crossroads between the intestinal barrier, metabolism, and local or systemic immune responses during anticancer therapies. We discuss diagnostic tools to identify gut dysbiosis and the future prospects of microbiota-based therapeutic interventions. SIGNIFICANCE: Given the recent proof of concept of the potential efficacy of fecal microbial transplantation in patients with melanoma primarily resistant to PD-1 blockade, it is timely to discuss how and why antibiotics compromise the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, describe the balance between beneficial and harmful microbial species in play during therapies, and introduce the potential for microbiota-centered interventions for the future of immuno-oncology.

RevDate: 2021-08-16

Saul S, Fuessel J, J Runde (2021)

Pediatric Digestive Health and the Gut Microbiome: Existing Therapies and a Look to the Future.

Pediatric annals, 50(8):e336-e342.

The human gut is host to trillions of microbes that from birth begin interacting with our immune system. Over time this relationship is thought to shape critical aspects of human function such as metabolism, brain development, immune response, and overall gut health. Recent advances in technology have allowed us to begin understanding this complex relationship and have demonstrated that microbes within the gut ecosystem can be influenced by a variety of factors including mode of delivery, diet, and medication exposure, all of which can impact host health in either positive or detrimental ways. Perturbations of gut homeostasis have been implicated in many forms of digestive disease such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, Helicobacter pylori infection, and even in cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. As such, researchers have sought methods to either restore gut homeostasis or prevent dysregulation of the gut community, also known as dysbiosis, through an emerging field known as microbial therapeutics. Examples of existing modalities are reviewed here such as prebiotics, probiotics, fecal microbial transplantation, and dietary therapy. As these therapies become further substantiated through research and increasingly desired by patients and their families, there is a need for providers caring for children to familiarize themselves with the existing data and indications for use. As we look to the future, machine-learning algorithms and more readily available next-generation sequencing of fecal samples may allow us to harness data from a person's gut microbiota to predict response to a particular intervention and tailor therapeutic options with an aim toward precision medicine. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(8):e336-e342.].

RevDate: 2021-08-16

Konopelski P, Konop M, Perlejewski K, et al (2021)

Genetically determined hypertensive phenotype affects gut microbiota composition, but not vice versa.

Journal of hypertension, 39(9):1790-1799.

OBJECTIVES: Research suggests reciprocal crosstalk between the host and gut bacteria. This study evaluated the interaction between gut microbiota and arterial blood pressure (BP) in rats.

METHODS: Continuous telemetry recordings of BP were started in 7-week-old normotensive Wistar--Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Two weeks later, half of the WKY and SHR were subjected to cross-transplantation of fecal matter, with stools harvested from either WKY or SHR and BP measurements until the age of 14 weeks. The composition of gut bacteria was assessed through analysis of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The concentration of microbiota-derived metabolites was evaluated using HPLC-MS.

RESULTS: There was a significant difference between WKY and SHR in the composition of gut bacteria at the start and end of the study. This was accompanied by significant histological differences in the colon. SHR, but not WKY, showed a gradual increase in BP throughout the experiment. For both WKY and SHR, there was no significant difference in BP or metabolic parameters between animals receiving fecal transplantation from either SHR or WKY.

CONCLUSION: Genetically induced hypertension in SHR is associated with alterations in the composition of gut bacteria and histological morphology of the colon. An inter-strain fecal transplant does not affect BP and does not produce long-term changes in gut bacteria composition. We propose that the impact of the host genotype and/or phenotype on the gut bacteria may be greater than the impact of the gut bacteria on the host BP.

RevDate: 2021-08-16

Cui J, Lin Z, Tian H, et al (2021)

Long-Term Follow-Up Results of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

Frontiers in medicine, 8:710452.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Study Methods: In this single-center long-term follow-up study, FMT treatment was administered to patients with moderate to severe IBS (IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) > 175). After 1 year of treatment, it was decided whether to repeat FMT based on IBS-SSS score (IBS-SSS > 175). Baseline characteristics before and after FMT and questionnaires were completed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after FMT. The study outcomes included treatment efficacy rates, change of IBS-SSS, IBS-specific quality of life and fatigue, effect on stool frequency, Bristol Stool Scale for IBS-C and IBS-D, and side effects. Results: A total of 227 patients (47.58% IBS-C, 39.21% IBS-D, and 13.22% IBS-M) were recruited (142 females and 85 males with a mean age of 41.89 ± 13.57 years). The efficacy rates were 108 (51.92%), 147 (74.62%), 125 (74.41 %), 88 (71.54%), 78 (75.00%), 65 (73.03%), 45 (61.64%), and 37 (62.71%) at different follow-up time points. The total IBS-SSS score was 321.37 ± 73.89 before FMT, which significantly decreased after 1 month. The IBS-specific quality of life (IBS-QoL) score was 40.24 ± 11.34 before FMT, increased gradually, and was significantly higher at 3 months compared to before FMT. The total Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) score was 47 ± 8.64 before FMT and was significantly lower at 3 months. During follow-up, 89 (39.21%) side effects occurred that were alleviated by symptomatic treatment, and no serious adverse events were detected. Conclusion: Based on 60 months of long-term follow-up, the safety and efficacy of FMT for IBS was established. However, as the treatment effect declines over time, periodic and repetitive FMT is required for a sustained effect.

RevDate: 2021-08-16

Jian Y, Zhang D, Liu M, et al (2021)

The Impact of Gut Microbiota on Radiation-Induced Enteritis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:586392.

Radiotherapy is an important treatment for abdominal tumors. A critical side effect for this therapy is enteritis. In this review, we aim to summarize recent findings in radiation enteritis, in particular the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the development and therapy of the disease. Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in the occurrence of various diseases, such as radiation enteritis. Abdominal radiation results in changes in the composition of microbiota and reduces its diversity, which is mainly reflected in the decrease of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and increase of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. Gut microbiota dysbiosis aggravates radiation enteritis, weakens intestinal epithelial barrier function, and promotes inflammatory factor expression. Pathogenic Escherichia coli induce the rearrangement and redistribution of claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1 in tight junctions, a critical component in intestinal epithelial barrier. In view of the role that microbiome plays in radiation enteritis, we believe that intestinal flora could be a potential biomarker for the disease. Correction of microbiome by application of probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and antibiotics could be an effective method for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced enteritis.

RevDate: 2021-08-15

Han SK, Kim JK, Park HS, et al (2021)

Chaihu-Shugan-San (Shihosogansan) alleviates restraint stress-generated anxiety and depression in mice by regulating NF-κB-mediated BDNF expression through the modulation of gut microbiota.

Chinese medicine, 16(1):77.

BACKGROUND: Chaihu-Shugan-San (CSS, named Shihosogansan in Korean), a Chinese traditional medicine, is frequently used to treat anxiety and depression. Psychiatric disorders including depression are associated with gut dysbiosis. Therefore, to comprehend gut microbiota-involved anti-depressive effect of CSS, we examined its effect on restraint stress (RS)-induced depression and gut dysbiosis in mice METHODS: CSS was extracted with water in boiling water bath and freeze-dried. Anxiety and depression was induced in C57BL/6 mice by exposure to RS. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were measured in the light/dark transition and elevated plus maze tasks, forced swimming test, and tail suspension test. Biomarkers were assayed by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. The gut microbiota composition was analyzed by Illumina iSeq sequencer.

RESULTS: CSS significantly reduced the RS-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice. CSS suppressed the RS-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and increased the RS-suppressed expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Furthermore, CSS suppressed the RS-induced IL-6 and corticosterone level in the blood and IL-6 expression and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon. CSS decreased the RS-induced γ-Proteobacteria population in gut microbiota, while the RS-suppressed Lactobacillaceae, Prevotellaceae, and AC160630_f populations increased. Fecal transplantation of vehicle-treated control or RS/CSS-treated mice into RS-exposed mice significantly mitigated RS-induced anxity- and depression-like behaviors, suppressed the NF-κB activation in the hippocampus and colon, and reduced the IL-6 and corticosterone levels in the blood. These fecal microbiota transplantations suppressed RS-induced Desulfovibrionaceae and γ-Proteobacteria populations and increased RS-suppressed Lactobacillaceae and Prevotellaceae poulation in the gut microbiota.

CONCLUSIONS: CSS alleviated anxiety and depression by inducing NF-κB-involved BDNF expression through the regulation of gut inflammation and microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-08-16
CmpDate: 2021-08-16

Szczyrek M, Bitkowska P, Chunowski P, et al (2021)

Diet, Microbiome, and Cancer Immunotherapy-A Comprehensive Review.

Nutrients, 13(7):.

The immune system plays a key role in cancer suppression. Immunotherapy is widely used as a treatment method in patients with various types of cancer. Immune checkpoint blockade using antibodies, such as anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4, is currently gaining popularity. A systematic literature search was executed, and all available data was summarized. This review shows that specific dietary patterns (such as, e.g., animal-based, vegetarian, or Mediterranean diet) alter the gut microbiome's composition. An appropriate intestinal microbiota structure might modulate the function of human immune system, which affects the bodily anti-cancer response. This paper shows also that specific bacteria species inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract can have a beneficial influence on the efficacy of immunotherapy. Antibiotics weaken gut bacteria and worsen the immune checkpoint blockers' efficacy, whereas a faecal microbiota transplant or probiotics supplementation may help restore bacterial balance in the intestine. Other factors (like vitamins, glucose, or BMI) change the cancer treatment response, as well. This review demonstrates that there is a strong association between one's diet, gut microbiome composition, and the outcome of immunotherapy. However, further investigation on this subject is required.

RevDate: 2021-08-12

Gholam-Mostafaei FS, Yadegar A, Asadzadeh Aghdaei H, et al (2021)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in patients with concurrent ulcerative colitis.

Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica [Epub ahead of print].

Treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) has emerged as an important management dilemma particularly in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used as a safe and highly effective treatment option for rCDI refractory to standard antibiotic therapies. The aim of this study was to report the efficacy of FMT in Iranian rCDI patients with concurrent IBD. A total of seven consecutive patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who had experienced 3 episodes of rCDI were enrolled in this study. All patients received at least a single FMT administered during colonoscopy by direct infusion of minimally processed donor stool. Patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months for assessment of treatment efficacy and adverse events (AEs) attributable to FMT. All 7 UC patients (100%) experienced a durable clinical response to a single FMT following 2 months after the procedure. One patient received a second FMT in which a successful resolution of rCDI was ultimately achieved. No serious AEs from FMT were noted. FMT through colonoscopy was a safe, simple and effective alternative treatment approach for rCDI in patients with underlying IBD. However, its use and efficacy should be pursued in long-term prospective controlled trials.

RevDate: 2021-08-12

Zhao Y, Liu S, Tang Y, et al (2021)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Ameliorated Long-Term Exposure to TiO2 Nanoparticles Induced Microbiota-Mediated Liver and Colon Inflammation and Fructose-Caused Metabolic Abnormality in Metabolism Syndrome Mice.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

A huge number of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) exist in confectionery foods, which is a high-risk factor for development of diet-induced metabolism syndrome (MetS). In this study, we built a high fructose drinking-induced MetS mouse model, and oral intake of 20 mg/kg TiO2 NPs was administered for 8 weeks. Significant pathological changes and inflammatory factors of overproduction were detected in the liver and colon. The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis results indicated that TiO2 NPs evidently and further perturbed the gut microbiota diversity, compositions, and KEGG pathways in MetS mice. Fecal microbiota transplant experiment proved that TiO2 NPs-altered gut microbiota drives liver and colon inflammation damage. More importantly, oral supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) ameliorated not only the TiO2 NPs-induced inflammation but also the fructose-caused metabolic abnormality. LGG recovered the gut dysbiosis and decreased the abundance of inflammation-related bacteria (Desulfovibrionaceae, Clostridia, and Proteobacteria), thereby protecting against TiO2 NPs-induced severe inflammation damage. Our study suggests the necessity of assessing the toxic effects of foodborne nanoparticles on the chronic disease population and potential usefulness of probiotics as prophylactic and therapeutic.

RevDate: 2021-08-12

Wang H, Yang F, Zhang S, et al (2021)

Genetic and environmental factors in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and promising therapeutic intervention via fecal microbiota transplantation.

NPJ Parkinson's disease, 7(1):70.

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by neuronal impairment and loss of function, and with the major shared histopathological hallmarks of misfolding and aggregation of specific proteins inside or outside cells. Some genetic and environmental factors contribute to the promotion of the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, there are no effective treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. It has been revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut. The gut microbiota is a changeable and experience-dependent ecosystem and can be modified by genetic and environmental factors. The gut microbiota provides potential therapeutic targets that can be regulated as new interventions for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss genetic and environmental risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases, summarize the communication among the components of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, and discuss the treatment strategy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). FMT is a promising treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, and restoration of the gut microbiota to a premorbid state is a novel goal for prevention and treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2021-08-12
CmpDate: 2021-08-12

Liaqat I, Ali NM, Arshad N, et al (2021)

Gut dysbiosis, inflammation and type 2 diabetes in mice using synthetic gut microbiota from diabetic humans.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 83:e242818 pii:S1519-69842023000100141.

The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .

RevDate: 2021-08-12
CmpDate: 2021-08-12

Kurokawa S (2021)

[The Link Between Gut Microbiota and Cerebral Functions: An Update on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders].

Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu no shinpo, 73(8):857-862.

Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of brain effects on functional gastrointestinal disorders, through dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. Herein, we summarize the known pathogeneses of various functional gastrointestinal disorders relative to the gut microbiota, and discuss future gut microbiota-focused interventions for restoring dysbiosis, including probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Puca P, Petito V, Laterza L, et al (2021)

Bariatric procedures and microbiota: patient selection and outcome prediction.

Therapeutic advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy, 14:26317745211014746.

Obesity is a major health issue throughout the world and bariatric surgery plays a key role in its management and treatment. The role of microbiota in determining the pathogenesis of obesity has been widely studied, while its role in determining the outcome of bariatric surgery is an emerging issue that will be an outcome in near future studies. Studies on mice first showed the key role of microbiota in determining obesity, highlighting the fat mass increase in mice transplanted with microbiota from fat individuals, as well as the different microbiota composition between mice undergone to low-fat or high-fat diets. This led to characterize the asset of microbiota composition in obesity: increased abundance of Firmicutes, reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes and other taxonomical features. Variations on the composition of gut microbiome have been detected in patients undergone to diet and/or bariatric surgery procedures. Patients undergone to restricting diets showed lower level of trimethylamine N-oxide and other metabolites strictly associated to microbiome, as well as patients treated with bariatric surgery showed, after the procedure, changes in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and other phyla with a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Eventually, studies have been led about the effects that the modification of microbiota could have on obesity itself, mainly focusing on elements like fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics such as inulin. This series of studies and considerations represent the first step in order to select patients eligible to bariatric surgery and to predict their outcome.

RevDate: 2021-08-11
CmpDate: 2021-08-11

Manzoor SE, Zaman S, Whalley C, et al (2021)

Multi-modality detection of SARS-CoV-2 in faecal donor samples for transplantation and in asymptomatic emergency surgical admissions.

F1000Research, 10:373.

Background: Faecal transplantation is an evidence-based treatment for Clostridioides difficile. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have been shown to shed the virus in stool for up to 33 days, well beyond the average clearance time for upper respiratory tract shedding. We carried out an analytical and clinical validation of reverse-transcriptase quantitative (RT-qPCR) as well as LAMP, LamPORE and droplet digital PCR in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool from donated samples for faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), spiked samples and asymptomatic inpatients in an acute surgical unit. Methods: Killed SARS-CoV-2 viral lysate and extracted RNA was spiked into donor stool & FMT and a linear dilution series from 10 -1 to 10 -5 and tested via RT-qPCR, LAMP, LamPORE and ddPCR against SARS-CoV-2. Patients admitted to the critical care unit with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 and sequential asymptomatic patients from acute presentation to an acute surgical unit were also tested. Results: In a linear dilution series, detection of the lowest dilution series was found to be 8 copies per microlitre of sample. Spiked lysate samples down to 10 -2 dilution were detected in FMT samples using RTQPCR, LamPORE and ddPCR and down to 10 -1 with LAMP. In symptomatic patients 5/12 had detectable SARS-CoV-2 in stool via RT-qPCR and 6/12 via LamPORE, and in 1/97 asymptomatic patients via RT-qPCR. Conclusion: RT-qPCR can be detected in FMT donor samples using RT-qPCR, LamPORE and ddPCR to low levels using validated pathways. As previously demonstrated, nearly half of symptomatic and less than one percent of asymptomatic patients had detectable SARS-CoV-2 in stool.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Qu Y, Li X, Xu F, et al (2021)

Kaempferol Alleviates Murine Experimental Colitis by Restoring Gut Microbiota and Inhibiting the LPS-TLR4-NF-κB Axis.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:679897.

Intestinal microbiota dysbiosis is an established characteristic of ulcerative colitis (UC). Regulating the gut microbiota is an attractive alternative UC treatment strategy, considering the potential adverse effects of synthetic drugs used to treat UC. Kaempferol (Kae) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant flavonoid derived from a variety of medicinal plants. In this study, we determined the efficacy and mechanism of action of Kae as an anti-UC agent in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. DSS challenge in a mouse model of UC led to weight loss, diarrhea accompanied by mucous and blood, histological abnormalities, and shortening of the colon, all of which were significantly alleviated by pretreatment with Kae. In addition, intestinal permeability was shown to improve using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran administration. DSS-induced destruction of the intestinal barrier was also significantly prevented by Kae administration via increases in the levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1. Furthermore, Kae pretreatment decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and downregulated transcription of an array of inflammatory signaling molecules, while it increased IL-10 mRNA expression. Notably, Kae reshaped the intestinal microbiome by elevating the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio; increasing the linear discriminant analysis scores of beneficial bacteria, such as Prevotellaceae and Ruminococcaceae; and reducing the richness of Proteobacteria in DSS-challenged mice. There was also an evident shift in the profile of fecal metabolites in the Kae treatment group. Serum LPS levels and downstream TLR4-NF-κB signaling were downregulated by Kae supplementation. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation from Kae-treated mice to the DSS-induced mice confirmed the effects of Kae on modulating the gut microbiota to alleviate UC. Therefore, Kae may exert protective effects against colitis mice through regulating the gut microbiota and TLR4-related signaling pathways. This study demonstrates the anti-UC effects of Kae and its potential therapeutic mechanisms, and offers novel insights into the prevention of inflammatory diseases using natural products.

RevDate: 2021-08-08

McCarthy S, Barrett M, Kirthi S, et al (2021)

Altered Skin and Gut Microbiome in Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

The Journal of investigative dermatology pii:S0022-202X(21)01657-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the formation of nodules, abscesses, and fistula at intertriginous sites. The skin-gut axis is an area of emerging research in inflammatory skin disease and is a potential contributory factor to the pathogenesis of HS. 59 patients with HS provided fecal samples, nasal and skin swabs of affected sites for analysis. 30 healthy controls provided fecal samples and 20 healthy controls provided nasal and skin swabs. We performed bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing on total DNA derived from the samples. Microbiome alpha diversity was significantly lower in the fecal, skin and nasal samples of individuals with HS which may be secondary to disease biology or related to antibiotic usage. Ruminococcus gnavus was more abundant in the fecal microbiome of individuals with HS, which is also reported in Crohn's disease (CD), suggesting comorbidity due to shared gut microbiota alterations. Finegoldia magna was over-abundant in HS skin samples relative to healthy controls. It is possible local inflammation is driven by F. magna through promoting the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). These alterations in both the gut and skin microbiome in HS warrant further exploration, and therapeutic strategies including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) or bacteriotherapy could be of benefit.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Zhang AN, Gaston JM, Dai CL, et al (2021)

An omics-based framework for assessing the health risk of antimicrobial resistance genes.

Nature communications, 12(1):4765.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widespread among bacteria. However, not all ARGs pose serious threats to public health, highlighting the importance of identifying those that are high-risk. Here, we developed an 'omics-based' framework to evaluate ARG risk considering human-associated-enrichment, gene mobility, and host pathogenicity. Our framework classifies human-associated, mobile ARGs (3.6% of all ARGs) as the highest risk, which we further differentiate as 'current threats' (Rank I; 3%) - already present among pathogens - and 'future threats' (Rank II; 0.6%) - novel resistance emerging from non-pathogens. Our framework identified 73 'current threat' ARG families. Of these, 35 were among the 37 high-risk ARGs proposed by the World Health Organization and other literature; the remaining 38 were significantly enriched in hospital plasmids. By evaluating all pathogen genomes released since framework construction, we confirmed that ARGs that recently transferred into pathogens were significantly enriched in Rank II ('future threats'). Lastly, we applied the framework to gut microbiome genomes from fecal microbiota transplantation donors. We found that although ARGs were widespread (73% of genomes), only 8.9% of genomes contained high-risk ARGs. Our framework provides an easy-to-implement approach to identify current and future antimicrobial resistance threats, with potential clinical applications including reducing risk of microbiome-based interventions.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Lee BH, Hsu WH, Chien HY, et al (2021)

Applications of Lactobacillus acidophilus-Fermented Mango Protected Clostridioides difficile Infection and Developed as an Innovative Probiotic Jam.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 10(7):.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a large intestine disease caused by toxins produced by the spore-forming bacterium C. difficile, which belongs to Gram-positive bacillus. Using antibiotics treatment disturbances in the gut microbiota and toxins produced by C. difficile disrupt the intestinal barrier. Some evidence indicates fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics may decrease the risk of CDI recurrence. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fermented mango by using the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and develop innovative products in the form of fermented mango jam. L. acidophilus-fermented mango products inhibited the growth of C. difficile while promoting the growth of next-generation probiotic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Both supernatant and precipitate of mango-fermented products prevented cell death in gut enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells against C. difficile infection. Mango-fermented products also protected gut barrier function by elevating the expression of tight junction proteins. Moreover, L. acidophilus-fermented mango jam with high hydrostatic pressure treatment had favorable textural characteristics and sensory quality.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Gozalbo-Rovira R, Santiso-Bellón C, Buesa J, et al (2021)

Microbiota Depletion Promotes Human Rotavirus Replication in an Adult Mouse Model.

Biomedicines, 9(7):.

Intestinal microbiota-virus-host interaction has emerged as a key factor in mediating enteric virus pathogenicity. With the aim of analyzing whether human gut bacteria improve the inefficient replication of human rotavirus in mice, we performed fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) with healthy infants as donors in antibiotic-treated mice. We showed that a simple antibiotic treatment, irrespective of FMT, resulted in viral shedding for 6 days after challenge with the human rotavirus G1P[8] genotype Wa strain (RVwa). Rotavirus titers in feces were also significantly higher in antibiotic-treated animals with or without FMT but they were decreased in animals subject to self-FMT, where a partial re-establishment of specific bacterial taxons was evidenced. Microbial composition analysis revealed profound changes in the intestinal microbiota of antibiotic-treated animals, whereas some bacterial groups, including members of Lactobacillus, Bilophila, Mucispirillum, and Oscillospira, recovered after self-FMT. In antibiotic-treated and FMT animals where the virus replicated more efficiently, differences were observed in gene expression of immune mediators, such as IL1β and CXCL15, as well as in the fucosyltransferase FUT2, responsible for H-type antigen synthesis in the small intestine. Collectively, our results suggest that antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion eradicates the microbial taxa that restrict human rotavirus infectivity in mice.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

Lee MH (2021)

Harness the functions of gut microbiome in tumorigenesis for cancer treatment.

Cancer communications (London, England) [Epub ahead of print].

It has been shown that gut microbiota dysbiosis leads to physiological changes and links to a number of diseases, including cancers. Thus, many cancer categories and treatment regimens should be investigated in the context of the microbiome. Owing to the availability of metagenome sequencing and multiomics studies, analyses of species characterization, host genetic changes, and metabolic profile of gut microbiota have become feasible, which has facilitated an exponential knowledge gain about microbiota composition, taxonomic alterations, and host interactions during tumorigenesis. However, the complexity of the gut microbiota, with a plethora of uncharacterized host-microbe, microbe-microbe, and environmental interactions, still contributes to the challenge of advancing our knowledge of the microbiota-cancer interactions. These interactions manifest in signaling relay, metabolism, immunity, tumor development, genetic instability, sensitivity to cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy. This review summarizes current studies/molecular mechanisms regarding the association between the gut microbiota and the development of cancers, which provides insights into the therapeutic strategies that could be harnessed for cancer diagnosis, treatment, or prevention.

RevDate: 2021-08-07

Wang D, Shao S, Zhang Y, et al (2021)

Insight Into Polysaccharides From Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Improving Intestinal Inflammation: Modulating Intestinal Microbiota and Autophagy.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:683911.

Polysaccharides from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (P. ginseng) are the main active component of P. ginseng and exhibit significant intestinal anti-inflammatory activity. However, the therapeutic mechanism of the ginseng polysaccharide is unclear, and this hinders the application for medicine or functional food. In this study, a polysaccharide was isolated from P. ginseng (GP). The primary structure and morphology of the GP were studied by HPLC, FT-IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further, its intestinal anti-inflammatory activity and its mechanism of function were evaluated in experimental systems using DSS-induced rats, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells. Results showed that GP modulated the structure of gut microbiota and restored mTOR-dependent autophagic dysfunction. Consequently, active autophagy suppressed inflammation through the inhibition of NF-κB, oxidative stress, and the release of cytokines. Therefore, our research provides a rationale for future investigations into the relationship between microbiota and autophagy and revealed the therapeutic potential of GP for inflammatory bowel disease.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

Choi YJ, Kim JE, Lee SJ, et al (2021)

Dysbiosis of Fecal Microbiota From Complement 3 Knockout Mice With Constipation Phenotypes Contributes to Development of Defecation Delay.

Frontiers in physiology, 12:650789.

Significant phenotypes for constipation were detected in complement 3 (C3) knockout (KO) mice, although no research has been conducted on an association with alteration of gut microbiota. To investigate the effects of dysbiosis on fecal microbiota from C3 KO mice with constipation, the composition of fecal microbiota was characterized in mid-colons of 16-week-old C3 KO mice, and their function for defecation delay development was examined after fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) of C3 KO mice. Some significant alterations in constipation phenotypes, including stool parameters and histopathological structure, were detected in 16-week-old C3 KO mice compared to those of wild-type (WT) mice. Fecal microbiota of C3 KO mice exhibited decreases in Anaerocolumna, Caecibacterium, Christensenella, Kineothrix, and Oscillibacter populations and increases in Prevotellamassilia, Reuthenibacterium, Prevotella, Eubacterium, Culturomica, Bacteroides, and Muribaculum populations. In FMT study, key stool parameters, including weight and water content, were remarkably declined in a transplanted KO (KFMT) group of antibiotics-induced depletion of microbiota (AiDM)-WT and AiDM-KO mice, and a similar change was observed in fecal morphology. However, intestine length decreased in only the KFMT group of AiDM-WT mice compared with that of AiDM-KO mice. The mucosal layer and muscle thickness were commonly decreased in the KFMT group of AiDM-WT and AiDM-KO mice, and significant alterations in the crypt structure of Lieberkuhn and molecular regulators, including AQP8, C-kit, and 5-HT, were observed in the same group. Taken together, results of the present study indicate that dysbiosis of fecal microbiota from C3 KO mice with constipation phenotypes has a key role in the induction and regulation of defecation delay.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Zhong Z, Chen W, Gao H, et al (2021)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Exerts a Protective Role in MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease via the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB Pathway Stimulated by α-Synuclein.

Neurochemical research [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota is closely related to the Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Additionally, aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) is central to PD pathogenesis. Here we identified the further mechanisms of gut microbiota in PD. A mouse model with PD was established via injection of MPTP. Normal or MPTP-induced PD like animals were treated with FMT from healthy normal mice. Pole test and traction test were performed to examine the effects of FMT on motor function of PD mice. Fecal SCFAs were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The α-syn level in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) of mice was measured using western blot. Dopaminergic neurons and microglial activation in the SN were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining. FMT alleviated physical impairment, decreased fecal SCFAs in a mouse model of PD. Additionally, FMT decreased the expression of α-syn, as well as inhibited the activation of microglia in the SN, and blocked the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling in the SN and striatum. FMT could protect mice against PD via suppressing α-syn expression and inactivating the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling.

RevDate: 2021-08-11

Bajaj JS, Shamsaddini A, Fagan A, et al (2021)

Distinct gut microbial compositional and functional changes associated with impaired inhibitory control in patients with cirrhosis.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1953247.

Most cirrhosis etiologies, such as alcohol, hepatitis C, and obesity, involve behavior that require the loss of inhibitory control. Once cirrhosis develops, patients can also develop cognitive impairment due to minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Both processes could have distinct imprints on the gut-liver-brain axis. Determine the impact of inhibitory control versus traditional cirrhosis-related cognitive performance on gut microbial composition and function. Outpatients with cirrhosis underwent two tests for MHE: inhibitory control test (MHEICT, computerized associated with response inhibition) and psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (MHEPHES, paper-pencil HE-specific associated with subcortical impairment) along with stool collection for metagenomics. MHEICT/not, MHEPHES/not, and discordant (positive on one test but negative on the other) were analyzed for demographics, bacterial species, and gut-brain modules (GBM) using multi-variable analyses. Ninety-seven patients [47 (49%) MHEPHES, 76 (78%) MHEICT, 41 discordant] were enrolled. MHEPHES/not: Cirrhosis severity was worse in MHEPHES without differences in alpha/beta diversity on bacterial species or GBMs. Pathobionts (Enterobacteriaceae) and γ-amino-butryic acid (GABA) synthesis GBM were higher in MHEPHES. MHEICT/not: We found similar cirrhosis severity and metagenomic alpha/beta diversity in MHEICT versus not. However, alpha/beta diversity of GBMs were different in MHEICT versus No-MHE patients. Alistipes ihumii, Prevotella copri, and Eubacterium spp. were higher, while Enterococcus spp. were uniquely lower in MHEICT versus no-MHE and discordant comparisons. GBMs belonging to tryptophan, menaquinone, GABA, glutamate, and short-chain fatty acid synthesis were also unique to MHEICT. Gut microbial signature of impaired inhibitory control, which is associated with addictive disorders that can lead to cirrhosis, is distinct from cirrhosis-related cognitive impairment.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Conrad MA, JR Kelsen (2021)

Clostridioides difficile Infection in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Clinician's Dilemma.

Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society pii:6337916 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can present and manifest differently from the general population with CDI, and it can worsen the underlying disease course. Furthermore, current clinical assays used to test for CDI do not accurately distinguish between true CDI or colonization. This uncertainty leads to difficulty in identifying the etiology and therapy for symptomatic patients with IBD. Improved diagnostic tests, biomarkers, and safe and effective treatment options are greatly needed for this vulnerable population.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Zhang M, Hong Y, Wu W, et al (2021)

Pivotal role of the gut microbiota in congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.

Psychopharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has shown that the occurrence and development of various human diseases are closely related to the gut microbiota. We compared the gut microbial communities of human subjects with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) and healthy controls (HCs) to assess whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) into germ-free mice and mice in acute pain influenced the behaviors of the host.

METHODS: We utilized 16 s rRNA analysis to compare the gut microbial communities of CIPA subjects and HCs and assessed whether FMT into germ-free mice and mice in acute pain influenced the behaviors of the host.

RESULTS: In a 16 s RNA analysis, the CIPA group had significant decreases in the relative abundance of 11 bacteria, whereas 7 bacteria were significantly increased. In further animal experiments, the transplantation of fecal samples from CIPA patients to healthy mice significantly increased their scores on both the mechanical withdrawal test and the tail flick test; in an acute plantar incision model, scores were also significantly increased on the mechanical withdrawal test at 4 and 5 days after the operation. Moreover, pseudo-germ-free mice receiving fecal bacteria from patients with CIPA took significantly longer to escape and had a significantly longer path length on training days 1, 2, and 5 and also had fewer platform crossings and spent less time in the target quadrant in the probe trial.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the gut microbiota in CIPA subjects plays a key role in behaviors. Therapeutic strategies for improving the gut microbiota might alleviate CIPA symptoms.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Brosseau C, Selle A, Duval A, et al (2021)

Prebiotic Supplementation During Pregnancy Modifies the Gut Microbiota and Increases Metabolites in Amniotic Fluid, Driving a Tolerogenic Environment In Utero.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:712614.

The gut microbiota is influenced by environmental factors such as food. Maternal diet during pregnancy modifies the gut microbiota composition and function, leading to the production of specific compounds that are transferred to the fetus and enhance the ontogeny and maturation of the immune system. Prebiotics are fermented by gut bacteria, leading to the release of short-chain fatty acids that can specifically interact with the immune system, inducing a switch toward tolerogenic populations and therefore conferring health benefits. In this study, pregnant BALB/cJRj mice were fed either a control diet or a diet enriched in prebiotics (Galacto-oligosaccharides/Inulin). We hypothesized that galacto-oligosaccharides/inulin supplementation during gestation could modify the maternal microbiota, favoring healthy immune imprinting in the fetus. Galacto-oligosaccharides/inulin supplementation during gestation increases the abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreases that of Firmicutes in the gut microbiota, leading to increased production of fecal acetate, which was found for the first time in amniotic fluid. Prebiotic supplementation increased the abundance of regulatory B and T cells in gestational tissues and in the fetus. Interestingly, these regulatory cells remained later in life. In conclusion, prebiotic supplementation during pregnancy leads to the transmission of specific microbial and immune factors from mother to child, allowing the establishment of tolerogenic immune imprinting in the fetus that may be beneficial for infant health outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Zhu F, Ke Y, Luo Y, et al (2021)

Effects of Different Treatment of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Techniques on Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Rats.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:683234.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with abdominal pain, mucus, pus and blood in the stool as the main clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of UC is still not completely clear, and multiple factors, such as genetic susceptibility, immune response, intestinal microecological changes and environmental factors, together lead to the onset of UC. In recent years, the role of intestinal microbiota disturbances on the pathogenesis of UC has received widespread attention. Therefore, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which changes the intestinal microecological environment of UC patients by transplantation of normal fecal bacteria, has attracted increasing attention from researchers. However, there are no guidelines to recommend fresh FMT or frozen FMT in the treatment of UC, and there are few studies on this. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fresh and frozen FMT methods on the treatment of experimental UC models in rats. Results: Compared with the model control group, all FMT groups achieved better efficacy, mainly manifested as weight gain by the rats, improvements in fecal characteristics and blood stools, reduced inflammatory factors and normal bacterial microbiota. The efficacy of the frozen FMT group was better than that of the fresh FMT group in terms of behavior and colon length. Conclusion: FMT method supplements the gut microbiota with beneficial bacteria, such as short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria can regulate intestinal function, protect the mucosal barrier and reduce harmful bacteria, thus mitigating the damage to the intestinal barrier and the associated inflammatory response, resulting in UC remission. FMT is a feasible method for treating UC, with frozen FMT having a superior therapeutic effect than that of fresh FMT.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Corrie L, Gulati M, Vishwas S, et al (2021)

Combination therapy of curcumin and fecal microbiota transplant: Potential treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Medical hypotheses, 154:110644 pii:S0306-9877(21)00163-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a combination of various symptoms like anovulation, hirsutism, chronic amenorrhea, infertility, obesity and polycystic ovaries. It affects over 7 million women worldwide. The current strategy to treat this disorder is based on the use of drugs that provide symptomatic relief. Most of these, however, exhibit numerous side effects and are not able to ameliorate all the signs and symptoms of PCOS. As dysbiosis is considered as one of the prime underlying causes of PCOS, restoration of eubiosis was considered as a plausible way to treat it. Bacteriotherpeutics like probiotics, synbiotics and even fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) have shown considerable effectiveness in PCOS. Of these baceteriotherapeutic options, FMT is considered to be the most holistic as it encompasses the bacteriome, virome, fungome, archaeome and even parasitome while both probiotics as well as synbiotics mainly comprise bacteria. Repeated FMT, however, is not a pragmatic option because of its inconvenience, lack of standardization, involved risk and scepticism amongst patients and physicians. If the eubiosis ushered by FMT is sustained for a long time, the repeated administrations of FMT can be avoided and maintenance therapy with any agent that can maintain the eubiotic condition can be adopted. Role of curcumin on gut microbiota is widely known. It is largely attributed to the ability of certain microbes to consume polyphenols as substrates and its positive effect on bacterial consumption of nutrients such as sugars. Based on various mechanisms and studies, a new hypothesis is being proposed wherein FMT and curcumin combination is predicted to be an effective and sustained treatment of PCOS with much lower rates of remission.

RevDate: 2021-07-31

Ji Y, Tao T, Zhang J, et al (2021)

Comparison of effects on colitis-associated tumorigenesis and gut microbiota in mice between Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology pii:S0944-7113(21)00196-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota plays an indispensable role in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). As traditional medicinal fungi, previous studies have shown that Ophiocordyceps sinensis could better maintain intestinal health via promoting the growth of probiotics in vitro compared with Cordyceps militaris. However, the detailed pharmacological activities and clinical efficacy of O. sinensis and C. militaris are still elusive.

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the different actions of O. sinensis and C. militaris on colitis-associated tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-treated mice and explore the potential gut microbiota-dependent mechanisms.

METHODS: C57BL/6 mice (Male, 4 weeks old) were used to construct the AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice model. The mice were administered with 0.6 mg/g/d O. sinensis or C. militaris for 12 weeks. It's worth noting that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and antibiotic treatment were used to investigated the complex interactions between the medicinal fungi, gut microbiota and colonic tumorigenesis.

RESULTS: O. sinensis treatment significantly increased the body weight and survival rate, reduced the number of colon tumors, improved the damage of colon epithelial tissue, restored the crypt structure and alleviate the colonic inflammation in AOM/DSS-treated mice. RT-qPCR results indicated that O. sinensis partly regulated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling via alleviating the overexpression of β-catenin, TCF4 and c-Myc genes in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Compared with C. militaris, O. sinensis showed better anti-tumor activity. Gut microbiota analysis revealed that O. sinensis reversed the decline of gut microbiota diversity and the structural disorder induced by AOM/DSS. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that O. sinensis promoted the growth of Parabacteroides goldsteinii and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2, which were positively correlated with the anti-tumor activity and the production of SCFAs. FMT combined with antibiotic treatment showed that horizontal fecal transfer derived from O. sinensis-treated mice improved the intestinal inflammation and alleviated the colitis-associated tumorigenesis, which was consistent with the direct ingestion of O. sinensis.

CONCLUSION: O. sinensis could better attenuate colitis-associated tumorigenesis compared with C. militaris. These effects might be at least partially due to the increased abundance of probiotics, especially P. goldsteinii and B. pseudolongum PV8-2.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

Sehgal K, S Khanna (2021)

Gut microbiota: a target for intervention in obesity.

Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a major public health concern with an increasing prevalence. Recent studies suggest an influence of gastrointestinal microbiota on obesity. Consequently, microbiota restoration therapies are being considered as potential management. We present data on microbiome markers and the future of microbiota therapeutics for obesity.

AREAS COVERED: We summarize the pathogenesis of obesity, relationship between gut microbiota and obesity, use of microbiota-based therapies. Data were gathered by a literature search of articles in PubMed from the date of inception till August 2020. Keywords used were 'gut microbiota,' 'gut microbiome,' 'microbiota,' 'microbiome,' 'obesity,' and 'obesity and fecal microbiota transplantation' as MeSH terms.

EXPERT OPINION: The direct relationship of gut microbiota in causing obesity needs exploration. Because of the scarcity of human studies, the utility of microbiota-based therapies as treatment remains uncertain and the use of microbiome restoration for obesity should be restricted to research settings. To evaluate the efficacy of microbiota restoration, studies using these therapies as an adjunct with diet and lifestyle should be conducted. Once relationships between bacterial strains and the human metabolic profile are determined, these strains could be cultured for transfer to obese patients. Such advancement could help in tailoring personalized therapies for obese persons.

RevDate: 2021-07-30

Nishikawa H, Fukunishi S, Asai A, et al (2021)

Dysbiosis and liver diseases (Review).

International journal of molecular medicine, 48(3):.

Dysbiosis, a qualitative and quantitative aberrancy of gut microbiota, has attracted marked attention. At present, advances in molecular biological techniques have made it possible to analyze gut microbiota at the DNA and RNA levels without culturing, and methods such as 16S ribosomal RNA targeting analysis and metagenomic analysis using next‑generation sequencers have been developed. The relationship between gut microbiota and various diseases has been extensively examined. Gut microbiota are essential for the immune system, energy intake and fat storage, and humans use them to build complex immune regulatory mechanisms and to obtain energy from food. The liver is the first organ to be nourished by the portal blood flow of intestinal origin, and liver diseases can be strongly influenced by various factors of intestinal origin, such as intestinal bacteria, bacterial components, and intestinal bacterial metabolites. Rigorous research has revealed that the composition of the gut microbiota is altered and the diversity of bacteria is reduced in liver diseases. Significance of various factors transported to the liver by portal vein blood flow from the intestine has been extensively investigated. Gut microbiota in liver disease can be associated with disease progression regardless of disease etiology and even with carcinogenesis. The relationship between gut microbiota and liver diseases (hepatitis virus‑related diseases, autoimmune liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease, non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease, non‑alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) and the treatments of dysbiosis (antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation) in liver disease are outlined based on the current evidence.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Gheorghe CE, Ritz NL, Martin JA, et al (2021)

Investigating causality with fecal microbiota transplantation in rodents: applications, recommendations and pitfalls.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1941711.

In recent years, studies investigating the role of the gut microbiota in health and diseases have increased enormously - making it essential to deepen and question the research methodology employed. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in rodent studies (either from human or animal donors) allows us to better understand the causal role of the intestinal microbiota across multiple fields. However, this technique lacks standardization and requires careful experimental design in order to obtain optimal results. By comparing several studies in which rodents are the final recipients of FMT, we summarize the common practices employed. In this review, we document the limitations of this method and highlight different parameters to be considered while designing FMT Studies. Standardizing this method is challenging, as it differs according to the research topic, but avoiding common pitfalls is feasible. Several methodological questions remain unanswered to this day and we offer a discussion on issues to be explored in future studies.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )