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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 23 Nov 2020 at 01:38 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2020-11-19

Li N, Zuo B, Huang S, et al (2020)

Spatial heterogeneity of bacterial colonization across different gut segments following inter-species microbiota transplantation.

Microbiome, 8(1):161 pii:10.1186/s40168-020-00917-7.

BACKGROUND: The microbiota presents a compartmentalized distribution across different gut segments. Hence, the exogenous microbiota from a particular gut segment might only invade its homologous gut location during microbiota transplantation. Feces as the excreted residue contain most of the large-intestinal microbes but lack small-intestinal microbes. We speculated that whole-intestinal microbiota transplantation (WIMT), comprising jejunal, ileal, cecal, and colonic microbiota, would be more effective for reshaping the entire intestinal microbiota than conventional fecal microbiota transplantation fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

RESULTS: We modeled the compartmentalized colonization of the gut microbiota via transplanting the microbiota from jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon, respectively, into the germ-free mice. Transplanting jejunal or ileal microbiota induced more exogenous microbes' colonization in the small intestine (SI) of germ-free mice rather than the large intestine (LI), primarily containing Proteobacteria, Lactobacillaceae, and Cyanobacteria. Conversely, more saccharolytic anaerobes from exogenous cecal or colonic microbiota, such as Bacteroidetes, Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, established in the LI of germ-free mice that received corresponding intestinal segmented microbiota transplantation. Consistent compartmentalized colonization patterns of microbial functions in the intestine of germ-free mice were also observed. Genes related to nucleotide metabolism, genetic information processing, and replication and repair were primarily enriched in small-intestinal communities, whereas genes associated with the metabolism of essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, cofactors, and vitamins were mainly enriched in large-intestinal communities of germ-free mice. Subsequently, we compared the difference in reshaping the community structure of germ-free mice between FMT and WIMT. FMT mainly transferred LI-derived microorganisms and gene functions into the recipient intestine with sparse SI-derived microbes successfully transplanted. However, WIMT introduced more SI-derived microbes and associated microbial functions to the recipient intestine than FMT. Besides, WIMT also improved intestinal morphological development as well as reduced systematic inflammation responses of recipients compared with FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: Segmented exogenous microbiota transplantation proved the spatial heterogeneity of bacterial colonization along the gastrointestinal tract, i.e., the microbiota from one specific location selectively colonizes its homologous gut region. Given the lack of exogenous small-intestinal microbes during FMT, WIMT may be a promising alternative for conventional FMT to reconstitute the microbiota across the entire intestinal tract. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Li J, Han J, Lv J, et al (2020)

Saikosaponin A-Induced Gut Microbiota Changes Attenuate Severe Acute Pancreatitis through the Activation of Keap1/Nrf2-ARE Antioxidant Signaling.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2020:9217219.

Objective: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a serious and life-threatening disease associated with multiple organ failure and a high mortality rate and is accompanied by distinct oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Saikosaponin A has strong antioxidant properties and can affect the composition of gut microbiota. We sought to determine the effects of Saikosaponin A interventions on SAP by investigating the changes of gut microbiota and related antioxidant signaling.

Methods: A SAP model was established in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats through the injection of sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct and confirmed by elevated levels of serum lipase and amylase. The model was fed a standard diet either with saline solution or with Saikosaponin A. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from Saikosaponin A-induced rats into the rat model was performed to test the effects of gut microbiota. The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We measured apoptotic status, inflammatory biomarkers, and Keap1-Nrf2-ARE ((Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element) antioxidant signaling.

Results: Saikosaponin A intervention attenuated SAP lesions and reduced the levels of serum amylase and lipase, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses by reducing pathological scores and affecting the serum level of oxidative and inflammatory factors. Meanwhile, the expression of Keap1-Nrf2-ARE was increased. Saikosaponin A intervention improved microbiota composition by increasing the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella species. FMT resulted in similar results as those caused by the Saikosaponin A intervention, suggesting Saikosaponin A may exert its function via the improvement of gut microbiota composition.

Conclusions: Saikosaponin A-induced gut microbiota changes attenuate SAP progression in the rat model and may be a potential natural drug for adjuvant treatment of SAP. Further work is needed to clear up the points.

RevDate: 2020-11-18

Song L, Liu Z, Hu HH, et al (2020)

Proto-oncogene Src links lipogenesis via lipin-1 to breast cancer malignancy.

Nature communications, 11(1):5842 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-19694-w.

Increased lipogenesis has been linked to an increased cancer risk and poor prognosis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) lipin-1, which generates diglyceride precursors necessary for the synthesis of glycerolipids, interacts with and is a direct substrate of the Src proto-oncogenic tyrosine kinase. Obesity-associated microenvironmental factors and other Src-activating growth factors, including the epidermal growth factor, activate Src and promote Src-mediated lipin-1 phosphorylation on Tyr398, Tyr413 and Tyr795 residues. The tyrosine phosphorylation of lipin-1 markedly increases its PAP activity, accelerating the synthesis of glycerophospholipids and triglyceride. Alteration of the three tyrosine residues to phenylalanine (3YF-lipin-1) disables lipin-1 from mediating Src-enhanced glycerolipid synthesis, cell proliferation and xenograft growth. Re-expression of 3YF-lipin-1 in PyVT;Lpin1-/- mice fails to promote progression and metastasis of mammary tumours. Human breast tumours exhibit increased p-Tyr-lipin-1 levels compared to the adjacent tissues. Importantly, statistical analyses show that levels of p-Tyr-lipin-1 correlate with tumour sizes, lymph node metastasis, time to recurrence and survival of the patients. These results illustrate a direct lipogenesis-promoting role of the pro-oncogenic Src, providing a mechanistic link between obesity-associated mitogenic signaling and breast cancer malignancy.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Duan H, Yu L, Tian F, et al (2020)

Antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and barrier disruption and the potential protective strategies.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

The oral antibiotic therapies administered widely to people and animals can cause gut dysbiosis and barrier disruption inevitably. Increasing attention has been directed toward antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis, which involves a loss of diversity, changes in the abundances of certain taxa and consequent effects on their metabolic capacity, and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Treatment with beta-lactam, glycopeptide, and macrolide antibiotics is associated with the depletion of beneficial commensal bacteria in the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The gut microbiota is a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes, the prevalence of which increases sharply after antibiotic ingestion. The intestinal barrier, which comprises secretory, physical, and immunological barriers, is also a target of antibiotics. Antibiotic induced changes in the gut microbiota composition could induce weakening of the gut barrier through changes in mucin, cytokine, and antimicrobial peptide production by intestinal epithelial cells. Reports have indicated that dietary interventions involving prebiotics, probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, and butyrate supplementation, as well as fecal microbiota transplantation, can alleviate antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and barrier injuries. This review summarizes the characteristics of antibiotic-associated gut dysbiosis and barrier disruption, as well as the strategies for alleviating this condition. This information is intended to provide a foundation for the exploration of safer, more efficient, and affordable strategies to prevent or relieve antibiotic-induced gut injuries.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Krishnamoorthy M, Lenehan JG, Burton JP, et al (2020)

Immunomodulation in Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancers, 12(11): pii:cancers12113340.

Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. The almost universal poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer is partly due to symptoms presenting only at late stages and limited effective treatments. Recently, immune checkpoint blockade inhibitors have drastically improved patient survival in metastatic and advanced settings in certain cancers. Unfortunately, these therapies are ineffective in pancreatic cancer. However, tumor biopsies from long-term survivors of pancreatic cancer are more likely to be infiltrated by cytotoxic T-cells and certain species of bacteria that activate T-cells. These observations suggest that T-cell activation is essential for anti-tumor immunity in pancreatic cancers. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms responsible for effective anti-tumor immunity and how immune-based strategies can be exploited to develop new pancreatic cancer treatments.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Yang J, Fu X, Liao X, et al (2020)

Effects of gut microbial-based treatments on gut microbiota, behavioral symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.

Psychiatry research, 293:113471.

Many studies have identified some abnormalities in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology (e.g., increased intestinal permeability, overall microbiota alterations, and gut infection) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, changes in the intestinal flora may be related to GI and ASD symptom severity. Thus, we decided to systematically review the effects of gut microbial-based interventions on gut microbiota, behavioral symptoms, and GI symptoms in children with ASD. We reviewed current evidence from the Cochrane Library, EBSCO PsycARTICLES, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scope databases up to July 12, 2020. Experimental studies that used gut microbial-based treatments among children with ASD were included. Independent data extraction and quality assessment of studies were conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Finally, we identified 16 articles and found that some interventions (i.e., prebiotic, probiotic, vitamin A supplementation, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation) could alter the gut microbiota and improve behavioral symptoms and GI symptoms among ASD patients. Our findings highlight that the gut microbiota could be a novel target for ASD patients in the future. However, we only provided suggestive but not conclusive evidence regarding the efficacy of interventions on GI and behavioral symptoms among ASD patients. Additional rigorous trials are needed to evaluate the effects of gut microbial-based treatments and explore potential mechanisms.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Chen YC, Miao ZF, Yip KL, et al (2020)

Gut Fecal Microbiota Transplant in a Mouse Model of Orthotopic Rectal Cancer.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:568012.

The gut microbiota is reported to play an important role in carcinogenesis and the treatment of CRC. SW480 and SW620 colon cancer cells integrated with infrared fluorescent proteins were injected into the rectal submucosa of nude mice. In the subsequent 30 days, we observed tumor growth weekly using an in vivo imaging system. The bacterial solution was infused anally into the mice to perform bacterial transplant. Phosphate-buffered saline, Acinetobacter lwoffii, and Bifidobacterium longum solutions were infused individually. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and polymerase chain reaction of murine feces were investigated to confirm the colonization of target bacteria. In the SW620 orthotopic xenograft rectal cancer model, 4 of 5 mice developed rectal cancer by 30 days after submucosal injection. In the SW480 orthotopic xenograft rectal cancer model, 2 of 6 mice developed rectal cancer by 30 days after submucosal injection. For the 16S rDNA analysis, the mice receiving the bacterial solution infusion demonstrated positive findings for A. lwoffii and B. longum. With the successful establishment of a mouse model of orthotopic rectal cancer and transplant of target bacteria, we can further explore the relationship between gut microbiota and CRC. The role of fecal microbiota transplant in the treatment and alleviation of adverse events of chemotherapy in CRC could be clarified in subsequent studies.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Tian Y, Zuo L, Guo Q, et al (2020)

Potential role of fecal microbiota in patients with constipation.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 13:1756284820968423 pii:10.1177_1756284820968423.

Background: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for chronic functional constipation (CFC) ineffectively treated by conventional constipation medication.

Methods: Thirty-four patients with CFC underwent FMT treatment (three rounds, via gastroscopy). Clinical scales, including the Wexner constipation score as the main index of efficiency, were completed at baseline; after each treatment, and at 2 and 3 months of follow up. Secondary evaluation indices included the self-assessment of constipation symptoms, patient assessment constipation quality-of-life questionnaire, Bristol stool form scale, and Zung's self-rating depression and anxiety scales. Gastrointestinal motility, motilin, gastrin, nitric oxide (NO), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed before and after treatment. Intestinal flora changes were assessed by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing.

Results: There were no serious adverse reactions. The clinical cure rate was 73.5% (25/34), clinical remission rate was 14.7% (5/34), and the inefficiency rate was 11.8% (4/34). Clinical scale data indicated that the FMT treatment was effective. Furthermore, FMT treatment promoted intestinal peristalsis, increased gastrointestinal motility, and increased serum NO and 5-HT levels. The 16S rRNA sequencing data indicated that high abundances of Bacteroides, Klebsiella, Megamonas, Erysipelotrichaceae and Epulopiscium may be the cause of constipation, and high abundances of Prevotella, Acidaminococcus and Butyricimonas may be the main factors in curing constipation.

Conclusion: Treatment with FMT regulates the intestinal microflora and changes the abundance of CFC-associated bacterial flora to improve constipation.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Schmidt CJ, Wenndorf K, Ebbers M, et al (2020)

Infection With Clostridioides difficile Attenuated Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice and Involved Mesenteric Treg and Th2 Polarization.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:571049.

Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Among the environmental factors, mucosal infections and the inducing pathobionts are gaining increasing attention. We here set out to explore the gut-joint-axis and the impact of Clostridioides difficile infection on subsequent arthritis.

Methods: We combined C. difficile infection in DBA/1J × B10.Q F1 mice with collagen induced arthritis (CIA). Mice were infected via oral gavage and infection was monitored by weight loss, colonic histology, and antibodies against bacteria. Scoring of arthritis was performed macroscopically. Intestinal microbiomes were analyzed and immune responses were monitored via quantification of transcription factor-specific mRNA isolated from the inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes.

Results: Infection with C. difficile VPI 10463 resulted in significant weight loss and severe colitis yet accelerated the reversal towards the original microbiome after antibiotic treatment. Spontaneous clearance of VPI 10463 infection reduced the incidence of subsequent CIA and led to mesenteric Treg and Th2 polarization. However, this attenuating effect was abrogated if VPI 10463 was eradicated via vancomycin followed by fecal microbiota transplantation. Moreover, VPI 10463 infection following the onset of CIA lacked therapeutic potential.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that infection with C. difficile VPI10463 induced an inflammation of the gut that protected from subsequent arthritis development in mice. Both, microbial changes to the gut and immune cell mobilization and/or polarization may have contributed to arthritis protection. The prospect of potential therapeutic benefits resulting from C. difficile infections or some byproduct thereof call for further experiments that help elucidate exact mechanisms.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Geng ST, Zhang ZY, Wang YX, et al (2020)

Regulation of Gut Microbiota on Immune Reconstitution in Patients With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:594820.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4+ T cells in the gut plays an insidious role in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pathogenesis. Host immune function is closely related to gut microbiota. Changes in the gut microbiota cause a different immune response. Previous studies revealed that HIV-1 infection caused changes in gut microbiota, which induced immune deficiency. HIV-1 infection results in an abnormal composition and function of the gut microbiota, which may disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier and microbial translocation, leading to long-term immune activation, including inflammation and metabolic disorders. At the same time, an abnormal gut microbiota also hinders the effect of antiviral therapy and affects the immune reconstruction of patients. However, studies on the impact of the gut microbiota on immune reconstitution in patients with HIV/AIDS are still limited. In this review, we focus on changes in the gut microbiota caused by HIV infection, as well as the impact and regulation of the gut microbiota on immune function and immune reconstitution, while we also discuss the potential impact of probiotics/prebiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on immune reconstitution.

RevDate: 2020-11-15

Zhou Y, Ni X, Duan L, et al (2020)

Lactobacillus plantarum BSGP201683 Improves the Intestinal Barrier of Giant Panda Microbiota-Associated Mouse Infected by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins pii:10.1007/s12602-020-09722-y [Epub ahead of print].

Giant pandas often suffered from gastrointestinal disease, especially the captive sub-adult one. Our study aims to investigate whether L. plantarum G83, a good panda-derived probiotic, can improve the intestinal barrier against the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) infection in giant panda microbiota-associated mice (GPAM). We treated SPF mice with antibiotics cocktail and transplanted the giant panda intestinal microbiota to set up a GPAM. Our results demonstrated that the microbiota of GPAM changed over time and was relatively stable in the short-term experiment (2-4 weeks). Whereafter, the GPAM pretreated with L. plantarum G83 for 15 days and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli K88. The result indicated that the number of Bifidobacteria spp. increased in GPAM-G and GPAM-GE groups; the Lactobacillus spp. only increased in the GPAM-G group. Although the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae spp. only decreased in the GPAM-G group, the copy number of Escherichia coli in the GPAM-E group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Meanwhile, the L. plantarum G83-induced alteration of microbiota could increase the mRNA expression of Claudin-1, Zo-1, and Occludin-1 in the GPAM-G group in the ileum; only Occludin-1 was increased in the GPAM-GE group. The sIgA in the ileum showed a positive response, also the result of body weight and histology in both the GPAM-G and GPAM-GE group. These results indicated that the L. plantarum G83 could improve the intestinal barrier to defense the enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 invasion.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Nourrisson C, Brunet J, Flori P, et al (2020)

Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods and Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Blastocystis sp. in Stool Specimens.

Microorganisms, 8(11): pii:microorganisms8111768.

Diagnosis of Blastocystis in stool may be challenging, as microscopic examination and culture-based methods have demonstrated low sensitivity. Molecular detection assays are now available for this enteric parasite, based on "in-house" or commercial-developed techniques. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the performance of (i) two DNA extraction methods (manual versus automated), and (ii) four qPCR assays (three "in-house" and one commercialized), for detection of Blastocystis sp. in human stools. One hundred and forty stools were included, among which 76 were confirmed to be positive for Blastocystis. The manual DNA extraction method allowed for the identification of significantly more positive specimens than the automated method (p < 0.05). In particular, specimens with a low parasite load were negative when DNA was extracted with the automated process. The four qPCR assays also had variable performances, with the commercialized assay being the most sensitive (84%) but the least specific (82%). Overall, for all qPCR assays, the specificity decreased when the sensitivity increased. Blastocystis' subtype, notably the subtype 4, influenced these performances. Our results indicate that the positivity rate for the detection of Blastocystis in stools could be variable according to the DNA extraction method and the qPCR assay used. These pitfalls need to be considered for the selection of method and interpretation of results, particularly considering the search of this intestinal parasite in a donor before fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2020-11-13
CmpDate: 2020-11-13

van der Eijk JAJ, Rodenburg TB, de Vries H, et al (2020)

Early-life microbiota transplantation affects behavioural responses, serotonin and immune characteristics in chicken lines divergently selected on feather pecking.

Scientific reports, 10(1):2750.

Gut microbiota influences host behaviour and physiology, such as anxiety, stress, serotonergic and immune systems. These behavioural and physiological characteristics are related to feather pecking (FP), a damaging behaviour in chickens that reduces animal welfare and productivity. Moreover, high FP (HFP) and low FP (LFP) lines differed in microbiota composition. However, it is unknown whether microbiota can influence the development of FP. For the first time, we identified the effects of microbiota transplantation on FP, and behavioural and physiological characteristics related to FP. HFP and LFP chicks received sterile saline (control), HFP or LFP microbiota transplantation during the first two weeks post-hatch. Microbiota transplantation influenced behavioural responses of the HFP line during treatment and of the LFP line after treatment. In both lines, homologous microbiota transplantation (i.e., receiving microbiota from their line) resulted in more active behavioural responses. Furthermore, microbiota transplantation influenced immune characteristics (natural antibodies) in both lines and peripheral serotonin in the LFP line. However, limited effects on microbiota composition, stress response (corticosterone) and FP were noted. Thus, early-life microbiota transplantation had immediate and long-term effects on behavioural responses and long-term effects on immune characteristics and peripheral serotonin; however, the effects were dependent on host genotype. Since early-life microbiota transplantation influenced behavioural and physiological characteristics that are related to FP, it could thus influence the development of FP later in life.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Zhang Y, Xie B, Chen X, et al (2020)

A key role of gut microbiota-vagus nerve/spleen axis in sleep deprivation-mediated aggravation of systemic inflammation after LPS administration.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(20)31489-2 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Sleep deprivation (SD) correlates with exacerbated systemic inflammation after sepsis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the roles and mechanisms of SD in inflammatory organ injury after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration.

MAIN METHODS: Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS followed by 3 consecutive days of SD. The pseudo germ-free (PGF) mice received fecal microbiota transplant by being gavaged with supernatant from fecal suspension of septic mice with or without SD. The subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) or splenectomy was performed 14 days prior to LPS injection or antibiotics administration.

KEY FINDINGS: Post-septic SD increased the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), reduced IL-10 plasma level, increased spleen weight, and promoted inflammatory injury of the lung, liver and kidney. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and its subgroups were increased after post-septic SD. PGF mice transplanted with fecal bacteria from septic mice subjected to SD developed splenomegaly, systemic inflammation, organ inflammation and damage as their donors did. Intriguingly, SDV abolished the aggravated effects of SD on splenomegaly and inflammatory organ injury in septic mice received SD or in PGF mice transplanted with fecal bacteria from septic mice subjected to SD. Furthermore, splenectomy also abrogated the increase in IL-6 and TNF-α plasma levels and the decrease in IL-10 plasma level in PGF mice transplanted with fecal bacteria from septic mice subjected to SD.

SIGNIFICANCE: Gut microbiota-vagus nerve axis and gut microbiota-spleen axis play key roles in modulating systemic inflammation induced by SD after LPS administration.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Ademe M (2020)

Benefits of fecal microbiota transplantation: A comprehensive review.

Journal of infection in developing countries, 14(10):1074-1080.

A growing body of literatures showed the interaction of dysbiotic gut with a wide range of disorders, and the clinical use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) shifted from infectious disease to non-communicable disorders. Despite the promising therapeutic benefits of FMT, the exact mechanisms through which fecal recipients benefit from the fecal intervention are not well understood. However, owing to the advantages of having a healthy gut microbiome, possible mechanisms of actions of FMT has been described. On the one hand, through direct ecological competition, FMT may potentially stimulate decolonization of pathogenic microorganisms and increase host resistance to pathogens. Moreover, following dysbiosis, abnormal microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract may also cause excessive or dysregulated immune response, resulting in chronic inflam-mation and the development of mucosal lesions. In this regard, repopulating gut microbiome through FMT helps to restore immune function and reduce host damage. On the other hand, FMT helps to restore essential metabolites used for host metabolism, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), antimicrobial peptides (AMP), bacteriocins and bile acids. Therefore, in this review, the existing evidences regarding the mechanisms of action, current opportunities and challenges of FMT will be described.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Kim S, Lee JY, Shin SG, et al (2020)

ESRRA (estrogen related receptor alpha) is a critical regulator of intestinal homeostasis through activation of autophagic flux via gut microbiota.

Autophagy [Epub ahead of print].

The orphan nuclear receptor ESRRA (estrogen related receptor alpha) is critical in mitochondrial biogenesis and macroautophagy/autophagy function; however, the roles of ESRRA in intestinal function remain uncharacterized. Herein we identified that ESRRA acts as a key regulator of intestinal homeostasis by amelioration of colonic inflammation through activation of autophagic flux and control of host gut microbiota. Esrra-deficient mice presented with increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis with upregulation of intestinal inflammation. In addition, esrra-null mice had depressed AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (AMPK), lower levels of TFEB (transcription factor EB), and accumulation of SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) with defective mitochondria in intestinal tissues. Esrra-deficient mice showed distinct gut microbiota composition and significantly higher microbial diversity than wild-type (WT) mice. Cohousing or fecal microbiota transplantation from WT mice to Esrra-deficient mice ameliorated DSS-induced colitis severity. Importantly, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) had significantly decreased ESRRA expression in intestinal mucosal tissues that correlated with disease activity, suggesting clinical relevance of ESRRA in UC. Taken together, our results show that ESRRA contributes to intestinal homeostasis through autophagy activation and gut microbiota control to protect the host from detrimental inflammation and dysfunctional mitochondria.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Gorbovskaya I, Kanji S, Liu JCW, et al (2020)

Investigation of the Gut Microbiome in Patients with Schizophrenia and Clozapine-Induced Weight Gain: Protocol and Clinical Characteristics of First Patient Cohorts.

Neuropsychobiology, 79(1):5-12.

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests an important role of the human gut microbiome in psychiatry and neurodevelopmental disorders. An increasing body of literature based on animal studies has reported that the gut microbiome influences brain development and behavior by interacting with the gut-brain axis. Furthermore, as the gut microbiome has an important role in metabolism and is known to interact with pharmaceuticals, recent evidence suggests a role for the microbiome in antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects in animals and humans.

PURPOSE: Here we present the protocol for a two-phase study investigating the gut microbiome in healthy controls and in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics.

METHODS: Phase I of our study involves humans exclusively. We recruit 25 patients who are chronically treated with clozapine and compare them with 25 healthy controls matched for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. A second cohort consists of 25 patients newly starting on clozapine, and a third cohort includes 25 antipsychotic-naive patients. The patients in the second cohort and third cohort are prospectively assessed for up to 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Phase II of this study will incorporate microbiota humanized mouse models to examine the influence of human fecal transplant on metabolic parameters and the gut-brain axis. Progress and Future Directions: We are underway with the first participants enrolled in all phase I treatment cohorts. This study will contribute to elucidating the role of the gut microbiome in schizophrenia and metabolic side effects. In addition, its results may help to explore potential therapeutic targets for antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Singh R, Zogg H, Wei L, et al (2020)

Gut Microbial Dysbiosis in the Pathogenesis of Gastrointestinal Dysmotility and Metabolic Disorders.

Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility pii:jnm20149 [Epub ahead of print].

Of all microorganisms in the human body, the largest and most complex population resides in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The gut microbiota continuously adapts to the host environment and serves multiple critical functions for their hosts, including regulating host immunity, procuring energy from food, and preventing the colonization of pathogens. Mounting evidence has suggested gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) as a core pathophysiology in the development of GI motility and metabolic disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and diabetes. Current research has focused on discovering associations between these disorders and gut microbial dysbiosis; however, whether these associations are a consequence or cause is still mostly unexplored. State-of-the-art studies have investigated how gut microbes communicate with our body systems through microbiota-derived metabolites and how they are able to modulate host physiology. There is now mounting evidence that alterations in the composition of small intestinal microbes have an association with GI dysmotility and metabolic disorders. Although treatment options for gut microbial dysbiosis are currently limited, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, and dietary interventions are currently the best options. However, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics has been viewed with skepticism due to the risk of developing antibiotic resistant bacteria. In order to elucidate the cellular and molecular pathways underlying gut microbiotahost crosstalk and for the development of a powerful platform for future therapeutic approaches; studies are warranted. Here, we review recent literature on gut microbial alterations and/or interactions involved in the pathophysiology of GI dysmotility and metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Koszewiczz M, Jaroch J, Brzecka A, et al (2020)

Dysbiosis is one of the risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment and potential target for treatment.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(20)31585-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Above 50 millions people have different forms of cognitive impairment basically caused by neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and cerebrovascular diseases, mostly stroke. Often these coexistence and exacerbate one another. The damaged area in the post-stroke dementia may lead to the additional neurodegenerative lesions. Gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ by generating bioactive metabolites, can directly or indirectly impact human physiology. An alteration in the composition and function of intestinal flora, i.e. gut dysbiosis, is involved in neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. Additionally, gut dysbiosis may accelerate the progression of the cognitive impairment in the course of these diseases. Dysbiosis may result from obesity; metabolic, cardiovascular, and sleep disorders; or lack of physical activity. They may coexist in various patterns in older people, enhancing the risk, incidence, and progression of cerebrovascular lesions, neurodegenerative disorders, and cognitive impairment, creating a vicious circle. Recently, several metabolites produced by gut microbiota from dietary metabolism, e.g. trimethylamine,/trimethylamine N-oxide, short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids have been linked to neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. New treatment modalities, including prebiotic and probiotics, may normalize the gut microbiota composition, change the brain-gut barrier and decrease the risk of the pathology development. Fecal microbiota transplantation, sometimes with combination with other methods, is used for remodeling and replenishing the symbiotic gut microbiome. The promising field of research is associated with basic findings of bidirectional communication between body organs and gut microbiota that open the possibilities of pharmacological treatments of many clinical situations. The authors present the role of gut microbiota in physiology, and the novel therapeutic targets in modulation of intestinal microbiota Personalized therapies based on their personal genome make up could offer benefits by modulating microbiota cross-talk with brain and cardiovascular system. A healthy lifestyle, including pre and probiotic nutrition is generally recommended. Prevention may also be enhanced by correcting gut dysbiosis resulting a reduced risk of post-stroke cognitive impairment including dementia.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Witjes JJ, Smits LP, Pekmez CT, et al (2020)

Donor Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Alters Gut Microbiota and Metabolites in Obese Individuals With Steatohepatitis.

Hepatology communications, 4(11):1578-1590 pii:HEP41601.

The intestinal microbiota has been linked to the development and prevalence of steatohepatitis in humans. Interestingly, steatohepatitis is significantly lower in individuals taking a plant-based, low-animal-protein diet, which is thought to be mediated by gut microbiota. However, data on causality between these observations in humans is scarce. In this regard, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using healthy donors is safe and is capable of changing microbial composition in human disease. We therefore performed a double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-principle study in which individuals with hepatic steatosis on ultrasound were randomized to two study arms: lean vegan donor (allogenic n = 10) or own (autologous n = 11) FMT. Both were performed three times at 8-week intervals. A liver biopsy was performed at baseline and after 24 weeks in every subject to determine histopathology (Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network) classification and changes in hepatic gene expression based on RNA sequencing. Secondary outcome parameters were changes in intestinal microbiota composition and fasting plasma metabolomics. We observed a trend toward improved necro-inflammatory histology, and found significant changes in expression of hepatic genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism following allogenic FMT. Intestinal microbial community structure changed following allogenic FMT, which was associated with changes in plasma metabolites as well as markers of . Conclusion: Allogenic FMT using lean vegan donors in individuals with hepatic steatosis shows an effect on intestinal microbiota composition, which is associated with beneficial changes in plasma metabolites and markers of steatohepatitis.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Acharya C, JS Bajaj (2020)

Transmitting Diet-Related Microbial Benefit through Fecal Microbiota Transplant in NASH: Can Microbiota Cut Through the Fat?.

Hepatology communications, 4(11):1559-1561 pii:HEP41596.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Xue A, Qian X, Gao X, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbial Signatures Are Associated With Engraftment Failure Following Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Patients With IL10RA Deficiency.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 11:580817.

Objectives: Umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is associated with a relatively high rate of engraftment failure. This study aimed at exploring whether any fecal microbiota could be associated with engraftment failure following UCBT in Crohn's disease patients with IL10RA deficiency.

Methods: Thirteen patients were recruited and their 230 fecal samples were collected longitudinally from immediately before conditioning chemotherapy to 8 weeks post the UCBT. The V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced, followed by bioinformatics analyses.

Results: Following the UCBT, 7 out of 13 patients achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment with a median of 21 and 28 days, respectively (S group), while 6 patients failed to achieve engraftment (F group). In comparison with that in the S group, significantly lower Shannon diversity values on the UCBT day (P = 0.0176) and less abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Enterobacteriaceae_538000, and one taxon of Lachnospiraceae family was detected in the F group, accompanied by significantly higher abundances of four taxa including Lautropia, Pseudomonas, and species Microvirgula aerodenitrificans during the chemotherapy period as well as UCBT. The abundances of thirty OTUs were correlated significantly with clinical indices.

Conclusions: Microbial indicators of reduced diversity of microbiota and signatures of specific bacterial abundances, such as a lower abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, for engraftment failure would require validation. These indicators may help for the risk stratification in patients with IL10RA deficiency undergoing UCBT.

RevDate: 2020-11-08

Aira A, Arajol C, Casals-Pascual C, et al (2020)

Recommendations for stool donor selection for fecal microbiota transplant. Consensus document endorsed by the Catalan Society of Digestology, Catalan Society of Infectious diseases and Clinical microbiology and the GEMBIOTA group from Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology.

Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica pii:S0213-005X(20)30292-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective and safe treatment to treat recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. It is essential to make every effort to perform FMT rigorously and based on scientific knowledge. Selection of the fecal microbiota donor is a key point of the process to ensure recipient safety. It is necessary to have protocols of action that allow clinicians to act with the maximum guarantees and to minimize the risks of the procedure. For this reason, a multidisciplinary working group has been set up in Cataluña with the aim of establishing recommendations for the selection of the fecal microbiota donor.

RevDate: 2020-11-07

Zellmer C, Sater MRA, Huntley MH, et al (2020)

Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Transmission via Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5912958 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is recommended therapy for multiply recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. We report adverse events in 7 patients who received FMT from a stool donor who was colonized with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). No patients died of FMT-transmitted STEC. Improved screening can likely avoid future transmission.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Souai N, Zidi O, Mosbah A, et al (2020)

Impact of the Post-Transplant Period and Lifestyle Diseases on Human Gut Microbiota in Kidney Graft Recipients.

Microorganisms, 8(11): pii:microorganisms8111724.

Gaining long-term graft function and patient life quality remain critical challenges following kidney transplantation. Advances in immunology, gnotobiotics, and culture-independent molecular techniques have provided growing insights into the complex relationship of the microbiome and the host. However, little is known about the over time-shift of the gut microbiota in the context of kidney transplantation and its impact on both graft and health stability. Here we aimed to characterize the structure of gut microbiota within stable kidney graft recipients. We enrolled forty kidney transplant patients after at least three months of transplantation and compared them to eighteen healthy controls. The overall microbial community structure of the kidney transplanted group was clearly different from control subjects. We found lower relative abundances of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia within the patient group and a higher abundance of Proteobacteria compared to the control group. Both richness and Shannon diversity indexes were significantly lower in the kidney graft recipients than in healthy controls. Post-graft period was positively correlated with the relative abundance of the Proteobacteria phylum, especially Escherichia.Shigella genus. Interestingly, only Parabacteroides was found to significantly differentiate patients that were not suffering from lifestyle diseases and those who suffer from post-graft complications. Furthermore, network analysis showed that the occurrence of lifestyle diseases was significantly linked with a higher number of negative interactions of Sutterella and Succinivibrio genera within patients. This study characterizes gut microbiome fluctuation in stable kidney transplant patients after a long post-allograft period. Analysis of fecal microbiota could be useful for nephrologists as a new clinical tool that can improve kidney allograft monitoring and outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Adelman MW, Woodworth MH, Shaffer VO, et al (2020)

Critical Care Management of the Patient with Clostridioides difficile.

Critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To review published clinical evidence on management of Clostridioides difficile infection in critically ill patients.

DATA SOURCES: We obtained relevant studies from a PubMed literature review and bibliographies of reviewed articles.

STUDY SELECTION: We selected English-language studies addressing aspects of C. difficile infection relevant to critical care clinicians including epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, with a focus on high-quality clinical evidence.

DATA EXTRACTION: We reviewed potentially relevant studies and abstracted information on study design, methods, patient selection, and results of relevant studies. This is a synthetic (i.e., not systematic) review.

DATA SYNTHESIS: C. difficile infection is the most common healthcare-associated infection in the United States. Antibiotics are the most significant C. difficile infection risk factor, and among antibiotics, cephalosporins, clindamycin, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and piperacillin-tazobactam confer the highest risk. Age, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and end-stage renal disease are risk factors for C. difficile infection development and mortality. C. difficile infection diagnosis is based on testing appropriately selected patients with diarrhea or on clinical suspicion for patients with ileus. Patients with fulminant disease (C. difficile infection with hypotension, shock, ileus, or megacolon) should be treated with oral vancomycin and IV metronidazole, as well as rectal vancomycin in case of ileus. Patients who do not respond to initial therapy should be considered for fecal microbiota transplant or surgery. Proper infection prevention practices decrease C. difficile infection risk.

CONCLUSIONS: Strong clinical evidence supports limiting antibiotics when possible to decrease C. difficile infection risk. For patients with fulminant C. difficile infection, oral vancomycin reduces mortality, and adjunctive therapies (including IV metronidazole) and interventions (including fecal microbiota transplant) may benefit select patients. Several important questions remain regarding fulminant C. difficile infection management, including which patients benefit from fecal microbiota transplant or surgery.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Allegretti JR, Kelly CR, Grinspan A, et al (2020)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Outcomes Following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent C. difficile Infection.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5957723 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a clinical challenge. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a recurrent CDI therapy. Anecdotal concerns exist regarding worsening of IBD activity; however, prospective data among IBD patients are limited.

METHODS: Secondary analysis from an open-label, prospective, multicenter cohort study among IBD patients with 2 or more CDI episodes was performed. Participants underwent a single FMT by colonoscopy (250 mL, healthy universal donor). Secondary IBD-related outcomes included rate of de novo IBD flares, worsening IBD, and IBD improvement-all based on Mayo or Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) scores. Stool samples were collected for microbiome and targeted metabolomic profiling.

RESULTS: Fifty patients enrolled in the study, among which 15 had Crohn's disease (mean HBI, 5.8 ± 3.4) and 35 had ulcerative colitis (mean partial Mayo score, 4.2 ± 2.1). Overall, 49 patients received treatment. Among the Crohn's disease cohort, 73.3% (11 of 15) had IBD improvement, and 4 (26.6%) had no disease activity change. Among the ulcerative colitis cohort, 62% (22 of 34) had IBD improvement, 29.4% (11 of 34) had no change, and 4% (1 of 34) experienced a de novo flare. Alpha diversity significantly increased post-FMT, and ulcerative colitis patients became more similar to the donor than Crohn's disease patients (P = 0.04).

CONCLUSION: This prospective trial assessing FMT in IBD-CDI patients suggests IBD outcomes are better than reported in retrospective studies.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka K, Vitale E, W Makarewicz (2020)

COVID-19 - gastrointestinal and gut microbiota-related aspects.

European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, 24(20):10853-10859.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review paper was to discuss the gut microbiota-related aspects of COVID-19 patients. We presented the faecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2, gut microbiota imbalance, and fecal microbiota transplantation as a hidden source of this virus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the available literature (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar databases) regarding COVID-19 and gut microbiota related aspects.

RESULTS: The gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort/pain, may occur in these patients. Notably, these symptoms may contribute to the severity of COVID-19. Recent several studies have revealed a new SARS-CoV-2 transmission possibility, opening a fresh view on COVID-19. It is observed the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via faecal-oral route. Fecal microbiota transplantation may be a hidden source of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 and other factors may significantly alter the composition of gut microbiota. Among others, loss of bacterial diversity, the decrease of commensal microbes as well as the increase of opportunistic pathogens are observed.

CONCLUSIONS: The alterations of gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients consequently may lead to the development of gut dysbiosis-related diseases even after recovery from COVID-19. Therefore, it is recommended to screen stool samples taken from recovered patients at least 35 days after clearance of virus from respiratory tract. Before 35 days period, SARS-CoV-2 may still be detected in feces. It is also recommended to screen the composition as well as the activity of gut microbiota to assess its balance. In the case of gut dysbiosis, there should be introduced an appropriate method of its modulation. Additionally, all the fecal samples which are prepared for fecal microbiota transplantation should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 to provide protection for its recipients.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Borsom EM, Lee K, EK Cope (2020)

Do the Bugs in Your Gut Eat Your Memories? Relationship between Gut Microbiota and Alzheimer's Disease.

Brain sciences, 10(11): pii:brainsci10110814.

The human microbiota is composed of trillions of microbial cells inhabiting the oral cavity, skin, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, airways, and reproductive organs. The gut microbiota is composed of dynamic communities of microorganisms that communicate bidirectionally with the brain via cytokines, neurotransmitters, hormones, and secondary metabolites, known as the gut microbiota-brain axis. The gut microbiota-brain axis is suspected to be involved in the development of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. AD is an irreversible, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by amyloid-β plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation. Microglia and astrocytes, the resident immune cells of the CNS, play an integral role in AD development, as neuroinflammation is a driving factor of disease severity. The gut microbiota-brain axis is a novel target for Alzheimer's disease therapeutics to modulate critical neuroimmune and metabolic pathways. Potential therapeutics include probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and dietary intervention. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of the gut microbiota-brain axis and neuroinflammation in the onset and development of Alzheimer's disease, limitations of current research, and potential for gut microbiota-brain axis targeted therapies.

RevDate: 2020-11-06
CmpDate: 2020-11-06

Quraishi MNN, Yalchin M, Blackwell C, et al (2019)

STOP-Colitis pilot trial protocol: a prospective, open-label, randomised pilot study to assess two possible routes of faecal microbiota transplant delivery in patients with ulcerative colitis.

BMJ open, 9(11):e030659.

INTRODUCTION: Imbalance of the gut microbiome is key to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is the transfer of homogenised and filtered faeces from a healthy individual to the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with disease. Published datasets show a positive signal for the use of FMT to treat UC, but the optimal route and dose of FMT remain unanswered.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective, multi-centre open-label, randomised pilot study will assess two possible routes of FMT delivery, via the nasogastric (NG) route or by delivery to the COLON, in 30 patients with active UC recruited from three sites in the UK. Stool will be collected from healthy screened donors, processed, frozen and stored under a Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) "specials" manufacturing licence held at the University of Birmingham Microbiome Treatment Centre. Thawed FMT samples will be administered to patients either via eight nasogastric infusions given initially over 4 days starting on the day of randomisation, and then again for 4 days in week 4 for foregut delivery (total of 240 g of stool) or via one colonoscopic infusion followed by seven weekly enemas according to the hindgut protocol (total of 360 g of stool). Patients will be followed up weekly for 8 weeks, and then at 12 weeks. The aims of this pilot study are (1) to determine which FMT administration route (NG or COLON) should be investigated in a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and (2) to determine if a full randomised controlled trial is feasible. The primary outcome will be a composite assessment of both qualitative and quantitative data based on efficacy (clinical response), acceptability and safety. At the end of the pilot study, decisions will be made regarding the feasibility of a full randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and, if deemed feasible, which route of administration should be used in such a study.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the East Midlands-Nottingham Research Ethics Committee (REC 17/EM/0274). At the end of the study, findings will be reported at national and international gastroenterology meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN74072945.

RevDate: 2020-11-05

Shi L, Zheng J, Yan S, et al (2020)

Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid Induces Cognitive Deficits via Altering Gut Microbiota Composition, Impairing Intestinal Barrier Integrity, and Causing Inflammation in Gut and Brain.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an eight-carbon perfluoroalkyl chemical and has been detected widely in many media. Although the toxic effect of PFOA has been confirmed, the influence on gut and brain has not been cleared. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, and 3 mg/Kg (bw)/day of PFOA for 35 days in this work. The results indicate that exposure to PFOA could damage intestinal barrier integrity and impair the synaptic structure. PFOA exposure also caused inflammation in gut and brain by increasing lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 beta, and cyclooxygenase-2 and decreasing interleukin-10. Interestingly, fecal microbiota transplantation treatment could attenuate a series of PFOA-induced changes to a certain extent. The results suggest that exposure to PFOA has potential deleterious effects on gut and brain, and inflammation may play an essential role in evaluating the influence induced by PFOA exposure.

RevDate: 2020-11-05

Keller JJ, Ooijevaar RE, Hvas CL, et al (2020)

A standardised model for stool banking for faecal microbiota transplantation: a consensus report from a multidisciplinary UEG working group.

United European gastroenterology journal [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation is an emerging therapeutic option, particularly for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. Stool banks that organise recruitment and screening of feces donors are being embedded within the regulatory frameworks described in the European Union Tissue and Cells Directive and the technical guide to the quality and safety of tissue and cells for human application, published by the European Council.

OBJECTIVE: Several European and international consensus statements concerning fecal microbiota transplantation have been issued. While these documents provide overall guidance, we aim to provide a detailed description of all processes that relate to the collection, handling and clinical application of human donor stool in this document.

METHODS: Collaborative subgroups of experts on stool banking drafted concepts for all domains pertaining to stool banking. During a working group meeting in the United European Gastroenterology Week 2019 in Barcelona, these concepts were discussed and finalised to be included in our overall guidance document about fecal microbiota transplantation.

RESULTS: A guidance document for all domains pertaining to stool banking was created. This document includes standard operating manuals for several processes involved with stool banking, such as handling of donor material, storage and donor screening.

CONCLUSION: The implementation of fecal microbiota transplantation by stool banks in concordance with our guidance document will enable quality assurance and guarantee the availability of donor feces preparations for patients.

RevDate: 2020-11-05
CmpDate: 2020-11-05

Nagy GG, Tudlik Z, Gergely L, et al (2020)

Reconsidering the technical aspects and quality management background of faecal microbiota transplantation due to the novel coronavirus pandemic.

Orvosi hetilap, 161(44):1858-1871.

Összefoglaló. A székletmikrobiota-transzplantáció (faecalismikrobiota-transzplantáció - FMT) a Clostridioides difficile fertőzés (CDI) kezelésében nemzetközileg széles körben elfogadott, megfelelő szakmai háttér mellett végezve biztonságos, potenciálisan életmentő, költséghatékony, valamint a hospitalizációs idő és az orvos-beteg találkozások jelentős redukálására képes eljárás. Az FMT elvégzésére egyes országokban magas szintű minőségirányítási háttérrel működő, célfeladatra szerveződött donor- és székletbankok rendezkedtek be. Máshol, így például hazánkban, az eljáráshoz az egyértelmű jogi szabályozási környezet, a standardizált technológiai háttér és a finanszírozás hiánya miatt nem egységes a hozzáférés. Régóta időszerű továbbá, hogy a heterogén, nemegyszer háztartási eszközökkel előkészített beavatkozások helyett a nemzetközi és legújabban már a hazai ajánlásokban is megfogalmazott, a betegbiztonságot legjobban garantáló elvárások mellett történjen a széklettranszplantáció. Az új koronavírus (SARS-CoV-2) okozta pandémia megjelenése erőteljes szakmai érv országos szinten az FMT minőségirányítási környezetének és technológiai hátterének újragondolására, mert a SARS-CoV-2 egyszerre jelent kockázatot a CDI miatt kórházban kezelt sérülékeny betegpopulációnak, és egyben veszélyezteti az FMT biztonságosságát mind a recipiens, mind pedig az eljárást végző egészségügyi személyzet tekintetében. Ezekre a szakmai és társadalmi kihívásokra reagálva, a széles körű beteghozzáférés és a legmagasabb szintű betegbiztonság garantálására, a Debreceni Egyetemen új eljárásrendet dolgoztunk ki az FMT végzésére. Ezen eljárásrendnek a COVID-19-pandémia miatt módosított, a fagyasztottgraftbank üzemeltetése és a rendszerszemlélet tekintetében releváns elemeit ismertetjük. Javasolt, hogy országos szinten hasonló, megfelelő minőségirányítási és technológiai környezettel, a SARS-CoV-2-fertőzés kizárását is integráló donorszűrési rendszerrel, továbbá fagyasztottgraft-banki háttérrel működő laboratóriumok vegyenek részt a széklettranszplantációk végzésében. Felmerül továbbá, hogy az eljárást a számos analógia és a donor-recipiens koncepció alapján a sejt- és szövettranszplantációkra vonatkozó szabályozórendszer keretei közé ajánlott beágyazni. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(44): 1858-1871. Summary. Stool transplantation (faecal microbiota transplantation - FMT) is a widely accepted, potentially life-saving, cost-effective medical intervention for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), which has an acceptable safety profile if performed with an appropriate professional background. FMT can significantly reduce hospitalization time and the number of patient visits. National donor and stool banks with high-standard quality management systems were established in certain countries for supporting the procedures. In other regions, including Hungary, patient access is not uniform due to the lack of clear legal regulations, standardized technology or financial reimbursement. It has been expected for a long time to replace the heterogenous techniques, occasionally utilizing household equipment with a technology providing improved patient safety and fulfilling international and recently published local FMT guidelines. The emergence of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is a very powerful argument in favour of urgently reconsidering the quality management and technological background of FMT procedures. SARS-CoV-2 is a major threat to the vulnerable patients suffering from CDI and also impose risks for the recipient and healthcare personnel involved in carrying out the transplantation. New FMT guidelines were implemented at the University of Debrecen to address these professional and public challenges, to provide wide patient access and to guarantee the highest achievable patient safety. Relevant elements of this new protocol are presented, focusing on a systemic quality management approach, on the operation of a frozen stool bank and on a modified donor screening algorithm taking the risks of COVID-19 into consideration. We suggest that laboratories with proper quality assurance and technological conditions, implementing SARS-CoV-2 donor screening and operating a frozen graft bank should participate in faecal microbiota transplantations. It is also recommended that, based on the analogies and the similar donor-recipient concept, FMT should be embedded under the organ tissue and cell transplantation polices in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(44): 1858-1871.

RevDate: 2020-11-05
CmpDate: 2020-11-05

Ossorio PN, Y Zhou (2019)

FMT and Microbial Medical Products: Generating High-Quality Evidence through Good Governance.

The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 47(4):505-523.

This article argues that current data for the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplants as a treatment for any indication, including recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection, is low-quality. It develops a governance proposal that encourages production of high-quality evidence by incentivizing well-designed RCTs of stool and stoolderived microbial products. The proposal would require that FDA change its current enforcement approach, but it would not require any change in statutes or regulations.

RevDate: 2020-11-05
CmpDate: 2020-11-05

Hoffmann DE (2019)

Introduction: The Promise and Challenges of Microbiome-Based Therapies.

The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 47(4):476-481.

RevDate: 2020-11-04

Wang D, Hao H, Li X, et al (2020)

The effect of intestinal flora on immune checkpoint inhibitors in tumor treatment: a narrative review.

Annals of translational medicine, 8(17):1097.

Tremendous progress has been achieved in understanding of the interaction between tumor microenvironment and intestinal flora in the past decades. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a promising treatment strategy for advanced tumors, most prominently cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), its major ligand PD-L1, its beneficial to part of the population and obtaining excellent clinical results. However, the majority of patients do not respond or develop early progressive disease. Reached consensus by experts currently believe that the intestinal flora plays an important role in the explanation of the limited therapeutic effect of ICIs, there are differences in the composition of intestinal flora between patients with good response and patients with poor response, cloned mice by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) proved that the mice with transplanted feces from patients with good response can reduce tumor volume and obtain a better progress free survival (PFS). Therefore, "beneficial bacteria" seem to be enriched in the intestinal flora of patients who are well-responsive to ICIs and can be potentially used as a marker and cancer immunotherapeutic adjuvant of ICIs. In this review, we aim to summarize some of the studies demonstrating intestinal flora on tumor immunotherapy through anti-PD1, anti-PD-L1, anti-CTLA-4 and discuss possible mechanisms of this effect.

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Gesualdo M, Rizzi F, Bonetto S, et al (2020)

Pancreatic Diseases and Microbiota: A Literature Review and Future Perspectives.

Journal of clinical medicine, 9(11): pii:jcm9113535.

Gut microbiota represent an interesting worldwide research area. Several studies confirm that microbiota has a key role in human diseases, both intestinal (such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, intestinal infectious diseases, irritable bowel syndrome) and extra intestinal disorders (such as autism, multiple sclerosis, rheumatologic diseases). Nowadays, it is possible to manipulate microbiota by administering prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, through fecal microbiota transplantation in selected cases. In this scenario, pancreatic disorders might be influenced by gut microbiota and this relationship could be an innovative and inspiring field of research. However, data are still scarce and controversial. Microbiota manipulation could represent an important therapeutic strategy in the pancreatic diseases, in addition to standard therapies. In this review, we analyze current knowledge about correlation between gut microbiota and pancreatic diseases, by discussing on the one hand existing data and on the other hand future possible perspectives.

RevDate: 2020-11-03
CmpDate: 2020-11-03

Haifer C, Kelly CR, Paramsothy S, et al (2020)

Australian consensus statements for the regulation, production and use of faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice.

Gut, 69(5):801-810.

OBJECTIVE: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has proved to be an extremely effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection, and there is interest in its potential application in other gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. However, the recent death and episode of septicaemia following FMT highlights the need for further appraisal and guidelines on donor evaluation, production standards, treatment facilities and acceptable clinical indications.

DESIGN: For these consensus statements, a 24-member multidisciplinary working group voted online and then convened in-person, using a modified Delphi approach to formulate and refine a series of recommendations based on best evidence and expert opinion. Invitations to participate were directed to Australian experts, with an international delegate assisting the development. The following issues regarding the use of FMT in clinical practice were addressed: donor selection and screening, clinical indications, requirements of FMT centres and future directions. Evidence was rated using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system.

RESULTS: Consensus was reached on 27 statements to provide guidance on best practice in FMT. These include: (1) minimum standards for donor screening with recommended clinical selection criteria, blood and stool testing; (2) accepted routes of administration; (3) clinical indications; (4) minimum standards for FMT production and requirements for treatment facilities acknowledging distinction between single-site centres (eg, hospital-based) and stool banks; and (5) recommendations on future research and product development.

CONCLUSIONS: These FMT consensus statements provide comprehensive recommendations around the production and use of FMT in clinical practice with relevance to clinicians, researchers and policy makers.

RevDate: 2020-11-03
CmpDate: 2020-11-03

El-Salhy M, Hatlebakk JG, Gilja OH, et al (2020)

Efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation for patients with irritable bowel syndrome in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Gut, 69(5):859-867.

OBJECTIVE: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donors to patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been attempted in two previous double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. While one of those studies found improvement of the IBS symptoms, the other found no effect. The present study was conducted to clarify these contradictory findings.

DESIGN: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomised 165 patients with IBS to placebo (own faeces), 30 g FMT or 60 g FMT at a ratio of 1:1:1. The material for FMT was obtained from one healthy, well-characterised donor, frozen and administered via gastroscope. The primary outcome was a reduction in the IBS symptoms at 3 months after FMT (response). A response was defined as a decrease of 50 or more points in the total IBS symptom score. The secondary outcome was a reduction in the dysbiosis index (DI) and a change in the intestinal bacterial profile, analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, at 1 month following FMT.

RESULTS: Responses occurred in 23.6%, 76.9% (p<0.0001) and 89.1% (p<00.0001) of the patients who received placebo, 30 g FMT and 60 g FMT, respectively. These were accompanied by significant improvements in fatigue and the quality of life in patients who received FMT. The intestinal bacterial profiles changed also significantly in the groups received FMT. The FMT adverse events were mild self-limiting gastrointestinal symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: FMT is an effective treatment for patients with IBS. Utilising a well-defined donor with a normal DI and favourable specific microbial signature is essential for successful FMT. The response to FMT increases with the dose. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03822299) and www.cristin.no (ID657402).

RevDate: 2020-11-03
CmpDate: 2020-11-03

Nadatani Y, Watanabe T, Suda W, et al (2019)

Gastric acid inhibitor aggravates indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury via reducing Lactobacillus johnsonii.

Scientific reports, 9(1):17490.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) alter the composition of the intestinal microbiome, exacerbating indomethacin (IND)-induced small intestinal damage. Vonoprazan fumarate inhibits gastric acid secretion using a different mechanism from PPIs. We investigated the effects of both drugs on the intestinal microbiome and IND-induced small intestinal damage. We sought to clarify whether PPI-induced dysbiosis and worsening of the damage were due to a specific drug class effect of PPIs. Rabeprazole administration increased operational taxonomic unit numbers in the small intestines of C57BL/6 J mice, whereas the difference was not significant in the vonoprazan-treated group but exhibited a trend. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance of the unweighted UniFrac distances showed significant differences between vehicle- and vonoprazan- or rabeprazole-treated groups. L. johnsonii was the predominant microbial species, and the population ratio decreased after vonoprazan and rabeprazole administration. The vonoprazan- and rabeprazole-treated groups showed increased IND-induced damage. This high sensitivity to IND-induced damage was evaluated by transplantation with contents from the small intestine of mice treated with either vonoprazan or rabeprazole. Supplementation of L. johnsonii orally in mice treated with rabeprazole and vonoprazan prevented the increase in IND-induced small intestinal damage. In conclusion, both rabeprazole and vonoprazan aggravated NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by reducing the population of L. johnsonii in the small intestine via suppressing gastric acid secretion.

RevDate: 2020-11-02

Gomaa EZ (2020)

Human gut microbiota/microbiome in health and diseases: a review.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek pii:10.1007/s10482-020-01474-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The human gut microbiota has received considerable interest in the recent years and our knowledge of the inhabitant species and their potential applications is increased particularly after the development of metagenomic studies. Gut microbiota is highly diverse and harboring trillions of microorganisms in human digestive system. The shaping and multiplication of gut microbiome starts at birth, while the modification of their composition depends mainly on various genetic, nutritional and environmental factors. The modification in the composition and function of the gut microbiota can change intestinal permeability, digestion and metabolism as well as immune responses. The pro inflammatory state caused by alternation of gut microbiota balance lead to the onset of many diseases ranging from gastrointestinal and metabolic conditions to immunological and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this context, the present review clarifies the role of gut microbiota in maintaining host health and investigates how nutritional and environmental factors affect the gut microbial structure and function. In addition, many therapeutic strategies of gut microbiota aimed at modulating and restoring of the intestinal ecosystem balance have been surveyed.

RevDate: 2020-11-02

Aira A, Rubio E, Vergara Gómez A, et al (2020)

rUTI Resolution After FMT for Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Case Report.

Infectious diseases and therapy pii:10.1007/s40121-020-00365-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a successful treatment for recurrent CDI (rCDI), and in some patients FMT has been associated with the resolution of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI). Recent evidence suggests that the origin of most bacterial infections in the urinary tract is the gut. Thus, the possibility of using FMT to displace pathogens commonly involved in rUTIs has major therapeutic implications. We report the case of a 93-year-old female patient with a rCDI and rUTI that underwent FMT and reported a complete clinical resolution of CDI; unexpectedly, no new symptomatic UTI episodes were diagnosed post-FMT. We characterized the gut microbiota of the stool donor and of the patient before and after the procedure. Our patient presented a dysbiosis with clear predominance of Enterobacteriaceae (74%) before FMT, which was significantly reduced to 0.07% after FMT. These findings were maintained for almost a year. We also observed an increase in microbial diversity indices compared with the pre-FMT sample reaching diversity values comparable to the donor stool samples. We reasoned that the disappearance of UTIs in our patient resulted from the reduction of Enterobacteriaceae in the gut microbiota. Our findings support previous evidence suggesting the potential of FMT for rUTI, particularly in cases due to multi-drug resistant pathogens where conventional antibiotic treatment is not an option.

RevDate: 2020-11-02

Dong LT, Espinoza HV, JL Espinoza (2020)

Emerging superbugs: The threat of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

AIMS microbiology, 6(3):176-182 pii:microbiol-06-03-012.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to carbapenems, a group of antibiotics considered as the last-resource for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. CRE constitutes a major threat to health care systems because infections caused by these pathogens are difficult to treat and are commonly associated with high mortality due to the limited availability of effective antibiotics. While infection prevention and timely detection are of vital importance to control CRE infections, developing new and effective anti-CRE therapies is also crucial. Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota alteration (dysbiosis) is associated with an increased intestinal colonization with CRE and consequently with higher risk of developing CRE infections. Importantly, therapeutic interventions aimed to modify the gut microbiota composition via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have been explored in various clinical settings with some of them showing promising results, although larger clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of this strategy. Here, we highlight the challenges associated with the emergence of CRE infections.

RevDate: 2020-11-02

Ye ZN, Xia HH, Zhang R, et al (2020)

The Efficacy of Washed Microbiota Transplantation on Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Pilot Study.

Gastroenterology research and practice, 2020:8825189.

Aim: The fecal microbiota transplantation by washed preparation was recently coined as washed microbiota transplantation (WMT). This pilot study is aimed at exploring the feasibility and efficacy of WMT on Helicobacter pylori eradication.

Methods: Consecutive patients who had been treated with WMT for various indications and who were positive for H. pylori infection before WMT treatment but had never received eradication therapy for H. pylori infection were invited to take a follow-up 13C-urea breath test. The associations of demographic, clinical factors, and laboratory indicators for gastric function and intestinal barrier function with the therapeutic effect were determined.

Results: A total of 32 eligible patients were included, and the overall H. pylori eradication rate was 40.6% (13/32). Patients with H. pylori eradication had a higher pepsinogen ratio (PGR) than those without (13.00 ± 6.97vs.8.31 ± 3.733; P = 0.02). Female patients had a higher, albeit not statistically significant, eradication rate than male patients (53.85% vs. 31.58%; P = 0.208). Compared with lower gastrointestinal tract delivery route, middle gastrointestinal tract delivery route seems to be a more suitable way for the treatment of H. pylori infection (58.33% vs 16.67%; P = 0.152). There was no significant difference in other demographic and clinical factors between patients with and without H. pylori eradication.

Conclusion: H. pylori infection is eradicated in a proportion of patients who have received WMT. An increased pre-WMT PGR appears to be associated with the therapeutic effect. Further studies are required to confirm the efficacy of WMT, especially in combination with currently recommended regimens in randomized controlled trials.

RevDate: 2020-11-02

Wen Q, Liu KJ, Cui BT, et al (2020)

Impact of cap-assisted colonoscopy during transendoscopic enteral tubing: A randomized controlled trial.

World journal of gastroenterology, 26(39):6098-6110.

BACKGROUND: Colonic transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET) requires double cecal intubation, raising a common concern of how to save cecal intubation time and make the tube stable. We hypothesized that cap-assisted colonoscopy (CC) might reduce the second cecal intubation time and bring potential benefits during the TET procedure.

AIM: To investigate if CC can decrease the second cecal intubation time compared with regular colonoscopy (RC).

METHODS: This prospective multicenter, randomized controlled trial was performed at four centers. Subjects ≥ 7 years needing colonic TET were recruited from August 2018 to January 2020. All subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The primary outcome was the second cecal intubation time. Secondary outcomes included success rate, insertion pain score, single clip fixation time, purpose and retention time of TET tube, length of TET tube inserted into the colon, and all procedure-related (serious) adverse events.

RESULTS: A total of 331 subjects were randomized to the RC (n = 165) or CC (n = 166) group. The median time of the second cecal intubation was significantly shorter for CC than RC (2.2 min vs 2.8 min, P < 0.001). In patients with constipation, the median time of second cecal intubation in the CC group (n = 50) was shorter than that in the RC group (n = 43) (2.6 min vs 3.8 min, P = 0.004). However, no difference was observed in the CC (n = 42) and RC (n = 46) groups of ulcerative colitis patients (2.0 min vs 2.5 min, P = 0.152). The insertion pain score during the procedure in CC (n = 14) was lower than that in RC (n = 19) in unsedated colonoscopy (3.8 ± 1.7 vs 5.4 ± 1.9; P = 0.015). Multivariate analysis revealed that only CC (odds ratio [OR]: 2.250, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.161-4.360; P = 0.016) was an independent factor affecting the second cecal intubation time in difficult colonoscopy. CC did not affect the colonic TET tube's retention time and length of the tube inserted into the colon. Moreover, multivariate analysis found that only endoscopic clip number (OR: 2.201, 95%CI: 1.541-3.143; P < 0.001) was an independent factor affecting the retention time. Multiple regression analysis showed that height (OR: 1.144, 95%CI: 1.027-1.275; P = 0.014) was the only independent factor influencing the length of TET tube inserted into the colon in adults.

CONCLUSION: CC for colonic TET procedure is a safe and less painful technique, which can reduce cecal intubation time.

RevDate: 2020-11-02

Chaitman J, F Gaschen (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Dogs.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice pii:S0195-5616(20)30112-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In people, fecal microbiota transplantation is recognized as the best treatment modality for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in people, and its value is currently investigated in the treatment of other diseases associated with an abnormal gut microbiome. In dogs, intestinal dysbiosis has been documented in many acute and chronic digestive diseases as well as in diseases of other organ systems. There are only few published studies evaluating the benefits of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in canine gastrointestinal disorders. They provide evidence that FMT may be beneficial in the treatment of acute intestinal diseases and hope that the technique might also be useful for the management of chronic enteropathies.

RevDate: 2020-11-02

Pietro Merli , Lorenza Putignani , Annalisa Ruggeri , et al (2020)

Decolonization of multi-drug resistant bacteria by fecal microbiota transplantation in five pediatric patients before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: gut microbiota profiling, infectious and clinical outcomes.

Haematologica, 105(11):2686-2690.

RevDate: 2020-11-02
CmpDate: 2020-11-02

Ianiro G, Porcari S, Ford AC, et al (2020)

Letter: faecal microbiota transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome-room for improvement.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 52(5):923-924.

RevDate: 2020-11-02
CmpDate: 2020-11-02

Lahtinen P, Jalanka J, Hartikainen A, et al (2020)

Letter: faecal microbiota transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome-room for improvement. Authors' reply.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 52(5):925-926.

RevDate: 2020-11-02
CmpDate: 2020-11-02

Ransom EM, Burnham CD, Jones L, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantations: Where Are We, Where Are We Going, and What Is the Role of the Clinical Laboratory?.

Clinical chemistry, 66(4):512-517.

RevDate: 2020-10-31

Wang J, Yang HR, Wang DJ, et al (2020)

Association between the gut microbiota and patient responses to cancer immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Oncology letters, 20(6):342.

Studies are increasingly investigating the association between the gut microbiota and the outcomes of immunotherapy in patients with cancer. Notably, certain studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota serves a key role in regulating a patient's response to immunotherapy. In the present review, the potential associations between the gut microbiota, and cancer, host immunity and cancer immunotherapy are reviewed. Furthermore, the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation, antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, components of traditional Chinese medicine and various lifestyle factors on the gut microbiota and cancer immunotherapy outcomes are discussed. Certain dominant bacterial groups in the context of cancer immunotherapy and certain effective methods for optimizing immunotherapy by regulating the gut microbiota have been identified. Further investigation may enable the rapid conversion of these discoveries into practical products and clinically applicable methods.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Guo H, Chou WC, Lai Y, et al (2020)

Multi-omics analyses of radiation survivors identify radioprotective microbes and metabolites.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 370(6516):.

Ionizing radiation causes acute radiation syndrome, which leads to hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular injuries. We investigated a population of mice that recovered from high-dose radiation to live normal life spans. These "elite-survivors" harbored distinct gut microbiota that developed after radiation and protected against radiation-induced damage and death in both germ-free and conventionally housed recipients. Elevated abundances of members of the bacterial taxa Lachnospiraceae and Enterococcaceae were associated with postradiation restoration of hematopoiesis and gastrointestinal repair. These bacteria were also found to be more abundant in leukemia patients undergoing radiotherapy, who also displayed milder gastrointestinal dysfunction. In our study in mice, metabolomics revealed increased fecal concentrations of microbially derived propionate and tryptophan metabolites in elite-survivors. The administration of these metabolites caused long-term radioprotection, mitigation of hematopoietic and gastrointestinal syndromes, and a reduction in proinflammatory responses.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Cheng YW, M Fischer (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Ulcerative Colitis. Are We Ready for Primetime?.

Gastroenterology clinics of North America, 49(4):739-752.

"Patients with inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease, have altered gut microbiomes. The success of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection, a disease that is also marked by dysbiosis, has spurred research in applying FMT to UC. So far, 3 randomized controlled trials have demonstrated benefit in mild to moderate UC disease course after FMT. However, important questions regarding optimal stool preparation, route, and frequency of administration, as well as characteristics of the stool donor and recipient still remain."

RevDate: 2020-10-30
CmpDate: 2020-10-30

Larsen OFA, Koning AHJ, van der Spek PJ, et al (2019)

Towards a rational design of faecal transplant analogues.

Scientific reports, 9(1):5558 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-42043-x.

Faecal transplants (microbiota transfer) have shown to be promising therapies having a wide range of therapeutic applications. However, current safety considerations hamper further valorisation. As such, well designed faecal transplant analogues provide an interesting alternative to minimize possible safety aspects. However, to date little knowledge on how to rationally design such analogues exists. Here, we show by applying first order basic graph theory that such analogues dedicated to restoring a specific physiological functionality (a microbial guild) should consist of 5-6 species to maximize stability, efficiency, and minimize safety issues and production costs.

RevDate: 2020-10-29

Silva JC, Ponte A, Mota M, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in the intestinal decolonization of carbapenamase-producing enterobacteriaceae.

Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva, 112: [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Intestinal decolonization of carbapenamase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) can prevent transmission and infection by these agents. The aim of this study was to assess CPE decolonization after FMT.

METHODS: this was a case-series study that consecutively included all CPE-carriers that underwent FMT between 2014 and 2019. The indications included refractory/recurrent CDI and CPE-decolonization.

RESULTS: out of 21 CPE-carriers, eight were excluded due to incomplete post-FMT testing. CPE decolonization was confirmed in 76.9 % (n = 10). The median decolonization time was 16-weeks (IQR-23) and ranged from two to 53 weeks.

CONCLUSION: FMT may be used in the clinical practice for CPE-decolonization as an alternative to combined antibiotic regimens.

RevDate: 2020-10-29

Li Q, Jin M, Liu Y, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota: Its Potential Roles in Pancreatic Cancer.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:572492.

Pancreatic cancer is considered a lethal disease with a low survival rate due to its late-stage diagnosis, few opportunities for resection and lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Multiple, highly complex effects of gut microbiota on pancreatic cancer have been recognized as potential strategies for targeting tumorigenesis, development and treatment in recent decades; some of the treatments include antibiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Several bacterial species are associated with carcinogenesis of the pancreas, while some bacterial metabolites contribute to tumor-associated low-grade inflammation and immune responses via several proinflammatory factors and signaling pathways. Given the limited evidence on the interplay between gut microbiota and pancreatic cancer, risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer, such as diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and obesity, should also be taken into consideration. In terms of treatment of pancreatic cancer, gut microbiota has exhibited multiple effects on both traditional chemotherapy and the recently successful immunotherapy. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the latest developments and advancements in gut microbiota in relation to pancreatic cancer to elucidate its potential value.

RevDate: 2020-10-29

Dai X, Hou H, Zhang W, et al (2020)

Microbial Metabolites: Critical Regulators in NAFLD.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:567654.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease throughout the world. The relationship between gut microbiota and NAFLD has been extensively investigated. The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of NAFLD by participating in the fermentation of indigestible food, interacting with the intestinal mucosal immune system, and influencing the intestinal barrier function, leading to signaling alteration. Meanwhile, the microbial metabolites not only affect the signal transduction pathway in the gut but also reach the liver far away from gut. In this review, we focus on the effects of certain key microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, trimethylamine-N-oxide, bile acids, and endogenous ethanol and indole in NAFLD, and also summarize several potential therapies targeting the gut-liver axis and modulation of gut microbiota metabolites including antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, bile acid regulation, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Understanding the complex interactions between microbial metabolites and NAFLD may provide crucial insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD.

RevDate: 2020-10-29

Kullar R, Tran MN, EJC Goldstein (2020)

Investigational Treatment Agents for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection (rCDI).

Journal of experimental pharmacology, 12:371-384 pii:242959.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea that is deemed a global health threat. C. difficile strain BI/NAP1/027 has contributed to the increase in the mortality, severity of CDI outbreaks and recurrence rates (rCDI). Updated CDI treatment guidelines suggest vancomycin and fidaxomicin as initial first-line therapies that have initial clinical cure rates of over 80%. Unacceptably high recurrence rates of 15-30% in patients for the first episode and 40% for the second recurrent episode are reported. Alternative treatments for rCDI include fecal microbiota transplant and a human monoclonal antibody, bezlotoxumab, that can be used in patients with high risk of rCDI. Various emerging potential therapies with narrow spectrum of activity and little systemic absorption that are in development include 1) Ibezapolstat (formerly ACX-362E), MGB-BP-3, and DS-2969b-targeting bacterial DNA replication, 2) CRS3213 (REP3123)-inhibiting toxin production and spore formation, 3) ramizol and ramoplanin-affecting bacterial cell wall, 4) LFF-571-blocking protein synthesis, 5) Alanyl-L-Glutamine (alanylglutamine)-inhibiting damage caused by C. difficile by protecting intestinal mucosa, and 6) DNV3837 (MCB3681)-prodrug consisting of an oxazolidinone-quinolone combination that converts to the active form DNV3681 that has activity in vitro against C. difficile. This review article provides an overview of these developing drugs that can have potential role in the treatment of rCDI and in lowering recurrence rates.

RevDate: 2020-10-29

Han Y, Wu L, Ling Q, et al (2020)

Intestinal Dysbiosis Correlates With Sirolimus-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice.

Transplantation [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Long-time use of pharmacological immunosuppressive agents frequently leads to metabolic disorders. Most studies have focused on islet toxicity leading to post-transplantation diabetes mellitus. In contrast, the link between intestinal dysbiosis and immunosuppressive drug-induced metabolic disorders remains unclear.

METHODS: We established a mouse model of metabolic abnormality via sirolimus treatment. Fecal microbiota was examined using 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. Intestinal barrier function was assessed using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay and mucus immunostaining. Systemic inflammation was determined using a multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay.

RESULTS: Sirolimus induced dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the clinical-mimicking dose of sirolimus altered the intestinal microbiota community, which was characterized by the enrichment of Proteobacteria, depletion of Akkermansia, and potential function shifts to those involved in lipid metabolism and the immune system. In addition, the clinical-mimicking dose of sirolimus reduced the thickness of the intestinal mucosal layer, increased the intestinal permeability, and enriched the circulating pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, GM-CSF, and IL-1β. Our results showed a close association between intestinal dysbiosis, intestinal barrier failure, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders. Furthermore, we demonstrated that oral intervention in the gut microbiota by Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 protected against intestinal dysbiosis, especially by depleting the LPS-producing Proteobacteria, and attenuated the sirolimus-induced systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a potentially causative role of intestinal dysbiosis in sirolimus-induced metabolic disorders, which will provide a novel therapeutic target for transplant recipients.

RevDate: 2020-10-29
CmpDate: 2020-10-29

Poortmans P, S Kindt (2020)

Diagnostic approach to chronic diarrhoea and recent insights in treatment of functional diarrhoea including irritable bowel syndrome.

Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica, 83(3):461-474.

Chronic diarrhoea is a common clinical problem with a plethora of possible causes and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The value of diagnostic assessment by laboratory testing, stool analysis, evaluation of bile acid malabsorption, endoscopy, breath testing and radiological imaging techniques is discussed. The decision to focus investigations on excluding certain pathologies remains a matter of clinical judgement. Functional diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) being the most frequent causes of chronic diarrhoea, recent insights in the role of dietary management, management of dysbiosis by pre-, proand antibiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation, as well as targeted treatment by spasmolytics, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and eluxadoline will be reviewed.

RevDate: 2020-10-28

Luz MRMPD, RF Waizbort (2020)

[Fecal microbiota transplants in the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis (1958-2013): priority of discovery and thought styles in the academic literature].

Historia, ciencias, saude--Manguinhos, 27(3):859-878.

In 1958, Eiseman and contributors published the first scientific paper reporting the use of fecal microbiota transplant for treating pseudomembranous colitis. The relevance of this innovative paper was only acknowledged in 1990. The academic literature on the theme is characterized by a narrative that has undergone successive revisions. We suggest that such revisions were based on claims of priority of scientific discoveries, as described by Merton. The revival of fecal microbiota transplants is interpreted as a process of genesis of a scientific fact, as defined by Fleck: there is a switch from a thought style based on the use of antibiotics to treat infectious diseases to another that accepts the ecological relations between hosts, vectors and parasites.

RevDate: 2020-10-28

Kazemian N, Ramezankhani M, Sehgal A, et al (2020)

The trans-kingdom battle between donor and recipient gut microbiome influences fecal microbiota transplantation outcome.

Scientific reports, 10(1):18349 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-75162-x.

Fundamental restoration ecology and community ecology theories can help us better understand the underlying mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and to better design future microbial therapeutics for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI) and other dysbiosis-related conditions. In this study, stool samples were collected from donors and rCDI patients one week prior to FMT (pre-FMT), as well as from patients one week following FMT (post-FMT). Using metagenomic sequencing and machine learning, our results suggested that FMT outcome is not only dependent on the ecological structure of the recipients, but also the interactions between the donor and recipient microbiomes at the taxonomical and functional levels. We observed that the presence of specific bacteria in donors (Clostridioides spp., Desulfovibrio spp., Odoribacter spp. and Oscillibacter spp.) and the absence of fungi (Yarrowia spp.) and bacteria (Wigglesworthia spp.) in recipients prior to FMT could predict FMT success. Our results also suggested a series of interlocked mechanisms for FMT success, including the repair of the disturbed gut ecosystem by transient colonization of nexus species followed by secondary succession of bile acid metabolizers, sporulators, and short chain fatty acid producers.

RevDate: 2020-10-28
CmpDate: 2020-10-28

Pai N, Popov J, Hill L, et al (2019)

Protocol for a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study for assessing the feasibility and efficacy of faecal microbiota transplant in a paediatric Crohn's disease population: PediCRaFT Trial.

BMJ open, 9(11):e030120.

INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition with transmural involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. Extraintestinal manifestations are common, and the disease burden on patients and the healthcare system is significant. While treatment options have expanded in recent years, they have mainly focused on dampening the immune response, thus carrying notable risks associated with long-term immunosuppression. Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) targets inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by modifying intestinal dysbiosis. Limited adult and paediatric data have demonstrated a favourable response to FMT in IBD; however, no randomised controlled trial has yet been published in paediatrics. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study will assess feasibility and efficacy outcomes of FMT in a paediatric CD population.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Forty-five patients between the ages of 3 and 17 years, with established CD or IBD unclassified, will be enrolled 2:1 to undergo FMT intervention or placebo control. Participants will undergo a colonoscopic infusion to the terminal ileum at baseline, followed by oral capsules two times per week for 6 weeks. Outcomes will be measured throughout the intervention period and 18 weeks of subsequent follow-up. Primary outcomes will assess feasibility, including patient recruitment, sample collection and rates of adverse events. Secondary outcomes will address clinical efficacy, including change in clinical response, change in urine metabolome and change in microbiome.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval from the local hospital research ethics board was obtained at the primary site (McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton), with ethics pending at the secondary site (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire-Sainte-Justine, Montréal). RBX7455 and RBX2660 are human donor-sourced, microbiota-based therapeutic formulations. Both RBX7455 and RBX2660 are currently undergoing clinical trials to support potential US Food and Drug Administration approval. Approval to conduct this paediatric clinical trial was obtained from Health Canada's Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate. The results of this trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will help inform a large, multicentre trial in the future.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03378167; pre-results.

RevDate: 2020-10-27

Dembrovszky F, Gede N, Szakács Z, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation May Be the Best Option in Treating Multiple Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Network Meta-Analysis.

Infectious diseases and therapy pii:10.1007/s40121-020-00356-9 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium) infection (CDI) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea with high mortality and recurrence rate; furthermore, the treatment of recurrent cases is a challenge. In this network meta-analysis, we aimed to compare all available therapies against multiple recurrent CDI (mrCDI) and rank them by efficacy.

METHODS: After a systematic search, randomized controlled trials (RCT) with any interventions against mrCDI were included. Data were extracted to the study database using Excel. Risk of bias assessment was performed with the Cochrane RoB 2 tool. The primary outcome was the clinical cure of CDI and the secondary outcome was the recurrence of CDI. A Bayesian method was performed to investigate the efficacy rank order of therapies. We registered our protocol with the Prospero Center for Reviews and Dissemination (registration no. CRD42020160365).

RESULTS: Six RCTs with seven interventions were included in the quantitative synthesis. According to the surface under the cumulative ranking curve values, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) after a short course of vancomycin therapy (83%) shows the highest efficacy for clinical cure. Tolevamer and vancomycin + FMT seemed to be the most effective in preventing recurrence (87% and 75%, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Vancomycin + FMT is perhaps the most effective option for the treatment and prevention of mrCDI, while tolevamer is also effective in preventing recurrence.

RevDate: 2020-10-26

Gill M, Blacketer C, Chitti F, et al (2020)

Physician and patient perceptions of fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile in the first 6 years of a central stool bank.

JGH open : an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 4(5):950-957 pii:JGH312396.

Background and Aim: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). Despite inclusion in society guidelines, the uptake of FMT therapy has been variable. Physician and patient attitudes may be a barrier to evidence-based uptake of therapies; however, data assessing attitudes regarding FMT for rCDI are limited.

Methods: The South Australian FMT for CDI database prospectively recorded patient outcomes of FMT for CDI from August 2013 to January 2019. A total of 93 consecutive patients who underwent FMT for rCDI in South Australia were invited to participate in a 20-question survey regarding the patient experience of FMT. All gastroenterologists and infectious disease physicians practicing in South Australia were invited to participate in an online survey comprised of 22 questions that addressed referral experience, indications for referral, perceived risks, and regulation and funding.

Results: Fifty-four patients (54/93, 58%) returned the survey, of whom 52 (96%) would recommend FMT to others, and 51 (94%) were satisfied with treatment outcome. Fifty physicians returned the online survey (50/100, 50%), of whom 23 (46%) were concerned about disease transmission risk, and 15 (30%) believed that the risk of FMT would outweigh the benefit. Infectious diseases physicians and advanced trainees had significantly greater concern regarding the potential alteration of the microbiome than gastroenterology physicians and advanced trainees (8/17 (47%) vs 6/33 (18%); P = 0.047).

Conclusion: Despite high levels of patient-reported satisfaction following FMT, physician-reported reservations exist and may present a barrier to uptake of this therapy.

RevDate: 2020-10-26

Rossi G, Pengo G, Galosi L, et al (2020)

Effects of the Probiotic Mixture Slab51® (SivoMixx®) as Food Supplement in Healthy Dogs: Evaluation of Fecal Microbiota, Clinical Parameters and Immune Function.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 7:613.

The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in several physiologic functions of the host. In humans and animals, manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by oral administration of probiotic lactic acid bacteria plays a significant role in modulating the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the probiotic mixture Slab51® and the capacity of this mixture to stimulate immune function in healthy dogs. Twenty dogs were divided in two groups and received a control diet or the same diet supplemented with a dose of 400 billion cfu of lyophilized bacteria for a period of 60 days. Body weight, food intake, body condition score (BCS), fecal score (FSS), fecal immunoglobulin IgA concentration, plasma IgG concentration, and fecal microbiota composition were monitored. Weight, food intake, BCS, FSS, and biochemical parameters remained unchanged during the treatment in both groups of animals. The fecal microbiota showed a significant decrease in the abundance of Clostridium perfringens and a significant increase in the abundance of beneficial Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus organisms (p < 0.05). Fecal IgA and plasma IgG levels were significantly higher in the group receiving the probiotic compared to healthy controls. These data show that dietary supplementation with the probiotic mixture Slab51® is safe and well-tolerated, modulating the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and enhancing specific immune functions in healthy dogs.

RevDate: 2020-10-26

Koo H, Crossman DK, CD Morrow (2020)

Strain Tracking to Identify Individualized Patterns of Microbial Strain Stability in the Developing Infant Gut Ecosystem.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 8:549844.

Stable microbe and host interactions are established during the development of the infant gut microbial community that provide essential functions for the efficient digestion of food, immune development, and resistance to colonization with pathogens. To further delineate the stability of the gut microbial community during this time, we have used microbial strain tracking analysis with published longitudinal metagenomic data sets to identify strains that persist in the developing infant gut ecosystem. In the first study, 17 infants were evaluated that had not received antibiotics for 3 years after birth. An infant specific pattern was seen for stable and unstable microbial strains during this time, with only one infant having no stable strains identified out of available strains during the first 3 years. Strain tracking was also applied to follow microbes in a separate set of 14 infants that had multiple doses of antibiotics over the 3 years. In 10 out of 14 infants given multiple antibiotics during the first 3 years, we identified a unique pattern of transient strains that appeared after multiple antibiotic treatments for a short time compared to that in infants not on antibiotics. In a second, independent study, we selected a subset of 9 infants from a previously published study consisting of high-density longitudinal fecal sampling to analyze the gut microbial strain stability of Bacteroides vulgatus and Bifidobacterium adolescentis for up to 6 years following birth. Individual specific patterns were found consisting of varying dominant microbial strains that were independent of antibiotic exposure and birth mode. Our analysis demonstrates an individual specific inherent variability of extinction and persistence of microbial strains in the infant gut community during a time of development that is critical for interactions necessary for establishing normal metabolism and the development of the host immune response.

RevDate: 2020-10-24

Li W, Chen C, Chen M, et al (2020)

Salted and Unsalted Zhàcài (Brassica juncea var. tumida) Alleviated High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia by Regulating Gut Microbiota: A Multiomics Study.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: Zhàcài, a salting-processed Brassica juncea var. tumida vegetable, is widely consumed as a pickle, but little is known about the health benefits of both salted and unsalted Zhàcài as a whole food.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The preventive effects of salted and unsalted Zhàcài against dyslipidemia wereassessed in high-fat diet (HF)-fed mice. HF intake for 12 continuous weeks caused dyslipidemia in mice, as evidenced by the elevations in serum total triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 30%, 66% and 117%, respectively. Metabolomics analysis and the 16S rRNA genes sequencing suggested that dietary administration of salted and unsalted Zhàcài (2.5% w/w) alleviates HF-induced dyslipidemia, metabolic disorders of short-chain fatty acids, and disturbance of intestinal flora in mice. These positive effects of unsalted Zhàcài werestronger than those of salted Zhàcài. Moreover, fecal bacteria transplantation confirmed the antidyslipidemia of Zhàcài.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that consumption of Zhàcài may prevent HF-induced dyslipidemia by regulating gut microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-10-23
CmpDate: 2020-10-23

García-Fernández S, Frentrup M, Steglich M, et al (2019)

Whole-genome sequencing reveals nosocomial Clostridioides difficile transmission and a previously unsuspected epidemic scenario.

Scientific reports, 9(1):6959 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-43464-4.

To trace the routes and frequencies of transmission of Clostridioides difficile in a tertiary-care hospital in Madrid (Spain), we sequenced the genomes from all C. difficile isolates collected over 36 months (2014-2016) that were indistinguishable from any other isolate by PCR ribotyping. From a total of 589 C. difficile infection cases, we cultivated and PCR-ribotyped 367 C. difficile isolates (62%), of which 265 were genome-sequenced. Based on close relatedness of successively collected isolates (≤2 SNPs difference in their genomes), whole-genome sequencing revealed a total of 17 independent, putative transmission clusters, caused by various C. difficile strains and each containing 2 to 18 cases, none of which had been detected previously by standard epidemiological surveillance. Proportions of linked isolates varied widely among PCR ribotypes, from 3% (1/36) for ribotype 014/020 to 60% (12/20) for ribotype 027, suggesting differential aptitudes for nosocomial spread. Remarkably, only a minority (17%) of transmission recipients had direct ward contact to their presumed donors and specific C. difficile genome types frequently went undetectable for several months before re-emerging later, suggesting reservoirs for the pathogen outside of symptomatic patients. Taken together, our analysis based on genome sequencing suggested considerable within-hospital epidemic spread of C. difficile, even though epidemiological data initially had been inconspicuous.

RevDate: 2020-10-22

Kang DW, Adams JB, Vargason T, et al (2020)

Distinct Fecal and Plasma Metabolites in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Modulation after Microbiota Transfer Therapy.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Accumulating evidence has strengthened a link between dysbiotic gut microbiota and autism. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a promising therapy to repair dysbiotic gut microbiota. We previously performed intensive FMT called microbiota transfer therapy (MTT) for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and observed a substantial improvement of gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms. We also reported modulation of the gut microbiome toward a healthy one. In this study, we report comprehensive metabolite profiles from plasma and fecal samples of the children who participated in the MTT trial. With 619 plasma metabolites detected, we found that the autism group had distinctive metabolic profiles at baseline. Eight metabolites (nicotinamide riboside, IMP, iminodiacetate, methylsuccinate, galactonate, valylglycine, sarcosine, and leucylglycine) were significantly lower in the ASD group at baseline, while caprylate and heptanoate were significantly higher in the ASD group. MTT drove global shifts in plasma profiles across various metabolic features, including nicotinate/nicotinamide and purine metabolism. In contrast, for 669 fecal metabolites detected, when correcting for multiple hypotheses, no metabolite was significantly different at baseline. Although not statistically significant, p-cresol sulfate was relatively higher in the ASD group at baseline, and after MTT, the levels decreased and were similar to levels in typically developing (TD) controls. p-Cresol sulfate levels were inversely correlated with Desulfovibrio, suggesting a potential role of Desulfovibrio on p-cresol sulfate modulation. Further studies of metabolites in a larger ASD cohort, before and after MTT, are warranted, as well as clinical trials of other therapies to address the metabolic changes which MTT was not able to correct.IMPORTANCE Despite the prevalence of autism and its extensive impact on our society, no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is available for this complex neurobiological disorder. Based on mounting evidences that support a link between autism and the gut microbiome, we previously performed a pioneering open-label clinical trial using intensive fecal microbiota transplant. The therapy significantly improved gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms. Comprehensive metabolomic measurements in this study showed that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had different levels of many plasma metabolites at baseline compared to those in typically developing children. Microbiota transfer therapy (MTT) had a systemic effect, resulting in substantial changes in plasma metabolites, driving a number of metabolites to be more similar to those from typically developing children. Our results provide evidence that changes in metabolites are one mechanism of the gut-brain connection mediated by the gut microbiota and offer plausible clinical evidence for a promising autism treatment and biomarkers.

RevDate: 2020-10-22

Yiu JHC, Chan KS, Cheung J, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota-Associated Activation of TLR5 Induces Apolipoprotein A1 Production in the Liver.

Circulation research, 127(10):1236-1252.

RATIONALE: Dysbiosis of gut microbiota plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases but the molecular mechanisms are complex. An association between gut microbiome and the variance in HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) level was suggested in a human study. Besides, dietary fat was shown to increase both HDL-C and LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) levels. We speculate that certain types of gut bacteria responding to dietary fat may help to regulate HDL-C level and potentially affect atherosclerotic development.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether and how high-fat diet (HFD)-associated gut microbiota regulated HDL-C level.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We found that HFD increased gut flagellated bacteria population in mice. The increase in HDL-C level was adopted by mice receiving fecal microbiome transplantation from HFD-fed mouse donors. HFD led to increased hepatic but not circulating flagellin, and deletion of TLR5 (Toll-like receptor 5), a receptor sensing flagellin, suppressed HFD-stimulated HDL-C and ApoA1 (apolipoprotein A1) levels. Overexpression of TLR5 in the liver of TLR5-knockout mice was able to partially restore the production of ApoA1 and HDL-C levels. Mechanistically, TLR5 activation by flagellin in primary hepatocytes stimulated ApoA1 production through the transcriptional activation responding to the binding of NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) on Apoa1 promoter region. Furthermore, oral supplementation of flagellin was able to stimulate hepatic ApoA1 production and HDL-C level and decrease atherosclerotic lesion size in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice without triggering hepatic and systemic inflammation. The stimulation of ApoA1 production was also seen in human ApoA1-transgenic mice treated with oral flagellin.

CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggests that commensal flagellated bacteria in gut can facilitate ApoA1 and HDL-C productions in liver through activation of TLR5 in hepatocytes. Hepatic TLR5 may be a potential drug target to increase ApoA1.

RevDate: 2020-10-22
CmpDate: 2020-10-22

Ciocan D, AM Cassard (2020)

[Intestinal bacteria involved in nutritional liver disease killed by phagotherapy: a new therapeutic target].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 36(4):310-312.

RevDate: 2020-10-21

Uzan-Yulzari A, Morr M, Tareef-Nabwani H, et al (2020)

The intestinal microbiome, weight, and metabolic changes in women treated by adjuvant chemotherapy for breast and gynecological malignancies.

BMC medicine, 18(1):281 pii:10.1186/s12916-020-01751-2.

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy induces weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in about a third of women. The mechanisms underlying these events have not been defined. This study assessed the association between the microbiome and weight gain in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast and gynecological cancers.

METHODS: Patients were recruited before starting adjuvant therapy. Weight and height were measured before treatment and 4-6 weeks after treatment completion. Weight gain was defined as an increase of 3% or more in body weight. A stool sample was collected before treatment, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed. Data regarding oncological therapy, menopausal status, and antibiotic use was prospectively collected. Patients were excluded if they were treated by antibiotics during the study. Fecal transplant experiments from patients were conducted using Swiss Webster germ-free mice.

RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were recruited; of them, 9 gained 3.5-10.6% of baseline weight. The pretreatment microbiome of women who gained weight following treatment was significantly different in diversity and taxonomy from that of control women. Fecal microbiota transplantation from pretreatment samples of patients that gained weight induced metabolic changes in germ-free mice compared to mice transplanted with pretreatment fecal samples from the control women.

CONCLUSION: The microbiome composition is predictive of weight gain following adjuvant chemotherapy and induces adverse metabolic changes in germ-free mice, suggesting it contributes to adverse metabolic changes seen in patients. Confirmation of these results in a larger patient cohort is warranted.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Zhang J, Rodríguez F, Navas MJ, et al (2020)

Fecal microbiota transplantation from warthog to pig confirms the influence of the gut microbiota on African swine fever susceptibility.

Scientific reports, 10(1):17605 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-74651-3.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of a devastating hemorrhagic disease (ASF) that affects both domestic pigs and wild boars. Conversely, ASFV circulates in a subclinical manner in African wild pigs, including warthogs, the natural reservoir for ASFV. Together with genetic differences, other factors might be involved in the differential susceptibility to ASF observed among Eurasian suids (Sus scrofa) and African warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Preliminary evidence obtained in our laboratory and others, seems to confirm the effect that environmental factors might have on ASF infection. Thus, domestic pigs raised in specific pathogen-free (SPF) facilities were extremely susceptible to highly attenuated ASFV strains that were innocuous to genetically identical domestic pigs grown on conventional farms. Since gut microbiota plays important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, regulating immune system maturation and the functionality of the innate/adaptive immune responses, we decided to examine whether warthog fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to domestic pigs affects host susceptibility to ASFV. The present work demonstrates that warthog FMT is not harmful for domestic weaned piglets, while it modifies their gut microbiota; and that FMT from warthogs to pigs confers partial protection against attenuated ASFV strains. Future work is needed to elucidate the protective mechanisms exerted by warthog FMT.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Hamamoto Y, Ouhara K, Munenaga S, et al (2020)

Effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection on gut dysbiosis and resultant arthritis exacerbation in mouse model.

Arthritis research & therapy, 22(1):249 pii:10.1186/s13075-020-02348-z.

BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) infection causes periodontal disease and exacerbates rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is reported that inoculation of periodontopathogenic bacteria (i.e., Pg) can alter gut microbiota composition in the animal models. Gut microbiota dysbiosis in human has shown strong associations with systemic diseases, including RA, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, this study investigated dysbiosis-mediated arthritis by Pg oral inoculation in an experimental arthritis model mouse.

METHODS: Pg inoculation in the oral cavity twice a week for 6 weeks was performed to induce periodontitis in SKG mice. Concomitantly, a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of laminarin (LA) was administered to induce experimental arthritis (Pg-LA mouse). Citrullinated protein (CP) and IL-6 levels in serum as well as periodontal, intestinal, and joint tissues were measured by ELISA. Gut microbiota composition was determined by pyrosequencing the 16 s ribosomal RNA genes after DNA purification of mouse feces. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed by transferring Pg-LA-derived feces to normal SKG mice. The effects of Pg peptidylarginine deiminase (PgPAD) on the level of citrullinated proteins and arthritis progression were determined using a PgPAD knockout mutant.

RESULTS: Periodontal alveolar bone loss and IL-6 in gingival tissue were induced by Pg oral infection, as well as severe joint destruction, increased arthritis scores (AS), and both IL-6 and CP productions in serum, joint, and intestinal tissues. Distribution of Deferribacteres and S24-7 was decreased, while CP was significantly increased in gingiva, joint, and intestinal tissues of Pg-inoculated experimental arthritis mice compared to experimental arthritis mice without Pg inoculation. Further, FMT from Pg-inoculated experimental arthritis mice reproduced donor gut microbiota and resulted in severe joint destruction with increased IL-6 and CP production in joint and intestinal tissues. The average AS of FMT from Pg-inoculated experimental arthritis was much higher than that of donor mouse. However, inoculation of the PgPAD knockout mutant inhibited the elevation of arthritis scores and ACPA level in serum and reduced CP amount in gingival, joint, and intestinal tissues compared to Pg wild-type inoculation.

CONCLUSION: Pg oral infection affected gut microbiota dysbiosis and joint destruction via increased CP generation.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Evrensel A, KN Tarhan (2020)

Emerging role of Gut-microbiota-brain axis in depression and therapeutic implication.

Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry pii:S0278-5846(20)30454-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The human body can be considered a superorganism in which it's eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic microorganisms coexist. Almost every organ system of the body lives a symbiotic life with these commensal bacteria. Intestinal microbiota has an important role in shaping, organizing and maintaining mental functions from as early as the intrauterine period. Microbiota-based approaches are becoming more prominent in understanding and treating the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression. Antidepressant drugs, which are the first-line option in the treatment of depression today, also contain antimicrobial and immunomodulatory mechanisms of action. Treatment options for directly modifying the microbiota composition include prebiotics, probiotics (psychobiotics) and fecal microbiota transplantation. There are few preclinical and clinical studies on the efficacy and reliability of these treatment options in depression. This article will review pertinent studies on the role of intestinal microbiota in depression and discuss the treatment potential of altering ones gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Mossad O, D Erny (2020)

The microbiota-microglia axis in CNS disorders.

Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland) [Epub ahead of print].

The innate immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) is mainly represented by specialized tissue-resident macrophages, called microglia. In the past years, various species-, host- and tissue-specific as well as environmental factors were recognized that essentially affect microglial properties and functions in the healthy and diseased brain. Host microbiota are mostly residing in the gut and contribute to microglial activation states e.g. via short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands. Thereby, the gut microorganisms are deemed to influence numerous CNS diseases mediated by microglia. In this review we summarize recent findings of the interaction between the host microbiota and the CNS in health and disease, where we specifically highlight the resident gut microbiota as a crucial environmental factor for microglial function as what we coin "the microbiota-microglia axis".

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Schierová D, Březina J, Mrázek J, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiome Changes in Patients with Active Left-Sided Ulcerative Colitis after Fecal Microbiome Transplantation and Topical 5-aminosalicylic Acid Therapy.

Cells, 9(10): pii:cells9102283.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease, and intestinal bacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. The administration of aminosalicylates (5-ASA) is a conventional treatment that targets the mucosa, while fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is a novel treatment that directly targets the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to identify changes in fecal bacterial composition after both types of treatments and evaluate clinical responses. Sixteen patients with active left-sided UC underwent enema treatment using 5-ASA (n = 8) or FMT (n = 8) with a stool from a single donor. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing, and clinical indices were used to assess the efficacy of treatments. 5-ASA therapy resulted in clinical remission in 50% (4/8) of patients, but no correlation with changes in fecal bacteria was observed. In FMT, remission was achieved in 37.5% (3/8) of patients and was associated with a significantly increased relative abundance of the families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae of the phylum Firmicutes, and Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae of the phylum Actinobacteria. At the genus level, Faecalibacterium, Blautia, Coriobacteria, Collinsela, Slackia, and Bifidobacterium were significantly more frequent in patients who reached clinical remission. However, the increased abundance of beneficial taxa was not a sufficient factor to achieve clinical improvement in all UC patients. Nevertheless, our preliminary results indicate that FMT as non-drug-using method is thought to be a promising treatment for UC patients.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Suganya K, BS Koo (2020)

Gut-Brain Axis: Role of Gut Microbiota on Neurological Disorders and How Probiotics/Prebiotics Beneficially Modulate Microbial and Immune Pathways to Improve Brain Functions.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(20): pii:ijms21207551.

The gut microbiome acts as an integral part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that has the largest and vulnerable surface with desirable features to observe foods, nutrients, and environmental factors, as well as to differentiate commensals, invading pathogens, and others. It is well-known that the gut has a strong connection with the central nervous system (CNS) in the context of health and disease. A healthy gut with diverse microbes is vital for normal brain functions and emotional behaviors. In addition, the CNS controls most aspects of the GI physiology. The molecular interaction between the gut/microbiome and CNS is complex and bidirectional, ensuring the maintenance of gut homeostasis and proper digestion. Besides this, several mechanisms have been proposed, including endocrine, neuronal, toll-like receptor, and metabolites-dependent pathways. Changes in the bidirectional relationship between the GIT and CNS are linked with the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal and neurological disorders; therefore, the microbiota/gut-and-brain axis is an emerging and widely accepted concept. In this review, we summarize the recent findings supporting the role of the gut microbiota and immune system on the maintenance of brain functions and the development of neurological disorders. In addition, we highlight the recent advances in improving of neurological diseases by probiotics/prebiotics/synbiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation via the concept of the gut-brain axis.

RevDate: 2020-10-16

Arulsamy A, Tan QY, Balasubramaniam V, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota and Epilepsy: A Systematic Review on Their Relationship and Possible Therapeutics.

ACS chemical neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Dysbiosis of gut microbiota may lead to a range of diseases including neurological disorders. Thus, it is hypothesized that regulation of the intestinal microbiota may prevent or treat epilepsy. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence investigating the relationship between gut microbiota and epilepsy and possible interventions. A systematic review of the literature was done on four databases (PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science). Study selection was restricted to original research articles while following the PRISMA guidelines. Six studies were selected. These studies cohesively support the interaction between gut microbiota and epileptic seizures. Gut microbiota analysis identified increases in Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Fusobacteria with decreases in Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria in epileptic patients. Ketogenic diet, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) improved the dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and seizure activity. However, the studies either had a small sample size, lack of subject variability, or short study or follow-up period, which may question their reliability. Nevertheless, these limited studies conclusively suggest that gut microbiota diversity and dysbiosis may be involved in the pathology of epilepsy. Future studies providing more reliable and in depth insight into the gut microbial community will spark promising alternative therapies to current epilepsy treatment.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Steed DB, Wang T, Raheja D, et al (2020)

Gram-Negative Taxa and Antimicrobial Susceptibility after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has promising applications in reducing multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization and antibiotic resistance (AR) gene abundance. However, data on clinical microbiology results after FMT are limited. We examined the changes in antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in patients with Gram-negative infections in the year before and the year after treatment with FMT for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (RCDI). We also examined whether a history of FMT changed health care provider behavior with respect to culture ordering and antibiotic prescription. Medical records for RCDI patients who underwent FMT at Emory University between July 2012 and March 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. FMT-treated patients with Gram-negative culture data in the 1-year period preceding and the 1-year period following FMT were included. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted, including CDI history, frequency of Gram-negative cultures, microbiological results, and antibiotic prescription in response to positive cultures in the period following FMT. Twelve patients were included in this case series. We pooled data from infections at all body sites and found a decrease in the number of total and Gram-negative cultures post-FMT. We compared susceptibility profiles across taxa given the potential for horizontal transmission of AR elements and observed increased susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and the aminoglycosides. FMT did not drastically influence health care provider ordering of bacterial cultures or antibiotic prescribing practices. We observed a reduction in Gram-negative cultures and a trend toward increased antimicrobial susceptibility. This study supports further investigation of FMT as a means of improving antimicrobial susceptibility.IMPORTANCE Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is highly efficacious in treating recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI), has a promising application in decolonization of multidrug-resistant organisms, reduction of antibiotic resistance gene abundance, and restoration of healthy intestinal microbiota. However, data representing clinical microbiology results after FMT are limited. We sought to characterize the differences in culture positivity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in patients with Gram-negative infections in the year before and the year after FMT for RCDI. Drawing on prior studies that had demonstrated the success of FMT in eradicating extraintestinal infections and the occurrence of patient-level interspecies transfer of resistance elements, we employed an agnostic analytic approach of reviewing the data irrespective of body site or species. In a small RCDI population, we observed an improvement in the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Gram-negative bacteria following FMT, which supports further study of FMT as a strategy to combat antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2020-10-15

Sarin SK, S Sharma (2020)

Predictors of steroid non-response and new approaches in severe alcoholic hepatitis.

Clinical and molecular hepatology, 26(4):639-651.

Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) remains a disease with high mortality. Steroid is the main stay and has been shown to give modest 28-day survival benefit in carefully selected patients, but no 90-day survival benefit. Since non-responders have high incidence of infections and increased mortality, it would be worthwhile to identify them before starting steroid therapy. A high and rising bilirubin, urinary acetyl carnitine >2,500 ng/mL, high asiloglycoprotein positive microparticles, and specific features in liver biopsy could predict steroid non-response at baseline. There is an ever-growing need to find new and effective therapies for SAH patients. Besides aggressive nutrition, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, fecal microbiota transplantation, and plasma exchange appear promising therapies and provide a hope for steroid ineligible or steroid non-responsive patients. Suppression of hepatic inflammation, preventing new bacterial or fungal infections, and enhancing liver regeneration will remain the key targets for next generation therapies.

RevDate: 2020-10-14

Wang H, Liu L, Rao X, et al (2020)

Integrated phosphoproteomic and metabolomic profiling reveals perturbed pathways in the hippocampus of gut microbiota dysbiosis mice.

Translational psychiatry, 10(1):346 pii:10.1038/s41398-020-01024-9.

The dysbiosis of gut microbiota is an important environmental factor that can induce mental disorders, such as depression, through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. Here we utilized mass spectrometry to identify the global phosphorylation dynamics in hippocampus tissue in germ-free mice and specific pathogen-free mice (GF vs SPF), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) model ("depression microbiota" and the "healthy microbiota" recipient mice). As a result, 327 phosphosites of 237 proteins in GF vs SPF, and 478 phosphosites of 334 proteins in "depression microbiota" vs "healthy microbiota" recipient mice were identified as significant. These phosphorylation dysregulations were consistently associated with glutamatergic neurotransmitter system disturbances. The FMT mice exhibited disturbances in lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism in both the periphery and brain through integrating phosphoproteomic and metabolomic analysis. Moreover, CAMKII-CREB signaling pathway, in response to these disturbances, was the primary common perturbed cellular process. In addition, we demonstrated that the spliceosome, never directly implicated in mental disorders previously, was a substantially neuronal function disrupted by gut microbiota dysbiosis, and the NCBP1 phosphorylation was identified as a novel pathogenic target. These results present a new perspective to study the pathologic mechanisms of gut microbiota dysbiosis related depression and highlight potential gut-mediated therapies for depression.

RevDate: 2020-10-16
CmpDate: 2020-10-16

Anonymous (2020)

Translating Microbiome Research into Therapies: The Path Ahead.

Cell, 181(1):20-21.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Barbara G, G Ianiro (2020)

Faecal microbial transplantation in IBS: ready for prime time?.

Gut, 69(5):795-796.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Bajaj JS, Salzman N, Acharya C, et al (2019)

Microbial functional change is linked with clinical outcomes after capsular fecal transplant in cirrhosis.

JCI insight, 4(24):.

BACKGROUNDHepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with poor outcomes. A prior randomized, pilot trial demonstrated safety after oral capsular fecal microbial transplant (FMT) in HE, with favorable changes in microbial composition and cognition. However, microbial functional changes are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of FMT on the gut-brain axis compared with placebo, using microbial function based on bile acids (BAs), inflammation (serum IL-6, LPS-binding protein [LBP]), and their association with EncephalApp.METHODSTwenty cirrhotic patients were randomized 1:1 into groups that received 1-time FMT capsules from a donor enriched in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae or placebo capsules, with 5-month follow-up for safety outcomes. Stool microbiota and BA; serum IL-6, BA, and LBP; and EncephalApp were analyzed at baseline and 4 weeks after FMT/placebo. Correlation networks among microbiota, BAs, EncephalApp, IL-6, and LBP were performed before/after FMT.RESULTSFMT-assigned participants had 1 HE recurrence and 2 unrelated infections. Six placebo-assigned participants developed negative outcomes. FMT, but not placebo, was associated with reduced serum IL-6 and LBP and improved EncephalApp. FMT-assigned participants demonstrated higher deconjugation and secondary BA formation in feces and serum compared with baseline. No change was seen in placebo. Correlation networks showed greater complexity after FMT compared with baseline. Beneficial taxa, such as Ruminococcaceae, Verrucomicrobiaceae, and Lachnospiraceae, were correlated with cognitive improvement and decrease in inflammation after FMT. Fecal/serum secondary/primary ratios and PiCRUST secondary BA pathways did not increase in participants who developed poor outcomes.CONCLUSIONGut microbial function in cirrhosis is beneficially affected by capsular FMT, with improved inflammation and cognition. Lower secondary BAs in FMT recipients could select for participants who develop negative outcomes.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicaltrials.gov NCT03152188.FUNDINGNational Center for Advancing Translational Sciences NIH grant R21TR002024, VA Merit Review grant 2I0CX001076, the United Kingdom National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Facility at Imperial College London, the British Heart Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and King's College London.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Binyamin D, Werbner N, Nuriel-Ohayon M, et al (2020)

The aging mouse microbiome has obesogenic characteristics.

Genome medicine, 12(1):87 pii:10.1186/s13073-020-00784-9.

BACKGROUND: During aging, there is a physiological decline, an increase of morbidity and mortality, and a natural change in the gut microbiome. In this study, we investigated the influence of the gut microbiome on different metabolic parameters in adult and aged mice.

METHODS: Fecal and blood samples from adult (n = 42, 100-300 days) and aging (n = 32, 550-750 days) mice were collected. Microbiome analysis was done using QIIME2. Mouse weight and body composition were measured using NMR, and insulin and leptin levels in the blood were measured with Mouse Adipokine Magnetic Bead Panel kit. Fecal microbiota transplantation experiments from adult and aged mice into young germ-free mice were carried out in order to examine the effect of the gut microbiome of adult and aging mice on weight, body composition, insulin, and leptin.

RESULTS: We demonstrate that the microbiomes from adult and aged mice are distinguishable. We also report changes in metabolic parameters as we observed significantly higher weight and fat mass and low lean mass in aged compared to adult mice along with high insulin and leptin levels in the blood. The transplanted gut microbiome from aged mice transferred part of the phenotypes seen in aged mice. Fat body mass and insulin levels were higher in the mice who received feces from aged mice than mice receiving feces from adult mice. In addition, they consumed more food and had a higher respiratory quotient compared to mice receiving adult feces.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that aged mice have a gut microbiota with obesogenic characteristics. In addition, the gut bacterial population itself is sufficient to induce some of the manifestations of obesity.

RevDate: 2020-10-13
CmpDate: 2020-10-13

Zheng YM, He XX, Xia HH, et al (2020)

Multi-donor multi-course faecal microbiota transplantation relieves the symptoms of chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctitis: A case report.

Medicine, 99(39):e22298.

RATIONALE: There are many treatments for chronic hemorrhagic radiation colorectal inflammation, but only a few treatments are supported by high-quality research evidence. Studies have shown that the occurrence and development of radiation proctitis are closely associated with the intestinal flora. Animal studies have indicated that faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can improve radiation enteropathy in a mouse model.

PATIENT CONCERNS: A 45-year-old female patient suffered from recurrent hematochezia and diarrhea for half a year after radiotherapy and underwent recurrent transfusion treatments. Colonoscopy showed obvious congestion of the sigmoid colon and rectal mucosa, a smooth surface, and bleeding that was easily induced by touch, which are consistent with radiation proctitis. The pathological findings revealed chronic mucosal inflammation. The magnetic resonance imaging examination of the pelvic cavity with a plain scan and enhancement showed changes after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and no obvious tumor recurrence or metastasis was found. The laboratory examinations excluded pathogen infection.

DIAGNOSES: Based on the history and examinations, the final diagnosis of this patient was chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctitis.

INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with a total of 4 individual courses of FMT.

OUTCOMES: After the six-month follow-up, her hematochezia, abdominal pain and diarrhea were relieved. Furthermore, 16S rRNA sequencing of the feces showed that the intestinal bacterial composition of the patient obviously changed after FMT and became similar to that of the donors.

LESSONS: This case report shows that FMT can relieve the symptoms of hematochezia and diarrhea by changing the bacterial community structure in patients with chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctitis.

RevDate: 2020-10-12

Gerdes LA, Yoon H, A Peters (2020)

[Microbiota and multiple sclerosis].

Der Nervenarzt pii:10.1007/s00115-020-01012-w [Epub ahead of print].

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system driven by autoreactive lymphocytes. Due to its close contact with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the intestinal microbiota and/or their metabolites may be one of the factors that influence the activation of autoreactive lymphocytes. This article summarizes and discusses the current research efforts to characterize the microbiome of MS patients using human material. In addition, we present research studies that utilized classical or humanized animal models to determine the influence of certain microbiota species or compositions of microbiota on the immune system and disease progression and to define possible causal associations.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Xu Y, Wang N, Tan HY, et al (2020)

Panax notoginseng saponins modulate the gut microbiota to promote thermogenesis and beige adipocyte reconstruction via leptin-mediated AMPKα/STAT3 signaling in diet-induced obesity.

Theranostics, 10(24):11302-11323.

Background: Activation of the thermogenic program in white and brown adipocytes presents a promising avenue for increasing energy expenditure during the treatment of obesity. The endogenous mechanism for promoting thermogenesis in brown adipocytes or browning in white adipocytes has indicated that the gut microbiota is a crucial regulator of the host energy balance. However, whether the effects of the therapeutic intervention-induced modulation of the gut microbiota on adipocyte browning involved the regulation of leptin remains unclear. Method: The adipose features were analyzed by body composition analysis, infrared camera observations, transmission electron microscopy and H&E staining. The gene and protein expression in adipose tissue were detected by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. The gut microbiome signature was identified by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and both mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and mice with antibiotics-induced microbiome depletion were subjected to fecal microbiota transplantation. Results: Treatment with Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) shaped the murine gut microbiome by increasing the abundances of Akkermansia muciniphila and Parabacteroides distasonis, and as a result, DIO mice harbored a distal gut microbiota with a significantly increased capacity to reduce host adiposity. The PNS-induced modulation of the gut microbiota in DIO mice could increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and beige adipocyte reconstruction by activating the leptin-AMPK/STAT3 signaling pathway, which results in the promotion of energy expenditure. Leptin has an essential influence on the anti-obesity effects of PNS. In cases of leptin deficiency, the PNS-induced modulation of the gut microbiota exerts negative effects on thermogenesis and browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), which indicates that PNS fail to reduce obesity in leptin gene-deficient mice. The PNS-induced modulation of the gut microbiota exerted a minimal effect on DIO mice with antibiotic-induced microbiome depletion, which confirmed the correlation between altered gut microbiota and the remodeling of adipose tissues in DIO mice. The direct influence of leptin on browning via the AMPKα/STAT3 signaling pathway in C3H101/2 cells supported our in vivo results that signalling through the leptin-AMPK/STAT3 pathway induced by the PNS-modulated gut microbiota was involved in beige adipocyte reconstruction. Conclusion: Our results revealed that leptin signaling is critical for alterations in microbiota-fat crosstalk and provide promising avenues for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of obesity.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Macpherson ME, Hov JR, Ueland T, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota-Dependent Trimethylamine N-Oxide Associates With Inflammation in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:574500.

A substantial proportion of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have inflammatory and autoimmune complications of unknown etiology. We have previously shown that systemic inflammation in CVID correlates with their gut microbial dysbiosis. The gut microbiota dependent metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to several metabolic and inflammatory disorders, but has hitherto not been investigated in relation to CVID. We hypothesized that TMAO is involved in systemic inflammation in CVID. To explore this, we measured plasma concentrations of TMAO, inflammatory markers, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 104 CVID patients and 30 controls. Gut microbiota profiles and the bacterial genes CutC and CntA, which encode enzymes that can convert dietary metabolites to trimethylamine in the colon, were examined in fecal samples from 40 CVID patients and 86 controls. Furthermore, a food frequency questionnaire and the effect of oral antibiotic rifaximin on plasma TMAO concentrations were explored in these 40 patients. We found CVID patients to have higher plasma concentrations of TMAO than controls (TMAO 5.0 [2.9-8.6] vs. 3.2 [2.2-6.3], p = 0.022, median with IQR). The TMAO concentration correlated positively with tumor necrosis factor (p = 0.008, rho = 0.26), interleukin-12 (p = 0.012, rho = 0.25) and LPS (p = 0.034, rho = 0.21). Dietary intake of meat (p = 0.678), fish (p = 0.715), egg (p = 0.138), dairy products (p = 0.284), and fiber (p = 0.767) did not significantly impact on the TMAO concentrations in plasma, nor did a 2-week course of the oral antibiotic rifaximin (p = 0.975). However, plasma TMAO concentrations correlated positively with gut microbial abundance of Gammaproteobacteria (p = 0.021, rho = 0.36). Bacterial gene CntA was present in significantly more CVID samples (75%) than controls (53%), p = 0.020, potentially related to the increased abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in these samples. The current study demonstrates that elevated TMAO concentrations are associated with systemic inflammation and increased gut microbial abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in CVID patients, suggesting that TMAO could be a link between gut microbial dysbiosis and systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota composition could thus be a potential therapeutic target to reduce systemic inflammation in CVID.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Tan P, Li X, Shen J, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Update.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 11:574533.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has successfully been applied for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), which has led to studies on its application to other gastrointestinal diseases and extraintestinal diseases associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Recently, the results of FMT for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been encouraging. However, studies have not fully clarified the clinical application of this emerging therapy. Here, we aimed to review the current knowledge in this fast-growing field and characterize the effectiveness, safety and mechanisms of FMT for the treatment of IBD patients.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Li X, Lin Y, Li X, et al (2020)

Tyrosine supplement ameliorates murine aGVHD by modulation of gut microbiome and metabolome.

EBioMedicine, 61:103048 pii:S2352-3964(20)30424-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities and their metabolic components in the gut are of vital importance for immune homeostasis and have an influence on the susceptibility of the host to a number of immune-mediated diseases like acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, little is known about the functional connections between microbiome and metabolome in aGVHD due to the complexity of the gastrointestinal environment.

METHOD: Initially, gut microbiota and fecal metabolic phenotype in aGVHD murine models were unleashed by performing 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based metabolomics.

FINDINGS: The group with aGVHD experienced a significant drop in Lachnospiraceae_unclassified but an increase in the relative abundance of Clostridium XI, Clostridium XIVa and Enterococcus. Meanwhile, a lower content of tyrosine was observed in the gut of aGVHD mice. The correlation analysis revealed that tyrosine-related metabolites were inversely correlated with Clostridium XIVa, besides, Blautia and Enterococcus also displayed the negative tendency in aGVHD condition. Apart from exploring the importance and function of tyrosine, different tyrosine diets were offered to mice during transplantation. Additional tyrosine supplements can improve overall survival, ameliorate symptoms at the early stage of aGVHD and change the structure and composition of gut microbiota and fecal metabolic phenotype. In addition, aGVHD mice deprived from tyrosine displayed worse manifestations than the vehicle diet group.

INTERPRETATION: The results demonstrated the roles and mechanisms of gut microbiota, indispensable metabolites and tyrosine in the progression of aGVHD, which can be an underlying biomarker for aGVHD diagnosis and treatment.

FUNDING: This research was funded by the International Cooperation and Exchange Program (81520108002), the National Key R&D Program of China, Stem Cell and Translation Research (2018YFA0109300), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81670169, 81670148, 81870080 and 91949115) and Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LQ19H080006).

RevDate: 2020-10-09

Brown EG, SM Goldman (2020)

Modulation of the Microbiome in Parkinson's Disease: Diet, Drug, Stool Transplant, and Beyond.

Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics pii:10.1007/s13311-020-00942-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The gastrointestinal microbiome is altered in Parkinson's disease and likely plays a key role in its pathophysiology, affecting symptoms and response to therapy and perhaps modifying progression or even disease initiation. Gut dysbiosis therefore has a significant potential as a therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease, a condition elusive to disease-modifying therapy thus far. The gastrointestinal environment hosts a complex ecology, and efforts to modulate the relative abundance or function of established microorganisms are still in their infancy. Still, these techniques are being rapidly developed and have important implications for our understanding of Parkinson's disease. Currently, modulation of the microbiome can be achieved through non-pharmacologic means such as diet, pharmacologically through probiotic, prebiotic, or antibiotic use and procedurally through fecal transplant. Novel techniques being explored include the use of small molecules or genetically engineered organisms, with vast potential. Here, we review how some of these approaches have been used to date, important areas of ongoing research, and how microbiome modulation may play a role in the clinical management of Parkinson's disease in the future.

RevDate: 2020-10-10

Nie X, Chen J, Ma X, et al (2020)

A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiome and visceral fat accumulation.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 18:2596-2609.

Purpose: Visceral fat is an independent risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The study aimed to investigate the associations between gut microbiome and visceral fat.

Methods: We recruited 32 obese adults and 30 healthy controls at baseline. Among the obese subjects, 14 subjects underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and were followed 6 months after surgery. Abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Waist, hipline, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) were included as simple obese parameters. Gut microbiome was analyzed by metagenomic sequencing.

Results: Among the obese parameters, VFA had the largest number of correlations with the species that were differentially enriched between obese and healthy subjects, following by waist, WHR, BMI, hipline, and SFA. Within the species negatively correlated with VFA, Eubacterium eligens had the strongest correlation, following by Clostridium citroniae, C. symbiosum, Bacteroides uniformis, E. ventriosum, Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16, C. hathewayi, etc. C. hathewayi and C. citroniae were increased after LSG. Functional analyses showed that among all the obese parameters, VFA had strongest correlation coefficients with the obesity-related microbial pathways. Microbial pathways involved in carbohydrate fermentation and biosynthesis of L-glutamate and L-glutamine might contribute to visceral fat accumulation.

Conclusions: Visceral fat was more closely correlated with gut microbiome compared with subcutaneous fat, suggesting an intrinsic connection between gut microbiome and metabolic cardiovascular diseases. Specific microbial species and pathways which were closely associated with visceral fat accumulation might contribute to new targeted therapies for metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Arnoriaga-Rodríguez M, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Burokas A, et al (2020)

Obesity Impairs Short-Term and Working Memory through Gut Microbial Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids.

Cell metabolism, 32(4):548-560.e7.

The gut microbiome has been linked to fear extinction learning in animal models. Here, we aimed to explore the gut microbiome and memory domains according to obesity status. A specific microbiome profile associated with short-term memory, working memory, and the volume of the hippocampus and frontal regions of the brain differentially in human subjects with and without obesity. Plasma and fecal levels of aromatic amino acids, their catabolites, and vegetable-derived compounds were longitudinally associated with short-term and working memory. Functionally, microbiota transplantation from human subjects with obesity led to decreased memory scores in mice, aligning this trait from humans with that of recipient mice. RNA sequencing of the medial prefrontal cortex of mice revealed that short-term memory associated with aromatic amino acid pathways, inflammatory genes, and clusters of bacterial species. These results highlight the potential therapeutic value of targeting the gut microbiota for memory impairment, specifically in subjects with obesity.

RevDate: 2020-10-09

Wu YN, Zhang L, Chen T, et al (2020)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor protects mice against hepatocellular carcinoma by ameliorating intestinal dysbiosis and attenuating inflammation.

World journal of gastroenterology, 26(36):5420-5436.

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The gut microbiota can help maintain healthy metabolism and immunity. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a critical factor in promoting health and homeostasis; it promotes intestinal immunity, stimulates bone marrow precursors to generate macrophage colonies, and enhances the antibacterial and antitumor activity of circulating monocytes. As such, GM-CSF may protect against HCC development by regulating immunity as well as intestinal microecology.

AIM: To investigate the impact of GM-CSF on the gut microbiome and metabolic characteristics of HCC.

METHODS: Thirty-six male BALB/c nude mice were divided into three groups: Control (n = 10), HCC (n = 13), and HCC + GM-CSF (GM-CSF overexpression, n = 13). We utilized HCC cells to establish orthotopic transplantation tumor models of HCC with normal and over-expressing GM-CSF. Liver injury, immune inflammatory function and intestinal barrier function were evaluated. The fecal microbiome and metabolome were studied using 16S rRNA absolute quantification sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: GM-CSF overexpression significantly affected the gut microbiome of mice with HCC and resulted in a high abundance of organisms of the genera Roseburia, Blautia and Butyricimonass, along with a significant reduction in Prevotella, Parabacteroides, Anaerotruncus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, and Mucispirillum. Likewise, GM-CSF overexpression resulted in a substantial increase in fecal biotin and oleic acid levels, along with a prominent decrease in the fecal succinic acid, adenosine, fumaric acid, lipoic acid, and maleic acid levels. Correlation analysis revealed that the intestinal microbiota and fecal metabolites induced by GM-CSF were primarily involved in pathways related to reducing the inflammatory response, biotin metabolism, and intestinal barrier dysfunction.

CONCLUSION: GM-CSF can protect against HCC development by regulating immunity and modulating the abundance of specific intestinal microorganisms and their metabolites. This study provides new insights into the therapeutic approaches for HCC.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Qureshi F, Adams J, Hanagan K, et al (2020)

Multivariate Analysis of Fecal Metabolites from Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Gastrointestinal Symptoms before and after Microbiota Transfer Therapy.

Journal of personalized medicine, 10(4): pii:jpm10040152.

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) holds significant promise for patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Prior work has demonstrated that plasma metabolite profiles of children with ASD become more similar to those of their typically developing (TD) peers following this treatment. This work measures the concentration of 669 biochemical compounds in feces of a cohort of 18 ASD and 20 TD children using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Subsequent measurements were taken from the ASD cohort over the course of 10-week Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT) and 8 weeks after completion of this treatment. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis techniques were used to characterize differences in metabolites before, during, and after treatment. Using Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA), it was possible to attain multivariate metabolite models capable of achieving a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 95% after cross-validation. Observations made following MTT indicate that the fecal metabolite profiles become more like those of the TD cohort. There was an 82-88% decrease in the median difference of the ASD and TD group for the panel metabolites, and among the top fifty most discriminating individual metabolites, 96% report more comparable values following treatment. Thus, these findings are similar, although less pronounced, as those determined using plasma metabolites.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Jung CY, JM Bae (2020)

Pathophysiology and protective approaches of gut injury in critical illness.

Yeungnam University journal of medicine pii:yujm.2020.00703 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut is a complex organ that has played an important role in digestion, absorption, endocrine functions, and immunity. The gut mucosal barriers consist of the immunologic barrier and nonimmunologic barrier. During critical illnesses, the gut is susceptible to injury due to the induction of intestinal hyperpermeability. Gut hyperpermeability and barrier dysfunction may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Additionally, gut microbiota are altered during critical illnesses. The etiology of such microbiome alterations in critical illnesses is multifactorial. The interaction or systemic host defense modulation between distant organs and the gut microbiome is increasingly studied in disease research. No treatment modality exists to significantly enhance the gut epithelial integrity, permeability, or mucus layer in critically ill patients. However, multiple helpful approaches including clinical and preclinical strategies exist. Enteral nutrition is associated with an increased mucosal barrier in animal and human studies. The trophic effects of enteral nutrition might help to maintain the intestinal physiology, prevent atrophy of gut villi, reduce intestinal permeability, and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. The microbiome approach such as the use of probiotics, fecal microbial transplantation, and selective decontamination of the digestive tract has been suggested. However, its evidence does not have a high quality. To promote rapid hypertrophy of the small bowel, various factors have been reported, including the epidermal growth factor, membrane permeant inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, mucus surrogate, pharmacologic vagus nerve agonist, immune-enhancing diet, and glucagon-like peptide-2 as preclinical strategies. However, the evidence remains unclear.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Yu X, Lv K, Guan S, et al (2020)

Long-term exposure to phenanthrene at environmental-level induces intestinal dysbiosis and disrupted hepatic lipid metabolism in mice.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 268(Pt B):115738 pii:S0269-7491(20)36427-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Phenanthrene (Phe), among the most ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existing in nature and foodstuffs, has severe effects on hepatic lipids metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism involved is still unknown. For environmental chemicals can disturb intestinal microbiota, which plays a vital role in lipids metabolism, we hypothesized that oral exposure to Phe may disrupt the intestinal microbiota, leading to the induction of an abnormal inflammatory response and lipid metabolism dysfunction. Herein, male mice were orally exposed to Phe (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/kg/2d) for ten weeks and the results showed that long term exposure to Phe induced significant alteration in relative Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria abundance in male mice. Histopathological anomalies, and significantly increased hepatic levels of free fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride were observed as well. The expression of hepatic proteins linked to lipid metabolism including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver X receptor β (LXRβ) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) were upregulated. The importance of the gut microbiota in Phe-altered lipid metabolism disorder was further confirmed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). FMT intervention boosted microbial diversity and attenuated Phe-induced elevation in liver somatic index and hepatic total lipids levels. These results demonstrated that environmental-level Phe altered the composition of gastrointestinal bacteria and subsequently induced hepatic lipid metabolism disorder. These results would be helpful for understanding the health risk posed by Phe.

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ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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