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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2023 at 01:46 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: ( symbiosis[tiab] OR symbiotic[tiab] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-05-28

Gong X, Ge Z, Ma Z, et al (2023)

Effect of different size microplastic particles on the construction of algal-bacterial biofilms and microbial communities.

Journal of environmental management, 343:118246 pii:S0301-4797(23)01034-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Algal-bacterial symbiotic system is a biological purification system that combines sewage treatment with resource utilization and has the dual effects of carbon sequestration and pollution reduction. In this study, an immobilized algal-bacterial biofilm system was constructed for the treatment of natural sewage. Effects of exposure to microplastics (MPs) with different particle diameters (0.065 μm, 0.5 μm and 5 μm) were determined in terms of algal biomass recovery efficiency, the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and morphologic characteristics. The impacts of MPs on the bacterial diversity and community structure of biofilms were also examined. The metagenomic analysis of key microorganisms and related metabolism pathways involved in system was further investigated. Results showed that following exposure to 5 μm MP, a maximum algal recovery efficiency of 80% was achieved, with a minimum PSII primary light energy conversion efficiency (Fv/Fm ratio) of 0.513. Furthermore, 5 μm MP caused the highest level of damage to the algal-bacterial biofilm, enhancing the secretion of protein-rich EPS. The biofilm morphology became rough and loose following exposure to 0.5 μm and 5 μm MP. Community diversity and richness were significantly high in biofilms exposed to 5 μm MP. Proteobacteria (15.3-24.1%), Firmicutes (5.0-7.8%) and Actinobacteria (4.2-4.9%) were dominant in all groups, with exposure to 5 μm MP resulting in the highest relative abundance for these species. The addition of MPs promoted the related metabolic functions while inhibited the degradation of harmful substances by algal-bacterial biofilms. The findings have environmental significance for the practical application of algal-bacterial biofilms for sewage treatment, providing novel insights into the potential effects of MPs on immobilized algal-bacterial biofilm systems.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Abdi N, Van Biljon A, Steyn C, et al (2023)

Zn Fertilizer and Mycorrhizal Inoculation Effect on Bread Wheat Cultivar Grown under Water Deficit.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(5): pii:life13051078.

During drought stress, many enzymes are inactivated in plants due to Zn deficiency. Zn application and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF)-wheat symbiosis reportedly improve the tolerance of plants to drought stress. This study was done to investigate the effect of Zn and AMF on plant growth, yield attributes, relative water content (RWC), harvest index (HI), photosynthetic activity, solute accumulation, glycine betaine (GB) accumulation, antioxidant activities [(catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)], and ionic attributes in a bread wheat cultivar (SST806) under drought-stress in plants grown under greenhouse conditions. Zn application and AMF inoculation, separately and combined, enhanced all plant growth parameters and yield. Root dry weight (RDW) was increased by 25, 30, and 46% for these three treatments, respectively, under drought conditions compared to the control treatment. Overall, Zn application, AMF inoculation, and their combination increased protein content, RWC, and harvest index (HI) under drought stress. However, AMF inoculation improved proline content more than Zn application under the same conditions. Regarding GB accumulation, AMF, Zn, and the combination of Zn and AMF increased GB under drought compared to well-watered conditions by 31.71, 10.36, and 70.70%, respectively. For the antioxidant defense, AMF inoculation and Zn application improved SOD and CAT activity by 58 and 56%, respectively. This study showed that Zn and/or AMF increased antioxidant levels and ionic attributes under abiotic stress.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Zuccaro V, Ponziani FR, R Bruno (2023)

Editorial of Special Issues "Gut Microbiota-Host Interactions: From Symbiosis to Dysbiosis 2.0".

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108977.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is where external agents meet the internal environment [...].

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Jia Y, Y Li (2023)

Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of RALF Gene Family in Legume and Non-Legume Species.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108842.

Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) are small secreted peptide hormones that can induce rapid alkalinization in a medium. They act as signaling molecules in plants, playing a critical role in plant development and growth, especially in plant immunity. Although the function of RALF peptides has been comprehensively analyzed, the evolutionary mechanism of RALFs in symbiosis has not been studied. In this study, 41, 24, 17 and 12 RALFs were identified in Arabidopsis, soybean, Lotus and Medicago, respectively. A comparative analysis including the molecular characteristics and conserved motifs suggested that the RALF pre-peptides in soybean represented a higher value of isoelectric point and more conservative motifs/residues composition than other species. All 94 RALFs were divided into two clades according to the phylogenetic analysis. Chromosome distribution and synteny analysis suggested that the expansion of the RALF gene family in Arabidopsis mainly depended on tandem duplication, while segment duplication played a dominant role in legume species. The expression levels of most RALFs in soybean were significantly affected by the treatment of rhizobia. Seven GmRALFs are potentially involved in the release of rhizobia in the cortex cells. Overall, our research provides novel insights into the understanding of the role of the RALF gene family in nodule symbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Mohammad Aslam S, Vass I, M Szabó (2023)

Characterization of the Flash-Induced Fluorescence Wave Phenomenon in the Coral Endosymbiont Algae, Symbiodiniaceae.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108712.

The dinoflagellate algae, Symbiodiniaceae, are significant symbiotic partners of corals due to their photosynthetic capacity. The photosynthetic processes of the microalgae consist of linear electron transport, which provides the energetic balance of ATP and NADPH production for CO2 fixation, and alternative electron transport pathways, including cyclic electron flow, which ensures the elevated ATP requirements under stress conditions. Flash-induced chlorophyll fluorescence relaxation is a non-invasive tool to assess the various electron transport pathways. A special case of fluorescence relaxation, the so-called wave phenomenon, was found to be associated with the activity of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) in microalgae. We showed previously that the wave phenomenon existed in Symbiodiniaceae under acute heat stress and microaerobic conditions, however, the electron transport processes related to the wave phenomenon remained unknown. In this work, using various inhibitors, we show that (i) the linear electron transport has a crucial role in the formation of the wave, (ii) the inhibition of the donor side of Photosystem II did not induce the wave, whereas inhibition of the Calvin-Benson cycle accelerated it, (iii) the wave phenomenon was related to the operation of type II NDH (NDH-2). We therefore propose that the wave phenomenon is an important marker of the regulation of electron transport in Symbiodiniaceae.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Gorshkov AP, Kusakin PG, Borisov YG, et al (2023)

Effect of Triazole Fungicides Titul Duo and Vintage on the Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Nodules.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108646.

Triazole fungicides are widely used in agricultural production for plant protection, including pea (Pisum sativum L.). The use of fungicides can negatively affect the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. In this study, the effects of triazole fungicides Vintage and Titul Duo on nodule formation and, in particular, on nodule morphology, were studied. Both fungicides at the highest concentration decreased the nodule number and dry weight of the roots 20 days after inoculation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the following ultrastructural changes in nodules: modifications in the cell walls (their clearing and thinning), thickening of the infection thread walls with the formation of outgrowths, accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrates in bacteroids, expansion of the peribacteroid space, and fusion of symbiosomes. Fungicides Vintage and Titul Duo negatively affect the composition of cell walls, leading to a decrease in the activity of synthesis of cellulose microfibrils and an increase in the number of matrix polysaccharides of cell walls. The results obtained coincide well with the data of transcriptomic analysis, which revealed an increase in the expression levels of genes that control cell wall modification and defense reactions. The data obtained indicate the need for further research on the effects of pesticides on the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis in order to optimize their use.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Koshida K, Ito M, Yakabe K, et al (2023)

Dysfunction of Foxp3[+] Regulatory T Cells Induces Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota via Aberrant Binding of Immunoglobulins to Microbes in the Intestinal Lumen.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108549.

Foxp3[+] regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent excessive immune responses against dietary antigens and commensal bacteria in the intestine. Moreover, Treg cells contribute to the establishment of a symbiotic relationship between the host and gut microbes, partly through immunoglobulin A. However, the mechanism by which Treg cell dysfunction disturbs the balanced intestinal microbiota remains unclear. In this study, we used Foxp3 conditional knockout mice to conditionally ablate the Foxp3 gene in adult mice and examine the relationship between Treg cells and intestinal bacterial communities. Deletion of Foxp3 reduced the relative abundance of Clostridia, suggesting that Treg cells have a role in maintaining Treg-inducing microbes. Additionally, the knockout increased the levels of fecal immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin-coated bacteria. This increase was due to immunoglobulin leakage into the gut lumen as a result of loss of mucosal integrity, which is dependent on the gut microbiota. Our findings suggest that Treg cell dysfunction leads to gut dysbiosis via aberrant antibody binding to the intestinal microbes.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Bopape FL, Chiulele RM, Shonhai A, et al (2023)

The Genome of a Pigeonpea Compatible Rhizobial Strain '10ap3' Appears to Lack Common Nodulation Genes.

Genes, 14(5): pii:genes14051084.

The symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in root nodules of tropical legumes such as pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is a complex process, which is regulated by multiple genetic factors at the host plant genotype microsymbiont interface. The process involves multiple genes with various modes of action and is accomplished only when both organisms are compatible. Therefore, it is necessary to develop tools for the genetic manipulation of the host or bacterium towards improving N fixation. In this study, we sequenced the genome of a robust rhizobial strain, Rhizobium tropici '10ap3' that was compatible with pigeonpea, and we determined its genome size. The genome consisted of a large circular chromosome (6,297,373 bp) and contained 6013 genes of which 99.13% were coding sequences. However only 5833 of the genes were associated with proteins that could be assigned to specific functions. The genes for nitrogen, phosphorus and iron metabolism, stress response and the adenosine monophosphate nucleoside for purine conversion were present in the genome. However, the genome contained no common nod genes, suggesting that an alternative pathway involving a purine derivative was involved in the symbiotic association with pigeonpea.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Beck A, Casanova-Katny A, J Gerasimova (2023)

Metabarcoding of Antarctic Lichens from Areas with Different Deglaciation Times Reveals a High Diversity of Lichen-Associated Communities.

Genes, 14(5): pii:genes14051019.

Lichens have developed numerous adaptations to optimise their survival under harsh abiotic stress, colonise different substrates, and reach substantial population sizes and high coverage in ice-free Antarctic areas, benefiting from a symbiotic lifestyle. As lichen thalli represent consortia with an unknown number of participants, it is important to know about the accessory organisms and their relationships with various environmental conditions. To this end, we analysed lichen-associated communities from Himantormia lugubris, Placopsis antarctica, P. contortuplicata, and Ramalina terebrata, collected from soils with differing deglaciation times, using a metabarcoding approach. In general, many more Ascomycete taxa are associated with the investigated lichens compared to Basidiomycota. Given our sampling, a consistently higher number of lichen-associated eukaryotes are estimated to be present in areas with deglaciation times of longer than 5000 years compared to more recently deglaciated areas. Thus far, members of Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Arthoniomycetes have been restricted to the Placopsis specimens from areas with deglaciation times longer than 5000 years. Striking differences between the associated organisms of R. terebrata and H. lugubris have also been discovered. Thus, a species-specific basidiomycete, Tremella, was revealed for R. terebrata, as was a member of Capnodiales for H. lugubris. Our study provides further understanding of the complex terricolous lichen-associated mycobiome using the metabarcoding approach. It also illustrates the necessity to extend our knowledge of complex lichen symbiosis and further improve the coverage of microbial eukaryotes in DNA barcode libraries, including more extended sampling.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Duncan SH, Conti E, Ricci L, et al (2023)

Links between Diet, Intestinal Anaerobes, Microbial Metabolites and Health.

Biomedicines, 11(5): pii:biomedicines11051338.

A dense microbial community resides in the human colon, with considerable inter-individual variability in composition, although some species are relatively dominant and widespread in healthy individuals. In disease conditions, there is often a reduction in microbial diversity and perturbations in the composition of the microbiota. Dietary complex carbohydrates that reach the large intestine are important modulators of the composition of the microbiota and their primary metabolic outputs. Specialist gut bacteria may also transform plant phenolics to form a spectrum of products possessing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Consumption of diets high in animal protein and fat may lead to the formation of potentially deleterious microbial products, including nitroso compounds, hydrogen sulphide, and trimethylamine. Gut anaerobes also form a range of secondary metabolites, including polyketides that may possess antimicrobial activity and thus contribute to microbe-microbe interactions within the colon. The overall metabolic outputs of colonic microbes are derived from an intricate network of microbial metabolic pathways and interactions; however, much still needs to be learnt about the subtleties of these complex networks. In this review we consider the multi-faceted relationships between inter-individual microbiota variation, diet, and health.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Ribeiro LEGGT, Batista LDSP, Assis CF, et al (2023)

Potentially Synbiotic Yellow Mombin Beverages: Stability during Refrigerated Storage, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Sensory Properties.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:foods12101994.

This study aimed to develop potentially synbiotic yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) beverages added with fructooligosaccharides and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NRRL B-4496. Six formulations of yellow mombin beverages were prepared to measure the influence of fermentation and pH, which was adjustment to 4.5 for stability and quality parameters. Formulations were evaluated for probiotic survival, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic compounds (TPC), and antioxidant activity for 28 days at 4 °C. Additionally, the proximate composition, color, sensory aspects, and survival to simulated gastrointestinal conditions were studied. At 21 days of storage, the viability of L. plantarum was 9 CFU/mL for the fermented symbiotic (SYNf) and non-fermented symbiotic with adjusted pH (SYNa) formulations. In addition, the fermented synbiotic with an adjusted pH beverage (SYNfA) showed a count of 8.2 log CFU/mL at 28 days. The formulations showed a high TPC (234-431 mg GAE/L), antioxidant activity (48-75 µM trolox), and a potential use as low-calorie beverages. The SYNf formulation showed an acceptability index higher than 70% and a high purchase intent. The SYNf and SYNa formulations maintained suitable probiotic counts after exposure to the simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, it was possible to develop a new potentially synbiotic yellow mombin beverage with a high sensory acceptance, supplying the market with a new functional food alternative.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

van Wyk N, Binder J, Ludszuweit M, et al (2023)

The Influence of Pichia kluyveri Addition on the Aroma Profile of a Kombucha Tea Fermentation.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:foods12101938.

Traditional kombucha is a functional tea-based drink that has gained attention as a low or non-alcoholic beverage. The fermentation is conducted by a community of different microorganisms, collectively called SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast) and typically consists of different acetic acid bacteria and fermenting yeast, and in some cases lactic acid bacteria that would convert the sugars into organic acids-mostly acetic acid. In this study, the effect of including a Pichia kluyveri starter culture in a kombucha fermentation was investigated. P. kluyveri additions led to a quicker accumulation of acetic acid along with the production of several acetate esters including isoamyl acetate and 2-phenethyl acetate. A subsequent tasting also noted a significant increase in the fruitiness of the kombucha. The significant contribution to the aroma content shows the promise of this yeast in future microbial formulations for kombucha fermentations.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

De Sousa BFS, Domingo-Serrano L, Salinero-Lanzarote A, et al (2023)

The T6SS-Dependent Effector Re78 of Rhizobium etli Mim1 Benefits Bacterial Competition.

Biology, 12(5): pii:biology12050678.

The genes of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) from Rhizobium etli Mim1 (ReMim1) that contain possible effectors can be divided into three modules. The mutants in them indicated that they are not required for effective nodulation with beans. To analyze T6SS expression, a putative promoter region between the tssA and tssH genes was fused in both orientations to a reporter gene. Both fusions are expressed more in free living than in symbiosis. When the module-specific genes were studied using RT-qPCR, a low expression was observed in free living and in symbiosis, which was clearly lower than the structural genes. The secretion of Re78 protein from the T6SS gene cluster was dependent on the presence of an active T6SS. Furthermore, the expression of Re78 and Re79 proteins in E. coli without the ReMim1 nanosyringe revealed that these proteins behave as a toxic effector/immunity protein pair (E/I). The harmful action of Re78, whose mechanism is still unknown, would take place in the periplasmic space of the target cell. The deletion of this ReMim1 E/I pair resulted in reduced competitiveness for bean nodule occupancy and in lower survival in the presence of the wild-type strain.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Pezzino S, Sofia M, Mazzone C, et al (2023)

Gut Microbiome in the Progression of NAFLD, NASH and Cirrhosis, and Its Connection with Biotics: A Bibliometric Study Using Dimensions Scientific Research Database.

Biology, 12(5): pii:biology12050662.

There is growing evidence that gut microbiota dysbiosis is linked to the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), from the initial stage of disease until the progressive stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the final stage of cirrhosis. Conversely, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have shown promise in restoring dysbiosis and lowering clinical indicators of disease in a number of both preclinical and clinical studies. Additionally, postbiotics and parabiotics have recently garnered some attention. The purpose of this bibliometric analysis is to assess recent publishing trends concerning the role of the gut microbiome in the progression of NAFLD, NASH and cirrhosis and its connection with biotics. The free access version of the Dimensions scientific research database was used to find publications in this field from 2002 to 2022. VOSviewer and Dimensions' integrated tools were used to analyze current research trends. Research into the following topics is expected to emerge in this field: (1) evaluation of risk factors which are correlated with the progression of NAFLD, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; (2) pathogenic mechanisms, such as liver inflammation through toll-like receptors activation, or alteration of short-chain fatty acids metabolisms, which contribute to NAFLD development and its progression in more severe forms, such as cirrhosis; (3) therapy for cirrhosis through dysbiosis reduction, and research on hepatic encephalopathy a common consequence of cirrhosis; (4) evaluation of diversity, and composition of gut microbiome under NAFLD, and as it varies under NASH and cirrhosis by rRNA gene sequencing, a tool which can also be used for the development of new probiotics and explore into the impact of biotics on the gut microbiome; (5) treatments to reduce dysbiosis with new probiotics, such as Akkermansia, or with fecal microbiome transplantation.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Jeon YJ, Gil CH, Won J, et al (2023)

Symbiotic microbiome Staphylococcus epidermidis restricts IL-33 production in allergic nasal epithelium via limiting the cellular necroptosis.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):154.

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterized by airway inflammation in nasal mucosa from inhaled allergens and interleukin (IL)-33 is the potent inducer of Th2 inflammation in allergic nasal epithelium. Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most abundant colonizers of the healthy human nasal mucosa and might impact the allergen-induced inflammatory responses in the nasal epithelium. Thus, we sought to characterize the mechanism of S. epidermidis regulating Th2 inflammation and IL-33 production in AR nasal mucosa.

RESULTS: The AR symptoms were alleviated and eosinophilic infiltration, serum IgE levels, and Th2 cytokines were significantly decreased in OVA-sensitized AR mice in response to human nasal commensal S. epidermidis. The inoculation of S. epidermidis to normal human nasal epithelial cells reduced IL-33 and GATA3 transcriptions and also reduced IL-33 and GATA3 expression in AR nasal epithelial (ARNE) cells and the nasal mucosa of AR mice. Our data exhibited that the cellular necroptosis of ARNE cells might be involved in IL-33 production and inoculation of S. epidermidis decreased the phosphorylation of necroptosis enzymes in ARNE cells, which was related to the reduction of IL-33 production.

CONCLUSIONS: We present that human nasal commensal S. epidermidis reduces allergic inflammation by suppressing IL-33 production in nasal epithelium. Our findings indicate that S. epidermidis serves a role in blocking allergen-induced cellular necroptosis in allergic nasal epithelium which might be a key mechanism of reduction of IL-33 and Th2 inflammation.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Chen YP, Li SK, An B, et al (2023)

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae and extraradical mycelium of subtropical tree species on soil nitrogen mineralization and enzyme activities.

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 34(5):1235-1243.

Through symbiosis with plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi effectively improve the availability of soil nitrogen (N). However, the mechanism through which AM and associated extraradical mycelium affect soil N mineralization remains unknow. We carried out an in situ soil culture experiment by using in-growth cores in plantations of three subtropical tree species, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Schima superba, and Liquidambar formosana. We measured soil physical and chemical properties, net N mineralization rate, and the activities of four kinds of hydrolase (leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), β-1,4-glucosidase (βG), cellobiohydrolase (CB)) and two kinds of oxidases (polyphenol oxidase (POX) and peroxidase (PER)) involved in soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization in treatments of mycorrhiza (with absorbing roots and hyphae), hyphae (hyphae only), and control (mycorrhiza-free). The results showed that mycorrhizal treatments significantly affected soil total carbon and pH but did not affect N mineralization rates and all enzymatic activities. Tree species significantly affected net ammonification rate, net N mineralization rate and activities of NAG, βG, CB, POX and PER. The net N mineralization rate and enzyme activities in the C. lanceolata stand were significantly higher than that in monoculture broad-leaved stands of either S. superba or L. formosana. There was no interactive effect of mycorrhizal treatment and tree species on any of soil properties, nor on enzymatic activities or net N mineralization rates. Soil pH was negatively and significantly correlated with five kinds of enzymatic activities except for LAP, while net N mineralization rate significantly correlated with ammonium nitrogen content, available phosphorus content, and the activity level of βG, CB, POX, and PER. In conclusion, there was no difference in enzymatic activities and N mineralization rates between rhizosphere and hyphosphere soils of three subtropical tree species in the whole growing season. The activity of particular carbon cycle-related enzymes was closely related to soil N mineralization rate. It is suggested that differences in litter quality and root functional traits among different tree species affect soil enzyme activities and N mineralization rates through organic matter inputs and shaping soil condition.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Kise H, Nishijima M, Iguchi A, et al (2023)

A new hexactinellid-sponge-associated zoantharian (Porifera, Hexasterophora) from the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

ZooKeys, 1156:71-85 pii:96698.

Symbiotic associations between zoantharians and sponges can be divided into two groups: those that associate with Demospongiae and those that associate with Hexactinellida. Parachurabanashinseimaruae Kise, gen. nov. et sp. nov., a new genus and a new species of Hexactinellida-associated zoantharian from Japanese waters, is described. It is characterized by a combination of the following: i) its host hexactinellid sponge, ii) very flat polyps, iii) cteniform endodermal marginal muscles, and iv) characteristic mutations in three mitochondrial regions (including a unique 26-bp deletion in 16S ribosomal DNA) and three nuclear regions. Parachurabanashinseimaruae Kise, gen. nov. et sp. nov. is the third genus in the family Parazoanthidae that is reported to be associated with Hexasterophora sponges. Although specimens have so far only been collected on Takuyo-Daigo Seamount off Minami-Torishima Island in Japan, unidentified zoantharians of similar description have been reported from the waters around Australia, indicating that the species might be widespread across the Pacific.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

LaPolla JS, SA Schneider (2023)

Trophobiosis between a new species of Acropyga (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and new Neochavesia (Hemiptera, Xenococcidae) from Peru, and establishment of the Acropygasmithii species-group.

ZooKeys, 1154:1-16 pii:97578.

We describe a new pair of trophobiotic partners from the ant genus Acropyga and the root mealybug genus Neochavesia. A recent field study on Acropyga ants and associated root mealybugs, conducted in the Peruvian Amazon, led to the discovery of Acropygamanuense LaPolla & Schneider, sp. nov. and its root mealybug symbiont Neochavesiapodexuta Schneider & LaPolla, sp. nov. The new root mealybug belongs to the family Xenococcidae, whose members are all obligate associates of Acropyga ants. Providing joint descriptions of new mutualist partners in the same article is a novel approach for this system, and it offers benefits to the ongoing study of mutualism and patterns of association among these symbiotic ants and scales. Here, we also begin to revise the species-group composition of Acropyga by establishing the smithii species-group, and we provide updated information to aid in identifying the new ant species and root mealybug species.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Ueno Y, S Akimoto (2023)

Long-term light adaptation of light-harvesting and energy-transfer processes in the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa under different light conditions.

Photosynthesis research [Epub ahead of print].

In response to fluctuation in light intensity and quality, oxygenic photosynthetic organisms modify their light-harvesting and excitation energy-transfer processes to maintain optimal photosynthetic activity. Glaucophytes, which are a group of primary symbiotic algae, possess light-harvesting antennas called phycobilisomes (PBSs) consistent with cyanobacteria and red algae. However, compared with cyanobacteria and red algae, glaucophytes are poorly studied and there are few reports on the regulation of photosynthesis in the group. In this study, we examined the long-term light adaptation of light-harvesting functions in a glaucophyte, Cyanophora paradoxa, grown under different light conditions. Compared with cells grown under white light, the relative number of PBSs to photosystems (PSs) increased in blue-light-grown cells and decreased in green-, yellow-, and red-light-grown cells. Moreover, the PBS number increased with increment in the monochromatic light intensity. More energy was transferred from PBSs to PSII than to PSI under blue light, whereas energy transfer from PBSs to PSII was reduced under green and yellow lights, and energy transfer from the PBSs to both PSs decreased under red light. Decoupling of PBSs was induced by intense green, yellow, and red lights. Energy transfer from PSII to PSI (spillover) was observed, but the contribution of the spillover did not distinctly change depending on the culture light intensity and quality. These results suggest that the glaucophyte C. paradoxa modifies the light-harvesting abilities of both PSs and excitation energy-transfer processes between the light-harvesting antennas and both PSs during long-term light adaption.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

D'Agostino PM (2023)

Highlights of biosynthetic enzymes and natural products from symbiotic cyanobacteria.

Natural product reports [Epub ahead of print].

Covering: up to 2023Cyanobacteria have long been known for their intriguing repertoire of natural product scaffolds, which are often distinct from other phyla. Cyanobacteria are ecologically significant organisms that form a myriad of different symbioses including with sponges and ascidians in the marine environment or with plants and fungi, in the form of lichens, in terrestrial environments. Whilst there have been several high-profile discoveries of symbiotic cyanobacterial natural products, genomic data is scarce and discovery efforts have remained limited. However, the rise of (meta-)genomic sequencing has improved these efforts, emphasized by a steep increase in publications in recent years. This highlight focuses on selected examples of symbiotic cyanobacterial-derived natural products and their biosyntheses to link chemistry with corresponding biosynthetic logic. Further highlighted are remaining gaps in knowledge for the formation of characteristic structural motifs. It is anticipated that the continued rise of (meta-)genomic next-generation sequencing of symbiontic cyanobacterial systems will lead to many exciting discoveries in the future.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Lauritano C, C Galasso (2023)

Microbial Interactions between Marine Microalgae and Fungi: From Chemical Ecology to Biotechnological Possible Applications.

Marine drugs, 21(5): pii:md21050310.

Chemical interactions have been shown to regulate several marine life processes, including selection of food sources, defense, behavior, predation, and mate recognition. These chemical communication signals have effects not only at the individual scale, but also at population and community levels. This review focuses on chemical interactions between marine fungi and microalgae, summarizing studies on compounds synthetized when they are cultured together. In the current study, we also highlight possible biotechnological outcomes of the synthetized metabolites, mainly for human health applications. In addition, we discuss applications for bio-flocculation and bioremediation. Finally, we point out the necessity of further investigating microalgae-fungi chemical interactions because it is a field still less explored compared to microalga-bacteria communication and, considering the promising results obtained until now, it is worthy of further research for scientific advancement in both ecology and biotechnology fields.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Ahmad N, Ritz M, Calchera A, et al (2023)

Biosynthetic Potential of Hypogymnia Holobionts: Insights into Secondary Metabolite Pathways.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:jof9050546.

Lichens are symbiotic associations consisting of a photobiont (algae or cyanobacteria) and a mycobiont (fungus). They are known to produce a variety of unique secondary metabolites. To access this biosynthetic potential for biotechnological applications, deeper insights into the biosynthetic pathways and corresponding gene clusters are necessary. Here we provide a comprehensive view of the biosynthetic gene clusters of all organisms comprising a lichen thallus: fungi, green algae, and bacteria. We present two high-quality PacBio metagenomes, in which we identified a total of 460 biosynthetic gene clusters. Lichen mycobionts yielded 73-114 clusters, other lichen associated ascomycetes 8-40, green algae of the genus Trebouxia 14-19, and lichen-associated bacteria 101-105 clusters. The mycobionts contained mainly T1PKSs, followed by NRPSs, and terpenes; Trebouxia reads harbored mainly clusters linked to terpenes, followed by NRPSs and T3PKSs. Other lichen-associated ascomycetes and bacteria contained a mix of diverse biosynthetic gene clusters. In this study, we identified for the first time the biosynthetic gene clusters of entire lichen holobionts. The yet untapped biosynthetic potential of two species of the genus Hypogymnia is made accessible for further research.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Bento RA, de Novais CB, Saggin-Júnior OJ, et al (2023)

Pioneer Tree Bellucia imperialis (Melastomataceae) from Central Amazon with Seedlings Highly Dependent on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:jof9050540.

Bellucia imperialis is one of the most abundant pioneer tree species in anthropized areas of the Central Amazon, and has ecological importance for the environmental resilience of phosphorus (P)-depleted areas. Thus, we investigated whether B. imperialis depends on symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to grow and establish under the edaphic stresses of low nutrient content and low surface moisture retention capacity of the substrate. We tried three AMF inoculation treatments: (1) CON-no mycorrhizae; (2) MIX-with AMF from pure collection cultures, and (3) NAT-with native AMF, combined with five doses of P via a nutrient solution. All CON treatment seedlings died without AMF, showing the high mycorrhizal dependence of B. imperialis. Increasing P doses significantly decreased the leaf area and shoot and root biomass growth for both the NAT and MIX treatments. Increasing P doses did not affect spore number or mycorrhizal colonization, but decreased the diversity of AMF communities. Some species of the AMF community showed plasticity, enabling them to withstand shortages of and excess P. B. imperialis was shown to be sensitive to excess P, promiscuous, dependent on AMF, and tolerant of scarce nutritional resources, highlighting the need to inoculate seedlings to reforest impacted areas.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Oberemok VV, Gal'chinsky NV, Useinov RZ, et al (2023)

Four Most Pathogenic Superfamilies of Insect Pests of Suborder Sternorrhyncha: Invisible Superplunderers of Plant Vitality.

Insects, 14(5): pii:insects14050462.

Sternorrhyncha representatives are serious pests of agriculture and forestry all over the world, primarily causing damage to woody plants. Sternorrhyncha members are vectors for the transfer of a large number of viral diseases, and subsequently, the host plant weakens. Additionally, many are inherent in the release of honeydew, on which fungal diseases develop. Today, an innovative approach is needed to create new and effective ways to control the number of these insects based on environmentally friendly insecticides. Of particular relevance to such developments is the need to take into account the large number of organisms living together with insect pests in this group, including beneficial insects. Practically without changing their location on their host plant, they adopted to be more invisible and protected due to their small size, symbiosis with ants, the ability to camouflage with a leaf, and moderately deplete plants and others, rarely leading them to death but still causing substantial economic loss in the subtropics and tropics. Due to the lack of presence in the literature, this review fills in this pesky spot by examining (on the example of distinct species from four superfamilies) the characteristic adaptations for this suborder and the chemical methods of combating these insects that allow them to survive in various environmental conditions, suggesting new and highly promising ways of using olinscides for plant protection against Sternorrhyncha members.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Chou PA, Bain A, Chantarasuwan B, et al (2023)

Parasitism Features of a Fig Wasp of Genus Apocrypta (Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae) Associated with a Host Belonging to Ficus Subgenus Ficus.

Insects, 14(5): pii:insects14050437.

Non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs), particularly long-ovipositored Sycoryctina wasps, exhibit a high species specificity and exert complex ecological effects on the obligate mutualism between the plant genus Ficus and pollinating fig wasps. Apocrypta is a genus of NPFWs that mostly interacts with the Ficus species under the subgenus Sycomorus, and the symbiosis case between Apocrypta and F. pedunculosa var. mearnsii, a Ficus species under subgenus Ficus, is unique. As fig's internal environments and the wasp communities are distinct between the two subgenera, we addressed the following two questions: (1) Are the parasitism features of the Apocrypta wasp associated with F. pedunculosa var. mearnsii different from those of other congeneric species? (2) Is this Apocrypta species an efficient wasp that lives in its unique host? Our observation revealed that this wasp is an endoparasitic idiobiont parasitoid, as most congeneric species are, but developed a relatively long ovipositor. Furthermore, the relationships of the parasitism rate versus the pollinator number, the fig wall, and the sex ratio of the pollinator, respectively, showed that it possessed a higher parasitism ability than that of other congeners. However, its parasitism rate was low, and thus it was not an efficient wasp in its habitat. This difference between parasitism ability and parasitism rate might be a consequence of its oviposition strategy and the severe habitat conditions. These findings may also provide insights into the mechanism to maintain the interaction between the fig tree and the fig wasp community.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Huang Q, Feng Y, Shan HW, et al (2023)

A Novel Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Raoultella electrica Isolated from the Midgut of the Leafhopper Recilia dorsalis.

Insects, 14(5): pii:insects14050431.

Nitrogen is a crucial element for the growth and development of insects, but herbivorous insects often suffer from nitrogen nutrition deficiencies in their diets. Some symbiotic microorganisms can provide insect hosts with nitrogen nutrition through nitrogen fixation. Extensive research has clearly demonstrated the process of nitrogen fixation by symbiotic microorganisms in termites, while evidence supporting the occurrence and significance of nitrogen fixation in the diets of the Hemiptera is less conclusive. In this study, we isolated a strain of R. electrica from the digestive tract of a leafhopper, R. dorsalis, and found that it had nitrogen-fixing capabilities. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that it was located in the gut of the leafhopper. Genome sequencing revealed that R. electrica possessed all the genes required for nitrogen fixation. We further evaluated the growth rate of R. electrica in nitrogen-containing and nitrogen-free media and measured its nitrogenase activity through an acetylene reduction assay. The findings of these studies could shed light on how gut microbes contribute to our understanding of nitrogen fixation.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Wei Y, Su Y, Han X, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Transgenerational Effects of Sublethal Imidacloprid and Diversity of Symbiotic Bacteria on Acyrthosiphon gossypii.

Insects, 14(5): pii:insects14050427.

Symbiotic bacteria and hormesis in aphids are the driving forces for pesticide resistance. However, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the effects of imidacloprid on the population growth parameters and symbiotic bacterial communities of three successive generations of Acyrthosiphon gossypii were investigated. The bioassay results showed that imidacloprid had high toxicity to A. gossypii with an LC50 of 1.46 mg·L[-1]. The fecundity and longevity of the G0 generation of A. gossypii decreased when exposed to the LC15 of imidacloprid. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), and total reproductive rate (GRR) of G1 and G2 offspring were significantly increased, but those of the control and G3 offspring were not. In addition, sequencing data showed that the symbiotic bacteria of A. gossypii mainly belonged to Proteobacteria, with a relative abundance of 98.68%. The dominant genera of the symbiotic bacterial community were Buchnera and Arsenophonus. After treatment with the LC15 of imidacloprid, the diversity and species number of bacterial communities of A. gossypii decreased for G1-G3 and the abundance of Candidatus-Hamiltonella decreased, but Buchnera increased. These results provide insight into the resistance mechanism of insecticides and the stress adaptation between symbiotic bacteria and aphids.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Li Y, Bi M, Sun S, et al (2023)

Comparative metabolomic profiling reveals molecular mechanisms underlying growth promotion and disease resistance in wheat conferred by Piriformospora indica in the field.

Plant signaling & behavior, 18(1):2213934.

Piriformospora indica, a plant root-colonizing basidiomycete fungus, exhibits strong growth-promoting activity in symbiosis with a broad range of plants. Here, we report the potential of P. indica to improve growth, yield, and disease resistance in wheat in the field. In the present study, P. indica successfully colonized wheat through chlamydospores and formed dense mycelial networks that covered roots. Plants subjected to the seed soaking (SS) treatment with P. indica chlamydospore suspensions enhanced tillering 2.28-fold compared to the non-inoculated wheat in the tillering stage. In addition, P. indica colonization promoted vegetative growth significantly during the three-leaf, tillering, and jointing stages. Moreover, the P. indica-SS-treatment enhanced wheat yield by 16.37 ± 1.63%, by increasing grains per ear and panicle weight and decreased damage to wheat shoot and root architecture markedly, with high field control effects against Fusarium pseudograminearum (81.59 ± 1.32%), Bipolaris sorokiniana (82.19 ± 1.59%), and Rhizoctonia cerealis (75.98 ± 1.36%). Most of the primary metabolites, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids, involved in vegetative reproduction were increased in P. indica-SS-treatment plants, whereas secondary metabolites, such as terpenoids, polyketides, and alkaloids, decreased following P. indica inoculation. The up-regulated processes of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism indicated that P. indica colonization increased growth, yield, and disease resistance via the acceleration of plant primary metabolism. In conclusion, P. indica improved morphological, physiological, and metabolic substance levels, and further promoted its growth, yield, and disease resistance in wheat.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

John SA, JG Ray (2023)

Optimization of environmental and the other variables in the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnological tool for sustainable paddy cultivation: A critical review.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7179989 [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are effective natural alternatives to assist plants in improving crop productivity and immunity against pests and diseases. However, a comprehensive idea of the variables under which they show optimum activity, especially concerning particular soil, climate, geography, and crop characteristics, has yet to be adequately standardized. Since paddy is the staple food for half of the world's population, such standardization is highly significant globally. Research concerning determinants affecting AMF functioning in rice is limited. However, the identified variables include external variables such as abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic factors and internal variables such as plant and AMF characteristics. Among the abiotic factors, edaphic factors like soil pH, phosphorus availability, and soil moisture significantly affect AMF functioning in rice. In addition, anthropogenic influences such as land use patterns, flooding, and fertilizer regimes also affect AMF communities in rice agroecosystems. The principal objective of the review was to analyse the existing literature on AMF concerning such variables generally and to assess the specific research requirements on variables affecting AMF in rice. The ultimate goal is to identify research gaps for applying AMF as a natural alternative in the sustainable agriculture of paddy with optimum AMF symbiosis enhancing rice productivity.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Mandal M, Das S, Roy A, et al (2023)

Interactive relations between plants, phyllosphere microbial community, and particulate matter pollution.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02973-X [Epub ahead of print].

Particulate matter (PM) pollution poses a significant risk to many ecosystems; as sessile organisms, plants are at particular risk from PM pollution since they cannot move away from it. Microorganisms are essential components of ecosystems that can help macro-organisms to cope with pollutants (such as PM). In the phyllosphere (the aerial/above-ground parts of plants colonized by microbial communities), plant-microbe associations have been found to promote plant development while also increasing host resilience to biotic and abiotic stressors. This review discusses how plant-microbe symbiosis in the phyllosphere potentially affects host survivability and efficiency in the face of pollution and factors such as climate change. Evidence is presented that plant-microbe associations can be beneficial, such as by degrading pollutants, yet also bring disadvantages, such as causing the loss of symbiotic organisms and/or inducing disease. It is suggested that plant genetics is a fundamental driver of the phyllosphere microbiome assembly, connecting phyllosphere microbiota to plant health management in adverse conditions. Finally, potential ways that essential community ecological processes might influence plant-microbe partnerships in the face of Anthropocene-linked changes and what this might mean for environmental management are discussed.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Mohan A, Godugu S, Joshi SS, et al (2023)

Gut-brain axis: altered microbiome and depression - review.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 85(5):1784-1789.

The concept of a 'gut-brain axis' was recently developed when the complex communications between the brain and the gut became evident. The interaction may affect emotions, motivation, mood, and higher cognitive functions as well as gut homeostasis. Human microbe symbiosis's merits are now acknowledged to transcend human mental health. Research has recently indicated that the gut-brain axis plays a vital role in brain health maintenance. The term 'gut-brain axis' can only partially capture the intricacy of these interactions. Dysbiosis of the gut commensals has been seen in patients with psychiatric diseases, such as depression. Major depressive disorder is caused by complicated interactions between the individual gene and the environment. In a forced swimming test, P. Zheng et al. discovered that germ-free mice with no gut microbiota had a shorter immobility duration than healthy mice. More radical effects were expressed on the use of probiotics rather than prebiotics and postbiotics in reducing the symptoms of depression in patients with major depressive disorder. One of prime importance can be given to exploring more microbiota to investigate the better therapeutic effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Suo Z, Cummings DA, Puri AW, et al (2023)

A Mesorhizobium japonicum quorum sensing circuit that involves three linked genes and an unusual acyl-homoserine lactone signal.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Members of the genus Mesorhizobium, which are core components of the rhizosphere and specific symbionts of legume plants, possess genes for acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS). Here we show Mesorhizobium japonicum MAFF 303099 (formerly M. loti) synthesizes and responds to N-[(2E, 4E)-2,4-dodecadienoyl] homoserine lactone (2E, 4E-C12:2-HSL). We show that the 2E, 4E-C12:2-HSL QS circuit involves one of four luxR-luxI-type genes found in the sequenced genome of MAFF 303099. We refer to this circuit, which appears to be conserved among Mesorhizobium species, as R1-I1. We show that two other Mesorhizobium strains also produce 2E, 4E-C12:2-HSL. The 2E, 4E-C12:2-HSL is unique among known AHLs in its arrangement of two trans double bonds. The R1 response to 2E, 4E-C12:2-HSL is extremely selective in comparison with other LuxR homologs, and the trans double bonds appear critical for R1 signal recognition. Most well-studied LuxI-like proteins use S-adenosylmethionine and an acyl-acyl carrier protein as substrates for synthesis of AHLs. Others that form a subgroup of LuxI-type proteins use acyl-coenzyme A substrates rather than acyl-acyl carrier proteins. I1 clusters with the acyl-coenzyme A-type AHL synthases. We show that a gene linked to the I1 AHL synthase is involved in the production of the QS signal. The discovery of the unique I1 product enforces the view that further study of acyl-coenzyme A-dependent LuxI homologs will expand our knowledge of AHL diversity. The involvement of an additional enzyme in AHL generation leads us to consider this system a three-component QS circuit.IMPORTANCEWe report a Mesorhizobium japonicum quorum sensing (QS) system involving a novel acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal. This system is known to be involved in root nodule symbiosis with host plants. The chemistry of the newly described QS signal indicated that there may be a dedicated cellular enzyme involved in its synthesis in addition to the types known for production of other AHLs. Indeed, we report that an additional gene is required for synthesis of the unique signal, and we propose that this is a three-component QS circuit as opposed to the canonical two-component AHL QS circuits. The signaling system is exquisitely selective. The selectivity may be important when this species resides in the complex microbial communities around host plants and may make this system useful in various synthetic biology applications of QS circuits.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Medina JM, Queller DC, Strassmann JE, et al (2023)

The social amoeba dictyostelium discoideum rescues paraburkholderia hayleyella, but not P. agricolaris, from interspecific competition.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7179410 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial endosymbionts can provide benefits for their eukaryotic hosts, but it is often unclear if endosymbionts benefit from these relationships. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum associates with three species of Paraburkholderia endosymbionts, including P. agricolaris and P. hayleyella. These endosymbionts can be costly to host but are beneficial in certain contexts because they allow D. discoideum to carry prey bacteria through the dispersal stage. In experiments where no other species are present, P. hayleyella benefits from D. discoideum while P. agricolaris does not. However, the presence of other species may influence this symbiosis. We tested if P. agricolaris and P. hayleyella benefit from D. discoideum in the context of resource competition with Klebsiella pneumoniae, the typical laboratory prey of D. discoideum. Without D. discoideum, K. pneumoniae depressed the growth of both Paraburkholderia symbionts, consistent with competition. P. hayleyella was more harmed by interspecific competition than P. agricolaris. We found that P. hayleyella was rescued from competition by D. discoideum while P. agricolaris was not. This may be because P. hayleyella is more specialized as an endosymbiont; it has a highly reduced genome compared to P. agricolaris and may have lost genes relevant for resource competition outside of its host.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Ji Y, Huang L, Wang Z, et al (2023)

Performance of cocultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and four different fungi in biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading by induction of strigolactone (GR24) and endophytic bacteria.

This study aimed to determine the best fungi to form the algal-bacterial-fungal symbionts and identify the optimal conditions for the synchronous processing of biogas slurry and biogas. Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and endophytic bacteria (S395-2) isolated from it and four different fungi (Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus geesteranus, and Pleurotus corucopiae) were used to form different symbiotic systems. Four different concentrations of GR24 were added to systems to examine the growth characteristics, the content of chlorophyll a (CHL-a), the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA), the photosynthetic performance, the removal of nutrients, and the biogas purification performance. The results suggested that the growth rate, CA, CHL-a content, and photosynthetic performance of the C. vulgaris-endophytic bacteria-Ganoderma lucidum symbionts were higher than the other three symbiotic systems when 10[-9] M GR24 was added. The highest nutrients/CO2 removal efficiency 78.36 ± 6.98% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 81.63 ± 7.35% for total nitrogen (TN), 84.05 ± 7.16% for total phosphorus (TP) and 65.18 ± 6.12% for CO2 was obtained under the above optimal conditions. This approach will provide a theoretical basis for the selection and optimization of the algal-bacterial-fungal symbionts for biogas slurry and biogas purification.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

McFadden CL (2023)

Social media for health advocacy.

Surgery pii:S0039-6060(23)00245-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Twenty-five percent of US adults do not have a primary care doctor. With inherent physical obstacles often found in health care systems, there is a disparity in the ability to navigate through health care. Social media has helped patients navigate the muddy waters and helped remove traditional medicine's roadblocks, which tend to limit access to health care resources. Through social media, patients access areas to promote health, network and build their communities, and become better advocates to make more informed health care decisions. However, limitations exist for health advocacy through social media, including widespread medical misinformation, disregard of evidence-based practices, and challenges to ensure user privacy. Regardless of the limitations, the medical community must accept and work with medical professional societies to stay at the forefront of shared material and become interwoven in social media. This engagement could help empower the public with knowledge to advocate for themselves and know where to go for definitive medical care when warranted. Medical professionals must embrace the public's research and self-advocacy as the foundation of a new symbiotic relationship.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Pu Z, Zhang R, Wang H, et al (2023)

Root morphological and physiological traits and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi shape phosphorus-acquisition strategies of 12 vegetable species.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1150832.

Trait plasticity and integration mediate vegetable adaptive strategies. However, it is unclear how patterns of vegetables in root traits influence vegetable adaptation to different phosphorus (P) levels. Nine root traits and six shoot traits were investigated in 12 vegetable species cultivated in a greenhouse with low and high P supplies to identify distinct adaptive mechanisms in relation to P acquisition (40 and 200 P mg kg[-1] as KH2PO4). At the low P level, a series of negative correlations among root morphology, exudates and mycorrhizal colonization, and different types of root functional properties (root morphology, exudates and mycorrhizal colonization) respond differently to soil P levels among vegetable species. non-mycorrhizal plants showed relatively stable root traits as compared to solanaceae plants that showed more altered root morphologies and structural traits. At the low P level, the correlation between root traits of vegetable crops was enhanced. It was also found in vegetables that low P supply enhances the correlation of morphological structure while high P supply enhances the root exudation and the correlation between mycorrhizal colonization and root traits. Root exudation combined with root morphology and mycorrhizal symbiosis to observe P acquisition strategies in different root functions. Vegetables respond highly under different P conditions by enhancing the correlation of root traits. Low P supply could significantly improve the direct and indirect ways of mycorrhizal vegetable crops' root traits axis on shoot biomass, and enhance the direct way of non-mycorrhizal vegetable crops' root traits axis and reduce the indirect way of root exudates.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Wilkes TI (2023)

Ergosterol extraction: a comparison of methodologies.

Access microbiology, 5(4):.

Ergosterol is a component of the cell membrane of mycorrhizal fungi and is frequently used to quantify their biomass. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi establish a symbiotic relationship with a respective host plant. Several methods are currently employed for quantification of ergosterol; however, these utilise a series of potentially hazardous chemicals with varying exposure times to the user. The present comparative study aims to ascertain the most reliable method to extract ergosterol whilst limiting hazard exposure to the user. Chloroform, cyclohexane, methanol and methanol hydroxide extraction protocols were applied to a total of 300 samples of root samples and a further 300 growth substrate samples across all protocols. Extracts were analysed via HPLC methodologies. Chromagraphic analysis showed chloroform-based extraction procedures produced a consistently higher concentration of ergosterol in both root and growth substrate samples. Methanol hydroxide, without the addition of cyclohexane, produced a very low concentration of ergosterol, with a reduction of quantified ergosterol of between 80 and 92 % compared to chloroform extractions. Hazard exposure was greatly reduced following the chloroform extraction protocol when compared with other extraction procedures.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Schmiedová L, Černá K, Li T, et al (2023)

Bacterial communities along parrot digestive and respiratory tracts: the effects of sample type, species and time.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Digestive and respiratory tracts are inhabited by rich bacterial communities that can vary between their different segments. In comparison with other bird taxa with developed caeca, parrots that lack caeca have relatively lower variability in intestinal morphology. Here, based on 16S rRNA metabarcoding, we describe variation in microbiota across different parts of parrot digestive and respiratory tracts both at interspecies and intraspecies levels. In domesticated budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), we describe the bacterial variation across eight selected sections of respiratory and digestive tracts, and three non-destructively collected sample types (faeces, and cloacal and oral swabs). Our results show important microbiota divergence between the upper and lower digestive tract, but similarities between respiratory tract and crop, and also between different intestinal segments. Faecal samples appear to provide a better proxy for intestinal microbiota composition than the cloacal swabs. Oral swabs had a similar bacterial composition as the crop and trachea. For a subset of tissues, we confirmed the same pattern also in six different parrot species. Finally, using the faeces and oral swabs in budgerigars, we revealed high oral, but low faecal microbiota stability during a 3-week period mimicking pre-experiment acclimation. Our findings provide a basis essential for microbiota-related experimental planning and result generalisation in non-poultry birds.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Kaboosi E, Ghabooli M, R Karimi (2023)

Combined Effect of Trehalose and Serendipita indica Inoculation Might Participate in Solanum lycopersicum Induced Cold Tolerance.

Current microbiology, 80(7):224.

The exploitation of symbiotic interactions between fungi and plants, coupled with the application of osmoprotectants such as trehalose (Tre), presents a promising strategy for mitigating environmental stress. To determine the mechanism of Serendipita indica and Tre-mediated cold stress tolerance, a comparative experiment was designed to study the impact of S. indica, Tre and their combination on tomato plants grown under cold stress. The results showed that cold stress significantly decreased biomass, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and elements concomitantly with increasing antioxidant activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide and proline content. Meanwhile, S. indica and Tre treatments promoted biomass and enhanced carbohydrate, protein, proline, potassium, phosphorous, antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigments content under cold stress. Furthermore, single or dual application of endophyte and Tre mitigated physiological disorders induced by cold stress and increased the integrity of cell membranes by decreasing hydrogen peroxide, MDA, and electrolyte leakage (EL). Our findings suggest that S. indica and Tre combination could significantly promote cold stress tolerance compared with single treatment. This study is novel in showing the cold adaptation of tomato plants by combination use of S. indica and Tre, which can be a promising strategy for improving cold tolerance. The underlying molecular mechanisms of sugar-fungus interaction must be further investigated.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Xu D, Yu X, Chen J, et al (2023)

Microbial Assemblages Associated with the Soil-Root Continuum of an Endangered Plant, Helianthemum songaricum Schrenk.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The microbial network of the soil-root continuum plays a key role in plant growth. To date, limited information is available about the microbial assemblages in the rhizosphere and endosphere of endangered plants. We suspect that unknown microorganisms in roots and soil play an important role in the survival strategies of endangered plants. To address this research gap, we investigated the diversity and composition of the microbial communities of the soil-root continuum of the endangered shrub Helianthemum songaricum and observed that the microbial communities and structures of the rhizosphere and endosphere samples were distinguishable. The dominant rhizosphere bacteria were Actinobacteria (36.98%) and Acidobacteria (18.15%), whereas most endophytes were Alphaproteobacteria (23.17%) as well as Actinobacteria (29.94%). The relative abundance of rhizosphere bacteria was higher than that in endosphere samples. Fungal rhizosphere and endophyte samples had approximately equal abundances of the Sordariomycetes (23%), while the Pezizomycetes were more abundant in the soil (31.95%) than in the roots (5.70%). The phylogenetic relationships of the abundances of microbes in root and soil samples also showed that the most abundant bacterial and fungal reads tended to be dominant in either the soil or root samples but not both. Additionally, Pearson correlation heatmap analysis showed that the diversity and composition of soil bacteria and fungi were closely related to pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and organic matter, of which pH and organic matter were the main drivers. These results clarify the different patterns of microbial communities of the soil-root continuum, in support of the better conservation and utilization of endangered desert plants in Inner Mongolia. IMPORTANCE Microbial assemblages play significant roles in plant survival, health, and ecological services. The symbiosis between soil microorganisms and these plants and their interactions with soil factors are important features of the adaptation of desert plants to an arid and barren environment. Therefore, the profound study of the microbial diversity of rare desert plants can provide important data to support the protection and utilization of rare desert plants. Accordingly, in this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was applied to study the microbial diversity in plant roots and rhizosphere soils. We expect that research on the relationship between soil and root microbial diversity and the environment will improve the survival of endangered plants in this environment. In summary, this study is the first to study the microbial diversity and community structure of Helianthemum songaricum Schrenk and compare the diversity and composition of the root and soil microbiomes.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Chaudhary S, Wu Y, Strongman D, et al (2023)

CIGAF-a database and interactive platform for insect-associated trichomycete fungi.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2023:.

Trichomycete fungi are gut symbionts of arthropods living in aquatic habitats. The lack of a central platform with accessible collection records and associated ecological metadata has limited ecological investigations of trichomycetes. We present CIGAF (short for Collections of Insect Gut-Associated Fungi), a trichomycetes-focused digital database with interactive visualization functions enabled by the R Shiny web application. CIGAF curated 3120 collection records of trichomycetes across the globe, spanning from 1929 to 2022. CIGAF allows the exploration of nearly 100 years of field collection data through the web interface, including primary published data such as insect host information, collection site coordinates, descriptions and date of collection. When possible, specimen records are supplemented with climatic measures at collection sites. As a central platform of field collection records, multiple interactive tools allow users to analyze and plot data at various levels. CIGAF provides a comprehensive resource hub to the research community for further studies in mycology, entomology, symbiosis and biogeography.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Carr EC, Barton Q, Grambo S, et al (2023)

Characterization of a novel polyextremotolerant fungus, Exophiala viscosa, with insights into its melanin regulation and ecological niche.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:7176444 [Epub ahead of print].

Black yeasts are polyextremotolerant fungi that contain high amounts of melanin in their cell wall and maintain a primarily yeast form. These fungi grow in xeric, nutrient deplete environments which implies that they require highly flexible metabolisms and have been suggested to contain the ability to form lichen-like mutualisms with nearby algae and bacteria. However, the exact ecological niche and interactions between these fungi and their surrounding community is not well understood. We have isolated two novel black yeasts from the genus Exophiala that were recovered from dryland biological soil crusts. Despite notable differences in colony and cellular morphology, both fungi appear to be members of the same species, which has been named Exophiala viscosa (i.e., E. viscosa JF 03-3 Goopy and E. viscosa JF 03-4F Slimy). A combination of whole genome sequencing, phenotypic experiments, and melanin regulation experiments have been performed on these isolates to fully characterize these fungi and help decipher their fundamental niche within the biological soil crust consortium. Our results reveal that E. viscosa is capable of utilizing a wide variety of carbon and nitrogen sources potentially derived from symbiotic microbes, can withstand many forms of abiotic stresses, and excretes melanin that can potentially provide UV resistance to the biological soil crust community. Besides the identification of a novel species within the genus Exophiala, our study also provides new insight into the regulation of melanin production in polyextremotolerant fungi.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Haruma T, Doyama K, Lu X, et al (2023)

Miscanthus sinensis contributes to the survival of Pinus densiflora seedlings at a mining site via providing a possible functional endophyte and maintaining symbiotic relationship between P. densiflora and endophytes from high soil temperature stress.

PloS one, 18(5):e0286203 pii:PONE-D-22-32352.

At a sedimentary site in an old mine site, Miscanthus sinensis formed patches, where Pinus densiflora seedlings could grow better compared with those outside the patches, indicating that M. sinensis would improve P. densiflora seedling establishment. The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms by which M. sinensis facilitates the survival of P. densiflora seedlings by considering the soil properties, heavy metal tolerance, and root endophytes in P. densiflora seedlings at the sedimentary site. The sedimentary site, which is a bare ground, contained high concentrations of Fe, indicating that plants should be exposed to Fe and high soil temperature stresses. Measurement of soil temperature revealed that M. sinensis suppressed sharp increases and alternation of soil temperature, resulting in reducing high soil temperature stress in P. densiflora seedlings. To adapt to the Fe stress environment, P. densiflora outside and inside the patches produced Fe detoxicants, including catechin, condensed tannin, and malic acid. Ceratobasidium bicorne and Aquapteridospora sp. were commonly isolated from P. densiflora seedlings outside and inside the patches as root endophytes, which might enhance Fe tolerance in the seedlings. Aquapteridospora sp., which is considered as a dark-septate endophyte (DSE), was also isolated from the roots of M. sinensis, suggesting that M. sinensis might play a source of a root endophyte to P. densiflora seedlings. Ceratobasidium bicorne could be classified into root endophytes showing symbiosis and weak pathogenicity to host plants. Therefore, high soil temperature stress would weaken P. densiflora seedlings, causing root endophytic C. bicorne to appear pathogenic. We suggested that P. densiflora could adapt to the Fe stress environment via producing Fe detoxicants, and M. sinensis would facilitate the establishment of P. densiflora seedlings in the sedimentary site by providing a DSE, Aquapteridospora sp., and maintaining symbiosis of C. bicorne from high soil temperature stress.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Cai J, Muhammad I, Chen B, et al (2023)

Whole genome sequencing and analysis of Armillaria gallica Jzi34 symbiotic with Gastrodia elata.

BMC genomics, 24(1):275.

BACKGROUND: Armillaria species are plant pathogens, but a few Armillaria species can establish a symbiotic relationship with Gastrodia elata, a rootless and leafless orchid, that is used as a Chinese herbal medicine. Armillaria is a nutrient source for the growth of G. elata. However, there are few reports on the molecular mechanism of symbiosis between Armillaria species and G. elata. The genome sequencing and analysis of Armillaria symbiotic with G. elata would provide genomic information for further studying the molecular mechanism of symbiosis.

RESULTS: The de novo genome assembly was performed with the PacBio Sequel platform and Illumina NovaSeq PE150 for the A. gallica Jzi34 strain, which was symbiotic with G. elata. Its genome assembly contained ~ 79.9 Mbp and consisted of 60 contigs with an N50 of 2,535,910 bp. There were only 4.1% repetitive sequences in the genome assembly. Functional annotation analysis revealed a total of 16,280 protein coding genes. Compared with the other five genomes of Armillaria, the carbohydrate enzyme gene family of the genome was significantly contracted, while it had the largest set of glycosyl transferase (GT) genes. It also had an expansion of auxiliary activity enzymes AA3-2 gene subfamily and cytochrome P450 genes. The synteny analysis result of P450 genes reveals that the evolutionary relationship of P450 proteins between A. gallica Jzi34 and other four Armillaria was complex.

CONCLUSIONS: These characteristics may be beneficial for establishing a symbiotic relationship with G. elata. These results explore the characteristics of A. gallica Jzi34 from a genomic perspective and provide an important genomic resource for further detailed study of Armillaria. This will help to further study the symbiotic mechanism between A. gallica and G. elata.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Wang J, Gao L, S Aksoy (2023)

Microbiota in disease-transmitting vectors.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Haematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, flies, triatomine bugs and lice (here referred to as vectors), are involved in the transmission of various pathogens to mammals on whom they blood feed. The diseases caused by these pathogens, collectively known as vector-borne diseases (VBDs), threaten the health of humans and animals. Although the vector arthropods differ in life histories, feeding behaviour as well as reproductive strategies, they all harbour symbiotic microorganisms, known as microbiota, on which they depend for completing essential aspects of their biology, such as development and reproduction. In this Review, we summarize the shared and unique key features of the symbiotic associations that have been characterized in the major vector taxa. We discuss the crosstalks between microbiota and their arthropod hosts that influence vector metabolism and immune responses relevant for pathogen transmission success, known as vector competence. Finally, we highlight how current knowledge on symbiotic associations is being explored to develop non-chemical-based alternative control methods that aim to reduce vector populations, or reduce vector competence. We conclude by highlighting the remaining knowledge gaps that stand to advance basic and translational aspects of vector-microbiota interactions.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Li Z, Yang M, Zhou X, et al (2023)

Research on the spatial correlation and formation mechanism between traditional villages and rural tourism.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8210.

In recent years, the survival and development of traditional villages in China have been serious challenges. Rural tourism is regarded as an important way to solve rural problems, and the combination of rural culture and tourism has become a new power point for rural development. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the spatial distribution structure between traditional villages and rural tourism. In this paper, rural tourism was represented by the rural tourism characteristic village (RTCV), and Henan Province, China, was taken as a study area to analyze the distribution pattern and spatial correlation of rural tourism and traditional village (TV) and discuss the relationship between the spatial correlation and regional natural environment and socioeconomic factors. The results show that the coupling of the spatial correlation between RTCVs and TVs in Henan was clear. They could be divided into 5 regions based on geographical factors. In addition, the research summarized 4 typical spatial structures between TVs and RTCVs in Henan based on the regional symbiosis theory, and the spatial pattern formation mechanism of TVs and RTCVs was discussed based on three driving mechanisms. The spatial structure of the two can provide reference value for other developing countries and regions to achieve sustainable rural development.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Liu XF, Shao JH, Liao YT, et al (2023)

Regulation of short-chain fatty acids in the immune system.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1186892.

A growing body of research suggests that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolites produced by intestinal symbiotic bacteria that ferment dietary fibers (DFs), play a crucial role in the health status of symbiotes. SCFAs act on a variety of cell types to regulate important biological processes, including host metabolism, intestinal function, and immune function. SCFAs also affect the function and fate of immune cells. This finding provides a new concept in immune metabolism and a better understanding of the regulatory role of SCFAs in the immune system, which impacts the prevention and treatment of disease. The mechanism by which SCFAs induce or regulate the immune response is becoming increasingly clear. This review summarizes the different mechanisms through which SCFAs act in cells. According to the latest research, the regulatory role of SCFAs in the innate immune system, including in NLRP3 inflammasomes, receptors of TLR family members, neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, eosinophils, basophils and innate lymphocyte subsets, is emphasized. The regulatory role of SCFAs in the adaptive immune system, including in T-cell subsets, B cells, and plasma cells, is also highlighted. In addition, we discuss the role that SCFAs play in regulating allergic airway inflammation, colitis, and osteoporosis by influencing the immune system. These findings provide evidence for determining treatment options based on metabolic regulation.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Moldovan OT, Carrell AA, Bulzu PA, et al (2023)

The gut microbiome mediates adaptation to scarce food in Coleoptera.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.05.12.540564.

Beetles are ubiquitous cave invertebrates worldwide that adapted to scarce subterranean resources when they colonized caves. Here, we investigated the potential role of gut microbiota in the adaptation of beetles to caves from different climatic regions of the Carpathians. The beetles' microbiota was host-specific, reflecting phylogenetic and nutritional adaptation. The microbial community structure further resolved conspecific beetles by caves suggesting microbiota-host coevolution and influences by local environmental factors. The detritivore species hosted a variety of bacteria known to decompose and ferment organic matter, suggesting turnover and host cooperative digestion of the sedimentary microbiota and allochthonous-derived nutrients. The cave Carabidae, with strong mandibulae adapted to predation and scavenging of animal and plant remains, had distinct microbiota dominated by symbiotic lineages Spiroplasma or Wolbachia . All beetles had relatively high levels of fermentative Carnobacterium and Vagococcus involved in lipid accumulation and a reduction of metabolic activity, and both features characterize adaptation to caves.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Mfopit YM, Weber JS, Chechet GD, et al (2023)

Molecular detection of Sodalis glossinidius, Spiroplasma and Wolbachia endosymbionts in wild population of tsetse flies collected in Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria.

Research square

Background Tsetse flies are cyclical vectors of African trypanosomiasis. They have established symbiotic associations with different bacteria, which influence certain aspects of their physiology. The vector competence of tsetse flies for different trypanosome species is highly variable and is suggested to be affected by various factors, amongst which are bacterial endosymbionts. Symbiotic interactions may provide an avenue for the disease control. The current study provided the prevalence of 3 tsetse symbionts in Glossina species from Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria. Results Tsetse flies were collected from five different locations and dissected. DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction PCR was used to detect the presence of Sodalis glossinidius , Spiroplasma sp and Wolbachia using specific primers. A total of 848 tsetse samples were analysed: Glossina morsitans submorsitans (47.52%), Glossina palpalis palpalis (37.26%), Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (9.08%) and Glossina tachinoides (6.13%). Only 95 (11.20%) were infected with at least one of the 3 symbionts. Among the infected, 6 (6.31%) were carrying mixed infection (Wolbachia and Spiroplasma). The overall symbiont prevalence was 0.88%, 3.66% and 11.00% respectively, for Sodalis , Spiroplasma and Wolbachia . Prevalence varied between countries and tsetse species. No Spiroplasma was detected in samples from Cameroon and no Sodalis was found in samples from Nigeria. Conclusion The present study revealed for the first time, the presence of infection by Spiroplasma in tsetse in Chad and Nigeria. These findings provide useful information to the repertoire of bacterial flora of tsetse flies and incite to more investigations to understand their implication in the vector competence of tsetse flies.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Williamson OM, Mustard AT, Bright AJ, et al (2023)

Opportunistic consumption of coral spawn by the ruby brittle star (Ophioderma rubicundum).

Ecology and evolution, 13(5):e10096 pii:ECE310096.

Many reef invertebrates reproduce through simultaneous broadcast spawning, with an apparent advantage of overwhelming potential predators and maximizing propagule survival. Although reef fish have been observed to consume coral gamete bundles during spawning events, there are few records of such predation by benthic invertebrates. Here, we document several instances of the ruby brittle star, Ophioderma rubicundum, capturing and consuming egg-sperm bundles of the mountainous star coral, Orbicella faveolata, and the symmetrical brain coral, Pseudodiploria strigosa, during spawning events in the Cayman Islands in 2012 and the Florida Keys in 2022. These observations are widely separated in space and time (>600 km, 10 years), suggesting that this behavior may be prevalent on western Atlantic reefs. Since O. rubicundum spawns on the same or subsequent nights as these coral species, we hypothesize that this opportunistic feeding behavior takes advantage of lipid-rich coral gamete bundles to recover energy reserves expended by the brittle star during gametogenesis. The consumption of coral gametes by adult brittle stars suggests an underexplored trophic link between reef invertebrates and also provides evidence that ophiuroid-coral symbioses may oscillate between commensalism and parasitism depending on the ontogeny and reproductive status of both animals. Our observations provide insights into the nuanced, dynamic associations between coral reef invertebrates and may have implications for coral reproductive success and resilience.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Ubuka T, Bu G, Y Tobari (2023)

Editorial: Stress and reproduction in animal models.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1202275.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Chin T, Shi Y, Del Giudice M, et al (2023)

Working from anywhere: yin-yang cognition paradoxes of knowledge sharing and hiding for developing careers in China.

Humanities & social sciences communications, 10(1):239.

Digital technology coupled with the quarantines caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has made working from anywhere (WFA)-a modern form of remote working-a widespread phenomenon. Given that WFA brings new career challenges to and engenders paradoxes of knowledge exchange among employees, this research aims to examine how the interactions of remote work time (RWT), knowledge sharing (KS), and knowledge hiding (KH) affect career development (CD) from a culturally grounded paradoxical framing of yin-yang harmonizing. The data were collected from Chinese manufacturing employees, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the hypotheses. The results show an inverted U-shaped relationship between RWT and CD. The interaction of KS and KH is significantly related to CD, and the inverted U-shaped RWT-CD relationship is moderated by the interaction term, in which RWT exerts the most substantial positive impact on CD when KS is high and KH is low. This study offers valuable implications for coping with perplexing employment relationships and increasing career challenges in volatile work environments. The primary originality is to adopt a novel cognitive frame of yin-yang harmonizing to examine the nonlinear effect of remote working and the symbiotic impact of KS and KH on CD, which not only enriches the understanding of flexible work arrangements in the digital economy but also provides novel insights into the interconnectedness of KS and KH and their interacting effects on HRM-related outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Babaie E, Hassanpour K, Aldaghi M, et al (2023)

Comparison of the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid and multistrain synbiotic on indirect hyperbilirubinemia among neonates treated with phototherapy: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial study.

Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 28:40.

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and multistrain synbiotic on indirect hyperbilirubinemia among neonates treated with phototherapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 subjects presenting with indirect hyperbilirubinemia in 2019. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups of synbiotic, UDCA, and control. The synbiotic group received five drops/day of synbiotic in addition to phototherapy. UDCA group received 10 mg/kg/day of Ursobil divided every 12 h in addition to phototherapy. The Control group received a placebo (water) in addition to phototherapy. Phototherapy was discontinued when the bilirubin levels reached <10 mg/dL. Total bilirubin levels were measured using the diazo method at 12, 24, and 36 h after hospitalization. This study used repeated measure analysis of variance and post hoc tests.

RESULTS: The mean total of bilirubin was substantially decreased in both synbiotic and UDCA groups as compared to the control group at 24 h after hospitalization (P < 0.001). Moreover, the Bonferroni post hoc test showed significant differences regarding the mean total of bilirubin between the three groups (P < 0.05) except for the association between UDCA and synbiotic at 24 h after hospitalization (P > 0.99).

CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that UDCA and synbiotic administration alongside phototherapy are more effective in reducing bilirubin levels as compared to phototherapy alone.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Salar S, Ball NE, Baaziz H, et al (2023)

The structural analysis of the periplasmic domain of Sinorhizobium meliloti chemoreceptor McpZ reveals a novel fold and suggests a complex mechanism of transmembrane signaling.

Proteins [Epub ahead of print].

Chemotaxis is a fundamental process whereby bacteria seek out nutrient sources and avoid harmful chemicals. For the symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the chemotaxis system also plays an essential role in the interaction with its legume host. The chemotactic signaling cascade is initiated through interactions of an attractant or repellent compound with chemoreceptors or methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). S. meliloti possesses eight chemoreceptors to mediate chemotaxis. Six of these receptors are transmembrane proteins with periplasmic ligand-binding domains (LBDs). The specific functions of McpW and McpZ are still unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic domain of McpZ (McpZPD) at 2.7 Å resolution. McpZPD assumes a novel fold consisting of three concatenated four-helix bundle modules. Through phylogenetic analyses, we discovered that this helical tri-modular domain fold arose within the Rhizobiaceae family and is still evolving rapidly. The structure, offering a rare view of a ligand-free dimeric MCP-LBD, reveals a novel dimerization interface. Molecular dynamics calculations suggest ligand binding will induce conformational changes that result in large horizontal helix movements within the membrane-proximal domains of the McpZPD dimer that are accompanied by a 5 Å vertical shift of the terminal helix toward the inner cell membrane. These results suggest a mechanism of transmembrane signaling for this family of MCPs that entails both piston-type and scissoring movements. The predicted movements terminate in a conformation that closely mirrors those observed in related ligand-bound MCP-LBDs.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Sisti LS, Pena-Passos M, J Lishcka Sampaio Mayer (2023)

Isolation, Characterization, and Total DNA Extraction to Identify Endophytic Fungi in Mycoheterotrophic Plants.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Mycoheterotrophic plants present one of the most extreme forms of mycorrhizal dependency, having totally lost their autotrophic capacity. As essential as any other vital resource, the fungi with which these plants intimately associate are essential for them. Hence, some of the most relevant techniques in studying mycoheterotrophic species are the ones that enable the investigation of associated fungi, especially those inhabiting roots and subterranean organs. In this context, techniques for identifying culture-dependent and culture-independent endophytic fungi are commonly applied. Isolating fungal endophytes provides a means for morphologically identifying them, analyzing their diversity, and maintaining inocula for applications in the symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. However, it is known that there is a large variety of non-culturable fungi inhabiting plant tissues. Thus, culture-independent molecular identification techniques offer a broader cover of species diversity and abundance. This article aims to provide the methodological support necessary for starting two investigation procedures: a culture-dependent and an independent one. Regarding the culture-dependent protocol, the processes of collecting and maintaining plant samples from collection sites to laboratory facilities are detailed, along with isolating filamentous fungi from subterranean and aerial organs of mycoheterotrophic plants, keeping a collection of isolates, morphologically characterizing hyphae by slide culture methodology, and molecular identification of fungi by total DNA extraction. Encompassing culture-independent methodologies, the detailed procedures include collecting plant samples for metagenomic analyses and total DNA extraction from achlorophyllous plant organs using a commercial kit. Finally, continuity protocols (e.g., polymerase chain reaction [PCR], sequencing) are also suggested for analyses, and techniques are presented here.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Lin J, Wi D, Ly M, et al (2023)

Soybean Hairy Root Transformation for the Analysis of Gene Function.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Soybean (Glycine max) is a valuable crop in agriculture that has thousands of industrial uses. Soybean roots are the primary site of interaction with soil-borne microbes that form symbiosis to fix nitrogen and pathogens, which makes research involving soybean root genetics of prime importance to improve its agricultural production. The genetic transformation of soybean hairy roots (HRs) is mediated by the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain NCPPB2659 (K599) and is an efficient tool for studying gene function in soybean roots, taking only 2 months from start to finish. Here, we provide a detailed protocol that outlines the method for overexpressing and silencing a gene of interest in soybean HRs. This methodology includes soybean seed sterilization, infection of cotyledons with K599, and the selection and harvesting of genetically transformed HRs for RNA isolation and, if warranted, metabolite analyses. The throughput of the approach is sufficient to simultaneously study several genes or networks and could determine the optimal engineering strategies prior to committing to long-term stable transformation approaches.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Robbins C, Cruz Corella J, Aletti C, et al (2023)

Generation of disproportionate nuclear genotype proportions in Rhizophagus irregularis progeny causes allelic imbalance in gene transcription.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Hnini M, El Attar I, Taha K, et al (2023)

Genetic diversity, symbiotic efficiency, stress tolerance, and plant growth promotion traits of rhizobia nodulating Vachellia tortilis subsp. raddiana growing in dryland soils in southern Morocco.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 46(4):126434 pii:S0723-2020(23)00043-7 [Epub ahead of print].

In the present study, we analyzed the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, stress tolerance, phytobeneficial traits, and symbiotic characteristics of rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Vachellia tortilis subsp. raddiana grown in soils collected in the extreme Southwest of the Anti-Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Subsequent to Rep-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rDNA gene sequencing of 15 representative strains showed that all of them belong to the genus Ensifer. Phylogenetic analysis and concatenation of the housekeeping genes gyrB, rpoB, recA, and dnaK revealed that the entire collection (except strain LMR678) shared 99.08 % to 99.92% similarity with Ensifer sp. USDA 257 and 96.92% to 98.79% with Sinorhizobium BJ1. Phylogenetic analysis of nodC and nodA sequences showed that all strains but one (LMR678) formed a phylogenetic group with the type strain "E. aridi" LMR001[T] (similarity over 98%). Moreover, it was relevant that most strains belong to the symbiovar vachelliae. In vitro tests revealed that five strains produced IAA, four solubilized inorganic phosphate, and one produced siderophores. All strains showed tolerance to NaCl concentrations ranging from 2 to 12% and grew at up to 10% of PEG6000. A greenhouse plant inoculation test conducted during five months demonstrated that most rhizobial strains were infective and efficient. Strains LMR688, LMR692, and LMR687 exhibited high relative symbiotic efficiency values (respectively 231.6 %, 171.96 %, and 140.84 %). These strains could be considered as the most suitable candidates for inoculation of V. t. subsp. raddiana, to be used as a pioneer plant for restoring arid soils threatened with desertification.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Lang H, Wang H, Wang H, et al (2023)

Engineered symbiotic bacteria interfering Nosema redox system inhibit microsporidia parasitism in honeybees.

Nature communications, 14(1):2778.

Nosema ceranae is an intracellular parasite invading the midgut of honeybees, which causes serious nosemosis implicated in honeybee colony losses worldwide. The core gut microbiota is involved in protecting against parasitism, and the genetically engineering of the native gut symbionts provides a novel and efficient way to fight pathogens. Here, using laboratory-generated bees mono-associated with gut members, we find that Snodgrassella alvi inhibit microsporidia proliferation, potentially via the stimulation of host oxidant-mediated immune response. Accordingly, N. ceranae employs the thioredoxin and glutathione systems to defend against oxidative stress and maintain a balanced redox equilibrium, which is essential for the infection process. We knock down the gene expression using nanoparticle-mediated RNA interference, which targets the γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase and thioredoxin reductase genes of microsporidia. It significantly reduces the spore load, confirming the importance of the antioxidant mechanism for the intracellular invasion of the N. ceranae parasite. Finally, we genetically modify the symbiotic S. alvi to deliver dsRNA corresponding to the genes involved in the redox system of the microsporidia. The engineered S. alvi induces RNA interference and represses parasite gene expression, thereby inhibits the parasitism significantly. Specifically, N. ceranae is most suppressed by the recombinant strain corresponding to the glutathione synthetase or by a mixture of bacteria expressing variable dsRNA. Our findings extend our previous understanding of the protection of gut symbionts against N. ceranae and provide a symbiont-mediated RNAi system for inhibiting microsporidia infection in honeybees.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Sun H, Xie Z, Yang X, et al (2023)

New insights into microbial and metabolite signatures of coral bleaching.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02879-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Coral bleaching and coral reef degradation have been severely increased due to anthropogenic impacts, especially global warming. Studies have indicated the key role of host-microbiome symbiotic relationships for the coral holobiont health and development, although not all of the mechanisms of interaction have been fully explored. Here, we explore bacterial and metabolic shifts within coral holobionts under thermal stress, and its correlation with bleaching. Our results showed obvious signs of coral bleaching after 13 days of heating treatment, and a more-complex co-occurrence network was observed in the coral-associated bacterial community of the heating group. The bacterial community and metabolites changed significantly under thermal stress, and genera Flavobacterium, Shewanella and Psychrobacter increased from <0.1 % to 43.58 %, 6.95 % and 6.35 %, respectively. Bacteria potentially associated with stress tolerance, biofilm formation and mobile elements decreased from 80.93 %, 62.15 % and 49.27 % to 56.28 %, 28.41 % and 18.76 %, respectively. The differentially expressed metabolites of corals after heating treatment, such as Cer(d18:0/17:0), 1-Methyladenosine, Trp-P-1 and Marasmal, were associated with cell cycle regulation and antioxidant properties. Our results can contribute to our current understanding on the correlations between coral-symbiotic bacteria, metabolites and the coral physiological response to thermal stress. These new insights into the metabolomics of heat-stressed coral holobionts may expand our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying bleaching.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Chen X, Hu X, Wang H, et al (2023)

GmBES1-1 dampens the activity of GmNSP1/2 to mediate brassinosteroid inhibition of nodulation in soybean.

Plant communications pii:S2590-3462(23)00144-X [Epub ahead of print].

Soybean (Glycine max) forms root nodule to house rhizobial bacteria for biological nitrogen fixation. The development of root nodules is intricately regulated by endogenous and exogenous cues. The phytohormone Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been shown to negatively regulate nodulation in soybean, but the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we performed transcriptomic analyses and revealed that BR signaling negatively regulates nodulation factor (NF) signaling. We found that BR signaling inhibits nodulation through its signaling component GmBES1-1, by dampening NF signaling and nodule formation. In addition, GmBES1-1 could directly interact with both GmNSP1 and GmNSP2 to inhibit their interaction and the DNA-binding activity of GmNSP1. Furthermore, BR-induced the nuclear accumulation of GmBES1-1 is essential for inhibiting nodulation. Taken together, the regulation of the subcellular localization of GmBES1-1 by BRs plays a key role in legume-rhizobium symbiosis and plant development, which reports a crosstalk mechanism between phytohormonal and symbiotic signaling pathways.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Karaseva NP, Rimskaya-Korsakova NN, Kokarev VN, et al (2023)

Distribution of Siboglinids (Annelida, Siboglinidae) in the Laptev Sea and Adjacent Areas of the Arctic Basin.

Doklady biological sciences : proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections, 509(1):124-127.

Biodiversity in the Laptev Sea was assessed for gutless marine worms of the family Siboglinidae (Annelida), whose metabolism is provided by symbiotic bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide and methane. Seven siboglinid species were found within the geographical boundaries of the Laptev Sea, and another species was found in an adjacent sector of the Arctic Basin. The largest number of finds and the greatest biological diversity of siboglinids were observed in the eastern part of the Laptev Sea in a field of numerous methane flares. One find was made in the estuary area of the Lena River at a depth of 25 m. A possible association of siboglinids with methane seepage areas is discussed.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Karaseva NP, Rimskaya-Korsakova NN, Kokarev VN, et al (2023)

Finds of Siboglinids (Annelida, Siboglinidae) in the Estuaries of the Largest Arctic Rivers Are Associated with Permafrost Gas Hydrates.

Doklady biological sciences : proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections, 509(1):116-118.

Gutless marine worms of the family Siboglinidae have been found in the estuaries of the largest Arctic rivers Yenisei, Lena, and Mackenzie. Siboglinid metabolism is provided by symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria. Strong salinity stratification is characteristic of the estuaries of the largest Arctic rivers and ensures a high salinity at depths of 25-36 m, where siboglinids were found. High methane concentrations, which are necessary for siboglinid metabolism, result from dissociation of permafrost gas hydrates under the influence of river runoff in the conditions of Arctic warming.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Hernández-Oaxaca D, Claro K, Rogel MA, et al (2023)

Novel symbiovars ingae, lysilomae and lysilomaefficiens in bradyrhizobia from tree-legume nodules.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 46(4):126433 pii:S0723-2020(23)00042-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Inga vera and Lysiloma tree legumes form nodules with Bradyrhizobium spp. from the japonicum group that represent novel genomospecies, for which we describe here using genome data, symbiovars lysilomae, lysilomaefficiens and ingae. Genes encoding Type three secretion system (TTSS) that could affect host specificity were found in ingae but not in lysilomae nor in lysilomaefficiens symbiovars and uptake hydrogenase hup genes (that affect nitrogen fixation) were observed in bradyrhizobia from the symbiovars ingae and lysilomaefficiens. nolA gene was found in the symbiovar lysilomaefficiens but not in strains from lysilomae. We discuss that multiple genes may dictate symbiosis specificity. Besides, toxin-antitoxin genes were found in the symbiosis islands in bradyrhizobia from symbiovars ingae and lysilomaefficiens. A limit (95%) to define symbiovars with nifH gene sequences was proposed here.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Stefani F, Beguin J, Paré D, et al (2023)

Does wood mulch trigger microbially mediated positive plant-soil feedback in degraded boreal forest sites? A post hoc study.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1122445.

INTRODUCTION: Reforestation of degraded lands in the boreal forest is challenging and depends on the direction and strength of the plant-soil feedback (PSF).

METHODS: Using a gradient in tree productivity (null, low and high) from a long-term, spatially replicated reforestation experiment of borrow pits in the boreal forest, we investigated the interplay between microbial communities and soil and tree nutrient stocks and concentrations in relation to a positive PSF induced by wood mulch amendment.

RESULTS: Three levels of mulch amendment underlie the observed gradient in tree productivity, and plots that had been amended with a continuous layer of mulch 17 years earlier showed a positive PSF with trees up to 6 m tall, a closed canopy, and a developing humus layer. The average taxonomic and functional composition of the bacterial and fungal communities differed markedly betweenlow- and high-productivity plots. Trees in high-productivity plots recruited a specialized soil microbiome that was more efficient at nutrient mobilization and acquisition. These plots showed increases in carbon (C), calcium (Ca), nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) stocks and as well as bacterial and fungal biomass. The soil microbiome was dominated by taxa from the fungal genus Cortinarius and the bacterial family Chitinophagaceae, and a complex microbial network with higher connectivity and more keystone species supported tree productivity in reforested plots compared to unproductive plots.

DISCUSSION: Therefore, mulching of plots resulted in a microbially mediated PSF that enhances mineral weathering and non-symbiotic N fixation, and in turn helps transform unproductive plots into productive plots to ensure rapid restoration of the forest ecosystem in a harsh boreal environment.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Inchauregui RA, Tallapragada K, BJ Parker (2023)

Aphid facultative symbionts confer no protection against the fungal entomopathogen Batkoa apiculata.

PloS one, 18(5):e0286095 pii:PONE-D-23-00043.

Fungi in the family Entomophthoraceae are prevalent pathogens of aphids. Facultative symbiotic bacteria harbored by aphids, including Spiroplasma sp. and Regiella insecticola, have been shown to make their hosts more resistant to infection with the fungal pathogen Pandora neoaphidis. How far this protection extends against other species of fungi in the family Entomophthoraceae is unknown. Here we isolated a strain of the fungal pathogen Batkoa apiculata infecting a natural population of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and confirmed its identity by sequencing the 28S rRNA gene. We then infected a panel of aphids each harboring a different species or strain of endosymbiotic bacteria to test whether aphid symbionts protect against B. apiculata. We found no evidence of symbiont-mediated protection against this pathogen, and our data suggest that some symbionts make aphids more susceptible to infection. This finding is relevant to our understanding of this important model of host-microbe interactions, and we discuss our results in the context of aphid-microbe ecological and evolutionary dynamics.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Zhou Y, Wei M, Li Y, et al (2023)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve growth and tolerance of Platycladus orientalis under lead stress.

International journal of phytoremediation [Epub ahead of print].

Platycladus orientalis is a significant woody plant for phytoremediation in heavy metals contaminated soils. The growth and tolerance of host plants under the lead (Pb) stress were enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). To evaluate the adjustment by AMF on growth and activity of antioxidant system of P. orientalis under Pb stress. The two-factor pot experiment was conducted with three AM fungal treatments (noninoculated, Rhizophagus irregularis, and Funneliformis mosseae) and four Pb levels (0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg kg[-1]). AMF increased dry weight, phosphorus uptake, root vitality, and total chlorophyll content of P. orientalis in spite of Pb stress. Compared with nonmycorrhizal treatments, mycorrhizal P. orientalis had lower H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents under Pb stress. AMF increased Pb uptake in roots and decreased the Pb translating to the shoots yet under Pb stress. Total glutathione and ascorbate in roots of P. orientalis were decreased by AMF inoculation. Mycorrhizal P. orientalis had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in shoots and roots than nonmycorrhizal counterparts. Mycorrhizal P. orientalis under Pb stress showed higher expression of PoGST1 and PoGST2 in roots than that in CK treatments. Future studies will explore the function of induced tolerance genes by AMF of P. orientalis under Pb stress.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Cornwallis CK, van 't Padje A, Ellers J, et al (2023)

Symbioses shape feeding niches and diversification across insects.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

For over 300 million years, insects have relied on symbiotic microbes for nutrition and defence. However, it is unclear whether specific ecological conditions have repeatedly favoured the evolution of symbioses, and how this has influenced insect diversification. Here, using data on 1,850 microbe-insect symbioses across 402 insect families, we found that symbionts have allowed insects to specialize on a range of nutrient-imbalanced diets, including phloem, blood and wood. Across diets, the only limiting nutrient consistently associated with the evolution of obligate symbiosis was B vitamins. The shift to new diets, facilitated by symbionts, had mixed consequences for insect diversification. In some cases, such as herbivory, it resulted in spectacular species proliferation. In other niches, such as strict blood feeding, diversification has been severely constrained. Symbioses therefore appear to solve widespread nutrient deficiencies for insects, but the consequences for insect diversification depend on the feeding niche that is invaded.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Chan WY, Rudd D, MJ van Oppen (2023)

Spatial metabolomics for symbiotic marine invertebrates.

Life science alliance, 6(8): pii:6/8/e202301900.

Microbial symbionts frequently localize within specific body structures or cell types of their multicellular hosts. This spatiotemporal niche is critical to host health, nutrient exchange, and fitness. Measuring host-microbe metabolite exchange has conventionally relied on tissue homogenates, eliminating dimensionality and dampening analytical sensitivity. We have developed a mass spectrometry imaging workflow for a soft- and hard-bodied cnidarian animal capable of revealing the host and symbiont metabolome in situ, without the need for a priori isotopic labelling or skeleton decalcification. The mass spectrometry imaging method provides critical functional insights that cannot be gleaned from bulk tissue analyses or other presently available spatial methods. We show that cnidarian hosts may regulate microalgal symbiont acquisition and rejection through specific ceramides distributed throughout the tissue lining the gastrovascular cavity. The distribution pattern of betaine lipids showed that once resident, symbionts primarily reside in light-exposed tentacles to generate photosynthate. Spatial patterns of these metabolites also revealed that symbiont identity can drive host metabolism.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Guercio AM, Palayam M, N Shabek (2023)

Strigolactones: diversity, perception, and hydrolysis.

Phytochemistry reviews : proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe, 22(2):339-360.

Strigolactones (SLs) are a unique and novel class of phytohormones that regulate numerous processes of growth and development in plants. Besides their endogenous functions as hormones, SLs are exuded by plant roots to stimulate critical interactions with symbiotic fungi but can also be exploited by parasitic plants to trigger their seed germination. In the past decade, since their discovery as phytohormones, rapid progress has been made in understanding the SL biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Of particular interest are the diversification of natural SLs and their exact mode of perception, selectivity, and hydrolysis by their dedicated receptors in plants. Here we provide an overview of the emerging field of SL perception with a focus on the diversity of canonical, non-canonical, and synthetic SL probes. Moreover, this review offers useful structural insights into SL perception, the precise molecular adaptations that define receptor-ligand specificities, and the mechanisms of SL hydrolysis and its attenuation by downstream signaling components.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Hantjidis P (2023)

Patient education: A symbiotic relationship.

Canadian pharmacists journal : CPJ = Revue des pharmaciens du Canada : RPC, 156(3):115-116 pii:10.1177_17151635231165293.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Kelly S, Hansen SB, Rübsam H, et al (2023)

A glycan receptor kinase facilitates intracellular accommodation of arbuscular mycorrhiza and symbiotic rhizobia in the legume Lotus japonicus.

PLoS biology, 21(5):e3002127 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-22-01285 [Epub ahead of print].

Receptors that distinguish the multitude of microbes surrounding plants in the environment enable dynamic responses to the biotic and abiotic conditions encountered. In this study, we identify and characterise a glycan receptor kinase, EPR3a, closely related to the exopolysaccharide receptor EPR3. Epr3a is up-regulated in roots colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and is able to bind glucans with a branching pattern characteristic of surface-exposed fungal glucans. Expression studies with cellular resolution show localised activation of the Epr3a promoter in cortical root cells containing arbuscules. Fungal infection and intracellular arbuscule formation are reduced in epr3a mutants. In vitro, the EPR3a ectodomain binds cell wall glucans in affinity gel electrophoresis assays. In microscale thermophoresis (MST) assays, rhizobial exopolysaccharide binding is detected with affinities comparable to those observed for EPR3, and both EPR3a and EPR3 bind a well-defined β-1,3/β-1,6 decasaccharide derived from exopolysaccharides of endophytic and pathogenic fungi. Both EPR3a and EPR3 function in the intracellular accommodation of microbes. However, contrasting expression patterns and divergent ligand affinities result in distinct functions in AM colonisation and rhizobial infection in Lotus japonicus. The presence of Epr3a and Epr3 genes in both eudicot and monocot plant genomes suggest a conserved function of these receptor kinases in glycan perception.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Luchetti A, Castellani LG, Toscani AM, et al (2023)

Characterization of an accessory plasmid of Sinorhizobium meliloti and its two replication-modules.

PloS one, 18(5):e0285505 pii:PONE-D-22-33717.

Rhizobia are Gram-negative bacteria known for their ability to fix atmospheric N2 in symbiosis with leguminous plants. Current evidence shows that rhizobia carry in most cases a variable number of plasmids, containing genes necessary for symbiosis or free-living, a common feature being the presence of several plasmid replicons within the same strain. For many years, we have been studying the mobilization properties of pSmeLPU88b from the strain Sinorhizobium meliloti LPU88, an isolate from Argentina. To advance in the characterization of pSmeLPU88b plasmid, the full sequence was obtained. pSmeLPU88b is 35.9 kb in size, had an average GC % of 58.6 and 31 CDS. Two replication modules were identified in silico: one belonging to the repABC type, and the other to the repC. The replication modules presented high DNA identity to the replication modules from plasmid pMBA9a present in an S. meliloti isolate from Canada. In addition, three CDS presenting identity with recombinases and with toxin-antitoxin systems were found downstream of the repABC system. It is noteworthy that these CDS present the same genetic structure in pSmeLPU88b and in other rhizobial plasmids. Moreover, in all cases they are found downstream of the repABC operon. By cloning each replication system in suicide plasmids, we demonstrated that each of them can support plasmid replication in the S. meliloti genetic background, but with different stability behavior. Interestingly, while incompatibility analysis of the cloned rep systems results in the loss of the parental module, both obtained plasmids can coexist together.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Cheng Z, Shi J, He Y, et al (2023)

Enhanced soil function and health by soybean root microbial communities during in situ remediation of Cd-contaminated soil with the application of soil amendments.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The interactions between soil microbiomes at various trophic levels are essential for restoring soil functions. Legumes are considered as "pioneer crops" in degraded or contaminated soils because they can fix nitrogen through symbiotic relationships with rhizobacteria, which promotes soil fertility. However, little is known about the abilities of legumes to contribute to the health of soil contaminated with Cadmium (Cd). In this research, we applied a soil amendment (commercial Mg-Ca-Si Conditioner, CMC) at two rates (1,500 and 3,000 kg ha[-1]) in a Cd-contaminated soybean field. Bulk and rhizosphere soil samples were collected to assess the amendment-induced effects on four microbial lineages (bacteria, fungi, AMF, and nematodes) and their soil functions including cadmium stabilization, nutrient cycling, and pathogen control. Compared with the control, both CMC application rates increased the pH and reduced labile Cd fraction in the bulk and rhizosphere soils. Although the total Cd concentrations in the soil were similar, the Cd accumulation in the grains was significantly reduced in treatments of soil amendments. It was observed that application of CMC can significantly reduce the AMF diversity, but increase the diversity of other three communities. Moreover, the biodiversity within keystone modules (identified by co-occurrence network analysis) played key roles in driving soil multifunctionality. Specifically, key beneficial groups in module 2 such as Aggregicoccus (Bacteria), Sordariomycetes (Fungi), Glomus (AMF), and Bursaphelenchus (Nematode) were strongly associated with soil multifunctionality. By co-culturing bacterial suspensions with the soybean root rot pathogen Fusarium solani in the in vitro assays, we experimentally validated that application of CMC promoted the suppression of soil bacterial community on pathogens by inhibiting the mycelium growth and spore germination. Also, the bacterial community was more resistant to Cd stress in soils receiving CMC amendment. Our findings provide valuable theoretical references for enhancing soil functions and health via applying a soil amendment (CMC) during Cd-contaminated soil remediation.IMPORTANCERestoration of microbiome-driven soil functions and health is of great importance during Cd-contaminated soil remediation via soil amendment. Soybean and its symbiotic mutualism can provide abundant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to relieve nutrient deficiency of Cd-contaminated soil. This study provides a novel perspective on the potential role of applying a soil amendment (CMC) in enhancing the functions and health of Cd-contaminated soils. Our results showed the distinct differences in soil microbial community responding to amendment-induced changes in edaphic properties. The biodiversity within keystone modules had major contributions to the maintenance of the soil multifunctionality and health. Additionally, higher CMC application rate showed more beneficial effects. Collectively, our results enhance our understanding about the effects of applying CMC, together with soybean rotation, to enhance and maintain soil functions and health during the field Cd stabilization process.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Arzuyan A, Lara R, M Fu (2023)

Introduction to the special section: Supervision in publicly funded settings: Best practices.

Psychological services, 20(2):203-205.

Supervision of trainee and early career psychologists is the epitome of clinical skill cultivation and mentorship of knowledge passed from an experienced professional supervisor to supervisee. However, supervision is not only a "one-way street" as it has been traditionally regarded. Rather, the supervisor-supervisee dynamic is variable, ranging from didactic, to symbiotic, to everything in between. Our collection of articles explores the various forms of clinical supervision in publicly funded settings. They include integrating three low burden multicomponent supervision approaches, a Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) model (Ogbeide et al., 2023), metacognitive reflection and insight therapy, use of an Adlerian-informed supervision method that integrates the Respectfully Curious Inquiry/Therapeutic Encouragement (RCI/TE) framework, and Heron's Six Category Intervention Framework (Hamm et al., 2023; McCarty et al., 2023; McMahon et al., 2023; Schriger et al., 2023). Furthermore, this special section applies to various demographics of supervisees, clients, and supervisee-client dyads including the military culture setting, youth with publicly funded insurance, clients with psychosis, trainees with disabilities, and frontline staff at nonprofit organizations (Dawson & Chunga, 2023; Hamm et al., 2023; Reddy et al., 2023; Schriger et al., 2023; Wilbur et al., 2023). Barriers tackled include administrative and fiscal challenges, reduced availability of supervisors, and burnout in highly traumatized environments (Dawson & Chunga, 2023; McCarty et al., 2023; Schriger et al., 2023). Finally, these diverse clinical frameworks of distinct supervisor-supervisee-client pairings foster increasing feelings of connection, clinical competence, disability-affirmative training environments, supervisee self-awareness and self-efficacy, and increased antiracism in supervision (McCarty et al., 2023; McDonald et al., 2023; Wilbur et al., 2023). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Zeng SY, Liu YF, Liu JH, et al (2023)

Potential Effects of Akkermansia Muciniphila in Aging and Aging-Related Diseases: Current Evidence and Perspectives.

Aging and disease pii:AD.2023.0325 [Epub ahead of print].

Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) is an anaerobic bacterium that widely colonizes the mucus layer of the human and animal gut. The role of this symbiotic bacterium in host metabolism, inflammation, and cancer immunotherapy has been extensively investigated over the past 20 years. Recently, a growing number of studies have revealed a link between A. muciniphila, and aging and aging-related diseases (ARDs). Research in this area is gradually shifting from correlation analysis to exploration of causal relationships. Here, we systematically reviewed the association of A. muciniphila with aging and ARDs (including vascular degeneration, neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis, chronic kidney disease, and type 2 diabetes). Furthermore, we summarize the potential mechanisms of action of A. muciniphila and offer perspectives for future studies.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Wang X, Teng C, Lyu K, et al (2023)

Application of AtMYB75 as a reporter gene in the study of symbiosis between tomato and Funneliformis mosseae.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Composite plants containing transgenic hairy roots produced with Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation have become an important method to study the interaction between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Not all hairy roots induced by A. rhizogenes are transgenic, however, which leads to requirement of a binary vector to carry a reporter gene to distinguish transgenic roots from non-transformed hairy roots. The beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and fluorescent protein gene often are used as reporter markers in the process of hairy root transformation, but they require expensive chemical reagents or imaging equipment. Alternatively, AtMYB75, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor from Arabidopsis thaliana, recently has been used as a reporter gene in hairy root transformation in some leguminous plants and can cause anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic hairy roots. Whether AtMYB75 can be used as a reporter gene in the hairy roots of tomato and if the anthocyanins accumulating in the roots will affect AMF colonization, however, are still unknown. In this study, the one-step cutting method was used for tomato hairy root transformation by A.rhizogenes. It is faster and has a higher transformation efficiency than the conventional method. AtMYB75 was used as a reporter gene in tomato hairy root transformation. The results showed that the overexpression of AtMYB75 caused anthocyanin accumulation in the transformed hairy roots. Anthocyanin accumulation in the transgenic hairy roots did not affect their colonization by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Funneliformis mosseae strain BGC NM04A, and there was no difference in the expression of the AMF colonization marker gene SlPT4 in AtMYB75 transgenic roots and wild-type roots. Hence, AtMYB75 can be used as a reporter gene in tomato hairy root transformation and in the study of symbiosis between tomato and AMF.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Moggioli G, Panossian B, Sun Y, et al (2023)

Distinct genomic routes underlie transitions to specialised symbiotic lifestyles in deep-sea annelid worms.

Nature communications, 14(1):2814.

Bacterial symbioses allow annelids to colonise extreme ecological niches, such as hydrothermal vents and whale falls. Yet, the genetic principles sustaining these symbioses remain unclear. Here, we show that different genomic adaptations underpin the symbioses of phylogenetically related annelids with distinct nutritional strategies. Genome compaction and extensive gene losses distinguish the heterotrophic symbiosis of the bone-eating worm Osedax frankpressi from the chemoautotrophic symbiosis of deep-sea Vestimentifera. Osedax's endosymbionts complement many of the host's metabolic deficiencies, including the loss of pathways to recycle nitrogen and synthesise some amino acids. Osedax's endosymbionts possess the glyoxylate cycle, which could allow more efficient catabolism of bone-derived nutrients and the production of carbohydrates from fatty acids. Unlike in most Vestimentifera, innate immunity genes are reduced in O. frankpressi, which, however, has an expansion of matrix metalloproteases to digest collagen. Our study supports that distinct nutritional interactions influence host genome evolution differently in highly specialised symbioses.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Li S, Yu X, Fan B, et al (2023)

A gut-isolated Enterococcus strain (HcM7) triggers the expression of antimicrobial peptides that aid resistance to nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Hyphantria cunea larvae.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Commensal microorganisms are widely distributed in insect gut tissues and play important roles in to host nutrition, metabolism, reproductive regulation and, especially the immune functioning and tolerance to pathogens. Consequently, gut microbiota represent a promising resource for the development of microbial-based products for pest control and management. However, the interactions among host immunity, entomopathogen infections, and gut microbiota remain poorly understood for many arthropod pests.

RESULTS: We previously isolated an Enterococcus strain (HcM7) from Hyphantria cunea larvae guts that increased the survival rates of larvae challenged with nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV). Here, we further investigated whether this Enterococcus strain stimulates a protective immune response against NPV proliferation. Infection bioassays demonstrated that the re-introduction of the HcM7 strain to germ-free larvae pre-activated the expression of several antimicrobial peptides (particularly H. cunea gloverin 1, HcGlv1), resulting in the significant repression of virus replication in host guts and hemolymph, and consequently improved host survivorship after NPV infection. Furthermore, silencing of the HcGlv1 gene by RNA interference markedly enhanced the deleterious effects of NPV infection, revealing a role of this gut symbiont-induced gene in host defenses against pathogenic infections.

CONCLUSION: These results show that some gut microorganisms can stimulate host immune systems, thereby contributing to resistance to entomopathogens. Furthermore, HcM7, as a functional symbiotic bacteria of H. cunea larvae, may be a potential target for increasing the effectiveness of biocontrol agents against this devastating pest.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Xu Y, Teng Y, Wang X, et al (2023)

Endogenous biohydrogen from a rhizobium-legume association drives microbial biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyl in contaminated soil.

Environment international, 176:107962 pii:S0160-4120(23)00235-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Endogenous hydrogen (H2) is produced through rhizobium-legume associations in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide through dinitrogen fixation. In turn, this gas may alter rhizosphere microbial community structure and modulate biogeochemical cycles. However, very little is understood about the role that this H2 leaking to the rhizosphere plays in shaping the persistent organic pollutants degrading microbes in contaminated soils. Here, we combined DNA-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) with metagenomics to explore how endogenous H2 from the symbiotic rhizobium-alfalfa association drives the microbial biodegradation of tetrachlorobiphenyl PCB 77 in a contaminated soil. The results showed that PCB77 biodegradation efficiency increased significantly in soils treated with endogenous H2. Based on metagenomes of [13]C-enriched DNA fractions, endogenous H2 selected bacteria harboring PCB degradation genes. Functional gene annotation allowed the reconstruction of several complete pathways for PCB catabolism, with different taxa conducting successive metabolic steps of PCB metabolism. The enrichment through endogenous H2 of hydrogenotrophic Pseudomonas and Magnetospirillum encoding biphenyl oxidation genes drove PCB biodegradation. This study proves that endogenous H2 is a significant energy source for active PCB-degrading communities and suggests that elevated H2 can influence the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of the legume rhizosphere.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Montes-Luz B, Conrado AC, Ellingsen JK, et al (2023)

Acetylene Reduction Assay: A Measure of Nitrogenase Activity in Plants and Bacteria.

Current protocols, 3(5):e766.

Nitrogen is one of the most abundant elements in the biosphere, but its gaseous form is not biologically available to many organisms, including plants and animals. Diazotrophic microorganisms can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form that can be absorbed by plants in a process called biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). BNF is catalyzed by the enzyme nitrogenase, which not only reduces N2 to NH3 , but also reduces other substrates such as acetylene. The acetylene reduction assay (ARA) can be used to measure nitrogenase activity in diazotrophic organisms, either in symbiotic associations or in their free-living state. The technique uses gas chromatography to measure the reduction of acetylene to ethylene by nitrogenase in a simple, quick, and inexpensive manner. Here, we demonstrate how to: prepare nodulated soybean plants and culture free-living Azospirillum brasilense for the ARA, use the gas chromatograph to detect the ethylene formed, and calculate the nitrogenase activity based on the peaks generated by the chromatograph. The methods shown here using example organisms can be easily adapted to other nodulating plants and diazotrophic bacteria. © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Acetylene reduction assay in root nodules Basic Protocol 2: Acetylene reduction assay using diazotrophic bacteria Basic Protocol 3: Calculation of nitrogenase activity Support Protocol 1: Production of acetylene from calcium carbide Support Protocol 2: Calibration of the gas chromatograph Support Protocol 3: Total protein quantification.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Volobueva OG, Trukhachev V, Belopukhov S, et al (2023)

Comparative study of symbiotic activity of legumes when using Risotorphin and Epin-extra.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 83:e264218 pii:S1519-69842023000100469.

In a vegetation experiment with soybean plants of the Svapa and Mageva varieties and in a field experiment with bean plants of the Geliada and Shokoladnitsa varieties, we studied the effect of pre-sowing treatment of the seeds of these plants with Rizotorfin and Epin-extra on the nitrogenase activity of the nodules of these plants and their ultrastructure. Analysis of the ultrastructure of the nodule tissue of beans and soybeans was carried out in the flowering phase. It was found that the highest indices of the mass and number of nodules and the activity of nitrogenase in them were found in bean plants of the Heliada cultivar when the seeds were treated with Epin-extra against the background of inoculation with Rizotorfin, where the largest area of symbiosomes, volutin and their number was noted in the nodules. Beans of the Shokoladnitsa variety showed the protective effect of Rizotorfin. In the nodules of soybean plants of the Svapa variety, the seeds of which were treated with Epin-extra against the background of inoculation with Rizotorfin, the presence of a large number of symbiosomes, bacteroids, volutin inclusions with a larger area and a minimum number of inclusions of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) was noted, and the highest indicators of symbiotic activity. Soybean plants of the Mageva variety showed the protective effect of Rizotorfin. The efficiency of the symbiotic system was determined by the number and weight of nodules and the activity of the nitrogenase enzyme.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Xu M, Cheng K, Xiao B, et al (2023)

Bacterial Communities Vary from Different Scleractinian Coral Species and between Bleached and Non-Bleached Corals.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Bleaching is one of the most relevant factors implicated in the integrity of coral reef ecosystems, with the increasing frequency and intensity of damaging events representing a serious threat to reef biodiversity. Here, we analyzed changes in coral-associated bacteria from three types of non-bleached and bleached scleractinian corals (Acropora digitifera, Galaxea fascicularis, and Porites pukoensis) in Hainan Luhuitou peninsula coastal areas. The community structure of symbiotic bacteria differed significantly among the three apparently healthy corals. The bleached corals had higher bacterial alpha diversity and some specific bacteria genera, including Ruegeria, Methyloceanibacter, Filomicrobium, Halioglobus, Rubripirellula, Rhodopirellula, Silicimonas, Blastopirellula, Sva0996 marine group, Woeseia, and unclassified_c_Gammaproteobacteria, were consistently increased in bleached groups. Network analysis revealed significantly different degrees of modularity between bleached and non-bleached groups at the bacterial genus level, and a higher proportion of links was dominated by positive co-occurrences. Functional prediction analysis illustrated that coral-associated bacteria remained relatively consistent in the bleached and non-bleached groups. Structure equation modeling revealed that the bacterial community diversity and function were directly influenced by host and environment factors. These findings suggested that coral-associated bacterial responses to bleaching occur in a host-dependent manner, informing novel strategies for restoring coral and aiding adaption to bleaching stress. IMPORTANCE Accumulating evidence indicates that coral-associated bacteria play an important role in the health of holobionts. However, the variability of the symbiotic bacterial community structure among coral species with different coral health statuses remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated three apparent non-bleached (healthy) and bleached coral species (sampled in situ), involving related symbiotic bacterial profiles, including composition, alpha diversity, network relationship, and potential function. Structural equation modeling analysis was used to analyze the relationship between coral status and abiotic and biotic factors. The bacterial community structure of different groups was shown to exhibit host-specific traits. Both host and environmental impacts had primary effects on coral-associated microbial communities. Future studies are needed to identify the mechanisms that mediate divergent microbial consortia.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Wan T, Wang Y, He K, et al (2023)

Microbial sensing in the intestine.

Protein & cell pii:7164428 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota plays a key role in host health and disease, particularly through their interactions with the immune system. Intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the symbiotic relationships between the host and the diverse gut microbiota, which is influenced by the highly co-evolved immune-microbiota interactions. The first step of the interaction between the host and the gut microbiota is the sensing of the gut microbes by the host immune system. In this review, we describe the cells of the host immune system and the proteins that sense the components and metabolites of the gut microbes. We further highlight the essential roles of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the nuclear receptors expressed in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the intestine-resident immune cells. We also discuss the mechanisms by which the disruption of microbial sensing because of genetic or environmental factors causes human diseases such as the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Joseph R, Bansal K, NO Keyhani (2023)

Host switching by an ambrosia beetle fungal mutualist: Mycangial colonization of indigenous beetles by the invasive laurel wilt fungal pathogen.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Ambrosia beetles require their fungal symbiotic partner as their cultivated (farmed) food source in tree galleries. While most fungal-beetle partners do not kill the host trees they inhabit, since their introduction (invasion) into the United states around ~2002, the invasive beetle Xyleborus glabratus has vectored its mutualist partner (but plant pathogenic) fungus, Harringtonia lauricola, resulting in the deaths of over 300 million trees. Concerningly, indigenous beetles have been caught bearing H. lauricola. Here, we show colonization of the mycangia of the indigenous X. affinis ambrosia beetle by H. lauricola. Mycangial colonization occurred within 1 h of feeding, with similar levels seen for H. lauricola as found for the native X. affinis-R. arxii fungal partner. Fungal mycangial occupancy was stable over time and after removal of the fungal source, but showed rapid turnover when additional fungal cells were available. Microscopic visualization revealed two pre-oral mycangial pouches of ~100-200 × 25-50 μm/each, with narrow entry channels of 25-50 × 3-10 μm. Fungi within the mycangia underwent a dimorphic transition from filamentous/blastospore growth to yeast-like budding with alterations to membrane structures. These data identify the characteristics of ambrosia beetle mycangial colonization, implicating turnover as a mechanism for host switching of H. lauricola to other ambrosia beetle species.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Hossain I, Akash SR, Faruk O, et al (2023)

Evaluating Gut Microbiota Modification as a Next-Generation Therapy for Obesity and Diabetes.

Current diabetes reviews pii:CDR-EPUB-131782 [Epub ahead of print].

The human body is a complex ecosystem that thrives on symbiosis. It is estimated that around 1014 commensal microorganisms inhabit the human body, with the gut microbiota being one of the most diverse and complex populations of bacteria. This community is thought to comprise over a thousand different species that play a crucial role in the development of critical human diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, mental depression, hypertension, and others. The gut microbiota has been identified as one of the most recent contributors to these metabolic disorders. With the emergence of inexpensive and high-performance sequence technology, our understanding of the function of the intestinal microbiome in host metabolism regulation and the development of (cardio) metabolic diseases has increased significantly. The symbiotic relationship between the gut microbiota and the host is essential for properly developing the human metabolic system. However, if this balance is disrupted by various factors such as infection, diet, exercise, sleep patterns, or exposure to antibiotics, it can lead to the development of various diseases in the body, including obesity and diabetes type 1 and 2. While many approaches and medications have been developed globally to treat these diseases, none have proven to be entirely effective, and many show side effects. Therefore, scientists believe that treating the gut microbiota using tried-and-true methods is the best option for combating obesity and diabetes. In this study, we aim to identify several feasible ways and prospects for gut microbiota therapy that can shape a new format for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Atagozli T, Elliott DE, MN Ince (2023)

Helminth Lessons in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD).

Biomedicines, 11(4): pii:biomedicines11041200.

Helminths are multicellular invertebrates that colonize the gut of many vertebrate animals including humans. This colonization can result in pathology, which requires treatment. It can also lead to a commensal and possibly even a symbiotic relationship where the helminth and the host benefit from each other's presence. Epidemiological data have linked helminth exposure to protection from immune disorders that include a wide range of diseases, such as allergies, autoimmune illnesses, and idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the gut, which are grouped as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Treatment of moderate to severe IBD involves the use of immune modulators and biologics, which can cause life-threatening complications. In this setting, their safety profile makes helminths or helminth products attractive as novel therapeutic approaches to treat IBD or other immune disorders. Helminths stimulate T helper-2 (Th2) and immune regulatory pathways, which are targeted in IBD treatment. Epidemiological explorations, basic science studies, and clinical research on helminths can lead to the development of safe, potent, and novel therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat IBD in addition to other immune disorders.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Hauer MA, Breusing C, Trembath-Reichert E, et al (2023)

Geography, not lifestyle, explains the population structure of free-living and host-associated deep-sea hydrothermal vent snail symbionts.

Microbiome, 11(1):106.

BACKGROUND: Marine symbioses are predominantly established through horizontal acquisition of microbial symbionts from the environment. However, genetic and functional comparisons of free-living populations of symbionts to their host-associated counterparts are sparse. Here, we assembled the first genomes of the chemoautotrophic gammaproteobacterial symbionts affiliated with the deep-sea snail Alviniconcha hessleri from two separate hydrothermal vent fields of the Mariana Back-Arc Basin. We used phylogenomic and population genomic methods to assess sequence and gene content variation between free-living and host-associated symbionts.

RESULTS: Our phylogenomic analyses show that the free-living and host-associated symbionts of A. hessleri from both vent fields are populations of monophyletic strains from a single species. Furthermore, genetic structure and gene content analyses indicate that these symbiont populations are differentiated by vent field rather than by lifestyle.

CONCLUSION: Together, this work suggests that, despite the potential influence of host-mediated acquisition and release processes on horizontally transmitted symbionts, geographic isolation and/or adaptation to local habitat conditions are important determinants of symbiont population structure and intra-host composition. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Moeller FU, Herbold CW, Schintlmeister A, et al (2023)

Taurine as a key intermediate for host-symbiont interaction in the tropical sponge Ianthella basta.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Marine sponges are critical components of marine benthic fauna assemblages, where their filter-feeding and reef-building capabilities provide bentho-pelagic coupling and crucial habitat. As potentially the oldest representation of a metazoan-microbe symbiosis, they also harbor dense, diverse, and species-specific communities of microbes, which are increasingly recognized for their contributions to dissolved organic matter (DOM) processing. Recent omics-based studies of marine sponge microbiomes have proposed numerous pathways of dissolved metabolite exchange between the host and symbionts within the context of the surrounding environment, but few studies have sought to experimentally interrogate these pathways. By using a combination of metaproteogenomics and laboratory incubations coupled with isotope-based functional assays, we showed that the dominant gammaproteobacterial symbiont, 'Candidatus Taurinisymbion ianthellae', residing in the marine sponge, Ianthella basta, expresses a pathway for the import and dissimilation of taurine, a ubiquitously occurring sulfonate metabolite in marine sponges. 'Candidatus Taurinisymbion ianthellae' incorporates taurine-derived carbon and nitrogen while, at the same time, oxidizing the dissimilated sulfite into sulfate for export. Furthermore, we found that taurine-derived ammonia is exported by the symbiont for immediate oxidation by the dominant ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeal symbiont, 'Candidatus Nitrosospongia ianthellae'. Metaproteogenomic analyses also suggest that 'Candidatus Taurinisymbion ianthellae' imports DMSP and possesses both pathways for DMSP demethylation and cleavage, enabling it to use this compound as a carbon and sulfur source for biomass, as well as for energy conservation. These results highlight the important role of biogenic sulfur compounds in the interplay between Ianthella basta and its microbial symbionts.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Phung LT, Kitwetcharoen H, Chamnipa N, et al (2023)

Changes in the chemical compositions and biological properties of kombucha beverages made from black teas and pineapple peels and cores.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7859.

Several raw materials have been used as partial supplements or entire replacements for the main ingredients of kombucha to improve the biological properties of the resulting kombucha beverage. This study used pineapple peels and cores (PPC), byproducts of pineapple processing, as alternative raw materials instead of sugar for kombucha production. Kombuchas were produced from fusions of black tea and PPC at different ratios, and their chemical profiles and biological properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were determined and compared with the control kombucha without PPC supplementation. The results showed that PPC contained high amounts of beneficial substances, including sugars, polyphenols, organic acids, vitamins, and minerals. An analysis of the microbial community in a kombucha SCOBY (Symbiotic Cultures of Bacteria and Yeasts) using next-generation sequencing revealed that Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter were the most predominant acetic acid bacteria. Furthermore, Dekkera and Bacillus were also the prominent yeast and bacteria in the kombucha SCOBY. A comparative analysis was performed for kombucha products fermented using black tea and a fusion of black tea and PPC, and the results revealed that the kombucha made from the black tea and PPC infusion exhibited a higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the control kombucha. The antimicrobial properties of the kombucha products made from black tea and the PPC infusion were also greater than those of the control. Several volatile compounds that contributed to the flavor, aroma, and beneficial health properties, such as esters, carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones, were detected in kombucha products made from a fusion of black tea and PPC. This study shows that PPC exhibits high potential as a supplement to the raw material infusion used with black tea for functional kombucha production.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Jaeger ACH, Hartmann M, Six J, et al (2023)

Contrasting sensitivity of soil bacterial and fungal community composition to one year of water limitation in Scots pine mesocosms.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7163209 [Epub ahead of print].

The soil microbiome is crucial for regulating biogeochemical processes and can thus strongly influence tree health, especially under stress conditions. However, little is known about the effect of prolonged water deficit on soil microbial communities during the development of saplings. We assessed the response of prokaryotic and fungal communities to different levels of experimental water limitation in mesocosms with Scots pine saplings. We combined analyses of physicochemical soil properties and tree growth with DNA metabarcoding of soil microbial communities throughout four seasons. Seasonal changes in soil temperature and soil water content and a decreasing soil pH strongly influenced the composition of microbial communities but not their total abundance. Contrasting levels of soil water contents gradually altered the soil microbial community structure over the four seasons. Results indicated that prokaryotic communities were less resistant to water limitation than fungal communities. Water limitation promoted the proliferation of desiccation-tolerant, oligotrophic taxa. Moreover, water limitation and an associated increase in soil C/N ratio induced a shift in the potential lifestyle of taxa from symbiotic to saprotrophic. Overall, water limitation appeared to alter soil microbial communities involved in nutrient cycling, pointing to potential consequences for forest health affected by prolonged episodes of drought.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Vaziri GJ, Jones MM, Carr HA, et al (2023)

Out of the stable: Social disruption and concurrent shifts in the feral mare (Equus caballus) fecal microbiota.

Ecology and evolution, 13(5):e10079 pii:ECE310079.

The disruption of animals' symbiotic bacterial communities (their microbiota) has been associated with myriad factors including changes to the diet, hormone levels, and various stressors. The maintenance of healthy bacterial communities may be especially challenging for social species as their microbiotas are also affected by group membership, social relationships, microbial transfer between individuals, and social stressors such as increased competition and rank maintenance. We investigated the effects of increased social instability, as determined by the number of group changes made by females, on the microbiota in free-living, feral horses (Equus caballus) on Shackleford Banks, a barrier island off the North Carolina coast. Females leaving their groups to join new ones had fecal microbial communities that were similarly diverse but compositionally different than those of females that did not change groups. Changing groups was also associated with the increased abundance of a several bacterial genera and families. These changes may be significant as horses are heavily dependent upon their microbial communities for nutrient absorption. Though we cannot identify the particular mechanism(s) driving these changes, to the best of our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate an association between acute social perturbations and the microbiota in a free-ranging mammal.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Quan L, Shi L, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Ectomycorrhizal fungi, two species of Laccaria, differentially block the migration and accumulation of cadmium and copper in Pinus densiflora.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)01124-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The root tips of host plant species can establish ectomycorrhizae with their fungal partners, thereby altering the responses of the host plants to heavy metal (HM) toxicity. Here, two species of Laccaria, L. bicolor and L. japonica, were investigated in symbiosis with Pinus densiflora to study their potential for promotion of phytoremediation of HM-contaminated soils in pot experiments. The results showed that L. japonica had significantly higher dry biomass than L. bicolor in mycelia grown on modified Melin-Norkrans medium containing elevated levels of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu). Meanwhile, the accumulations of Cd or Cu in L. bicolor mycelia were much higher than that in L. japonica at the same level of Cd or Cu. Therefore, L. japonica displayed a stronger tolerance to HM toxicity than L. bicolor in situ. Compared with non-mycorrhizal P. densiflora seedlings, inoculation with two Laccaria species significantly increased the growth of P. densiflora seedlings in absence or presence of HM. The mantle of host roots blocked the uptake and migration of HM, which led to the decrease of Cd and Cu accumulation in the P. densiflora shoots and roots, except for the root Cd accumulation of L. bicolor-mycorrhizal plants when 25 mg kg[-1] Cd exposure. Furthermore, HM distribution in mycelia showed Cd and Cu are mainly retained in the cell walls of mycelia. These results provide strong evidence that the two species of Laccaria in this system may have different strategies to assist host tree against HM toxicity.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Martoni F, Bulman SR, Piper AM, et al (2023)

Insect phylogeny structures the bacterial communities in the microbiome of psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) in Aotearoa New Zealand.

PloS one, 18(5):e0285587 pii:PONE-D-23-09245.

The bacterial microbiome of psyllids has been studied for decades, with a strong focus on the primary and secondary endosymbionts capable of providing essential amino acids for the insects' diet and therefore playing a key role in the insects' ability to radiate on novel plant hosts. Here, we combine metabarcoding analysis of the bacterial communities hosted by psyllids with a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of the insect hosts to determine what factors influence the bacterial diversity of the psyllids' microbiomes, especially in the context of the dispersal and evolutionary radiation of these insects in Aotearoa New Zealand. Using multi-gene phylogenetics with COI, 18S and EF-1α sequences from 102 psyllid species, we confirmed for the first time monophyly for all the six genera of native/endemic Aotearoa New Zealand psyllids, with indications that they derive from at least six dispersal events to the country. This also revealed that, after its ancestral arrival, the genus Powellia has radiated onto a larger and more diverse range of plants than either Psylla or Ctenarytaina, which is uncommon amongst monophyletic psyllids globally. DNA metabarcoding of the bacterial 16S gene here represents the largest dataset analysed to date from psyllids, including 246 individuals from 73 species. This provides novel evidence that bacterial diversity across psyllid species is strongly associated with psyllid phylogenetic structure, and to a lesser degree to their host plant association and geographic distribution. Furthermore, while the strongest co-phylogenetic signals were derived from the primary and secondary symbionts, a signal of phylosymbiosis was still retained among the remaining taxa of the bacterial microbiome, suggesting potential vertical transmission of bacterial lineages previously unknown to have symbiotic roles.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Doin de Moura GG, Mouffok S, Gaudu N, et al (2023)

A selective bottleneck during host entry drives the evolution of new legume symbionts.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:7163001 [Epub ahead of print].

During the emergence of new host-microbe symbioses, microbial fitness results from the ability to complete the different steps of symbiotic life-cycles, where each step imposes specific selective pressures. However, the relative contribution of these different selective pressures to the adaptive trajectories of microbial symbionts are still poorly known. Here we characterised the dynamics of phenotypic adaptation to a simplified symbiotic life-cycle during the experimental evolution of a plant pathogenic bacterium into a legume symbiont. We observed that fast adaptation was predominantly explained by improved competitiveness for host entry, which outweighed adaptation to within-host proliferation. Whole-population sequencing of bacteria at regular time intervals along this evolution experiment revealed the continuous accumulation of new mutations (fuelled by a transient hypermutagenesis phase occurring at each cycle before host entry, a phenomenon described in previous work) and sequential sweeps of cohorts of mutations with similar temporal trajectories. The identification of adaptive mutations within the fixed mutational cohorts showed that several adaptive mutations can co-occur in the same cohort. Moreover, all adaptive mutations improved competitiveness for host entry, while only a subset of those also improved within host proliferation. Computer simulations predict that this effect emerges from the presence of a strong selective bottleneck at host entry occurring before within-host proliferation and just after the hypermutagenesis phase in the rhizosphere. Together, these results show how selective bottlenecks can alter the relative influence of selective pressures acting during bacterial adaptation to multistep infection processes.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Shi H, Yu X, G Cheng (2023)

Impact of the microbiome on mosquito-borne diseases.

Protein & cell pii:7142859 [Epub ahead of print].

Mosquito-borne diseases present a significant threat to human health, with the possibility of outbreaks of new mosquito-borne diseases always looming. Unfortunately, current measures to combat these diseases such as vaccines and drugs are often either unavailable or ineffective. However, recent studies on microbiomes may reveal promising strategies to fight these diseases. In this review, we examine recent advances in our understanding of the effects of both the mosquito and vertebrate microbiomes on mosquito-borne diseases. We argue that the mosquito microbiome can have direct and indirect impacts on the transmission of these diseases, with mosquito symbiotic microorganisms, particularly Wolbachia bacteria, showing potential for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. Moreover, the skin microbiome of vertebrates plays a significant role in mosquito preferences, while the gut microbiome has an impact on the progression of mosquito-borne diseases in humans. As researchers continue to explore the role of microbiomes in mosquito-borne diseases, we highlight some promising future directions for this field. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interplay between mosquitoes, their hosts, pathogens, and the microbiomes of mosquitoes and hosts may hold the key to preventing and controlling mosquito-borne diseases.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Rimskaya-Korsakova NN, Karaseva NP, Osadchiev AA, et al (2023)

The Finding of Pogonophorans (Annelida, Siboglinidae) in the St. Anna Trough (Kara Sea) in an Area of Gas Hydrate Dissociation.

Doklady biological sciences : proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections, 508(1):81-84.

Representatives of pogonophorans (Annelida, Siboglinidae), whose vital activity is provided by symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize methane and hydrogen sulfide, were found in the St. Anna Trough at depths of 539 and 437 m. The finding of pogonophorans suggests high concentrations of methane, which might result from dissociation of bottom gas hydrates under the influence of the influx of warm Atlantic water into the Kara Sea along the St. Anna Trough.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Vorobyeva OA, Ekimova IA, VV Malakhov (2023)

Morphological Organization of Cerata in the Nudibranch Pteraeolidia semperi (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

Doklady biological sciences : proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections, 508(1):72-75.

The morphology of cerata and cnidosacs were studied in the nudibranch mollusk Pteraeolidia semperi (Bergh, 1870). Fine tubules arise from the gastrodermal channel of the digestive gland and contain cells with symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). The cnidosac stores large kleptocnides. Thus, P. semperi provides a unique example of symbiotrophic feeding specialization. Morphological organization of its cerata and the digestive gland demonstrates several adaptations for housing zooxanthellae and providing them with proper conditions for active photosynthesis.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Quigley K, Carey N, C Alvarez Roa (2023)

Physiological Characterization of the Coral Holobiont Using a New Micro-Respirometry Tool.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Metabolic activity, defined as the sum of organismal processes that involve energy, is of critical importance in understanding the function and evolution of life on earth. Measuring organismal metabolic rates is, therefore, at the center of explaining the physiological states of organisms, their ecological roles, and the impact of environmental change on species within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. On coral reefs, measures of metabolism have been used to quantify symbiosis functioning between corals and their obligate algal symbionts (Symbiodiniaceae), as well as assess how environmental stressors, including climate change, will impact coral health. Despite this significance, there is a lack of methods, and therefore data, relating to metabolic rate measurements in coral offspring, likely due to their small size. To address this gap, this study aimed to develop a custom setup for measuring the respiration of small (millimeter size range) marine animal ecologies. This low cost and easy setup should allow for the improved measurement of metabolic rate. This will be essential for applied ecological research utilizing the sexual production of corals for reef restoration.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Refisch A, Sen ZD, Klassert TE, et al (2023)

Microbiome and immuno-metabolic dysregulation in patients with major depressive disorder with atypical clinical presentation.

Neuropharmacology pii:S0028-3908(23)00158-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Depression is highly prevalent (6% 1-year prevalence) and is the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Available treatment options for depression are far from optimal, with response rates only around 50%. This is most likely related to a heterogeneous clinical presentation of major depression disorder (MDD), suggesting different manifestations of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Poorer treatment outcomes to first-line antidepressants were reported in MDD patients endorsing an "atypical" symptom profile that is characterized by preserved reactivity in mood, increased appetite, hypersomnia, a heavy sensation in the limbs, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity. In recent years, evidence has emerged that immunometabolic biological dysregulation is an important underlying pathophysiological mechanism in depression, which maps more consistently to atypical features. In the last few years human microbial residents have emerged as a key influencing variable associated with immunometabolic dysregulations in depression. The microbiome plays a critical role in the training and development of key components of the host's innate and adaptive immune systems, while the immune system orchestrates the maintenance of key features of the host-microbe symbiosis. Moreover, by being a metabolically active ecosystem commensal microbes may have a huge impact on signaling pathways, involved in underlying mechanisms leading to atypical depressive symptoms. In this review, we discuss the interplay between the microbiome and immunometabolic imbalance in the context of atypical depressive symptoms. Although research in this field is in its infancy, targeting biological determinants in more homogeneous clinical presentations of MDD may offer new avenues for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treatment-resistant depression.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )