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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jun 2020 at 01:49 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: symbiosis NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Christensen DG, KL Visick (2020)

Vibrio fischeri: Laboratory Cultivation, Storage, and Common Phenotypic Assays.

Current protocols in microbiology, 57(1):e103.

Vibrio fischeri is a nonpathogenic organism related to pathogenic Vibrio species that can be readily grown and stored with common laboratory equipment. In this article, protocols for routine growth, storage, and phenotypic assessment of V. fischeri, as well as recipes for useful media, are included. Specifically, this article describes procedures and considerations for growth of this microbe in complex and minimal media. It also describes assays for biofilm formation, motility, and bioluminescence, three commonly assessed phenotypes of V. fischeri. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Growth of V. fischeri from frozen stocks Basic Protocol 2: Growth of V. fischeri in rich, undefined liquid medium Alternate Protocol 1: Growth of V. fischeri in minimal medium Basic Protocol 3: Storage of V. fischeri in frozen stocks Basic Protocol 4: Biofilm assay on solid agar Alternate Protocol 2: Biofilm assay in shaking liquid culture Alternate Protocol 3: Biofilm assay in static liquid culture Basic Protocol 5: Motility assay Basic Protocol 6: Luminescence assay.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Claar DC, McDevitt-Irwin JM, Garren M, et al (2020)

Increased diversity and concordant shifts in community structure of coral-associated Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria subjected to chronic human disturbance.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Coral-associated bacteria and endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodiniaceae spp.) are both vitally important for the biological function of corals. Yet little is known about their co-occurrence within corals, how their diversity varies across coral species, or how they are impacted by anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we sampled coral colonies (n = 472) from seven species, encompassing a range of life history traits, across a gradient of chronic human disturbance (n = 11 sites on Kiritimati (Christmas) atoll) in the central equatorial Pacific, and quantified the sequence assemblages and community structure of their associated Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities. Although Symbiodiniaceae alpha diversity did not vary with chronic human disturbance, disturbance was consistently associated with higher bacterial Shannon diversity and richness, with bacterial richness by sample almost doubling from sites with low to very high disturbance. Chronic disturbance was also associated with altered microbial beta diversity for Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria, including changes in community structure for both and increased variation (dispersion) of the Symbiodiniaceae communities. We also found concordance between Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial community structure, when all corals were considered together, and individually for two massive species, Hydnophora microconos and Porites lobata, implying that symbionts and bacteria respond similarly to human disturbance in these species. Finally, we found that the dominant Symbiodiniaceae ancestral lineage in a coral colony was associated with differential abundances of several distinct bacterial taxa. These results suggest that increased beta diversity of Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities may be a reliable indicator of stress in the coral microbiome, and that there may be concordant responses to chronic disturbance between these communities at the whole-ecosystem scale.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Singh KS, Troczka BJ, Duarte A, et al (2020)

The genetic architecture of a host shift: An adaptive walk protected an aphid and its endosymbiont from plant chemical defenses.

Science advances, 6(19):eaba1070 pii:aba1070.

Host shifts can lead to ecological speciation and the emergence of new pests and pathogens. However, the mutational events that facilitate the exploitation of novel hosts are poorly understood. Here, we characterize an adaptive walk underpinning the host shift of the aphid Myzus persicae to tobacco, including evolution of mechanisms that overcame tobacco chemical defenses. A series of mutational events added as many as 1.5 million nucleotides to the genome of the tobacco-adapted subspecies, M. p. nicotianae, and yielded profound increases in expression of an enzyme that efficiently detoxifies nicotine, both in aphid gut tissue and in the bacteriocytes housing the obligate aphid symbiont Buchnera aphidicola. This dual evolutionary solution overcame the challenge of preserving fitness of a mutualistic symbiosis during adaptation to a toxic novel host. Our results reveal the intricate processes by which genetic novelty can arise and drive the evolution of key innovations required for ecological adaptation.

RevDate: 2020-06-04
CmpDate: 2020-06-04

McDermott A (2020)

Inner Workings: A microscopic mystery at the heart of mass-coral bleaching.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(5):2232-2235.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Flores-Tinoco CE, Tschan F, Fuhrer T, et al (2020)

Co-catabolism of arginine and succinate drives symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

Molecular systems biology, 16(6):e9419.

Biological nitrogen fixation emerging from the symbiosis between bacteria and crop plants holds promise to increase the sustainability of agriculture. One of the biggest hurdles for the engineering of nitrogen-fixing organisms is an incomplete knowledge of metabolic interactions between microbe and plant. In contrast to the previously assumed supply of only succinate, we describe here the CATCH-N cycle as a novel metabolic pathway that co-catabolizes plant-provided arginine and succinate to drive the energy-demanding process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in endosymbiotic rhizobia. Using systems biology, isotope labeling studies and transposon sequencing in conjunction with biochemical characterization, we uncovered highly redundant network components of the CATCH-N cycle including transaminases that interlink the co-catabolism of arginine and succinate. The CATCH-N cycle uses N2 as an additional sink for reductant and therefore delivers up to 25% higher yields of nitrogen than classical arginine catabolism-two alanines and three ammonium ions are secreted for each input of arginine and succinate. We argue that the CATCH-N cycle has evolved as part of a synergistic interaction to sustain bacterial metabolism in the microoxic and highly acid environment of symbiosomes. Thus, the CATCH-N cycle entangles the metabolism of both partners to promote symbiosis. Our results provide a theoretical framework and metabolic blueprint for the rational design of plants and plant-associated organisms with new properties to improve nitrogen fixation.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Guo J, Zhang H, Guo QS, et al (2020)

[Screening of reference genes based on real-time quantitative PCR analysis in Monochasma savatieri].

Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica, 45(8):1887-1892.

Monochasma savatieri belongs to Scrophulariaceae family. It is a facultative parasitic plant distributed in southern China that has been found in Jiangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian provinces. Previous studies on this plant have focused on its chemical constituents and pharmacological effects. The research foundation of molecular biology and functional genomics is still very in-depth, and there is no report on the reference genes. In this study, 6 reference gene(UBQ, GAPDH, AP-2, ACT, TUB and CYP) from transcriptome database, were selected and analyzed in M. savatieri.The experiment mainly involve two variables, soil moisture content and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis(Rhizophagus irregularis). And the different combination of the factors result in a total of 6 treatments.Statistical tools, including GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper were utilized to assess the suitability of reference genes based on their stability rankings for different treatment. The result showed that the stability of 6 reference genes were significantly different. TUB and GAPDH were the most stable gene, while ACT was the most instable one. The results would provide reliable and optional available reference genes in gene expression analysis of M. savatieri, which has important application value.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Bowley HE, Wright P, AG Stewart (2020)

Science and agriculture: promoting beneficial symbiosis.

Environmental geochemistry and health pii:10.1007/s10653-020-00608-0 [Epub ahead of print].

While fundamental research into key mechanisms and interactions is important, the practical investigations that scientists also undertake have additional considerations, since the results are applicable in the real world but need disseminating in a way that reaches the intended audience. Worldwide, rapid population growth produces multiple pressures on land, meaning agriculture must become more efficient and productive. Other pressures on farmers are also increasing: to meet environmental quality standards, to follow legislation about application of chemical products, to remain financially viable against uncertain markets, and more. Applied research addresses specific aspects, but often reports do not describe local contexts or are too restricted, lacking details that enable an understanding of their wider application. We illustrate from our experience within UK agriculture, with a particular focus on soil, the identification of current shortcomings in many research publications; provide examples of good practice; and make suggestions for how scientists can help agriculturalists use their work to address the global issues currently faced. Specifically, we recommend that communication between science and agricultural communities is nurtured, to improve mutual understanding and facilitate two-way flow of ideas. In scientific publications, provision of as much contextual information as possible, and consideration for climatic/temporal/location influences, will enable investigations and results to be used for maximum practical effect and should increase citations.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Koch JC, Verde EA, VM Weis (2020)

Carbonic anhydrases are influenced by the size and symbiont identity of the aggregating sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:jeb.221424 [Epub ahead of print].

Carbonic anhydrases (CA; EC play a vital role in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) transport to photosynthetic microalgae residing in symbiotic cnidarians. The temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima can occur in three symbiotic states: hosting Breviolum muscatinei (brown), Elliptochloris marina (green) or without algal symbionts (aposymbiotic). This provides a basis for A. elegantissima to be a model for detailed studies of the role of CA in DIC transport. This study investigated the effects of symbiosis, body size, and light on CA activity and expression, and suggests that A. elegantissima has a heterotrophy-dominated trophic strategy. We identified putative A. elegantissima CA genes and performed phylogenetic analyses to infer subcellular localization in anemones. We performed experiments on field-collected anemones to compare (1) CA activity and expression from anemones in different symbiotic states, (2) CA activity in brown anemones as a function of size, and (3) CA activity in anemones of different symbiotic states that were exposed to different light intensities. Carbonic anhydrase activity in brown anemones was highest, whereas activity in green and aposymbiotic anemones was low. Several CAs had expression patterns that mirrored activity while another had expression that was inversely correlated to activity suggesting that symbionts may induce different DIC transport pathways. Finally, CA activity was inversely correlated with anemone size. Our results suggest that the observed CA activity and expression patterns are not only affected by symbiosis but also by other factors in the host physiology including trophic strategy as it relates to body size and cellular pH homeostasis.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Auguy F, Abdel-Lateif K, Doumas P, et al (2011)

Activation of the isoflavonoid pathway in actinorhizal symbioses.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 38(9):690-696.

We investigated the involvement of flavonoids in the actinorhizal nodulation process resulting from the interaction between the tropical tree Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng. and the actinomycete Frankia. Eight C. glauca genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis: chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), isoflavone reductase (IFR), flavonoid-3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonoid 3',5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and flavonol synthase (FLS), were identified from a unigene database and gene expression patterns were monitored by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) during the nodulation time course. Results showed that FLS and F3'5'H transcripts accumulated in mature nodules whereas CHI and IFR transcripts accumulated preferentially early after inoculation with Frankia. Comparison of IFR and CHI expression in inoculated plants and in control plants cultivated with or without nitrogen confirmed that early expression of IFR is specifically linked to symbiosis. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that isoflavonoids are implicated in actinorhizal nodulation.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Popovici J, Walker V, Bertrand CD, et al (2011)

Strain specificity in the Myricaceae-Frankia symbiosis is correlated to plant root phenolics.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 38(9):682-689.

Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in the interaction between plants and their environment. For example, mutualistic nitrogen-fixing symbioses typically involve phenolic-based recognition between host plants and bacteria. Although these mechanisms are well studied in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis, little is known about the role of plant phenolics in the symbiosis between actinorhizal plants and the actinobacterium Frankia. In this study, the responsiveness of two Myricaceae plant species, Myrica gale L. and Morella cerifera L., to Frankia inoculation was correlated with the plant-bacteria compatibility status. Two Frankia strains were inoculated: ACN14a, compatible with both M. gale and M. cerifera and Ea112, compatible only with M. cerifera. The effect of inoculation on root phenolic metabolism was evaluated by metabolic profiling based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Our results revealed that: (i) both Frankia strains induced major modifications in root phenolic content of the two Myricaceae species and (ii) strain-dependant modifications of the phenolic contents were detected. The main plant compounds differentially affected by Frankia inoculation are phenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. This work provides evidence that during the initial phases of symbiotic interactions, Myricaceae plants adapt their secondary metabolism in accordance with the compatibility status of Frankia bacterial strains.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Gabbarini LAS, LG Wall (2011)

Diffusible factors involved in early interactions of actinorhizal symbiosis are modulated by the host plant but are not enough to break the host range barrier.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 38(9):671-681.

Nodulation kinetics were analysed in two nitrogen-fixing actinorhizal symbioses that show different pathways for infection: Alnus acuminata H. B. K., which is infected by Frankia ArI3, and Discaria trinervis (Hooker et Arnot) Reiche, which is infected by Frankia BCU110501. Both pairs are incompatible in cross-inoculation experiments. The dose-response effects in nodulation were studied in A. acuminata seedlings using different concentrations of compatible and incompatible bacteria in co-inoculation experiments. Restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR analysis and plant-trapping analysis showed no co-occupation in A. acuminata nodules when plants were co-inoculated with Frankia BCU110501 and Frankia ArI3. Despite the lack of co-occupation, the noninfective BCU110501 could modify the nodulation parameters of the non-host A. acuminata when infective ArI3 was present in the inoculum. The results suggest that although BCU110501 was not able to induce nodulation in A. acuminata, its interaction with the plant could induce autoregulation as if some level of infection or partial recognition could be achieved. We explored the possibility that physiological complementation of the heterologous Frankia BCU110501 for nodulation of A. acuminata originated in the homologous Frankia ArI3 in the presence of compatible root exudates. Despite the possibility of full activation between bacteria and the host, there was no co-infection of Frankia BCU110501 in Alnus or of Frankia ArI3 in Discaria either. These negative results suggest a physical recognition barrier in actinorhizal symbiosis that operates after early interactions, involving something other than root exudates and diffusible factors of bacterial or plant origin, regardless of the infection pathway.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Gabbarini LAS, LG Wall (2011)

Diffusible factors from Frankia modify nodulation kinetics in Discaria trinervis, an intercellular root-infected actinorhizal symbiosis.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 38(9):662-670.

Frankia BCU110501 induces nitrogen-fixing root nodules in Discaria trinervis (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Reiche (Rhamnaceae) via intercellular colonisation, without root hair deformation. It produces diffusible factors (DFs) that might be involved in early interactions with the D. trinervis roots, playing a role in the nodulation process. The induction of root nodule development in actinorhizal symbiosis would depend on the concentration of factors produced by the bacteria and the plant. A detailed analysis of nodulation kinetics revealed that these DFs produce changes at the level of initial rate of nodulation and also in nodulation profile. Diluted Frankia BCU110501 inoculum could be activated in less than 96h by DFs produced by Frankia BCU110501 cells that had been previously washed. Biochemical characterisation showed that Frankia BCU110501 DFs have a molecular weight of <12kDa, are negatively charged at pH 7.0 and seem to contain a peptide bond necessary for their activity. Frankia BCU110501, belonging to Frankia Clade 3, does not induce nodules in Alnus acuminata H.B.K. ssp. acuminata but is able to deform root hairs, as do Frankia strains from Clade 1. The root hair deforming activity of Frankia BCU110501 DFs show the same biochemical characteristics of the DFs involved in nodulation of D. trinervis. These results suggest that Frankia symbiotic factors have a basic structure regardless of the infection pathway of the host plant.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Berry AM, Mendoza-Herrera A, Guo YY, et al (2011)

New perspectives on nodule nitrogen assimilation in actinorhizal symbioses.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 38(9):645-652.

Nitrogen-fixing root nodules are plant organs specialised for symbiotic transfer of nitrogen and carbon between microsymbiont and host. The organisation of nitrogen assimilation, storage and transport processes is partitioned at the subcellular and tissue levels, in distinctive patterns depending on the symbiotic partners. In this review, recent advances in understanding of actinorhizal nodule nitrogen assimilation are presented. New findings indicate that Frankia within nodules of Datisca glomerata (Presl.) Baill. carries out both primary nitrogen assimilation and biosynthesis of arginine, rather than exporting ammonium. Arginine is a typical storage form of nitrogen in plant tissues, but is a novel nitrogen carrier molecule in root nodule symbioses. Thus Frankia within D. glomerata nodules exhibits considerable metabolic independence. Furthermore, nitrogen reassimilation is likely to take place in the host in the uninfected nodule cortical cells of this root nodule symbiosis, before amino acid export to host sink tissues via the xylem. The role of an augmented pericycle in carbon and nitrogen exchange in root nodules deserves further attention in actinorhizal symbiosis, and further highlights the importance of a comprehensive, structure-function approach to understanding function in root nodules. Moreover, the multiple patterns of compartmentalisation in relation to nitrogen flux within root nodules demonstrate the diversity of possible functional interactions between host and microsymbiont that have evolved in the nitrogen-fixing clade.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Ribeiro A, Gra A IS, Pawlowski K, et al (2011)

Actinorhizal plant defence-related genes in response to symbiotic Frankia.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 38(9):639-644.

Actinorhizal plants have become increasingly important as climate changes threaten to remake the global landscape over the next decades. These plants are able to grow in nutrient-poor and disturbed soils, and are important elements in plant communities worldwide. Besides that, most actinorhizal plants are capable of high rates of nitrogen fixation due to their capacity to establish root nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia strains. Nodulation is a developmental process that requires a sequence of highly coordinated events. One of these mechanisms is the induction of defence-related events, whose precise role in a symbiotic interaction remains to be elucidated. This review summarises what is known about the induction of actinorhizal defence-related genes in response to symbiotic Frankia and their putative function during symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Pawlowski K, Bogusz D, Ribeiro A, et al (2011)

Progress on research on actinorhizal plants.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 38(9):633-638.

In recent years, our understanding of the plant side of actinorhizal symbioses has evolved rapidly. No homologues of the common nod genes from rhizobia were found in the three Frankia genomes published so far, which suggested that Nod factor-like molecules would not be used in the infection of actinorhizal plants by Frankia. However, work on chimeric transgenic plants indicated that Frankia Nod factor equivalents signal via the same transduction pathway as rhizobial Nod factors. The role of auxin in actinorhizal nodule formation differs from that in legume nodulation. Great progress has been made in the analysis of pathogenesis-related and stress-related gene expression in nodules. Research on nodule physiology has shown the structural and metabolic diversity of actinorhizal nodules from different phylogenetic branches. The onset of large-scale nodule transcriptome analysis in different actinorhizal systems will provide access to more information on the symbiosis and its evolution.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Ribeiro A, Berry AM, Pawlowski K, et al (2011)

Actinorhizal plants.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 38(9):v-vii.

Actinorhizal plants are a group of taxonomically diverse angiosperms with remarkable economic and ecological significance. Most actinorhizal plants are able to thrive under extreme adverse environmental conditions as well as to fix atmospheric nitrogen due to their capacity to establish root nodule symbioses with Frankia bacteria. This special issue of Functional Plant Biology is dedicated to actinorhizal plant research, covering part of the work presented at the 16th International Meeting onFrankia and Actinorhizal Plants, held on 5-8 September 2010, in Oporto, Portugal. The papers (4 reviews and 10 original articles) give an overall picture of the status of actinorhizal plant research and the imposed challenges, covering several aspects of the symbiosis, ecology and molecular tools.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Ma J, Janoušková M, Li Y, et al (2015)

Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on cucumber growth and phosphorus uptake under cold stress.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 42(12):1158-1167.

Symbiosis with root-associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can improve plant phosphorus (P) uptake and alleviate environmental stresses. It could be also an effective mean to promote plant performance under low temperatures. The combined effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and low temperature (15°C/10°C day/night) on cucumber seedlings were investigated in the present study. Root colonisation by AMF, succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the intraradical fungal structures, plant growth parameters, and expression profiles of four cucumber phosphate (Pi) transporters, the fungal Pi transporter GintPT and alkaline phosphatase GintALP were determined. Cold stress reduced plant growth and mycorrhizal colonisation. Inoculation improved cucumber growth under ambient temperatures, whereas under cold stress only root biomass was significantly increased by inoculation. AMF supplied P to the host plant under ambient temperatures and cold stress, as evidenced by the higher P content of mycorrhizal plants compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the cold-stressed cucumber seedlings still benefited from mycorrhiza, although the benefit was less than that under ambient temperatures. In accordance with this, a cucumber Pi transporter gene belonging to the Pht1 gene family was strongly induced by mycorrhiza at ambient temperature and to a lesser extent under cold stress. The other three Pi transporters tested from different families were most highly expressed in cold-stressed mycorrhizal plants, suggesting a complex interactive effect of mycorrhiza and cold stress on internal P cycling in cucumber plants.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Mora-Romero GA, Gonzalez-Ortiz MA, Quiroz-Figueroa F, et al (2014)

PvLOX2 silencing in common bean roots impairs arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced resistance without affecting symbiosis establishment.

Functional plant biology : FPB, 42(1):18-30.

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is an intimate association between specific soil-borne fungi and the roots of most land plants. AM colonisation elicits an enhanced defence resistance against pathogens, known as mycorrhizal-induced resistance (MIR). This mechanism locally and systemically sensitises plant tissues to boost their basal defence response. Although a role for oxylipins in MIR has been proposed, it has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this study, when the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lipoxygenase PvLOX2 was silenced in roots of composite plants, leaves of silenced plants lost their capacity to exhibit MIR against the foliar pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, even though they were colonised normally. PvLOX6, a LOX gene family member, is involved in JA biosynthesis in the common bean. Downregulation of PvLOX2 and PvLOX6 in leaves of PvLOX2 root-silenced plants coincides with the loss of MIR, suggesting that these genes could be involved in the onset and spreading of the mycorrhiza-induced defence response.

RevDate: 2020-06-03
CmpDate: 2020-06-03

Cao W, Xiong Y, Zhao D, et al (2020)

Bryophytes and the symbiotic microorganisms, the pioneers of vegetation restoration in karst rocky desertification areas in southwestern China.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 104(2):873-891.

In karst rocky desertification areas, bryophytes coexist with algae, bacteria, and fungi on exposed calcareous rocks to form a bryophyte crust, which plays an irreplaceable role in the restoration of karst degraded ecosystems. We investigated the biodiversity of crust bryophytes in karst rocky desertification areas from Guizhou Province, China. A total of 145 species in 22 families and 56 genera were identified. According to frequency and coverage, seven candidate dominant mosses were screened out, and five drought-resistant indexes of them were measured. Hypnum leptothallum, Racopilum cuspidigerum, and Hyophila involuta have high drought adaptability. We explored the interactions between two dominant mosses (H. leptothallum, H. involuta) and the structure of microbial communities in three karst rocky desertification types. Microbial diversity and function analysis showed that both moss species and karst rocky desertification types affect microbial communities. Moss species much more strongly affected the diversity and changed the community composition of these microbial groups. Bacteria were more sensitive in the microbiome as their communities changed strongly between mosses and drought resistance factors. Moreover, several species of fungi and bacteria could be significantly associated with three drought-resistant indexes: Pro (free proline content), SOD (superoxide dismutase activity), and POD (peroxidase activity), which were closely related to the drought adaptability of mosses. Our results enforced the potential role of moss-associated microbes that are important components involved in the related biological processes when bryophytes adapted to arid habitats, or as one kind of promoters in the distribution pattern of early mosses succession in karst rocky desertification areas.

RevDate: 2020-06-03
CmpDate: 2020-06-03

Gu W, Tong P, Liu C, et al (2019)

The characteristics of gut microbiota and commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolates in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri).

BMC microbiology, 19(1):203.

BACKGROUND: Tree shrew is a novel laboratory animal with specific characters for human disease researches in recent years. However, little is known about its characteristics of gut microbial community and intestinal commensal bacteria. In this study, 16S rRNA sequencing method was used to illustrate the gut microbiota structure and commensal Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were isolated to demonstrate their features.

RESULTS: The results showed Epsilonbacteraeota (30%), Proteobacteria (25%), Firmicutes (19%), Fusobacteria (13%), and Bacteroidetes (8%) were the most abundant phyla in the gut of tree shrew. Campylobacteria, Campylobacterales, Helicobacteraceae and Helicobacter were the predominant abundance for class, order, family and genus levels respectively. The alpha diversity analysis showed statistical significance (P < 0.05) for operational taxonomic units (OTUs), the richness estimates, and diversity indices for age groups of tree shrew. Beta diversity revealed the significant difference (P < 0.05) between age groups, which showed high abundance of Epsilonbacteraeota and Spirochaetes in infant group, Proteobacteria in young group, Fusobacteria in middle group, and Firmicutes in senile group. The diversity of microbial community was increased followed by the aging process of this animal. 16S rRNA gene functional prediction indicated that highly hot spots for infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases in low age group of tree shrew (infant and young). The most isolated commensal Enterobacteriaceae bacteria from tree shrew were Proteus spp. (67%) and Escherichia coli (25%). Among these strains, the antibiotic resistant isolates were commonly found, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results of Proteus spp. indicated a high degree of similarity between isolates in the same age group, which was not observed for other bacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: In general, this study made understandings of the gut community structure and diversity of tree shrew.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Hawksworth DL, M Grube (2020)

Lichens redefined as complex ecosystems.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Takeuchi M, Kuwahara H, Murakami T, et al (2020)

Parallel reductive genome evolution in Desulfovibrio ectosymbionts independently acquired by Trichonympha protists in the termite gut.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-020-0688-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Several Trichonympha protist species in the termite gut have independently acquired Desulfovibrio ectosymbionts in apparently different stages of symbiosis. Here, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of Desulfovibrio phylotype ZnDsv-02, which attaches to the surface of Trichonympha collaris cells, and compared it with a previously obtained genome sequence of 'Candidatus Desulfovibrio trichonymphae' phylotype Rs-N31, which is almost completely embedded in the cytoplasm of Trichonympha agilis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis indicated that although Rs-N31 is almost clonal, the ZnDsv-02 population on a single host cell is heterogeneous. Despite these differences, the genome of ZnDsv-02 has been reduced to 1.6 Mb, which is comparable to that of Rs-N31 (1.4 Mb), but unlike other known ectosymbionts of protists with a genome similar in size to their free-living relatives. Except for the presence of a lactate utilization pathway, cell-adhesion components and anti-phage defense systems in ZnDsv-02, the overall gene-loss pattern between the two genomes is very similar, including the loss of genes responsive to environmental changes. Our study suggests that genome reduction can occur in ectosymbionts, even when they can be transmitted horizontally and obtain genes via lateral transfer, and that the symbiont genome size depends heavily on their role in the symbiotic system.

RevDate: 2020-06-02
CmpDate: 2020-06-02

Fabiańska I, Sosa-Lopez E, M Bucher (2019)

The role of nutrient balance in shaping plant root-fungal interactions: facts and speculation.

Current opinion in microbiology, 49:90-96.

Microbiota colonizing plant roots and their vicinity were shown not to be just random associations, but compose, at least to some extent, host-selected microbial consortia. The plant physiological status, especially the nutrient status, prompts changes in plant morphology and metabolism, which successively imposes a selective pressure on microbial communities. It is well established that a low phosphate status of the host plant activates the molecular machinery underlying the development of mutualistic associations in the host root with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We hypothesize that the plant´s response to changing nutrient stoichiometry affects processes at the root-mycosphere interface which promote or repress also root interactions with microbial taxa other than AMF. As a consequence, fundamental mechanisms underlying these interactions would be shared in AM host and non-host plants. A detailed understanding of the processes involved in maintenance of plant nutrient homeostasis could contribute to novel strategies in tailoring predominantly parasitic or commensalistic plant-microbe interactions towards beneficial associations.

RevDate: 2020-06-02
CmpDate: 2020-06-02

Tao K, Kelly S, S Radutoiu (2019)

Microbial associations enabling nitrogen acquisition in plants.

Current opinion in microbiology, 49:83-89.

Large flows of nitrogen between the atmosphere, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems contribute to the global cycle on Earth. When balanced, this cycle ensures that life at every level can flourish and diversify. However, in the past 50 years, humans have had a large, negative influence on nitrogen cycle pushing it beyond safe boundaries at the global level. Alternative, wholesome strategies are needed for the agricultural systems to achieve sustainability without compromising crop yields. Decades of research in the field of biological nitrogen fixation in symbiotic root nodules paved the way for ambitious bioengineering projects aiming to meet the nitrogen request in a sustainable manner. Parallel studies of the other microbes that associate with healthy plants in nature unveiled a tremendous, untapped resource for biostimulants. Many of these interactions are now worth investigating in detail to enable understanding at the molecular and ecological level and facile transfer into agricultural settings.

RevDate: 2020-06-02
CmpDate: 2020-06-02

Bonfante P, Venice F, L Lanfranco (2019)

The mycobiota: fungi take their place between plants and bacteria.

Current opinion in microbiology, 49:18-25.

Eukaryotes host numerous intracellular and associated microbes in their microbiota. Fungi, the so-called Mycobiota, are important members of both human and plant microbiota. Moreover, members of the plant mycobiota host their own microbiota on their surfaces and inside their hyphae. The microbiota of the mycobiota includes mycorrhizal helper bacteria (for mycorrhizal fungi) and fungal endobacteria, which are critical for the fungal host and, as such, likely affect the plant. This review discusses the contribution that these often-overlooked members make to the composition and performance of the plant microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-06-02
CmpDate: 2020-06-02

Teixeira PJP, Colaianni NR, Fitzpatrick CR, et al (2019)

Beyond pathogens: microbiota interactions with the plant immune system.

Current opinion in microbiology, 49:7-17.

Plant immune receptors perceive microbial molecules and initiate an array of biochemical responses that are effective against most invaders. The role of the plant immune system in detecting and controlling pathogenic microorganism has been well described. In contrast, much less is known about plant immunity in the context of the wealth of commensals that inhabit plants. Recent research indicates that, just like pathogens, commensals in the plant microbiome can suppress or evade host immune responses. Moreover, the plant immune system has an active role in microbiome assembly and controls microbial homeostasis in response to environmental variation. We propose that the plant immune system shapes the microbiome, and that the microbiome expands plant immunity and acts as an additional layer of defense against pathogenic organisms.

RevDate: 2020-06-01

Križnik M, Baebler Š, K Gruden (2020)

Roles of small RNAs in the establishment of tolerant interaction between plants and viruses.

Current opinion in virology, 42:25-31 pii:S1879-6257(20)30020-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In a tolerant plant-virus interaction, viral multiplication is sustained without substantial effects on plant growth or reproduction. Such interactions are, in natural environments, frequent and sometimes even beneficial for both interactors. Here we compiled evidence showing that small RNAs modulate plant immune responses and growth, hence adjusting its physiology to enable a tolerant interaction. Importantly, the role of small RNAs in tolerant interactions resembles that required for establishment of a mutualistic symbiosis. Tolerance can become a sustainable strategy for breeding for virus resistance as selection pressure for emergence of more aggressive strains is low. Understanding the processes underlying establishment of tolerance is, therefore, important for the development of future crops.

RevDate: 2020-06-01

Garcia K, Bücking H, SD Zimmermann (2020)

Editorial: Importance of Root Symbiomes for Plant Nutrition: New Insights, Perspectives and Future Challenges.

Frontiers in plant science, 11:594.

RevDate: 2020-06-01

Duan LL, Chen WL, Zhang JJ, et al (2020)

[Symbiotic bacteria facilitate algal growth and oil biosynthesis in Scenedesmus obliquus].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 31(2):625-633.

We isolated bacteria from the phycosphere of Scenedesmus obliques and sequenced 16S rDNAs to establish algae-bacterial co-culture systems. Further, we examined effects of the bacteria on algal growth, and parameters associated with physio-biochemical and oil-producing characteristics of S. obliquus. Seven bacterial strains were isolated, including Micrococcus (strains 1-1, 1-2 and 1-3), Pseudomonas sp. (strains 2-1 and 2-2), Exiguobacterium (strain-3) and Staphylococcus sp. (strain-4). Among them, two bacteria (strain 1-2 and strain 2-1) were characterized as the dominant growth-promoting bacterial strains, which significantly increased algal growth, pigment production, and oil enrichment. After eight days cultivation under microalgal-bacterial (strain 1-2) symbiotic systemat at an initial ratio of 1:10, biomass of S. obliquus was 4.27 g·L-1, about 46.0% higher than that of the control. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids were increased by 12.1%, 16.7% and 25.0%, respectively. Oil content was increased by 14.0% and reached to 25.7%, and the oleic acid content was significantly higher than that of the control and up to 16.4%. When co-cultured with Pseudomonas sp. (strain 2-1) for eight days at an initial ratio of 1:5, algal biomass, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids contents were higher than that of the control by 47.9%, 16.0%, 17.5% and 19.9%, respectively. The total oil (27.1%) and oleic acid (18.2%) contents were increased by 20.4% and 64.0%, respectively. We concluded that Micrococcus (strain 1-2) and Pseudomonas sp. (strain 2-1) could significantly promote algal growth and increase oil production by their beneficial interaction with S. obliques, which could be potentially used in commercial production of S. obliques.

RevDate: 2020-06-01
CmpDate: 2020-06-01

Talbot J, Hahn P, Kroehling L, et al (2020)

Feeding-dependent VIP neuron-ILC3 circuit regulates the intestinal barrier.

Nature, 579(7800):575-580.

The intestinal mucosa serves both as a conduit for the uptake of food-derived nutrients and microbiome-derived metabolites, and as a barrier that prevents tissue invasion by microorganisms and tempers inflammatory responses to the myriad contents of the lumen. How the intestine coordinates physiological and immune responses to food consumption to optimize nutrient uptake while maintaining barrier functions remains unclear. Here we show in mice how a gut neuronal signal triggered by food intake is integrated with intestinal antimicrobial and metabolic responses that are controlled by type-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3)1-3. Food consumption rapidly activates a population of enteric neurons that express vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)4. Projections of VIP-producing neurons (VIPergic neurons) in the lamina propria are in close proximity to clusters of ILC3 that selectively express VIP receptor type 2 (VIPR2; also known as VPAC2). Production of interleukin (IL)-22 by ILC3, which is upregulated by the presence of commensal microorganisms such as segmented filamentous bacteria5-7, is inhibited upon engagement of VIPR2. As a consequence, levels of antimicrobial peptide derived from epithelial cells are reduced but the expression of lipid-binding proteins and transporters is increased8. During food consumption, the activation of VIPergic neurons thus enhances the growth of segmented filamentous bacteria associated with the epithelium, and increases lipid absorption. Our results reveal a feeding- and circadian-regulated dynamic neuroimmune circuit in the intestine that promotes a trade-off between innate immune protection mediated by IL-22 and the efficiency of nutrient absorption. Modulation of this pathway may therefore be effective for enhancing resistance to enteropathogens2,3,9 and for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

RevDate: 2020-06-01
CmpDate: 2020-06-01

Bascompte J, García MB, Ortega R, et al (2019)

Mutualistic interactions reshuffle the effects of climate change on plants across the tree of life.

Science advances, 5(5):eaav2539.

Climatically induced local species extinctions may trigger coextinction cascades, thus driving many more species to extinction than originally predicted by species distribution models. Using seven pollination networks across Europe that include the phylogeny and life history traits of plants, we show a substantial variability across networks in climatically predicted plant extinction-and particularly the subsequent coextinction-rates, with much higher values in Mediterranean than Eurosiberian networks. While geographic location best predicts the probability of a plant species to be driven to extinction by climate change, subsequent coextinctions are best predicted by the local network of interactions. These coextinctions not only increase the total number of plant species being driven to extinction but also add a bias in the way the major taxonomic and functional groups are pruned.

RevDate: 2020-06-01
CmpDate: 2020-06-01

Sun Z, Koffel T, Stump SM, et al (2019)

Microbial cross-feeding promotes multiple stable states and species coexistence, but also susceptibility to cheaters.

Journal of theoretical biology, 465:63-77.

Mutualism, interspecific cooperation that yields reciprocal benefits, can promote species coexistence, enhancing biodiversity. As a specific form of mutualism, cross-feeding, where each of two mutualists produces a resource the other one needs, has been broadly studied. However, few theoretical studies have examined competition between cross-feeding mutualists and cheaters, who do not synthesize resources themselves. In this paper we study a model with two mutualists, a cheater, two micronutrients that are synthesized and exchanged by the mutualists, and one macronutrient that is only from external supply. We investigate the coexistence of the species in the framework of resource competition theory. In particular, we examine the effect of the mutualists' synthesis rates on their coexistence. In the absence of cheaters, multiple stable states occur if the synthesis rates are high, and higher synthesis rates increase the possibility that mutualists coexist. However, when the cheater is present, higher synthesis rates promote invasion by the cheater: If the cheater is superior on all three resources, it will either persist with at most one mutualist or even trigger extinction of all three species; if the cheater is only superior on the macronutrient, both mutualists may still coexist with the cheater. Our results provide a framework for further study on more complex mutualistic networks and real microbial communities.

RevDate: 2020-05-30

Lindgren H, Moncada B, Lücking R, et al (2020)

Cophylogenetic patterns in algal symbionts correlate with repeated symbiont switches during diversification and geographic expansion of lichen-forming fungi in the genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(20)30132-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Species in the fungal genus Sticta form symbiotic associations primarily with either green algae or cyanobacteria, but tripartite associations or photosymbiodemes involving both types of photobionts occur in some species. Sticta is known to associate with green algae in the genus Symbiochloris. However, previous studies have shown that algae from other genera, such as Heveochlorella, may also be suitable partners for Sticta. We examined the diversity of green algal partners in the genus Sticta and assessed the patterns of association between the host fungus and its algal symbiont. We used multi-locus sequence data from multiple individuals collected in Australia, Cuba, Madagascar, Mauritius, New Zealand, Reunion and South America to infer phylogenies for fungal and algal partners and performed tests of congruence to assess coevolution between the partners. In addition, event-based methods were implemented to examine which cophylogenetic processes have led to the observed association patterns in Sticta and its green algal symbionts. Our results show that in addition to Symbiochloris, Sticta associates with green algae from the genera Chloroidium, Coccomyxa, Elliptochloris and Heveochlorella, the latter being the most common algal symbiont associated with Sticta in this study. Geography plays a strong role in shaping fungal-algal association patterns in Sticta as mycobionts associate with different algal lineages in different geographic locations. While fungal and algal phylogenies were mostly congruent, event-based methods did not find any evidence for cospeciation between the partners. Instead, the association patterns observed in Sticta and associated algae, were largely explained by other cophylogenetic events such as host-switches, losses of symbiont and failure of the symbiont to diverge with its host. Our results also show that tripartite associations with green algae evolved multiple times in Sticta.

RevDate: 2020-05-30

Jiang L, Li T, Jenkins J, et al (2020)

Evidence for a mutualistic relationship between the cyanobacteria Nostoc and fungi Aspergilli in different environments.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-020-10663-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic partnerships are widespread in nature and in industrial applications yet there are limited examples of laboratory communities. Therefore, using common photobionts and mycobionts similar to those in natural lichens, we create an artificial lichen-like symbiosis. While Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger could not obtain nutrients from the green algae, Chlorella, and Scenedesmus, the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. PCC 6720 was able to support fungal growth and also elevated the accumulation of total biomass. The Nostoc-Aspergillus co-cultures grew on light and CO2 in an inorganic BG11 liquid medium without any external organic carbon and fungal mycelia were observed to peripherally contact with the Nostoc cells in liquid and on solid media at lower cell densities. Overall biomass levels were reduced after implementing physical barriers to indicate that physical contact between cyanobacteria and heterotrophic microbes may promote symbiotic growth. The synthetic Nostoc-Aspergillus nidulans co-cultures also exhibited robust growth and stability when cultivated in wastewater over days to weeks in a semi-continuous manner when compared with axenic cultivation of either species. These Nostoc-Aspergillus consortia reveal species-dependent and mutually beneficial design principles that can yield stable lichen-like co-cultures and provide insights into microbial communities that can facilitate sustainability studies and broader applications in the future. KEY POINTS: • Artificial lichen-like symbiosis was built with wild-type cyanobacteria and fungi. • Physical barriers decreased biomass production from artificial lichen co-cultures. • Artificial lichen adapted to grow and survive in wastewater for 5 weeks.

RevDate: 2020-05-30

Liu W, Bai X, Li Y, et al (2020)

CheY1 and CheY2 of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 regulate chemotaxis and competitive colonization with the host plant.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.00599-20 [Epub ahead of print].

The genome of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 encodes two chemotaxis response regulators-CheY1 and CheY2. cheY1 is located in chemotaxis cluster (cheAWY1BR), while cheY2 is located 37 kb upstream of the cheAWY1BR cluster. To determine the contributions of CheY1 and CheY2, we compared the wild-type (WT) and mutants in the free-living state and in symbiosis with the host Sesbania rostrata Swim plate tests and capillary assays revealed that both CheY1 and CheY2 play a role in chemotaxis, with CheY2 having a more prominent role than CheY1. In an analysis of the swimming paths of free-swimming cells, the ΔcheY1 exhibited decreased frequency of direction reversal, whereas the ΔcheY2 appeared to change direction much more frequently than the WT. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in the ΔcheY1 and ΔcheY2 was lower than that in the WT, but ΔcheY2 had more obvious EPS defects that were similar to those of the ΔcheY1/cheY2 and Δeps1 During symbiosis, the competitiveness for root colonization and nodule occupation of ΔcheY1 and ΔcheY2 were impaired compared with those of the WT Moreover, the competitive colonization ability of ΔcheY2 was severely impaired compared with that of the ΔcheY1 Taken together, the ΔcheY2 phenotypes are more severe than ΔcheY1 in free-living and symbiotic states, and that the double mutant resembles the ΔcheY2 single mutant. These defects of ΔcheY1 and ΔcheY2 were restored to the WT phenotype by complementation. These results suggest that the different regulatory mechanisms of CheY1 and CheY2, and CheY2 is a key chemotaxis regulator in free-living and symbiosis conditions.ImportanceAzorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 is a motile soil bacterium that has the dual capacity to fix nitrogen both in free-living conditions and in symbiosis with Sesbania rostrata, forming nitrogen-fixing root and stem nodules. Bacterial chemotaxis to chemoattractants derived from host roots promotes infection and subsequent nodule formation by directing rhizobia to appropriate sites of infection. In this work, we identified and demonstrated that CheY2, a chemotactic response regulator encoded outside the chemotaxis cluster, is required for chemotaxis and multiple other cell phenotypes. CheY1, encoded in the chemotaxis cluster, also play a role in chemotaxis. Two response regulators mediate bacterial chemotaxis and motility in different ways. This work extends the understanding of the role of multiple response regulators in gram-negative bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Uberos J (2020)

Perinatal microbiota: review of its importance in newborn health.

Archivos argentinos de pediatria, 118(3):e265-e270.

The use of metagenomics in the study of gut bacterial ecosystems has helped to define a standard, functional genetic profile in newborn infants, so that a bacterial ecosystem will be deemed more "normal" the more similar its functional genetic profile is to a standard. The development of a specific functional enterotype in the first days of life after birth is critical for the priming of the immune system with certain bacterial antigens. Regardless of whether the first gut bacteria are acquired before or just after birth, the newborn microbiota will result from the symbiosis with the environmental microbial flora, especially with the bacterial flora of the mother. The type of delivery, the administration of perinatal antibiotics, the environment, and nutritional exposure, especially breastfeeding, have demonstrated an important relationship with the prevalent gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Zhang W, Zhao C, Cao W, et al (2020)

Removal of pollutants from biogas slurry and CO2 capture in biogas by microalgae-based technology: a systematic review.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-020-09282-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent research interest has focused on microalgae cultivation for biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading due to the requirement of high efficiency for nutrient uptake and CO2 capture, with economic feasibility and environmental benefits. Numerous studies have suggested that biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading can occur simultaneously via microalgae-based technology. However, there is no comprehensive review on this technology with respect to the nutrient removal from biogas slurry and biogas upgrading. This article summarizes microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry and biogas from anaerobic digestion. The parameters, techniques, and modes of microalgae cultivation have been discussed in detail to achieve high efficiency in biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading. In addition, the evaluation of energy efficiency and safety has also been explored. Compared with mono-cultivation of microalgae and co-cultivation of microalgae and bacteria, microalgae-fungi symbiosis has demonstrated greater development prospect and higher energy efficiency and the energy consumption for pollutants and CO2 removal were 14.2-39.0% · USD-1 and 19.9-23.3% · USD-1, respectively. Further, a sustainable recycling scheme is proposed for the purification of biogas slurry from anaerobic digestion process and biogas upgrading via microalgae-based technology.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Xu F, LoBuglio KF, DH Pfister (2019)

On the co-occurrence of species of Wynnea (Ascomycota, Pezizales, Sarcoscyphaceae) and Armillaria (Basidiomycota, Agaricales, Physalacriaceae).

Fungal systematics and evolution, 4:1-12.

Species of the genus Wynnea are collected in association with a subterranean mass generally referred to as a sclerotium. This is one of the few genera of the Sarcoscyphaceae not associated with plant material - wood or leaves. The sclerotium is composed of hyphae of both Armillaria species and Wynnea species. To verify the existence of Armillaria species in the sclerotia of those Wynnea species not previously examined and to fully understand the structure and nature of the sclerotium, molecular data and morphological characters were analyzed. Using nuclear ITS rDNA sequences the Armillaria species co-occurring with Wynnea species were identified from all examined material. These Armillaria symbionts fall into two main Armillaria groups - the A. gallica-nabsnona-calvescens group and the A. mellea group. Divergent time estimates of the Armillaria and Wynnea lineages support a co-evolutionary relationship between these two fungi.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Wee K, Hediyeh-Zadeh S, Duszyc K, et al (2020)

Snail induces epithelial cell extrusion by regulating RhoA contractile signaling and cell-matrix adhesion.

Journal of cell science pii:jcs.235622 [Epub ahead of print].

Cell extrusion is a morphogenetic process that is implicated in epithelial homeostasis and elicited by stimuli ranging from apoptosis to oncogenic transformation. To explore if the morphogenetic transcription factor, Snail (SNAI1), induces extrusion, we inducibly expressed a stabilized Snail6SA transgene in confluent MCF-7 monolayers. When expressed in small clusters (<3 cells) within otherwise wild-type confluent monolayers, Snail6SA expression induced apical cell extrusion. In contrast, larger clusters or homogenous cultures of Snail6SA cells did not show enhanced apical extrusion, but eventually displayed sporadic basal delamination. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that Snail6SA did not substantively alter the balance of epithelial: mesenchymal genes. However, we identified a transcriptional network that led to upregulated RhoA signalling and cortical contractility in Snail6SA expressing cells. Enhanced contractility was necessary, but not sufficient, to drive extrusion, suggesting that it collaborates with other factors. Indeed, we found that the transcriptional downregulation of cell-matrix adhesion cooperates with contractility to mediate basal delamination. This provides a pathway for Snail to influence epithelial morphogenesis independently of classic Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition.

RevDate: 2020-05-29
CmpDate: 2020-05-29

Kaur KM, MW Pennell (2019)

Digest: Process-based phylogenetic models provide unique insights into the evolution of mutualistic networks.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 73(11):2345-2346.

Figs and their pollinating fig wasps are a classic example of long-term obligate associations between different species. Satler et al. use a process-based model adopted from molecular evolution to identify the major processes that affect cophylogenetic matching between figs and fig wasps. They find that host-switching is one of the most important evolutionary processes contributing to current cophylogenetic patterns, illustrating the value of probabilistic approaches to studying the evolutionary history of mutualisms.

RevDate: 2020-05-29
CmpDate: 2020-05-29

Nasr MA, Dovbeshko GI, Bearne SL, et al (2019)

Heat Shock Proteins in the "Hot" Mitochondrion: Identity and Putative Roles.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 41(9):e1900055.

The mitochondrion is known as the "powerhouse" of eukaryotic cells since it is the main site of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) production. Using a temperature-sensitive fluorescent probe, it has recently been suggested that the stray free energy, not captured into ATP, is potentially sufficient to sustain mitochondrial temperatures higher than the cellular environment, possibly reaching up to 50 °C. By 50 °C, some DNA and mitochondrial proteins may reach their melting temperatures; how then do these biomolecules maintain their structure and function? Further, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accelerates with temperature, implying higher oxidative stresses in the mitochondrion than generally appreciated. Herein, it is proposed that mitochondrial heat shock proteins (particularly Hsp70), in addition to their roles in protein transport and folding, protect mitochondrial proteins and DNA from thermal and ROS damage. Other thermoprotectant mechanisms are also discussed.

RevDate: 2020-05-28
CmpDate: 2020-05-28

Gómez A (2019)

[Microbioma, salud y enfermedad: probióticos, prebióticos y simbióticos].

Biomedica : revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud, 39(4):617-621.

RevDate: 2020-05-28
CmpDate: 2020-05-28

Hechinger RF, Sheehan KL, AV Turner (2019)

Metabolic theory of ecology successfully predicts distinct scaling of ectoparasite load on hosts.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1917):20191777.

The impacts of parasites on hosts and the role that parasites play in ecosystems must be underlain by the load of parasites in individual hosts. To help explain and predict parasite load across a broad range of species, quantitative theory has been developed based on fundamental relationships between organism size, temperature and metabolic rate. Here, we elaborate on an aspect of that 'scaling theory for parasitism', and test a previously unexplored prediction, using new data for total ectoparasite load from 263 wild birds of 42 species. We reveal that, despite the expected substantial variation in parasite load among individual hosts, (i) the theory successfully predicts the distinct increase of ectoparasite load with host body size, indicating the importance of geometric scaling constraints on access to host resources, (ii) ectoparasite load appears ultimately limited by access-not to host space-but to host energy, and (iii) there is a currency-dependent shift in taxonomic dominance of parasite load on larger birds. Hence, these results reveal a seemingly new macroecological pattern, underscore the utility of energy flux as a currency for parasitism and highlight the promise of using scaling theory to provide baseline expectations for parasite load for a diversity of host species.

RevDate: 2020-05-28
CmpDate: 2020-05-28

Thomas L, López EH, Morikawa MK, et al (2019)

Transcriptomic resilience, symbiont shuffling, and vulnerability to recurrent bleaching in reef-building corals.

Molecular ecology, 28(14):3371-3382.

As climate change progresses and extreme temperature events increase in frequency, rates of disturbance may soon outpace the capacity of certain species of reef-building coral to recover from bleaching. This may lead to dramatic shifts in community composition and ecosystem function. Understanding variation in rates of bleaching recovery among species and how that translates to resilience to recurrent bleaching is fundamental to predicting the impacts of increasing disturbances on coral reefs globally. We tracked the response of two heat sensitive species in the genus Acropora to repeated bleaching events during the austral summers of 2015 and 2017. Despite a similar bleaching response, the species Acropora gemmifera recovered faster based on transcriptome-wide gene expression patterns and had a more dynamic algal symbiont community than Acropora hyacinthus growing on the same reef. Moreover, A. gemmifera had higher survival to repeated heat extremes, with six-fold lower mortality than A. hyacinthus. These patterns suggest that speed of recovery from a first round of bleaching, based on multiple mechanisms, contributes strongly to sensitivity to a second round of bleaching. Furthermore, our data uncovered intragenus variation in a group of corals thought generally to be heat-sensitive and therefore paint a more nuanced view of the future health of coral reef ecosystems against a backdrop of increasing thermal disturbances.

RevDate: 2020-05-28
CmpDate: 2020-05-28

Crew PE, McNamara L, Waldron PE, et al (2019)

Unusual Neisseria species as a cause of infection in patients taking eculizumab.

The Journal of infection, 78(2):113-118.

BACKGROUND: Non-meningococcal, non-gonococcal Neisseria spp. are typically commensal and rarely cause invasive disease. Eculizumab is a terminal complement inhibitor that increases susceptibility to meningococcal disease, but data on disease caused by typically-commensal Neisseria spp. are lacking. This series describes postmarketing reports of typically-commensal Neisseria spp. disease in patients receiving eculizumab.

METHODS: We searched the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and medical literature for reports of commensal Neisseria spp. disease in patients receiving eculizumab, from eculizumab U.S. approval (2007) through January 31, 2018.

RESULTS: We identified seven FAERS reports (including one case also reported in the literature) of non-meningococcal, non-gonococcal Neisseria disease, including N. sicca (mucosa)/subflava (n = 2), N. cinerea (n = 2), N. sicca (mucosa) (n = 1), N. mucosa (n = 1, with concurrent alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus bacteremia), and N. flavescens (subflava) (n = 1). Four cases had sources of patient immunosuppression in addition to eculizumab. Three patients had sepsis (n = 2) or septic shock (n = 1). Five patients were bacteremic. All patients were hospitalized; the infections resolved with antibiotics.

CONCLUSIONS: Our search identified seven cases of disease from typically commensal Neisseria spp. in eculizumab recipients. These findings suggest that any Neisseria spp. identified from a normally sterile site in an eculizumab recipient could represent true infection warranting prompt treatment.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz J, WJ Przybyłowicz (2020)

Ecophysiology of nickel hyperaccumulating plants from South Africa - from ultramafic soil and mycorrhiza to plants and insects.

Metallomics : integrated biometal science [Epub ahead of print].

An overview of 30 years of studies related to South African nickel hyperaccumulators is presented. Only five species have so far been identified as Ni hyperaccumulator plants among very rich and diversified South African flora. All of them occur on soils derived from ultramafic (serpentine) rocks and belong to the family Asteraceae: Berkheya coddii Roessler, Berkheya zeyheri subsp. rehmannii var. rogersiana, Berkheya nivea, Senecio coronatus, Senecio anomalochrous. Several techniques and methods were used to investigate ecophysiological aspects of the Ni hyperaccumulation phenomenon, from basic field and laboratory studies, to advanced instrumental methods. Analysis of elemental distribution in plant parts showed that in most cases the hyperaccumulated metal was stored in physiologically inactive tissues such as the foliar epidermis. However, an exception is Berkheya coddii, which has a distinctly different pattern of Ni distribution in leaves, with the highest concentration in the mesophyll. Such a distribution suggests that different physiological mechanisms are involved in the Ni transport, storage location and detoxification, compared to other hyperaccumulator species. Berkheya coddii is a plant with high potential for phytoremediation and phytomining due to its large biomass and potentially high Ni yield, that can reach 7.6% of Ni in dry mass of leaves. Senecio coronatus is the only known hyperaccumulator with two genotypes, hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating, growing on Ni-enriched/metalliferous soil. Detailed ultrastructural studies were undertaken to characterize specialized groups of cells in the root cortex of Ni-hyperaccumulating genotype, that are not known from any other hyperaccumulator. The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in Ni-hyperaccumulating plants was found for the first time in South African hyperaccumulator plants, and this type of symbiosis has been proved obligatory in all of them. There is a significant influence of mycorrhiza on the concentration and distribution of several elements. Three highly specialized herbivore insects feeding only on Ni hyperaccumulator plants were identified: Chrysolina clathrata (formerly Chrysolina pardalina), Epilachna nylanderi and Stenoscepa sp. The Ni-elimination strategies of these specialised insects have been established. Microbiological studies have revealed several genera of fungi and bacteria isolated from B. coddii leaves as well as presence of specialised, Ni-resistant yeasts in the C. clathrata gut. Understanding ecophysiological response to harsh environment broadens our knowledge and can have practical applications in cleaning polluted environments through phytomining/agromining. Finally, conservation aspects are also discussed and lines for future research are proposed.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Kleinstein SE, Nelson KE, M Freire (2020)

Inflammatory Networks Linking Oral Microbiome with Systemic Health and Disease.

Journal of dental research [Epub ahead of print].

The dance between microbes and the immune system takes place in all biological systems, including the human body, but this interaction is especially complex in the primary gateway to the body: the oral cavity. Recent advances in technology have enabled deep sequencing and analysis of members and signals of these communities. In a healthy state, the oral microbiome is composed of commensals, and their genes and phenotypes may be selected by the immune system to survive in symbiosis. These highly regulated signals are modulated by a network of microbial and host metabolites. However, in a diseased state, host-microbial networks lead to dysbiosis and considerable burden to the host prior to systemic impact that extends beyond the oral compartment. Interestingly, we presented data demonstrating similarities between human and mice immune dysbiosis and discussed how this affects the host response to similar pathobionts. The host and microbial signatures of a number of disease states are currently being examined to identify potential correlations. How the oral microbiome interacts with inflammation and the immune system to cause disease remains an area of active research. In this review, we summarize recent advancements in understanding the role of oral microbiota in mediating inflammation and altering systemic health and disease. In line with these findings, it is possible that existing conditions may be resolved by targeting specific immune-microbial markers in a positive way.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Guizzo MG, Neupane S, Kucera M, et al (2020)

Poor Unstable Midgut Microbiome of Hard Ticks Contrasts With Abundant and Stable Monospecific Microbiome in Ovaries.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:211.

Culture-independent metagenomic methodologies have enabled detection and identification of microorganisms in various biological systems and often revealed complex and unknown microbiomes. In many organisms, the microbiome outnumbers the host cells and greatly affects the host biology and fitness. Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites with a wide host range. They vector a number of human and animal pathogens and also directly cause major economic losses in livestock. Although several reports on a tick midgut microbiota show a diverse bacterial community, in most cases the size of the bacterial population has not been determined. In this study, the microbiome was quantified in the midgut and ovaries of the ticks Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus microplus before, during, and after blood feeding. Although the size of bacterial community in the midgut fluctuated with blood feeding, it was overall extremely low in comparison to that of other hematophagous arthropods. In addition, the tick ovarian microbiome of both tick species exceeded the midgut 16S rDNA copy numbers by several orders of magnitude. This indicates that the ratio of a tick midgut/ovary microbiome represents an exception to the general biology of other metazoans. In addition to the very low abundance, the tick midgut diversity in I. ricinus was variable and that is in contrast to that found in the tick ovary. The ovary of I. ricinus had a very low bacterial diversity and a very high and stable bacterial abundance with the dominant endosymbiont, Midichloria sp. The elucidation of this aspect of tick biology highlights a unique tissue-specific microbial-invertebrate host interaction.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Margarita V, Fiori PL, P Rappelli (2020)

Impact of Symbiosis Between Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis on Vaginal Dysbiosis: A Mini Review.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:179.

The protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis is responsible for trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted infection associated with an increased risk of HIV infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The protozoon has the surprising ability to establish a symbiotic relationship with other microorganisms. In fact, most T.vaginalis isolates intracellularly host the vaginal bacterium Mycoplasma hominis and can harbor up to four dsRNA viruses. Moreover, a novel Mycoplasma species named Ca. Mycoplasma girerdii has been recently described as associated with trichomonad cells. Trichomonas vaginalis colonizes the human vagina and its presence causes profound alterations of the resident microbiota, leading to dysbiosis. In healthy women, vaginal microbiota is characterized by the presence of a complex population of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms living in a physiologically dynamic system dominated by bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus. The most common microbial vaginal imbalance is bacterial vaginosis, a polymicrobial disease associated with several adverse reproductive outcomes and increased risk of HIV infection. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the interactions between both T.vaginalis and M.hominis and the vaginal microbiota, and we discuss the possibility of a cooperation between T.vaginalis and its symbionts in the development of vaginal dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Freitas PP, Hampton JG, Rolston MP, et al (2020)

A Tale of Two Grass Species: Temperature Affects the Symbiosis of a Mutualistic Epichloë Endophyte in Both Tall Fescue and Perennial Ryegrass.

Frontiers in plant science, 11:530.

Many cool-season grasses form permanent, mutualistic symbioses with asexual Epichloë endophytes. These fungal symbionts often perform a protective role within the association as many strains produce secondary metabolites that deter certain mammalian and invertebrate herbivores. Although initially a serious issue for agriculture, due to mammalian toxins that manifested in major animal health issues, selected strains that provide abiotic stress protection to plants with minimal ill effects to livestock are now commercialized and routinely used to enhance pasture performance in many farming systems. These fungal endophytes and their grass hosts have coevolved over millions of years, and it is now generally accepted that most taxonomic groupings of Epichloë are confined to forming compatible associations (i.e., symptomless associations) with related grass genera within a tribe. The most desired compounds associated with Epichloë festucae var. lolii, an endophyte species associated with perennial ryegrass, are peramine and epoxy-janthitrems. No other major secondary metabolites with invertebrate bioactivity have been identified within this association. However, other agriculturally beneficial compounds, such as lolines, have been discovered in related endophyte species that form associations with fescue grasses. A rationale therefore existed to develop novel grass-endophyte associations between loline-producing endophytes originally isolated from tall fescue with elite cultivars of perennial ryegrass to achieve a wider spectrum of insect bioactivity. A suitable loline-producing endophyte strain of Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 was selected and inoculated into perennial ryegrass. We hypothesed that endophyte transmission frequency, endophyte mycelial biomass and endophyte-derived alkaloid production would differ between the original tall fescue host and the artificial association. Consistent with our hypothesis, our data strongly suggest that plant species significantly affected the plant-endophyte association. This effect became more apparent for transmission frequency and endophyte biomass as the plants matured. Overall, the viable endophyte infection frequency was greater in the tall fescue host than in perennial ryegrass, at all sampling dates. Additionally, temperature was found to be a significant factor affecting endophyte transmission frequency, endophyte mycelial biomass and alkaloid production. Implications for the development of novel grass-endophyte associations are discussed.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Essock-Burns T, Bongrand C, Goldman WE, et al (2020)

Interactions of Symbiotic Partners Drive the Development of a Complex Biogeography in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis.

mBio, 11(3): pii:mBio.00853-20.

Microbes live in complex microniches within host tissues, but how symbiotic partners communicate to create such niches during development remains largely unexplored. Using confocal microscopy and symbiont genetics, we characterized the shaping of host microenvironments during light organ colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes by the bacterium Vibrio fischeri During embryogenesis, three pairs of invaginations form sequentially on the organ's surface, producing pores that lead to interior compressed tubules at different stages of development. After hatching, these areas expand, allowing V. fischeri cells to enter and migrate ∼120 μm through three anatomically distinct regions before reaching blind-ended crypt spaces. A dynamic gatekeeper, or bottleneck, connects these crypts with the migration path. Once V. fischeri cells have entered the crypts, the bottlenecks narrow, and colonization by the symbiont population becomes spatially restricted. The actual timing of constriction and restriction varies with crypt maturity and with different V. fischeri strains. Subsequently, starting with the first dawn following colonization, the bottleneck controls a lifelong cycle of dawn-triggered expulsions of most of the symbionts into the environment and a subsequent regrowth in the crypts. Unlike other developmental phenotypes, bottleneck constriction is not induced by known microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or by V. fischeri-produced bioluminescence, but it does require metabolically active symbionts. Further, while symbionts in the most mature crypts have a higher proportion of live cells and a greater likelihood of expulsion at dawn, they have a lower resistance to antibiotics. The overall dynamics of these distinct microenvironments reflect the complexity of the host-symbiont dialogue.IMPORTANCE The complexity, inaccessibility, and time scales of initial colonization of most animal microbiomes present challenges for the characterization of how the bacterial symbionts influence the form and function of tissues in the minutes to hours following the initial interaction of the partners. Here, we use the naturally occurring binary squid-vibrio association to explore this phenomenon. Imaging of the spatiotemporal landscape of this symbiosis during its onset provides a window into the impact of differences in both host-tissue maturation and symbiont strain phenotypes on the establishment of a dynamically stable symbiotic system. These data provide evidence that the symbionts shape the host-tissue landscape and that tissue maturation impacts the influence of strain-level differences on the daily rhythms of the symbiosis, the competitiveness for colonization, and antibiotic sensitivity.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Teranishi T, Y Kobae (2020)

Investigation of Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Performance Using a Lotus japonicus Mycorrhizal Mutant.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:plants9050658.

Most plants are usually colonized with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in the fields. AMF absorb mineral nutrients, especially phosphate, from the soil and transfer them to the host plants. Inoculation with exotic AMF is thought to be effective when indigenous AMF performance is low; however, there is no method for evaluating the performance of indigenous AMF. In this study, we developed a method to investigate the performance of indigenous AMF in promoting plant growth. As Lotus japonicus mutant (str) that are unable to form functional mycorrhizal roots were considered to be symbiosis negative for indigenous mycorrhizal performance, we examined the growth ratios of wild-type and str mycorrhizal mutant using 24 soils. Each soil had its own unique indigenous mycorrhizal performance, which was not directly related to the colonization level of indigenous AMF or soil phosphate level. The low indigenous mycorrhizal performance could not be compensated by the inoculation of exotic AMF. Importantly, indigenous mycorrhizal performance was never negative; however, the inoculation of exotic AMF into the same soil led to both positive and negative performances. These results suggest that indigenous mycorrhizal performance is affected by soil management history and is basically harmless to the plant.

RevDate: 2020-05-27
CmpDate: 2020-05-27

Chute JP, CM Termini (2019)

Mutualism in the Marrow.

Cell stem cell, 25(6):731-733.

Cross-talk between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the HSC niche is likely important in hematopoiesis but not well demonstrated. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Chen et al. (2019) describe how specialized endothelial cells regulate hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and how hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells facilitate vascular regeneration in return.

RevDate: 2020-05-27
CmpDate: 2020-05-27

Dou X, B Dong (2019)

Origins and Bioactivities of Natural Compounds Derived from Marine Ascidians and Their Symbionts.

Marine drugs, 17(12):.

Marine ascidians are becoming important drug sources that provide abundant secondary metabolites with novel structures and high bioactivities. As one of the most chemically prolific marine animals, more than 1200 inspirational natural products, such as alkaloids, peptides, and polyketides, with intricate and novel chemical structures have been identified from ascidians. Some of them have been successfully developed as lead compounds or highly efficient drugs. Although numerous compounds that exist in ascidians have been structurally and functionally identified, their origins are not clear. Interestingly, growing evidence has shown that these natural products not only come from ascidians, but they also originate from symbiotic microbes. This review classifies the identified natural products from ascidians and the associated symbionts. Then, we discuss the diversity of ascidian symbiotic microbe communities, which synthesize diverse natural products that are beneficial for the hosts. Identification of the complex interactions between the symbiont and the host is a useful approach to discovering ways that direct the biosynthesis of novel bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potentials.

RevDate: 2020-05-27
CmpDate: 2020-05-27

Bublitz DC, Chadwick GL, Magyar JS, et al (2019)

Peptidoglycan Production by an Insect-Bacterial Mosaic.

Cell, 179(3):703-712.e7.

Peptidoglycan (PG) is a defining feature of bacteria, involved in cell division, shape, and integrity. We previously reported that several genes related to PG biosynthesis were horizontally transferred from bacteria to the nuclear genome of mealybugs. Mealybugs are notable for containing a nested bacteria-within-bacterium endosymbiotic structure in specialized insect cells, where one bacterium, Moranella, lives in the cytoplasm of another bacterium, Tremblaya. Here we show that horizontally transferred genes on the mealybug genome work together with genes retained on the Moranella genome to produce a PG layer exclusively at the Moranella cell periphery. Furthermore, we show that an insect protein encoded by a horizontally transferred gene of bacterial origin is transported into the Moranella cytoplasm. These results provide a striking parallel to the genetic and biochemical mosaicism found in organelles, and prove that multiple horizontally transferred genes can become integrated into a functional pathway distributed between animal and bacterial endosymbiont genomes.

RevDate: 2020-05-27
CmpDate: 2020-05-27

Boscaro V, Husnik F, Vannini C, et al (2019)

Symbionts of the ciliate Euplotes: diversity, patterns and potential as models for bacteria-eukaryote endosymbioses.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1907):20190693.

Endosymbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are enormously important in ecology and evolution, and as such are intensely studied. Despite this, the range of investigated hosts is narrow in the context of the whole eukaryotic tree of life: most of the information pertains to animal hosts, while most of the diversity is found in unicellular protists. A prominent case study is the ciliate Euplotes, which has repeatedly taken up the bacterium Polynucleobacter from the environment, triggering its transformation into obligate endosymbiont. This multiple origin makes the relationship an excellent model to understand recent symbioses, but Euplotes may host bacteria other than Polynucleobacter, and a more detailed knowledge of these additional interactions is needed in order to correctly interpret the system. Here, we present the first systematic survey of Euplotes endosymbionts, adopting a classical as well as a metagenomic approach, and review the state of knowledge. The emerging picture is indeed quite complex, with some Euplotes harbouring rich, stable prokaryotic communities not unlike those of multicellular animals. We provide insights into the distribution, evolution and diversity of these symbionts (including the establishment of six novel bacterial taxa), and outline differences and similarities with the most well-understood group of eukaryotic hosts: insects.

RevDate: 2020-05-27
CmpDate: 2020-05-27

Liu H, Wu M, Liu J, et al (2020)

Tripartite Interactions Between Endophytic Fungi, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, and Leymus chinensis.

Microbial ecology, 79(1):98-109.

Grasses often establish multiple simultaneous symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies have examined pair-wise interactions between plants and endophytic fungi or between plants and AMF, overlooking the interplays among multiple endosymbionts and their combined impacts on hosts. Here, we examined both the way in which each symbiont affects the other symbionts and the tripartite interactions between leaf endophytic fungi, AMF, and Leymus chinensis. As for AMF, different species (Glomus etunicatum, GE; Glomus mosseae, GM; Glomus claroideum, GC; and Glomus intraradices, GI) and AMF richness (no AMF, single AMF taxa, double AMF mixtures, triple AMF mixtures, and all four together) were considered. Our results showed that significant interactions were observed between endophytes and AMF, with endophytes interacting antagonistically with GM but synergistically with GI. No definitive interactions were observed between the endophytes and GE or GC. Additionally, the concentration of endophytes in the leaf sheath was positively correlated with the concentration of AMF in the roots under low AMF richness. The shoot biomass of L. chinensis was positively related to both endophyte concentration and AMF concentration, with only endophytes contributing to shoot biomass more than AMF. Endophytes and AMF increased shoot growth by contributing to phosphorus uptake. The interactive effects of endophytes and AMF on host growth were affected by the identity of AMF species. The beneficial effect of the endophytes decreased in response to GM but increased in response to GI. However, no influences were observed with other GC and GE. In addition, endophyte presence can alter the response of host plants to AMF richness. When leaf endophytes were absent, shoot biomass increased with higher AMF richness, only the influence of AMF species identity outweighed that of AMF richness. However, when leaf endophytes were present, no significant association was observed between AMF richness and shoot biomass. AMF species identity rather than AMF richness promoted shoot growth. The results of this study demonstrate that the outcomes of interspecific symbiotic interactions are very complex and vary with partner identity such that the effects of simultaneous symbioses cannot be generalized and highlight the need for studies to evaluate fitness response of all three species, as the interactive effects may not be the same for each partner.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Kokkoris V, Lekberg Y, Antunes PM, et al (2020)

Codependency between plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities: what is the evidence?.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

That arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi covary with plant communities is clear, and many papers report non-random associations between symbiotic partners. However, these studies do not test the causal relationship, or "codependency", whereby the composition of one guild affects the composition of the other. Here we outline underlying requirements for codependency, compare important drivers for both plant and AM fungal communities, and assess how host preference-a pre-requisite for codependency-changes across spatiotemporal scales and taxonomic resolution for both plants and AM fungi. We find few examples in the literature designed to test for codependency and those that do have been conducted within plots or mesocosms. Also, while plants and AM fungi respond similarly to coarse environmental filters, most variation remains unexplained with host identity explaining less than 30% of the variation in AM fungal communities. These results combined question the likelihood of predictable co-occurrence, and therefore evolution of codependency, between plant and AM fungal taxa across locations. We argue that codependency is most likely to occur in homogeneous environments where specific plant - AM fungal pairings have functional consequences for the symbiosis. We end by outlining critical aspects to consider moving forward.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Bellay S, Oda FH, Almeida-Neto M, et al (2020)

Host age predicts parasite occurrence, richness, and nested infracommunities in a pilot whale-helminth network.

Parasitology research pii:10.1007/s00436-020-06716-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Ecological data on marine mammal parasites represent an excellent opportunity to expand our understanding of host-parasite systems. In this study, we used a dataset of intestinal helminth parasites on 167 long-finned pilot whales Globicephala melas (Traill, 1809) from seven localities in the Faroe Islands to evaluate the extent to which the host's age and sex influence the occurrence, richness, and nested pattern of helminth parasites and the importance of individual hosts to the helminth community. We found positive effects of age on both the occurrence and richness of helminths. Older host individuals showed an ordered accumulation of parasites, as evidenced by the nested pattern in their composition. Males had a higher occurrence of parasites than females, but the richness of helminths did not differ between sexes. Our findings suggest that differences in host-parasite interactions in long-finned pilot whales result mainly from age-structured variations in biological and behavioral characteristics.

RevDate: 2020-05-26
CmpDate: 2020-05-26

Cheng S, Xian W, Fu Y, et al (2019)

Genomes of Subaerial Zygnematophyceae Provide Insights into Land Plant Evolution.

Cell, 179(5):1057-1067.e14.

The transition to a terrestrial environment, termed terrestrialization, is generally regarded as a pivotal event in the evolution and diversification of the land plant flora that changed the surface of our planet. Through phylogenomic studies, a group of streptophyte algae, the Zygnematophyceae, have recently been recognized as the likely sister group to land plants (embryophytes). Here, we report genome sequences and analyses of two early diverging Zygnematophyceae (Spirogloea muscicola gen. nov. and Mesotaenium endlicherianum) that share the same subaerial/terrestrial habitat with the earliest-diverging embryophytes, the bryophytes. We provide evidence that genes (i.e., GRAS and PYR/PYL/RCAR) that increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in land plants, in particular desiccation, originated or expanded in the common ancestor of Zygnematophyceae and embryophytes, and were gained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from soil bacteria. These two Zygnematophyceae genomes represent a cornerstone for future studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanism and process of plant terrestrialization.

RevDate: 2020-05-26
CmpDate: 2020-05-26

Han LL, Wang Q, Shen JP, et al (2019)

Multiple factors drive the abundance and diversity of the diazotrophic community in typical farmland soils of China.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 95(8):.

Biological nitrogen fixation plays an important role in nitrogen cycling by transferring atmospheric N2 to plant-available N in the soil. However, the diazotrophic activity and distribution in different types of soils remain to be further explored. In this study, 152 upland soils were sampled to examine the diazotrophic abundance, nitrogenase activity, diversity and community composition by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, acetylene reduction assay and the MiSeq sequencing of nifH genes, respectively. The results showed that diazotrophic abundance and nitrogenase activity varied among the three soil types. The diazotrophic community was mainly dominated by Bradyrhizobium, Azospirillum, Myxobacter, Desulfovibrio and Methylobacterium. The symbiotic diazotroph Bradyrhizobium was widely distributed among soils, while the distribution of free-living diazotrophs showed large variation and was greatly affected by multiple factors. Crop type and soil properties directly affected the diazotrophic ɑ-diversity, while soil properties, climatic factors and spatial distance together influenced the diazotrophic community. Network structures were completely different among all three types of soils, with most complex interactions observed in the Red soil. These findings suggest that diazotrophs have various activities and distributions in the three soil types, which played different roles in nitrogen input in agricultural soil in China, being driven by multiple environmental factors.

RevDate: 2020-05-26
CmpDate: 2020-05-26

Gutleben J, Koehorst JJ, McPherson K, et al (2019)

Diversity of tryptophan halogenases in sponges of the genus Aplysina.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 95(8):.

Marine sponges are a prolific source of novel enzymes with promising biotechnological potential. Especially halogenases, which are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of brominated and chlorinated secondary metabolites, possess interesting properties towards the production of pharmaceuticals that are often halogenated. In this study we used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening to simultaneously examine and compare the richness and diversity of putative tryptophan halogenase protein sequences and bacterial community structures of six Aplysina species from the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas. At the phylum level, bacterial community composition was similar amongst all investigated species and predominated by Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Proteobacteria. We detected four phylogenetically diverse clades of putative tryptophan halogenase protein sequences, which were only distantly related to previously reported halogenases. The Mediterranean species Aplysina aerophoba harbored unique halogenase sequences, of which the most predominant was related to a sponge-associated Psychrobacter-derived sequence. In contrast, the Caribbean species shared numerous novel halogenase sequence variants and exhibited a highly similar bacterial community composition at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level. Correlations of relative abundances of halogenases with those of bacterial taxa suggest that prominent sponge symbiotic bacteria, including Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria, are putative producers of the detected enzymes and may thus contribute to the chemical defense of their host.

RevDate: 2020-05-26
CmpDate: 2020-05-26

Feng G, Zhang F, Banakar S, et al (2019)

Analysis of functional gene transcripts suggests active CO2 assimilation and CO oxidation by diverse bacteria in marine sponges.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 95(7):.

Bacteria are the dominant symbionts in sponges and are regarded as important contributors to ocean nutrient cycling; however, their roles in carbon utilization in sponge holobionts are seldom identified. Here, the in situ active bacteria and their CO2 assimilation and CO oxidation functions in sponges Theonella swinhoei, Plakortis simplex and Phakellia fusca were evaluated using the analysis of functional gene transcripts. Phylogenetically diverse bacteria belonging to 16 phyla were detected by 16S rRNA analysis. Particularly, some of the active bacteria appeared to be sponge-specific or even sponge species-specific. Transcribed autotrophic CO2 assimilation genes rbcL and rbcM, anaplerotic CO2 assimilation gene accC and aerobic CO oxidation gene coxL were uncovered and assigned to a wide variety of bacterial lineages. Some of these carbon metabolism genes showed specificity to sponge species or different transcriptional activity among the sponge species. This study uncovered the phylogenetic diversity of transcriptionally active bacteria especially with CO2 assimilation or CO oxidation functions, providing insights into the ecological functions of the sponge-symbiotic bacteria regarding carbon metabolism.

RevDate: 2020-05-25

Hojo F, Osaki T, Yonezawa H, et al (2020)

Acanthamoeba castellanii supports extracellular survival of Helicobacter pylori in co-culture.

Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy pii:S1341-321X(20)30142-2 [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to demonstrate whether Helicobacter pylori is able to survive in co-culture with a protozoan, Acanthamoeba castellanii, in order to further investigate a possible aqueous environmental mode of transmission. Numbers of H. pylori in co-culture with A castellanii were assessed by colony forming unit (CFU) assay and cell morphology was observed by electron microscopy. Viable and intact H. pylori in co-culture were detected and the number of H. pylori in co-culture with A. castellanii was significantly higher than in bacterial single culture. It was also shown that co-culture of H. pylori with A. castellanii physically separated by a filter membrane negated this survival effect, suggesting that adherence of H. pylori to A. castellanii affects its survival. Scanning electron microscopy revealed helical forms of H. pylori in co-culture with A. castellanii, but not in single culture. These results imply that mutual interaction between H. pylori and A. castellanii in the environment is critical for survival of H. pylori. In addition, the H. pylori gene expression profile was found to differ between single and co-cultured cells using RNA-sequence analysis.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

diCenzo GC, Tesi M, Pfau T, et al (2020)

Genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of the symbiosis between a leguminous plant and a nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

Nature communications, 11(1):2574 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-16484-2.

The mutualistic association between leguminous plants and endosymbiotic rhizobial bacteria is a paradigmatic example of a symbiosis driven by metabolic exchanges. Here, we report the reconstruction and modelling of a genome-scale metabolic network of Medicago truncatula (plant) nodulated by Sinorhizobium meliloti (bacterium). The reconstructed nodule tissue contains five spatially distinct developmental zones and encompasses the metabolism of both the plant and the bacterium. Flux balance analysis (FBA) suggests that the metabolic costs associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation are primarily related to supporting nitrogenase activity, and increasing N2-fixation efficiency is associated with diminishing returns in terms of plant growth. Our analyses support that differentiating bacteroids have access to sugars as major carbon sources, ammonium is the main nitrogen export product of N2-fixing bacteria, and N2 fixation depends on proton transfer from the plant cytoplasm to the bacteria through acidification of the peribacteroid space. We expect that our model, called 'Virtual Nodule Environment' (ViNE), will contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of legume nodules, and may guide experimental studies and engineering of symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Whitewoods CD (2020)

Evolution of CLE peptide signalling.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology pii:S1084-9521(19)30196-X [Epub ahead of print].

CLEs are small non-cell autonomous signalling peptides that regulate cell division rate and orientation in a variety of developmental contexts. Recent years have generated a huge amount of research on CLE function across land plants, characterising their role across the whole plant; they control stem cell division in the shoot, root and cambial meristems, balance developmental investment into symbiosis, regulate leaf development, pattern stomata and control axillary branching. They have even been co-opted by parasitic nematodes to mediate infection. This review synthesises these recent findings and embeds them in an evolutionary context, outlining the likely evolution of the CLE signalling pathway. I use this framework to infer common mechanistic themes and pose key future questions for the field.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Manzano-Marín A (2020)

No evidence for Wolbachia as a nutritional co-obligate endosymbiont in the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa.

Microbiome, 8(1):72 pii:10.1186/s40168-020-00865-2.

Obligate symbiotic associations are present in a wide variety of animals with a nutrient-restricted diet. Aphids (hemiptera: Aphididae) almost-universally host Buchnera aphidicola bacteria in specialised organs (called bacteriomes). These bacteria supply the aphid with essential nutrients lacking from their diet (i.e. essential amino acids and some B vitamins). Some aphid lineages, such as species from the Lacninae subfamily, have evolved co-obligate associations with secondary endosymbionts, deriving from a loss of biotin- and riboflavin-biosynthetic genes. In this study, I re-analyse previously published sequencing data from the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa. I show that the metabolic inference results from De Clerck et al. (Microbiome 3:63, 2015) are incorrect and possibly arise from the use of inadequate methods. Additionally, I discuss how the seemingly biased interpretation of their antibiotic treatment analyses together with an incorrect genome-based metabolic inference resulted in the erroneous suggestion "that a co-obligatory symbiosis between B. aphidicola and Wolbachia occurs in the banana aphid".

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Bollati E, D'Angelo C, Alderdice R, et al (2020)

Optical Feedback Loop Involving Dinoflagellate Symbiont and Scleractinian Host Drives Colorful Coral Bleaching.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(20)30571-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Coral bleaching, caused by the loss of brownish-colored dinoflagellate photosymbionts from the host tissue of reef-building corals, is a major threat to reef survival. Occasionally, bleached corals become exceptionally colorful rather than white. These colors derive from photoprotective green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments produced by the coral host. There is currently no consensus regarding what causes colorful bleaching events and what the consequences for the corals are. Here, we document that colorful bleaching events are a recurring phenomenon in reef regions around the globe. Our analysis of temperature conditions associated with colorful bleaching events suggests that corals develop extreme coloration within 2 to 3 weeks after exposure to mild or temporary heat stress. We demonstrate that the increase of light fluxes in symbiont-depleted tissue promoted by reflection of the incident light from the coral skeleton induces strong expression of the photoprotective coral host pigments. We describe an optical feedback loop involving both partners of the association, discussing that the mitigation of light stress offered by host pigments could facilitate recolonization of bleached tissue by symbionts. Our data indicate that colorful bleaching has the potential to identify local environmental factors, such as nutrient stress, that can exacerbate the impact of elevated temperatures on corals, to indicate the severity of heat stress experienced by corals and to gauge their post-stress recovery potential. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Larrainzar E, Villar I, Rubio MC, et al (2020)

Hemoglobins in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Legume nodules have two types of hemoglobins: symbiotic or leghemoglobins (Lbs) and nonsymbiotic or phytoglobins (Glbs). The latter are categorized into three phylogenetic classes differing in heme coordination and O2 affinity. This review is focused on the roles of Lbs and Glbs in the symbiosis of rhizobia with crop legumes and the model legumes for indeterminate (Medicago truncatula) and determinate (Lotus japonicus) nodulation. Only two hemoglobin functions are well established in nodules: Lbs deliver O2 to the bacteroids and act as O2 buffers, preventing nitrogenase inactivation; and Glb1-1 modulates nitric oxide concentration during symbiosis, from the early stage, avoiding the plant's defense response, to nodule senescence. Here, we critically examine early and recent results, update and correct the information on Lbs and Glbs with the latest genome versions, provide novel expression data, and identify targets for future research. Crucial unresolved questions include the expression of multiple Lbs in nodules, their presence in the nuclei and in uninfected nodule cells, and, intriguingly, their expression in nonsymbiotic tissues. RNA-sequencing data analysis show that Lbs are expressed as early as a few hours after inoculation and that their mRNAs are also detectable in roots and pods, which clearly suggests that these heme proteins play additional roles unrelated to nitrogen fixation. Likewise, issues awaiting investigation are the functions of other Glbs in nodules, the spatiotemporal expression profiles of Lbs and Glbs at the mRNA and protein levels, and the molecular mechanisms underlying their regulation during nodule development and in response to stress and hormones.

RevDate: 2020-05-22
CmpDate: 2020-05-22

El-Deeb O (2019)

Digest: Fitness costs of Spiroplasma infection in pea aphids.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 73(7):1490-1491.

Endosymbionts sometimes help their hosts resist parasites, but does infection of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) with different strains of the endosymbiont Spiroplasma confer fitness benefits that offset the costs? Mathé-Hubert et al. found that across four life-history traits, Spiroplasma infection induced negative effects on host fitness when compared to controls. Only two of 12 strains of Spiroplasma showed a marginal protective effect against host parasitism by Aphidius ervi, implying Spiroplasma infection is almost entirely detrimental to pea aphid host fitness.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Ngugi DK, Ziegler M, Duarte CM, et al (2020)

Genomic Blueprint of Glycine Betaine Metabolism in Coral Metaorganisms and Their Contribution to Reef Nitrogen Budgets.

iScience, 23(5):101120 pii:S2589-0042(20)30305-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The osmolyte glycine betaine (GB) ranks among the few widespread biomolecules in all three domains of life. In corals, tissue concentrations of GB are substantially higher than in the ambient seawater. However, the synthetic routes remain unresolved, questioning whether intracellular GB originates from de novo synthesis or heterotrophic input. Here we show that the genomic blueprint of coral metaorganisms encode the biosynthetic and degradation machinery for GB. Member organisms also adopted the prokaryotic high-affinity carrier-mediated uptake of exogenous GB, rendering coral reefs potential sinks of marine dissolved GB. The machinery metabolizing GB is highly expressed in the coral model Aiptasia and its microalgal symbionts, signifying GB's role in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. We estimate that corals store between 106-109 grams of GB globally, representing about 16% of their nitrogen biomass. Our findings provide a framework for further mechanistic studies addressing GB's role in coral biology and reef ecosystem nitrogen cycling.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Ke T, Santamaría A, Tinkov AA, et al (2020)

Generating Bacterial Foods in Toxicology Studies with Caenorhabditis elegans.

Current protocols in toxicology, 84(1):e94.

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living animal that is used as a powerful experimental model in biological sciences. The natural habitat of the animal are areas rich in material from rotting plants or fruits being decomposed by a growing number of microorganisms. The ecology of the natural habitat of C. elegans is a complex interactive network involving many species, including numerous types of bacteria, viruses, fungi, slugs, snails, and isopods, among which bacteria play multifaceted roles in the natural history of C. elegans. Under laboratory conditions, C. elegans is routinely cultured in a petri dish filled with solidified agar and seeded with Escherichia coli strain OP50, the latter offering an alternative model to study the interaction between bacteria and host. Because of the clear advantages of generating specific bacterial foods for mechanistic studies in C. elegans, it is important to develop a robust protocol to generate high-quality bacterial foods commensurate with experimental requirements. Based on previous work by us and others, herein we present a protocol on how to generate these optimal bacterial food-based research tools. © 2020 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basic Protocol 1: Preparing concentrated E. coli OP50 Basic Protocol 2: Titrating bacteria concentration Basic Protocol 3: Generating dead bacterial food by heating Basic Protocol 4: Generating dead bacterial food by antibiotics Basic Protocol 5: Feeding C. elegans with bacterial foods in liquid.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Weemstra M, Peay KG, Davies SJ, et al (2020)

Lithological constraints on resource economies shape the mycorrhizal composition of a Bornean rain forest.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

-Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) produce contrasting plant-soil feedbacks, but how these feedbacks are constrained by lithology is poorly understood. -We investigated the hypothesis that lithological drivers of soil fertility filter plant resource economic strategies in ways that influence the relative fitness of trees with AMF or EMF symbioses in a Bornean rain forest containing species with both mycorrhizal strategies. -Using forest inventory data on 1245 tree species, we found that although AMF-hosting trees had greater relative dominance on all soil types, with declining lithological soil fertility, EMF-hosting trees became more dominant. Data on 13 leaf traits and wood density for a total of 150 species showed that variation was almost always associated with soil type, whereas for six leaf traits (structural properties; carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus ratios; nitrogen isotopes), variation was also associated with mycorrhizal strategy. EMF-hosting species had slower leaf economics than AMF-hosts, demonstrating the central role of mycorrhizal symbiosis in plant resource economies. -At the global scale, climate has been shown to shape forest mycorrhizal composition, but here we show that, in communities, it depends on soil lithology, suggesting scale-dependent abiotic factors influence feedbacks underlying the relative fitness of different mycorrhizal strategies.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Borghi M, Puccetti M, Pariano M, et al (2020)

Tryptophan as a Central Hub for Host/Microbial Symbiosis.

International journal of tryptophan research : IJTR, 13:1178646920919755 pii:10.1177_1178646920919755.

Amino acid catabolism occurs during inflammation and regulates innate and adaptive immunity. The role of commensal bacteria in amino acid catabolism and the production of metabolites able to regulate the development and function of the innate immune system is increasingly being recognized. Therefore, commensal bacteria are key players in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, the intestinal microbiota also contributes to susceptibility and response to infectious diseases. This is self-evident for fungal infections known to occur as a consequence of weakened immune system and broad-spectrum antibiotic use or abuse. Thus, diseases caused by opportunistic fungi can no longer be viewed as dependent only on a weakened host but also on a disrupted microbiota. Based on these premises, the present review focuses on the role of amino acid metabolic pathways in the dialogue between the mammalian host and its microbiota and the potential implications in fungal commensalism and infectivity.

RevDate: 2020-05-21
CmpDate: 2020-05-21

Smith CC, Weber JN, Mikheyev AS, et al (2019)

Landscape genomics of an obligate mutualism: Concordant and discordant population structures between the leafcutter ant Atta texana and its two main fungal symbiont types.

Molecular ecology, 28(11):2831-2845.

To explore landscape genomics at the range limit of an obligate mutualism, we use genotyping-by-sequencing (ddRADseq) to quantify population structure and the effect of host-symbiont interactions between the northernmost fungus-farming leafcutter ant Atta texana and its two main types of cultivated fungus. Genome-wide differentiation between ants associated with either of the two fungal types is of the same order of magnitude as differentiation associated with temperature and precipitation across the ant's entire range, suggesting that specific ant-fungus genome-genome combinations may have been favoured by selection. For the ant hosts, we found a broad cline of genetic structure across the range, and a reduction of genetic diversity along the axis of range expansion towards the range margin. This population-genetic structure was concordant between the ants and one cultivar type (M-fungi, concordant clines) but discordant for the other cultivar type (T-fungi). Discordance in population-genetic structures between ant hosts and a fungal symbiont is surprising because the ant farmers codisperse with their vertically transmitted fungal symbionts. Discordance implies that (a) the fungi disperse also through between-nest horizontal transfer or other unknown mechanisms, and (b) genetic drift and gene flow can differ in magnitude between each partner and between different ant-fungus combinations. Together, these findings imply that variation in the strength of drift and gene flow experienced by each mutualistic partner affects adaptation to environmental stress at the range margin, and genome-genome interactions between host and symbiont influence adaptive genetic differentiation of the host during range evolution in this obligate mutualism.

RevDate: 2020-05-21
CmpDate: 2020-05-21

Stewart D, Romo JA, Lamendella R, et al (2019)

The role of fungi in C. difficile infection: An underappreciated transkingdom interaction.

Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 129:1-6.

Novel culture independent technologies have further elucidated the composition of the human mycobiome, though the role of fungi in human health and disease remains largely unknown. Recent studies have suggested conflicting roles for fungi in the gastrointestinal tract, underscoring the complexity of the interactions between the mycobiome, its bacterial counterpart, and the host. One key example is the observation that fungal taxa are overrepresented in patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), suggesting a role for fungi in this disease. Recent studies in murine models have demonstrated the ability of the commensal fungus Candida albicans to alter the course of CDI, supporting the notion that fungi play a role in this infection. This review summarizes current data on fungi and CDI, and shows that views of the dysbiotic state that is central to the pathogenesis of CDI are incomplete without consideration of the mycobiome.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Zheng D, Liwinski T, E Elinav (2020)

Interaction between microbiota and immunity in health and disease.

Cell research pii:10.1038/s41422-020-0332-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The interplay between the commensal microbiota and the mammalian immune system development and function includes multifold interactions in homeostasis and disease. The microbiome plays critical roles in the training and development of major components of the host's innate and adaptive immune system, while the immune system orchestrates the maintenance of key features of host-microbe symbiosis. In a genetically susceptible host, imbalances in microbiota-immunity interactions under defined environmental contexts are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of a multitude of immune-mediated disorders. Here, we review features of microbiome-immunity crosstalk and their roles in health and disease, while providing examples of molecular mechanisms orchestrating these interactions in the intestine and extra-intestinal organs. We highlight aspects of the current knowledge, challenges and limitations in achieving causal understanding of host immune-microbiome interactions, as well as their impact on immune-mediated diseases, and discuss how these insights may translate towards future development of microbiome-targeted therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Wollein Waldetoft K, Råberg L, R Lood (2020)

Proliferation and benevolence-A framework for dissecting the mechanisms of microbial virulence and health promotion.

Evolutionary applications, 13(5):879-888 pii:EVA12952.

Key topics in the study of host-microbe interactions-such as the prevention of drug resistance and the exploitation of beneficial effects of bacteria-would benefit from concerted efforts with both mechanistic and evolutionary approaches. But due to differences in intellectual traditions, insights gained in one field rarely benefit the other. Here, we develop a conceptual and analytical framework for the integrated study of host-microbe interactions. This framework partitions the health effects of microbes and the effector molecules they produce into components with different evolutionary implications. It thereby facilitates the prediction of evolutionary responses to inhibition and exploitation of specific molecular mechanisms.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Newkirk CR, Frazer TK, Martindale MQ, et al (2020)

Adaptation to Bleaching: Are Thermotolerant Symbiodiniaceae Strains More Successful Than Other Strains Under Elevated Temperatures in a Model Symbiotic Cnidarian?.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:822.

The ability of some symbiotic cnidarians to resist and better withstand stress factors that cause bleaching is a trait that is receiving increased attention. The adaptive bleaching hypothesis postulates that cnidarians that can form a stable symbiosis with thermotolerant Symbiodiniaceae strains may cope better with increasing seawater temperatures. We used polyps of the scyphozoan, Cassiopea xamachana, as a model system to test symbiosis success under heat stress. We sought to determine: (1) if aposymbiotic C. xamachana polyps could establish and maintain a symbiosis with both native and non-native strains of Symbiodiniaceae that all exhibit different tolerances to heat, (2) whether polyps with these newly acquired Symbiodiniaceae strains would strobilate (produce ephyra), and (3) if thermally tolerant Symbiodiniaceae strains that established and maintained a symbiosis exhibited greater success in response to heat stress (even if they are not naturally occurring in Cassiopea). Following recolonization of aposymbiotic C. xamachana polyps with different strains, we found that: (1) strains Smic, Stri, Slin, and Spil all established a stable symbiosis that promoted strobilation and (2) strains Bmin1 and Bmin2 did not establish a stable symbiosis and strobilation did not occur. Strains Smic, Stri, Slin, and Spil were used in a subsequent bleaching experiment; each of the strains was introduced to a subset of aposymbiotic polyps and once polyp tissues were saturated with symbionts they were subjected to elevated temperatures - 32°C and 34°C - for 2 weeks. Our findings indicate that, in general, pairings of polyps with Symbiodiniaceae strains that are native to Cassiopea (Stri and Smic) performed better than a non-native strain (Slin) even though this strain has a high thermotolerance. This suggests a degree of partner specificity that may limit the adaptive potential of certain cnidarians to increased ocean warming. We also observed that the free-living, non-native thermotolerant strain Spil was relatively successful in resisting bleaching during experimental trials. This suggests that free-living Symbiodiniaceae may provide a supply of potentially "new" thermotolerant strains to cnidarians following a bleaching event.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Lemmer KC, Alberge F, Myers KS, et al (2020)

The NtrYX Two-Component System Regulates the Bacterial Cell Envelope.

mBio, 11(3): pii:mBio.00957-20.

Activity of the NtrYX two-component system has been associated with important processes in diverse bacteria, ranging from symbiosis to nitrogen and energy metabolism. In the facultative alphaproteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, loss of the two-component system NtrYX results in increased lipid production and sensitivity to some known cell envelope-active compounds. In this study, we show that NtrYX directly controls multiple properties of the cell envelope. We find that the response regulator NtrX binds upstream of cell envelope genes, including those involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and modification and in cell division. We show that loss of NtrYX impacts the cellular levels of peptidoglycan precursors and lipopolysaccharide and alters cell envelope structure, increasing cell length and the thickness of the periplasm. Cell envelope function is also disrupted in the absence of NtrYX, resulting in increased outer membrane permeability. Based on the properties of R. sphaeroides cells lacking NtrYX and the target genes under direct control of this two-component system, we propose that NtrYX plays a previously undescribed, and potentially conserved, role in the assembly, structure, and function of the cell envelope in a variety of bacteria.IMPORTANCE The bacterial cell envelope provides many important functions. It protects cells from harsh environments, serves as a selective permeability barrier, houses bioenergetic functions, defines sensitivity to antibacterial agents, and plays a crucial role in biofilm formation, symbiosis, and virulence. Despite the important roles of this cellular compartment, we lack a detailed understanding of the biosynthesis and remodeling of the cell envelope. Here, we report that the R. sphaeroides two-component signaling system NtrYX is a previously undescribed regulator of cell envelope processes, providing evidence that it is directly involved in controlling transcription of genes involved in cell envelope assembly, structure, and function in this and possibly other bacteria. Thus, our data report on a newly discovered process used by bacteria to assemble and remodel the cell envelope.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Swain TD, Lax S, Backman V, et al (2020)

Uncovering the role of Symbiodiniaceae assemblage composition and abundance in coral bleaching response by minimizing sampling and evolutionary biases.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):124 pii:10.1186/s12866-020-01765-z.

BACKGROUND: Biodiversity and productivity of coral-reef ecosystems depend upon reef-building corals and their associations with endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae, which offer diverse functional capabilities to their hosts. The number of unique symbiotic partners (richness) and relative abundances (evenness) have been hypothesized to affect host response to climate change induced thermal stress. Symbiodiniaceae assemblages with many unique phylotypes may provide greater physiological flexibility or form less stable symbioses; assemblages with low abundance phylotypes may allow corals to retain thermotolerant symbionts or represent associations with less-suitable symbionts.

RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that true richness of Symbiodiniaceae phylotype assemblages is generally not discoverable from direct enumeration of unique phylotypes in association records and that cross host-species comparisons are biased by sampling and evolutionary patterns among species. These biases can be minimized through rarefaction of richness (rarefied-richness) and evenness (Probability of Interspecific Encounter, PIE), and analyses that account for phylogenetic patterns. These standardized metrics were calculated for individual Symbiodiniaceae assemblages composed of 377 unique ITS2 phylotypes associated with 123 coral species. Rarefied-richness minimized correlations with sampling effort, while maintaining important underlying characteristics across host bathymetry and geography. Phylogenetic comparative methods reveal significant increases in coral bleaching and mortality associated with increasing Symbiodiniaceae assemblage richness and evenness at the level of host species.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the potential flexibility afforded by assemblages characterized by many phylotypes present at similar relative abundances does not result in decreased bleaching risk and point to the need to characterize the overall functional and genetic diversity of Symbiodiniaceae assemblages to quantify their effect on host fitness under climate change.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Miyake K, Kito K, Kotemori A, et al (2020)

Association between Pet Ownership and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(10): pii:ijerph17103498.

Obesity is a major risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Several studies have investigated the association between pet ownership and obesity, but the findings have been inconsistent. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis assessed the association between pet ownership and obesity. Using PubMed and Scopus, we overviewed the literature published until December 2019 and selected pertinent data for meta-analysis. Two independent reviewers extracted the data. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for obesity were calculated using the random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. The 21 included articles were cross-sectional studies. Five publications (nine analyses) that reported adjusted RRs for BMI ≥ 25 were included in the meta-analysis. No significant association existed between pet ownership and obesity (pooled RR = 1.038; 95% CI, 0.922-1.167; I2 = 51.8%). After stratification by age group (children vs. adults), no significant association was detected (pooled RR = 0.844; 95% CI, 0.604-1.179; I2 = 64.1% vs. pooled RR = 1.099; 95% CI, 0.997-1.212; I2 = 25.2%). Similarly, no significant association was observed between dog ownership and obesity, indicating no association between pet ownership and obesity. However, no infer causation can be reported because all studies included in this meta-analysis were cross-sectional. Therefore, further prospective studies are needed.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Liu Z, J Shu (2020)

Characterization of Microstructure, Precipitations and Microsegregation in Laser Additive Manufactured Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Superalloy.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 13(10): pii:ma13102300.

In this study, the microstructure, precipitations, and microsegregation in the laser additive manufactured thin-wall structure of a single-crystal superalloy are synthetically characterized. The influence of a subsequent heat treatment on the microstructure and precipitations is discussed. The results show that under the given processing conditions, the single-crystal microstructure is regenerated perfectly with small misorientation angles in the thin-wall structure. The crystal morphology shows obvious diversity and instability with the incremental height of thin-wall structure. With the increase of manufacturing height, both the primary and secondary dendritic arm spacings of epitaxial columnar dendrites first increase rapidly and then reach a dynamic balanced state. The distribution of precipitations and pores keeps symbiosis in the interdendritic region and shows periodic band characteristic with high density in the band region and low density in the inner region of plate layers. The microsegregation of element atoms in the microstructure shows a three-dimensional network distribution. The concentration of element atoms keeps good consistency with high value in the three-dimensional network and nearly standard value in the outside region. The subsequent heat treatment process contributes to the occupation of as-processed pores by the expanded mature precipitations with good blocky shape. Further optimization of the heat treatment process for improving the lattice coherency of precipitated γ' phase and γ matrix in the laser additive manufactured single-crystal superalloy is needed and valuable.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Sariola S, SF Gilbert (2020)

Toward a Symbiotic Perspective on Public Health: Recognizing the Ambivalence of Microbes in the Anthropocene.

Microorganisms, 8(5): pii:microorganisms8050746.

Microbes evolve in complex environments that are often fashioned, in part, by human desires. In a global perspective, public health has played major roles in structuring how microbes are perceived, cultivated, and destroyed. The germ theory of disease cast microbes as enemies of the body and the body politic. Antibiotics have altered microbial development by providing stringent natural selection on bacterial species, and this has led to the formation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Public health perspectives such as "Precision Public Health" and "One Health" have recently been proposed to further manage microbial populations. However, neither of these take into account the symbiotic relationships that exist between bacterial species and between bacteria, viruses, and their eukaryotic hosts. We propose a perspective on public health that recognizes microbial evolution through symbiotic associations (the hologenome theory) and through lateral gene transfer. This perspective has the advantage of including both the pathogenic and beneficial interactions of humans with bacteria, as well as combining the outlook of the "One Health" model with the genomic methodologies utilized in the "Precision Public Health" model. In the Anthropocene, the conditions for microbial evolution have been altered by human interventions, and public health initiatives must recognize both the beneficial (indeed, necessary) interactions of microbes with their hosts as well as their pathogenic interactions.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Stairs CW, TJG Ettema (2020)

The Archaeal Roots of the Eukaryotic Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton.

Current biology : CB, 30(10):R521-R526.

It is generally well accepted that eukaryotes evolved from the symbiosis of an archaeal host cell and an alphaproteobacterium, a union that ultimately gave rise to the complex, eukaryotic cells we see today. However, the catalyst of this merger, the exact nature of the cellular biology of either partner, or how this event spawned the vast majority of complex life on Earth remains enigmatic. In recent years, the discovery of the Asgard archaea, the closest known prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes, has been monumental for addressing these unanswered questions. These prokaryotes seem to encode an unprecedented number of genes related to features typically descriptive of eukaryotes, including intracellular trafficking, vesicular transport and a dynamic actin-based cytoskeleton. Collectively, these features imply that the Asgard archaea have the potential for cellular complexity previously thought to be unique to eukaryotes. Here, we review the most recent advances in our understanding of the archaeal cytoskeleton and its implications for determining the origin of eukaryotic cellular complexity.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Merckx VSFT, SIF Gomes (2020)

Symbiosis: Herbivory Alters Mycorrhizal Nutrient Exchange.

Current biology : CB, 30(10):R437-R439.

A new study shows that a plant gives less carbon to its root-associated mycorrhizal fungus when targeted by herbivores, but the fungus doesn't retaliate.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Buerger P, Alvarez-Roa C, Coppin CW, et al (2020)

Heat-evolved microalgal symbionts increase coral bleaching tolerance.

Science advances, 6(20):eaba2498 pii:aba2498.

Coral reefs worldwide are suffering mass mortalities from marine heat waves. With the aim of enhancing coral bleaching tolerance, we evolved 10 clonal strains of a common coral microalgal endosymbiont at elevated temperatures (31°C) for 4 years in the laboratory. All 10 heat-evolved strains had expanded their thermal tolerance in vitro following laboratory evolution. After reintroduction into coral host larvae, 3 of the 10 heat-evolved endosymbionts also increased the holobionts' bleaching tolerance. Although lower levels of secreted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accompanied thermal tolerance of the heat-evolved algae, reduced ROS secretion alone did not predict thermal tolerance in symbiosis. The more tolerant symbiosis exhibited additional higher constitutive expression of algal carbon fixation genes and coral heat tolerance genes. These findings demonstrate that coral stock with enhanced climate resilience can be developed through ex hospite laboratory evolution of their microalgal endosymbionts.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Missbah El Idrissi M, Lamin H, Bouhnik O, et al (2020)

Characterization of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba microsymbionts in Morocco and definition of symbiovar viciae in Rhizobium acidisoli.

Systematic and applied microbiology pii:S0723-2020(20)30035-7 [Epub ahead of print].

In this work, we analyzed the diversity of seventy-six bacteria isolated from Pea and faba bean nodules in two regions of Morocco. The molecular diversity was realized using the analysis of the sequences of 16S rRNA and six housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, atpD, dnaK, rpoB and gyrB) and two symbiotic genes (nodA and nodC). The phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that all strains belong to the genus Rhizobium, being related to the type strains of R. leguminosarum, R. laguerreae, R. indigoferae, R. anhuiense and R. acidisoli. The housekeeping genes phylogenies showed that some strains formed a subclade distinct from the rhizobial species that usually nodulate Vicia faba and Pisum sativum which are closely related to R. acidisoli FH23 with sequence similarity of 98.3%. Analysis of the PGPR activities of the different isolates showed that the strains related to R. laguerreae were able to solubilize phosphates and to produce siderophores and auxin phytohormone. However, R. acidisoli strain F40D2 was unable to solubilize phosphates although they produce siderophores and IAA. The phylogenetic analysis of the nodA and nodC sequences showed that all isolated strains were closely related with the strains of symbiovar viciae. The nodulation tests confirmed the ability to nodulate V. faba and P. sativum but not Cicer arietinum or Phaseolus vulgaris. Hence, in Morocco P. sativum is nodulated by R. laguerreae; whereas V. faba is nodulated by R. laguerreae and the symbiovar viciae of R. acidisoli which has been not previously described in this species.

RevDate: 2020-05-19
CmpDate: 2020-05-19

Imhof S, Feller B, A Heser (2020)

Morpho-anatomical differences among mycoheterotrophic Afrothismia spp. (Thismiaceae) indicate an evolutionary progression towards improved mycorrhizal benefit.

Mycorrhiza, 30(2-3):397-405.

Achlorophyllous, mycoheterotrophic plants depend on their mycorrhizal fungi for 100% of their carbon supply. Hence, there is strong evolutionary pressure towards a well-organized functioning of the association from the plant's perspective. Members of the mycoheterotrophic genus Afrothismia have evolved elaborate fungal colonization patterns allowing a sustained benefit from external fungal penetration events. On the basis of anatomical details of the root-shoot systems of A. korupensis and A. hydra, we elucidate an evolutionary progression between the comparatively simple mycorrhizal pattern in A. gesnerioides and the so far most complex mycorrhiza in A. saingei. We detected two major advancements: (1) two species, A. korupensis and A. saingei, use the fungus itself as energy storage, replacing starch depositions used by A. gesnerioides and A. hydra, and (2) the morphological complexity of hyphal forms in plant tissue compartments increases from A. gesnerioides to A. saingei. We discuss the omitting of starch metabolism as well as the morpho-anatomical differences as an evolutionary fine-tuning of the compartmented mycorrhizal organization in Afrothismia. Our results support the idea of a taxonomic distinction between Afrothismia and other Thismiaceae.

RevDate: 2020-05-19
CmpDate: 2020-05-19

de Novais CB, Sbrana C, da Conceição Jesus E, et al (2020)

Mycorrhizal networks facilitate the colonization of legume roots by a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

Mycorrhiza, 30(2-3):389-396.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) absorb and translocate nutrients from soil to their host plants by means of a wide network of extraradical mycelium (ERM). Here, we assessed whether nitrogen-fixing rhizobia can be transferred to the host legume Glycine max by ERM produced by Glomus formosanum isolate CNPAB020 colonizing the grass Urochloa decumbens. An H-bridge experimental system was developed to evaluate the migration of ERM and of the GFP-tagged Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110 strain across an air gap compartment. Mycorrhizal colonization, nodule formation in legumes, and occurrence of the GFP-tagged strain in root nodules were assessed by optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In the presence of non-mycorrhizal U. decumbens, legume roots were neither AMF-colonized nor nodulated. In contrast, G. formosanum ERM crossing the discontinuous compartment connected mycorrhizal U. decumbens and G. max roots, which showed 30-42% mycorrhizal colonization and 7-11 nodules per plant. Fluorescent B. diazoefficiens cells were detected in 94% of G. max root nodules. Our findings reveal that, besides its main activity in nutrient transfer, ERM produced by AMF may facilitate bacterial translocation and the simultaneous associations of plants with beneficial fungi and bacteria, representing an important structure, functional to the establishment of symbiotic relationships.

RevDate: 2020-05-19
CmpDate: 2020-05-19

Gao Y, Zhao Z, Li J, et al (2020)

Do fungal associates of co-occurring orchids promote seed germination of the widespread orchid species Gymnadenia conopsea?.

Mycorrhiza, 30(2-3):221-228.

Interactions with mycorrhizal fungi have been increasingly recognized as one of the most important ecological factors determining the distribution and local abundance of orchids. While some orchid species may interact with a variety of fungal associates, others are more specific in their choice of mycorrhizal partners. Moreover, orchids that co-occur at a given site, often associate with different partners, possibly to avoid competition and to allow stable coexistence. However, whether differences in mycorrhizal partners directly affect seed germination and subsequent protocorm formation remains largely unknown. In this research, we used in vitro germination experiments to investigate to what extent seed germination and protocorm formation of Gymnadenia conopsea was affected by the origin and identity of fungal associates. Fungi were isolated from G. conopsea and three other co-occurring orchid species (Dactylorhiza viridis (Coeloglossum viride), Herminium monorchis, and Platanthera chlorantha). In total, eight fungal associates, belonging to Tulasnellaceae, Ceratobasidiaceae, and Serendipitaceae, were successfully isolated and cultured. While all eight fungal strains were able to promote early germination of G. conopsea seeds, only fungal strain GS2, a member of the Ceratobasidiaceae isolated from G. conopsea itself, was able to promote protocorm formation and subsequent growth to a seedling. Two other fungal strains isolated from G. conopsea only supported seed germination until the protocorm formation stage. The other five fungal strains isolated from the co-occurring orchid species did not support seed germination beyond the protocorm stage. We conclude that, although G. conopsea is considered a mycorrhizal generalist that associates with a wide range of fungi during its adult life, it requires specific fungi to promote protocorm formation and growth to a seedling.

RevDate: 2020-05-20
CmpDate: 2020-05-20

Romero-Gutiérrez KJ, Dourado MN, Garrido LM, et al (2020)

Phenotypic traits of Burkholderia spp. associated with ecological adaptation and plant-host interaction.

Microbiological research, 236:126451.

Burkholderia species have different lifestyles establishing mutualist or pathogenic associations with plants and animals. Changes in the ecological behavior of these bacteria may depend on genetic variations in response to niche adaptation. Here, we studied 15 Burkholderia strains isolated from different environments with respect to genetic and phenotypic traits. By Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) these isolates fell into 6 distinct groups. MLSA clusters did not correlate with strain antibiotic sensitivity, but with the bacterial ability to produce antimicrobial compounds and control orchid necrosis. Further, the B. seminalis strain TC3.4.2R3, a mutualistic bacterium, was inoculated into orchid plants and the interaction with the host was evaluated by analyzing the plant response and the bacterial oxidative stress response in planta. TC3.4.2R3 responded to plant colonization by increasing its own growth rate and by differential gene regulation upon oxidative stress caused by the plant, while reducing the plant's membrane lipid peroxidation. The bacterial responses to oxidative stress were recapitulated by bacterial exposure to the herbicide paraquat. We suggest that the ability of Burkholderia species to successfully establish in the rhizosphere correlates with genetic variation, whereas traits associated with antibiotic resistance are more likely to be categorized as strain specific.

RevDate: 2020-05-19
CmpDate: 2020-05-19

Radkov AD, S Chou (2019)

An Affair to Remember: How an Endosymbiont Partners with Its Host to Build a Cell Envelope.

Cell, 179(3):584-586.

Studying endosymbionts gives us insight into early cellular mechanisms that led to the emergence of eukaryotic organelles. In this issue of Cell, Bublitz et al. (2019) report on how a nested bacterial endosymbiont of mealybugs builds its cell wall peptidoglycan through a biosynthetic pathway that is dependent on transported host enzymes.

RevDate: 2020-05-20
CmpDate: 2020-05-20

Bagheri Z, Talebi AA, Asgari S, et al (2019)

Wolbachia induce cytoplasmic incompatibility and affect mate preference in Habrobracon hebetor to increase the chance of its transmission to the next generation.

Journal of invertebrate pathology, 163:1-7.

Wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that are generally found in arthropods, including a high proportion of insects and also some nematodes. This intracellular symbiont can affect sex ratio with a variety of reproductive anomalies in the host, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in haplodiploids. In this study, we questioned if the parasitoid wasp, Habrobracon hebetor (Hym.: Braconidae), an important biological control agent of many lepidopteran larvae, is infected with Wolbachia. To test this, DNA was extracted from adult insects and subjected to PCR using specific primers to Wolbachia target genes. The results showed a high rate of Wolbachia infection in this parasitoid wasp. To determine the biological function of Wolbachia in H. hebetor, we removed this bacterium from the wasps using antibiotic treatment (cured wasps). Results of crossing experiments revealed that Wolbachia induced CI in H. hebetor in which cured females crossed with infected males produced only males, while both male and female progeny were observed for other crosses. Also, we showed that the presence of Wolbachia in females increased fecundity and female offspring of this parasitoid wasp. The presence of Wolbachia in the males had no significant effect on fecundity and female production, but might have incurred costs. We also investigated the effect of Wolbachia on mate choice and found that Wolbachia affects mating behavior of H. hebetor. Together, we showed that Wolbachia induces CI in H. hebetor and affects host mating behavior in favor of its transmission. Wolbachia utilize these strategies to increase the frequency of infected females in the host population.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Chaudhary VB, Nolimal S, Sosa-Hernández MA, et al (2020)

Trait-based aerial dispersal of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Dispersal is a key process driving local-scale community assembly and global-scale biogeography of plant symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities. A trait-based approach could improve predictions regarding how AM fungal aerial dispersal varies by species. We conducted month-long collections of aerial AM fungi for 12 consecutive months in an urban mesic environment at heights of 20 m. We measured morphological functional traits of collected spores and assessed aerial AM fungal community structure both morphologically and with high-throughput sequencing. Large numbers of AM fungal spores were present in the air over the course of one year and these spores exhibited traits that facilitate aerial dispersal. Measured aerial spores were smaller than average for Glomeromycotinan fungi. Trait-based predictions indicate that nearly 1/3 of described species from diverse genera demonstrate the potential for aerial dispersal. Diversity of aerial AM fungi was relatively high (20 spore species and 17 virtual taxa) and both spore abundance and community structure shifted temporally. The prevalence of aerial dispersal in AM fungi is perhaps greater than previously indicated and a hypothesized model of AM fungal aerial dispersal mechanisms is presented. Anthropogenic soil impacts may liberate AM fungal propagules initiating the dispersal of ruderal species.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Rejili M, BenAbderrahim MA, Mars M, et al (2020)

Novel putative rhizobial species with different symbiovars nodulate Lotus creticus and their differential preference to distinctive soil properties.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:5838745 [Epub ahead of print].

Phylogenetically diverse rhizobial strains endemic to Tunisia were isolated from symbiotic nodules of Lotus creticus, growing on different arid extremophile geographical regions of Tunisia, and speciated using multiloci-phylogenetic analysis as Neorhizobium huautlense (LCK33, LCK35, LCO42 and LCO49), Ensifer numidicus (LCD22, LCD25, LCK22 and LCK25), Ensifer meliloti (LCK8, LCK9 and LCK12), and Mesorhizobium camelthorni (LCD11, LCD13, LCD31 and LCD33). In addition, phylogenetic analyses revealed eight additional strains with previously undescribed chromosomal lineages within the genera Ensifer (LCF5, LCF6 and LCF8), Rhizobium (LCF11, LCF12 and LCF14) and Mesorhizobium (LCF16 and LCF19). Analysis using nodC gene identified five symbiovar groups, four of which were already known. The remaining group composed of two strains (LCD11 and LCD33) represented a new symbiovar of Mesorhizobium camelthorni, which we propose designating as sv. hedysari. Interestingly, we report that soil properties drive and structure the symbiosis of L. creticus and its rhizobia.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Lee JS, Chowdhury N, Roberts JS, et al (2020)

Host surface ectonucleotidase-CD73 and the opportunistic pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, cross-modulation underlies a new homeostatic mechanism for chronic bacterial survival in human epithelial cells.

Virulence, 11(1):414-429.

Cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, ectonucleotidase-CD73, has emerged as a central component of the cellular homeostatic-machinery that counterbalances the danger-molecule (extracellular-ATP)-driven proinflammatory response in immune cells. While the importance of CD73 in microbial host fitness and symbiosis is gradually being unraveled, there remains a significant gap in knowledge of CD73 and its putative role in epithelial cells. Here, we depict a novel host-pathogen adaptation mechanism where CD73 takes a center role in the intracellular persistence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major colonizer of oral mucosa, using human primary gingival epithelial cell (GEC) system. Temporal analyses revealed, upon invasion into the GECs, P. gingivalis can significantly elevate the host-surface CD73 activity and expression. The enhanced and active CD73 significantly increases P. gingivalis intracellular growth in the presence of substrate-AMP and simultaneously acts as a negative regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon eATP treatment. The inhibition of CD73 by siRNA or by a specific inhibitor markedly increases ROS production. Moreover, CD73 and P. gingivalis cross-signaling significantly modulates pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the GECs. Conversely, exogenous treatment of the infected GECs with IL-6 suppresses the intracellular bacteria via amplified ROS generation. However, the decreased bacterial levels can be restored by overexpressing functionally active CD73. Together, these findings illuminate how the local extracellular-purine-metabolism, in which CD73 serves as a core molecular switch, can alter intracellular microbial colonization resistance. Further, host-adaptive pathogens such as P. gingivalis can target host ectonucleotidases to disarm specific innate defenses for successful intracellular persistence in mucosal epithelia.

RevDate: 2020-05-18
CmpDate: 2020-05-18

Hansen AK (2019)

Considering the microbiota to achieve reduction in the numbers of animals used in scientific studies.

Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita, 55(4):405-407.

Elimination of pathogens by laboratory rodent commercial vendors has substantially improved standardized conditions as well as laboratory animal welfare. However, pathogens are also important for basic activation and functioning of the immune system with consequential influences on the symbiotic bacteria composition in the individual microbiota. One of the reasons for failures of translating results from preclinical research to the clinical phase in some studies could be due to unintentional selection processes. Some recommendations are provided to increase researchers' awareness on this point, together with a practical checklist to optimize information from microbiota knowledge.

RevDate: 2020-05-18
CmpDate: 2020-05-18

Chiumento S, Roblin C, Kieffer-Jaquinod S, et al (2019)

Ruminococcin C, a promising antibiotic produced by a human gut symbiont.

Science advances, 5(9):eaaw9969.

A major public health challenge today is the resurgence of microbial infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains. Consequently, novel antimicrobial molecules are actively sought for development. In this context, the human gut microbiome is an under-explored potential trove of valuable natural molecules, such as the ribosomally-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). The biological activity of the sactipeptide subclass of RiPPs remains under-characterized. Here, we characterize an antimicrobial sactipeptide, Ruminococcin C1, purified from the caecal contents of rats mono-associated with Ruminococcus gnavus E1, a human symbiont. Its heterologous expression and post-translational maturation involving a specific sactisynthase establish a thioether network, which creates a double-hairpin folding. This original structure confers activity against pathogenic Clostridia and multidrug-resistant strains but no toxicity towards eukaryotic cells. Therefore, the Ruminococcin C1 should be considered as a valuable candidate for drug development and its producer strain R. gnavus E1 as a relevant probiotic for gut health enhancement.

RevDate: 2020-05-18
CmpDate: 2020-05-18

Wei Z, Gu Y, Friman VP, et al (2019)

Initial soil microbiome composition and functioning predetermine future plant health.

Science advances, 5(9):eaaw0759.

Plant-pathogen interactions are shaped by multiple environmental factors, making it difficult to predict disease dynamics even in relatively simple agricultural monocultures. Here, we explored how variation in the initial soil microbiome predicts future disease outcomes at the level of individual plants. We found that the composition and functioning of the initial soil microbiome predetermined whether the plants survived or succumbed to disease. Surviving plant microbiomes were associated with specific rare taxa, highly pathogen-suppressing Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria, and high abundance of genes encoding antimicrobial compounds. Microbiome-mediated plant protection could subsequently be transferred to the next plant generation via soil transplantation. Together, our results suggest that small initial variation in soil microbiome composition and functioning can determine the outcomes of plant-pathogen interactions under natural field conditions.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )