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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 Nov 2021 at 01:35 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: symbiosis NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-11-27

Buoso S, Zamboni A, Franco A, et al (2021)

Nodulating white lupins take advantage of the reciprocal interplay between N and P nutritional responses.

Physiologia plantarum [Epub ahead of print].

The low bioavailability of nutrients, especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), is one of the most limiting factors for crop production. In this study, under N- and P-free nutrient solution (-N-P), nodulating white lupin plants developed some nodules and analogous cluster root structures characterized by different morphological, physiological, and molecular responses than those observed upon single nutrient deficiency (strong acidification of external media, a better nutritional status than -N+P and +N-P plants). The multi-elemental analysis highlighted that the concentrations of nutrients in white lupin plants were mainly affected by P availability. Gene-expression analyses provided evidence of interconnections between N and P nutritional pathways that are active to promote N and P balance in plants. The root exudome was mainly characterized by N availability in nutrient solution, and, in particular, the absence of N and P in the nutrient solution triggered a high release of phenolic compounds, nucleosides monophosphate and saponines by roots. These morphological, physiological, and molecular responses result from a close interplay between N and P nutritional pathways. They contribute to the good development of nodulating white lupin plants when grown on N- and P-free media. This study provides evidence that limited N and P availability in the nutrient solution can promote white lupin-Bradyrhizobium symbiosis, which is favorable for the sustainability of legume production.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Pärnänen P, Lähteenmäki H, Tervahartiala T, et al (2021)

Lingonberries-General and Oral Effects on the Microbiome and Inflammation.

Nutrients, 13(11): pii:nu13113738.

Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis ideae L.) is a low-bush wild plant found in the northern hemisphere. The berries are used in traditional medicine in Finland to treat oral yeast infections. General and oral effects of lingonberries on the microbiome and inflammation are reviewed. A brief introduction to oral microbiome symbiosis and dysbiosis, innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation are included, and special features in microbe/host interactions in the oral environment are considered. In vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and in vivo mouse and human studies are included, focusing on the symbiotic effect of lingonberries on oral and general health.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Maire J, Blackall LL, MJH van Oppen (2021)

Intracellular Bacterial Symbionts in Corals: Challenges and Future Directions.

Microorganisms, 9(11): pii:microorganisms9112209.

Corals are the main primary producers of coral reefs and build the three-dimensional reef structure that provides habitat to more than 25% of all marine eukaryotes. They harbor a complex consortium of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and protists, which they rely on for their survival. The symbiosis between corals and bacteria is poorly studied, and their symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria are only just beginning to be acknowledged. In this review, we emphasize the importance of characterizing intracellular bacteria associated with corals and explore how successful approaches used to study such microorganisms in other systems could be adapted for research on corals. We propose a framework for the description, identification, and functional characterization of coral-associated intracellular bacterial symbionts. Finally, we highlight the possible value of intracellular bacteria in microbiome manipulation and mitigating coral bleaching.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Oberemok VV, Puzanova YV, Kubyshkin AV, et al (2021)

Top Three Strategies of ss(+)RNA Plant Viruses: Great Opportunists and Ecosystem Tuners with a Small Genome.

Viruses, 13(11): pii:v13112304.

ss(+)RNA viruses represent the dominant group of plant viruses. They owe their evolutionary superiority to the large number of mutations that occur during replication, courtesy of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Natural selection rewards successful viral subtypes, whose effective tuning of the ecosystem regulates the interactions between its participants. Thus, ss(+)RNA viruses act as shuttles for the functionally important genes of the participants in symbiotic relationships within the ecosystem, of which the most common ecological triad is "plant-virus-insect". Due to their short life cycle and large number of offspring, RNA viruses act as skillful tuners of the ecosystem, which benefits both viruses and the system as a whole. A fundamental understanding of this aspect of the role played by viruses in the ecosystem makes it possible to apply this knowledge to the creation of DNA insecticides. In fact, since the genes that viruses are involved in transferring are functionally important for both insects and plants, silencing these genes (for example, in insects) can be used to regulate the pest population. RNA viruses are increasingly treated not as micropathogens but as necessary regulators of ecosystem balance.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Yurkov AP, Puzanskiy RK, Avdeeva GS, et al (2021)

Mycorrhiza-Induced Alterations in Metabolome of Medicago lupulina Leaves during Symbiosis Development.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:plants10112506.

The present study is aimed at disclosing metabolic profile alterations in the leaves of the Medicago lupulina MlS-1 line that result from high-efficiency arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis formed with Rhizophagus irregularis under condition of a low phosphorus level in the substrate. A highly effective AM symbiosis was established in the period from the stooling to the shoot branching initiation stage (the efficiency in stem height exceeded 200%). Mycorrhization led to a more intensive accumulation of phosphates (glycerophosphoglycerol and inorganic phosphate) in M. lupulina leaves. Metabolic spectra were detected with GS-MS analysis. The application of complex mathematical analyses made it possible to identify the clustering of various groups of 320 metabolites and thus demonstrate the central importance of the carbohydrate and carboxylate-amino acid clusters. The results obtained indicate a delay in the metabolic development of mycorrhized plants. Thus, AM not only accelerates the transition between plant developmental stages but delays biochemical "maturation" mainly in the form of a lag of sugar accumulation in comparison with non-mycorrhized plants. Several methods of statistical modeling proved that, at least with respect to determining the metabolic status of host-plant leaves, stages of phenological development have priority over calendar age.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Sithole N, Tsvuura Z, Kirkman K, et al (2021)

Nitrogen Source Preference and Growth Carbon Costs of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Saplings in South African Grassland Soils.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:plants10112242.

Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae) is native to Central America and has invaded many climatic regions of the tropics. In South Africa, the species is categorized as an emerging or incipient weed used as fodder, timber, firewood and in erosion control on degraded habitats. The species is common along the eastern subtropical regions of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, where it invades grasslands, savannas and edges of forests. Soils of these ecosystems are characterized as nutrient deficient and acidic. Using a pot trial, we determined the effects of the nutrient addition treatments on microbial symbiosis, N nutrition and biomass accumulation of L. leucocephala under greenhouse conditions. After 180 days of growth, plants were harvested, and their utilization of N derived from the atmosphere and from the soil was quantified through determination of δ15N values. L. leucocephala maintained growth and N nutrition by relying on both atmospheric- and soil-derived N across all soil treatments. The NDFA was significantly higher in high P (N1 + P, N2 + P and N3 + P) soils. L. leucocephala was able to nodulate with intermediate and fast-growing strains from the Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium genus in N2 + P grown plants. This shows that L. leucocephala possesses traits that are successful in acquiring nutrients, especially in nutrient limited conditions, by establishing plant symbiosis with multiple bacteria and relying on extracting N from the soil and from the atmosphere through the symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Booth NJ, Smith PMC, Ramesh SA, et al (2021)

Malate Transport and Metabolism in Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Nodules.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(22): pii:molecules26226876.

Legumes form a symbiosis with rhizobia, a soil bacterium that allows them to access atmospheric nitrogen and deliver it to the plant for growth. Biological nitrogen fixation occurs in specialized organs, termed nodules, that develop on the legume root system and house nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteroids in organelle-like structures termed symbiosomes. The process is highly energetic and there is a large demand for carbon by the bacteroids. This carbon is supplied to the nodule as sucrose, which is broken down in nodule cells to organic acids, principally malate, that can then be assimilated by bacteroids. Sucrose may move through apoplastic and/or symplastic routes to the uninfected cells of the nodule or be directly metabolised at the site of import within the vascular parenchyma cells. Malate must be transported to the infected cells and then across the symbiosome membrane, where it is taken up by bacteroids through a well-characterized dct system. The dicarboxylate transporters on the infected cell and symbiosome membranes have been functionally characterized but remain unidentified. Proteomic and transcriptomic studies have revealed numerous candidates, but more work is required to characterize their function and localise the proteins in planta. GABA, which is present at high concentrations in nodules, may play a regulatory role, but this remains to be explored.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Stanišić MD, Popović Kokar N, Ristić P, et al (2021)

Chemical Modification of Glycoproteins' Carbohydrate Moiety as a General Strategy for the Synthesis of Efficient Biocatalysts by Biomimetic Mineralization: The Case of Glucose Oxidase.

Polymers, 13(22): pii:polym13223875.

Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) is widely used as a protective coating to encapsulate proteins via biomimetic mineralization. The formation of nucleation centers and further biocomposite crystal growth is entirely governed by the pure electrostatic interactions between the protein's surface and the positively charged Zn(II) metal ions. It was previously shown that enhancing these electrostatic interactions by a chemical modification of surface amino acid residues can lead to a rapid biocomposite crystal formation. However, a chemical modification of carbohydrate components by periodate oxidation for glycoproteins can serve as an alternative strategy. In the present study, an industrially important enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was selected as a model system. Periodate oxidation of GOx by 2.5 mM sodium periodate increased negative charge on the enzyme molecule, from -10.2 to -36.9 mV, as shown by zeta potential measurements and native PAGE electrophoresis. Biomineralization experiments with oxidized GOx resulted in higher specific activity, effectiveness factor, and higher thermostability of the ZIF-8 biocomposites. Periodate oxidation of carbohydrate components for glycoproteins can serve as a facile and general method for facilitating the biomimetic mineralization of other industrially relevant glycoproteins.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Yen TY, Wang HC, Chang YC, et al (2021)

Seroepidemiological Study of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae and Identification of a Putative New Species, Rickesttsia sp. Da-1, in Gongliao, Northeast Taiwan.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:pathogens10111434.

Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses were neglected in Taiwan. The study reported a seroepidemiological survey of SFG rickettsiae in residents in Gongliao District, Northeast Taiwan. Blood samples were examined for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay. Risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. Ticks parasitizing dogs were collected within a 2 km radius from the houses of seropositive participants, and PCR was performed to detect possible tick-borne pathogens. Of 1108 participants, 75 (6.8%) had antibodies against SFG rickettsiae. Residents were more likely to be seropositive if they were older than 65 years, recruited by Dr. Enjoy's Clinic, or resided in Jilin village. A total of 184 ticks including 5 species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, Dermacentor auratus, Haemaphysalis hystricis, Haemaphysalis ornithophila) were collected. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 6.5% (12/184) of ticks. Rickettsia sp. TwKM01 was found in 6 R. sanguineus and 4 R. haemaphysaloides; while Rickettsia sp. TwKM03 was identified in 1 R. sanguineus. Moreover, gene-based pairwise analysis indicated identification of a putative new species, Rickettsia sp. Da-1, in D. auratus. These findings provided evidence of SFG rickettsiae infection in ticks and suggested SFG rickettsiae exposure in the residents.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Sgobba E, Daguerre Y, M Giampà (2021)

Unravel the Local Complexity of Biological Environments by MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(22): pii:ijms222212393.

Classic metabolomic methods have proven to be very useful to study functional biology and variation in the chemical composition of different tissues. However, they do not provide any information in terms of spatial localization within fine structures. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) does and reaches at best a spatial resolution of 0.25 μm depending on the laser setup, making it a very powerful tool to analyze the local complexity of biological samples at the cellular level. Here, we intend to give an overview of the diversity of the molecules and localizations analyzed using this method as well as to update on the latest adaptations made to circumvent the complexity of samples. MALDI MSI has been widely used in medical sciences and is now developing in research areas as diverse as entomology, microbiology, plant biology, and plant-microbe interactions, the rhizobia symbiosis being the most exhaustively described so far. Those are the fields of interest on which we will focus to demonstrate MALDI MSI strengths in characterizing the spatial distributions of metabolites, lipids, and peptides in relation to biological questions.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Bizarria R, Kooij PW, A Rodrigues (2021)

Climate Change Influences Basidiome Emergence of Leaf-Cutting Ant Cultivars.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 7(11): pii:jof7110912.

Maintaining symbiosis homeostasis is essential for mutualistic partners. Leaf-cutting ants evolved a long-term symbiotic mutualism with fungal cultivars for nourishment while using vertical asexual transmission across generations. Despite the ants' efforts to suppress fungal sexual reproduction, scattered occurrences of cultivar basidiomes have been reported. Here, we review the literature for basidiome occurrences and associated climate data. We hypothesized that more basidiome events could be expected in scenarios with an increase in temperature and precipitation. Our field observations and climate data analyses indeed suggest that Acromyrmex coronatus colonies are prone to basidiome occurrences in warmer and wetter seasons. Even though our study partly depended on historical records, occurrences have increased, correlating with climate change. A nest architecture with low (or even the lack of) insulation might be the cause of this phenomenon. The nature of basidiome occurrences in the A. coronatus-fungus mutualism can be useful to elucidate how resilient mutualistic symbioses are in light of climate change scenarios.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Xie X, Fan X, Chen H, et al (2021)

Phosphorus Starvation- and Zinc Excess-Induced Astragalus sinicus AsZIP2 Zinc Transporter Is Suppressed by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 7(11): pii:jof7110892.

Zinc (Zn) is one of the most essential micronutrients for plant growth and metabolism, but Zn excess can impair many basic metabolic processes in plant cells. In agriculture, crops often experience low phosphate (Pi) and high Zn double nutrient stresses because of inordinate agro-industrial activities, while the dual benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi protects plants from experiencing both deficient and toxic nutrient stresses. Although crosstalk between Pi and Zn nutrients in plants have been extensively studied at the physiological level, the molecular basis of how Pi starvation triggers Zn over-accumulation in plants and how AM plants coordinately modulate the Pi and Zn nutrient homeostasis remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that a novel AsZIP2 gene, a Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) member of the ZIP gene family, participates in the interaction between Pi and Zn nutrient homeostasis in plants. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this AsZIP2 protein was closely related to the orthologous Medicago MtZIP2 and Arabidopsis AtZIP2 transporters. Gene expression analysis indicated that AsZIP2 was highly induced in roots by Pi starvation or Zn excess yet attenuated by arbuscular mycorrhization in a Pi-dependent manner. Subcellular localization and heterologous expression experiments further showed that AsZIP2 encoded a functional plasma membrane-localized transporter that mediated Zn uptake in yeast. Moreover, overexpression of AsZIP2 in A. sinicus resulted in the over-accumulation of Zn concentration in roots at low Pi or excessive Zn concentrations, whereas AsZIP2 silencing lines displayed an even more reduced Zn concentration than control lines under such conditions. Our results reveal that the AsZIP2 transporter functioned in Zn over-accumulation in roots during Pi starvation or high Zn supply but was repressed by AM symbiosis in a Pi-dependent manner. These findings also provide new insights into the AsZIP2 gene acting in the regulation of Zn homeostasis in mycorrhizal plants through Pi signal.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Reig M, Vecino X, JL Cortina (2021)

Use of Membrane Technologies in Dairy Industry: An Overview.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:foods10112768.

The use of treatments of segregated process streams as a water source, as well as technical fluid reuse as a source of value-added recovery products, is an emerging direction of resource recovery in several applications. Apart from the desired final product obtained in agro-food industries, one of the challenges is the recovery or separation of intermediate and/or secondary metabolites with high-added-value compounds (e.g., whey protein). In this way, processes based on membranes, such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), could be integrated to treat these agro-industrial streams, such as milk and cheese whey. Therefore, the industrial application of membrane technologies in some processing stages could be a solution, replacing traditional processes or adding them into existing treatments. Therefore, greater efficiency, yield enhancement, energy or capital expenditure reduction or even an increase in sustainability by producing less waste, as well as by-product recovery and valorization opportunities, could be possible, in line with industrial symbiosis and circular economy principles. The maturity of membrane technologies in the dairy industry was analyzed for the possible integration options of membrane processes in their filtration treatment. The reported studies and developments showed a wide window of possible applications for membrane technologies in dairy industry treatments. Therefore, the integration of membrane processes into traditional processing schemes is presented in this work. Overall, it could be highlighted that membrane providers and agro-industries will continue with a gradual implementation of membrane technology integration in the production processes, referring to the progress reported on both the scientific literature and industrial solutions commercialized.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Busset N, Gully D, Teulet A, et al (2021)

The Type III Effectome of the Symbiotic Bradyrhizobium vignae Strain ORS3257.

Biomolecules, 11(11): pii:biom11111592.

Many Bradyrhizobium strains are able to establish a Nod factor-independent symbiosis with the leguminous plant Aeschynomene indica by the use of a type III secretion system (T3SS). Recently, an important advance in the understanding of the molecular factors supporting this symbiosis has been achieved by the in silico identification and functional characterization of 27 putative T3SS effectors (T3Es) of Bradyrhizobium vignae ORS3257. In the present study, we experimentally extend this catalog of T3Es by using a multi-omics approach. Transcriptome analysis under non-inducing and inducing conditions in the ORS3257 wild-type strain and the ttsI mutant revealed that the expression of 18 out of the 27 putative effectors previously identified, is under the control of TtsI, the global transcriptional regulator of T3SS and T3Es. Quantitative shotgun proteome analysis of culture supernatant in the wild type and T3SS mutant strains confirmed that 15 of the previously determined candidate T3Es are secreted by the T3SS. Moreover, the combined approaches identified nine additional putative T3Es and one of them was experimentally validated as a novel effector. Our study underscores the power of combined proteome and transcriptome analyses to complement in silico predictions and produce nearly complete effector catalogs. The establishment of the ORS3257 effectome will form the basis for a full appraisal of the symbiotic properties of this strain during its interaction with various host legumes via different processes.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Falgueras-Cano J, Falgueras-Cano JA, A Moya (2021)

A Study of the Coevolution of Digital Organisms with an Evolutionary Cellular Automaton.

Biology, 10(11): pii:biology10111147.

This paper presents an Evolutionary Cellular Automaton (ECA) that simulates the evolutionary dynamics of biological interactions by manipulating strategies of dispersion and associations between digital organisms. The parameterization of the different types of interaction and distribution strategies using configuration files generates easily interpretable results. In that respect, ECA is an effective instrument for measuring the effects of relative adaptive advantages and a good resource for studying natural selection. Although ECA works effectively in obtaining the expected results from most well-known biological interactions, some unexpected effects were observed. For example, organisms uniformly distributed in fragmented habitats do not favor eusociality, and mutualism evolved from parasitism simply by varying phenotypic flexibility. Finally, we have verified that natural selection represents a cost for the emergence of sex by destabilizing the stable evolutionary strategy of the 1:1 sex ratio after generating randomly different distributions in each generation.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Fytili D, A Zabaniotou (2021)

Organizational, societal, knowledge and skills capacity for a low carbon energy transition in a Circular Waste Bioeconomy (CWBE): Observational evidence of the Thessaly region in Greece.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06946-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Advancing a Circular Waste Bioeconomy (CWBE) should be a priority over business-as-usual, entailing sustainable resource use in early and late stages of industrialization processes. The present paper is both descriptive and prescriptive. Firstly, it aims to explore the main barriers, challenges, opportunities, and the context within agro-biomass and agro-industrial waste valorization can accelerate a low carbon economy, in the Thessaly region of Greece, where agricultural production and agro-industrial business are the prevailing economic sectors. Secondly, organizational, societal, knowledge and skills capacity actions are suggested as the most likely to change the business-as usual scenarios. A SWOT analysis performed to draw useful conclusions about the extent to which CWBE principles can be integrated into the economic, social, and environmental life of the Thessaly region, and recommendations made of what it is needed. One of the key insights is how to leverage emerging low carbon circular economy for regional regenerative future. The results showed that waste is managed inefficiently in the region and there is a lack of synergies and collaborations between different stakeholders. The milestones of accelerating a low carbon CWBE for regional development, and employment are a) the territorial cohesion and regional symbiosis, b) increasing the financial market opportunities for small and critical projects, c) promoting awareness, public knowledge, skills, and the responsibility of young scientists and citizens.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Kakati P, Paine SK, Bhattacharjee CK, et al (2021)

Gut microbiome architecture of wild greater one-horned rhinoceros:a vulnerable species from Kaziranga National Park, India.

Journal of genetics, 100:.

Rhinoceros unicornis, also known as the greater one-horned rhinoceros (GoHR), is a vulnerable wildlife species found in the Indian subcontinent with an estimated global population of 3582, of which an estimated 2995 resides in India. The Kaziranga National Park of Assam is the home to ~80.56% of the GoH population in India. Recent advances in genetics and microbial studies underscored the importance of gut microbial symbiosis as a crucial factor for host metabolic health and environmental interaction, particularly for higher mammals. Alteration of the normal microbiome can also be an indicator of chronic disease and infection. Freshly voided dung samples from nine dung heaps of free ranging or wild GoH rhinoceros were collected from Kaziranga National Park for mapping the gut microbial architecture through 16S-metagenomic approach. In our sample, the GoH gut harbours 168.8±12.55 (SE) bacteria-specific OTUs belonging to 21 phyla of which the gram-negative Proteobacteria is the most abundant phyla. Other abundant phylas found in the GoH gut are Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although the GoH rhinoceros gut can utilize fibrous plant by microbial fermentation, the aerobic, nonfermenting Acinetobacter (20.7%), Stenotrophomonas (17.8%) and Brevundimonas (9.1%) constitute about 50% of all identified genus. Functional prediction of the GoH microbiome reveals that>50% of the bacteria present are involved in metabolism followed by cellular processes and information processing. A significant proportion (>1%) are associated with different diseases. In summary, our study characterized bacterial communities of nine wild GoH to identify some unique features and its implication in disease and survival of GoH.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Ansari H, R Yeravdekar (2021)

Respectful maternity care in the achievement of universal health coverage.

The National medical journal of India, 34(3):174-176.

The attainment of universal health coverage (UHC) is incomplete without achieving respectful maternity care (RMC). While planning for UHC, the need and importance of RMC should be considered. In India, the government has started a health scheme on UHC, namely the Ayushman Bharat Scheme. RMC being an important component of UHC, if not achieved, will result in failure to achieve UHC in the true sense.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Pu Y, Naikatini A, Pérez-Escobar OA, et al (2021)

Genome-wide transcriptome signatures of ant-farmed Squamellaria epiphytes reveal key functions in a unique symbiosis.

Ecology and evolution, 11(22):15882-15895 pii:ECE38258.

Farming of fungi by ants, termites, or beetles has led to ecologically successful societies fueled by industrial-scale food production. Another type of obligate insect agriculture in Fiji involves the symbiosis between the ant Philidris nagasau and epiphytes in the genus Squamellaria (Rubiaceae) that the ants fertilize, defend, harvest, and depend on for nesting. All farmed Squamellaria form tubers (domatia) with preformed entrance holes and complex cavity networks occupied by P. nagasau. The inner surface of the domatia consists of smooth-surfaced walls where the ants nest and rear their brood, and warty-surfaced walls where they fertilize their crop by defecation. Here, we use RNA sequencing to identify gene expression patterns associated with the smooth versus warty wall types. Since wall differentiation occurred in the most recent common ancestor of all farmed species of Squamellaria, our study also identifies genetic pathways co-opted following the emergence of agriculture. Warty-surfaced walls show many upregulated genes linked to auxin transport, root development, and nitrogen transport consistent with their root-like function; their defense-related genes are also upregulated, probably to protect these permeable areas from pathogen entry. In smooth-surfaced walls, genes functioning in suberin and wax biosynthesis are upregulated, contributing to the formation of an impermeable ant-nesting area in the domatium. This study throws light on a number of functional characteristics of plant farming by ants and illustrates the power of genomic studies of symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Setia A, Bhatia J, S Bhattacharya (2021)

An Overview of Acute Flaccid Myelitis.

CNS & neurological disorders drug targets pii:CNSNDDT-EPUB-119058 [Epub ahead of print].

Acute Flaccid Myelitis is defined by the presence of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and a spinal cord lesion on magnetic resonance imaging that is primarily limited to the grey matter. AFM is a difficult situation to deal with when you have a neurologic illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a large number of cases were discovered in the United States in 2014, with 90% of cases occurring in children. Although the exact cause of AFM is unknown, mounting evidence suggests a link between AFM and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). In 2014, an outbreak of AFM was discovered in the United States. The condition was initially linked to polioviruses; however, it was later found that the viruses were caused by non-polioviruses Enteroviruses D-68 (EV-D68). The number of cases has increased since 2014, and the disease has been declared pandemic in the United States. The sudden onset of muscle weakness, usually in an arm or leg, as well as pain throughout the body, the patient's facial expression changing to one of weakness, and shortness of breath, ingesting, and speaking are all common symptoms in patients suffering from neurologic disease. This article includes graphic and histograms representations of reported AFM incidents and criteria for causality, epidemiology, various diagnostic approaches, signs and symptoms, and various investigational guidelines. It also includes key statements about recent AFM disease clinical findings.

RevDate: 2021-11-26
CmpDate: 2021-11-26

Xie L, Bi Y, Ma S, et al (2021)

Combined inoculation with dark septate endophytes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: synergistic or competitive growth effects on maize?.

BMC plant biology, 21(1):498.

BACKGROUND: Effects on maize were assessed of dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) isolated from other plant species.

METHODS: Suspensions of DSE isolated from Stipa krylovii were prepared at different densities (2, 4, and 8 × 105 CFU mL- 1) and inoculated separately (AMF or DSE) or together (AMF + DSE), to explore their effects on maize growth.

RESULTS: Inoculation with AMF or medium and high densities of DSE and combined inoculation (AMF + DSE) increased plant above-ground growth and altered root morphology. Differences in plant growth were attributable to differences in DSE density, with negative DSE inoculation responsiveness at low density. AMF promoted plant above-ground growth more than DSE and the high density of DSE promoted root development more than AMF. Combined inoculation might lead to synergistic growth effects on maize at low density of DSE and competitive effects at medium and high DSE densities.

CONCLUSIONS: AMF and DSE co-colonized maize roots and they had positive effects on the host plants depending on DSE density. These findings indicate the optimum maize growth-promoting combination of AMF and DSE density and provide a foundation for further exploration of potentially synergistic mechanisms between AMF and DSE in physiological and ecological effects on host plants.

RevDate: 2021-11-26
CmpDate: 2021-11-26

Gibson JF, Pidwill GR, Carnell OT, et al (2021)

Commensal bacteria augment Staphylococcus aureus infection by inactivation of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species.

PLoS pathogens, 17(9):e1009880.

Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal organism and opportunist pathogen, causing potentially fatal disease. The presence of non-pathogenic microflora or their components, at the point of infection, dramatically increases S. aureus pathogenicity, a process termed augmentation. Augmentation is associated with macrophage interaction but by a hitherto unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate a breadth of cross-kingdom microorganisms can augment S. aureus disease and that pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecalis can also be augmented. Co-administration of augmenting material also forms an efficacious vaccine model for S. aureus. In vitro, augmenting material protects S. aureus directly from reactive oxygen species (ROS), which correlates with in vivo studies where augmentation restores full virulence to the ROS-susceptible, attenuated mutant katA ahpC. At the cellular level, augmentation increases bacterial survival within macrophages via amelioration of ROS, leading to proliferation and escape. We have defined the molecular basis for augmentation that represents an important aspect of the initiation of infection.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Papantoniou D, Vergara F, Weinhold A, et al (2021)

Cascading Effects of Root Microbial Symbiosis on the Development and Metabolome of the Insect Herbivore Manduca sexta L.

Metabolites, 11(11): pii:metabo11110731.

Root mutualistic microbes can modulate the production of plant secondary metabolites affecting plant-herbivore interactions. Still, the main mechanisms underlying the impact of root mutualists on herbivore performance remain ambiguous. In particular, little is known about how changes in the plant metabolome induced by root mutualists affect the insect metabolome and post-larval development. By using bioassays with tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), we analyzed the impact of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and the growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma harzianum on the plant interaction with the specialist insect herbivore Manduca sexta. We found that root colonization by the mutualistic microbes impaired insect development, including metamorphosis. By using untargeted metabolomics, we found that root colonization by the mutualistic microbes altered the secondary metabolism of tomato shoots, leading to enhanced levels of steroidal glycoalkaloids. Untargeted metabolomics further revealed that root colonization by the mutualists affected the metabolome of the herbivore, leading to an enhanced accumulation of steroidal glycoalkaloids and altered patterns of fatty acid amides and carnitine-derived metabolites. Our results indicate that the changes in the shoot metabolome triggered by root mutualistic microbes can cascade up altering the metabolome of the insects feeding on the colonized plants, thus affecting the insect development.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Hollens-Kuhr H, van der Niet T, Cozien R, et al (2021)

Pollinator Community Predicts Trait Matching between Oil-Producing Flowers and a Guild of Oil-Collecting Bees.

The American naturalist, 198(6):750-758.

AbstractThe impact of pollinator community diversity on trait matching in plant-pollinator interactions is poorly studied, even though many mutualisms involve multiple interaction partners. We studied 10 communities in which one to three species of oil-collecting Rediviva bees pollinate the long-spurred, oil-producing flowers of Diascia "floribunda" to examine how pollinator diversity affects covariation of functional traits across sites and trait matching within sites. Floral spur length was significantly correlated with weighted grand mean foreleg length of the local bee community but not with foreleg length of individual bee species. The closeness of trait matching varied among populations and was inversely related to pollinator community diversity. For all bee species, trait matching was closest at sites characterized by exclusive pairwise interactions. Reduced trait matching associated with increased community diversity for individual pollinator species but close matching at the community level supports the importance of community context for shaping interacting traits of flowers and pollinators.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Rogalski MA, Stewart Merrill T, Gowler CD, et al (2021)

Context-Dependent Host-Symbiont Interactions: Shifts along the Parasitism-Mutualism Continuum.

The American naturalist, 198(5):563-575.

AbstractSymbiotic interactions can shift along a mutualism-parasitism continuum. While there are many studies examining dynamics typically considered to be mutualistic that sometimes shift toward parasitism, little is known about conditions underlying shifts from parasitism toward mutualism. In lake populations, we observed that infection by a microsporidian gut symbiont sometimes conferred a reproductive advantage and other times a disadvantage to its Daphnia host. We hypothesized that the microsporidian might benefit its host by reducing infection by more virulent parasites, which attack via the gut. In a laboratory study using field-collected animals, we found that spores of a virulent fungal parasite were much less capable of penetrating the guts of Daphnia harboring the microsporidian gut symbiont. We predicted that this altered gut penetrability could cause differential impacts on host fitness depending on ecological context. Field survey data revealed that microsporidian-infected Daphnia hosts experienced a reproductive advantage when virulent parasites were common while resource scarcity led to a reproductive disadvantage, but only in lakes where virulent parasites were relatively rare. Our findings highlight the importance of considering multiparasite community context and resource availability in host-parasite studies and open the door for future research into conditions driving shifts along parasitism to mutualism gradients.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

McPeek SJ, Bronstein JL, MA McPeek (2021)

The Evolution of Resource Provisioning in Pollination Mutualisms.

The American naturalist, 198(4):441-459.

AbstractResource dynamics influence the contemporary ecology of consumer-resource mutualisms. Suites of resource traits, such as floral nectar components, also evolve in response to different selective pressures, changing the ecological dynamics of the interacting species at the evolutionary equilibrium. Here we explore the evolution of resource-provisioning traits in a biotically pollinated plant that produces nectar as a resource for beneficial consumers. We develop a mathematical model describing natural selection on two quantitative nectar traits: maximum nectar production rate and maximum nectar reservoir volume. We use this model to examine how nectar production dynamics evolve under different ecological conditions that impose varying cost-benefit regimes on resource provisioning. The model results predict that natural selection favors higher nectar production when ecological factors limit the plant or pollinator's abundance (e.g., a lower productivity environment or a higher pollinator conversion efficiency). We also find that nectar traits evolve as a suite in which higher costs of producing one trait select for a compensatory increase in investment in the other trait. This empirically explicit approach to studying the evolution of consumer-resource mutualisms illustrates how natural selection acting via direct and indirect pathways of species interactions generates patterns of resource provisioning seen in natural systems.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Steidinger BS, KG Peay (2021)

Optimal Allocation Ratios: A Square Root Relationship between the Ratios of Symbiotic Costs and Benefits.

The American naturalist, 198(4):460-472.

AbstractAll organisms struggle to make sense of environmental stimuli in order to maximize their fitness. For animals, the responses of single cells and superorganisms to stimuli are generally proportional to stimulus ratios, a phenomenon described by Weber's law. However, Weber's law has not yet been used to predict how plants respond to stimuli generated from their symbiotic partners. Here we develop a model for quantitatively predicting the ratios of carbon (C) allocation to symbionts that provide nutrients to their plant host. Consistent with Weber's law, our model demonstrates that the optimal ratio of resources allocated to a less beneficial relative to a more beneficial symbiont scale to the ratio of the growth benefits of the two strains. As C allocation to symbionts increases, the ratio of C allocation to two strains approaches the square root of the ratio of symbiotic growth benefits (e.g., a worse symbiont providing one-fourth the benefits gets 1/4=1/2 the C of a better symbiont). We document a compelling correspondence between our square root model prediction and a meta-analysis of experimental literature on C allocation. This type of preferential allocation can promote coexistence between more beneficial and less beneficial symbionts, offering a potential mechanism behind the high diversity of microbial symbionts observed in nature.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Week B, SL Nuismer (2021)

Coevolutionary Arms Races and the Conditions for the Maintenance of Mutualism.

The American naturalist, 198(2):195-205.

AbstractEmpirical evidence suggests that coevolutionary arms races between flowering plants and their pollinators can occur in wild populations. In extreme cases, trait escalation may result in evolutionary switching from mutualism to parasitism. However, theoretical approaches to studying coevolution typically assume fixed types of ecological interactions and ignore the evolution of absolute fitness. Here, we introduce a novel approach to track the evolution of absolute fitness as a framework to determine when escalatory coevolution results in a switch from mutualism to parasitism. We apply our approach to two previously studied mechanisms mediating selection as a function of phenotype. Our results demonstrate that interactions mediated by a "bigger-is-better" mechanism evolve toward parasitism. In contrast, generalizing the classical trait-matching mechanism so that the fitness of each species is optimized when trait values mismatch by a particular amount, we find theoretical support for indefinite trait exaggeration that preserves mutualistic interactions. Building on our results, we discuss the consequences of coevolutionary arms races for the maintenance of cheating. Moving beyond pairwise interactions, we consider the ramifications of coevolution in a South African pollination network for the evolution of parasitism. Future work extending our approach beyond pairwise interactions can lead to a framework for understanding the evolution of parasitism in mutualistic networks and further insights into the structure and dynamic nature of ecological communities in general.

RevDate: 2021-11-24

Wang YB, Li C, Yan JY, et al (2021)

Autophagy regulates whitefly-symbiont metabolic interactions.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Nutritional symbionts are restricted to specialized host cells called bacteriocytes in various insect orders. These symbionts can provide essential nutrients to the host. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these insect-symbiont metabolic associations remain largely unclear. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, hosts Portiera and Hamiltonella bacteria in the same bacteriocyte. In this study, the induction of autophagy by chemical treatment and gene silencing decreased symbiont titers, and essential amino acid (EAA) and B vitamin contents. In contrast, the repression of autophagy in bacteriocytes via Atg8 silencing increased symbiont titers, and amino acid and B vitamin contents. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with non-EAAs or B vitamins alleviated autophagy in whitefly bacteriocytes, elevated TOR (target of rapamycin) expression and increased symbiont titers. TOR silencing restored symbiont titers in whiteflies after dietary supplementation with B vitamins. These data suggest that Portiera and Hamiltonella evade autophagy of the whitefly bacteriocytes by activating the TOR pathway via providing essential nutrients. Taken together, we demonstrated that autophagy plays a critical role in regulating the metabolic interactions between the whitefly and two intracellular symbionts. Therefore, this study reveals that autophagy is an important cellular basis for bacteriocyte evolution and symbiosis persistence in whiteflies. The whitefly symbiosis unravels the interactions between cellular and metabolic functions of bacteriocytes. Importance Nutritional symbionts, which are restricted to specialized host cells called bacteriocytes, can provide essential nutrients for many hosts. However, the cellular mechanisms of regulation of animal-symbiont metabolic associations have been largely unexplored. Here, using the whitefly-Portiera/Hamiltonella endosymbiosis, we demonstrate autophagy regulates the symbiont titers, and thereby alters the essential amino acid and B vitamin contents. For persistence in the whitefly bacteriocytes, Portiera and Hamiltonella alleviate autophagy by activating the TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway through providing essential nutrients. Therefore, we demonstrate that autophagy plays a critical role in regulating the metabolic interactions between the whitefly and two intracellular symbionts. This study also provides insight into the cellular basis of bacteriocyte evolution and symbiosis persistence in the whitefly. The mechanisms underlying the role of autophagy in whitefly symbiosis could be widespread in many insect nutritional symbioses. These findings provide new avenue for whitefly control via regulating autophagy in the future.

RevDate: 2021-11-24

Medithi S, Kasa YD, Ajumeera R, et al (2021)

Effect of organophosphorus pesticide exposure on the immune cell phenotypes among farm women and their children.

Archives of environmental & occupational health [Epub ahead of print].

Epidemiological studies suggest suppression of the lymphocytes function through cholinergic stimulation due to organophosphorus pesticide exposure. The study aimed to assess the alteration in the levels of immune cell phenotypes among farm women (FW) and farm children (FC) who were occupationally exposed to pesticides and age/gender-matched control subjects belonging to Rangareddy district (Telangana, India). A total of 129 FW, 129 FC and 268 age/gender-matched controls were recruited. Blood samples were collected from the selected subjects to estimate the levels of nine organophosphorus pesticide residues and CD (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+ and CD19+) cell markers using LC-MS/MS and flow cytometry, respectively. Independent t-test analysis was conducted to compare the immune cell phenotypes between exposed and control groups. Spearman's rank correlation test was further carried out to identify any possible correlation between the pesticide residues and CD markers. The mean percentage for CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ was found to be significantly low, while for CD19 + itwas significantly high in the FW as compared to the CW group (p < 0.01). Further, the residues of chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos among FW were found to be significantly correlating with the mean percentages of CD19+ and CD8+ markers, respectively. The cell marker subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ were significantly low in FC children 9-12 years and 13-15 years age groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Also, these levels were significantly correlating with the residues of malathion and monocrotophos. The present study could indicate an alteration in the lymphocytes' subpopulations, which may thereby infer the toxicity in the first phase assessment of immunotoxicity. Therefore, further studies may be conducted to understand the suspected pesticides' mechanism along with various other factors in causing immune suppression coupled with nutritional and other related disorders.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Stentz R, Miquel-Clopés A, SR Carding (2022)

Production, Isolation, and Characterization of Bioengineered Bacterial Extracellular Membrane Vesicles Derived from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Their Use in Vaccine Development.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2414:171-190.

Bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs) possess features that make them well suited for the delivery of therapeutics and vaccines. This chapter describes methods for engineering the commensal human intestinal bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) to produce BEVs carrying vaccine antigens and accompanying methods for isolating and purifying BEVs for mucosal vaccination regimens.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Kim K, Choe D, Song Y, et al (2021)

Engineering Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron to produce non-native butyrate based on a genome-scale metabolic model-guided design.

Metabolic engineering, 68:174-186.

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron represents a major symbiont of the human gut microbiome that is increasingly viewed as a promising candidate strain for microbial therapeutics. Here, we engineer B. thetaiotaomicron for heterologous production of non-native butyrate as a proof-of-concept biochemical at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Since B. thetaiotaomicron is not a natural producer of butyrate, we heterologously expressed a butyrate biosynthetic pathway in the strain, which led to the production of butyrate at the final concentration of 12 mg/L in a rich medium. Further optimization of butyrate production was achieved by a round of metabolic engineering guided by an expanded genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) of B. thetaiotaomicron. The in silico knock-out simulation of the expanded model showed that pta and ldhD were the potent knock-out targets to enhance butyrate production. The maximum titer and specific productivity of butyrate in the pta-ldhD double knockout mutant increased by nearly 3.4 and 4.8 folds, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first engineering attempt that enabled butyrate production from a non-butyrate producing commensal B. thetaiotaomicron. The study also highlights that B. thetaiotaomicron can serve as an effective strain for live microbial therapeutics in human.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Son JH, Weiss BL, Schneider DI, et al (2021)

Infection with endosymbiotic Spiroplasma disrupts tsetse (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes) metabolic and reproductive homeostasis.

PLoS pathogens, 17(9):e1009539.

Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house a population-dependent assortment of microorganisms that can include pathogenic African trypanosomes and maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, the latter of which mediate numerous aspects of their host's metabolic, reproductive, and immune physiologies. One of these endosymbionts, Spiroplasma, was recently discovered to reside within multiple tissues of field captured and laboratory colonized tsetse flies grouped in the Palpalis subgenera. In various arthropods, Spiroplasma induces reproductive abnormalities and pathogen protective phenotypes. In tsetse, Spiroplasma infections also induce a protective phenotype by enhancing the fly's resistance to infection with trypanosomes. However, the potential impact of Spiroplasma on tsetse's viviparous reproductive physiology remains unknown. Herein we employed high-throughput RNA sequencing and laboratory-based functional assays to better characterize the association between Spiroplasma and the metabolic and reproductive physiologies of G. fuscipes fuscipes (Gff), a prominent vector of human disease. Using field-captured Gff, we discovered that Spiroplasma infection induces changes of sex-biased gene expression in reproductive tissues that may be critical for tsetse's reproductive fitness. Using a Gff lab line composed of individuals heterogeneously infected with Spiroplasma, we observed that the bacterium and tsetse host compete for finite nutrients, which negatively impact female fecundity by increasing the length of intrauterine larval development. Additionally, we found that when males are infected with Spiroplasma, the motility of their sperm is compromised following transfer to the female spermatheca. As such, Spiroplasma infections appear to adversely impact male reproductive fitness by decreasing the competitiveness of their sperm. Finally, we determined that the bacterium is maternally transmitted to intrauterine larva at a high frequency, while paternal transmission was also noted in a small number of matings. Taken together, our findings indicate that Spiroplasma exerts a negative impact on tsetse fecundity, an outcome that could be exploited for reducing tsetse population size and thus disease transmission.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Enrique-Navarro A, Huertas IE, León Cobo MJ, et al (2021)

Impact of ocean warming and ocean acidification on asexual reproduction and statolith formation of the symbiotic jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata.

PloS one, 16(8):e0254983.

Ocean acidification and warming are challenging marine organisms and ecosystems around the world. The synergetic effects of these two climate change stressors on jellyfish remain still understudied. Here, we examine the independent and combined effects of these two environmental variables on polyp population dynamics of the Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. An experiment was conducted to examine asexual reproduction by budding and strobilation considering current and ca. 2100 winter (Trial 1, 36 days) and summer (Trial 2, 36 days) conditions under the RCP8.5 (IPCC 2013). In Trial 1, a temperature of 18°C and two pH levels (current: 7.9 and, reduced: 7.7) were tested. Trial 2 considered two temperature levels 24°C and 30°C, under current and reduced acidification conditions (8.0 and 7.7, respectively). Ephyrae size and statolith formation of released ephyrae from polyps exposed to summer temperatures under both acidification treatment was also analyzed. Zooxanthellae density inside the polyps throughout the experiment was measured. C. tuberculata polyps could cope with the conditions mimicked in all experimental treatments and no significant effect of pH, temperature, or the combination of both variables on the abundance of polyps was observed. At 18°C, strobilation was reduced under high PCO2 conditions. Under summer treatments (24°C and 30°C), percentage strobilation was very low and several released ephyrae suffered malformations and reduced size, as a consequence of reduced pH and elevated temperatures, separately. The number of statoliths was not affected by pH or temperature, however, bigger statoliths were formed at elevated temperatures (30°C). Finally, zooxanthellae density was not affected by experimental conditions, even if, the duration of the experiment significantly affected symbiont concentration. Our results show that even though polyps of C. tuberculata would thrive the future worst scenario predicted for the Mediterranean Sea, their capacity to undergo a proper strobilation and to produce healthy ephyrae will be more vulnerable to climate induced environmental conditions, thereby affecting medusae recruitment and, therefore, population dynamics of the species.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Chen Z, Luo J, Li J, et al (2021)

Foxo1 controls gut homeostasis and commensalism by regulating mucus secretion.

The Journal of experimental medicine, 218(9):.

Mucus produced by goblet cells in the gastrointestinal tract forms a biological barrier that protects the intestine from invasion by commensals and pathogens. However, the host-derived regulatory network that controls mucus secretion and thereby changes gut microbiota has not been well studied. Here, we identify that Forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1) regulates mucus secretion by goblet cells and determines intestinal homeostasis. Loss of Foxo1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) results in defects in goblet cell autophagy and mucus secretion, leading to an impaired gut microenvironment and dysbiosis. Subsequently, due to changes in microbiota and disruption in microbiome metabolites of short-chain fatty acids, Foxo1 deficiency results in altered organization of tight junction proteins and enhanced susceptibility to intestinal inflammation. Our study demonstrates that Foxo1 is crucial for IECs to establish commensalism and maintain intestinal barrier integrity by regulating goblet cell function.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Sochard C, Dupont C, Simon JC, et al (2021)

Secondary Symbionts Affect Foraging Capacities of Plant-Specialized Genotypes of the Pea Aphid.

Microbial ecology, 82(4):1009-1019.

Ecological specialization is widespread in animals, especially in phytophagous insects, which have often a limited range of host plant species. This host plant specialization results from divergent selection on insect populations, which differ consequently in traits like behaviors involved in plant use. Although recent studies highlighted the influence of symbionts on dietary breadth of their insect hosts, whether these microbial partners influence the foraging capacities of plant-specialized insects has received little attention. In this study, we used the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, which presents distinct plant-specialized lineages and several secondary bacterial symbionts, to examine the possible effects of symbionts on the different foraging steps from plant searching to host plant selection. In particular, we tested the effect of secondary symbionts on the aphid capacity (1) to explore habitat at long distance (estimated through the production of winged offspring), (2) to explore habitat at short distance, and (3) to select its host plant. We found that secondary symbionts had a variable influence on the production of winged offspring in some genotypes, with potential consequences on dispersal and survival. By contrast, symbionts influenced both short-distance exploration and host plant selection only marginally. The implication of symbionts' influence on insect foraging capacities is discussed.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Tang Y, Ma KY, Cheung MK, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota in Decapod Shrimps: Evidence of Phylosymbiosis.

Microbial ecology, 82(4):994-1007.

Gut microbiota have long attracted the interest of scientists due to their profound impact on the well-being of animals. A non-random pattern of microbial assembly that results in a parallelism between host phylogeny and microbial similarity is described as phylosymbiosis. Phylosymbiosis has been consistently observed in different clades of animal hosts, but there have been no studies on crustaceans. In this study, we investigated whether host phylogeny has an impact on the gut microbiota assemblages in decapod shrimps. We examined the gut microbial communities in 20 shrimp species from three families inhabiting distinct environments, using metabarcoding analyses of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbial communities varied within each shrimp group but were generally dominated by Proteobacteria. A prevalent phylosymbiotic pattern in shrimps was evidenced for the first time by the observations of (1) the distinguishability of microbial communities among species within each group, (2) a significantly lower intraspecific than interspecific gut microbial beta diversity across shrimp groups, (3) topological congruence between host phylogenetic trees and gut microbiota dendrograms, and (4) a correlation between host genetic distances and microbial dissimilarities. Consistent signals of phylosymbiosis were observed across all groups in dendrograms based on the unweighted UniFrac distances at 99% operational taxonomic units (OTUs) level and in Mantel tests based on the weighted UniFrac distances based on 97% OTUs and amplicon sequence variants. Penaeids exhibited phylosymbiosis in most tests, while phylosymbiotic signals in atyids and pandalids were only detected in fewer than half of the tests. A weak phylogenetic signal was detected in the predicted functions of the penaeid gut microbiota. However, the functional diversities of the two caridean groups were not significantly related to host phylogeny. Our observations of a parallelism in the taxonomy of the gut microbiota with host phylogeny for all shrimp groups examined and in the predicted functions for the penaeid shrimps indicate a tight host-microbial relationship during evolution.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Takano SI, Gotoh Y, T Hayashi (2021)

"Candidatus Mesenet longicola": Novel Endosymbionts of Brontispa longissima that Induce Cytoplasmic Incompatibility.

Microbial ecology, 82(2):512-522.

Intracellular bacteria that are mainly transmitted maternally affect their arthropod hosts' biology in various ways. One such effect is known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and three bacterial species are known to induce CI: Wolbachia, Cardinium hertigii, and a recently found alphaproteobacterial symbiont. To clarify the taxonomic status and provide the foundation for future studies to reveal CI mechanisms and other phenotypes, we investigated genetic and morphological properties of the third CI inducer that we have previously reported inducing CI in the coconut beetle Brontispa longissima. The draft genome of the bacteria was obtained from the oocytes of two isofemale lines of B. longissima infected with the bacteria: one from Japan (GL2) and the other from Vietnam (L5). Genome features of the symbionts (sGL2 and sL5) were highly similar, showing 1.3 Mb in size, 32.1% GC content, and 99.83% average nucleotide sequence. A phylogenetic study based on 43 universal and single-copy phylogenetic marker genes indicates that they formed a distinct clade in the family Anaplasmataceae. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that they are different from the closest known relatives, at least at the genus level. Therefore, we propose a new genus and species, "Candidatus Mesenet longicola", for the symbionts of B. longissima. Morphological analyses showed that Ca. M. longicola is an intracellular bacterium that is ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and 0.94 ± 0.26 μm (mean ± SD) in length, and accumulated in the anterior part of the oocyte. Candidates for the Ca. M. longicola genes responsible for CI induction are also described.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Gunnabo AH, van Heerwaarden J, Geurts R, et al (2021)

Phylogeography and Symbiotic Effectiveness of Rhizobia Nodulating Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Ethiopia.

Microbial ecology, 81(3):703-716.

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) used to be considered a restrictive host that nodulated and fixed nitrogen only with Mesorhizobium ciceri and M. mediterraneum. Recent analysis revealed that chickpea can also establish effective symbioses with strains of several other Mesorhizobium species such as M. loti, M. haukuii, M. amorphae, M. muleiense, etc. These strains vary in their nitrogen fixation potential inviting further exploration. We characterized newly collected mesorhizobial strains isolated from various locations in Ethiopia to evaluate genetic diversity, biogeographic structure and symbiotic effectiveness. Symbiotic effectiveness was evaluated in Leonard Jars using a locally released chickpea cultivar "Nattoli". Most of the new isolates belonged to a clade related to M. plurifarium, with very few sequence differences, while the total collection of strains contained three additional mesorhizobial genospecies associated with M. ciceri, M. abyssinicae and an unidentified Mesorhizobium species isolated from a wild host in Eritrea. The four genospecies identified represented a subset of the eight major Mesorhizobium clades recently reported for Ethiopia based on metagenomic data. All Ethiopian strains had nearly identical symbiotic genes that grouped them in a single cluster with M. ciceri, M. mediterraneum and M. muleiense, but not with M. plurifarium. Some phylogeographic structure was observed, with elevation and geography explaining some of the genetic differences among strains, but the relation between genetic identity and symbiotic effectiveness was observed to be weak.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Xu S, Jiang L, Qiao G, et al (2021)

Diversity of bacterial symbionts associated with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae) revealed by 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing.

Microbial ecology, 81(3):784-794.

Aphids are known to be associated with a variety of symbiotic bacteria. To improve our knowledge of the bacterial diversity of polyphagous aphids, in the present study, we investigated the microbiota of the cosmopolitan agricultural pest Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Ninety-two aphid samples collected from different host plants in various regions of China were examined using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. We comprehensively characterized the symbiont diversity of M. persicae and assessed the variations in aphid-associated symbiont communities. We detected a higher diversity of symbionts than has been previously observed. M. persicae hosted the primary endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola and seven secondary symbionts, among which Wolbachia was the most prevalent and Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, and Spiroplasma were reported for the first time. Ordination analyses and statistical tests revealed that the symbiont flora associated with M. persicae did not change with respect to host plant or geography, which may be due to frequent migrations between different aphid populations. These findings will advance our knowledge of the microbiota of polyphagous insects and will enrich our understanding of assembly of host-microbiome systems.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Silva-Lima AW, Froes AM, Garcia GD, et al (2021)

Mussismilia braziliensis White Plague Disease Is Characterized by an Affected Coral Immune System and Dysbiosis.

Microbial ecology, 81(3):795-806.

Infectious diseases are one of the major drivers of coral reef decline worldwide. White plague-like disease (WPL) is a widespread disease with a complex etiology that infects several coral species, including the Brazilian endemic species Mussismilia braziliensis. Gene expression profiles of healthy and WPL-affected M. braziliensis were analyzed in winter and summer seasons. The de novo assembly of the M. braziliensis transcriptome from healthy and white plague samples produced a reference transcriptome containing 119,088 transcripts. WPL-diseased samples were characterized by repression of immune system and cellular defense processes. Autophagy and cellular adhesion transcripts were also repressed in WPL samples, suggesting exhaustion of the coral host defenses. Seasonal variation leads to plasticity in transcription with upregulation of intracellular signal transduction, apoptosis regulation, and oocyte development in the summer. Analysis of the active bacterial rRNA indicated that Pantoea bacteria were more abundant in WPL corals, while Tistlia, Fulvivirga, and Gammaproteobacteria Ga0077536 were more abundant in healthy samples. Cyanobacteria proliferation was also observed in WPL, mostly in the winter. These results indicate a scenario of dysbiosis in WPL-affected M. braziliensis, with the loss of potentially symbiotic bacteria and proliferation of opportunistic microbes after the start of the infection process.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Hernández-Reyes C, Lichtenberg E, Keller J, et al (2021)

NIN-Like Proteins; interesting Players in Rhizobia-Induced Nitrate Signaling Response during Interaction with Non-Legume Host Arabidopsis thaliana.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient and a key cellular messenger. Plants have evolved refined molecular systems to sense the cellular nitrogen status. This is exemplified by the root nodule symbiosis between legumes and symbiotic rhizobia, where nitrate availability inhibits this mutualistic interaction. Additionally, nitrate also functions as a metabolic messenger, resulting in nitrate signaling cascades which intensively cross-talk with other physiological pathways. (NODULE INCEPTION)-LIKE PROTEINS (NLPs) are key players in nitrate signaling and regulate nitrate-dependent transcription during legume-rhizobia interactions. Nevertheless, the coordinated interplay between nitrate signaling pathways and rhizobacteria-induced responses remains to be elucidated. In our study, we investigated rhizobia-induced changes in the root system architecture of the non-legume host Arabidopsis under different nitrate conditions. We demonstrate that rhizobium-induced lateral root growth and increased root hair length and density are regulated by a nitrate-related signaling pathway. Key players in this process are AtNLP4 and AtNLP5, since the corresponding mutants failed to respond to rhizobia. At the cellular level, AtNLP4 and AtNLP5 control a rhizobia-induced decrease in cell elongation rates, while additional cell divisions occurred independently of AtNLP4. In summary, our data suggest that root morphological responses to rhizobia are coordinated by a newly considered nitrate-related NLP-pathway that is evolutionary linked to regulatory circuits described in legumes.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Wu N, Li Z, Meng S, et al (2021)

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymatic activity of Euonymus maackii Rupr. under gradient water deficit levels.

PloS one, 16(11):e0259959 pii:PONE-D-21-02594.

The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Rhizophagus intraradices) in the amelioration of the water deficit-mediated negative influence on the growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant system in Euonymus maackii Rupr. was examined. E. maackii seedlings were subjected to 5 water deficit levels, soil water contents of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% field capacity (FC), and 2 inoculation treatments, with and without AM inoculation. The water deficit increasingly limited the seedling height, biomass accumulation in shoots and roots, chlorophyll content, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with an increasing water deficit level. In addition, water deficit stimulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), in both shoots and roots, except under 20% FC conditions. E. maackii seedlings under all water deficit conditions formed symbiosis well with AM fungi, which significantly ameliorated the drought-mediated negative effect, especially under 40% and 60% FC conditions. Under 40% to 80% FC conditions, AM formation improved seedling growth and photosynthesis by significantly enhancing the biomass accumulation, chlorophyll content and assimilation. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed better tolerance and less sensitivity to a water deficit, reflected in the lower SOD activities of shoots and roots and CAT activity of shoots under 40% and 60% FC conditions. Downregulation of the antioxidant system in mycorrhizal seedlings suggested better maintenance of redox homeostasis and protection of metabolism, including biomass accumulation and assimilation. All the results advocated the positive role of R. intraradices inoculation in E. maackii against a water deficit, especially under 40% FC, which suggested the distinct AM performance in drought tolerance and the potential role of the combination of E. maackii-AM fungi in ecological restoration in arid regions.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Zeng M, Wan B, Wang L, et al (2021)

Identification and characterization of L-type lectin receptor-like kinases involved in Glycine max-Phytophthora sojae interaction.

Planta, 254(6):128.

MAIN CONCLUSION: Soybean contains a group of 64 L-type lectin receptor-like kinases. Three LecRKs were involved in the interactions with Phytophthora sojae and Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. L-type lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRKs) comprise an important class of membrane-localized receptor-like kinases that are involved in plant adaptation. In this study, we performed an inventory analysis of LecRKs in Glycine max (soybean). In total, 64 GmLecRKs containing the canonical LecRK feature were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 48 GmLecRKs have close orthologs in Arabidopsis or Solanum lycopersicum, while 16 are likely present only in the leguminous plant species. Transcriptome analyses revealed that expressions of multiple GmLecRK genes are either induced or suppressed during infection by the soybean root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae. In addition, overexpression of the three LecRKs (Glyma.17G085000, Glyma.05G041300 or Glyma.17G224600) in the soybean hairy roots enhanced resistance to P. sojae. Upon inoculation with Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens, overexpression of Glyma.17G085000 in the soybean hairy roots does not significantly influence the nodulation, while overexpression of Glyma.05G041300 or Glyma.17G224600 slightly reduced the number and dry weight of nodules. This study highlights the importance of LecRKs in regulating plant-microbe interactions and provides new knowledge on the deployment of LecRKs to increase resistance in soybean.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Rodríguez-Esperón MC, Eastman G, Sandes L, et al (2021)

Genomics and transcriptomics insights into luteolin effects on the beta-rhizobial strain Cupriavidus necator UYPR2.512.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Cupriavidus necator UYPR2.512 is a rhizobial strain that belongs to the Beta-subclass of proteobacteria, able to establish successful symbiosis with Mimosoid legumes. The initial steps of rhizobium-legumes symbioses involve the reciprocal recognition by chemical signals, being luteolin one of the molecules involved. However, there is a lack of information on the effect of luteolin in beta-rhizobia. In this work, we used long-read sequencing to complete the genome of UYPR2.512 providing evidence for the existence of four closed circular replicons. We used an RNA-Seq approach to analyse the response of UYPR2.512 to luteolin. One hundred and forty-five genes were differentially expressed, with similar numbers of downregulated and upregulated genes. Most repressed genes were mapped to the main chromosome, while the upregulated genes were overrepresented among pCne512e, containing the symbiotic genes. Induced genes included the nod operon and genes implicated in exopolysaccharides and flagellar biosynthesis. We identified many genes involved in iron, copper and other heavy metals metabolism. Among repressed genes, we identified genes involved in basal carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Our results suggest that in response to luteolin, C. necator strain UYPR2.512 reshapes its metabolism in order to be prepared for the forthcoming symbiotic interaction.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

DE Azevedo Ferreira LA, A Anker (2021)

An annotated and illustrated checklist of the porcelain crabs of Panama (Decapoda: Anomura).

Zootaxa, 5045(1):1-154.

The present study is the first exhaustive checklist of porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae) distributed on the Pacific and Atlantic (Caribbean) coasts of Panama, based on literature records and material collected between 2006 and 2019. The Panamanian porcellanid fauna is currently composed of a total of 76 species, with 26 species reported from the Caribbean coast, 45 species reported from the Pacific coast, and five species reported from both sides of the Central American Isthmus (Isthmus of Panama). In other words, the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama each harbour, respectively, 31 and 50 species of porcellanid crabs. However, this total includes two problematic porcellanid records from Panama, viz. Clastotoechus nodosus (Streets, 1872) and Petrolisthes brachycarpus Sivertsen, 1933, as well as a putatively undecribed taxon reported as Pachycheles sp. The following four species are recorded for the first time from Panama, viz. Euceramus panatelus Glassell, 1938, Pachycheles riisei (Stimpson, 1859) [also being new for Mexico], Petrolisthes dissimulatus Gore, 1983 and P. tonsorius Haig, 1960. In addition, Minyocerus kirki Glassell, 1938 is newly recorded from Colombia, extending its previously known distributional range significantly southwards. Most species are illustrated in colour, several for the first time, based on material from Panama or other localities. At least 20 further species (16 in the Atlantic, 5 in the Pacific, and 1 in both oceans) are suspected to occur in Panamanian waters, based on their records from the neighbouring Costa Rica and/or Colombia, or their wide distribution in the Caribbean Sea or the tropical eastern Pacific. The presence of several cryptic or pseudocryptic species (at least some of them presumably undescribed), especially in the taxonomically challenging Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc, 1802) species complex, or the eventual species splitting within some taxa currently seen as transisthmian, will likely further increase the total number of species present in Panama. The porcellanid fauna of Panama is also ecologically remarkably diversified. Most Panamanian porcelain crabs are free-living under rocks, in crevices of rocks, dead coral heads, coralline algae, coral rubble etc., or on mud, among mangrove roots. Euceramus panatelus lives in possibly self-dug burrows in soft mud or muddy sand, whereas its congener E. transversilineatus (Lockington, 1878) may occasionally be found in association with holothuroids. At least 15 further porcellanid species occurring in Panama live in permanent or facultative associations with a variety of other marine organisms, including sponges, cnidarians (octocorals), echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, sea cucumbers), polychaetes (parchment worms) and other decapod crustaceans (hermit crabs), making them one of the most attractive groups for studies of symbiosis-related behaviour and evolution.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Luo J, Zhang H, Forsberg E, et al (2021)

Confocal hyperspectral microscopic imager for the detection and classification of individual microalgae.

Optics express, 29(23):37281-37301.

We propose a confocal hyperspectral microscopic imager (CHMI) that can measure both transmission and fluorescent spectra of individual microalgae, as well as obtain classical transmission images and corresponding fluorescent hyperspectral images with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, the system can realize precise identification, classification, and location of microalgae in a free or symbiosis state. The CHMI works in a staring state, with two imaging modes, a confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (CFHI) mode and a transmission hyperspectral imaging (THI) mode. The imaging modes share the main light path, and thus obtained fluorescence and transmission hyperspectral images have point-to-point correspondence. In the CFHI mode, a confocal technology to eliminate image blurring caused by interference of axial points is included. The CHMI has excellent performance with spectral and spatial resolutions of 3 nm and 2 µm, respectively (using a 10× microscope objective magnification). To demonstrate the capacity and versatility of the CHMI, we report on demonstration experiments on four species of microalgae in free form as well as three species of jellyfish with symbiotic microalgae. In the microalgae species classification experiments, transmission and fluorescence spectra collected by the CHMI were preprocessed using principal component analysis (PCA), and a support vector machine (SVM) model or deep learning was then used for classification. The accuracy of the SVM model and deep learning method to distinguish one species of individual microalgae from another was found to be 96.25% and 98.34%, respectively. Also, the ability of the CHMI to analyze the concentration, species, and distribution differences of symbiotic microalgae in symbionts is furthermore demonstrated.

RevDate: 2021-11-23
CmpDate: 2021-11-23

Konno T, A Tsukagoshi (2022)

Crayfish co-introduced symbiotic ostracod found on native crab in Japan: The first record of epibiont ostracod found a new host.

Parasitology international, 86:102475.

Ankylocythere sinuosa (Rioja, 1942), a symbiotic ostracod native to North America, was found from the Japanese mitten crab Eriocheir japonica (De Haan, 1835), a species native to Japan, collected from a pond in Shizuoka City, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan. Introduced North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), which is a host of A. sinuosa in their native range, inhabits ponds sympatrically with Japanese mitten crabs, and it is thought that the ostracods transferred from the exotic crayfish to the native crabs. In recent years, along with the artificial transportation of crayfish around the world, their symbiotic ostracods also have been found on the body surfaces of exotic crayfish in Europe and Japan. However, no studies have confirmed the infestation of exotic ostracods on native crustaceans in the field. A wide range of developmental stages of A. sinuosa from juveniles to adults were found in Japanese mitten crabs, and mating individuals were also found. This strongly suggests that they can reproduce on the body surface of Japanese mitten crabs. In the future, it will be necessary to strengthen measures against alien species to prevent these exotic symbionts from infestating native ecosystems, and we also need to investigate the exact impact of this symbiont on Japanese mitten crabs.

RevDate: 2021-11-23
CmpDate: 2021-11-23

Ohtani N, E Hara (2021)

Gut-liver axis-mediated mechanism of liver cancer: A special focus on the role of gut microbiota.

Cancer science, 112(11):4433-4443.

Gut microbiota and the mammalian host share a symbiotic relationship, in which the host provides a suitable ecosystem for the gut bacteria to digest indigestible nutrients and produce useful metabolites. Although gut microbiota primarily reside in and influence the intestine, they also regulate liver function via absorption and subsequent transfer of microbial components and metabolites through the portal vein to the liver. Due to this transfer, the liver may be continuously exposed to gut-derived metabolites and components. For example, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by gut microbiota, through the fermentation of dietary fiber, can suppress inflammation via regulatory T cell induction through SCFA-induced epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, secondary bile acids (BA), such as deoxycholic acid, produced by gut bacteria through the 7α-dehydroxylation of primary BAs, are thought to induce DNA damage and contribute to the remodeling of tumor microenvironments. Other substances that are also thought to influence liver function include lipopolysaccharides (components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria), which are ligands of innate immune receptors, Toll-like receptor-4, and Toll-like receptor-2, respectively, through which inflammatory signaling is elicited. In this review, we focus on the role of gut microbiota in the liver microenvironment, describing the anatomy of the gut-liver axis, the role of gut microbial metabolites, and the relationships that exist between gut microbiota and liver diseases, including liver cancer.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Sun C, Yang Y, Zeeshan M, et al (2021)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reverse selenium stress in Zea mays seedlings by improving plant and soil characteristics.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 228:113000 pii:S0147-6513(21)01112-X [Epub ahead of print].

Selenium (Se) is a beneficial trace element for certain animals including humans, while remaining controversial for plants. High Se concentration in soil is toxic to plants especially at seedling stage of the plants. Although, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important for plant stress resistance; but the mechanisms by which AMF alleviate Se stress in crop seedlings are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the potential strategies of AMF symbiosis to alleviate Se stress in maize (Zea mays) from plants and soil perspectives. Results showed that Se stress (Se application level > 5 mg kg-1) significantly inhibited leaf area, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight of maize (P < 0.05). In contrast, AM symbiosis significantly improved root morphology, increased nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition, promoted shoot growth, inhibited the transport of Se from soil/roots to shoots, and then diluted the concentration of Se in shoots (32.65-52.80%). In general, the response of maize growth to AMF was mainly observed in shoots rather than roots. In addition, AMF inoculation significantly increased the easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein and organic matter contents and decreased the availability of soil Se to the plant. Principal component analysis showed that AMF promoted growth and nutrition uptake of maize was the most dominant effect of Se stress alleviation, followed by the decrease of soil Se availability, limiting Se transport from soil/roots to shoots. Moreover, the expression of Se uptake-related ion transporter genes (ZmPht2, ZmNIP2;1, and ZmSultr1;3) in maize roots were down-regulated upon AM symbiosis which resultantly inhibited the uptake and transport of Se from soil to maize roots. Thus, AMF could impede Se stress in maize seedlings by improving plant and soil characteristics.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Manirakiza B, Zhang S, Addo FG, et al (2021)

Exploring microbial diversity and ecological function of epiphytic and surface sediment biofilm communities in a shallow tropical lake.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06897-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities in epiphytic biofilms and surface sediments play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycles of the major chemical elements in freshwater. However, little is known about the diversity, composition, and ecological functions of microbial communities in shallow tropical lakes dominated by aquatic macrophytes. In this study, epiphytic bacterial and eukaryotic biofilm communities on submerged and floating macrophytes and surface sediments were investigated in Lake Rumira, Rwanda in August and November 2019. High-throughput sequencing data revealed that members of the phyla, including Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteriodetes, Verrumicrobia, and Myxomycota, dominated bacterial communities, while the microeukaryotic communities were dominated by Unclassified (uncl) SAR(Stramenopiles, Alveolata, Rhizaria), Rotifers, Ascomycota, Gastrotricha, Platyhelminthes, Chloroplastida, and Arthropoda. Interestingly, the eukaryotic OTUs (operational taxonomic units) number and Shannon indices were significantly higher in sediments and epiphytic biofilms on Eicchornia crassipes than Ceratophyllum demersum (p < 0.05), while no differences were observed in bacterial OTUs number and Shannon values among substrates. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), and electrical conductivity (EC) were the most important abiotic factors closely related to the microbial community on C. demersum and E. crassipes. Furthermore, co-occurrence networks analysis (|r| > 0.7, p < 0.05) and functional prediction revealed more complex interactions among microbes on C. demersum than on E. crassipes and sediments, and those interactions include cross-feeding, parasitism, symbiosis, and predatism among organisms in biofilms. These results suggested that substrate-type and environmental factors were the strong driving forces of microbial diversity in epiphytic biofilms and surface sediments, thus shedding new insights into microbial community diversity in epiphytic biofilms and surface sediments and its ecological role in tropical lacustrine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Gladysheva IV, Chertkov KL, Cherkasov SV, et al (2021)

Probiotic Potential, Safety Properties, and Antifungal Activities of Corynebacterium amycolatum ICIS 9 and Corynebacterium amycolatum ICIS 53 Strains.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probiotic characteristics and safety and to study the antifungal activity of C. amycolatum ICIS 9 and C. amycolatum ICIS 53 against Candida spp. The probiotic potential and safety properties were assessed by standard parameters. Both strains showed good survival at pH 3 for 3 h and high tolerance to 0.3% bile salts after 4 h of incubation. The indicators of hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, and surface tension for ICIS 9 were 89.43% (n-hexane) and 73.96% (xylene) and ranged from 13.13 to 39.86% and 34.27 mN/m, respectively. For ICIS 53, they were 59.95% (n-hexane) and 45.68% (xylene), from 35.58 to 51.53% and 32.40 mN/m, respectively. The strains ICIS 9 and ICIS 53 exhibited varying levels of coaggregation with all eight examined bacterial pathogens. The ICIS 9 strain was resistant to amikacin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and gentamycin. ICIS 53 was resistant only to ciprofloxacin. The cell-free supernatant of strains ICIS 9 and ICIS 53 showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against 10 pathogenic vaginal and intestinal isolates of Candida spp. The CFS of ICIS 9 was more active against intestinal isolates, and the CFS of ICIS 53 showed good antimicrobial activity against vaginal isolates while inhibiting the growth of 2 out of 5 Candida spp. isolated from the intestine. Both of the strains were capable of reducing the biofilm formation of Candida fungi. In the case of the vaginal isolates of C. krusei V1, the results showed that the inhibition levels of ICIS 9 and ICIS 53 were 36.75 and 11.4%, respectively. In the case of C. albicans (V2, V3, V7, and V8), the inhibition of biofilm formation was no more than 7.07%. ICIS 9 and ICIS 53 also significantly inhibited biofilm formation of C. krusei 2613 intestinal isolates by 42.75 and 41.87%, respectively, with ICIS 9 inhibiting biofilm formation of C. albicans (2607, 2311, 2615, and 2615) from 3.38 to 15.69% and ICIS 53 from 5.95 to 23.48%. None of the strains showed DNase, haemolytic, or gelatinase activities. The results obtained revealed that ICIS 9 and ICIS 53 have safe properties and have the potential to be developed as probiotics.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Prasad RB, Asplund O, Shukla SR, et al (2021)

Correction to: Subgroups of patients with young-onset type 2 diabetes in India reveal insulin deficiency as a major driver.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Bukharin OV, Perunova NB, Ivanova EV, et al (2021)

Semen microbiota and cytokines of healthy and infertile men.

Asian journal of andrology pii:330452 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we determined the levels of cytokine secretory inhibitors and the microbiota biofilms of semen from healthy and infertile subjects. A total of 118 clinical bacterial isolates were isolated and tested. Cytokine secretory inhibitors were determined based on the difference in cytokine content between the control and experimental samples of cell-free supernatants of isolated microorganisms. Biofilm formation was studied by determining the adhesion of microorganisms to the surface of a 96-well sterile plate and expressed as the optical density at 630 nm (OD630). Cell-free supernatants of Staphylococcus contained higher levels of secretory inhibitor of cytokines in conditionally healthy than in infertile patients. In contrast, in infertile men, the ability to reduce cytokine levels was more characteristic of Enterococcus and Corynebacterium. Seminal Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Enterococcus isolated from infertile subjects showed a greater ability to form biofilms than the same bacteria isolated from healthy men. Further research is needed on this topic, since it is necessary to determine the relationships between decreased secretory inhibitors of cytokines, production of biofilms by bacteria in semen, and infertility. It is likely that the ability of microorganisms to change the concentration of cytokines and increase the level of biofilm formation in semen may be associated with minimal impairments of fertilizing ability, which are not detected using other methods.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Wu ZB, Meng KF, Ding LG, et al (2021)

Dynamic Interaction Between Mucosal Immunity and Microbiota Drives Nose and Pharynx Homeostasis of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) After SVCV Infection.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:769775.

The crosstalk between the immune system and microbiota drives an amazingly complex mutualistic symbiosis. In mammals, the upper respiratory tract acts as a gateway for pathogen invasion, and the dynamic interaction between microbiota and mucosal immunity on its surface can effectively prevent disease development. However, the relationship between virus-mediated mucosal immune responses and microbes in lower vertebrates remains uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully constructed an infection model by intraperitoneally injecting common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). In addition to the detection of the SVCV in the nose and pharynx of common carp, we also identified obvious histopathological changes following viral infection. Moreover, numerous immune-related genes were significantly upregulated in the nose and pharynx at the peak of SVCV infection, after which the expression levels decreased to levels similar to those of the control group. Transcriptome sequencing results revealed that pathways associated with bacterial infection in the Toll-like receptor pathway and the Nod-like receptor pathway were activated in addition to the virus-related Rig-I-like receptor pathway after SVCV infection, suggesting that viral infection may be followed by opportunistic bacterial infection in these mucosal tissues. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we further identified an upward trend in pathogenic bacteria on the mucosal surface of the nose and pharynx 4 days after SVCV infection, after which these tissues eventually reached new homeostasis. Taken together, our results suggest that the dynamic interaction between mucosal immunity and microbiota promotes the host to a new ecological state.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Ullrich L, Lueder Y, Juergens AL, et al (2021)

IL-4-Producing Vγ1+/Vδ6+ γδ T Cells Sustain Germinal Center Reactions in Peyer's Patches of Mice.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:729607.

The mucosal immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens. Germinal centers (GCs) in the Peyer's patches (PPs) of the small intestine are constantly generated through stimulation of the microbiota. In this study, we investigated the role of γδ T cells in the GC reactions in PPs. Most γδ T cells in PPs localized in the GCs and expressed a TCR composed of Vγ1 and Vδ6 chains. By using mice with partial and total γδ T cell deficiencies, we found that Vγ1+/Vδ6+ T cells can produce high amounts of IL-4, which drives the proliferation of GC B cells as well as the switch of GC B cells towards IgA. Therefore, we conclude that γδ T cells play a role in sustaining gut homeostasis and symbiosis via supporting the GC reactions in PPs.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Koch RA, JR Herr (2021)

Global Distribution and Richness of Armillaria and Related Species Inferred From Public Databases and Amplicon Sequencing Datasets.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:733159.

Armillaria is a globally distributed fungal genus most notably composed of economically important plant pathogens that are found predominantly in forest and agronomic systems. The genus sensu lato has more recently received attention for its role in woody plant decomposition and in mycorrhizal symbiosis with specific plants. Previous phylogenetic analyses suggest that around 50 species are recognized globally. Despite this previous work, no studies have analyzed the global species richness and distribution of the genus using data derived from fungal community sequencing datasets or barcoding initiatives. To assess the global diversity and species richness of Armillaria, we mined publicly available sequencing datasets derived from numerous primer regions for the ribosomal operon, as well as ITS sequences deposited on Genbank, and clustered them akin to metabarcoding studies. Our estimates reveal that species richness ranges from 50 to 60 species, depending on whether the ITS1 or ITS2 marker is used. Eastern Asia represents the biogeographic region with the highest species richness. We also assess the overlap of species across geographic regions and propose some hypotheses regarding the drivers of variability in species diversity and richness between different biogeographic regions.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Cho HJ, Park KH, Park MS, et al (2021)

Determination of Diversity, Distribution and Host Specificity of Korean Laccaria Using Four Approaches.

Mycobiology, 49(5):461-468 pii:1940747.

The genus Laccaria (Hydnangiaceae, Agaricales) plays an important role in forest ecosystems as an ectomycorrhizal fungus, contributing to nutrient cycles through symbiosis with many types of trees. Though understanding Laccaria diversity and distribution patterns, as well as its association with host plants, is fundamental to constructing a balanced plant diversity and conducting effective forest management, previous studies have not been effective in accurately investigating, as they relied heavily on specimen collection alone. To investigate the true diversity and distribution pattern of Laccaria species and determine their host types, we used four different approaches: specimen-based analysis, open database search (ODS), NGS analysis, and species-specific PCR (SSP). As a result, 14 Laccaria species have been confirmed in Korea. Results regarding the species distribution pattern were different between specimen-based analysis and SSP. However, when both were integrated, the exact distribution pattern of each Laccaria species was determined. In addition, the SSP revealed that many Laccaria species have a wide range of host types. This study shows that using these four different approaches is useful in determining the diversity, distribution, and host of ECM fungi. Furthermore, results obtained for Laccaria will serve as a baseline to help understand the role of ECM fungi in forest management in response to climate change.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Kapoor K, Bigdeli AZ, Dwivedi YK, et al (2021)

How is COVID-19 altering the manufacturing landscape? A literature review of imminent challenges and management interventions.

Annals of operations research pii:4397 [Epub ahead of print].

Disruption from the COVID-19 pandemic has caused major upheavals for manufacturing, and has severe implications for production networks, and the demand and supply chains underpinning manufacturing operations. This paper is the first of its kind to pull together research on both-the pandemic-related challenges and the management interventions in a manufacturing context. This systematic literature review reveals the frailty of supply chains and production networks in withstanding the pressures of lockdowns and other safety protocols, including product and workforce shortages. These, altogether, have led to closed facilities, reduced capacities, increased costs, and severe economic uncertainty for manufacturing businesses. In managing these challenges and stabilising their operations, manufacturers are urgently intervening by-investing in digital technologies, undertaking resource redistribution and repurposing, regionalizing and localizing, servitizing, and targeting policies that can help them survive in this altered economy. Based on holistic analysis of these challenges and interventions, this review proposes an extensive research agenda for future studies to pursue.

RevDate: 2021-11-21

Sujkowska-Rybkowska M, Rusaczonek A, A Kochańska-Jeziorska (2021)

Exploring apoplast reorganization in the nodules of Lotus corniculatus L. growing on old Zn-Pb calamine wastes.

Journal of plant physiology, 268:153561 pii:S0176-1617(21)00200-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation are important factors that determine legume growth. A pot experiment was carried out to determine the effects of Zn-Pb contamination on nodule apoplast (cell walls and intercellular spaces) of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that spontaneously colonized old calamine wastes. The plants were grown in pots filled with sterile calamine substrate (M, metal treated) or expanded clay (NM, untreated) and inoculated with calamine-derived Lotus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. Apoplast reorganization in the nodules was examined using specific dyes for cellulose, pectin and lignin detection, and immuno-histochemical techniques based on monoclonal antibodies against xyloglucan (Lm25), pectins (Jim5 and Jim7), and structural proteins (arabinogalactan protein - Lm14 and extensin - Jim12). Microscopic analysis of metal-treated nodules revealed changes in the apoplast structure and composition of nodule cortex tissues and infected cells. Wall thickening was accompanied by intensified deposition of cellulose, xyloglucan, esterified pectin, arabinogalactan protein and extensin. The metal presence redirected also lignin and suberin deposition in the walls of the nodule cortex tissues. Our results showed reorganization of the apoplast of cortex tissues and infected cells of Lotus nodules under Zn-Pb presence. These changes in the apoplast structure and composition may have created actual barriers for the toxic ions. For this reason, they can be regarded as an element of legume defense strategy against metal stress that enables effective functioning of L. corniculatus-rhizobia symbiosis on Zn-Pb polluted calamine tailings.

RevDate: 2021-11-21

Tiwari M, Pandey V, Singh B, et al (2021)

Evolutionary and expression dynamics of LRR-RLKs and functional establishment of KLAVIER homolog in shoot mediated regulation of AON in chickpea symbiosis.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(21)00404-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Chickpea shoot exogenously treated with cytokinin showed stunted phenotype of root, shoot and significantly reduced nodule numbers. Genome-wide identification of LRR-RLKs in chickpea and Medicago resulted in 200 and 371 genes respectively. Gene duplication analysis revealed that LRR-RLKs family expanded through segmental duplications in chickpea and tandem duplications in Medicago. Expression profiling of LRR-RLKs revealed their involvement in cytokinin signaling and plant organ development. Overexpression of KLAVIER ortholog of chickpea, Ca_LRR-RLK147, in roots revealed its localization in the membrane but showed no effect on root nodulation despite increased cle peptide levels. Two findings (i) drastic effect on nodule number by exogenous cytokinin treatment to only shoot and restoration to normal nodulation by treatment to both root and shoot tissue and (ii) no effect on nodule number by overexpression of Ca_LRR-RLK147 establishes the fact that despite presence of cle peptides in root, the function of Ca_LRR-RLK147 was shoot mediated during AON.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Guo C, Peng X, Wang H, et al (2021)

Bacterial diversity of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from different geographical conditions in China.

Archives of insect biochemistry and physiology, 108(4):e21847.

Insects harbor numerous endosymbionts, including bacteria, fungi, yeast, and viruses, which could affect the ecology and behavior of their hosts. However, data regarding the effect of environmental factors on endosymbiotic bacteria of Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are quite rare. In this study, we assessed the diversity of endosymbiotic bacteria of L. invasa from 10 different geographic populations collected across China through the Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 547 OTUs were generated, which were annotated into 19 phyla, 33 classes, 75 orders, 137 families, and 274 genera. The dominant bacteria detected in L. invasa were Rickettsia, and Pantoea, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Bacillus were also annotated among each population. Nevertheless, the endosymbiotic bacterial abundance and diversity varied among different populations, which was related to the local climate (annual mean high temperature). The bacterial function prediction analysis showed that these endosymbiotic bacteria were concentrated in metabolism, such as carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolism. Overall, the results provide a comprehensive description of the endosymbiotic bacteria in 10 different populations of an important eucalyptus pest L. invasa, and help to understand the endosymbiotic bacterial diversity and adaptation of various conditions.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Klein J, Low M, Thor G, et al (2021)

Tree species identity and composition shape the epiphytic lichen community of structurally simple boreal forests over vast areas.

PloS one, 16(9):e0257564.

Greatly simplified ecosystems are often neglected for biodiversity studies. However, these simplified systems dominate in many regions of the world, and a lack of understanding of what shapes species occurrence in these systems can have consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services at a massive scale. In Fennoscandia, ~90% of the boreal forest (~21Mha) is structurally simplified with little knowledge of how forest structural elements shape the occurrence and diversity of for example epiphytic lichens in these managed forests. One form of structural simplification is the reduction of the number and frequency of different tree species. As many lichen species have host tree preferences, it is particularly likely that this simplification has a huge effect on the lichen community in managed forests. In a 40-70 years old boreal forest in Sweden, we therefore related the occurrence and richness of all observed epiphytic lichens to the host tree species and beta and gamma lichen diversity at the forest stand level to the stand's tree species composition and stem diameter. Picea abies hosted the highest lichen richness followed by Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Betula spp., and Populus tremula. However, P. tremula hosted twice as many uncommon species as any of the other tree species. Stand level beta and gamma diversity was twice as high on stands with four compared to one tree species, and was highest when either coniferous or deciduous trees made up 40-50% of the trees. The stem diameter was positively related to lichen richness at the tree and stand level, but negatively to beta diversity. For biodiversity, these findings imply that leaving a few trees of a different species during forest thinning is unlikely as effective as combining life-boat trees for endangered species with an even tree species mixture.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Chen M, Chen N, Wang J, et al (2021)

Involvement of a FAD-Linked Oxidase RSc0454 for Expression of the Type III Secretion System and Pathogenicity in Ralstonia solanacearum.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Ralstonia solanacearum RSc0454 is predicted as a FAD-linked oxidase based on protein homologies, while it contains distinct domains of lactate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase. A previous study demonstrated that RSc0454 exhibits lactate dehydrogenase activity using pyruvate and NADH as substrates, and is essential for pathogenicity of R. solanacearum. Here, we genetically characterized involvement of RSc0454 on bacterial growth and expression of genes for the type III secretion system (T3SS, a pathogenicity determinant) in R. solanacearum. The RSc0454 mutant grew normally in rich medium but grew faintly in host plants, and failed to grow in minimal medium. Supplementary succinate but not lactate could substantially restore some phenotypes of RSc0454 mutants, including faint growth in host plants, diminished growth in the minimal medium, and lost pathogenicity toward host plants. Expression of T3SS genes is directly controlled by a master regulator, HrpB, and hrpB expression is positively regulated by HrpG and PrhG in parallel ways. Deletion of RSc0454 substantially reduced expression levels of hrpB and T3SS both in vitro and in planta. Moreover, RSc0454 is revealed to be required for the T3SS expression via HrpG and PrhG, although through some novel pathway, and impaired expression of these genes was not due to growth deficiency of RSc0454 mutants. RSc0454 is suggested to be important for redox balance inside cells, and supplementary NADH partially restored diminished growth of the RSc0454 mutant in the minimal medium only in the presence of succinate at some moderate concentrations, indicating that the unbalanced redox in the RSc0454 mutant might be responsible for its diminished growth in the minimal medium. Taken together, these results provide novel insights into the understanding of various biological functions of this FAD-linked oxidase RSc0454 and involvement of the redox balance on expression of the T3SS in R. solanacearum. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Hentschel U (2021)

Harnessing the power of host-microbe symbioses to address grand challenges.

Nature reviews. Microbiology, 19(10):615-616.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Mallott EK, KR Amato (2021)

Host specificity of the gut microbiome.

Nature reviews. Microbiology, 19(10):639-653.

Developing general principles of host-microorganism interactions necessitates a robust understanding of the eco-evolutionary processes that structure microbiota. Phylosymbiosis, or patterns of microbiome composition that can be predicted by host phylogeny, is a unique framework for interrogating these processes. Identifying the contexts in which phylosymbiosis does and does not occur facilitates an evaluation of the relative importance of different ecological processes in shaping the microbial community. In this Review, we summarize the prevalence of phylosymbiosis across the animal kingdom on the basis of the current literature and explore the microbial community assembly processes and related host traits that contribute to phylosymbiosis. We find that phylosymbiosis is less prevalent in taxonomically richer microbiomes and hypothesize that this pattern is a result of increased stochasticity in the assembly of complex microbial communities. We also note that despite hosting rich microbiomes, mammals commonly exhibit phylosymbiosis. We hypothesize that this pattern is a result of a unique combination of mammalian traits, including viviparous birth, lactation and the co-evolution of haemochorial placentas and the eutherian immune system, which compound to ensure deterministic microbial community assembly. Examining both the individual and the combined importance of these traits in driving phylosymbiosis provides a new framework for research in this area moving forward.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Wang H, Zhang C, Cheng P, et al (2021)

Differences in the intestinal microbiota between insecticide-resistant and -sensitive Aedes albopictus based on full-length 16S rRNA sequencing.

MicrobiologyOpen, 10(2):e1177.

The intestinal symbiotic bacteria of Aedes albopictus play a potential role in host resistance to insecticides. In this study, we sequenced the full-length of 16S rRNA and analyzed the differences in the intestinal microbiota between deltamethrin-resistant and -sensitive Ae. albopictus. Symbiotic bacteria were cultured and analyzed using six types of culture media in aerobic and anaerobic environments. We found significant differences in the diversity and abundance of the intestinal microbiota of the two strains of Ae. albopictus. The symbiotic bacteria cultured in vitro were found to be mainly facultative anaerobes. The cultured bacteria such as Serratia oryzae and Acinetobacter junii may function to promote the development of insecticide resistance. This work indicates that intestinal bacteria may contribute to the enhancement of insecticide resistance of Ae. albopictus It also highlights the analytical advantage of full-length 16S rRNA sequencing to study the intestinal microbiota of mosquitoes.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Drew GC, Stevens EJ, KC King (2021)

Microbial evolution and transitions along the parasite-mutualist continuum.

Nature reviews. Microbiology, 19(10):623-638.

Virtually all plants and animals, including humans, are home to symbiotic microorganisms. Symbiotic interactions can be neutral, harmful or have beneficial effects on the host organism. However, growing evidence suggests that microbial symbionts can evolve rapidly, resulting in drastic transitions along the parasite-mutualist continuum. In this Review, we integrate theoretical and empirical findings to discuss the mechanisms underpinning these evolutionary shifts, as well as the ecological drivers and why some host-microorganism interactions may be stuck at the end of the continuum. In addition to having biomedical consequences, understanding the dynamic life of microorganisms reveals how symbioses can shape an organism's biology and the entire community, particularly in a changing world.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Teh LSX, Poo JST, Boo MV, et al (2021)

Using glutamine synthetase 1 to evaluate the symbionts' potential of ammonia assimilation and their responses to illumination in five organs of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 255:110914.

Nitrogen-deficient symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) living inside the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, need to obtain nitrogen from the host. Glutamine synthetase 1 (GS1) is a cytosolic enzyme that assimilates ammonia into glutamine. We determined the transcript levels of zooxanthellal GS1 (Zoox-GS1), which represented comprehensively GS1 transcripts of Symbiodinium, Cladocopium and Durusdinium, in five organs of T. squamosa. The outer mantle had significantly higher transcript level of Zoox-GS1 than the inner mantle, foot muscle, hepatopancreas and ctenidium, but the transcript ratios of Zoox-GS1 to zooxanthellal form II ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Zoox-rbcII), which represented the potential of ammonia assimilation relative to the phototrophic potential, were comparable among these five organs. Based on transcript ratios of Zoox-GS1 to zooxanthellal Urease (Zoox-URE), the outer mantle had the highest potential of urea degradation relative to ammonia assimilation among the five organs, probably because urea degradation could furnish CO2 and NH3 for photosynthesis and amino acid synthesis, respectively, in the symbionts therein. The protein abundance of Zoox-GS1 was upregulated in the outer mantle and the inner mantle during illumination. Zoox-GS1 could catalyze light-enhanced glutamine formation using ammonia absorbed from the host or ammonia released through urea degradation in the cytoplasm. The glutamine produced could be used to synthesize other nitrogenous compounds, including amino acids in the cytoplasm or in the plastid of the dinoflagellates. Some of the amino acids synthesized by the symbionts in the inner mantle and foot muscle could be donated to the host to support shell organic matrix formation and muscle production, respectively.

RevDate: 2021-11-20

Wang Y, Xie Y, Qi L, et al (2021)

Synergies evaluation and influencing factors analysis of the water-energy-food nexus from symbiosis perspective: A case study in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06807-8 [Epub ahead of print].

In the context of global population growth and environmental degradation, research on the synergies of the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus is important for sustainable regional development. Using symbiosis and synergy theories, the authors constructed a synergy evaluation index for the WEF nexus and used the set pair analysis-variable fuzzy sets model to analyze the WEF nexus synergies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH) of China, from 2005 to 2017. The main factors affecting WEF nexus synergies were also analyzed, with results indicating that: 1) the WEF nexus synergies were the best in Beijing, followed by the BTH as a whole, Tianjin, and then Hebei. We also found that WEF nexus synergy grades have been gradually improving over time, with Beijing improving the most, and Tianjin the least. 2) The WEF nexus synergy grades in each region, for symbiotic units, symbiotic relationships, and symbiotic environments, have also gradually improved. And symbiotic relationship synergies were better than symbiotic environment synergies than symbiotic unit synergies. 3) The WEF nexus symbiotic unit synergies were strongest in Tianjin, followed by Beijing, the BTH as a whole, and then Hebei. The symbiotic relationship synergies were strongest in Beijing, followed by Hebei, the BTH as a whole, and then Tianjin. The symbiotic environment synergies were also strongest in Beijing, followed this time by the BTH as a whole, Tianjin, and then Hebei. 4) Economic factors and symbiotic unit synergies were found to be the aspects most influential on WEF nexus synergies in each region. In addition, symbiotic relationship synergies were found to have important impacts on the WEF nexus synergies in Hebei and the BTH as a whole. Overall, we were able to conclude that the methodology developed in this study provided a scientific basis for synergy optimization in the context of a regional WEF nexus.

RevDate: 2021-11-20

Han F, Sun M, Jia X, et al (2021)

Agent-based model for simulation of the sustainability revolution in eco-industrial parks.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Eco-industrial parks (EIPs) are of increasing importance for implementing industrial ecology strategies and are facing increasing challenges in terms of environmental pollution and resource scarcity. As a complex adaptive system, an EIP involves multiple sectors and faces various disturbances that influence its evolutionary trajectories. This study adopts an agent-based model to simulate the material flows and industrial symbiosis process in the EIP, considering the initiative of each company and the ever-changing environment. The proposed EIP model emphasises the heterogeneity of companies and attempts to reflect multiple and dynamic factors that have received less attention in previous studies. This model contains two types of agents, companies and the external environment. A company agent makes decisions and interacts with other agents following its own behaviour rules, while the external environment agent functions to coordinate the material flows and exert influence on the companies. The model has been verified and validated by simulating a 20-year-period development of an empirical EIP in China. The simulation results are assessed by three indicators: eco-connectance, eco-efficiency, and industrial symbiosis indicator. Results showed that during the growing phase, the eco-connectance increased from 0.02 to 0.1 for the non-disturbance situation. The eco-efficiency and industrial symbiosis indicator also realised 78.5% and 74.8% of their total increments. The outcome of this research provides insights for the design of the strategies to improve the industrial symbiosis performance and is of high potential to facilitate EIPs in promoting eco-transformation and sustainable development.

RevDate: 2021-11-19

Bogar LM, Tavasieff OS, Raab TK, et al (2021)

Does resource exchange in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis vary with competitive context and nitrogen addition?.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is essential for the nutrition of most temperate forest trees and helps regulate the movement of carbon and nitrogen through forested ecosystems. The factors governing the exchange of plant carbon for fungal nitrogen, however, remain obscure. Because competition and soil resources may influence ectomycorrhizal resource movement, we performed a ten month split-root microcosm study using Pinus muricata seedlings with Thelephora terrestris, Suillus pungens, or no ectomycorrhizal fungus, under two nitrogen levels in artificial soil. Fungi competed directly with roots, and indirectly with each other. We used stable isotope enrichment to track plant photosynthate and fungal nitrogen. For Thelephora, plants received N commensurate with the C given to their fungal partners. Thelephora was a superior mutualist under high nitrogen. For Suillus, plant C and fungal N exchange were not coupled. However, in low nitrogen, plants preferentially allocated C to Suillus rather than Thelephora. Our results suggest that ectomycorrhizal resource transfer depends on competitive and nutritional context. Plants can exchange C for fungal N, but coupling of these resources can depend on the fungal species and soil N. Understanding the diversity of fungal strategies, and how they change with environmental context, reveals mechanisms driving this important symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-11-19

Franco MEE, Wisecaver JH, Arnold AE, et al (2021)

Ecological generalism drives hyperdiversity of secondary metabolite gene clusters in xylarialean endophytes.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

●Although secondary metabolites are typically associated with competitive or pathogenic interactions, the high bioactivity of endophytic fungi in the Xylariales, coupled with their abundance and broad host ranges spanning all lineages of land plants and lichens, suggests that enhanced secondary metabolism might facilitate symbioses with phylogenetically diverse hosts. ●Here, we examined secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs) across 96 Xylariales genomes in two clades (Xylariaceae s.l. and Hypoxylaceae), including 88 newly sequenced genomes of endophytes and closely related saprotrophs and pathogens. We paired genomic data with extensive metadata on endophyte hosts and substrates, enabling us to examine genomic factors related to the breadth of symbiotic interactions and ecological roles. ●All genomes contain hyperabundant SMGCs; however, Xylariaceae have increased numbers of gene duplications, horizontal gene transfers (HGTs), and SMGCs. Enhanced metabolic diversity of endophytes is associated with a greater diversity of hosts and increased capacity for lignocellulose decomposition. ●Our results suggest that as host and substrate generalists, Xylariaceae endophytes experience greater selection to diversify SMGCs compared to more ecologically specialized Hypoxylaceae species. Overall, our results provide new evidence that SMGCs may facilitate symbiosis with phylogenetically diverse hosts, highlighting the importance of microbial symbioses to drive fungal metabolic diversity.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Ortiz-Baez AS, Shi M, Hoffmann AA, et al (2021)

RNA virome diversity and Wolbachia infection in individual Drosophila simulans flies.

The Journal of general virology, 102(10):.

The endosymbiont bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are associated with multiple mutualistic effects on insect biology, including nutritional and antiviral properties. Members of the genus Wolbachia naturally occur in fly species of the genus Drosophila, providing an operational model host for studying how virome composition may be affected by its presence. Drosophila simulans populations can carry a variety of strains of members of the genus Wolbachia, with the wAu strain associated with strong antiviral protection under experimental conditions. We used D. simulans sampled from the Perth Hills, Western Australia, to investigate the potential virus protective effect of the wAu strain of Wolbachia on individual wild-caught flies. Our data revealed no appreciable variation in virus composition and abundance between individuals infected or uninfected with Wolbachia associated with the presence or absence of wAu. However, it remains unclear whether wAu might affect viral infection and host survival by increasing tolerance rather than inducing complete resistance. These data also provide new insights into the natural virome diversity of D. simulans. Despite the small number of individuals sampled, we identified a repertoire of RNA viruses, including nora virus, galbut virus, thika virus and La Jolla virus, that have been identified in other species of the genus Drosophila. Chaq virus-like sequences associated with galbut virus were also detected. In addition, we identified five novel viruses from the families Reoviridae, Tombusviridae, Mitoviridae and Bunyaviridae. Overall, this study highlights the complex interaction between Wolbachia and RNA virus infections and provides a baseline description of the natural virome of D. simulans.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Sun Y, Wang M, Zhong Z, et al (2022)

Adaption to hydrogen sulfide-rich environments: Strategies for active detoxification in deep-sea symbiotic mussels, Gigantidas platifrons.

The Science of the total environment, 804:150054.

The deep-sea mussel Gigantidas platifrons is a representative species that relies on nutrition provided by chemoautotrophic endosymbiotic bacteria to survive in both hydrothermal vent and methane seep environments. However, vent and seep habitats have distinct geochemical features, with vents being more harsh than seeps because of abundant toxic chemical substances, particularly hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Until now, the adaptive strategies of G. platifrons in a heterogeneous environment and their sulfide detoxification mechanisms are still unclear. Herein, we conducted 16S rDNA sequencing and metatranscriptome sequencing of G. platifrons collected from a methane seep at Formosa Ridge in the South China Sea and a hydrothermal vent at Iheya North Knoll in the Mid-Okinawa Trough to provide a model for understanding environmental adaption and sulfide detoxification mechanisms, and a three-day laboratory controlled Na2S stress experiment to test the transcriptomic responses under sulfide stress. The results revealed the active detoxification of sulfide in G. platifrons gills. First, epibiotic Campylobacterota bacteria were more abundant in vent mussels and contributed to environmental adaptation by active oxidation of extracellular H2S. Notably, a key sulfide-oxidizing gene, sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (sqr), derived from the methanotrophic endosymbiont, was significantly upregulated in vent mussels, indicating the oxidization of intracellular sulfide by the endosymbiont. In addition, transcriptomic comparison further suggested that genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial sulfide oxidization pathway played important roles in the sulfide tolerance of the host mussels. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of Na2S stressed mussels confirmed the upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation and sulfide oxidization genes in response to sulfide exposure. Overall, this study provided a systematic transcriptional analysis of both the active bacterial community members and the host mussels, suggesting that the epibionts, endosymbionts, and mussel host collaborated on sulfide detoxification from extracellular to intracellular space to adapt to harsh H2S-rich environments.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Detcharoen M, Schilling MP, Arthofer W, et al (2021)

Differential gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and D. nigrosparsa infected with the same Wolbachia strain.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11336.

Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbionts that infect nearly half of all arthropod species. Wolbachia manipulate their hosts to maximize their transmission, but they can also provide benefits such as nutrients and resistance against viruses to their hosts. The Wolbachia strain wMel was recently found to increase locomotor activities and possibly trigger cytoplasmic incompatibility in the transinfected fly Drosophila nigrosparsa. Here, we investigated, in females of both D. melanogaster and D. nigrosparsa, the gene expression between animals uninfected and infected with wMel, using RNA sequencing to see if the two Drosophila species respond to the infection in the same or different ways. A total of 2164 orthologous genes were used. The two fly species responded to the infection in different ways. Significant changes shared by the fly species belong to the expression of genes involved in processes such as oxidation-reduction process, iron-ion binding, and voltage-gated potassium-channel activity. We discuss our findings also in the light of how Wolbachia survive within both the native and the novel host.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Pecoraro L, Rasmussen HN, Gomes SIF, et al (2021)

Fungal diversity driven by bark features affects phorophyte preference in epiphytic orchids from southern China.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11287.

Epiphytic orchids exhibit varying degrees of phorophyte tree specificity. We performed a pilot study to investigate why epiphytic orchids prefer or avoid certain trees. We selected two orchid species, Panisea uniflora and Bulbophyllum odoratissimum co-occurring in a forest habitat in southern China, where they showed a specific association with Quercus yiwuensis and Pistacia weinmannifolia trees, respectively. We analysed a number of environmental factors potentially influencing the relationship between orchids and trees. Difference in bark features, such as water holding capacity and pH were recorded between Q. yiwuensis and P. weinmannifolia, which could influence both orchid seed germination and fungal diversity on the two phorophytes. Morphological and molecular culture-based methods, combined with metabarcoding analyses, were used to assess fungal communities associated with studied orchids and trees. A total of 162 fungal species in 74 genera were isolated from bark samples. Only two genera, Acremonium and Verticillium, were shared by the two phorophyte species. Metabarcoding analysis confirmed the presence of significantly different fungal communities on the investigated tree and orchid species, with considerable similarity between each orchid species and its host tree, suggesting that the orchid-host tree association is influenced by the fungal communities of the host tree bark.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Rai LS, Wijlick LV, Bougnoux ME, et al (2021)

Regulators of commensal and pathogenic life-styles of an opportunistic fungus-Candida albicans.

Yeast (Chichester, England), 38(4):243-250.

The yeast Candida albicans is primarily a commensal of humans that colonizes the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Yet, C. albicans can under certain circumstances undergo a shift from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is governed by fungal factors such as morphological transitions, environmental cues for instance relationships with gut microbiota and the host immune system. C. albicans utilizes distinct sets of regulatory programs to colonize or infect its host and to evade the host defense systems. Moreover, an orchestrated iron acquisition mechanism operates to adapt to specific niches with variable iron availability. Studies on regulatory networks and morphogenesis of these two distinct modes of C. albicans growth, suggest that both yeast and hyphal forms exist in both growth patterns and the regulatory circuits are inter-connected. Here, we summarize current knowledge about C. albicans commensal-to-pathogen shift, its regulatory elements and their contribution to human disease.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Harkins CP, MacGibeny MA, Thompson K, et al (2021)

Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Skin Microbiome Is Characterized by Shifts in Certain Commensal Bacteria but not Viruses when Compared with Healthy Controls.

The Journal of investigative dermatology, 141(6):1604-1608.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Cao M, Schwartz HT, Tan CH, et al (2021)

The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema hermaphroditum is a self-fertilizing hermaphrodite and a genetically tractable system for the study of parasitic and mutualistic symbiosis.

Genetics pii:6388038 [Epub ahead of print].

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), including Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, are parasitic to insects and contain mutualistically symbiotic bacteria in their intestines (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively) and therefore offer opportunities to study both mutualistic and parasitic symbiosis. The establishment of genetic tools in EPNs has been impeded by limited genetic tractability, inconsistent growth in vitro, variable cryopreservation, and low mating efficiency. We obtained the recently described Steinernema hermaphroditum strain CS34 and optimized its in vitro growth, with a rapid generation time on a lawn of its native symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus griffiniae. We developed a simple and efficient cryopreservation method. Previously, S. hermaphroditum isolated from insect hosts was described as producing hermaphrodites in the first generation. We discovered that CS34, when grown in vitro, produced consecutive generations of autonomously reproducing hermaphrodites accompanied by rare males. We performed mutagenesis screens in S. hermaphroditum that produced mutant lines with visible and heritable phenotypes. Genetic analysis of the mutants demonstrated that this species reproduces by self-fertilization rather than parthenogenesis and that its sex is determined chromosomally. Genetic mapping has thus far identified markers on the X chromosome and three of four autosomes. We report that S. hermaphroditum CS34 is the first consistently hermaphroditic EPN and is suitable for genetic model development to study naturally occurring mutualistic symbiosis and insect parasitism.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Geraghty S, Koutsouveli V, Hall C, et al (2021)

Establishment of host:algal endosymbioses: Genetic response to symbiont versus prey in a sponge host.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6427630 [Epub ahead of print].

The freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri and its Chlorella-like algal partner is an emerging model for studying animal: algal endosymbiosis. The sponge host is a tractable laboratory organism, and the symbiotic algae are easily cultured. We took advantage of these traits to interrogate questions about mechanisms that govern the establishment of durable intracellular partnerships between hosts and symbionts in facultative symbioses. We modified a classical experimental approach to discern the phagocytotic mechanisms that might be co-opted to permit persistent infections, and identified genes differentially expressed in sponges early in the establishment of endosymbiosis. We exposed algal-free E. muelleri to live native algal symbionts and potential food items (bacteria and native heat-killed algae), and performed RNA-Seq to compare patterns of gene expression among treatments. We found a relatively small but interesting suite of genes that are differentially expressed in the host exposed to live algal symbionts, and a larger number of genes triggered by host exposure to heat-killed algae. The upregulated genes in sponges exposed to live algal symbionts were mostly involved in endocytosis, ion transport, metabolic processes, vesicle-mediated transport, and oxidation-reduction. One of the host genes, an ABC transporter that is downregulated in response to live algal symbionts, was further evaluated for its possible role in establishment of the symbiosis. We discuss the gene expression profiles associated with host responses to living algal cells in the context of conditions necessary for long-term residency within host cells by phototrophic symbionts as well as the genetic responses to sponge phagocytosis and immune driven pathways.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Kafle A, Frank HER, Rose BD, et al (2021)

Split down the middle: Studying arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses using split-root assays.

Journal of experimental botany pii:6430067 [Epub ahead of print].

Most land plants symbiotically interact with soil-borne fungi to ensure nutrient acquisition and tolerance to various environmental stressors. Among these symbioses, arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal associations can be found in a large proportion of plants, including many crops. Split-root assays are widely used in plant research to study local and systemic signaling responses triggered by local treatments, including nutrient availability, interaction with soil microbes, or abiotic stresses. However, split-root approaches have only been occasionally used to tackle these questions with regard to mycorrhizal symbioses. This review compiles and discusses split-root assays developed to study arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses, with a particular emphasis on colonization by multiple beneficial symbionts, systemic resistance induced by mycorrhizal fungi, water and nutrient transport from fungi to colonized plants, and host photosynthate allocation from the host to fungal symbionts. In addition, we highlight how the use of split-root assays could result in a better understanding of mycorrhizal symbioses, particularly for a broader range of essential nutrients, and for multi-partite interactions.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Perlmutter JI, Meyers JE, SR Bordenstein (2021)

A single synonymous nucleotide change impacts the male-killing phenotype of prophage WO gene wmk.

eLife, 10:.

Wolbachia are the most widespread bacterial endosymbionts in animals. Within arthropods, these maternally transmitted bacteria can selfishly hijack host reproductive processes to increase the relative fitness of their transmitting females. One such form of reproductive parasitism called male killing, or the selective killing of infected males, is recapitulated to degrees by transgenic expression of the prophage WO-mediated killing (wmk) gene. Here, we characterize the genotype-phenotype landscape of wmk-induced male killing in D. melanogaster using transgenic expression. While phylogenetically distant wmk homologs induce no sex-ratio bias, closely-related homologs exhibit complex phenotypes spanning no death, male death, or death of all hosts. We demonstrate that alternative start codons, synonymous codons, and notably a single synonymous nucleotide in wmk can ablate killing. These findings reveal previously unrecognized features of transgenic wmk-induced killing and establish new hypotheses for the impacts of post-transcriptional processes in male killing variation. We conclude that synonymous sequence changes are not necessarily silent in nested endosymbiotic interactions with life-or-death consequences.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Wackerow-Kouzova ND, DV Myagkov (2021)

Clarification of the Taxonomic Position of Paramecium caudatum Micronucleus Symbionts.

Current microbiology, 78(12):4098-4102.

Bacteria of genus Holospora (order Holosporales, class Alphaproteobacteria) are obligate intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict host species and nuclear (macronucleus or micronucleus) specificity. However, three species under study Holospora undulata, Holospora elegans and 'Holospora recta' occupy the same ecological niche-micronucleus of Paramecium caudatum and demonstrate some differences in morphology of infectious form. The genetic diversity of holosporas by rrs and rpoB sequence analysis was determined. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analysis of Holospora spp., as well as some phenotypic features indicate that there is no distinctive difference supporting studied micronuclear endosymbionts as distinct species. Therefore, Holospora elegans and 'Holospora recta' should be considered subspecies of Holospora undulata (ex Haffkine 1890) Gromov and Ossipov 1981, which was described first. Thus, we confirmed the evolutionary aspects of the development of symbiotic relationships: holosporas have a strict specificity to the host species and the type of nucleus.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Leray M, Wilkins LGE, Apprill A, et al (2021)

Natural experiments and long-term monitoring are critical to understand and predict marine host-microbe ecology and evolution.

PLoS biology, 19(8):e3001322.

Marine multicellular organisms host a diverse collection of bacteria, archaea, microbial eukaryotes, and viruses that form their microbiome. Such host-associated microbes can significantly influence the host's physiological capacities; however, the identity and functional role(s) of key members of the microbiome ("core microbiome") in most marine hosts coexisting in natural settings remain obscure. Also unclear is how dynamic interactions between hosts and the immense standing pool of microbial genetic variation will affect marine ecosystems' capacity to adjust to environmental changes. Here, we argue that significantly advancing our understanding of how host-associated microbes shape marine hosts' plastic and adaptive responses to environmental change requires (i) recognizing that individual host-microbe systems do not exist in an ecological or evolutionary vacuum and (ii) expanding the field toward long-term, multidisciplinary research on entire communities of hosts and microbes. Natural experiments, such as time-calibrated geological events associated with well-characterized environmental gradients, provide unique ecological and evolutionary contexts to address this challenge. We focus here particularly on mutualistic interactions between hosts and microbes, but note that many of the same lessons and approaches would apply to other types of interactions.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Nicholson-Jack AE, Harris JL, Ballard K, et al (2021)

A hitchhiker guide to manta rays: Patterns of association between Mobula alfredi, M. birostris, their symbionts, and other fishes in the Maldives.

PloS one, 16(7):e0253704.

Despite being among the largest and most charismatic species in the marine environment, considerable gaps remain in our understanding of the behavioural ecology of manta rays (Mobula alfredi, M. birostris). Manta rays are often sighted in association with an array of smaller hitchhiker fish species, which utilise their hosts as a sanctuary for shelter, protection, and the sustenance they provide. Species interactions, rather than the species at the individual level, determine the ecological processes that drive community dynamics, support biodiversity and ecosystem health. Thus, understanding the associations within marine communities is critical to implementing effective conservation and management. However, the underlying patterns between manta rays, their symbionts, and other hitchhiker species remain elusive. Here, we explore the spatial and temporal variation in hitchhiker presence with M. alfredi and M. birostris throughout the Maldives and investigate the factors which may influence association using generalised linear mixed effects models (GLMM). For the first time, associations between M. alfredi and M. birostris with hitchhiker species other than those belonging to the family Echeneidae are described. A variation in the species of hitchhiker associated with M. alfredi and M. birostris was identified, with sharksucker remora (Echeneis naucrates) and giant remora (Remora remora) being the most common, respectively. Spatiotemporal variation in the presence of manta rays was identified as a driver for the occurrence of ephemeral hitchhiker associations. Near-term pregnant female M. alfredi, and M. alfredi at cleaning stations, had the highest likelihood of an association with adult E. naucrates. Juvenile E. naucrates were more likely to be associated with juvenile M. alfredi, and a seasonal trend in E. naucrates host association was identified. Remora were most likely to be present with female M. birostris, and a mean number of 1.5 ± 0.5 R. remora were observed per M. birostris. It is hoped these initial findings will serve as the basis for future work into the complex relationships between manta rays and their hitchhikers.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Perez M, Ntemiri A, Tan H, et al (2021)

A synthetic consortium of 100 gut commensals modulates the composition and function in a colon model of the microbiome of elderly subjects.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-19.

Administration of cultured gut isolates holds promise for modulating the altered composition and function of the microbiota in older subjects, and for promoting their health. From among 692 initial isolates, we selected 100 gut commensal strains (MCC100) based on emulating the gut microbiota of healthy subjects, and retaining strain diversity within selected species. MCC100 susceptibility to seven antibiotics was determined, and their genomes were screened for virulence factor, antimicrobial resistance and bacteriocin genes. Supplementation of healthy and frail elderly microbiota types with the MCC100 in an in vitro colon model increased alpha-diversity, raised relative abundance of taxa including Blautia luti, Bacteroides fragilis, and Sutterella wadsworthensis; and introduced taxa such as Bifidobacterium spp. Microbiota changes correlated with higher levels of branched chain amino acids, which are health-associated in elderly. The study establishes that the MCC100 consortium can modulate older subjects' microbiota composition and associated metabolome in vitro, paving the way for pre-clinical and human trials.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Freire M, Nelson KE, A Edlund (2021)

The Oral Host-Microbial Interactome: An Ecological Chronometer of Health?.

Trends in microbiology, 29(6):551-561.

An increasing number of studies reveal that host-microbial interactome networks are coordinated, impacting human health and disease. Recently, several lines of evidence have revealed associations between the acquisition of a complex microbiota and adaptive immunity, supporting that host-microbiota symbiotic relationships have evolved as a means to maintain homeostasis where the role of the microbiota is to promote and educate the immune system. Here, we hypothesize an oral host-microbial interactome that could serve as an ecological chronometer of health and disease, with specific focus on caries, periodontal diseases, and cancer. We also review the current state of the art on the human oral microbiome and its correlations with host innate immunity, and host cytokine control, with the goal of using this information for disease prediction and designing novel treatments for local and systemic dysbiosis. In addition, we discuss new insights into the role of novel host-microbial signals as potential biomarkers, and their relevance for the future of precision dentistry and medicine.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Xiang N, Hassenrück C, Pogoreutz C, et al (2021)

Contrasting microbiome dynamics of putative denitrifying bacteria in two octocoral species exposed to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and warming.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Mutualistic nutrient cycling in the coral-algae symbiosis depends on limited nitrogen (N) availability for algal symbionts. Denitrifying prokaryotes capable of reducing nitrate or nitrite to dinitrogen could thus support coral holobiont functioning by limiting N availability. Octocorals show some of the highest denitrification rates among reef organisms, however little is known about the community structures of associated denitrifiers and their response to environmental fluctuations. Combining 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with nirS in-silico PCR and quantitative PCR, we found differences in bacterial community dynamics between two octocorals exposed to excess dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and concomitant warming. While bacterial communities of the gorgonian Pinnigorgia flava remained largely unaffected by DOC and warming, the soft coral Xenia umbellata exhibited a pronounced shift towards Alphaproteobacteria dominance under excess DOC. Likewise, the relative abundance of denitrifiers was not altered in P. flava, but decreased by one order of magnitude in X. umbellata under excess DOC likely due to decreased proportions of Ruegeria spp. Given that holobiont C:N ratios remained stable in P. flava but showed a pronounced increase with excess DOC in X. umbellata host, our results suggest that microbial community dynamics may reflect the nutritional status of the holobiont. Hence, denitrifier abundance may be directly linked to N availability. This suggests a passive regulation of N cycling microbes, which could help stabilize nutrient limitation in the coral-algal symbiosis and thereby support holobiont functioning in a changing environment. Importance Octocorals are important members of reef-associated benthic communities that can rapidly replace scleractinian corals as the dominant ecosystem engineers on degraded reefs. Considering the substantial change in the (a)biotic environment that is commonly driving reef degradation, maintaining a dynamic and metabolically diverse microbial community might contribute to octocoral acclimatization and ecological adaptation. Nitrogen (N) cycling microbes, in particular denitrifying prokaryotes, may support holobiont functioning by limiting internal N availability, but little is known about the identity and (a)biotic drivers of octocoral-associated denitrifiers. Here, we show contrasting dynamics of bacterial communities associated with two common octocoral species, the soft coral Xenia umbellata and the gorgonian Pinnigorgia flava after a six-week exposure to excess dissolved organic carbon (DOC) under concomitant warming conditions. The specific responses of denitrifier communities associated with the two octocoral species aligned with the nutritional status of holobiont members. This suggests a passive regulation of this microbial trait based on N availability in the coral holobiont.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Faradina A, Tseng SH, Tung TH, et al (2021)

High-dose ferric citrate supplementation attenuates omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis via downregulating delta 5 and 6 desaturases in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of an iron deficiency; however, a synergistic relationship between iron and lipid homeostasis was also observed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pharmacological doses of iron supplementation on omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a normal diet or a 50% high-fat diet (HFD) without or with pharmacological doses of ferric citrate (0.25, 1, or 2 g ferric iron per kg diet) for 12 weeks, and erythrocyte profiles of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were quantitated. Ferric citrate supplementation showed dose-related effects on liver inflammation, liver iron accumulation, and increasing circulating levels of iron, erythrocyte degradation biomarkers LVV-hemorphin-7, malondialdehyde (MDA), and insulin. Obese rats supplemented with 2 g ferric iron per kg diet also had decreased levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and total n-3 PUFAs compared to rats fed a normal diet or HFD alone. A western blotting analysis revealed that iron-mediated downregulation of n-3 PUFA-converting enzymes (Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases) only occurred at high dosages (≥1 g ferric iron per kg diet). A Spearman correlation analysis showed that total liver iron and serum LVV-hemorphin-7 and MDA were negatively correlated with n-3 PUFAs and their converting enzymes (Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases) (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, obese rats that received high-dose ferric citrate supplementation (>1 g of ferric iron per kg diet) exhibited decreased n-3 PUFA levels via downregulation of expressions of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase enzymes.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Schweiger AH, Ullmann GM, Nürk NM, et al (2021)

Chemical properties of key metabolites determine the global distribution of lichens.

Ecology letters [Epub ahead of print].

In lichen symbioses, fungal secondary metabolites provide UV protection on which lichen algae such as trebouxiophycean green algae-the most prominent group of photobionts in lichen symbioses-sensitively depend. These metabolites differ in their UV absorbance capability and solvability, and thus vary in their propensity of being leached from the lichen body in humid and warm environments, with still unknown implications for the global distribution of lichens. In this study covering more than 10,000 lichenised fungal species, we show that the occurrence of fungal-derived metabolites in combination with their UV absorbance capability and their probability of being leached in warm and humid environments are important eco-evolutionary drivers of global lichen distribution. Fungal-derived UV protection seems to represent an indirect environmental adaptation in which the lichen fungus invests to protect the trebouxiophycean photobiont from high UV radiation in warm and humid climates and, by doing this, secures its carbon source.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Yang Q, Ravnskov S, Pullens JWM, et al (2021)

Interactions between biochar, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and photosynthetic processes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06725-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Pyrolyzed biomass, generating biochar for use as soil amendment, is recognized as a promising strategy for carbon sequestration. Current understanding of the interactions between biochar, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), and plant photosynthesis, in terms of biochemical processes and CO2 uptake, is fragmentary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on photosynthesis in potato including maximum rate of carboxylation by Rubisco (Vcmax), maximum rate of electron transport rate for RuBP-regeneration (Jmax), mesophyll conductance (gm) and other plant traits. Four types of biochar (wheat or miscanthus straw pellets pyrolyzed at temperatures of either 550 °C or 700 °C) were amended into low phosphorus soil. Potato plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (M+) or not (M-). The results showed that four types of biochar generally decreased nitrogen and phosphorus content of potato, especially the biochars pyrolyzed at high temperature. This negative effect of biochar on nutrient content was alleviated by AM. It was found that Vcmax was limited by low plant nitrogen content as well as leaf area and phosphorus content. Plant phosphorus content also limited Jmax, which was mutually constrained by Vcmax of leaves. Low gm was an additional limiting factor for photosynthesis. The gm was positively correlated to nitrogen content, which influenced the leaf anatomical structure by alteration of leaf mass per area. In conclusion, the influence of interactions between quality of biochar and AM symbiosis on photosynthesis of potato seems to relate to effects on plant nutrient content and leaf structures. Accordingly, a model for the dependence of Vcmax on N and P content and their interactive effect exhibited a high correlation coefficient. As potato plants form AM symbiosis under natural field conditions, the extent and interaction with the quality of amended biochar can be a determining factor for plant nutrient content, growth and yield.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Zhang M, X Kong (2021)

How plants discern friends from foes.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(21)00307-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) is a well-known plant innate immune response to pathogens. Plant commensal microbes have evolved a variety of strategies to interfere with or bypass MTI to establish symbiosis. Recent progress reported by Teixeira et al., Colaianni et al., Zhang et al., Fröschel et al., and Zhou et al. has been made in elucidating how commensal microbes regulate MTI.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Gokhale D, S Rao (2021)

Compromised maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and its relation to the birth size in young rural Indian mothers.

BMC nutrition, 7(1):73.

BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is highly prevalent in rural India. As a chronic undernutrition problem, poor birth outcomes are closely related to various nutritional factors more prominently the poor maternal anthropometry at conception. The purpose of the study was to identify how compromised maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy affects the birth size of rural Indian mothers.

METHODS: It was a prospective observational study on singleton pregnant women (n = 204) from 14 villages in Mulshi Taluka of Pune District, Maharashtra, India. Maternal weight (Wt), height (Ht), body fat percent (BF%), head circumference (HC), and sitting height (SHT) were measured at early pregnancy (< 13 weeks of gestation) and infants' weight and length were measured within 24 h of birth. Groups means were tested using a 't' test while the trend in means was tested using ANOVA.

RESULTS: Mothers were young (21.46 ± 2.09 yrs), thin (46.46 ± 6.1 kg), short (153.39 ± 5.79 cm), and poorly nourished (19.74 ± 2.41 kg/m2). Mean birth weight was low (2655 ± 507 g) and prevalence of LBW and stunting at birth was highest among mothers in the lower tertile of each of the anthropometric indicators. In particular, stunting was significantly higher for mothers in lower tertile compared to higher tertile of Wt (44.6 Vs 64.6%) and was also true for HC (43.7 Vs 60.6%). Risk for LBW and stunting at birth was almost similar and was significant (p < 0.01) for mothers in the lower tertile of Wt, Ht, BMI, SHT, HC, and BF% as compared to those in the higher tertile of these measurements.

CONCLUSION: All the anthropometric indicators of current undernutrition at first trimester as well as that in utero reflected by smaller HC, impose risk for LBW and stunting at birth especially among young rural mothers.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

O'Brien AM, Ginnan NA, Rebolleda-Gómez M, et al (2021)

Microbial effects on plant phenology and fitness.

American journal of botany, 108(10):1824-1837.

Plant development and the timing of developmental events (phenology) are tightly coupled with plant fitness. A variety of internal and external factors determine the timing and fitness consequences of these life-history transitions. Microbes interact with plants throughout their life history and impact host phenology. This review summarizes current mechanistic and theoretical knowledge surrounding microbe-driven changes in plant phenology. Overall, there are examples of microbes impacting every phenological transition. While most studies have focused on flowering time, microbial effects remain important for host survival and fitness across all phenological phases. Microbe-mediated changes in nutrient acquisition and phytohormone signaling can release plants from stressful conditions and alter plant stress responses inducing shifts in developmental events. The frequency and direction of phenological effects appear to be partly determined by the lifestyle and the underlying nature of a plant-microbe interaction (i.e., mutualistic or pathogenic), in addition to the taxonomic group of the microbe (fungi vs. bacteria). Finally, we highlight biases, gaps in knowledge, and future directions. This biotic source of plasticity for plant adaptation will serve an important role in sustaining plant biodiversity and managing agriculture under the pressures of climate change.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Wang H, Deng L, Qi Z, et al (2022)

Constructed microalgal-bacterial symbiotic (MBS) system: Classification, performance, partnerships and perspectives.

The Science of the total environment, 803:150082.

The microalgal-bacterial symbiotic (MBS) system shows great advantages in the synchronous implementation of wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. To enhance the understanding of different MBS systems, this review summarizes reported MBS systems and proposes three patterns according to the living state of microalgae and bacteria. They are free microalgal-bacterial (FMB) system, attached microalgal-bacterial (AMB) system and bioflocculated microalgal-bacterial (BMB) system. Compared with the other two patterns, BMB system shows the advantages of microalgal biomass harvesting and application. To further understand the microalgal-bacterial partnerships in the bioflocculation of BMB system, this review discusses bioflocs characteristics, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties and production, and the effect of microalgae/bacteria ratio and microalgal strains on the formation of bioflocculation. Microalgal biomass production and application are important for BMB system development in the future. Food processing wastewater characterized by high biodegradability and low toxicity should be conducive for microalgal cultivation. In addition, exogenous addition of functional bacteria for nutrient removal and bioflocculation formation would be a crucial research direction to facilitate the large-scale application of BMB system.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Haque A, Islam S, Bari A, et al (2021)

Cold storage-mediated rearing of Trichogramma evanescens Westwood on eggs of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) and Galleria mellonella L.

PloS one, 16(6):e0253287.

The egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood is considered as an efficient biological control agent for managing several lepidopteran pests and it is widely distributed throughout the world. Mass rearing protocols of parasitoids that are currently in use in biocontrol programs require a meticulous quality control plan, in order to optimize their efficacy, but also their progeny production capacity. In this paper, the effect of different factors on the quality control in mass rearing of T. evenescens, using Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) and Galleria mellonella L. as host species, were investigated. The impact of egg agewas significant in the rates of parasitism, for both host species tested. Significantly highest percent of parasitoid emergence was noticed in two day-old eggs for both host species, while one day-old eggs day exhibited the maximum emergence when both species were used togetherin the same trials. Age-dependent storage egg preservation at either 4 or 9°C significantly influenced the parasitism percentages on both species. The highest parasitism percentage was recorded in two day-old G. mellonella eggs that are kept for 15 days at 9°C while the lower in one day-old P. interpunctella eggs for 60 d storage. Moreover, the highest parasitoid mortality was recorded in T. evanescens reared either on P. interpunctella or G. mellonella at 20°C. Rearing of the parasitoid on a mixture of eggs of both host species resulted in higher parasitism, but not always in higher rates of parasitoid emergence. The results of the present work provide useful information that can be further utilized in rearing protocols of T. evanescens.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Sanchez-Palencia E, JP Françoise (2021)

On Predation-Commensalism Processes as Models of Bi-stability and Constructive Role of Systemic Extinctions.

Acta biotheoretica, 69(4):497-510.

We propose a mathematical model for a class of predator-prey systems more complex than the usual one, involving a commensalism effect consisting in an influence of the predator on the sustainability of the prey. This effect induces interesting new features, including bi-stability (two attractors with disjoint attraction basins). The question of the possibility of reaching a certain attractor starting from initial conditions with a small population of predators, which presents an interest from the vewpoint of the onset of the predator in evolution, is addressed. We propose two possibilities: the classical one involving adapted conditions in the far past and a new (up to our knowledge) one using biodiversity, specifically the presence of another predator which operates as a starter, being displaced in the sequel.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Nardi T, Olivieri E, Kariuki E, et al (2021)

Sequence of a Coxiella Endosymbiont of the Tick Amblyomma nuttalli Suggests a Pattern of Convergent Genome Reduction in the Coxiella Genus.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(1):.

Ticks require bacterial symbionts for the provision of necessary compounds that are absent in their hematophagous diet. Such symbionts are frequently vertically transmitted and, most commonly, belong to the Coxiella genus, which also includes the human pathogen Coxiella burnetii. This genus can be divided in four main clades, presenting partial but incomplete cocladogenesis with the tick hosts. Here, we report the genome sequence of a novel Coxiella, endosymbiont of the African tick Amblyomma nuttalli, and the ensuing comparative analyses. Its size (∼1 Mb) is intermediate between symbionts of Rhipicephalus species and other Amblyomma species. Phylogenetic analyses show that the novel sequence is the first genome of the B clade, the only one for which no genomes were previously available. Accordingly, it allows to draw an enhanced scenario of the evolution of the genus, one of parallel genome reduction of different endosymbiont lineages, which are now at different stages of reduction from a more versatile ancestor. Gene content comparison allows to infer that the ancestor could be reminiscent of C. burnetii. Interestingly, the convergent loss of mismatch repair could have been a major driver of such reductive evolution. Predicted metabolic profiles are rather homogenous among Coxiella endosymbionts, in particular vitamin biosynthesis, consistently with a host-supportive role. Concurrently, similarities among Coxiella endosymbionts according to host genus and despite phylogenetic unrelatedness hint at possible host-dependent effects.

RevDate: 2021-11-16

Banerji R, SD Saroj (2021)

Exposure to Acyl Homoserine Lactone Enhances Survival of Streptococcus pyogenes in Murine Macrophages.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Streptococcus pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections of the skin and upper respiratory tract of the human host. Due to the polymicrobial community present in the human host, S. pyogenes comes across several interspecies signalling molecules. Among these molecules, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (Oxo-C12) modulates the morphology, thereby enhancing virulence characteristics of S. pyogenes. After the initial attachment of the bacteria to the host cell, the pathogen needs to invade the host immune system for a successful infection to occur. The host immune system is activated upon infection, where macrophages engulf the pathogen, thereby killing the bacteria. However, S. pyogenes have evolved various strategies to evade the host immune response. In this study, we investigate the role of Oxo-C12 in enhancing the survival of S. pyogenes M3 in murine macrophages. The observed Oxo-C12-mediated increased survival in murine macrophages was through increased lysozyme and acid stress resistance. Moreover, Oxo-C12 increased the survival of S. pyogenes in normal human serum. Thus, understanding the role of interspecies signalling in enhancing the survival strategies of S. pyogenes in the host will further help fill the gap for therapeutics development.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )