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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 23 Nov 2020 at 01:45 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: symbiosis NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2020-11-22

Sgibnev AV, EA Kremleva (2020)

Inflammation Mediators Regulate the Microbiota Resistance to Adverse Factors.

Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine pii:10.1007/s10517-020-05002-5 [Epub ahead of print].

We studied the effects of IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα, and prostaglandin E2α in concentrations typically observed in health and during inflammation on the growth of vaginal microbiota and its resistance to factors inhibiting the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, and peptidoglycans. An increase in the cytokine levels, characteristic of inflammation, inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus population and improves its resistance to adverse factors. The growth of the population of opportunistic microorganisms (S. aureus, E. coli) is stimulated under these conditions, while their resistance to adverse factors decreases. Hence, it seems that the cytokines regulate the behavior of the host cells and of its bacterial symbionts.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Nilsson JF, Castellani LG, Draghi WO, et al (2020)

Global transcriptome analysis of Rhizobium favelukesii LPU83 in response to acid stress.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:5998221 [Epub ahead of print].

Acidic environments naturally occur worldwide and inappropriate agricultural management may also cause acidification of soils. Low soil pH values are an important barrier in the plant-rhizobia interaction. Acidic conditions disturb the establishment of the efficient rhizobia usually used as biofertilizer. This negative effect on the rhizobia-legume symbiosis is mainly due to the low acid-tolerance of the bacteria. Here, we describe the identification of relevant factors in the acid tolerance of Rhizobium favelukesii using transcriptome sequencing. A total of 1,924 genes were differentially expressed under acidic conditions, with ca. 60% underexpressed. R. favelukesii acid response mainly includes changes in the energy metabolism and protein turnover, as well as a combination of mechanisms that may contribute to this phenotype, including GABA and histidine metabolism, cell envelope modifications and reverse proton efflux. We confirmed the acid-sensitive phenotype of a mutant in the braD gene, which showed higher expression under acid stress. Remarkably, 60% of the CDS encoded in the symbiotic plasmid were underexpressed and we evidenced that a strain cured for this plasmid featured an improved performance under acidic conditions. Hence, this work provides relevant information in the characterization of genes associated with tolerance or adaptation to acidic stress of R. favelukesii.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Song H, Hewitt OH, SM Degnan (2020)

Arginine Biosynthesis by a Bacterial Symbiont Enables Nitric Oxide Production and Facilitates Larval Settlement in the Marine-Sponge Host.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(20)31594-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Larval settlement and metamorphosis are regulated by nitric oxide (NO) signaling in a wide diversity of marine invertebrates.1-10 It is thus surprising that, in most invertebrates, the substrate for NO synthesis-arginine-cannot be biosynthesized but instead must be exogenously sourced.11 In the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica, vertically inherited proteobacterial symbionts in the larva are able to biosynthesize arginine.12,13 Here, we test the hypothesis that symbionts provide arginine to the sponge host so that nitric oxide synthase expressed in the larva can produce NO, which regulates metamorphosis,8 and the byproduct citrulline (Figure 1). First, we find support for an arginine-citrulline biosynthetic loop in this sponge larval holobiont by using stable isotope tracing. In symbionts, incorporated 13C-citrulline decreases as 13C-arginine increases, consistent with the use of exogenous citrulline for arginine synthesis. In contrast, 13C-citrulline accumulates in larvae as 13C-arginine decreases, demonstrating the uptake of exogenous arginine and its conversion to NO and citrulline. Second, we show that, although Amphimedon larvae can derive arginine directly from seawater, normal settlement and metamorphosis can occur in artificial sea water lacking arginine. Together, these results support holobiont complementation of the arginine-citrulline loop and NO biosynthesis in Amphimedon larvae, suggesting a critical role for bacterial symbionts in the development of this marine sponge. Given that NO regulates settlement and metamorphosis in diverse animal phyla1-10 and arginine is procured externally in most animals,11 we propose that symbionts might play an equally critical regulatory role in this essential life cycle transition in other metazoans.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Shin J, Marx H, Richards A, et al (2020)

A network-based comparative framework to study conservation and divergence of proteomes in plant phylogenies.

Nucleic acids research pii:5997432 [Epub ahead of print].

Comparative functional genomics offers a powerful approach to study species evolution. To date, the majority of these studies have focused on the transcriptome in mammalian and yeast phylogenies. Here, we present a novel multi-species proteomic dataset and a computational pipeline to systematically compare the protein levels across multiple plant species. Globally we find that protein levels diverge according to phylogenetic distance but is more constrained than the mRNA level. Module-level comparative analysis of groups of proteins shows that proteins that are more highly expressed tend to be more conserved. To interpret the evolutionary patterns of conservation and divergence, we develop a novel network-based integrative analysis pipeline that combines publicly available transcriptomic datasets to define co-expression modules. Our analysis pipeline can be used to relate the changes in protein levels to different species-specific phenotypic traits. We present a case study with the rhizobia-legume symbiosis process that supports the role of autophagy in this symbiotic association.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Huo H, Wang X, Liu Y, et al (2020)

A Nod factor- and type III secretion system-dependent manner for Robinia pseudoacacia to establish symbiosis with Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123.

Tree physiology pii:5995557 [Epub ahead of print].

Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, symbiotic nodulation promotes the growth of legume plants via the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia by rhizobia in root nodules. The rhizobial Nod factor (NF) and type III secretion system (T3SS) are two key signaling pathways for establishing the legume-rhizobium symbiosis. However, whether NF signaling is involved in the nodulation of Robinia pseudoacacia and Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123, and its symbiotic differences compared to T3SS signaling remain unclear. Therefore, to elucidate the function of NF signaling in nodulation, we mutated nodC in M. amorphae CCNWGS0123, which aborted NF synthesis. Compared to the plants inoculated with the wild type strain, the plants inoculated with the NF-deficient strain exhibited shorter shoots with etiolated leaves. These phenotypic characteristics were similar to those of the plants inoculated with the T3SS-deficient strain, which served as a nod- (non-effective nodulation) control. Both the plants inoculated with the NF- and T3SS-deficient strains formed massive root hair swellings, but no normal infection threads were detected. Sections of the nodules showed that inoculation with the NF- and T3SS-deficient strains induced small, white bumps without any rhizobia inside. Analyzing the accumulation of six plant hormones and the expression of ten plant genes indicated that the NF- and T3SS-deficient strains activated plant defense reactions while suppressing plant symbiotic signaling during the perception and nodulation processes. The requirement for NF signaling appeared to be conserved in two other leguminous trees that can establish symbiosis with M. amorphae CCNWGS0123. In contrast, the function of the T3SS might differ among species, even within the same subfamily (Faboideae). Overall, this work demonstrated that nodulation of R. pseudoacacia and M. amorphae CCNWGS0123 was both NF and T3SS dependent.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Binet MN, Marchal C, Lipuma J, et al (2020)

Plant health status effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula intermedia infected by Phytoplasma in France.

Scientific reports, 10(1):20305 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-77240-6.

We investigated root communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in relation to lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (Lavandula intermedia) health status from organic and conventional fields affected by Phytoplasma infection. The intensity of root mycorrhizal colonization was significantly different between diseased and healthy plants and was higher in the latter regardless of agricultural practice. This difference was more pronounced in lavender. The root AMF diversity was influenced by the plant health status solely in lavender and only under the conventional practice resulting in an increase in the AMF abundance and richness. The plant health status did not influence the distribution of root AMF communities in lavandin unlike its strong impact in lavender in both agricultural practices. Finally, among the most abundant molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), four different MOTUs for each plant species were significantly abundant in the roots of healthy lavender and lavandin in either agricultural practice. Our study demonstrated that the plant health status influences root colonization and can influence the diversity and distribution of root AMF communities. Its effects vary according to plant species, can be modified by agricultural practices and allow plants to establish symbiosis with specific AMF species.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Tavarini S, Clemente C, Bender C, et al (2020)

Health-Promoting Compounds in Stevia: The Effect of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, Phosphorus Supply and Harvest Time.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 25(22): pii:molecules25225399.

This work aimed to establish the synergic role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbiosis, phosphorus (P) fertilization and harvest time on the contents of stevia secondary metabolites. Consequently, steviol glycosides (SVglys) concentration and profile, total phenols and flavonoids as well as antioxidant assays, have been assessed in inoculated and no-inoculated plants, grown with or without P supply and collected at different growth stages(69, 89 and 123 days after transplanting).The obtained results suggest that the synthesis of stevia secondary metabolites is induced and/or modulated by all the investigated variability factors. In particular, AMF symbiosis promoted total SVglys content and positively influenced the concentration of some minor compounds (steviolbioside, dulcoside A and rebaudioside B), indicating a clear effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on SVglys biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, only the mycorrhizal plants were able to synthesize rebaudioside B. In addition, P supply provided the highest levels of total phenols and flavonoids at leaf level, together with the maximum in vitro antioxidant activities (FRAP and ORAC). Finally, the harvest time carried out during the full vegetative phase enhanced the entire composition of the phytocomplex (steviolbioside, dulcoside A, stevioside, rebaudioside A, B, C. total phenols and flavonoids). Moreover, polyphenols and SVglys appeared to be the main contributors to the in vitro antioxidant capacity, while only total phenols mostly contributed to the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). These findings provide original information about the role played by AMF in association with P supply, in modulating the accumulation of bioactive compounds during stevia growth. At the cultivation level, the control of these preharvest factors, together with the most appropriate harvest time, can be used as tools for improving the nutraceutical value of raw material, with particular attention to its exploitation as functional ingredient for food and dietary supplements and cosmetics.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Sun G, Bai S, Guan Y, et al (2020)

Are fungi-derived genomic regions related to antagonism towards fungi in mosses?.

RevDate: 2020-11-20

Garcia K, Guerrero-Galán C, Frank HER, et al (2020)

Fungal Shaker-like channels beyond cellular K+ homeostasis: A role in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Hebeloma cylindrosporum and Pinus pinaster.

PloS one, 15(11):e0242739 pii:PONE-D-20-15111.

Potassium (K+) acquisition, translocation and cellular homeostasis are mediated by various membrane transport systems in all organisms. We identified and described an ion channel in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum (HcSKC) that harbors features of animal voltage-dependent Shaker-like K+ channels, and investigated its role in both free-living hyphae and symbiotic conditions. RNAi lines affected in the expression of HcSKC were produced and used for in vitro mycorrhizal assays with the maritime pine as host plant, under standard or low K+ conditions. The adaptation of H. cylindrosporum to the downregulation of HcSKC was analyzed by qRT-PCR analyses for other K+-related transport proteins: the transporters HcTrk1, HcTrk2, and HcHAK, and the ion channels HcTOK1, HcTOK2.1, and HcTOK2.2. Downregulated HcSKC transformants displayed greater K+ contents at standard K+ only. In such conditions, plants inoculated with these transgenic lines were impaired in K+ nutrition. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that the reduced expression of HcSKC modifies the pool of fungal K+ available for the plant and/or affects its symbiotic transfer to the roots. Our study reveals that the maintenance of K+ transport in H. cylindrosporum, through the regulation of HcSKC expression, is required for the K+ nutrition of the host plant.

RevDate: 2020-11-20

Qiu X, Macchietto MG, Liu X, et al (2020)

Identification of gut microbiota and microbial metabolites regulated by an antimicrobial peptide lipocalin 2 in high fat diet-induced obesity.

International journal of obesity (2005) pii:10.1038/s41366-020-00712-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), as an antimicrobial peptide is expressed in intestine, and the upregulation of intestinal Lcn2 has been linked to inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of Lcn2 in shaping gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity (DIO) remains unknown. We found that short-term high fat diet (HFD) feeding strongly stimulates intestinal Lcn2 expression and secretion into the gut lumen. As the HFD feeding prolongs, fecal Lcn2 levels turn to decrease. Lcn2 deficiency accelerates the development of HFD-induced intestinal inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis. Moreover, Lcn2 deficiency leads to the remodeling of microbiota-derived metabolome, including decreased production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and SCFA-producing microbes. Most importantly, we have identified Lcn2-targeted bacteria and microbiota-derived metabolites that potentially play roles in DIO and metabolic dysregulation. Correlation analyses suggest that Lcn2-targeted Dubosiella and Angelakisella have a novel role in regulating SCFAs production and obesity. Our results provide a novel mechanism involving Lcn2 as an antimicrobial host factor in the control of gut microbiota symbiosis during DIO.

RevDate: 2020-11-20

Durán D, Albareda M, Marina A, et al (2020)

Proteome analysis reveals a significant host-specific response in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae endosymbiotic cells.

Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP pii:RA120.002276 [Epub ahead of print].

The Rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a beneficial interaction in which the bacterium converts atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia and delivers it to the plant in exchange for carbon compounds. This symbiosis implies the adaptation of bacteria to live inside host plant cells. In this work we apply RP-LC-MS/MS and iTRAQ techniques to study the proteomic profile of endosymbiotic cells (bacteroids) induced by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae strain UPM791 in legume nodules. Nitrogenase subunits, tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, and stress response proteins are amongst the most abundant from over one thousand rhizobial proteins identified in pea (Pisum sativum) bacteroids. Comparative analysis of bacteroids induced in pea and in lentil (Lens culinaris)nodules revealed the existence of a significant host-specific differential response affecting dozens of bacterial proteins, including stress-related proteins, transcriptional regulators, and proteins involved in the carbon and nitrogen metabolisms. A mutant affected in one of these proteins, homologous to a GntR-like transcriptional regulator, showed a symbiotic performance significantly impaired in symbiosis with pea, but not with lentil plants. Analysis of the proteomes of bacteroids isolated from both hosts also revealed the presence of different sets of plant-derived nodule-specific cysteine rich (NCR) peptides, indicating that the endosymbiotic bacteria find a host-specific cocktail of chemical stressors inside the nodule. By studying variations of the bacterial response to different plant cell environments we will be able to identify specific limitations imposed by the host that might give us clues for the improvement of rhizobial performance.

RevDate: 2020-11-20
CmpDate: 2020-11-20

Coates LC, Mahoney J, Ramsey JS, et al (2020)

Development on Citrus medica infected with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' has sex-specific and -nonspecific impacts on adult Diaphorina citri and its endosymbionts.

PloS one, 15(10):e0239771.

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a deadly, incurable citrus disease putatively caused by the unculturable bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), and transmitted by Diaphorina citri. Prior studies suggest D. citri transmits CLas in a circulative and propagative manner; however, the precise interactions necessary for CLas transmission remain unknown, and the impact of insect sex on D. citri-CLas interactions is poorly understood despite reports of sex-dependent susceptibilities to CLas. We analyzed the transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and microbiome of male and female adult D. citri reared on healthy or CLas-infected Citrus medica to determine shared and sex-specific responses of D. citri and its endosymbionts to CLas exposure. More sex-specific than shared D. citri responses to CLas were observed, despite there being no difference between males and females in CLas density or relative abundance. CLas exposure altered the abundance of proteins involved in immunity and cellular and oxidative stress in a sex-dependent manner. CLas exposure impacted cuticular proteins and enzymes involved in chitin degradation, as well as energy metabolism and abundance of the endosymbiont 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' in both sexes similarly. Notably, diaphorin, a toxic Profftella-derived metabolite, was more abundant in both sexes with CLas exposure. The responses reported here resulted from a combination of CLas colonization of D. citri as well as the effect of CLas infection on C. medica. Elucidating these impacts on D. citri and their endosymbionts contributes to our understanding of the HLB pathosystem and identifies the responses potentially critical to limiting or promoting CLas acquisition and propagation in both sexes.

RevDate: 2020-11-20
CmpDate: 2020-11-20

García-Del Portillo F (2020)

Building peptidoglycan inside eukaryotic cells: A view from symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria.

Molecular microbiology, 113(3):613-626.

The peptidoglycan (PG), as the exoskeleton of most prokaryotes, maintains a defined shape and ensures cell integrity against the high internal turgor pressure. These important roles have attracted researchers to target PG metabolism in order to control bacterial infections. Most studies, however, have been performed in bacteria grown under laboratory conditions, leading to only a partial view on how the PG is synthetized in natural environments. As a case in point, PG metabolism and its regulation remain poorly understood in symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria living inside eukaryotic cells. This review focuses on the PG metabolism of intracellular bacteria, emphasizing the necessity of more in vivo studies involving the analysis of enzymes produced in the intracellular niche and the isolation of PG from bacteria residing within eukaryotic cells. The review also points to persistent infections caused by some intracellular bacterial pathogens and the extent at which the PG could contribute to establish such physiological state. Based on recent evidences, I speculate on the idea that certain structural features of the PG may facilitate attenuation of intracellular growth. Lastly, I discuss recent findings in endosymbionts supporting a cooperation between host and bacterial enzymes to assemble a mature PG.

RevDate: 2020-11-20
CmpDate: 2020-11-20

Asfaw B, Aserse AA, Asefa F, et al (2020)

Genetically diverse lentil- and faba bean-nodulating rhizobia are present in soils across Central and Southern Ethiopia.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 96(3):.

In total 196 bacterial isolates were obtained from root nodules of lentil (Lens culinaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) grown on soil samples collected from 10 different sites in central and southern parts of Ethiopia. All isolates were identified as members of the genus Rhizobium by using recA gene sequence analysis. In the recA phylogenetic tree 195 rhizobial strains were classified into nine genospecies. The phylogeny of symbiotic genes nodC and nifH revealed five and six distinct groups respectively, largely dominated by symbiovar viciae. A multivariate analysis showed that environmental variables of the sampling sites considered in this study had more effect on the distribution and composition of the genospecies than the host legumes of the strains. Twenty representative strains, selected based on their isolation site, host plant and nodC group, were able to nodulate all lentil, faba bean, field pea (Pisum abyssinicum) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) plants in a greenhouse test in axenic conditions. The majority of the rhizobial strains were effective nitrogen-fixing symbionts for all tested legumes, indicating their potential to serve as broad host-range inoculants in agriculture. The present work suggests the presence of taxonomically and symbiotically diverse rhizobial species for legumes in the Viciae tribe in Ethiopia.

RevDate: 2020-11-20
CmpDate: 2020-11-20

Javadzadeh SG, A Asoodeh (2020)

A novel textile dye degrading extracellular laccase from symbiotic bacterium of Bacillus sp. CF96 isolated from gut termite (Anacanthotermes).

International journal of biological macromolecules, 145:355-363.

Oxidation of phenolic compounds is an urgent need in textile industry, biological refinements, pulp and paper production. In present study, a laccase was purified from symbiotic bacterium of Bacillus sp. CF96 existing in termite digestive system. The extracellular laccase was purified via amnion sulfate precipitation, membrane dialysis, and ion exchange chromatography. The results showed that the Bacillus CF96 laccase possesses a molecular mass of 63 kDa, an optimal pH and temperature of 8.0 and 60 °C. Results showed that Zn2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ were considered as the activator ions, while SDS was the main inhibitor. Using syringaldazine (SGZ) as substrate, the half-life of laccase at optimal temperature was 148 min; Km and Vmax were 0.737 μM and 100.5 U/mg. In addition, the enzyme showed a high effect on indigo dye with 90% bleaching capacity compared to control. In conclusion, the laccase has potential applications in industries under the provided optimal conditions.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Ramírez-Flores MR, Perez-Limon S, Li M, et al (2020)

The genetic architecture of host response reveals the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizae to maize cultivation.

eLife, 9: pii:61701.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous in cultivated soils, forming symbiotic relationships with the roots of major crop species. Studies in controlled conditions have demonstrated the potential of AMF to enhance the growth of host plants. However, it is difficult to estimate the actual benefit in the field, not least because of the lack of suitable AMF-free controls. Here we implement a novel strategy using the selective incorporation of AMF-resistance into a genetic mapping population to evaluate maize response to AMF. We found AMF to account for about one-third of the grain production in a medium input field, as well as to affect the relative performance of different plant genotypes. Characterization of the genetic architecture of the host response indicated a trade-off between mycorrhizal dependence and benefit. We identified several QTL linked to host benefit, supporting the feasibility of breeding crops to maximize profit from symbiosis with AMF.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Abdulsalam O, Wagner K, Wirth S, et al (2020)

Phytohormones and volatile organic compounds, like geosmin, in the ectomycorrhiza of Tricholoma vaccinum and Norway spruce (Picea abies).

Mycorrhiza pii:10.1007/s00572-020-01005-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The ectomycorrhizospheric habitat contains a diverse pool of organisms, including the host plant, mycorrhizal fungi, and other rhizospheric microorganisms. Different signaling molecules may influence the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Here, we investigated the potential of the basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum to produce communication molecules for the interaction with its coniferous host, Norway spruce (Picea abies). We focused on the production of volatile organic compounds and phytohormones in axenic T. vaccinum cultures, identified the potential biosynthesis genes, and investigated their expression by RNA-Seq analyses. T. vaccinum released volatiles not usually associated with fungi, like limonene and β-barbatene, and geosmin. Using stable isotope labeling, the biosynthesis of geosmin was elucidated. The geosmin biosynthesis gene ges1 of T. vaccinum was identified, and up-regulation was scored during mycorrhiza, while a different regulation was seen with mycorrhizosphere bacteria. The fungus also released the volatile phytohormone ethylene and excreted salicylic and abscisic acid as well as jasmonates into the medium. The tree excreted the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, and its biosynthesis intermediate, indole-3-acetamide, as well as salicylic acid with its root exudates. These compounds could be shown for the first time in exudates as well as in soil of a natural ectomycorrhizospheric habitat. The effects of phytohormones present in the mycorrhizosphere on hyphal branching of T. vaccinum were assessed. Salicylic and abscisic acid changed hyphal branching in a concentration-dependent manner. Since extensive branching is important for mycorrhiza establishment, a well-balanced level of mycorrhizospheric phytohormones is necessary. The regulation thus can be expected to contribute to an interkingdom language.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Shigli K, Nayak SS, Menon K, et al (2020)

Dietary counseling: A requisite in geriatric prosthodontics.

Journal of family medicine and primary care, 9(9):5081-5082 pii:JFMPC-9-5081.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Melo Clavijo J, Frankenbach S, Fidalgo C, et al (2020)

Identification of scavenger receptors and thrombospondin-type-1 repeat proteins potentially relevant for plastid recognition in Sacoglossa.

Ecology and evolution, 10(21):12348-12363 pii:ECE36865.

Functional kleptoplasty is a photosymbiotic relationship, in which photosynthetically active chloroplasts serve as an intracellular symbiont for a heterotrophic host. Among Metazoa, functional kleptoplasty is only found in marine sea slugs belonging to the Sacoglossa and recently described in Rhabdocoela worms. Although functional kleptoplasty has been intensively studied in Sacoglossa, the fundamentals of the specific recognition of the chloroplasts and their subsequent incorporation are unknown. The key to ensure the initiation of any symbiosis is the ability to specifically recognize the symbiont and to differentiate a symbiont from a pathogen. For instance, in photosymbiotic cnidarians, several studies have shown that the host innate immune system, in particular scavenger receptors (SRs) and thrombospondin-type-1 repeat (TSR) protein superfamily, is playing a major role in the process of recognizing and differentiating symbionts from pathogens. In the present study, SRs and TSRs of three Sacoglossa sea slugs, Elysia cornigera, Elysia timida, and Elysia chlorotica, were identified by translating available transcriptomes into potential proteins and searching for receptor specific protein and/or transmembrane domains. Both receptors classes are highly diverse in the slugs, and many new domain arrangements for each receptor class were found. The analyses of the gene expression of these three species provided a set of species-specific candidate genes, that is, SR-Bs, SR-Es, C-type lectins, and TSRs, that are potentially relevant for the recognition of kleptoplasts. The results set the base for future experimental studies to understand if and how these candidate receptors are indeed involved in chloroplast recognition.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Wilkes TI, Warner DJ, Edmonds-Brown V, et al (2020)

Species-Specific Interactions of Bacillus Innocula and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Symbiosis with Winter Wheat.

Microorganisms, 8(11): pii:microorganisms8111795.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi establish close interactions with host plants, an estimated 80% of vascular plant species. The host plant receives additional soil bound nutrients that would otherwise not be available. Other components of the microbiome, such as rhizobacteria, may influence interactions between AM fungi and the host plant. Within a commercial arable crop selected rhizobacteria in combination with AM fungi may benefit crop yields. The precise nature of interactions between rhizobacteria and AM fungi in a symbiotic relationship overall requires greater understanding. The present study aims to assess this relationship by quantifying: (1) AM fungal intracellular root structures (arbuscules) and soil glomalin as an indicator of AM fungal growth; and (2) root length and tiller number as a measure of crop growth, in response to inoculation with one of three species of Bacillus: B. amyloliquefaciences, B. pumilis, or B. subtilis. The influence of soil management, conventional (CT) or zero tillage (ZT) was a further variable evaluated. A significant (p < 0.0001) species-specific impact on the number of quantifiable AM fungal arbuscules was observed. The inoculation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) with B. amyloliquefaciences had a positive impact on AM fungal symbiosis, as indicated by an average of 3226 arbuscules per centimetre of root tissue. Bacillus subtilis increased root length significantly (p < 0.01) but decreased fungal symbiosis (p < 0.01). The inoculation of field soils altered the concentration of glomalin, an indicator of AM fungal growth, significantly (p < 0.00001) for each tillage treatment. The greatest increase was associated with B. amyloliquefaciences for both CT (p < 0.0001) and ZT (p < 0.00001). Bacillus subtilis reduced measured glomalin significantly in both tillage treatments (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.00001 for CT and ZT respectively). The interaction between rhizobacteria and AM fungi is variable, being beneficial or detrimental depending on species. This relationship was evident in both tillage treatments and has important implications for maximizing symbiosis in the crop plant-microbiome present in agricultural systems.

RevDate: 2020-11-18

Kumar PR, Moore JA, Bowles KM, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cutaneous melanoma.

British journal of cancer pii:10.1038/s41416-020-01159-y [Epub ahead of print].

The Warburg effect in tumour cells is associated with the upregulation of glycolysis to generate ATP, even under normoxic conditions and the presence of fully functioning mitochondria. However, scientific advances made over the past 15 years have reformed this perspective, demonstrating the importance of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as well as glycolysis in malignant cells. The metabolic phenotypes in melanoma display heterogeneic dynamism (metabolic plasticity) between glycolysis and OXPHOS, conferring a survival advantage to adapt to harsh conditions and pathways of chemoresistance. Furthermore, the simultaneous upregulation of both OXPHOS and glycolysis (metabolic symbiosis) has been shown to be vital for melanoma progression. The tumour microenvironment (TME) has an essential supporting role in promoting progression, invasion and metastasis of melanoma. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the TME show a symbiotic relationship with melanoma, protecting tumour cells from apoptosis and conferring chemoresistance. With the significant role of OXPHOS in metabolic plasticity and symbiosis, our review outlines how mitochondrial transfer from MSCs to melanoma tumour cells plays a key role in melanoma progression and is the mechanism by which melanoma cells regain OXPHOS capacity even in the presence of mitochondrial mutations. The studies outlined in this review indicate that targeting mitochondrial trafficking is a potential novel therapeutic approach for this highly refractory disease.

RevDate: 2020-11-18

Zhou F, Xu L, Wu X, et al (2020)

Symbiotic Bacterium-Derived Organic Acids Protect Delia antiqua Larvae from Entomopathogenic Fungal Infection.

mSystems, 5(6):.

Colonization resistance, i.e., the protective effects of associated microbiota for the animal host against pathogen infection, has been studied widely over the last 100 years. However, few molecules mediating colonization resistance have been identified. In the symbiosis formed by Delia antiqua and its associated microbes, six bacteria protect larvae from infection with the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana, providing an ideal model to investigate the chemical mechanism for colonization resistance. Subsequently using this symbiotic system, we first compared effects of the six bacterial species, and one control bacterium (Klebsiella oxytoca) that showed no antifungal effects, on B. bassiana and its infection of D. antiqua Second, metabolomic profiles of the six bacteria and K. oxytoca were compared to identify candidate metabolites that may prevent infection. Third, the concentrations of candidate metabolites in situ from axenic and nonaxenic larvae were determined. Finally, effects of artificial metabolite cocktails on B.bassiana and its infection of D. antiqua larvae were determined. Results showed that compared to K. oxytoca, the six bacteria produced a metabolite cocktail showing inhibitory effects on conidial germination, mycelial growth of B.bassiana, and fungal infection. Our work revealed novel molecules that mediate colonization resistance, which could help in developing chemical mechanisms of colonization resistance. Moreover, this work may aid in discovery and expansion of new bioactive antibiotics, promoting development of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for treating infectious diseases.IMPORTANCE The protection of associated microbiota for their animal hosts against pathogen infection has been studied widely over the last 100 years. However, how those microbes protect the animal host remains unclear. In former studies, body surface microbes of one insect, Delia antiqua, protected the insect larvae from infection with the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana By comparing the metabolites produced by microbes that protect the insect and microbes that cannot protect the insect, the question of how the microbes protect the insect is answered. It turns out that body surface bacteria produce a metabolite cocktail that inhibits colonization of B.bassiana and consequently protects the insect. This work reveals novel molecules with antifungal activity, which may aid in discovery and expansion of new prophylactic and therapeutic natural chemicals for treating infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2020-11-19
CmpDate: 2020-11-19

Zhu X, Mao Y, Guo M, et al (2020)

Enhancement of anti-acne effect of Scutellaria baicalensis extract by fermentation with symbiotic fungus Penicillium decumbens.

Journal of bioscience and bioengineering, 130(5):457-463.

Inflammatory responses stimulated by Propionibacterium acnes have been shown to be major etiological factors in the pathogenesis of acne. Scutellaria baicalensis, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, primary component analysis and primary effective component analysis were conducted. The results showed that wogonin (1.15 mg/g S. baicalensis extract) possessed better anti-acne effects than wogonoside (8.71 mg/g S. baicalensis extract) in inhibiting the up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-8 level caused by P. acnes via inactivation of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. To enhance the anti-acne effects of S. baicalensis extract, an environmentally friendly and healthy plant fermentation strategy was used to efficiently convert glycoside-type constituents into bioactive aglycone. S. baicalensis extract was fermented by symbiotic fungus Penicillium decumbens f3-1 to transform wogonoside into wogonin with a conversion rate of 91.0% after 4 days. Fermented S. baicalensis extract (FSE) showed higher potential anti-acne effects than non-fermented S. baicalensis extract (NSE) by inhibiting the up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-8. Thus, P. decumbens-fermented S. baicalensis Extract may be used for developing new anti-acne cosmetic ingredients.

RevDate: 2020-11-18
CmpDate: 2020-11-18

Koto A, Nobu MK, R Miyazaki (2020)

Deep Sequencing Uncovers Caste-Associated Diversity of Symbionts in the Social Ant Camponotus japonicus.

mBio, 11(2):.

Symbiotic microorganisms can have a profound impact on the host physiology and behavior, and novel relationships between symbionts and their hosts are continually discovered. A colony of social ants consists of various castes that exhibit distinct lifestyles and is, thus, a unique model for investigating how symbionts may be involved in host eusociality. Yet our knowledge of social ant-symbiont dynamics has remained rudimentary. Through 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus symbiont community across various castes, we here report caste-dependent diversity of commensal gut microbiota and lineage divergence of "Candidatus Blochmannia," an obligate endosymbiont. While most prevalent gut-associated bacterial populations are found across all castes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria), we also discovered uncultured populations that are found only in males (belonging to Corynebacteriales, Alkanindiges, and Burkholderia). Most of those populations are not detected in laboratory-maintained queens and workers, suggesting that they are facultative gut symbionts introduced via environmental acquisition. Further inspection of "Ca. Blochmannia" endosymbionts reveals that two populations are dominant in all individuals across all castes but that males preferentially contain two different sublineages that are diversified from others. Clearly, each caste has distinct symbiont communities, suggesting an overlooked biological aspect of host-symbiont interaction in social insects.IMPORTANCE Social animals, such as primates and some insects, have been shown to exchange symbiotic microbes among individuals through sharing diet or habitats, resulting in increased consistency of microbiota among social partners. The ant is a representative of social insects exhibiting various castes within a colony; queens, males, and nonreproductive females (so-called workers) show distinct morphologies, physiologies, and behaviors but tightly interact with each other in the nest. However, how this social context affects their gut microbiota has remained unclear. In this study, we deeply sequenced the gut symbiont community across various castes of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus We report caste-dependent diversity of commensal gut microbial community and lineage divergence of the mutualistic endosymbiont "Candidatus Blochmannia." This report sheds light on the hidden diversity in microbial populations and community structure associated with guts of males in social ants.

RevDate: 2020-11-19
CmpDate: 2020-11-19

Reyes-Prieto M, Vargas-Chávez C, Llabrés M, et al (2020)

An update on the Symbiotic Genomes Database (SymGenDB): a collection of metadata, genomic, genetic and protein sequences, orthologs and metabolic networks of symbiotic organisms.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2020:.

The Symbiotic Genomes Database (SymGenDB; is a public resource of manually curated associations between organisms involved in symbiotic relationships, maintaining a catalog of completely sequenced/finished bacterial genomes exclusively. It originally consisted of three modules where users could search for the bacteria involved in a specific symbiotic relationship, their genomes and their genes (including their orthologs). In this update, we present an additional module that includes a representation of the metabolic network of each organism included in the database, as Directed Acyclic Graphs (MetaDAGs). This module provides unique opportunities to explore the metabolism of each individual organism and/or to evaluate the shared and joint metabolic capabilities of the organisms of the same genera included in our listing, allowing users to construct predictive analyses of metabolic associations and complementation between systems. We also report a ~25% increase in manually curated content in the database, i.e. bacterial genomes and their associations, with a final count of 2328 bacterial genomes associated to 498 hosts. We describe new querying possibilities for all the modules, as well as new display features for the MetaDAGs module, providing a relevant range of content and utility. This update continues to improve SymGenDB and can help elucidate the mechanisms by which organisms depend on each other.

RevDate: 2020-11-19
CmpDate: 2020-11-19

Wang HL, Lei T, Wang XW, et al (2020)

A newly recorded Rickettsia of the Torix group is a recent intruder and an endosymbiont in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

Environmental microbiology, 22(4):1207-1221.

The bacterium Rickettsia is found widely in phytophagous insects and often exerts profound effects on the phenotype and fitness of its hosts. Here, we decrypt a new, independent, phylogenetically ancient Torix Rickettsia endosymbiont found constantly in a laboratory line of an economically important insect Asia II 7, a putative species of the Bemisia tabaci whitefly complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and occasionally in field whitefly populations. This new Rickettsia distributes throughout the body of its whitefly host. Genetically, compared to Rickettsia_bellii_MEAM1 found earlier in whiteflies, the new Rickettsia species has more gene families and pathways, which may be important factors in shaping specific symbiotic relationships. We propose the name 'Candidatus Rickettsia_Torix_Bemisia_tabaci (RiTBt)' for this new endosymbiont associated with whiteflies. Comparative genomic analyses indicate that RiTBi may be a relatively recent intruder in whiteflies given its low abundance in the field and relatively larger genome compared to Rickettsia_bellii_MEAM1.

RevDate: 2020-11-18
CmpDate: 2020-11-18

Pupier CA, Fine M, Bednarz VN, et al (2019)

Productivity and carbon fluxes depend on species and symbiont density in soft coral symbioses.

Scientific reports, 9(1):17819.

Soft corals often constitute one of the major benthic groups of coral reefs. Although they have been documented to outcompete reef-building corals following environmental disturbances, their physiological performance and thus their functional importance in reefs are still poorly understood. In particular, the acclimatization to depth of soft corals harboring dinoflagellate symbionts and the metabolic interactions between these two partners have received little attention. We performed stable isotope tracer experiments on two soft coral species (Litophyton sp. and Rhytisma fulvum fulvum) from shallow and upper mesophotic Red Sea coral reefs to quantify the acquisition and allocation of autotrophic carbon within the symbiotic association. Carbon acquisition and respiration measurements distinguish Litophyton sp. as mainly autotrophic and Rhytisma fulvum fulvum as rather heterotrophic species. In both species, carbon acquisition was constant at the two investigated depths. This is a major difference from scleractinian corals, whose carbon acquisition decreases with depth. In addition, carbon acquisition and photosynthate translocation to the host decreased with an increase in symbiont density, suggesting that nutrient provision to octocoral symbionts can quickly become a limiting factor of their productivity. These findings improve our understanding of the biology of soft corals at the organism-scale and further highlight the need to investigate how their nutrition will be affected under changing environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2020-11-18
CmpDate: 2020-11-18

Forrester GE, Chille E, Nickles K, et al (2019)

Behavioural mechanisms underlying parasite-mediated competition for refuges in a coral reef fish.

Scientific reports, 9(1):15487 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-52005-y.

Parasites have been increasingly recognized as participants in indirect ecological interactions, including those mediated by parasite-induced changes to host behaviour (trait-mediated indirect interactions or TMIIs). In most documented examples, host behaviours altered by parasites increase susceptibility to predation because the predator is also a host (host-manipulation). Here, we test for a TMII in which a parasitic copepod modifies the predator-prey interaction between a small goby host and several larger predatory fish. Gobies compete for crevices in the reef to avoid predation and goby mortality increases more rapidly with increasing refuge shortage for parasitized gobies than for those free of parasites. We found interactive effects of refuge shortage and parasitism on two behaviours we predicted might be associated with parasite-mediated competition for refuges. First, as refuge-shortage increases, the rate of aggression among gobies increases and parasitism intensifies this interaction. Second, goby proximity to refuges increases as refuges become scarce, but parasitism nullifies this increase. In combination, these parasite-induced changes in behaviour may explain why parasitized gobies are poor competitors for refuges. Because the parasite is not trophically transmitted via host manipulation, these altered behaviours in parasitized gobies are likely coincidental to infection.

RevDate: 2020-11-18
CmpDate: 2020-11-18

Monin L, Whettlock EM, V Male (2020)

Immune responses in the human female reproductive tract.

Immunology, 160(2):106-115.

Mucosal surfaces are key interfaces between the host and its environment, but also constitute ports of entry for numerous pathogens. The gut and lung mucosae act as points of nutrient and gas exchange, respectively, but the physiological purpose of the female reproductive tract (FRT) is to allow implantation and development of the fetus. Our understanding of immune responses in the FRT has traditionally lagged behind our grasp of the situation at other mucosal sites, but recently reproductive immunologists have begun to make rapid progress in this challenging area. Here, we review current knowledge of immune responses in the human FRT and their heterogeneity within and between compartments. In the commensal-rich vagina, the immune system must allow the growth of beneficial microbes, whereas the key challenge in the uterus is allowing the growth of the semi-allogeneic fetus. In both compartments, these objectives must be balanced with the need to eliminate pathogens. Our developing understanding of immune responses in the FRT will help us develop interventions to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and to improve outcomes of pregnancy for mothers and babies.

RevDate: 2020-11-13
CmpDate: 2020-11-13

Stoian V, Vidican R, Crişan I, et al (2019)

Sensitive approach and future perspectives in microscopic patterns of mycorrhizal roots.

Scientific reports, 9(1):10233 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-46743-2.

The harmonization of methodologies for the assessment of radicular endophytic colonization is a current necessity, especially for the arbuscular mycorrhizas. The functionality of mycorrhizal symbionts for plants can be described only by indicators obtained based on microscopic analysis. That is the reason for which a unifying methodology will lead to the achievement of highly correlated indicators comparable from one research to another. Our proposed methodology can further digitize the microscopic observations of colonization. The MycoPatt system is developed as a methodological framework for obtaining objective and comparable microscopic observations. The horizontal, vertical and transversal indicators are highly adaptable and allow the tracking of mycorrhizal colonization in root length. All structures developed by symbionts can be traced and the obtained metadata can be compared without any transformation. Mycorrhizal maps have a high degree of applicability in evaluating soil inoculum efficiency. In the future, the application of this method will lead to digital maps with a high degree of accuracy. MycoPatt allows the mathematical expression of colonization patterns, being a complex model that converts biological data into statistically comparable indicators. This will further allow obtaining inferences with applicative importance and similarity spectra for the colonizing fungi and host plants.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Ci D, Tang Z, Ding H, et al (2020)

The synergy effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis and exogenous calcium on bacterial community composition and growth performance of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in saline alkali soil.

Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea) pii:10.1007/s12275-021-0317-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea. L) is an important oil seed crop. Both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbiosis and calcium (Ca2+) application can ameliorate the impact of saline soil on peanut production, and the rhizosphere bacterial communities are also closely correlated with peanut salt tolerance; however, whether AMF and Ca2+ can withstand high-salinity through or partially through modulating rhizosphere bacterial communities is unclear. Here, we used the rhizosphere bacterial DNA from saline alkali soil treated with AMF and Ca2+ alone or together to perform high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Taxonomic analysis revealed that AMF and Ca2+ treatment increased the abundance of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at the phylum level. The nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sphingomonas was the dominant genus in these soils at the genus level, and the soil invertase and urease activities were also increased after AMF and Ca2+ treatment, implying that AMF and Ca2+ effectively improved the living environment of plants under salt stress. Moreover, AMF combined with Ca2+ was better than AMF or Ca2+ alone at altering the bacterial structure and improving peanut growth in saline alkali soil. Together, AMF and Ca2+ applications are conducive to peanut salt adaption by regulating the bacterial community in saline alkali soil.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Paparokidou C, Leake JR, Beerling DJ, et al (2020)

Phosphate availability and ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with Pinus sylvestris have independent effects on the Paxillus involutus transcriptome.

Mycorrhiza pii:10.1007/s00572-020-01001-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Many plant species form symbioses with ectomycorrhizal fungi, which help them forage for limiting nutrients in the soil such as inorganic phosphate (Pi). The transcriptional responses to symbiosis and nutrient-limiting conditions in ectomycorrhizal fungal hyphae, however, are largely unknown. An artificial system was developed to study ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Paxillus involutus growth in symbiosis with its host tree Pinus sylvestris at different Pi concentrations. RNA-seq analysis was performed on P. involutus hyphae growing under Pi-limiting conditions, either in symbiosis or alone. We show that Pi starvation and ectomycorrhizal symbiosis have an independent effect on the P. involutus transcriptome. Notably, low Pi availability induces expression of newly identified putative high-affinity Pi transporter genes, while reducing the expression of putative organic acid transporters. Additionally, low Pi availability induces a close transcriptional interplay between P and N metabolism. GTP-related signalling was found to have a positive effect in the maintenance of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, whereas multiple putative cytochrome P450 genes were found to be downregulated, unlike arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We provide the first evidence of global transcriptional changes induced by low Pi availability and ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in the hyphae of P. involutus, revealing both similarities and differences with better-characterized arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

de Oliveira IF, Simeone MLF, de Guimarães CC, et al (2020)

Sorgoleone concentration influences mycorrhizal colonization in sorghum.

Mycorrhiza pii:10.1007/s00572-020-01006-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The association between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and sorghum, the fifth most cultivated cereal in the world and a staple food for many countries, is relevant to improving phosphorus (P) absorption. The importance of root exudation as a signal for the symbiosis has been shown for several species, but a complete understanding of the signaling molecules involved in the mycorrhizal symbiosis signaling pathway has not yet been elucidated. In this context, we investigated the effect of sorgoleone, one of the most studied allelochemicals and a predominant compound of root exudates in sorghum, on AMF colonization and consequently P uptake and plant growth on a sorghum genotype. The sorghum genotype P9401 presents low endogenous sorgoleone content, and when it was inoculated with Rhizophagus clarus together with 5 and 10 µM sorgoleone, mycorrhizal colonization was enhanced. A significant enhancement of mycorrhizal colonization and an increase of P content and biomass were observed when R. clarus was inoculated together with 20 µM sorgoleone. Thus, our results indicate that sorgoleone influences mycorrhizal colonization, but the mechanisms by which it does so still need to be revealed.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

de Souza Campos PM, Borie F, Cornejo P, et al (2020)

Wheat root trait plasticity, nutrient acquisition and growth responses are dependent on specific arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and plant genotype interactions.

Journal of plant physiology, 256:153297 pii:S0176-1617(20)30187-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to examine how interactions at both plant genotype and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus species levels affected the expression of root traits and the subsequent effect on plant nutrition and growth. We used two wheat cultivars with contrasting phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiencies (Tukan and Crac) and two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Rhizophagus intraradices and Claroideoglomus claroideum). Plant growth, as well as morphological and architectural root traits, were highly dependent on the myco-symbiotic partner in the case of the less P-acquisition efficient cultivar Tukan, with mycorrhizal responses ranging from -45 to 54 % with respect to non-mycorrhizal plants. Meanwhile, these responses were between only -7 and 5 % in the P-acquisition efficient cultivar Crac. The AM fungal species produced contrasting mechanisms in the improvement of plant nutrition and root trait responses. Colonization by R. intraradices increased Ca accumulation, regardless of the cultivar, but reduced root growth on Tukan plants. On the other hand, C. claroideum increased P content in both cultivars, with a concomitant increase in root growth and diffusion-based nutrient acquisition by Tukan. Moreover, plants in symbiosis with R. intraradices showed greater organic acid concentration in their rhizosphere compared to C. claroideum-colonized plants, especially Tukan (24 and 35 % more citrate and oxalate, respectively). Our results suggest that the responses in plant-AM fungal interactions related to nutrient dynamics are highly influenced at the fungus level and also by intra-specific variations in root traits at the genotype level, while growth responses related to improved nutrition depend on plant intrinsic acquisition efficiency.

RevDate: 2020-11-17
CmpDate: 2020-11-17

Matsuda Y, Yamaguchi Y, Matsuo N, et al (2020)

Communities of mycorrhizal fungi in different trophic types of Asiatic Pyrola japonica sensu lato (Ericaceae).

Journal of plant research, 133(6):841-853.

Mixotrophic plants obtain carbon by their own photosynthetic activity and from their root-associated mycorrhizal fungi. Mixotrophy is deemed a pre-adaptation for evolution of mycoheterotrophic nutrition, where plants fully depend on fungi and lose their photosynthetic activity. The aim of this study was to clarify mycorrhizal dependency and heterotrophy level in various phenotypes of mixotrophic Pyrola japonica (Ericaceae), encompassing green individuals, rare achlorophyllous variants (albinos) and a form with minute leaves, P. japonica f. subaphylla. These three phenotypes were collected in two Japanese forests. Phylogenetic analysis of both plants and mycorrhizal fungi was conducted based on DNA barcoding. Enrichment in 13C among organs (leaves, stems and roots) of the phenotypes with reference plants and fungal fruitbodies were compared by measuring stable carbon isotopic ratio. All plants were placed in the same clade, with f. subaphylla as a separate subclade. Leaf 13C abundances of albinos were congruent with a fully mycoheterotrophic nutrition, suggesting that green P. japonica leaves are 36.8% heterotrophic, while rhizomes are 74.0% heterotrophic. There were no significant differences in δ13C values among organs in both albino P. japonica and P. japonica f. subaphylla, suggesting full and high mycoheterotrophic nutrition, respectively. Among 55 molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected as symbionts, the genus Russula was the most abundant in each phenotype and its dominance was significantly higher in albino P. japonica and P. japonica f. subaphylla. Russula spp. detected in P. japonica f. subaphylla showed higher dissimilarity with other phenotypes. These results suggest that P. japonica sensu lato is prone to evolve mycoheterotrophic variants, in a process that changes its mycorrhizal preferences, especially towards the genus Russula for which this species has a marked preference.

RevDate: 2020-11-16
CmpDate: 2020-11-16

Geetha Thanuja K, Annadurai B, Thankappan S, et al (2020)

Non-rhizobial endophytic (NRE) yeasts assist nodulation of Rhizobium in root nodules of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.).

Archives of microbiology, 202(10):2739-2749.

The signal orchestration between legumes and the rhizobia attribute to symbiotic nitrogen fixation through nodule formation. Root nodules serve as a nutrient-rich reservoir and harbor diverse microbial communities. However, the existence of non-rhizobial endophytes (NRE) and their role inside the root nodules are being explored; there is no evidence on yeast microflora inhabiting nodule niche. This study focused on unraveling the presence of yeast in the root nodules and their possible function in either nodulation or signal exchange. From the root nodules of blackgram, two yeast strains were isolated and identified as Candida glabrata VYP1 and Candida tropicalis VYW1 based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogeny. These strains possessed plant growth-promoting traits viz., IAA, ACC deaminase, siderophore, ammonia, and polyamine production. The functional capacity of endophytic yeast strains, and their interaction with Rhizobium sp. was further unveiled via profiling volatile organic compounds (VOC). Among the VOCs, α-glucopyranoside and pyrroloquinoline pitches a pivotal role in activating lectin pathways and phosphorous metabolism. Further, lectin pathways are crucial for nodulating bacterium, and our study showed that these endophytic yeasts assist nodulation by Rhizobium sp. via activating the nod factors. The plant growth-promoting traits of NRE yeast strains coupled with their metabolite production, could recruit them as potential drivers in the plant-microbe interaction.

RevDate: 2020-11-16
CmpDate: 2020-11-16

Reiter N, Phillips RD, Swarts ND, et al (2020)

Specific mycorrhizal associations involving the same fungal taxa in common and threatened Caladenia (Orchidaceae): implications for conservation.

Annals of botany, 126(5):943-955.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In orchid conservation, quantifying the specificity of mycorrhizal associations, and establishing which orchid species use the same fungal taxa, is important for sourcing suitable fungi for symbiotic propagation and selecting sites for conservation translocation. For Caladenia subgenus Calonema (Orchidaceae), which contains 58 threatened species, we ask the following questions. (1) How many taxa of Serendipita mycorrhizal fungi do threatened species of Caladenia associate with? (2) Do threatened Caladenia share orchid mycorrhizal fungi with common Caladenia? (3) How geographically widespread are mycorrhizal fungi associated with Caladenia?

METHODS: Fungi were isolated from 127 Caladenia species followed by DNA sequencing of the internal transcibed spacer (ITS) sequence locus. We used a 4.1-6 % sequence divergence cut-off range to delimit Serendipita operational taxonomic units (OTUs). We conducted trials testing the ability of fungal isolates to support germination and plant growth. A total of 597 Serendipita isolates from Caladenia, collected from across the Australian continent, were used to estimate the geographic range of OTUs.

KEY RESULTS: Across the genus, Caladenia associated with ten OTUs of Serendipita (Serendipitaceae) mycorrhizal fungi. Specificity was high, with 19 of the 23 threatened Caladenia species sampled in detail associating solely with OTU A, which supported plants from germination to adulthood. The majority of populations of Caladenia associated with one OTU per site. Fungal sharing was extensive, with 62 of the 79 Caladenia sampled in subgenus Calonema associating with OTU A. Most Serendipita OTUs were geographically widespread.

CONCLUSIONS: Mycorrhizal fungi can be isolated from related common species to propagate threatened Caladenia. Because of high specificity of most Caladenia species, only small numbers of OTUs typically need to be considered for conservation translocation. When selecting translocation sites, the geographic range of the fungi is not a limiting factor, and using related Caladenia species to infer the presence of suitable fungal OTUs may be feasible.

RevDate: 2020-11-16
CmpDate: 2020-11-16

Iversen KH, Rasmussen LH, Al-Nakeeb K, et al (2020)

Similar genomic patterns of clinical infective endocarditis and oral isolates of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii.

Scientific reports, 10(1):2728.

Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis belong to the Mitis group streptococci, which mostly are commensals in the human oral cavity. Though they are oral commensals, they can escape their niche and cause infective endocarditis, a severe infection with high mortality. Several virulence factors important for the development of infective endocarditis have been described in these two species. However, the background for how the commensal bacteria, in some cases, become pathogenic is still not known. To gain a greater understanding of the mechanisms of the pathogenic potential, we performed a comparative analysis of 38 blood culture strains, S. sanguinis (n = 20) and S. gordonii (n = 18) from patients with verified infective endocarditis, along with 21 publicly available oral isolates from healthy individuals, S. sanguinis (n = 12) and S. gordonii (n = 9). Using whole genome sequencing data of the 59 streptococci genomes, functional profiles were constructed, using protein domain predictions based on the translated genes. These functional profiles were used for clustering, phylogenetics and machine learning. A clear separation could be made between the two species. No clear differences between oral isolates and clinical infective endocarditis isolates were found in any of the 675 translated core-genes. Additionally, random forest-based machine learning and clustering of the pan-genome data as well as amino acid variations in the core-genome could not separate the clinical and oral isolates. A total of 151 different virulence genes was identified in the 59 genomes. Among these homologs of genes important for adhesion and evasion of the immune system were found in all of the strains. Based on the functional profiles and virulence gene content of the genomes, we believe that all analysed strains had the ability to become pathogenic.

RevDate: 2020-11-17
CmpDate: 2020-11-17

Schuh NW, Carrier TJ, Schrankel CS, et al (2019)

Bacterial Exposure Mediates Developmental Plasticity and Resistance to Lethal Vibrio lentus Infection in Purple Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) Larvae.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:3014.

Exposure to and colonization by bacteria during development have wide-ranging beneficial effects on animal biology but can also inhibit growth or cause disease. The immune system is the prime mediator of these microbial interactions and is itself shaped by them. Studies using diverse animal taxa have begun to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and transmission of bacterial symbionts and their interactions with developing immune systems. Moreover, the contexts of these associations are often confounded by stark differences between "wild type" microbiota and the bacterial communities associated with animals raised in conventional or germ-free laboratories. In this study, we investigate the spatio-temporal kinetics of bacterial colonization and associated effects on growth and immune function in larvae of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) as a model for host-microbe interactions and immune system development. We also compare the host-associated microbiota of developing embryos and larvae raised in natural seawater or exposed to adult-associated bacteria in the laboratory. Bacteria associated with zygotes, embryos, and early larvae are detectable with 16S amplicon sequencing, but 16S-FISH indicates that the vast majority of larval bacterial load is acquired after feeding begins and is localized to the gut lumen. The bacterial communities of laboratory-cultured embryos are significantly less diverse than the natural microbiota but recapitulate its major components (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes), suggesting that biologically relevant host-microbe interactions can be studied in the laboratory. We also demonstrate that bacterial exposure in early development induces changes in morphology and in the immune system. In the absence of bacteria, larvae grow larger at the 4-arm stage. Additionally, bacteria-exposed larvae are significantly more resistant to lethal infection with the larva-associated pathogen Vibrio lentus suggesting that early exposure to high levels of microbes, as would be expected in natural conditions, affects the immune state in later larvae. These results expand our knowledge of microbial influences on early sea urchin development and establish a model in which to study the interactions between the developing larval immune system and the acquisition of larval microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-11-16
CmpDate: 2020-11-16

Li HW, Chen C, Kuo WL, et al (2019)

The Characteristics and Expression Profile of Transferrin in the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Bigfin Reef Squid during Bacteria Transmission.

Scientific reports, 9(1):20163.

The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found in most squid and cuttlefish that contains a consortium of bacteria. These symbiotic bacteria are transmitted from the marine environment and selected by the host through an unknown mechanism. In animals, a common antimicrobial mechanism of innate immunity is iron sequestration, which is based on the development of transferrin (TF)-like proteins. To understand this mechanism of host-microbe interaction, we attempted to characterize the role of transferrin in bigfin reef squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) during bacterial transmission. qPCR analysis showed that Tf was exclusively expressed in the outer layer of ANG,and this was confirmed by in situ hybridization, which showed that Tf was localized in the outer epithelial cell layer of the ANG. Western blot analysis indicated that TF is a soluble glycoprotein. Immunohistochemical staining also showed that TF is localized in the outer epithelial cell layer of the ANG and that it is mainly expressed in the outer layer during ANG growth. These results suggest that robust Tf mRNA and TF protein expression in the outer layer of the ANG plays an important role in microbe selection by the host during bacterial transmission.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Wood TE, Aksoy E, A Hachani (2020)

From Welfare to Warfare: The Arbitration of Host-Microbiota Interplay by the Type VI Secretion System.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:587948.

The health of mammals depends on a complex interplay with their microbial ecosystems. Compartments exposed to external environments such as the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract accommodate the gut microbiota, composed by a wide range of bacteria. The gut microbiome confers benefits to the host, including expansion of metabolic potential and the development of an immune system that can robustly protect from external and internal insults. The cooperation between gut microbiome and host is enabled in part by the formation of partitioned niches that harbor diverse bacterial phyla. Bacterial secretion systems are commonly employed to manipulate the composition of these local environments. Here, we explore the roles of the bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS), present in ~25% of gram-negative bacteria, including many symbionts, in the establishment and perturbation of bacterial commensalism, and symbiosis in host mucosal sites. This versatile apparatus drives bacterial competition, although in some cases can also interfere directly with host cells and facilitate nutrient acquisition. In addition, some bacterial pathogens cause disease when their T6SS leads to dysbiosis and subverts host immune responses in defined animal models. This review explores our knowledge of the T6SS in the context of the "host-microbiota-pathogen" triumvirate and examines contexts in which the importance of this secretion system may be underappreciated.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Arora G, Chaudhary D, Kidwai S, et al (2020)

Corrigendum: CitE Enzymes Are Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Establish Infection in Macrophages and Guinea Pigs.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:587907.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00385.].

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Qu YF, Wu YQ, Zhao YT, et al (2020)

The invasive red-eared slider turtle is more successful than the native Chinese three-keeled pond turtle: evidence from the gut microbiota.

PeerJ, 8:e10271 pii:10271.

Background: The mutualistic symbiosis between the gut microbial communities (microbiota) and their host animals has attracted much attention. Many factors potentially affect the gut microbiota, which also varies among host animals. The native Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (Chinemys reevesii) and the invasive red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) are two common farm-raised species in China, with the latter generally considered a more successful species. However, supporting evidence from the gut microbiota has yet to be collected.

Methods: We collected feces samples from these two turtle species raised in a farm under identical conditions, and analyzed the composition and relative abundance of the gut microbes using bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing on the Roach/454 platform.

Results: The gut microbiota was mainly composed of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes at the phylum level, and Porphyromonadaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Lachnospiraceae at the family level in both species. The relative abundance of the microbes and gene functions in the gut microbiota differed between the two species, whereas alpha or beta diversity did not. Microbes of the families Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae were comparatively more abundant in C. reevesii, whereas those of the families Porphyromonadaceae and Fusobacteriaceae were comparatively more abundant in T. s. elegans. In both species the gut microbiota had functional roles in enhancing metabolism, genetic information processing and environmental information processing according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. The potential to gain mass is greater in T. s. elegans than in C. reevesii, as revealed by the fact that the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was lower in the former species. The percentage of human disease-related functional genes was lower in T. s. elegans than in C. reevesii, presumably suggesting an enhanced potential to colonize new habitats in the former species.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Peng SE, Moret A, Chang C, et al (2020)

A shift away from mutualism under food-deprived conditions in an anemone-dinoflagellate association.

PeerJ, 8:e9745 pii:9745.

The mutualistic symbiosis between anthozoans and intra-gastrodermal dinoflagellates of the family Symbiodiniaceae is the functional basis of all coral reef ecosystems, with the latter providing up to 95% of their fixed photosynthate to their hosts in exchange for nutrients. However, recent studies of sponges, jellyfish, and anemones have revealed the potential for this mutualistic relationship to shift to parasitism under stressful conditions. Over a period of eight weeks, we compared the physiological conditions of both inoculated and aposymbiotic anemones (Exaiptasia pallida) that were either fed or starved. By the sixth week, both fed groups of anemones were significantly larger than their starved counterparts. Moreover, inoculated and starved anemones tended to disintegrate into "tissue balls" within eight weeks, and 25% of the samples died; in contrast, starved aposymbiotic anemones required six months to form tissue balls, and no anemones from this group died. Our results show that the dinoflagellates within inoculated anemones may have posed a fatal metabolic burden on their hosts during starvation; this may be because of the need to prioritize their own metabolism and nourishment at the expense of their hosts. Collectively, our study reveals the potential of this dynamic symbiotic association to shift away from mutualism during food-deprived conditions.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Maire J, Chouaia B, Zaidman-Rémy A, et al (2020)

Endosymbiosis morphological reorganization during metamorphosis diverges in weevils.

Communicative & integrative biology, 13(1):184-188 pii:1840707.

Virtually all animals associate with beneficial symbiotic bacteria. Whether and how these associations are modulated across a host's lifecycle is an important question in disentangling animal-bacteria interactions. We recently reported a case of complete morphological reorganization of symbiosis during metamorphosis of the cereal weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. In this model, the bacteriome, a specialized organ that houses the intracellular bacterium Sodalis pierantonius, undergoes a two-phase remodeling program synchronously driven by host and endosymbiont, resulting in a localization shift and the formation of multiple new bacteriomes. Here, we provide comparative data in a closely-related coleopteran, the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, which is associated with the ancestral endosymbiont Nardonella. Using cell imaging experiments, we show that the red pal weevil bacteriome remains unchanged during metamorphosis, hence contrasting with what we reported in the cereal weevil S. oryzae. These findings highlight the complexity and divergence of host-symbiont interactions and their intertwining with host development, even in closely-related species. Abbreviations: DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; FISH: Fluorescence in situ hybridization; T3SS: Type III secretion system.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Liu A, Ku YS, Contador CA, et al (2020)

The Impacts of Domestication and Agricultural Practices on Legume Nutrient Acquisition Through Symbiosis With Rhizobia and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:583954.

Legumes are unique among plants as they can obtain nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that form root nodules in the host plants. Therefore they are valuable crops for sustainable agriculture. Increasing nitrogen fixation efficiency is not only important for achieving better plant growth and yield, but it is also crucial for reducing the use of nitrogen fertilizer. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are another group of important beneficial microorganisms that form symbiotic relationships with legumes. AMF can promote host plant growth by providing mineral nutrients and improving the soil ecosystem. The trilateral legume-rhizobia-AMF symbiotic relationships also enhance plant development and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. It is known that domestication and agricultural activities have led to the reduced genetic diversity of cultivated germplasms and higher sensitivity to nutrient deficiencies in crop plants, but how domestication has impacted the capability of legumes to establish beneficial associations with rhizospheric microbes (including rhizobia and fungi) is not well-studied. In this review, we will discuss the impacts of domestication and agricultural practices on the interactions between legumes and soil microbes, focusing on the effects on AMF and rhizobial symbioses and hence nutrient acquisition by host legumes. In addition, we will summarize the genes involved in legume-microbe interactions and studies that have contributed to a better understanding of legume symbiotic associations using metabolic modeling.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Cibils-Stewart X, Powell JR, Popay AJ, et al (2020)

Reciprocal Effects of Silicon Supply and Endophytes on Silicon Accumulation and Epichloë Colonization in Grasses.

Frontiers in plant science, 11:593198.

Cool season grasses associate asymptomatically with foliar Epichloë endophytic fungi in a symbiosis where Epichloë spp. protects the plant from a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, many grass species can accumulate large quantities of silicon (Si), which also alleviates a similar range of stresses. While Epichloë endophytes may improve uptake of minerals and nutrients, their impact on Si is largely unknown. Likewise, the effect of Si availability on Epichloë colonization remains untested. To assess the bidirectional relationship, we grew tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) hydroponically with or without Si. Grasses were associated with five different Epichloë endophyte strains [tall fescue: AR584 or wild type (WT); perennial ryegrass: AR37, AR1, or WT] or as Epichloë-free controls. Reciprocally beneficial effects were observed for tall fescue associations. Specifically, Epichloë presence increased Si concentration in the foliage of tall fescue by at least 31%, regardless of endophyte strain. In perennial ryegrass, an increase in foliar Si was observed only for plants associated with the AR37. Epichloë promotion of Si was (i) independent of responses in plant growth, and (ii) positively correlated with endophyte colonization, which lends support to an endophyte effect independent of their impacts on root growth. Moreover, Epichloë colonization in tall fescue increased by more than 60% in the presence of silicon; however, this was not observed in perennial ryegrass. The reciprocal benefits of Epichloë-endophytes and foliar Si accumulation reported here, especially for tall fescue, might further increase grass tolerance to stress.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Wu Z, Huang W, Qin E, et al (2020)

Comprehensive Identification and Expression Profiling of Circular RNAs During Nodule Development in Phaseolus vulgaris.

Frontiers in plant science, 11:587185.

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume nodules provides an abundant nitrogen source for plants, and understanding this process is key for developing green agriculture. Circular RNA (circRNA), a type of endogenous RNA produced by reverse splicing of mRNA precursors, plays important regulatory roles in plants at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the relationship between circRNAs and legume-rhizobium is unknown. Here, we performed comprehensive identification and expression profiling of circRNAs during nodulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) compared to uninoculated roots of corresponding ages by constructing circRNA-seq and mRNA-seq libraries. We identified 8,842 high-confident circRNAs, 3,448 of which were specifically produced during symbiosis, with the highest number at the nitrogen-fixing stage. Significantly, more circRNAs were derived from exons than from intergenic regions or introns in all samples. The lengths and GC contents of the circRNAs were similar in roots and nodules. However, circRNAs showed specific spatiotemporal expression patterns during nodule and root development. GO and other functional annotation of parental genes of differentially expressed circRNAs indicated their potential involvement in different biological processes. The expression of major circRNAs during symbiosis is independent of parental genes' expression to a certain degree, while expression of the remaining minor circRNAs showed positive correlation to parental genes. Functional annotation of the targeted mRNAs in the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network showed that circRNAs may be involved in transmembrane transport and positive regulation of kinase activity during nodulation and nitrogen fixation as miRNA sponges. Our comprehensive analysis of the expression profile of circRNAs and their potential functions suggests that circRNAs may function as new post-transcriptional regulators in legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Hirota B, Meng XY, T Fukatsu (2020)

Bacteriome-Associated Endosymbiotic Bacteria of Nosodendron Tree Sap Beetles (Coleoptera: Nosodendridae).

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:588841.

The family Nosodendridae is a small group of tree sap beetles with only 91 described species representing three genera from the world. In 1930s, bacteria-harboring symbiotic organs, called bacteriomes, were briefly described in a European species Nosodendron fasciculare. Since then, however, no studies have been conducted on the nosodendrid endosymbiosis for decades. Here we investigated the bacteriomes and the endosymbiotic bacteria of Nosodendron coenosum and Nosodendron asiaticum using molecular phylogenetic and histological approaches. In adults and larvae, a pair of slender bacteriomes were found along both sides of the midgut. The bacteriomes consisted of large bacteriocytes at the center and flat sheath cells on the surface. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected preferential localization of the endosymbiotic bacteria in the cytoplasm of the bacteriocytes. In reproductive adult females, the endosymbiotic bacteria were also detected at the infection zone in the ovarioles and on the surface of growing oocytes, indicating vertical symbiont transmission via ovarial passage. Transmission electron microscopy unveiled bizarre structural features of the bacteriocytes, whose cytoplasm exhibited degenerate cytology with deformed endosymbiont cells. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nosodendrid endosymbionts formed a distinct clade in the Bacteroidetes. The nosodendrid endosymbionts were the most closely related to the bacteriome endosymbionts of bostrichid powderpost beetles and also allied to the bacteriome endosymbionts of silvanid grain beetles, uncovering an unexpected endosymbiont relationship across the unrelated beetle families Nosodendridae, Bostrichidae and Silvanidae. Host-symbiont co-evolution and presumable biological roles of the endosymbiotic bacteria are discussed.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Compton KK, Hildreth SB, Helm RF, et al (2020)

An Updated Perspective on Sinorhizobium meliloti Chemotaxis to Alfalfa Flavonoids.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:581482.

The symbiotic interaction between leguminous plants and their cognate rhizobia allows for the fixation of gaseous dinitrogen into bioavailable ammonia. The perception of host-derived flavonoids is a key initial step for the signaling events that must occur preceding the formation of the nitrogen-fixing organ. Past work investigating chemotaxis - the directed movement of bacteria through chemical gradients - of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Rhizobium meliloti discovered chemotaxis to various organic compounds, but focused on chemotaxis to flavonoids because of their relevance to the symbiosis biochemistry. The current work sought to replicate and further examine Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) meliloti chemotaxis to the flavonoids previously thought to act as the principal attractant molecules prior to the initial signaling stage. Exudate from germinating alfalfa seedlings was analyzed for composition and quantities of different flavonoid compounds using mass spectrometry. The abundance of four prevalent flavonoids in germinating alfalfa seed exudates (SEs) was at a ratio of 200:5:5:1 for hyperoside, luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, and chrysoeriol. Using quantitative chemotaxis capillary assays, we did not detect chemotaxis of motile S. meliloti cells to these, and two other flavonoids identified in seed exudates. In support of these findings, the flavonoid fraction of seed exudates was found to be an insignificant attractant relative to the more hydrophilic fraction. Additionally, we observed that cosolvents commonly used to dissolve flavonoids confound the results. We propose that the role flavonoids play in S. meliloti chemotaxis is insignificant relative to other components released by alfalfa seeds.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Maruyama S, VM Weis (2020)

Limitations of using cultured algae to study cnidarian-algal symbioses and suggestions for future studies.

Journal of phycology [Epub ahead of print].

Much of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying cnidarian-algal symbiosis comes from comparing the biology of the partners when they are engaged in symbiosis with when they are isolated from one another. When comparing the in hospite and ex hospite state in Symbiodiniaceae, the in hospite state is represented by algae sampled from hosts, and the ex hospite state is commonly represented by cultured algae. The use of cultured algae in this comparison may introduce nutrition as a confounding variable because, while hosts are kept in nutrient depleted conditions, culture media is nutrient rich and designed to facilitate algal growth. In this perspective, we reexamine how nutrition may be a confounding variable in studies that compare the biology of Symbiodiniaceae in hospite and in culture. We also suggest several innovations in experimental design to strengthen the comparison of the two lifestyles, including the adoption of nutritional controls, alternatives to culture for the representation of Symbiodiniaceae ex hospite, and the adoption of several proteomic approaches to find novel Symbiodiniaceae genes important for symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Singh P, Itankar N, Y Patil (2020)

Biomanagement of hexavalent chromium: Current trends and promising perspectives.

Journal of environmental management pii:S0301-4797(20)31472-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Chromium (Cr) is most widely used heavy metal with vast applications in industrial sectors such as metallurgy, automobile, leather, electroplating, etc. Subsequently, these industries discharge large volumes of toxic Cr containing industrial wastewaters without proper treatment/management into the environment, causing severe damage to human health and ecology. This review gives some novel insights on the existing, successful and promising bio-based approaches for Cr remediation. In lieu of the multiple limitations of the physical and chemical methods for remediation, various biological means have been deciphered, wherein dead and live biomass have shown immense capabilities of removing/reducing and/or remediating Cr from polluted environmental niches. Adsorption of Cr by various agro-based waste and reduction/precipitation by different microbial groups have shown promising results in chromium removal/recovery. Various microbial based agents and aquatic plants like duckweeds are emerging as efficient adsorbents of metals and their role in chromium bioremediation is an effective green technology that needs to be harnessed effectively. The role of iron and sulphur reducing bacteria have shown potential for enhanced Cr remediation. Biosurfactants have revealed immense scope as enhancers of microbial metal bioremediation and have been reported to have potential for use in chromium recovery as well. The authors also explore the combined use of biochar and biosurfactants as a potential strategy for chromium bioremediation for the development of technology worth adopting. Cr is non-renewable and finite resource, therefore its safe removal/recovery from wastes is of major significance for achieving social, economic and environmental sustainability.

RevDate: 2020-11-15

Mohamed AYA, Welles L, Siggins A, et al (2020)

Effects of substrate stress and light intensity on enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a photo-activated sludge system.

Water research, 189:116606 pii:S0043-1354(20)31141-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Photo-activated sludge (PAS) systems are an emerging wastewater treatment technology where microalgae provide oxygen to bacteria without the need for external aeration. There is limited knowledge on the optimal conditions for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in systems containing a mixture of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and microalgae. This research aimed to study the effects of substrate composition and light intensity on the performance of a laboratory-scale EBPR-PAS system. Initially, a model-based design was developed to study the effect of organic carbon (COD), inorganic carbon (HCO3) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) in nitrification deprived conditions on phosphorus (P) removal. Based on the mathematical model, two different synthetic wastewater compositions (COD:HCO3:NH4-N: 10:20:1 and 10:10:4) were examined at a light intensity of 350 µmol m-2 sec-1. Add to this, the performance of the system was also investigated at light intensities: 87.5, 175, and 262.5 µmol m-2 sec-1 for short terms. Results showed that wastewater having a high level of HCO3 and low level of NH4-N (ratio of 10:20:1) favored only microalgal growth, and had poor P removal due to a shortage of NH4-N for PAOs growth. However, lowering the HCO3 level and increasing the NH4-N level (ratio of 10:10:4) balanced PAOs and microalgae symbiosis, and had a positive influence on P removal. Under this mode of operation, the system was able to operate without external aeration and achieved a net P removal of 10.33 ±1.45 mg L-1 at an influent COD of 100 mg L-1. No significant variation was observed in the reactor performance for different light intensities, indicating the EBPR-PAS system can be operated at low light intensities with a positive influence on P removal.

RevDate: 2020-11-15

Wang G, Wang L, Ma F, et al (2020)

Earthworm and arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions: Strategies to motivate antioxidant responses and improve soil functionality.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(20)36669-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) act synergistically in the rhizosphere and may increase host plant tolerance to Cd. However, mechanisms by which earthworm-AMF-plant partnerships counteract Cd phytotoxicity are unknown. Thus, we evaluated individual and interactive effects of these soil organisms on photosynthesis, antioxidant capacity, and essential nutrient uptake by Solanum nigrum, as well as on soil quality following Cd exposure (0-120 mg kg-1). Decreases in biomass and photosynthetic activity, as well as nutrient imbalances were observed in Cd-stressed plants; however, the addition of AMF and earthworms reversed these effects. Cd exposure increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities, whereas inoculation with Rhizophagus intraradices decreased those. Soil enzymatic activity decreased by 15-60% with increasing Cd concentrations. However, Cd-mediated toxicity was partially reversed by soil organisms. Earthworms and AMF ameliorated soil quality based on soil enzyme activity. At 120 mg kg-1 Cd, the urease, catalase, and acid phosphatase activities were 1.6-, 1.4-, and 1.2-fold higher, respectively, in soils co-incubated with earthworms and AMF than in uninoculated soil. Cd inhibited shoot Fe and Ca phytoaccumulation, whereas AMF and earthworms normalized the status of essential elements in plants. Cd detoxification by earthworm-AMF-S. nigrum symbiosis was manifested by increases in plant biomass accumulation (22-117%), chlorophyll content (17-63%), antioxidant levels (SOD 10-18%, POD 9-25%, total polyphenols 17-22%, flavonoids 15-29%, and glutathione 7-61%). It also ameliorated the photosynthetic capacity, and macro- and micronutrient statuses of plants; markedly reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (20-27%), superoxide anion (29-36%), and hydrogen peroxide (19-30%); and upregulated the transcription level of FeSOD. Thus, the combined action of earthworms and AMF feasibly enhances metal tolerance of hyperaccumulating plants and improves the quality of polluted soil.

RevDate: 2020-11-14

Ma X, Geng Q, Zhang H, et al (2020)

Global negative effects of nutrient enrichment on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plant diversity and ecosystem multi-functionality.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Despite widespread anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, it remains unclear how nutrient enrichment influences plant- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbiosis and ecosystem multi-functionality at the global scale. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the worldwide effects of nutrient enrichment on AMF and plant diversity and ecosystem multi-functionality using data of field experiments from 136 papers. Our analyses showed that nutrient addition simultaneously decreased AMF diversity and abundance belowground and plant diversity aboveground at the global scale. The decreases in AMF diversity and abundance associated with nutrient addition were more pronounced with increasing experimental duration, mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). Nutrient addition-induced changes in soil pH and available phosphorus (P) predominantly regulated the responses of AMF diversity and abundance. Furthermore, AMF diversity correlated with ecosystem multi-functionality under nutrient addition worldwide. Our findings identify the negative effects of nutrient enrichment on AMF and plant diversity and suggest that AMF diversity is closely linked with ecosystem function. This study offers an important advancement in our understanding of plant-AMF interactions and their likely responses to ongoing global change.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Shelomi M, MJ Chen (2020)

Culturing-Enriched Metabarcoding Analysis of the Oryctes rhinoceros Gut Microbiome.

Insects, 11(11): pii:insects11110782.

Wood-feeding insects should have a source of enzymes like cellulases to digest their food. These enzymes can be produced by the insect, or by microbes living in the wood and/or inside the insect gut. The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, is a pest whose digestive microbes are of considerable interest. This study describes the compartments of the O. rhinoceros gut and compares their microbiomes using culturing-enriched metabarcoding. Beetle larvae were collected from a coconut grove in southern Taiwan. Gut contents from the midgut and hindgut were plated on nutrient agar and selective carboxymethylcellulose agar plates. DNA was extracted from gut and fat body samples and 16S rDNA metabarcoding performed to identify unculturable bacteria. Cellulase activity tests were performed on gut fluids and microbe isolates. The midgut and hindgut both showed cellulolytic activity. Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter koseri, and the cellulolytic fungus Candida xylanilytica were cultured from both gut sections in most larvae. Metabarcoding did not find Bacillus cereus, and found that either Citrobacter koseri or Paracoccus sp. were the dominant gut microbes in any given larva. No significant differences were found between midgut and hindgut microbiomes. Bacillus cereus and Citrobacter koseri are common animal gut microbes frequently found in Oryctes rhinoceros studies while Candida xylanilytica and the uncultured Paracoccus sp. had not been identified in this insect before. Some or all of these may well have digestive functions for the beetle, and are most likely acquired from the diet, meaning they may be transient commensalists rather than obligate mutualists. Broader collection efforts and tests with antibiotics will resolve ambiguities in the beetle-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Yoshioka Y, Yamashita H, Suzuki G, et al (2020)

Whole-genome transcriptome analyses of native symbionts reveal host coral genomic novelties for establishing coral-algae symbioses.

Genome biology and evolution pii:5981117 [Epub ahead of print].

Reef-building corals and photosynthetic, endosymbiotic algae of the family Symbiodiniaceae establish mutualistic relationships that are fundamental to coral biology, enabling coral reefs to support a vast diversity of marine species. Although numerous types of Symbiodiniaceae occur in coral reef environments, Acropora corals select specific types in early life stages. In order to study molecular mechanisms of coral-algal symbioses occurring in nature, we performed whole-genome transcriptomic analyses of Acropora tenuis larvae inoculated with Symbiodinium microadriaticum strains isolated from Acropora. In order to identify genes specifically involved in symbioses with native symbionts in early life stages, we also investigated transcriptomic responses of Acropora larvae exposed to closely related, non-symbiotic, and occasionally symbiotic Symbiodinium strains. We found that the number of differentially expressed genes was largest when larvae acquired native symbionts. Repertoires of differentially expressed genes indicated that corals reduced amino acid, sugar, and lipid metabolism, such that metabolic enzymes performing these functions were derived primarily from S. microadriaticum rather than from A. tenuis. Up-regulated gene expression of transporters for those metabolites occurred only when coral larvae acquired their natural symbionts, suggesting active utilization of native symbionts by host corals. We also discovered that in Acropora, genes for sugar and amino acid transporters, prosaposin-like, and Notch ligand-like, were up-regulated only in response to native symbionts, and included tandemly duplicated genes. Gene duplications in coral genomes may have been essential to establish genomic novelties for coral-algae symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-11-16
CmpDate: 2020-11-16

Bukharin OV, Kuzmin MD, Perunova NB, et al (2020)

[Characterization of the microbiota and cytokine profile of sperm plasma in men with chronic bacterial prostatitis].

Urologiia (Moscow, Russia : 1999).

BACKGROUND: One of the leading causes of the occurrence of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) in men is infection, microecological disorders of the urogenital tract and cytokine-mediated mechanisms of inflammation of the prostate gland, which actualizes a comprehensive study of the clinical and bacteriological features of CBP from the perspective of a symbiotic approach in the framework of a new scientific field - "infectious symbiology".

OBJECTIVE: to study the characteristics of spermogram, microbiota, and the cytokine profile in men with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and CBP complicated by infertility.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive study of patients with CBP and CBP complicated by infertility, in comparison with conditionally healthy individuals, was conducted. Species identification of microorganisms was carried out according to biochemical characteristics and the genetic method (sequencing of strains). The biological properties of the microbiota were evaluated: growth properties, biofilm formation, antipeptide activity against the cytokines IL-10, RAIL-1, TNF-, INF- and IL-17 (8 parameters). Immunological parameters of sperm plasma included 13 parameters: the content of cytokines TNF-, INF-, Rail, interleukins (IL) -1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 17, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, lactoferrin and lysozyme. To evaluate sperm plasma, the following quantities were determined: ejaculate volume, pH, sperm plasma liquefaction, total sperm count, sperm count per 1 ml, motility, number of progressively motile, non-progressive motile and motionless spermatozoa, number of round cells, white blood cells, spermatogenesis cells, erythrocytes, erythrocytes, cells, sperm agglutination and aggregation (16 parameters in total). The results are statistically processed.

RESULTS: Data were obtained on changes in biofilm formation, antipeptide activity of microbiota (especially pronounced in corynebacteria), sperm plasma cytokine profile (increased TNF , IL-2, 6, 17), as well as IgA and lactoferrin, which can be used to build a prognostic model of reproductive pathology tract of men and their fertile activity.

CONCLUSION: The study of the antipeptide activity of microbiota in combination with the cytokine profile of ejaculate allows us to recommend them as a "biotarget" for diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic measures for chronic prostatitis in men, which contribute to solving the medical and social problem of preventing male infertility and contributes to the development of health-saving technologies with incorporating elements of personalized medicine.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Braunberger P (2020)

Symbiosis and survival: Xanthoria elegans.

Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Academie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent, 29(4):256-259.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Kagawa O, Uchida S, Yamazaki D, et al (2020)

Citizen science via social media revealed conditions of symbiosis between a marine gastropod and an epibiotic alga.

Scientific reports, 10(1):19647 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-74946-5.

Environmental factors promote symbiosis, but its mechanism is not yet well understood. The alga Pseudocladophora conchopheria grows only on the shell of an intertidal gastropod Lunella correensis, and these species have a close symbiotic relationship which the alga reduces heat stress of the gastropod. In collaboration with general public, we investigated how environmental conditions alter the symbiotic interaction between the alga and the gastropod. Information about the habitats of each gastropod and images of shells was obtained from the Japanese and Korean coasts via social media. We constructed the hierarchical Bayesian model using the data. The results indicated that the proportion of shell area covered by P. conchopheria increased as the substrate size utilized by the gastropod increased. Meanwhile, temperature did not affect the proportion of P. conchopheria on the shell. These suggested that the alga provides no benefits for the gastropod on small substrates because gastropod can reduce the heat stress by diving into the small sediment. Further, the gastropod's cost incurred by growing the alga on the shell seems to be low as the algae can grow even in cooler places where no benefits of heat resistance for gastropods. Different environments can yield variable conditions in symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Yuan S, Ke D, Li R, et al (2020)

Genome-wide survey of soybean papain-like cysteine proteases and their expression analysis in root nodule symbiosis.

BMC plant biology, 20(1):517 pii:10.1186/s12870-020-02725-5.

BACKGROUND: Plant papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) are a large class of proteolytic enzymes and play important roles in root nodule symbiosis (RNS), while the whole-genome studies of PLCP family genes in legume are quite limited, and the roles of Glycine max PLCPs (GmPLCPs) in nodulation, nodule development and senescence are not fully understood.

RESULTS: In the present study, we identified 97 GmPLCPs and performed a genome-wide survey to explore the expansion of soybean PLCP family genes and their relationships to RNS. Nineteen paralogous pairs of genomic segments, consisting of 77 GmPLCPs, formed by whole-genome duplication (WGD) events were identified, showing a high degree of complexity in duplication. Phylogenetic analysis among different species showed that the lineage differentiation of GmPLCPs occurred after family expansion, and large tandem repeat segment were specifically in soybean. The expression patterns of GmPLCPs in symbiosis-related tissues and nodules identified RNS-related GmPLCPs and provided insights into their putative symbiotic functions in soybean. The symbiotic function analyses showed that a RNS-related GmPLCP gene (Glyma.04G190700) really participate in nodulation and nodule development.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings improved our understanding of the functional diversity of legume PLCP family genes, and provided insights into the putative roles of the legume PLCPs in nodulation, nodule development and senescence.

RevDate: 2020-11-13
CmpDate: 2020-11-13

Ramin E, Bestuzheva K, Gargalo CL, et al (2021)

Incremental design of water symbiosis networks with prior knowledge: The case of an industrial park in Kenya.

The Science of the total environment, 751:141706.

Industrial parks have a high potential for recycling and reusing resources such as water across companies by creating symbiosis networks. In this study, we introduce a mathematical optimization framework for the design of water network integration in industrial parks formulated as a large-scale standard mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problem. The novelty of our approach relies on i) developing a multi-level incremental optimization framework for water network synthesis, ii) including prior knowledge of water demand growth and projected water scarcity to evaluate the significance of water-saving solutions, iii) incorporating a comprehensive formulation of the water network synthesis problem including multiple pollutants and different treatment units and iv) performing a multi-objective optimization of the network including freshwater savings and relative cost of the network. The significance of the proposed optimization framework is illustrated by applying it to an existing industrial park in a water-scarce region in Kenya. Firstly, we illustrated the benefits of including prior knowledge to prevent an over-design of the network at the early stages. In the case study, we achieved a more flexible and expandable water network with 36% lower unit cost at the early stage and 15% lower unit cost at later stages for overall maximum freshwater savings of 25%. Secondly, multi-objective analysis suggests an optimum freshwater savings of 14% to reduce the unit cost of the network by half. Moreover, the significance of symbiosis networks is highlighted by showing that intra-company connections can only achieve a maximum freshwater savings of 17% with significantly higher unit cost (+45%). Finally, we showed that the values of symbiosis connectivity index in the Pareto front correspond to higher freshwater savings, indicating the significant role of the symbiosis network in the industrial park under study. This is the first study, where all the above elements have been taken into account simultaneously for the design of a water reuse network.

RevDate: 2020-11-13
CmpDate: 2020-11-13

Rivera MJ, Martini X, Conover D, et al (2020)

Evaluation of semiochemical based push-pull strategy for population suppression of ambrosia beetle vectors of laurel wilt disease in avocado.

Scientific reports, 10(1):2670.

Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) bore into tree xylem to complete their life cycle, feeding on symbiotic fungi. Ambrosia beetles are a threat to avocado where they have been found to vector a symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, the causal agent of the laurel wilt disease. We assessed the repellency of methyl salicylate and verbenone to two putative laurel wilt vectors in avocado, Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) and Xyleborus bispinatus (Eichhoff), under laboratory conditions. Then, we tested the same two chemicals released from SPLAT flowable matrix with and without low-dose ethanol dispensers for manipulation of ambrosia beetle populations occurring in commercial avocado. The potential active space of repellents was assessed by quantifying beetle catch on traps placed 'close' (~5-10 cm) and 'far' (~1-1.5 m) away from repellent dispensers. Ambrosia beetles collected on traps associated with all in-field treatments were identified to species to assess beetle diversity and community variation. Xyleborus volvulus was not repelled by methyl salicylate (MeSA) or verbenone in laboratory assays, while X. bispinatus was repelled by MeSA but not verbenone. Ambrosia beetle trap catches were reduced in the field more when plots were treated with verbenone dispensers (SPLAT) co-deployed with low-dose ethanol dispensers than when treated with verbenone alone. Beetle diversity was highest on traps deployed with low-dose ethanol lures. The repellent treatments and ethanol lures significantly altered the species composition of beetles captured in experiment plots. Our results indicate that verbenone co-deployed with ethanol lures holds potential for manipulating ambrosia beetle vectors via push-pull management in avocado. This tactic could discourage immigration and/or population establishment of ambrosia beetles in commercial avocado and function as an additional tool for management programs of laurel wilt.

RevDate: 2020-11-12

Tahayori B (2020)

Prokaryote-Eukaryote Symbiosis to Produce RNA-Based Therapeutics.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:583464.

RevDate: 2020-11-12

Bengoa AA, Dardis C, Gagliarini N, et al (2020)

Exopolysaccharides From Lactobacillus paracasei Isolated From Kefir as Potential Bioactive Compounds for Microbiota Modulation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:583254.

Microbiota coexists in true symbiosis with the host playing pivotal roles as a key element for well-being and health. Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria are an alternative as novel potential prebiotics that increase microbiota diversity. Considering this, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the capacity of the EPS produced by two L. paracasei strains isolated from kefir grains, to be metabolized in vitro by fecal microbiota producing short chain fatty acids. For this purpose, fecal samples from healthy children were inoculated in a basal medium with EPS and incubated in anaerobiosis at 37°C for 24, 48, and 72 h. DGGE profiles and the production of SCFA after fermentation were analyzed. Additionally, three selected samples were sequenced by mass sequencing analysis using Ion Torrent PGM. EPS produced by L. paracasei CIDCA 8339 (EPS8339) and CIDCA 83124 (EPS83124) are metabolized by fecal microbiota producing a significant increase in SCFA. EPS8339 fermentation led to an increment of propionate and butyrate, while fermentation of EPS83124 increased butyrate levels. Both EPS led to a profile of SCFA different from the ones obtained with inulin or glucose fermentation. DGGE profiles of 72 h fermentation demonstrated that both EPS showed a different band profile when compared to the controls; EPS profiles grouped in a cluster that have only 65% similarity with glucose or inulin profiles. Mass sequencing analysis demonstrated that the fermentation of EPS8339 leads to an increase in the proportion of the genera Victivallis, Acidaminococcus and Comamonas and a significant drop in the proportion of enterobacteria. In the same direction, the fermentation of EPS83124 also resulted in a marked reduction of Enterobacteriaceae with a significant increase in the genus Comamonas. It was observed that the changes in fecal microbiota and SCFA profile exerted by both polymers are different probably due to differences in their structural characteristics. It can be concluded that EPS synthesized by both L. paracasei strains, could be potentially used as bioactive compound that modify the microbiota increasing the production of propionic and butyric acid, two metabolites highly associated with beneficial effects both at the gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal level.

RevDate: 2020-11-12

Goto S, Ohbayashi T, Takeshita K, et al (2020)

A Peptidoglycan Amidase Mutant of Burkholderia insecticola Adapts an L-form-like Shape in the Gut Symbiotic Organ of the Bean Bug Riptortus pedestris.

Microbes and environments, 35(4):.

Bacterial cell shapes may be altered by the cell cycle, nutrient availability, environmental stress, and interactions with other organisms. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris possesses a symbiotic bacterium, Burkholderia insecticola, in its midgut crypts. This symbiont is a typical rod-shaped bacterium under in vitro culture conditions, but changes to a spherical shape inside the gut symbiotic organ of the host insect, suggesting the induction of morphological alterations in B. insecticola by host factors. The present study revealed that a deletion mutant of a peptidoglycan amidase gene (amiC), showing a filamentous chain form in vitro, adapted a swollen L-form-like cell shape in midgut crypts. Spatiotemporal observations of the ΔamiC mutant in midgut crypts revealed the induction of swollen cells, particularly prior to the molting of insects. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying in vivo-specific morphological alterations, the symbiont was cultured under 13 different conditions and its cell shape was examined. Swollen cells, similar to symbiont cells in midgut crypts, were induced when the mutant was treated with fosfomycin, an inhibitor of peptidoglycan precursor biosynthesis. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that the Burkholderia symbiont in midgut crypts is under the control of the host insect via a cell wall-attacking agent.

RevDate: 2020-11-12

Masson F, B Lemaitre (2020)

Growing Ungrowable Bacteria: Overview and Perspectives on Insect Symbiont Culturability.

Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR, 84(4):.

SUMMARYInsects are often involved in endosymbiosis, that is, the housing of symbiotic microbes within their tissues or within their cells. Endosymbionts are a major driving force in insects' evolution, because they dramatically affect their host physiology and allow them to adapt to new niches, for example, by complementing their diet or by protecting them against pathogens. Endosymbiotic bacteria are, however, fastidious and therefore difficult to manipulate outside of their hosts, especially intracellular species. The coevolution between hosts and endosymbionts leads to alterations in the genomes of endosymbionts, limiting their ability to cope with changing environments. Consequently, few insect endosymbionts are culturable in vitro and genetically tractable, making functional genetics studies impracticable on most endosymbiotic bacteria. However, recently, major progress has been made in manipulating several intracellular endosymbiont species in vitro, leading to astonishing discoveries on their physiology and the way they interact with their host. This review establishes a comprehensive picture of the in vitro tractability of insect endosymbiotic bacteria and addresses the reason why most species are not culturable. By compiling and discussing the latest developments in the design of custom media and genetic manipulation protocols, it aims at providing new leads to expand the range of tractable endosymbionts and foster genetic research on these models.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Prasad S, Rajan A, Pasha SA, et al (2020)

Abnormal structural connectivity in progressive supranuclear palsy - Richardson syndrome.

Acta neurologica Scandinavica [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Progressive supranuclear palsy-Richardson syndrome (PSP-RS) is characterized by symmetrical parkinsonism with postural instability and frontal dysfunction. This study aims to use the whole brain structural connectome (SC) to gain insights into the underlying disconnectivity which may be implicated in the clinical features of PSP-RS.

METHODS: Sixteen patients of PSP-RS and 12 healthy controls were recruited. Disease severity was quantified using PSP rating scale (PSPRS), and mini-mental scale was applied to evaluate cognition. Thirty-two direction diffusion MRIs were acquired and used to compute the structural connectome of the whole brain using deterministic fiber tracking. Group analyses were performed at the edge-wise, nodal and global levels. Age and gender were used as nuisance covariates for all the subsequent analyses, and FDR correction was applied.

RESULTS: Network based statistics revealed a 34-edge network with significantly abnormal edge-wise connectivity in the patient group. Of these, 25 edges were cortical connections, of which 68% were frontal connections. Abnormal deep gray matter connections were predominantly comprised of connections between structures of the basal ganglia. The characteristic path length of the SC was lower in PSP-RS, and nodal analysis revealed abnormal degree, strength, local efficiency, betweenness centrality and participation coefficient in several nodes.

CONCLUSIONS: Significant alterations in the structural connectivity of the whole brain connectome were observed in PSP-RS. The higher degree of abnormality observed in nodes belonging to the frontal lobe and basal ganglia substantiates the predominant frontal dysfunction and parkinsonism observed in PSP-RS. The findings of this study support the concept that PSP-RS may be a network-based disorder.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Avadhanam V, Ingavle G, Zheng Y, et al (2020)

Biomimetic bone-like composites as osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis skirt substitutes.

Journal of biomaterials applications [Epub ahead of print].

Osteo-odonto-keratoprostheses, incorporating dental laminate material as an anchoring skirt around a central poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) optic, have been used to replace the cornea for many years. However, there are many intricacies associated with the use of autologous dental laminate material, surgical complexity and skirt erosion. Tissue engineering approaches to bone replacement may offer suitable alternatives in osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery. In this study, a hydrogel polymer composite was investigated as a synthetic substitute for the OOKP skirt. A novel high strength interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel composite with nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) coated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA microspheres was created to mimic the alveo-dental lamina by employing agarose and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) polymers. The incorporation of nHAp coated PLGA microspheres into the hybrid IPN network provide a micro-environment similar to that of skeletal tissues and improve cellular response. Agarose was used as a first network to encapsulate keratocytes/3T3 fibroblasts and PEGDA (6000 Da) was used as a second network with varying concentrations (20 and 40 wt %) to produce a strong and biocompatible scaffold. An increased concentration of either agarose or PEG-DA and incorporation of nHAp coated PLGA microspheres led to an increase in the elastic modulus. The IPN hydrogel combinations supported the adhesion and proliferation of both fibroblast and ocular human keratocyte cell types during in in-vitro testing. The cells endured the encapsulation process into the IPN and remained viable at 1 week post-encapsulation in the presence of nHAp coated microspheres. The material did not induce significant production of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in comparison to a positive control (p < 0.05) indicating non-inflammatory potential. The nHAp encapsulated composite IPN hydrogels are mechanically strong, cell supportive, non-inflammatory materials supporting their development as OOKP skirt substitutes using a new approach to dental laminate biomimicry in the OOKP skirt material.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Izadi P, Izadi P, A Eldyasti (2020)

Towards mainstream deammonification: Comprehensive review on potential mainstream applications and developed sidestream technologies.

Journal of environmental management pii:S0301-4797(20)31540-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Deammonification (partial nitritation-anammox) process is a favorable and innovative process, for treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewater due to decreased oxygen and carbon requirements at very high nitrogen loadings. The bacterial groups responsible for this process are anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in symbiosis with ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which have an active role in development of nitrogen removal biotechnology in wastewater. Development and operation of sidestream deammonification processes has augmented since the initial full-scale systems, yet there are several aspects which mandate additional investigation and deliberation by the practitioners, to reach the operating perspective, set for the facility. Process technologies for treatment of streams with high ammonia concentrations continue to emerge, correspondingly, further investigation towards feasibility of applying the deammonification concept, in the mainstream treatment process is required. Mainstream deammonification can potentially improve the process of achieving more sustainable and energy-neutral municipal wastewater treatment, however feasible applications are not accessible yet. This critical review focuses on a comprehensive assessment of the worldwide lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale sidestream applications as well as identifying the major issues obstructing the implementation of mainstream processes, in addition to the designs, operational factors and technology advancements at both novel and/or conventional levels. This review aims to provide a novel and broad overview of the status and challenges of both sidestream and mainstream deammonification technologies and installations worldwide to assess the global perspectives on deammonification research in the recent years. The different configurations, crucial factors and overall trends in the development of deammonification research are discussed and conclusively, the future needs for feasible applications are critically reviewed.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Young BD, Serrano XM, Rosales SM, et al (2020)

Innate immune gene expression in Acropora palmata is consistent despite variance in yearly disease events.

PloS one, 15(10):e0228514.

Coral disease outbreaks are expected to increase in prevalence, frequency and severity due to climate change and other anthropogenic stressors. This is especially worrying for the Caribbean branching coral Acropora palmata which has already seen an 80% decrease in cover primarily due to disease. Despite the importance of this keystone species, there has yet to be a characterization of its transcriptomic response to disease exposure. In this study we provide the first transcriptomic analysis of 12 A. palmata genotypes and their symbiont Symbiodiniaceae exposed to disease in 2016 and 2017. Year was the primary driver of gene expression variance for A. palmata and the Symbiodiniaceae. We hypothesize that lower expression of ribosomal genes in the coral, and higher expression of transmembrane ion transport genes in the Symbiodiniaceae indicate that a compensation or dysbiosis may be occurring between host and symbiont. Disease response was the second driver of gene expression variance for A. palmata and included a core set of 422 genes that were significantly differentially expressed. Of these, 2 genes (a predicted cyclin-dependent kinase 11b and aspartate 1-decarboxylase) showed negative Log2 fold changes in corals showing transmission of disease, and positive Log2 fold changes in corals showing no transmission of disease, indicating that these may be important in disease resistance. Co-expression analysis identified two modules positively correlated to disease exposure, one enriched for lipid biosynthesis genes, and the other enriched in innate immune genes. The hub gene in the immune module was identified as D-amino acid oxidase, a gene implicated in phagocytosis and microbiome homeostasis. The role of D-amino acid oxidase in coral immunity has not been characterized but could be an important enzyme for responding to disease. Our results indicate that A. palmata mounts a core immune response to disease exposure despite differences in the disease type and virulence between 2016 and 2017. These identified genes may be important for future biomarker development in this Caribbean keystone species.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Ray C, Rochefort RM, Ransom JI, et al (2020)

Assessing trends and vulnerabilities in the mutualism between whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) in national parks of the Sierra-Cascade region.

PloS one, 15(10):e0227161.

Dispersal of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), a keystone species of many high-elevation ecosystems in western North America, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana Wilson), a seed-caching bird with an affinity for whitebark seeds. To the extent that this dependence is mutual, declines in whitebark seed production could cause declines in nutcracker abundance. Whitebark pine is in decline across much of its range due to interacting stressors, including the non-native pathogen white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch.). We used avian point-count data and tree surveys from four national park units to investigate whether trends in whitebark pine can explain trends in Clark's nutcracker. Spatial trends were modeled using recent data from two parks, while temporal trends were modeled using longer time-series of nutcracker and whitebark data from two additional parks. To assess the potential dependence of nutcrackers on whitebark, we linked a model of nutcracker density (accounting for detection probability) with a model of whitebark trends, using a Bayesian framework to translate uncertainty in whitebark metrics to uncertainty in nutcracker density. In Mount Rainier National Park, temporal models showed dramatic declines in nutcracker density concurrent with significant increases in whitebark crown mortality and trees infected with white pine blister rust. However, nutcrackers did not trend with whitebark metrics in North Cascades National Park Service Complex. In spatial models of data from Yosemite National Park and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park, nutcracker density varied not only with local cover of whitebark but also with elevation and, in Sequoia-Kings Canyon, with cover of another species of white pine. Our results add support for the hypothesis that the mutualism between whitebark pine and Clark's nutcracker is vulnerable to disruption by blister rust, and our approach integrates data across monitoring programs to explore trends in species interactions.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Sorroche F, Morales V, Mouffok S, et al (2020)

The ex planta signal activity of a Medicago ribosomal uL2 protein suggests a moonlighting role in controlling secondary rhizobial infection.

PloS one, 15(10):e0235446.

We recently described a regulatory loop, which we termed autoregulation of infection (AOI), by which Sinorhizobium meliloti, a Medicago endosymbiont, downregulates the root susceptibility to secondary infection events via ethylene. AOI is initially triggered by so-far unidentified Medicago nodule signals named signal 1 and signal 1' whose transduction in bacteroids requires the S. meliloti outer-membrane-associated NsrA receptor protein and the cognate inner-membrane-associated adenylate cyclases, CyaK and CyaD1/D2, respectively. Here, we report on advances in signal 1 identification. Signal 1 activity is widespread as we robustly detected it in Medicago nodule extracts as well as in yeast and bacteria cell extracts. Biochemical analyses indicated a peptidic nature for signal 1 and, together with proteomic analyses, a universally conserved Medicago ribosomal protein of the uL2 family was identified as a candidate signal 1. Specifically, MtRPuL2A (MtrunA17Chr7g0247311) displays a strong signal activity that requires S. meliloti NsrA and CyaK, as endogenous signal 1. We have shown that MtRPuL2A is active in signaling only in a non-ribosomal form. A Medicago truncatula mutant in the major symbiotic transcriptional regulator MtNF-YA1 lacked most signal 1 activity, suggesting that signal 1 is under developmental control. Altogether, our results point to the MtRPuL2A ribosomal protein as the candidate for signal 1. Based on the Mtnf-ya1 mutant, we suggest a link between root infectiveness and nodule development. We discuss our findings in the context of ribosomal protein moonlighting.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Assis APA, Thompson JN, Santana PC, et al (2020)

Genetic correlations and ecological networks shape coevolving mutualisms.

Ecology letters, 23(12):1789-1799.

Ecological interactions shape the evolution of multiple species traits in populations. These traits are often linked to each other through genetic correlations, affecting how each trait evolves through selection imposed by interacting partners. Here, we integrate quantitative genetics, coevolutionary theory and network science to explore how trait correlations affect the coevolution of mutualistic species not only in pairs of species but also in species-rich networks across space. We show that genetic correlations may determine the pace of coevolutionary change, affect species abundances and fuel divergence among populations of the same species. However, this trait divergence promoted by genetic correlations is partially buffered by the nested structure of species-rich mutualisms. Our study, therefore, highlights how coevolution and its ecological consequences may result from conflicting processes at different levels of organisation, ranging from genes to communities.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Rola K, Lenart-Boroń A, Boroń P, et al (2021)

Heavy-metal pollution induces changes in the genetic composition and anatomical properties of photobionts in pioneer lichens colonising post-industrial habitats.

The Science of the total environment, 750:141439.

Certain lichens are effective colonisers of polluted sites. However, little is known about the tolerance of photobionts and the degree of mycobiont selectivity to photobionts relative to metal pollution. The present study recognises the genetic and anatomical diversity of Asterochloris photobionts in epigeic lichens, i.e. Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and Diploschistes muscorum, in relation to a wide spectrum of soil pollution. In accordance with phylogenetic analysis, photobionts were clustered in 7 moderately- to well-supported clades, including 19 haplotypes. The mycobionts of all studied lichens demonstrated a low level of selectivity and were capable of associating with various Asterochloris lineages. This tendency was also expressed by the frequent (~25%) occurrence of multiple algal genotypes in a single thallus. This indicates that identified Asterochloris lineages are generally tolerant to heavy-metal pollution, and the low level of selectivity of mycobionts enables them to select the most suitable and/or available partner. The trend of increasing incidence of certain Asterochloris lineages and decreasing frequency of others along with increasing soil pollution was observed. This proves the superior adaptation of some photobionts to polluted sites. Such symbiotic plasticity constitute an adaptive feature necessary for the successful colonisation. High number of haplotypes at polluted sites could be the result of multiple introduction events from different areas during the initial stages of spontaneous succession. Regardless of the genetic pattern, Asterochloris cells were considerably smaller, and the density and compaction of cells in the algal layer were higher, in lichen specimens from polluted sites, indicating that photobiont characteristics may be closely dependent on heavy-metal pollution.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Dunaj SJ, Bettencourt BR, Garb JE, et al (2020)

Spider phylosymbiosis: divergence of widow spider species and their tissues' microbiomes.

BMC evolutionary biology, 20(1):104.

BACKGROUND: Microbiomes can have profound impacts on host biology and evolution, but to date, remain vastly understudied in spiders despite their unique and diverse predatory adaptations. This study evaluates closely related species of spiders and their host-microbe relationships in the context of phylosymbiosis, an eco-evolutionary pattern where the microbial community profile parallels the phylogeny of closely related host species. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we characterized the microbiomes of five species with known phylogenetic relationships from the family Theridiidae, including multiple closely related widow spiders (L. hesperus, L. mactans, L. geometricus, S. grossa, and P. tepidariorum).

RESULTS: We compared whole animal and tissue-specific microbiomes (cephalothorax, fat bodies, venom glands, silk glands, and ovary) in the five species to better understand the relationship between spiders and their microbial symbionts. This showed a strong congruence of the microbiome beta-diversity of the whole spiders, cephalothorax, venom glands, and silk glands when compared to their host phylogeny. Our results support phylosymbiosis in these species and across their specialized tissues. The ovary tissue microbial dendrograms also parallel the widow phylogeny, suggesting vertical transfer of species-specific bacterial symbionts. By cross-validating with RNA sequencing data obtained from the venom glands, silk glands and ovaries of L. hesperus, L. geometricus, S. grossa, and P. tepidariorum we confirmed that several microbial symbionts of interest are viably active in the host.

CONCLUSION: Together these results provide evidence that supports the importance of host-microbe interactions and the significant role microbial communities may play in the evolution and adaptation of their hosts.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Klonowska A, Moulin L, Ardley JK, et al (2020)

Novel heavy metal resistance gene clusters are present in the genome of Cupriavidus neocaledonicus STM 6070, a new species of Mimosa pudica microsymbiont isolated from heavy-metal-rich mining site soil.

BMC genomics, 21(1):214.

BACKGROUND: Cupriavidus strain STM 6070 was isolated from nickel-rich soil collected near Koniambo massif, New Caledonia, using the invasive legume trap host Mimosa pudica. STM 6070 is a heavy metal-tolerant strain that is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with M. pudica. Here we have provided an updated taxonomy for STM 6070 and described salient features of the annotated genome, focusing on heavy metal resistance (HMR) loci and heavy metal efflux (HME) systems.

RESULTS: The 6,771,773 bp high-quality-draft genome consists of 107 scaffolds containing 6118 protein-coding genes. ANI values show that STM 6070 is a new species of Cupriavidus. The STM 6070 symbiotic region was syntenic with that of the M. pudica-nodulating Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T. In contrast to the nickel and zinc sensitivity of C. taiwanensis strains, STM 6070 grew at high Ni2+ and Zn2+ concentrations. The STM 6070 genome contains 55 genes, located in 12 clusters, that encode HMR structural proteins belonging to the RND, MFS, CHR, ARC3, CDF and P-ATPase protein superfamilies. These HMR molecular determinants are putatively involved in arsenic (ars), chromium (chr), cobalt-zinc-cadmium (czc), copper (cop, cup), nickel (nie and nre), and silver and/or copper (sil) resistance. Seven of these HMR clusters were common to symbiotic and non-symbiotic Cupriavidus species, while four clusters were specific to STM 6070, with three of these being associated with insertion sequences. Within the specific STM 6070 HMR clusters, three novel HME-RND systems (nieIC cep nieBA, czcC2B2A2, and hmxB zneAC zneR hmxS) were identified, which constitute new candidate genes for nickel and zinc resistance.

CONCLUSIONS: STM 6070 belongs to a new Cupriavidus species, for which we have proposed the name Cupriavidus neocaledonicus sp. nov.. STM6070 harbours a pSym with a high degree of gene conservation to the pSyms of M. pudica-nodulating C. taiwanensis strains, probably as a result of recent horizontal transfer. The presence of specific HMR clusters, associated with transposase genes, suggests that the selection pressure of the New Caledonian ultramafic soils has driven the specific adaptation of STM 6070 to heavy-metal-rich soils via horizontal gene transfer.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Kim H, Lee KK, Jeon J, et al (2020)

Domestication of Oryza species eco-evolutionarily shapes bacterial and fungal communities in rice seed.

Microbiome, 8(1):20.

BACKGROUND: Plant-associated microbiomes, which are shaped by host and environmental factors, support their hosts by providing nutrients and attenuating abiotic and biotic stresses. Although host genetic factors involved in plant growth and immunity are known to shape compositions of microbial communities, the effects of host evolution on microbial communities are not well understood.

RESULTS: We show evidence that both host speciation and domestication shape seed bacterial and fungal community structures. Genome types of rice contributed to compositional variations of both communities, showing a significant phylosymbiosis with microbial composition. Following the domestication, abundance inequality of bacterial and fungal communities also commonly increased. However, composition of bacterial community was relatively conserved, whereas fungal membership was dramatically changed. These domestication effects were further corroborated when analyzed by a random forest model. With these changes, hub taxa of inter-kingdom networks were also shifted from fungi to bacteria by domestication. Furthermore, maternal inheritance of microbiota was revealed as a major path of microbial transmission across generations.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that evolutionary processes stochastically affect overall composition of microbial communities, whereas dramatic changes in environments during domestication contribute to assembly of microbiotas in deterministic ways in rice seed. This study further provides new insights on host evolution and microbiome, the starting point of the holobiome of plants, microbial communities, and surrounding environments.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Davoodi S, E Foley (2019)

Host-Microbe-Pathogen Interactions: A Review of Vibrio cholerae Pathogenesis in Drosophila.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:3128.

Most animals maintain mutually beneficial symbiotic relationships with their intestinal microbiota. Resident microbes in the gastrointestinal tract breakdown indigestible food, provide essential nutrients, and, act as a barrier against invading microbes, such as the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Over the last decades, our knowledge of V. cholerae pathogenesis, colonization, and transmission has increased tremendously. A number of animal models have been used to study how V. cholerae interacts with host-derived resources to support gastrointestinal colonization. Here, we review studies on host-microbe interactions and how infection with V. cholerae disrupts these interactions, with a focus on contributions from the Drosophila melanogaster model. We will discuss studies that highlight the connections between symbiont, host, and V. cholerae metabolism; crosstalk between V. cholerae and host microbes; and the impact of the host immune system on the lethality of V. cholerae infection. These studies suggest that V. cholerae modulates host immune-metabolic responses in the fly and improves Vibrio fitness through competition with intestinal microbes.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Osman EO, Suggett DJ, Voolstra CR, et al (2020)

Coral microbiome composition along the northern Red Sea suggests high plasticity of bacterial and specificity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities.

Microbiome, 8(1):8.

BACKGROUND: The capacity of reef-building corals to tolerate (or adapt to) heat stress is a key factor determining their resilience to future climate change. Changes in coral microbiome composition (particularly for microalgal endosymbionts and bacteria) is a potential mechanism that may assist corals to thrive in warm waters. The northern Red Sea experiences extreme temperatures anomalies, yet corals in this area rarely bleach suggesting possible refugia to climate change. However, the coral microbiome composition, and how it relates to the capacity to thrive in warm waters in this region, is entirely unknown.

RESULTS: We investigated microbiomes for six coral species (Porites nodifera, Favia favus, Pocillopora damicornis, Seriatopora hystrix, Xenia umbellata, and Sarcophyton trocheliophorum) from five sites in the northern Red Sea spanning 4° of latitude and summer mean temperature ranges from 26.6 °C to 29.3 °C. A total of 19 distinct dinoflagellate endosymbionts were identified as belonging to three genera in the family Symbiodiniaceae (Symbiodinium, Cladocopium, and Durusdinium). Of these, 86% belonged to the genus Cladocopium, with notably five novel types (19%). The endosymbiont community showed a high degree of host-specificity despite the latitudinal gradient. In contrast, the diversity and composition of bacterial communities of the surface mucus layer (SML)-a compartment particularly sensitive to environmental change-varied significantly between sites, however for any given coral was species-specific.

CONCLUSION: The conserved endosymbiotic community suggests high physiological plasticity to support holobiont productivity across the different latitudinal regimes. Further, the presence of five novel algal endosymbionts suggests selection of certain genotypes (or genetic adaptation) within the semi-isolated Red Sea. In contrast, the dynamic composition of bacteria associated with the SML across sites may contribute to holobiont function and broaden the ecological niche. In doing so, SML bacterial communities may aid holobiont local acclimatization (or adaptation) by readily responding to changes in the host environment. Our study provides novel insight about the selective and endemic nature of coral microbiomes along the northern Red Sea refugia.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Moog D, Nozawa A, Tozawa Y, et al (2020)

Substrate specificity of plastid phosphate transporters in a non-photosynthetic diatom and its implication in evolution of red alga-derived complex plastids.

Scientific reports, 10(1):1167.

The triose phosphate transporter (TPT) is one of the prerequisites to exchange metabolites between the cytosol and plastids. In this study, we demonstrated that the four plastid TPT homologues in the non-photosynthetic diatom Nitzschia sp. NIES-3581 were highly likely integrated into plastid envelope membranes similar to counterparts in the model photosynthetic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, in terms of target membranes and C-terminal orientations. Three of the four Nitzschia TPT homologues are capable of transporting various metabolites into proteo-liposomes including triose phosphates (TPs) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the transport substrates sufficient to support the metabolic pathways retained in the non-photosynthetic diatom plastid. Phylogenetic analysis of TPTs and closely related transporter proteins indicated that diatoms and other algae with red alga-derived complex plastids possess only TPT homologues but lack homologues of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter (GPT), xylulose 5-phosphate transporter (XPT), and phosphoenolpyruvate transporter (PPT). Comparative sequence analysis suggests that many TPT homologues of red alga-derived complex plastids potentially have the ability to transport mainly TPs and PEP. TPTs transporting both TPs and PEP highly likely mediate a metabolic crosstalk between a red alga-derived complex plastid and the cytosol in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic species, which explains the lack of PPTs in all the lineages with red alga-derived complex plastids. The PEP-transporting TPTs might have emerged in an early phase of endosymbiosis between a red alga and a eukaryote host, given the broad distribution of that type of transporters in all branches of red alga-derived complex plastid-bearing lineages, and have probably played a key role in the establishment and retention of a controllable, intracellular metabolic connection in those organisms.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Yamazaki K, Sato K, Tsuzuno T, et al (2020)

Orally administered pathobionts and commensals have comparable and innocuous systemic effects on germ-free mice.

Microbial pathogenesis, 140:103962.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence suggests that oral bacteria can affect extra-oral diseases by modulating aspects of the gut environment such as the microbiome, metabolome, and immune profiles. However, differences in the effects of different types of oral bacteria, particularly periodontopathic and health-associated bacteria, remain elusive.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five-week-old germ-free mice were orally administered with either periodontopathic bacteria as oral pathobionts (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Filifactor alocis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum) or bacteria associated with periodontal health (Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus mitis, and Veillonella rogosae) twice a week for five weeks. The presence of all bacterial species in the feces and the livers of the mice was analyzed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using specific primers for 16S rRNA genes. Alveolar bone resorption was evaluated histologically. The expression profiles of various genes in the liver and small intestine were analyzed using real-time PCR. Sera were analyzed to determine the levels of antibodies and endotoxin. The proportions of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches were analyzed using flow cytometry.

RESULTS: Neither of the types of bacteria administered in this experiment induced alveolar bone resorption. All bacteria elicited some degree of systemic antibody response in the mice, although the response to S. mitis was not obvious. The response to P. gingivalis and V. rogosae was strongest. Generally, the health-associated bacteria but not the periodontitis-associated bacteria were detected in fecal samples. Interestingly, only Fusobacterium nucleatum DNA was detected in the liver, despite that live Fusobacterium nucleatum were not detected in the liver. The levels of interleukin-17 in the intestine and genes related to lipid accumulation in the liver were significantly higher in the mice that received periodontitis-associated bacteria. In addition, expression of the gene associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress was higher and that of the gene controlling circadian rhythm was lower in the periodontitis group. There was no difference in serum endotoxin, T-cell phenotypes in the lymphatic tissues, or genes related to the gut barrier.

CONCLUSION: Oral administration of periodontitis-associated bacteria can induce pathological changes in the liver and intestine that are implicated in the process of periodontitis. These findings further support the importance of the oral-gut connection.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Tilstra A, El-Khaled YC, Roth F, et al (2019)

Denitrification Aligns with N2 Fixation in Red Sea Corals.

Scientific reports, 9(1):19460 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-55408-z.

Denitrification may potentially alleviate excess nitrogen (N) availability in coral holobionts to maintain a favourable N to phosphorous ratio in the coral tissue. However, little is known about the abundance and activity of denitrifiers in the coral holobiont. The present study used the nirS marker gene as a proxy for denitrification potential along with measurements of denitrification rates in a comparative coral taxonomic framework from the Red Sea: Acropora hemprichii, Millepora dichotoma, and Pleuractis granulosa. Relative nirS gene copy numbers associated with the tissues of these common corals were assessed and compared with denitrification rates on the holobiont level. In addition, dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates, Symbiodiniaceae cell density, and oxygen evolution were assessed to provide an environmental context for denitrification. We found that relative abundances of the nirS gene were 16- and 17-fold higher in A. hemprichii compared to M. dichotoma and P. granulosa, respectively. In concordance, highest denitrification rates were measured in A. hemprichii, followed by M. dichotoma and P. granulosa. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with N2 fixation rates and Symbiodiniaceae cell densities. Our results suggest that denitrification may counterbalance the N input from N2 fixation in the coral holobiont, and we hypothesize that these processes may be limited by photosynthates released by the Symbiodiniaceae.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Vujanovic V, Islam MN, P Daida (2019)

Transgenerational role of seed mycobiome - an endosymbiotic fungal composition as a prerequisite to stress resilience and adaptive phenotypes in Triticum.

Scientific reports, 9(1):18483.

Illumina-MiSeq next-generation sequencing of ITS 5.8S rRNA gene demonstrated the transgenerational transmission of fungal seed-endophytes (mycobiome) across three consecutive wheat host generations under standard-control and drought conditions in the greenhouse. Drought-stressed plants experienced a positive shift in the seed mycobiome's composition, moderated by the external acquisition of endophytic Penicillium (E+) at the seed level. Untreated (E-) and unstressed plants harbor a maximal fungal diversity of non-equilibrium ecological communities. While fungal composition in drought-stressed E- plants experienced important fluctuation, E+ plants maintained fungal ecological communities in phase equilibrium across generations. E+ plants hosted a relatively higher abundance of Ascomycota in the 2nd and 3rd seed generations of wheat, whereas higher abundance of Basidiomycota was detected in 1st generation seeds. The dynamic response of ecological communities to environmental stress is conducive to E+ plants' active recruitment of endosymbiotic consortia in seeds, benefiting host stress resilience and phenotype. In contrast, E- plants showed an erratic distribution of detected OTUs with an increased occurrence of phytopathogens and diminished plant performance under stress. The present study gives insight into the understanding of the seed-mycobiome composition and dynamics with the potential to improve plant host traits in an adverse environment.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Devescovi F, Conte CA, Augustinos A, et al (2019)

Symbionts do not affect the mating incompatibility between the Brazilian-1 and Peruvian morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex.

Scientific reports, 9(1):18319.

The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is clearly undergoing a speciation process. Among others, two of their morphotypes, the Brazilian-1 and Peruvian, have accumulated differences in pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms resulting in a degree of reproductive isolation. Both harbor a different strain of Wolbachia, which is a widespread endosymbiotic bacterium among many invertebrates producing a range of reproductive effects. In this paper, we studied the role of this bacterium as one of the factors involved in such isolation process. Infected and cured laboratory colonies were used to test pre- and post-zygotic effects, with special emphasis in uni- and bi-directional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). We showed that Wolbachia is the only known reproductive symbiont present in these morphotypes. Wolbachia reduced the ability for embryonic development in crosses involving cured females and infected males within each morphotype (uni-directional CI). This inhibition showed to be more effective in the Peruvian morphotype. Bi-directional CI was not evidenced, suggesting the presence of compatible Wolbachia strains. We conclude that Wolbachia is not directly involved in the speciation process of these morphotypes. Other mechanisms rather than CI should be explored in order to explain the reduced mating compatibility between the Brazilian-1 and Peruvian morphotypes.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Ote M, D Yamamoto (2020)

Impact of Wolbachia infection on Drosophila female germline stem cells.

Current opinion in insect science, 37:8-15.

Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most dominant insect-symbiotic bacteria, highjacks the female germline of insects for its own propagation across host generations. Such strict dependence on female gametes in trans-generational propagation has driven Wolbachia to devise ingenious strategies to enhance female fertility. In Drosophila melanogaster females with female-sterile mutant alleles of the master sex-determining gene Sex-lethal (Sxl), Wolbachia colonizing female germline stem cells (GSCs) support the maintenance of GSCs, thereby rescuing the defective ovarian development. In the germ cell cytoplasm, Wolbachia are often found in proximity to ribonucleoprotein-complex processing bodies (P bodies), where the Wolbachia-derived protein TomO interacts with RNAs encoding Nanos and Orb proteins, which support the GSC maintenance and oocyte polarization, respectively. Thus, manipulation of host RNA is the key to successful vertical transmission of Wolbachia.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Vesala R, Arppe L, J Rikkinen (2019)

Caste-specific nutritional differences define carbon and nitrogen fluxes within symbiotic food webs in African termite mounds.

Scientific reports, 9(1):16698 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-53153-x.

Fungus-growing termites of the genus Macrotermes cultivate symbiotic fungi (Termitomyces) in their underground nest chambers to degrade plant matter collected from the environment. Although the general mechanism of food processing is relatively well-known, it has remained unclear whether the termites get their nutrition primarily from the fungal mycelium or from plant tissues partly decomposed by the fungus. To elucidate the flows of carbon and nitrogen in the complicated food-chains within the nests of fungus-growing termites, we determined the stable isotope signatures of different materials sampled from four Macrotermes colonies in southern Kenya. Stable isotopes of carbon revealed that the termite queen and the young larvae are largely sustained by the fungal mycelium. Conversely, all adult workers and soldiers seem to feed predominantly on plant and/or fungus comb material, demonstrating that the fungal symbiont plays a different nutritional role for different termite castes. Nitrogen stable isotopes indicated additional differences between castes and revealed intriguing patterns in colony nitrogen cycling. Nitrogen is effectively recycled within the colonies, but also a presently unspecified nitrogen source, most likely symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, seems to contribute to nitrogen supply. Our results indicate that the gut microbiota of the termite queen might be largely responsible for the proposed nitrogen fixation.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Goswami G, Makut BB, D Das (2019)

Sustainable production of bio-crude oil via hydrothermal liquefaction of symbiotically grown biomass of microalgae-bacteria coupled with effective wastewater treatment.

Scientific reports, 9(1):15016 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-51315-5.

The study demonstrates a sustainable process for production of bio-crude oil via hydrothermal liquefaction of microbial biomass generated through co-cultivation of microalgae and bacteria coupled with wastewater remediation. Biomass concentration and wastewater treatment efficiency of a tertiary consortium (two microalgae and two bacteria) was evaluated on four different wastewater samples. Total biomass concentration, total nitrogen and COD removal efficiency was found to be 3.17 g L-1, 99.95% and 95.16% respectively when consortium was grown using paper industry wastewater in a photobioreactor under batch mode. Biomass concentration was enhanced to 4.1 g L-1 through intermittent feeding of nitrogen source and phosphate. GC-MS and FTIR analysis of bio-crude oil indicates abundance of the hydrocarbon fraction and in turn, better oil quality. Maximum distillate fraction of 30.62% lies within the boiling point range of 200-300 °C depicting suitability of the bio-crude oil for conversion into diesel oil, jet fuel and fuel for stoves.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Saha S, Basak B, Hwang JH, et al (2020)

Microbial Symbiosis: A Network towards Biomethanation.

Trends in microbiology, 28(12):968-984.

Biomethanation through anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most reliable energy harvesting process to achieve waste-to-energy. Microbial communities, including hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria, syntrophic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea, and their interspecies symbioses allow complex metabolisms for the volumetric reduction of organic waste in AD. However, heterogeneity in organic waste induces community shifts in conventional anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge at wastewater treatment plants globally. Assessing the metabolic roles of individual microbial species in syntrophic communities remains a challenge, but such information has important implications for microbially enhanced energy recovery. This review focuses on the alterations in digester microbiome and intricate interspecies networks during substrate variation, symbiosis among the populations, and their implications for biomethanation to aid stable operation in real-scale digesters.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Cleves PA, Krediet CJ, Lehnert EM, et al (2020)

Insights into coral bleaching under heat stress from analysis of gene expression in a sea anemone model system.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Epub ahead of print].

Loss of endosymbiotic algae ("bleaching") under heat stress has become a major problem for reef-building corals worldwide. To identify genes that might be involved in triggering or executing bleaching, or in protecting corals from it, we used RNAseq to analyze gene-expression changes during heat stress in a coral relative, the sea anemone Aiptasia. We identified >500 genes that showed rapid and extensive up-regulation upon temperature increase. These genes fell into two clusters. In both clusters, most genes showed similar expression patterns in symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones, suggesting that this early stress response is largely independent of the symbiosis. Cluster I was highly enriched for genes involved in innate immunity and apoptosis, and most transcript levels returned to baseline many hours before bleaching was first detected, raising doubts about their possible roles in this process. Cluster II was highly enriched for genes involved in protein folding, and most transcript levels returned more slowly to baseline, so that roles in either promoting or preventing bleaching seem plausible. Many of the genes in clusters I and II appear to be targets of the transcription factors NFκB and HSF1, respectively. We also examined the behavior of 337 genes whose much higher levels of expression in symbiotic than aposymbiotic anemones in the absence of stress suggest that they are important for the symbiosis. Unexpectedly, in many cases, these expression levels declined precipitously long before bleaching itself was evident, suggesting that loss of expression of symbiosis-supporting genes may be involved in triggering bleaching.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Davray D, Deo D, R Kulkarni (2020)

Plasmids encode niche-specific traits in Lactobacillaceae.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

Species belonging to the family Lactobacillaceae are found in highly diverse environments and play an important role in fermented foods and probiotic products. Many of these species have been individually reported to harbour plasmids that encode important genes. In this study, we performed comparative genomic analysis of publicly available data for 512 plasmids from 282 strains represented by 51 species of this family and correlated the genomic features of plasmids with the ecological niches in which these species are found. Two-thirds of the species had at least one plasmid-harbouring strain. Plasmid abundance and GC content were significantly lower in vertebrate-adapted species as compared to nomadic and free-living species. Hierarchical clustering highlighted the distinct nature of plasmids from the nomadic and free-living species than those from the vertebrate-adapted species. EggNOG-assisted functional annotation revealed that genes associated with transposition, conjugation, DNA repair and recombination, exopolysaccharide production, metal ion transport, toxin-antitoxin system, and stress tolerance were significantly enriched on the plasmids of the nomadic and in some cases nomadic and free-living species. On the other hand, genes related to anaerobic metabolism, ABC transporters and the major facilitator superfamily were overrepresented on the plasmids of the vertebrate-adapted species. These genomic signatures correlate with the comparatively nutrient-depleted, stressful and dynamic environments of nomadic and free-living species and nutrient-rich and anaerobic environments of vertebrate-adapted species. Thus, these results indicate the contribution of the plasmids in the adaptation of lactobacilli to their respective habitats. This study also underlines the potential application of these plasmids in improving the technological and probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Blackstone NW, JU Gutterman (2020)

Can natural selection and druggable targets synergize? Of nutrient scarcity, cancer, and the evolution of cooperation.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

Since the dawn of molecular biology, cancer therapy has focused on druggable targets. Despite some remarkable successes, cell-level evolution remains a potent antagonist to this approach. We suggest that a deeper understanding of the breakdown of cooperation can synergize the evolutionary and druggable-targets approaches. Complexity requires cooperation, whether between cells of different species (symbiosis) or between cells of the same organism (multicellularity). Both forms of cooperation may be associated with nutrient scarcity, which in turn may be associated with a chemiosmotic metabolism. A variety of examples from modern organisms supports these generalities. Indeed, mammalian cancers-unicellular, glycolytic, and fast-replicating-parallel these examples. Nutrient scarcity, chemiosmosis, and associated signaling may favor cooperation, while under conditions of nutrient abundance a fermentative metabolism may signal the breakdown of cooperation. Manipulating this metabolic milieu may potentiate the effects of targeted therapeutics. Specific opportunities are discussed in this regard, including avicins, a novel plant product.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Jadhav MS (2020)

Operative procedures performed during SARS-Cov-2 pandemic: Safe for patients and health care workers under appropriate guidelines.

Indian journal of anaesthesia, 64(9):807-809.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Efstathiadou E, Savvas D, AP Tampakaki (2020)

Genetic diversity and phylogeny of indigenous rhizobia nodulating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Greece.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 43(6):126149 pii:S0723-2020(20)30104-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The genetic diversity and phylogeny of fast-growing rhizobia isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba grown in different geographical regions of Greece were assessed. Although Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia spp. in European soils, there is no available information on native rhizobia nodulating faba bean in Greece. Seventy bacterial strains were isolated and grouped into sixteen distinct profiles based on BOX-PCR fingerprinting. The phylogenetic affiliation was further defined by sequence analysis of the rrs and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and gyrB). Fifty-eight isolates were affiliated with recently described genospecies gsF-2, represented by R. laguerreae FB206T, whereas six isolates were closely related to gsB and two isolates might belong to gsA. Two isolates assigned to R. hidalgonense and another two non-nodulating strains could not be assigned to any validly defined species and possibly belong to a new rhizobial lineage. Interestingly, R. laguerreae strains were commonly found at all sampling sites, suggesting that they could be the main symbionts of faba beans in Greek soils. According to the phylogenies of two symbiosis-related genes (nodC and nifH), all nodulating isolates belonged to symbiovar (sv.) viciae harboring four distinct nodC gene haplotypes and they were grouped into two clades together with strains assigned to R. laguerreae and genospecies of R. leguminosarum isolated from other countries and continents. This is the first report that R. hidalgonense strains belong to sv. viciae. No correlation was observed between the nodC haplotypes, geographic origin and chromosomal background of the isolates in the study.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Taerum SJ, Jasso-Selles DE, Hileman JT, et al (2020)

Spirotrichonymphea (Parabasalia) symbionts of the termite Paraneotermes simplicicornis.

European journal of protistology, 76:125742 pii:S0932-4739(20)30072-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The desert dampwood termite Paraneotermes simplicicornis harbors several species of obligately symbiotic protists that support its nutrition by fermenting lignocellulose. Among them are three morphotypes with the dexiotropic spiraling flagellar bands characteristic of Spirotrichonymphea (Parabasalia). The largest morphotype, characterized by an elongated cell apex with axial columella and internally positioned spiraling flagellar bands, was previously described as Spirotrichonympha polygyra. A smaller morphotype, with similarly internalized flagellar bands but a more rounded posterior without a protruding axostyle, was previously reported but not named. The smallest morphotype has surface flagellar bands and can attach to other protist cells by its apex. In this study, we combine light microscopy of live specimens and 18S rRNA gene sequencing of individually isolated cells to better understand the diversity of symbionts in P. simplicicornis. We found that S. polygyra branches distantly from true Spirotrichonympha, which are associated with Reticulitermes termites. Thus, we propose the new genus Cuppa to accommodate C. polygyra n. comb. (type species) and the similar but smaller morphotype Cuppa taenia n. sp. The undescribed smallest morphotype can be excluded from all previously described Spirotrichonymphea genera by molecular and behavioral evidence, so we propose Fraterculus simplicicornis n. gen., n. sp., to accommodate this organism.

RevDate: 2020-11-07

Locsin RC, Pepito JA, Juntasopeepun P, et al (2020)

Transcending human frailties with technological enhancements and replacements: Transhumanist perspective in nursing and healthcare.

Nursing inquiry [Epub ahead of print].

As human beings age, they become weak, fragile, and feeble. It is a slowly progressing yet complex syndrome in which old age or some disabilities are not prerequisites; neither does loss of human parts lead to frailty among the physically fit older persons. This paper aims to describe the influences of transhumanist perspectives on human-technology enhancements and replacements in the transcendence of human frailties, including those of older persons, in which technology is projected to deliver solutions toward transcending these frailties. Through technologies including genetic screening and other technological manipulations, intelligent machines and augmented humans improve, maintain, and remedy human-linked susceptibilities. Furthermore, other technologies replace parts fabricated through inorganic-mechanical processes such as 3D-printing. Advancing technologies are reaching the summit of technological sophistication contributing to the transhumanist views of being human in a technological world. Technologies enhance the transcendence of human frailties as essential expressions of the symbiosis between human beings and technology in a transcendental world.

RevDate: 2020-11-07

Miyamoto Y, Danilov AV, SV Bryanin (2020)

The dominance of Suillus species in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on Larix gmelinii in a post-fire forest in the Russian Far East.

Mycorrhiza pii:10.1007/s00572-020-00995-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Wildfires can negatively affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities. However, potential shifts in community structures due to wildfires have rarely been evaluated in the forests of eastern Eurasia, where surface fires are frequent. We investigated EM fungal communities in a Larix gmelinii-dominated forest that burned in 2003 in Zeya, in the Russian Far East. A total of 120 soil samples were collected from burned and adjacent unburned forest sites. The EM fungal root tips were morphotyped and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained for fungal identification. We detected 147 EM fungal operational taxonomic units, and EM fungal richness was 25% lower at the burned site than at the unburned site. EM fungal composition was characterized by the occurrence of disturbance-adapted fungi (Amphinema and Wilcoxina) at the burned site and late-successional fungi (Lactarius, Russula and Cortinarius) at the unburned site. These findings suggest that the EM fungal communities did not recover to pre-fire levels 16 years after the fire. Suillus species were the dominant EM fungi on L. gmelinii, with greater richness and frequency at the burned site. Both Larix and Suillus exhibit adaptive traits to quickly colonize fire-disturbed habitats. Frequent surface fires common to eastern Eurasia are likely to play important roles in maintaining Larix forests, concomitantly with their closely associated EM fungi.

RevDate: 2020-11-07

Jiang Y, Brandt BW, Buijs MJ, et al (2020)

Manipulation of saliva-derived microcosm biofilms to resemble dysbiotic subgingival microbiota.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.02371-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent oral inflammatory disease triggered by dysbiotic subgingival microbiota. For the development of microbiome modulators that can reverse the dysbiotic state and re-establish a health-related microbiota, a high-throughput in vitro multi-species biofilm model is needed. Our aim is to establish a model that resembles a dysbiotic subgingival microbial biofilm by incorporating the major periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis into microcosm biofilms cultured from pooled saliva of healthy volunteers. The biofilms were grown for 3, 7, and 10 days and analyzed for their microbial composition by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing as well as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) activity and butyric acid production. The addition of P. gingivalis increased its abundance in saliva-derived microcosm biofilms from 2.7% on day 3 to >50% on day 10, which significantly reduced the Shannon diversity, but did not affect the total number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The P. gingivalis-enriched biofilms displayed altered microbial composition as revealed by principle component analysis and reduced interactions among microbial species. Moreover, these biofilms exhibited enhanced DPP4 activity and butyric acid production. In conclusion, by adding P. gingivalis into saliva-derived microcosm biofilms, we established an in vitro pathogen-enriched dysbiotic microbiota, which resembles periodontitis-associated subgingival microbiota in terms of increased P. gingivalis abundance and higher DPP4 activity and butyric acid production. This model may allow for investigating factors that accelerate or hinder microbial shift from symbiosis to dysbiosis and for developing microbiome modulation strategies.IMPORTANCE In line with the new paradigm of the etiology of periodontitis, an inflammatory disorder initiated by dysbiotic subgingival microbiota, novel therapeutic strategies have been proposed, targeting reversing dysbiosis and restoring host-compatible microbiota, rather than eliminating the biofilms unselectively. Thus, appropriate laboratory models are required to evaluate the efficacy of potential microbiome modulators. In the present study, we used the easily obtainable saliva as an inoculum, spiked the microcosm biofilms with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, and obtained a P. gingivalis-enriched microbiota, which resembles the in vivo pathogen-enriched subgingival microbiota in severe periodontitis. This biofilm model circumvents the difficulties encountered when using subgingival plaque as the inoculum and achieves microbiota in dysbiotic state in a controlled and reproducible manner, which is required for high-throughput and large scale evaluation of strategies that can potentially modulate microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2020-11-07

Shi Y, Queller DC, Tian Y, et al (2020)

The ecology and evolution of amoeba-bacteria interactions.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.01866-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Amoebae are protists that have complicated relationships with bacteria, which cover the whole spectrum of symbiosis. Amoeba-bacteria interactions contribute to the study of predation, symbiosis, pathogenesis, and human health. Given the complexity of their relationships, it is necessary to understand the ecology and evolution of their interactions. In this paper, we provide an updated review of the current understanding of amoeba-bacteria interactions. We start by discussing the diversity of amoebae and their bacterial partners. Besides, we define three types of ecological interactions between amoebae and bacteria and discuss their different outcomes. Finally, we focus on the implications of amoeba-bacteria interactions on human health, horizontal gene transfer, drinking water safety, and the evolution of symbiosis. In conclusion, amoeba-bacteria interactions are excellent model systems to investigate a wide range of scientific questions. Future studies should utilize advanced techniques to address research gaps such as detecting hidden diversity, lack of amoebae genome, and the impacts of amoeba predation on the microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Van de Guchte M, Burz SD, Cadiou J, et al (2020)

Alternative stable states in the intestinal ecosystem: proof of concept in a rat model and a perspective of therapeutic implications.

Microbiome, 8(1):153 pii:10.1186/s40168-020-00933-7.

BACKGROUND: Chronic immune-mediated diseases are rapidly expanding and notoriously difficult to cure. Altered relatively stable intestinal microbiota configurations are associated with several of these diseases, and with a possible pre-disease condition (more susceptible to disease development) of the host-microbiota ecosystem. These observations are reminiscent of the behavior of an ecosystem with alternative stable states (different stable configurations that can exist under identical external conditions), and we recently postulated that health, pre-disease and disease represent such alternative states. Here, our aim was to examine if alternative stable states indeed exist in the intestinal ecosystem.

RESULTS: Rats were exposed to varying concentrations of DSS in order to create a wide range of mildly inflammatory conditions, in a context of diet-induced low microbiota diversity. The consequences for the intestinal microbiota were traced by 16S rRNA gene profiling over time, and inflammation of the distal colon was evaluated at sacrifice, 45 days after the last DSS treatment. The results provide the first formal experimental proof for the existence of alternative stable states in the rat intestinal ecosystem, taking both microbiota and host inflammatory status into consideration. The alternative states are host-microbiota ecosystem states rather than independent and dissociated microbiota and host states, and inflammation can prompt stable state-transition. Based on these results, we propose a conceptual model providing new insights in the interplay between host inflammatory status and microbiota status. These new insights call for innovative therapeutic strategies to cure (pre-)disease.

CONCLUSIONS: We provide proof of concept showing the existence of alternative stable states in the rat intestinal ecosystem. We further propose a model which, if validated in humans, will support innovative diagnosis, therapeutic strategy, and monitoring in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. This model provides a strong rationale for the application of combinatorial therapeutic strategies, targeting host and microbiota rather than only one of the two in chronic immune-mediated diseases. Video Abstract.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )