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Bibliography on: Climate Change

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2023 at 01:47 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-05-27

Longman J, Patrick R, Bernays S, et al (2023)

Three Reasons Why Expecting 'Recovery' in the Context of the Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change Is Problematic.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(10): pii:ijerph20105882.

Global warming is bringing with it continued long-term changes in the climate system. Extreme weather-related events, which are already becoming a daily reality around the world, are predicted to be more intense and frequent in the future. The widespread occurrence of these events and climate change more broadly are being experienced collectively and at scale and do not affect populations evenly. These climate changes have profound impacts on mental health and wellbeing. Existing reactive responses include frequent implied and direct references to the concept of 'recovery'. This is problematic in three ways: it conceives of extreme weather events as single, one-off occurrences; implies their unexpected nature; and contains an integral assumption of an end point where individuals/communities are 'recovered'. Models of mental health and wellbeing support (including funding) need to change, shifting away from 'recovery' towards a focus on adaptation. We argue that this presents a more constructive approach that may be used to collectively support communities.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Adam D, B Thompson (2023)

Audio long read: Can giant surveys of scientists fight misinformation on COVID, climate change and more?.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Li ZJ, Yu CY, Liu SY, et al (2023)

Radial growth responses of three coniferous species to climate change on the southern slope of Funiu Mountains, China.

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 34(5):1178-1186.

Funiu Mountains are located in a transition region between warm temperate zone and northern subtropical region, where a variety of plant species are distributed with sensitive response to climate change. Their response characteristics to climate change are still unclear. We developed the basal area increment (BAI) index chronologies of Pinus tabuliformis, P. armandii, and P. massoniana in the Funiu Mountains to examine their growth trend and their sensitivity to climatic change. The results showed that the BAI chronologies gave a clue that the three conife-rous species had similar radial growth rate. The large Gleichlufigkeit (GLK) indices among the three BAI chronologies also indicated that the three species had a similar growth trend. Results of correlation analysis showed that the three species also had similar response to climatic change to a certain extent. Radial growth of all the three species was significantly positively correlated with the total monthly precipitation in December of previous year and June of the current year, but negatively correlated with the precipitation in September and the mean monthly temperature in June of the current year. There were some differences in the responses of the three coniferous to climate change. P. massoniana had a significant negative correlation with the mean temperature in March, and a significant positive correlation with the precipitation in March, while P. armandii and P. massoniana were affected negatively by the maximum temperature in August. Results of the moving correlation analysis showed that the three coniferous species had some similar sensitivity to climate change. Their positive responses to precipitation in previous December consistently increased, as well as the negative correlation with precipitation in current September. As to P. masso-niana, they had a relatively stronger climatic sensitivity and higher stability than the other two species. It would be more suitable for P. massoniana trees on the southern slope of the Funiu Mountains under global warming.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Veldhuizen R (2023)

[Climate change and the health frame].

Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 167: pii:D7598.

Climate change is framed often as a health issue, to urge quick action and policy. But a health frame doesn't seamlessly mix well with existing frames and climate change, and there is no guarantee that a health frame will finally convince people into action.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Tanaka K, Mudgil Y, M Tunc-Ozdemir (2023)

Editorial: Abiotic stress and plant immunity - a challenge in climate change.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1197435.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Fanta SS, Yesuf MB, TA Demissie (2023)

Investigation of climate change impact on the optimal operation of koka reservoir, upper awash watershed, Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 9(5):e16287.

The objectives of this study were to predict the inflow and optimal operation of the Koka reservoir under the impact of climate change for the 2020s (2011-2040), 2050s (2041-2070), and 2080s (2071-2100) with respect to the reference period (1981-2010). The optimal elevation, storage, and hydropower capacity were modeled using the HEC-ResPRM, whereas the inflow to Koka reservoir was simulated using the calibrated SWAT model. Based on the result, the average annual inflow of the reference period was 139.675 Million Cubic Meter (MCM). However, from 2011 to 2100 an increase of +4.179% to +11.694 is expected. The inflow analysis at different flow regimes shows that the high flow may decline by (-28.528%) to (-22.856%) due to climate change. On the other hand, the low flow is projected to increase by (+78.407%) to (+90.401%) as compared to the low flow of the reference period. Therefore, the impact of climate change on the inflow to the Koka reservoir is positive. The study also indicates that the optimum values of elevation and storage capacity of the Koka reservoir during the reference period were 1590.771 m above mean sea level (a.m.s.l) and 1860.818 MCM, respectively. However, the optimum level and storage capacity are expected to change by (-0.016%) to (-0.039%) and (-2.677%) to (+6.164%), respectively from 2020s to 2080s as compared with their corresponding values during the reference period. On the other hand, the optimum power capacity during the reference period was 16.489 MCM, while it will likely fluctuates between (-0.948%) - (+0.386%) in the face of climate change. The study shows that the optimum elevation, storage, and power capacity were all higher than the corresponding observed values. However, the occurrence month of their peak value will likely shift due to climate change. The study can be used as a first-hand information for the development of reservoir operation guidelines that can account for the uncertainty caused by the impacts of climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Sztandera-Tymoczek M, A Szuster-Ciesielska (2023)

Fungal Aeroallergens-The Impact of Climate Change.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5):.

The incidence of allergic diseases worldwide is rapidly increasing, making allergies a modern pandemic. This article intends to review published reports addressing the role of fungi as causative agents in the development of various overreactivity-related diseases, mainly affecting the respiratory tract. After presenting the basic information on the mechanisms of allergic reactions, we describe the impact of fungal allergens on the development of the allergic diseases. Human activity and climate change have an impact on the spread of fungi and their plant hosts. Particular attention should be paid to microfungi, i.e., plant parasites that may be an underestimated source of new allergens.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Liu T, Liu H, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Climate Change Impacts on the Potential Distribution Pattern of Osphya (Coleoptera: Melandryidae), an Old but Small Beetle Group Distributed in the Northern Hemisphere.

Insects, 14(5): pii:insects14050476.

Exploring the development of species distribution patterns under climate change is the basis of biogeography and macroecology. However, under the background of global climate change, few studies focus on how the distribution pattern and the range of insects have or will change in response to long-term climate change. An old but small, Northern-Hemisphere-distributed beetle group Osphya is an ideal subject to conduct the study in this aspect. Here, based on a comprehensive geographic dataset, we analyzed the global distribution pattern of Osphya using ArcGIS techniques, which declared a discontinuous and uneven distribution pattern across the USA, Europe, and Asia. Furthermore, we predicted the suitable habitats of Osphya under different climate scenarios via the MaxEnt model. The results showed that the high suitability areas were always concentrated in the European Mediterranean and the western coast of USA, while a low suitability exhibited in Asia. Moreover, by integrating the analyses of biogeography and habitat suitability, we inferred that the Osphya species conservatively prefer a warm, stable, and rainy climate, and they tend to expand towards higher latitude in response to the climate warming from the past to future. These results are helpful in exploring the species diversity and protection of Osphya.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Gao H, Qian Q, Liu L, et al (2023)

Predicting the Distribution of Sclerodermus sichuanensis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) under Climate Change in China.

Insects, 14(5): pii:insects14050475.

Sclerodermus sichuanensis is the natural enemy of the longicorn beetle due to its strong attack ability and high parasitic rate. Its good resistance and fecundity make it have significant biological control value. The Maxent model and ArcGIS software were used to simulate the current distribution of S. sichuanensis in China by combining the known distribution information and environmental variables and predict the suitable area of the 2050s (2041-2060) and 2090s (2081-2000) under three climate scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5. and SSP5-8.5). The results showed that the Mean Diurnal Range (bio2), Min Temperature of the Coldest Month (bio6), Precipitation of the Warmest Quarter (bio18), and Max Temperature of the Warmest Month (bio5) were the key environmental variables affecting the distribution of S. sichuanensis. Southwest China and part of North China are the main concentrations of the current high-suitability areas of S. sichuanensis. The moderately suitable areas are concentrated in South China and Central China. Under the SSP5-8.5 scenario, the suitable area predicted in the 2050s will expand significantly to North China and Northwest China, with a total increase of 81,295 km[2]. This work provides an essential reference for future research on S. sichuanensis and the application of forestry pest control.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Biagioni B, Cecchi L, D'Amato G, et al (2023)

Environmental influences on childhood asthma: Climate change.

Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 34(5):e13961.

Climate change is a key environmental factor for allergic respiratory diseases, especially in childhood. This review describes the influences of climate change on childhood asthma considering the factors acting directly, indirectly and with their amplifying interactions. Recent findings on the direct effects of temperature and weather changes, as well as the influences of climate change on air pollution, allergens, biocontaminants and their interplays, are discussed herein. The review also focusses on the impact of climate change on biodiversity loss and on migration status as a model to study environmental effects on childhood asthma onset and progression. Adaptation and mitigation strategies are urgently needed to prevent further respiratory diseases and human health damage in general, especially in younger and future generations.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Hadré E, Küpper J, Tschirschwitz J, et al (2023)

Quantifying generational and geographical inequality of climate change.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8483.

We relate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming experienced over a lifetime by individual birth cohorts, resolved by world regions. We reveal outstanding geographical inequality between high- and low-emission regions corresponding to the nations of the Global North and Global South, respectively. Additionally, we highlight the inequality different birth cohorts (generations) experience regarding the burden of recent and ongoing warming temperatures as a time-delayed consequence of past emissions. We achieve precise quantification of the number of birth cohorts and populations who see a difference between Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), emphasizing the potential for action and the chances for improvement that exist under the different scenarios. The method is designed to realistically display inequality, as it is experienced by people while motivating action and change needed to achieve emission reduction to reduce climate change and generational and geographical inequality simultaneously.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Leschied JR, Maturen KE, Brown M, et al (2023)

Letter to the Editor: Radiology Action for Climate Change.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent Action Needed for Africa and the World: Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change.

The Journal of nutrition, 152(12):2631-2633.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Alcantara LB, Creencia LA, Madarcos JRV, et al (2023)

Climate change awareness and risk perceptions in the coastal marine ecosystem of Palawan, Philippines.

UCL open environment, 5:e054.

Understanding coastal communities' awareness and risk perceptions of climate change impact is essential in developing effective risk communication tools and mitigation strategies to reduce the vulnerability of these communities. In this study, we examined coastal communities' climate change awareness and risk perceptions of climate change impact on the coastal marine ecosystem, sea level rise impact on the mangrove ecosystem and as a factor affecting coral reefs and seagrass beds. The data were gathered by conducting face-to-face surveys with 291 respondents from the coastal areas of Taytay, Aborlan and Puerto Princesa in Palawan, Philippines. Results showed that most participants (82%) perceived that climate change is happening and a large majority (75%) perceived it as a risk to the coastal marine ecosystem. Local temperature rise and excessive rainfall were found to be significant predictors of climate change awareness. Sea level rise was perceived by most participants (60%) to cause coastal erosion and to affect the mangrove ecosystem. On coral reefs and seagrass ecosystems, anthropogenic drivers and climate change were perceived to have a high impact, while marine livelihoods had a low impact. In addition, we found that climate change risk perceptions were influenced by direct experiences of extreme weather events (i.e., temperature rise and excessive rainfall) and climate-related livelihood damages (i.e., declining income). Climate change risk perceptions were also found to vary with household income, education, age group and geographical location. The results suggest that addressing poverty and effectively communicating climate change risks can improve climate change awareness and risk perceptions.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Costa JM, Egipto R, Aguiar FC, et al (2023)

The role of soil temperature in mediterranean vineyards in a climate change context.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1145137.

The wine sector faces important challenges related to sustainability issues and the impact of climate change. More frequent extreme climate conditions (high temperatures coupled with severe drought periods) have become a matter of concern for the wine sector of typically dry and warm regions, such as the Mediterranean European countries. Soil is a natural resource crucial to sustaining the equilibrium of ecosystems, economic growth and people's prosperity worldwide. In viticulture, soils have a great influence on crop performance (growth, yield and berry composition) and wine quality, as the soil is a central component of the terroir. Soil temperature (ST) affects multiple physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the soil as well as in plants growing on it. Moreover, the impact of ST is stronger in row crops such as grapevine, since it favors soil exposition to radiation and favors evapotranspiration. The role of ST on crop performance remains poorly described, especially under more extreme climatic conditions. Therefore, a better understanding of the impact of ST in vineyards (vine plants, weeds, microbiota) can help to better manage and predict vineyards' performance, plant-soil relations and soil microbiome under more extreme climate conditions. In addition, soil and plant thermal data can be integrated into Decision Support Systems (DSS) to support vineyard management. In this paper, the role of ST in Mediterranean vineyards is reviewed namely in terms of its effect on vines' ecophysiological and agronomical performance and its relation with soil properties and soil management strategies. The potential use of imaging approaches, e.g. thermography, is discussed as an alternative or complementary tool to assess ST and vertical canopy temperature profiles/gradients in vineyards. Soil management strategies to mitigate the negative impact of climate change, optimize ST variation and crop thermal microclimate (leaf and berry) are proposed and discussed, with emphasis on Mediterranean systems.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Umair M, Hu X, Cheng Q, et al (2023)

Distribution patterns of fern species richness along elevations the Tibetan Plateau in China: regional differences and effects of climate change variables.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1178603.

Because of its distinct geological history, frigid temperature, and rich biodiversity, the Tibetan Plateau gives an excellent opportunity to assess the effect of climate change on determining species richness. The distribution patterns of fern species richness and their underlying processes have long been a matter of debate in ecology research, with various hypotheses suggested over the years. Here, we explore richness patterns of fern species in Xizang on the southern and western Tibetan Plateau along an elevational gradient (100-5300 m a.s.l.) and evaluate climatic factors causing the spatial decrease and increase of fern species richness. We used regression and correlation analyses to relate the species richness with elevation and climatic variables. Throughout our research, we identified 441 fern species from 97 genera and 30 families. The Dryopteridaceae family (S = 97) has the highest number of species. All energy-temperature and moisture variables except drought index (DI) had a significant correlation with elevation. The altitude has a unimodal relationship with fern species, and the species richness is the largest at an altitude of 2500 m. The horizontal richness pattern of fern species on the Tibetan Plateau also showed that areas of extremely high species richness are mainly distributed in Zayü and Mêdog County, with an average elevation of 2800 m and 2500 m, respectively. The richness of fern species has a log-linear relationship with moisture-related factors such as moisture index (MI), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and drought index (DI). Because the peak corresponds spatially with the MI index, the unimodal patterns confirm the significance of moisture on fern distributions. Our results showed that mid-altitudes have the highest species richness (high MI), but high elevations have lower richness due to high solar radiation, and low elevations have lower richness due to high temperatures and low precipitation. Twenty-two of the total species are classified as nearly threatened, vulnerable or critically endangered, and varied in elevation from 800 m to 4200 m. Such relationships between the distribution and richness of fern species and climates on the Tibetan Plateau can provide data support for future predictions of the impacts of climate change scenarios on fern species, the ecological protection of representative fern species, and references for the planning and construction of nature reserves in the future.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Gao M, Zhao G, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Priority conservation area of Larix gmelinii under climate change: application of an ensemble modeling.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1177307.

Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Kuzen is a major tree species with high economic and ecological value in the Greater Khingan Mountains coniferous forest of Northeast China. Reconstructing the priority Conservation Area of Larix gmelinii under Climate could provide a scientific basis for its germplasm conservation and management. The present study used ensemble and Marxan model simulations to predict species distribution areas and delineate priority conservation areas for Larix gmelinii in relation to productivity characteristics, understory plant diversity characteristics, and climate change impacts. The study revealed that the Greater Khingan Mountains and the Xiaoxing'an Mountains, with an area of approximately 300 974.2 km[2], were the most suitable for L. gmelinii. The stand productivity of L. gmelinii in the most suitable area was significantly higher than that in the less suitable and marginally suitable areas, but understory plant diversity was not dominant. The increase in temperature under future climate change scenarios will reduce the potential distribution and area under L. gmelinii; the species will migrate to higher latitudes of the Greater Khingan Mountains, while the degree of niche migration will gradually increase. Under the 2090s-SSP585 climate scenario, the most suitable area for L. gmelinii will completely disappear, and the climate model niche will be completely separated. Therefore, the protected area of L. gmelinii was demarcated with a target of the productivity characteristics, understory plant diversity characteristics and climate change sensitive area, and the current key protected area was 8.38 × 10[4] km[2]. Overall, the study's findings will lay a foundation for the protection and rational development and utilization of cold temperate coniferous forests dominated by L. gmelinii in the northern forested region of the Greater Khingan Mountains.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Chmura HE, Duncan C, Burrell G, et al (2023)

Climate change is altering the physiology and phenology of an arctic hibernator.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 380(6647):846-849.

Climate warming is rapid in the Arctic, yet impacts to biological systems are unclear because few long-term studies linking biophysiological processes with environmental conditions exist for this data-poor region. In our study spanning 25 years in the Alaskan Arctic, we demonstrate that climate change is affecting the timing of freeze-thaw cycles in the active layer of permafrost soils and altering the physiology of arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Soil freeze has been delayed and, in response, arctic ground squirrels have delayed when they up-regulate heat production during torpor to prevent freezing. Further, the termination of hibernation in spring has advanced 4 days per decade in females but not males. Continued warming and phenological shifts will alter hibernation energetics, change the seasonal availability of this important prey species, and potentially disrupt intraspecific interactions.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Graham F (2023)

Daily briefing: What 1.5 ℃ of global warming really means.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Sun H, Ma J, L Wang (2023)

Changes in per capita wheat production in China in the context of climate change and population growth.

Food security, 15(3):597-612.

UNLABELLED: To address challenges associated with climate change, population growth and decline in international trade linked to the COVID-19 pandemic, determining whether national crop production can meet populations' requirements and contribute to socio-economic resilience is crucial. Three crop models and three global climate models were used in conjunction with predicted population changes. Compared with wheat production in 2000-2010, total production and per capita wheat production were significantly (P < 0.05) increase in 2020-2030, 2030-2040 and 2040-2050, respectively, under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 due to climate change in China. However, when considering population and climate changes, the predicted per capita production values were 125.3 ± 0.3, 127.1 ± 2.3 and 128.8 ± 2.7 kg during the 2020-2030, 2030-2040, 2040-2050 periods under RCP4.5, or 126.2 ± 0.7, 128.7 ± 2.5, and 131.0 ± 4.1 kg, respectively, under RCP8.5. These values do not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the baseline level (127.9 ± 1.3 kg). The average per capita production in Loess Plateau and Gansu-Xinjiang subregions declined. In contrast, per capita production in the Huanghuai, Southwestern China, and Middle-Lower Yangtze Valleys subregions increased. The results suggest that climate change will increase total wheat production in China, but population change will partly offset the benefits to the grain market. In addition, domestic grain trade will be influenced by both climate and population changes. Wheat supply capacity will decline in the main supply areas. Further research is required to address effects of the changes on more crops and in more countries to obtain deeper understanding of the implications of climate change and population growth for global food production and assist formulation of robust policies to enhance food security.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12571-023-01351-x.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Tirivangasi HM, Dzvimbo MA, Chaminuka N, et al (2023)

Assessing climate change and urban poverty in the context of the COVID 19 lockdowns: Rethinking personality and societal challenges in Zimbabwe.

Scientific African, 20:e01710.

The study explored the challenges urbanites faced due to climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic. Urban vulnerability ills such as food insecurity, poverty and malnutrition have increased as climate change and COVID-19 jointly affect societies. Urban residents have resorted to urban farming and street vending as coping strategies. COVID-19 protocols and strategies for social distancing have compromised the urban poor livelihoods. Due to lockdown protocols such as curfew, closure of businesses, and the limited number of people doing certain activities, the urban poor often compromised lockdown rules to earn a living. The study used document analysis to gather data on climate change and poverty amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Academic journals, newspaper articles, books and information from various reliable websites were used for data collection. Content and thematic analysis were used to analyse data, while data triangulation from various sources enhanced data reliability and trustworthiness. The study found that climate change increased food insecurity in urban areas. Low agricultural output and climate change impacts compromised food availability and affordability for urbanites. The COVID-19 protocols increased financial constraints on urbanites as lockdown restrictions negatively impacted income from formal and informal jobs. The study recommends looking beyond the virus for prevention strategies to improve poor peoples' livelihoods. Countries must develop response strategies to cushion the urban poor from climate change and the COVID-19 impact. Developing countries are urged to sustainably adapt to climate change through scientific innovation to promote people's livelihoods.

RevDate: 2023-05-25
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Abermann J, Vandecrux B, Scher S, et al (2023)

Learning from Alfred Wegener's pioneering field observations in West Greenland after a century of climate change.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7583.

The cryosphere in Greenland is currently undergoing strong changes. While remote sensing improves our understanding of spatial and temporal changes across scales, particularly our knowledge of conditions during the pre-satellite era is fragmented. Therefore, high-quality field data from that period can be particularly valuable to better understand changes of the cryosphere in Greenland at climate time scales. At Graz University, the last work-place of Alfred Wegener we have access to the extensive expedition results from their epic 1929-1931 expedition to Greenland. The expedition coincides with the warmest phase of the Arctic early twentieth century warm period. We present an overview of the main findings of the Wegener expedition archive and set it into context with further monitoring activities that occurred since, as well as the results from reanalysis products and satellite imagery. We find that firn temperatures have increased significantly, while snow and firn densities and have remained similar or decreased since. Local conditions at the Qaamarujup Sermia have changed strongly, with a reduction in length of more than 2 km, in thickness by up to 120 m and a rise in terminus position of approximately 300 m. The elevation of the snow line of the years 1929 and 1930 was similar to the one from the extreme years 2012 and 2019. Compared to the satellite era, we find that during the time of the Wegener expedition fjord ice extent was smaller in early spring and larger in late spring. We demonstrate that a well-documented snapshot of archival data can provide a local and regional context for contemporary climate change and that it can serve as the basis for process-based studies on the atmospheric drivers of glacier changes.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Washbourne CL, Bell S, D Osborn (2021)

Community responses to climate change: Editorial call for submissions to UCL Open: Environment Special Series.

UCL open environment, 3:e028.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Guidoboni MV, Duparque A, Boissy J, et al (2023)

Conservation agriculture reduces climate change impact of a popcorn and wheat crop rotation.

PloS one, 18(5):e0285586.

Urgent action is needed to ensure humanity's future under climate change. Agriculture faces major challenges as it is both influenced by and contributes to climate change. Conservation agriculture sequesters carbon (C) in the soil due to practices such as reduced tillage and planting of cover crops. This study assessed effects of an innovative conservation agriculture popcorn (Zea mays) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop rotation in south-western France on soil C sequestration, GHG emissions and several environmental impacts. Two complementary approaches were used: i) a comparison based on field data and expert judgement to assess short-term effects and ii) modelling of three scenarios to quantify long-term outcomes. In both approaches Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare popcorn and wheat rotations. The conventional rotation used ploughing, and its soil was bare between wheat harvest and popcorn sowing. Conservation agriculture used reduced tillage, cover crops, and compost of green waste. Impacts of compost production were allocated mainly to its waste treatment function, based on waste treatment cost and compost price. Simulation modelling of soil C was used to estimate the amount of C sequestered by the conservation and conventional crop rotations. LCA was combined with soil C modelling over 100 years to assess the long-term climate change impact of three scenarios for the popcorn and wheat rotation. These scenarios were 1) Conventional agriculture, 2) Conservation agriculture with cover crops only, 3) Conservation agriculture with cover crops + compost. Mean annual C sequestration and net climate change impact were -0.24 t/ha and 3867 kg CO2-eq./ha, respectively, for the conventional rotation and 0.91 t/ha and 434 kg CO2-eq./ha, respectively, for the conservation rotation. The climate change impact of the conservation rotation depended strongly on the allocation of composting impacts between the waste treatment and compost production functions. Compared to the conventional rotation, the conservation rotation had a lower marine eutrophication impact (-7%) but higher impacts for terrestrial acidification (+9%), land competition (+3%), and cumulative energy demand (+2%). Modelling over 100 years revealed that, at near soil C equilibrium, a conventional scenario lost 9% of soil C, whereas conservation agriculture scenarios gained 14% (only cover crop) and 26% of soil C (cover crop + compost). Conservation agriculture resulted in soil C sequestration over several decades, until a new soil C equilibrium was reached.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Bernhardt JM, Breakey S, Sipe M, et al (2023)

The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: The Critical Role of Nurses and Nurse Leaders in Addressing the Health Impacts of Climate Change.

The Journal of nursing administration, 53(6):E1-E3.

Climate change represents a looming health challenge and a critical area for nursing leadership at all levels of organizations and settings. With a lens on The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity, addressing climate change-related health consequences should be a major focus and spotlight for nurses and nurse leaders with a lens on individuals, communities, populations, and from a national and global perspective.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Asadgol Z, Badirzadeh A, Mirahmadi H, et al (2023)

Simulation of the potential impact of climate change on malaria incidence using artificial neural networks (ANNs).

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change can increase the spread of infectious diseases and public health concerns. Malaria is one of the endemic infectious diseases of Iran, whose transmission is strongly influenced by climatic conditions. The effect of climate change on malaria in the southeastern Iran from 2021 to 2050 was simulated by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Gamma test (GT) and general circulation models (GCMs) were used to determine the best delay time and to generate the future climate model under two distinct scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). To simulate the various impacts of climate change on malaria infection, ANNs were applied using daily collected data for 12 years (from 2003 to 2014). The future climate of the study area will be hotter by 2050. The simulation of malaria cases elucidated that there is an intense increasing trend in malaria cases under the RCP8.5 scenario until 2050, with the highest number of infections occurring in the warmer months. Rainfall and maximum temperature were identified as the most influential input variables. Optimum temperatures and increased rainfall provide a suitable environment for the transmission of parasites and cause an intense increase in the number of infection cases with a delay of approximately 90 days. ANNs were introduced as a practical tool for simulating the impact of climate change on the prevalence, geographic distribution, and biological activity of malaria and for estimating the future trend of the disease in order to adopt protective measures in endemic areas.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Beridze B, Sękiewicz K, Walas Ł, et al (2023)

Biodiversity protection against anthropogenic climate change: Conservation prioritization of Castanea sativa in the South Caucasus based on genetic and ecological metrics.

Ecology and evolution, 13(5):e10068.

The climate drives species distribution and genetic diversity; the latter defines the adaptability of populations and species. The ongoing climate crisis induces tree decline in many regions, compromising the mitigation potential of forests. Scientific-based strategies for prioritizing forest tree populations are critical to managing the impact of climate change. Identifying future climate refugia, which are locations naturally buffering the negative impact of climate change, may facilitate local conservation. In this work, we conducted the populations' prioritization for Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), a Neogene relict growing in the Caucasus global biodiversity hotspot. We generated genetic and ecological metrics for 21 sites in Georgia and Azerbaijan, which cover the natural range of sweet chestnut across the region. We demonstrated that climate primarily drives the pattern of genetic diversity in C. sativa, proved with a significant isolation-by-environment model. In future, climate change may significantly reorganize the species' genetic diversity, inducing even some genetic loss, especially in the very distinct eastern fringe of the species range in Azerbaijan. Based on our combined approach, we mapped populations suitable for ex situ and in situ conservation, accounting for genetic variability and the location of future climate refugia.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Robinson Y, Khorram-Manesh A, Arvidsson N, et al (2023)

Does climate change transform military medicine and defense medical support?.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1099031.

BACKGROUND: Climate change has effects on multiple aspects of human life, such as access to food and water, expansion of endemic diseases as well as an increase of natural disasters and related diseases. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on climate change effects on military occupational health, military healthcare in a deployed setting, and defense medical logistics.

METHODS: Online databases and registers were searched on August 22[nd], 2022 and 348 papers retrieved, published between 2000 and 2022, from which we selected 8 publications that described climate effects on military health. Papers were clustered according to a modified theoretical framework for climate change effects on health, and relevant items from each paper were summarized.

RESULTS: During the last decades a growing body of climate change related publications was identified, which report that climate change has a significant impact on human physiology, mental health, water- and vector borne infectious diseases, as well as air pollution. However, regarding the specific climate effects on military health the level of evidence is low. The effects on defense medical logistics include vulnerabilities in the cold supply chain, in medical devices functioning, in need for air conditioning, and in fresh water supply.

CONCLUSIONS: Climate change may transform both the theoretical framework and practical implementations in military medicine and military healthcare systems. There are significant knowledge gaps on climate change effects on the health of military personnel in operations of both combat and non-combat nature, alerting the need for prevention and mitigation of climate-related health issues. Further research within the fields of disaster and military medicine is needed to explore this novel field. As climate effects on humans and the medical supply chain may degrade military capability, significant investments in military medical research and development are needed.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Singh DK, A Garg (2023)

Thermal hydrolysis of sewage sludge: Improvement in biogas generation and prediction of global warming potential.

Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA [Epub ahead of print].

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a prominent treatment method for the sludge produced from sewage treatment plants. Poor solid reduction and longer retention time are the main drawbacks of AD. Thermal hydrolysis (TH) is a potential pretreatment method for solubilization of sewage sludge (SS) solids thereby improving biogas production during AD post-treatment. In this study, the SS sample (total solids = 1.75 wt% and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 15,450 mg L[-1]) was subjected to TH pretreatment (temperature = 140-180°C and reaction time = 60 minutes) in a 0.7-L capacity stainless-steel high-pressure reactor. At a reaction temperature of 180°C, the maximum solid solubilization (total dissolved solids = 4652 mg L[-1]) and improved dewaterability (time to filter = 4.7 s.L g[-1]) were observed. The biochemical methane potential test results showed almost doubling of methane generation from 145 to 284 mL gCOD[-1] after TH pretreatment at 180°C. The life cycle assessment approach was used to compare various SS treatment and disposal scenarios, two of which included hydrothermal pretreatment. The scenarios involving hydrothermal pretreatments showed the least global warming potential.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Cevik Degerli B, M Cetin (2023)

Evaluation of UTFVI index effect on climate change in terms of urbanization.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Urban heat island density and occurrence are closely related to land use/land cover and land surface temperature variation. The effect of UHI can be described quantitatively with the urban thermal area variance index. This study aims to evaluate the UHI effect of the city of Samsun with the UTFVI index. LST data from 2000 ETM + and 2020 OLI/TIRS Landsat images were used to analyze UHI. The results showed that the UHI effect increased in Samsun's coastline band in 20 years. As a result of the field analysis made from the UTFVI maps created, in 20 years, 84% decrease in the none slice, 104% increase in the weak slice, 10% decrease in the middle slice, 15% decrease in the strong slice, 8% increase in the stronger slice, and 179% increase in the strongest slice are observed. The slice with the most intense increase is in the strongest slice and reveals the UHI effect.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Yousefi M, Yousefkhani SH, Grünig M, et al (2023)

Identifying high snakebite risk area under climate change for community education and antivenom distribution.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8191.

Snakebite is one of the largest risks from wildlife, however little is known about venomous snake distribution, spatial variation in snakebite risk, potential changes in snakebite risk pattern due to climate change, and vulnerable human population. As a consequence, management and prevention of snakebite is hampered by this lack of information. Here we used habitat suitability modeling for 10 medically important venomous snakes to identify high snakebite risk area under climate change in Iran. We identified areas with high snakebite risk in Iran and showed that snakebite risk will increase in some parts of the country. Our results also revealed that mountainous areas (Zagros, Alborz, Kopet-Dagh mountains) will experience highest changes in species composition. We underline that in order to improve snakebite management, areas which were identified with high snakebite risk in Iran need to be prioritized for the distribution of antivenom medication and awareness rising programs among vulnerable human population.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Zhou J, Wu C, Yeh PJ, et al (2023)

Anthropogenic climate change exacerbates the risk of successive flood-heat extremes: Multi-model global projections based on the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02895-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The successive flood-heat extreme (SFHE) event, which threatens the securities of human health, economy, and building environment, has attracted extensive research attention recently. However, how the SFHE characteristics will change under anthropogenic warming and the potential population exposures under such SFHE events remain unclear. Here, we present a global-scale evaluation of the projected changes and the uncertainty in the SFHE characteristics and population exposure under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 6.0 scenarios, based on the multi-model ensembles (five global water models forced by four global climate models) within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project 2b framework. The results reveal that, relative to the 1970-1999 baseline period, the SFHE frequency is projected to increase nearly globally by the end of this century, especially in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (>20 events/30-year) and the tropical regions (e.g., northern South America, central Africa, and southeastern Asia, >15 events/30-year). The projected higher SFHE frequency is generally accompanied by a larger model uncertainty. By the end of this century, the SFHE land exposure is expected to increase by 12 % (20 %) under RCP2.6 (RCP6.0), and the intervals between flood and heatwave in SFHE tend to decrease by up to 3 days under both RCPs, implying the more intermittent SFHE occurrence under future warming. The SFHE events will lead to the higher exposed populations in the Indian Peninsula and central Africa (<10 million person-days) and eastern Asia (<5 million person-days) due to the higher population density and the longer SFHE duration. Partial correlation analysis indicates that the contribution of flood to the SFHE frequency is greater than that of heatwave for most global regions, but the SFHE frequency is dominated by the heatwave in northern North America and northern Asia.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Song H, Zhang X, Wang X, et al (2023)

Not the expected poleward migration: Impact of climate change scenarios on the distribution of two endemic evergreen broad-leaved Quercus species in China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02894-2 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the key strategies for species to respond to climate change is range shift. It is commonly believed that species will migrate towards the poles and higher elevations due to climate change. However, some species may also shift in opposite directions (i.e., equatorward) to adapt to changes in other climatic variables beyond climatic isotherms. In this study, we focused on two evergreen broad-leaved Quercus species endemic to China and used ensemble species distribution models to project their potential distribution shifts and extinction risk under two shared socioeconomic pathways of six general circulation models for the years 2050 and 2070. We also investigated the relative importance of each climatic variable in explaining range shifts of these two species. Our findings indicate a sharp reduction in the habitat suitability for both species. Q. baronii and Q. dolicholepis are projected to experience severe range contractions, losing over 30 % and 100 % of their suitable habitats under SSP585 in the 2070s, respectively. Under the assumption of universal migration in future climate scenarios, Q. baronii is expected to move towards the northwest (~105 km), southwest (~73 km), and high elevation (180-270 m). The range shifts of both species are driven by temperature and precipitation variables, not only annual mean temperature. Specifically, precipitation seasonality and temperature annual range were the most crucial environmental variables, causing the contraction and expansion of Q. baronii and contraction of Q. dolicholepis, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of considering additional climatic variables beyond the annual mean temperature to explain species range shifts in multiple directions.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Carneiro IM, Paiva PC, Bertocci I, et al (2023)

Distribution of a canopy-forming alga along the Western Atlantic Ocean under global warming: The importance of depth range.

Marine environmental research, 188:106013 pii:S0141-1136(23)00141-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Sargassum species are among the most important canopy-forming algae in the Western Atlantic Ocean (WAO), providing habitat for many species and contributing to carbon uptake. The future distribution of Sargassum and other canopy-forming algae has been modelled worldwide, indicating that their occurrence in many regions is threatened by increased seawater temperature. Surprisingly, despite the recognized variation in vertical distribution of macroalgae, these projections generally do not evaluate their results at different depth ranges. This study aimed to project the potential current and future distributions of the common and abundant benthic Sargassum natans in the WAO (from southern Argentina to eastern Canada), under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios, through an ensemble SDM approach. Possible changes between present and future distributions were assessed within two depth ranges, namely areas up to 20 m and areas up to 100 m depth. Our models forecast different distributional trends for benthic S. natans depending on the depth range. Up to 100 m, suitable areas for the species will increase by 21% under RCP 4.5, and by 15% under RCP 8.5, when compared to the potential current distribution. On the contrary, up to 20 m, suitable areas for the species will decrease by 4% under RCP 4.5 and by 14% under RCP 8.5, when compared to the potential current distribution. Under the worst scenario, losses up to 20 m depth will affect approximately 45,000 km[2] of coastal areas across several countries and regions of WAO, with likely negative consequences for the structure and dynamics of coastal ecosystems. These findings highlight the importance of considering different depth ranges when building and interpreting predictive models of the distribution of habitat-forming subtidal macroalgae under climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Dorji T, Morrison-Saunders A, D Blake (2023)

Understanding How Community Wellbeing is Affected by Climate Change: Evidence From a Systematic Literature Review.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

Social science studies view community wellbeing to be a cumulative construct of multiple dimensions which include social, economic, environmental, physical, political, health, education indicators and more. The study of community wellbeing is compounded by climate change as it increases the frequency of disasters affecting all dimensions of community wellbeing. It becomes crucial for communities to build community resilience and address the impact on community wellbeing in the context of Disaster Risk Reduction and sustainable development. This systematic literature aimed to understand how community wellbeing is affected by climate change. It analysed 23 papers from Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Google Scholar, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, to address three research questions: (i) how do climate change scholars understand community wellbeing, (ii) how community wellbeing is affected by specific climate change factors/conditions and the nature of impact, and (iii) how the impact on community wellbeing as a result of climate change is being addressed. The study found that climate change scholars hold mixed and multiple views or understanding of community wellbeing and climate change led to mental stress decreasing community wellbeing. The solutions to improve community wellbeing in the context of climate change suggests that adaptation should be the main policy instrument supplemented by mitigation strategies and recommends building a vibrant research culture in wellbeing and climate studies, among others. This review provides insights into the complex relationship between community wellbeing and climate change and identifies areas for future research and policy development.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Jones N (2023)

When will global warming actually hit the landmark 1.5 ºC limit?.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world: Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change.

The American journal of clinical nutrition, 116(6):1457-1459.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Li Z, Qu H, Li L, et al (2023)

Effects of climate change on vegetation dynamics of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a causality analysis using empirical dynamic modeling.

Heliyon, 9(5):e16001 pii:S2405-8440(23)03208-5.

Given the vital role of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as water tower in Asia and regulator for regional and even global climate, the relationship between climate change and vegetation dynamics on it has received considerable focused attention. Climate change may influence the vegetation growth on the plateau, but clear empirical evidence of such causal linkages is sparse. Herein, using datasets CRU-TS v4.04 and AVHHR NDVI from 1981 to 2019, we quantify causal effects of climate factors on vegetation dynamics with an empirical dynamical model (EDM) -- a nonlinear dynamical systems analysis approach based on state-space reconstruction rather than correlation. Results showed the following: (1) climate change promotes the growth of vegetation on the QTP, and specifically, this favorable influence of temperature is stronger than precipitation's; (2) the direction and strength of climate effects on vegetation varied over time, and the effects are seasonally different; (3) a significant increase in temperature and a slight increase in precipitation are beneficial to vegetation growth, specifically, NDVI will increase within 2% in the next 40 years with the climate trend of warming and humidity. Besides the above results, another interesting finding is that the two seasons in which precipitation strongly influence vegetation in the Three-River Source region (part of the QTP) are spring and winter. This study provides insights into the mechanisms by which climate change affects vegetation growth on the QTP, aiding in the modeling of vegetation dynamics in future scenarios.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Kamran HW, Rafiq M, Abudaqa A, et al (2023)

Interconnecting Sustainable Development Goals 7 And 13: The Role of Renewable Energy Innovations Towards Combating the Climate Change.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

AbstractThis research examines the trends in environmental footprints through energy innovations, digital trade, economic freedom, and environmental regulation from the context of G7 economies. Quarterly observations from 1998-2020 have been utilized for the advanced-panel model entitled Method of Moments Quantile Regression (MMQR). The initial findings confirm slope heterogeneity, interdependence between the cross-sectional units, stationarity properties, and panel cointegration. The results through FM-OLS, D-OLS, and FE-OLS justify that energy innovations, digital trade, and environmental regulations control ecological damages. In contrast, economic freedom and growth are causing more damage to nature, like ecological footprints (EFP). Similarly, the results through MMQR confirm that the impact of energy innovations, digital trade, and environmental regulations is accepted as a panacea to control environmental degradation in G7. However, the magnitude of the coefficient varies across different quantiles. More specifically, the findings show that the impact of energy innovations is highly significant at 0.50[th] quantile. In contrast, through digital trade, the impact on EFP is only significant under medium and higher order quantiles (i.e., 0.50[th], 0.75[th]-1.0[th]). Contrarily, economic freedom is causing more EFP across all the quantiles, where the findings are highly significant at 0.75[th] quantile. Besides, a few other policy implications are also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Maitra S, Praharaj S, Brestic M, et al (2023)

Rhizobium as Biotechnological Tools for Green Solutions: An Environment-Friendly Approach for Sustainable Crop Production in the Modern Era of Climate Change.

Current microbiology, 80(7):219.

Modern and industrialized agriculture enhanced farm output during the last few decades, but it became possible at the cost of agricultural sustainability. Industrialized agriculture focussed only on the increase in crop productivity and the technologies involved were supply-driven, where enough synthetic chemicals were applied and natural resources were overexploited with the erosion of genetic diversity and biodiversity. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient required for plant growth and development. Even though nitrogen is available in large quantities in the atmosphere, it cannot be utilized by plants directly with the only exception of legumes which have the unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and the process is known as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Rhizobium, a group of gram-negative soil bacteria, helps in the formation of root nodules in legumes and takes part in the BNF. The BNF has great significance in agriculture as it acts as a fertility restorer in soil. Continuous cereal-cereal cropping system, which is predominant in a major part of the world, often results in a decline in soil fertility, while legumes add nitrogen and improve the availability of other nutrients too. In the present context of the declining trend of the yield of some important crops and cropping systems, it is the need of the hour for enriching soil health to achieve agricultural sustainability, where Rhizobium can play a magnificent role. Though the role of Rhizobium in biological nitrogen fixation is well documented, their behaviour and performance in different agricultural environments need to be studied further for a better understanding. In the article, an attempt has been made to give an insight into the behaviour, performance and mode of action of different Rhizobium species and strains under versatile conditions.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Pigot AL, Merow C, Wilson A, et al (2023)

Abrupt expansion of climate change risks for species globally.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is already exposing species to dangerous temperatures driving widespread population and geographical contractions. However, little is known about how these risks of thermal exposure will expand across species' existing geographical ranges over time as climate change continues. Here, using geographical data for approximately 36,000 marine and terrestrial species and climate projections to 2100, we show that the area of each species' geographical range at risk of thermal exposure will expand abruptly. On average, more than 50% of the increase in exposure projected for a species will occur in a single decade. This abruptness is partly due to the rapid pace of future projected warming but also because the greater area available at the warm end of thermal gradients constrains species to disproportionately occupy sites close to their upper thermal limit. These geographical constraints on the structure of species ranges operate both on land and in the ocean and mean that, even in the absence of amplifying ecological feedbacks, thermally sensitive species may be inherently vulnerable to sudden warming-driven collapse. With higher levels of warming, the number of species passing these thermal thresholds, and at risk of abrupt and widespread thermal exposure, increases, doubling from less than 15% to more than 30% between 1.5 °C and 2.5 °C of global warming. These results indicate that climate threats to thousands of species are expected to expand abruptly in the coming decades, thereby highlighting the urgency of mitigation and adaptation actions.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Grémillet D, S Descamps (2023)

Ecological impacts of climate change on Arctic marine megafauna.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(23)00082-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming affects the Arctic more than any other region. Mass media constantly relay apocalyptic visions of climate change threatening Arctic wildlife, especially emblematic megafauna such as polar bears, whales, and seabirds. Yet, we are just beginning to understand such ecological impacts on marine megafauna at the scale of the Arctic. This knowledge is geographically and taxonomically biased, with striking deficiencies in the Russian Arctic and strong focus on exploited species such as cod. Beyond a synthesis of scientific advances in the past 5 years, we provide ten key questions to be addressed by future work and outline the requested methodology. This framework builds upon long-term Arctic monitoring inclusive of local communities whilst capitalising on high-tech and big data approaches.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Pereira H, Picado A, Sousa MC, et al (2023)

Effects of climate change on aquaculture site selection at a temperate estuarine system.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02871-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Aquaculture is one of the food industries that most evolved in recent years in response to increased human demand for seafood products, which has led to a progressive stock threat in nature. With a high seafood consumption per capita, Portugal has been exploring its coastal systems to improve the cultivation of fish and bivalve species with high commercial value. In this context, this study aims to propose the use of a numerical model as a tool to assess the impact of climate change on aquaculture site selection in a temperate estuarine system (Sado estuary). Therefore, the Delft3D model was calibrated and validated, showing good accuracy in predicting the local hydrodynamics, transport, and water quality. Furthermore, two simulations for the historical and future conditions were performed to establish a Suitability Index capable of identifying the most appropriate sites to exploit two bivalve species (one clam and one oyster), considering both winter and summer seasons. Results suggest that the estuary's northernmost region presents the best conditions for bivalves' exploitation, with more suitable conditions during summer than winter due to the higher water temperature and chlorophyll-a concentrations. Regarding future projections, the model results suggest that environmental conditions will likely benefit the production of both species due to the increase in chlorophyll-a concentration along the estuary.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Álvarez-García O, Sureda-Negre J, Comas-Forgas R, et al (2023)

The Spanish population's interest in climate change based on Internet searches.

Humanities & social sciences communications, 10(1):231.

The climate crisis is one of the most important global problems facing humanity. Analyzing the search for information on climate change (CC) on the internet can be a predictor of public interest in this problem and, therefore, of the degree of concern exhibited by citizens. This study analyzes the interest in CC among the Spanish population and identifies some variables that may influence this interest. The methodology involves the collection and analysis of data obtained from SEMrush and Google Analytics. We analyzed the search trends of four key descriptors related to CC ("climate change," "global warming," "climate emergency" and "greenhouse effect") during two periods of time, and the relationship between these searches and three relational variables (volume of news in the media, occurrence of extreme weather events and CC-related events). The results indicate that the Spanish population's interest in CC via the Internet has increased in recent years and is directly influenced by variables such as media coverage of CC, events related to CC, and social pressure exerted by social movements for CC. Some proposals are discussed and presented in relation to the concern for this problem.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Tefera GW, RL Ray (2023)

Hydrology and hydrological extremes under climate change scenarios in the Bosque watershed, North-Central Texas, USA.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

This study evaluates hydrology and hydrological extremes under future climate change scenarios. The climate change scenarios were developed from multiple Global Circulation Models (GCMs), Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, and statistical downscaling techniques. To ensure hydrological model robustness, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated and validated using the Differential Split Sample Test (DSST) approach. The model was also calibrated and validated at the multi-gauges of the watershed. Future climate change scenarios revealed a reduction in precipitation (in the order of -9.1% to 4.9%) and a consistent increase in maximum temperature (0.34°C to 4.10°C) and minimum temperature (-0.15 °C to 3.7°C) in different climate model simulations. The climate change scenarios triggered a reduction of surface runoff and streamflow and a moderate increase in evapotranspiration. Future climate change scenarios projected a decrease in high flow (Q5) and low flow (Q95). A higher reduction of Q5 and annual minimum flow is also simulated in future climate scenarios, whereas an increase in annual maximum flow is simulated in climate change scenarios developed from the RCP8.5 emission scenario. The study suggests optimal water management structures which can reduce the effect of change in high and low flows.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Moran DS, DeGroot DW, Potter AW, et al (2023)

Beating the Heat: Military Training and Operations in the Era of Global Warming.

Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change has resulted in an increase in the number and intensity of environmental heat waves, both in areas traditionally associated with hot temperatures and in areas where heat waves did not previously occur. For military communities around the world, these changes pose progressively increasing risks of heat-related illnesses and interference with training sessions. This is a significant and persistent "non-combat threat" to both training and operational activities of military personnel. In addition to these important health and safety concerns, there are broader implications in terms of the ability of worldwide security forces to effectively do their job (particularly in areas that historically already have high ambient temperatures). In the present review, we attempt to quantify the impact of climate change on various aspects of military training and performance. We also summarize ongoing research efforts designed to minimize and/or prevent heat injuries and illness. In terms of future approaches, we propose the need to "think outside the box" for a more effective training / schedule paradigm. One approach may be to investigate potential impacts of a reversal of sleep-wake cycles during basic training during the hot months of the year, to minimize the usual increase in heat-related injuries, and to enhance the capacity for physical training and combat performance. Regardless of which approaches are taken, a central feature of successful present and future interventions will be that they are rigorously tested using integrative physiological approaches.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Churchill RT, MD Avery (2023)

The Heat is On: Imperative for Midwifery Engagement in Climate Change.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Adam D (2023)

Can giant surveys of scientists fight misinformation on COVID, climate change and more?.

Nature, 617(7961):452-454.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Van Espen M, Williams JH, Alves F, et al (2023)

Beekeeping in Europe facing climate change: A mixed methods study on perceived impacts and the need to adapt according to stakeholders and beekeepers.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02876-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The beekeeping sector is suffering from the detrimental effects of climate change, both directly and indirectly. Despite numerous studies conducted on this subject, large-scale research incorporating stakeholders' and beekeepers' perspectives has remained elusive. This study aims to bridge this gap by assessing the extent to which stakeholders involved in the European beekeeping sector and European beekeepers perceive and experience the impacts of climate change on their operations, and whether they had to adapt their practices accordingly. To this end, a mixed-methods study including in-depth stakeholder interviews (n = 41) and a pan-European beekeeper survey (n = 844) was completed within the frame of the EU-funded H2020-project B-GOOD. The development of the beekeeper survey was informed by insights from literature and the stakeholder interviews. The results highlighted significant regional disparities in the perceived impacts of climate change, with beekeepers in Southern European regions expressing more negative outlooks, while Northern European beekeepers reported more favourable experiences. Furthermore, survey analysis revealed beekeepers who were classified as 'heavily impacted' by climate change. These beekeepers reported lower average honey yields, higher colony winter loss rates and a stronger perceived contribution of honey bees to pollination and biodiversity, underscoring climate change's detrimental impacts on the beekeeping sector. Multinomial logistic regression revealed determinants of the likelihood of beekeepers being classified as 'heavily impacted' by climate change. This analysis indicates that Southern European beekeepers experienced a 10-fold likelihood of being classified as heavily impacted by climate change compared to Northern European beekeepers. Other significant factors distinguishing 'winners' and 'losers' were self-reported level of professionalism as a beekeeper (ranging from pure hobbyist to fully professional, Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.31), number of years active in beekeeping (OR = 1.02), availability of floral resources throughout the bee season (OR = 0.78), beehives located in a forested environment (OR = 1.34), and the presence of local policy measures addressing climate change-related challenges (OR = 0.76).

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Weiguo L, Zhang D, Tian J, et al (2023)

Climate change mitigation potential of kitchen waste utilization in China for combined heat and power production.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02786-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Given the concerns about climate change, energy sustainability, and public health, the reuse of kitchen wastes (KW) is attracting increasing interest. In China, the municipal solid waste sorting scheme has increased the available KW. To assess the available KW and the climate change mitigation potential of KW utilization for bioenergy in China, three scenarios (base, conservative, and ambitious) were defined. A new framework was implemented to assess the climate change impacts of bioenergy. The annual available KW ranged from 11.450 million dry tons (in metric) under the conservative scenario to 22.898 million dry tons in the ambitious scenario, and had the potential to produce 12.37 × 10[6]-24.74 × 10[6] MWh heat and 9.62 × 10[6]-19.24 × 10[6] MWh power. The total potential climate change impacts of KW for combined heat and power were 3.339-6.717 million tons CO2 eq in China. The highest eight provinces and municipalities contributed over half of the national total. Among the three components of the new framework, fossil fuel-derived greenhouse gas emissions and biogenic CO2 emissions were positive. The difference in carbon sequestration was negative and ensured a lower integrated life-cycle climate change impacts than that of natural gas-derived combined heat and power. The mitigation effects of using KW as a substitute for natural gas and synthetic fertilizers were 2.477-8.080 million tons CO2 eq. These outcomes can inform relevant policymaking and benchmark climate change mitigation in China. The conceptual framework of this study can also be adapted for applications in other countries or regions worldwide.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Tranter B, Lester L, Foxwell-Norton K, et al (2023)

In science we trust? Public trust in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections and accepting anthropogenic climate change.

Public understanding of science (Bristol, England) [Epub ahead of print].

One barrier to action on climate change is public trust in climate science, and projections made by climate scientists. However, climate science projections are rarely measured in public surveys. We designed survey questions based on two Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections regarding global warming and coral reef decline. We gauge Australians' trust in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections, and explore how trust in climate science is associated with accepting anthropogenic climate change. A slim majority of Australian adults trust Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections, with trust correlated positively with accepting anthropogenic climate change. While partisan divisions are extant in accepting anthropogenic climate change, partisan influences are attenuated substantially after controlling for trust in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections, as trust in climate science mediates the influence of partisanship on the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change. A minority of those who accept anthropogenic climate change have low trust in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections, viewing scientists' computer models as unreliable, or believing climate scientists benefit from overstating the impact of climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Van de Vuurst P, LE Escobar (2023)

Climate change and infectious disease: a review of evidence and research trends.

Infectious diseases of poverty, 12(1):51.

BACKGROUND: Climate change presents an imminent threat to almost all biological systems across the globe. In recent years there have been a series of studies showing how changes in climate can impact infectious disease transmission. Many of these publications focus on simulations based on in silico data, shadowing empirical research based on field and laboratory data. A synthesis work of empirical climate change and infectious disease research is still lacking.

METHODS: We conducted a systemic review of research from 2015 to 2020 period on climate change and infectious diseases to identify major trends and current gaps of research. Literature was sourced from Web of Science and PubMed literary repositories using a key word search, and was reviewed using a delineated inclusion criteria by a team of reviewers.

RESULTS: Our review revealed that both taxonomic and geographic biases are present in climate and infectious disease research, specifically with regard to types of disease transmission and localities studied. Empirical investigations on vector-borne diseases associated with mosquitoes comprised the majority of research on the climate change and infectious disease literature. Furthermore, demographic trends in the institutions and individuals published revealed research bias towards research conducted across temperate, high-income countries. We also identified key trends in funding sources for most resent literature and a discrepancy in the gender identities of publishing authors which may reflect current systemic inequities in the scientific field.

CONCLUSIONS: Future research lines on climate change and infectious diseases should considered diseases of direct transmission (non-vector-borne) and more research effort in the tropics. Inclusion of local research in low- and middle-income countries was generally neglected. Research on climate change and infectious disease has failed to be socially inclusive, geographically balanced, and broad in terms of the disease systems studied, limiting our capacities to better understand the actual effects of climate change on health.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Karuppaiah V, Maruthadurai R, Das B, et al (2023)

Predicting the potential geographical distribution of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci in India based on climate change projections using MaxEnt.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7934.

Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, an economically important onion pest in India, poses a severe threat to the domestic and export supply of onions. Therefore, it is important to study the distribution of this pest in order to assess the possible crop loss, which it may inflict if not managed in time. In this study, MaxEnt was used to analyze the potential distribution of T. tabaci in India and predict the changes in the suitable areas for onion thrips under two scenarios, SSP126 and SSP585. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.993 and 0.989 for training and testing demonstrated excellent model accuracy. The true skill statistic value of 0.944 and 0.921, and the continuous Boyce index of 0.964 and 0.889 for training and testing, also showed higher model accuracy. Annual Mean Temperature (bio1), Annual Precipitation (bio12) and Precipitation Seasonality (bio15) are the main variables that determined the potential distribution of T. tabaci, with the suitable range of 22-28 °C; 300-1000 mm and 70-160, respectively. T. tabaci is distributed mainly in India's central and southern states, with 1.17 × 10[6] km[2], covering 36.4% of land area under the current scenario. Multimodal ensembles show that under a low emission scenario (SSP126), low, moderate and optimum suitable areas of T. tabaci is likely to increase, while highly suitable areas would decrease by 17.4% in 2050 20.9% in 2070. Whereas, under the high emission scenario (SSP585), the high suitability is likely to contract by 24.2% and 51.7% for 2050 and 2070, respectively. According to the prediction of the BCC-CSM2-MR, CanESM5, CNRM-CM6-1 and MIROC6 model, the highly suitable area for T. tabaci would likely contract under both SSP126 and SSP585. This study detailed the potential future habitable area for T. tabaci in India, which could help monitor and devise efficient management strategies for this destructive pest.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Frossard V, Sabatier P, Bruel R, et al (2023)

Intense touristic activities exceed climate change to shape aquatic communities in a mountain lake.

Aquatic sciences, 85(3):71.

UNLABELLED: Mountain lakes are especially vulnerable to climate change, but are also increasingly exposed to local anthropogenic development through winter and summer tourism. In this study, we aimed to tease apart the influence of tourism from that of climate in a mountain lake located within one of the largest French ski resorts, by combining paleolimnological and present ecological data. The reconstructed long-term ecological dynamics highlighted an increase in lake biological production from the end of the Little Ice Age up to the 1950s, suggesting a historical dominance of climate control. Afterward, a major drop in pelagic production occurred at the same time as the watershed erosion increased and peaked in the 1990s, concomitant with massive digging for the ski resort expansion. The benthic invertebrates collapsed in the 1980s, concomitantly with the onset of massive salmonid stocking and recent warming. Stable isotope analyses identified benthic invertebrates as the major salmonid diet resource and suggested a possible direct impact of salmonid stocking on benthic invertebrates. However, habitat use may differ among salmonid species as suggested by the way fish DNA was preserved in surficial sediment. The high abundances of macrozooplankton further confirmed the limited reliance of salmonids on pelagic resources. The variable thermal tolerance of benthic invertebrates suggested that the recent warming may mostly affect littoral habitats. Our results indicate that winter and summer tourism may differently affect the biodiversity of mountain lakes and could collectively interfere with the ecological impacts of recent warming, making local management of primary importance to preserve their ecological integrity.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00027-023-00968-6.

RevDate: 2023-05-17
CmpDate: 2023-05-17

Aruta JJBR (2023)

Preserving elderly mental health amid climate change.

International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 38(5):e5938.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-16

Kaklauskas A, Abraham A, Kaklauskiene L, et al (2023)

Synergy of climate change with country success and city quality of life.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7872.

Most people around the world have felt the effects of climate change on their quality of life. This study sought to achieve the maximum efficiency for climate change actions with the minimum negative impact on the well-being of countries and cities. The Climate Change and Country Success (C[3]S) and Climate Change and Cities' Quality of Life (C[3]QL) models and maps of the world created as part of this research showed that as economic, social, political, cultural, and environmental metrics of countries and cities improve, so do their climate change indicators. For the 14 climate change indicators, the C[3]S and C[3]QL models indicated 68.8% average dispersion dimensions in the case of countries and 52.8% in the case of cities. Our research showed that increases in the success of 169 countries saw improvements in 9 climate change indicators out of the 12 considered. Improvements in country success indicators were accompanied by a 71% improvement in climate change metrics.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Wang J, X Shi (2023)

Soil biodiversity in natural forests potentially exhibits higher resistance than planted forests under global warming.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1135549.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Khezzani B, Baymakova M, Khechekhouche EA, et al (2023)

Global warming and mosquito-borne diseases in Africa: a narrative review.

The Pan African medical journal, 44:70.

Human activity has a direct influence on the climate on our planet. In recent decades, the greater part of the scientific community has united around the concept of Global Warming (GW). This process highly impacts the geographical distribution of mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases (MBD). The examined scientific publications show that Africa, especially sub-Saharan countries were and still hot spot of MBD globally. The economic, social, and environmental conditions prevailing in most African countries have effectively contributed to the spread of MBD. The current situation is very worrying, and it will get even more complicated as GW gets worse. In this regard, health systems in developing countries will have serious difficulties in health policies and public health activities to control the spread on MBD. Therefore, the governments of African countries should do more to combat MBD. However, a part of the responsibility lies with the international community, especially countries that contribute to GW. In conclusion, the analysis of the scientific literature showed that with increasing importance of GW leads to an increase in the prevalence of MBD.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Seibt B, Zickfeld JH, N Østby (2023)

Global heart warming: kama muta evoked by climate change messages is associated with intentions to mitigate climate change.

Frontiers in psychology, 14:1112910.

Concern about climate change is often rooted in sympathy, compassion, and care for nature, living beings, and future generations. Feeling sympathy for others temporarily forms a bond between them and us: we focus on what we have in common and feel a sense of common destiny. Thus, we temporarily experience communal sharing relationships. A sudden intensification in communal sharing evokes an emotion termed kama muta, which may be felt through tearing up, a warm feeling in the chest, or goosebumps. We conducted four pre-registered studies (n = 1,049) to test the relationship between kama muta and pro-environmental attitudes, intentions, and behavior. In each study, participants first reported their attitudes about climate change. Then, they received climate change-related messages. In Study 1, they saw one of the two moving video clips about environmental concerns. In Study 2, participants listened to a more or less moving version of a story about a typhoon in the Philippines. In Study 3, they listened to a different, also moving version of this story or an unrelated talk. In Study 4, they watched either a factual or a moving video about climate change. Participants then indicated their emotional responses. Finally, they indicated their intentions for climate mitigation actions. In addition, we measured time spent reading about climate-related information (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and donating money (Study 4). Across all studies, we found that feelings of kama muta correlated positively with pro-environmental intentions (r = 0.48 [0.34, 0.62]) and behavior (r = 0.10 [0.0004, 0.20]). However, we did not obtain evidence for an experimental effect of the type of message (moving or neutral) on pro-environmental intentions (d = 0.04 [-0.09, 0.18]), though this relationship was significantly mediated by felt kama muta across Studies 2-4. The relationship was not moderated by prior climate attitudes, which had a main effect on intentions. We also found an indirect effect of condition through kama muta on donation behavior. In sum, our results contribute to the question of whether kama muta evoked by climate-change messages can be a motivating force in efforts at climate-change mitigation.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Sheahan M, Gould CA, Neumann JE, et al (2023)

Erratum: Examining the Relationship between Climate Change and Vibriosis in the United States: Projected Health and Economic Impacts for the 21st Century.

Environmental health perspectives, 131(5):59001.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Szozda AR, Mahaffy PG, AB Flynn (2023)

Identifying Chemistry Students' Baseline Systems Thinking Skills When Constructing System Maps for a Topic on Climate Change.

Journal of chemical education, 100(5):1763-1776.

New resources have recently been emerging for educators to implement systems thinking (ST) in chemistry education, including a proposed set of ST skills. While these efforts aim to make ST implementation easier, little is known about how to assess these skills in a chemistry context. In this study, we investigated ST skills employed by students who constructed system maps of a topic related to climate change. Eighteen undergraduate chemistry students from first- to third-year participated in this study. We designed and implemented a ST intervention to capture how students engaged with three ST tasks, performed individually and collaboratively. In our analysis, we focused on 11 ST skills that aligned with five characteristics proposed in a recent study. We found that participants demonstrated most of these ST skills when engaging with the ST tasks, with nuances. Participants' system maps: (1) lacked concepts and connections at the submicroscopic level, (2) included multiple types of connections but few circular loops and causal connections, (3) lacked causal reasoning, although participants did predict how their system maps changed over time, (4) demonstrated the breadth of connections but did not describe human connections to the underlying chemistry of climate change topics. These findings identify aspects of ST where chemistry educators need to place emphasis when teaching ST skills to chemistry students and when guiding learning activities and other assessments. Using our findings, we created an adaptable ST rubric for the chemistry community as a tool for assessing ST skills.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Nogueira LM, Crane TE, Ortiz AP, et al (2023)

Climate Change and Cancer.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology pii:726387 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change, the greatest threat to human health of our time, has implications for cancer control efforts throughout the cancer care continuum. The direct and indirect impacts of climate change on cancer risk, access to care, and outcomes are numerous and compounding, yet many oncology professionals might not be familiar with the strong connection between climate change and cancer. Thus, to increase awareness of this topic among cancer researchers, practitioners, and other professionals, this commentary discusses the links between climate change and cancer prevention and control, provides examples of adaptation and mitigation efforts, and describes opportunities and resources for future research. See related article by xxxx, p. xxxx.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Bosela M, Rubio-Cuadrado Á, Marcis P, et al (2023)

Empirical and process-based models predict enhanced beech growth in European mountains under climate change scenarios: A multimodel approach.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02744-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Process-based models and empirical modelling techniques are frequently used to (i) explore the sensitivity of tree growth to environmental variables, and (ii) predict the future growth of trees and forest stands under climate change scenarios. However, modelling approaches substantially influence predictions of the sensitivity of trees to environmental factors. Here, we used tree-ring width (TRW) data from 1630 beech trees from a network of 70 plots established across European mountains to build empirical predictive growth models using various modelling approaches. In addition, we used 3-PG and Biome-BGCMuSo process-based models to compare growth predictions with derived empirical models. Results revealed similar prediction errors (RMSE) across models ranging between 3.71 and 7.54 cm[2] of basal area increment (BAI). The models explained most of the variability in BAI ranging from 54 % to 87 %. Selected explanatory variables (despite being statistically highly significant) and the pattern of the growth sensitivity differed between models substantially. We identified only five factors with the same effect and the same sensitivity pattern in all empirical models: tree DBH, competition index, elevation, Gini index of DBH, and soil silt content. However, the sensitivity to most of the climate variables was low and inconsistent among the empirical models. Both empirical and process-based models suggest that beech in European mountains will, on average, likely experience better growth conditions under both 4.5 and 8.5 RCP scenarios. The process-based models indicated that beech may grow better across European mountains by 1.05 to 1.4 times in warmer conditions. The empirical models identified several drivers of tree growth that are not included in the current process-based models (e.g., different nutrients) but may have a substantial effect on final results, particularly if they are limiting factors. Hence, future development of process-based models may build upon our findings to increase their ability to correctly capture ecosystem dynamics.

RevDate: 2023-05-16
CmpDate: 2023-05-16

Anderson A, Bruce F, Soyer HP, et al (2023)

The impact of climate change on skin health.

The Medical journal of Australia, 218(9):388-390.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Lalani B, Gray S, T Mitra-Ganguli (2023)

Systems Thinking in an era of climate change: Does cognitive neuroscience hold the key to improving environmental decision making? A perspective on Climate-Smart Agriculture.

Frontiers in integrative neuroscience, 17:1145744.

Systems Thinking (ST) can be defined as a mental construct that recognises patterns and connections in a particular complex system to make the "best decision" possible. In the field of sustainable agriculture and climate change, higher degrees of ST are assumed to be associated with more successful adaptation strategies under changing conditions, and "better" environmental decision making in a number of environmental and cultural settings. Future climate change scenarios highlight the negative effects on agricultural productivity worldwide, particularly in low-income countries (LICs) situated in the Global South. Alongside this, current measures of ST are limited by their reliance on recall, and are prone to possible measurement errors. Using Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA), as an example case study, in this article we explore: (i) ST from a social science perspective; (ii) cognitive neuroscience tools that could be used to explore ST abilities in the context of LICs; (iii) an exploration of the possible correlates of systems thinking: observational learning, prospective thinking/memory and the theory of planned behaviour and (iv) a proposed theory of change highlighting the integration of social science frameworks and a cognitive neuroscience perspective. We find, recent advancements in the field of cognitive neuroscience such as Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) provide exciting potential to explore previously hidden forms of cognition, especially in a low-income country/field setting; improving our understanding of environmental decision-making and the ability to more accurately test more complex hypotheses where access to laboratory studies is severely limited. We highlight that ST may correlate with other key aspects involved in environmental decision-making and posit motivating farmers via specific brain networks would: (a) enhance understanding of CSA practices (e.g., via the frontoparietal network extending from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to the parietal cortex (PC) a control hub involved in ST and observational learning) such as tailoring training towards developing improved ST abilities among farmers and involving observational learning more explicitly and (b) motivate farmers to use such practices [e.g., via the network between the DLPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc)] which mediates reward processing and motivation by focussing on a reward/emotion to engage farmers. Finally, our proposed interdisciplinary theory of change can be used as a starting point to encourage discussion and guide future research in this space.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Li T, Zhang C, Ban J, et al (2023)

Projecting universal health risks under climate change to bridge mitigation and health adaptation objectives.

Innovation (Cambridge (Mass.)), 4(3):100427.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Penuelas J, S Nogué (2023)

Catastrophic climate change and the collapse of human societies.

National science review, 10(6):nwad082 pii:nwad082.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Shoko Kori D (2023)

The psychosocial impact of climate change among smallholder farmers: a potential threat to sustainable development.

Frontiers in psychology, 14:1067879.

Psychosocial impacts of climate change and implications on sustainable development remain unclear. This problem was addressed focusing on smallholder farmers in resettlement areas of Chirumanzu District, Zimbabwe. An Exploratory Descriptive Qualitative research design was adopted. Purposive sampling techniques were used to select 54 farmers who served as main respondents from four representative wards. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Code groups and codes were established through inductive approaches considering narratives of farmers. Forty psychosocial impacts were established. They were qualitative, intangible, indirect and difficult to measure quantitatively. Farmers agonized over the threat of climate change on farming operations, felt humiliated, and embarrassed over detestable practices they resorted to due to climate change. Some farmers experienced heightened negative feelings, thoughts, and emotions. It was established that psychosocial impacts of climate change have a bearing on sustainable development of emerging rural communities.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Díaz-Martínez P, Panettieri M, García-Palacios P, et al (2023)

Biocrusts Modulate Climate Change Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Pools: Insights From a 9-Year Experiment.

Ecosystems (New York, N.Y.), 26(3):585-596.

UNLABELLED: Accumulating evidence suggests that warming associated with climate change is decreasing the total amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) in drylands, although scientific research has not given enough emphasis to particulate (POC) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC) pools. Biocrusts are a major biotic feature of drylands and have large impacts on the C cycle, yet it is largely unknown whether they modulate the responses of POC and MAOC to climate change. Here, we assessed the effects of simulated climate change (control, reduced rainfall (RE), warming (WA), and RE + WA) and initial biocrust cover (low (< 20%) versus high (> 50%)) on the mineral protection of soil C and soil organic matter quality in a dryland ecosystem in central Spain for 9 years. At low initial biocrust cover levels, both WA and RE + WA increased SOC, especially POC but also MAOC, and promoted a higher contribution of carbohydrates, relative to aromatic compounds, to the POC fraction. These results suggest that the accumulation of soil C under warming treatments may be transitory in soils with low initial biocrust cover. In soils with high initial biocrust cover, climate change treatments did not affect SOC, neither POC nor MAOC fraction. Overall, our results indicate that biocrust communities modulate the negative effect of climate change on SOC, because no losses of soil C were observed with the climate manipulations under biocrusts. Future work should focus on determining the long-term persistence of the observed buffering effect by biocrust-forming lichens, as they are known to be negatively affected by warming.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10021-022-00779-0.

RevDate: 2023-05-13

Hou J, Ji K, Zhu E, et al (2023)

Climate change fostered rise and fall of the Tibetan Empire during 600-800 AD.

Science bulletin pii:S2095-9273(23)00294-3 [Epub ahead of print].

During the 7-9th century, the Tibetan Empire constituted a superpower between the Tang Empire and Abbasid Caliphate: one that played significant roles in geopolitics in Asia during the Early Medieval Period. The factors which led to the rise and rapid decline of this powerful Empire, the only united historical regime on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), remain unclear. Sub-annual scale precipitation and decadal-scale temperature records of the central TP are presented, indicating that the height of this Empire coincided with a two-century long interval of uncharacteristically warm and humid climate. The ameliorated climate enabled the expansion of arable land and increased agricultural production. The close relationship between the precipitation records and historical events implied that the Empire implemented flexible strategies to tackle the effects of climate changes. This has implications for agricultural production in alpine regions including the TP, in the context of current global warming.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Zhang LX, Yue X, Zhou DC, et al (2023)

[Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activities on Vegetation Restoration in Typical Grasslands of China].

Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 44(5):2694-2703.

Grasslands, as one of the key ecosystems relevant to the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and water cycles as well as the ecological security in China, are very sensitive to climate change and human activities. However, the relative contributions of climate change and human activities on the vegetation restoration in those regions are still controversial. Using ecosystem net primary production (NPP) as an ecological indicator, this study quantified the relative roles of climate change and human activities on vegetation restoration in Chinese typical grasslands (northern temperate grasslands and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine grasslands) by comparing the trends of actual NPP derived from MODIS and potential NPP estimated by the Thornthwaite Memorial model during 2000-2020. The results showed that approximately 93% of the grasslands in the study area experienced a recovering tendency, with an average increase of NPP (carbon) by 2.12 g·(m[2]·a)[-1](P<0.01). Therein, nearly half of the vegetation-restored areas were jointly-dominated by climate change and human activities, whereas approximately 36% and 10% of the restored areas were controlled individually by climate change and human activities, respectively. In addition, the share of climate-change dominated areas differed greatly by grassland types, characterized by a much larger area percentage in the alpine grasslands than that in the temperate grasslands and an increasing area share with a drying background climate. This study suggested that human activities were not primarily responsible for the vegetation restoration in northern temperate grasslands and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine grasslands, but they could decrease and even cancel the possible vegetation degeneration caused by worsening climate in a few regions. Long-term monitoring of vegetation dynamics and a multi-method comparison are needed in future studies.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Portela Dos Santos O, Melly P, Joost S, et al (2023)

Climate Change, Environmental Health, and Challenges for Nursing Discipline.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(9):.

Current data and scientific predictions about the consequences of climate change are accurate in suggesting disaster. Since 2019, climate change has become a threat to human health, and major consequences on health and health systems are already observed. Climate change is a central concern for the nursing discipline, even though nursing theorists' understanding of the environment has led to problematic gaps that impact the current context. Today, nursing discipline is facing new challenges. Nurses are strategically placed to respond to the impacts of climate change through their practice, research, and training in developing, implementing, and sustaining innovation towards climate change mitigation and adaptation. It is urgent for them to adapt their practice to this reality to become agents of change.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Hunt AP, Brearley M, Hall A, et al (2023)

Climate Change Effects on the Predicted Heat Strain and Labour Capacity of Outdoor Workers in Australia.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(9):.

Global heating is subjecting more of the planet to longer periods of higher heat stress categories commonly employed to determine safe work durations. This study compared predicted worker heat strain and labour capacity for a recent normal climate (1986-2005) and under commonly applied climate scenarios for the 2041-2080 period for selected Australian locations. Recently published heat indices for northern (Darwin, Townsville, and Tom Price) and south-eastern coastal and inland Australia locations (Griffith, Port Macquarie, and Clare) under four projected climate scenarios, comprising two representative concentration pathways (RCPs), RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, and two time periods, 2041-2060 and 2061-2080, were used. Safe work durations, before the threshold for core temperature (38.0 °C) or sweat loss (5% body mass) are attained, were then estimated for each scenario using the predicted heat strain model (ISO7933). The modelled time to threshold core temperature varied with location, climate scenario, and metabolic rate. Relative to the baseline (1986-2005), safe work durations (labour capacity) were reduced by >50% in Port Macquarie and Griffith and by 20-50% in northern Australia. Reaching the sweat loss limit restricted safe work durations in Clare and Griffith. Projected future climatic conditions will adversely impact the predicted heat strain and labour capacity of outdoor workers in Australia. Risk management strategies must adapt to warming conditions to protect outdoor workers from the deleterious effects of heat.

RevDate: 2023-05-12

Liu Y, Bu Y, Wang J, et al (2023)

Geological events and climate change drive diversification and speciation of mute cicadas in eastern continental Asia.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(23)00109-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The poor mobility of nymphs living underground, usually for many years and the weak flying ability of adults make cicadas unique for evolutionary biology and bio-geographical study. Cicadas of the genus Karenia are unusual in Cicadidae in lacking the timbals that produce sound. Population differentiation, genetic structure, dispersal and evolutionary history of the eastern Asian mute cicada Karenia caelatata were investigated based on morphological, acoustic and molecular data. The results reveal a high level of genetic differentiation in this species. Six independent clades with nearly unique sets of haplotypes corresponding to geographically isolated populations are recognized. Genetic and geographic distances are significantly correlated among lineages. The phenotypic differentiation is generally consistent with the high levels of genetic divergence across populations. Results of ecological niche modeling suggest that the potential distribution range of this mountain-habitat specialist during the Last Glacial Maximum was broader than its current range, indicating this species had benefited from the climate change during the early Pleistocene in southern China. Geological events such as orogeny in Southwest China and Pleistocene climate oscillations have driven the differentiation and divergence of this species, and basins, plains and rivers function as natural "barriers" to block the gene flow. Besides significant genetic divergence being found among clades, the populations occurring in the Wuyi Mountains and the Hengduan Mountains are significantly different in the calling song structure from other populations. This may have resulted from significant population differentiation and subsequent adaptation of related populations. We conclude that ecological differences in habitats, coupled with geographical isolation, have driven population divergence and allopatric speciation. This study provides a plausible example of incipient speciation in Cicadidae and improves understanding of population differentiation, acoustic signal diversification and phylogeographic relationships of this unusual cicada species. It informs future studies on population differentiation, speciation and phylogeography of other mountain-habitat insects in the East Asian continent.

RevDate: 2023-05-12

Chia RW, Lee JY, Lee M, et al (2023)

Role of soil microplastic pollution in climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02733-X [Epub ahead of print].

In recent decades, environmental pollution from microplastic (MPs: <5 mm) and climate change have received international attention. However, these two issues have been primarily investigated separately hitherto, although they exhibit a cause-and-effect relationship. Studies considering MPs and climate change as causal entities have focused only on MP pollution in marine environments as a contributor to climate change. Meanwhile, systematic causal studies have not been performed inadequately to understand the role of soil, which is a primary terrestrial sink of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the context of MP pollution, in climate change. In this study, the causal effect of soil MP pollution on GHG emissions as direct and indirect contributors to climate change is systematically analyzed. The mechanisms underlying the contribution of soil MPs to climate change are discussed, and future research perspectives are suggested. Approximately 121 research manuscripts pertaining to MP pollution and its associated effects on GHGs, carbon sinks, and soil respiration, recorded between 2018 and 2023, are selected and cataloged from seven database categories in PubMed, Google Scholar, Nature's database, and Web of Science. Several studies demonstrated that soil MP pollution directly contributes to climate change by accelerating the emission of GHGs from the soil to the atmosphere and indirectly by promoting soil respiration and adversely affecting natural carbon sinks, such as trees. Other studies correlated the release of GHGs from the soil to mechanisms such as the alteration of soil aeration, methanogen activity, and carbon and nitrogen cycles, and improved the abundance of carbon and nitrogen soil microbial functional genes adhering to plant roots to create anoxic conditions for plant growth. In general, soil MP pollution increases the release of GHGs into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to climate change. However, further research is to be conducted by investigating the underlying mechanisms using more practical field-scale data.

RevDate: 2023-05-12

Bellone R, Lechat P, Mousson L, et al (2023)

Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a multi-omics approach of temperature-induced changes in the mosquito.

Journal of travel medicine pii:7142810 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Climate change and globalization contribute to the expansion of mosquito vectors and their associated pathogens. Long spared, temperate regions have had to deal with the emergence of arboviruses traditionally confined to tropical regions. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was reported for the first time in Europe in 2007, causing a localized outbreak in Italy, which then recurred repeatedly over the years in other European localities. This raises the question of climate effects, particularly temperature, on the dynamics of vector-borne viruses. The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms set up in the vector in response to temperature.

METHODS: We combine three complementary approaches by examining Aedes albopictus mosquito gene expression (transcriptomics), bacterial flora (metagenomics) and CHIKV evolutionary dynamics (genomics) induced by viral infection and temperature changes.

RESULTS: We show that temperature alters profoundly mosquito gene expression, bacterial microbiome and viral population diversity. We observe that (i) CHIKV infection upregulated most genes (mainly in immune and stress-related pathways) at 20°C but not at 28°C, (ii) CHIKV infection significantly increased the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae Serratia marcescens at 28°C and (iii) CHIKV evolutionary dynamics were different according to temperature.

CONCLUSION: The substantial changes detected in the vectorial system (the vector and its bacterial microbiota, and the arbovirus) lead to temperature-specific adjustments to reach the ultimate goal of arbovirus transmission; at 20°C and 28°C, the Asian tiger mosquito Ae. albopictus was able to transmit CHIKV at the same efficiency. Therefore, CHIKV is likely to continue its expansion in the northern regions and could become a public health problem in more countries than those already affected in Europe.

RevDate: 2023-05-12

Ruth A, Svendsen MBS, Nygaard R, et al (2023)

Physiological effects of temperature in Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, shows high vulnerability of arctic stenotherms to global warming.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming affects the metabolism of ectothermic aquatic breathers forcing them to migrate and undergo high-latitudinal distribution shifts to circumvent the temperature-induced mismatch between increased metabolic demand and reduced water oxygen availability. Here we examined the effects of temperature on oxygen consumption rates in an arctic stenotherm, the Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, and calculated the optimal temperature for maximum aerobic scope, AS, (Topt, AS) which we found to be 2.44° C. We also investigated cardiac performance as limiting the oxygen transport chain at high temperatures by measuring maximum heart rate (fHmax) over acute temperature increases and found various metrics related to fHmax to be at least 3.2° C higher than Topt, AS . Our measured Topt, AS closely reflected in situ temperature occurrences of Greenland halibut from long-term tagging studies, showing that AS of the species is adapted to its habitat temperature, and is thus a good proxy for the species' sensitivity to environmental warming. We did not find a close connection between fHmax and Topt, AS , suggesting that cardiac performance is not limiting for the oxygen transport chain at high temperatures in this particular arctic stenotherm. Our estimate of the thermal envelope for AS of Greenland halibut was from -1.89° C to 8.07° C, which is exceptionally narrow compared to most other species of fish. As ocean temperatures increase most rapidly in the Arctic in response to climate change, and species in these areas have limited possibility for further poleward range shifts, these results suggest potential severe effects of global warming on arctic stenotherms, such as the Greenland halibut. The species' considerable economic importance raises concerns for future fisheries and species conservation of arctic stenotherms in the northern hemisphere. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-05-12

Varela R, de Castro M, Dias JM, et al (2023)

Coastal warming under climate change: Global, faster and heterogeneous.

The Science of the total environment, 886:164029 pii:S0048-9697(23)02650-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The assessment of expected changes in coastal sea surface temperature (SST) on a global scale is becoming increasingly important due to the growing pressure on coastal ecosystems caused by climate change. To achieve this objective, 17 Global Climate Models from CMIP6 were used, with data from historical and hist-1950 experiments spanning 1982-2050. This analysis highlights significant warming of coastal areas worldwide, with higher and more variable rates of warming than observed in previous decades. All basins are projected to experience an increase in coastal SST near 1 °C by mid-century, with some regions exhibiting nearshore SST anomalies exceeding 2 °C for the period 2031-2050 relative to 1995-2014. Regarding the Eastern Upwelling Boundary Systems, only the Canary upwelling system and the southern part of the Humboldt upwelling system manage to show lower-than-average SST warming rates, maintaining, to a certain extent, their ability to buffer global warming.

RevDate: 2023-05-11

Giannetta B, Plaza C, Cassetta M, et al (2023)

The effects of biochar on soil organic matter pools are not influenced by climate change.

Journal of environmental management, 341:118092 pii:S0301-4797(23)00880-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The sustainability of Mediterranean croplands is threatened by climate warming and rainfall reduction. The use of biochar as an amendment represents a tool to store organic carbon (C) in soil. The vulnerability of soil organic C (SOC) to the joint effects of climate change and biochar application needs to be better understood by investigating its main pools. Here, we evaluated the effects of partial rain exclusion (∼30%) and temperature increase (∼2 °C), combined with biochar amendment, on the distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) into particulate organic matter (POM) and the mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM). A set of indices suggested an increase in thermal stability in response to biochar addition in both POM and MAOM fractions. The MAOM fraction, compared to the POM, was particularly enriched in labile substances. Data from micro-Raman spectroscopy suggested that the POM fraction contained biochar particles with a more ordered structure, whereas the structural order decreased in the MAOM fraction, especially after climate manipulation. Crystalline Fe oxides (hematite) and a mix of ferrihydrite and hematite were detected in the POM and in the MAOM fraction, respectively, of the unamended plots under climate manipulation, but not under ambient conditions. Conversely, in the amended soil, climate manipulation did not induce changes in Fe speciation. Our work underlines the importance of discretely taking into account responses of both MAOM and POM to better understand the mechanistic drivers of SOC storage and dynamics.

RevDate: 2023-05-11

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2023)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

The National medical journal of India, 35(5):257-260.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Peltier TR, Shiratsuru S, Zuckerberg B, et al (2023)

Phenotypic variation in the molt characteristics of a seasonal coat color-changing species reveals limited resilience to climate change.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

The snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) possesses a broad suite of adaptations to winter, including a seasonal coat color molt. Recently, climate change has been implicated in the range contraction of snowshoe hares along the southern range boundary. With shortening snow season duration, snowshoe hares are experiencing increased camouflage mismatch with their environment reducing survival. Phenological variation of hare molt at regional scales could facilitate local adaptation in the face of climate change, but the level of variation, especially along the southern range boundary, is unknown. Using a network of trail cameras and historical museum specimens, we (1) developed contemporary and historical molt phenology curves in the Upper Great Lakes region, USA, (2) calculated molt rate and variability in and among populations, and (3) quantified the relationship of molt characteristics to environmental conditions for snowshoe hares across North America. We found that snowshoe hares across the region exhibited similar fall and spring molt phenologies, rates and variation. Yet, an insular island population of hares on Isle Royale National Park, MI, completed their molt a week earlier in the fall and initiated molt almost 2 weeks later in the spring as well as exhibited slower rates of molting in the fall season compared to the mainland. Over the last 100 years, snowshoe hares across the region have not shifted in fall molt timing; though contemporary spring molt appears to have advanced by 17 days (~ 4 days per decade) compared to historical molt phenology. Our research indicates that some variation in molt phenology exists for snowshoe hares in the Upper Great Lakes region, but whether this variation is enough to offset the consequences of climate change remains to be seen.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Pérez T, Vergara SE, WL Silver (2023)

Assessing the climate change mitigation potential from food waste composting.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7608.

Food waste is a dominant organic constituent of landfills, and a large global source of greenhouse gases. Composting food waste presents a potential opportunity for emissions reduction, but data on whole pile, commercial-scale emissions and the associated biogeochemical drivers are lacking. We used a non-invasive micrometeorological mass balance approach optimized for three-dimensional commercial-scale windrow compost piles to measure methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continuously during food waste composting. Greenhouse gas flux measurements were complemented with continuous oxygen (O2) and temperature sensors and intensive sampling for biogeochemical processes. Emission factors (EF) ranged from 6.6 to 8.8 kg CH4-C/Mg wet food waste and were driven primarily by low redox and watering events. Composting resulted in low N2O emissions (0.01 kg N2O-N/Mg wet food waste). The overall EF value (CH4 + N2O) for food waste composting was 926 kgCO2e/Mg of dry food waste. Composting emissions were 38-84% lower than equivalent landfilling fluxes with a potential net minimum savings of 1.4 MMT CO2e for California by year 2025. Our results suggest that food waste composting can help mitigate emissions. Increased turning during the thermophilic phase and less watering overall could potentially further lower emissions.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Mtsetfwa FP, Kruger L, RA McCleery (2023)

Climate change decouples dominant tree species in African savannas.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7619.

To understand how two dominant African savanna trees will continue to respond to climate changes, we examined their regeneration niche and adult tree distributions. Specifically, we wanted to (1) determine if distributional patterns were shifting, (2) predict future distributions under different climate change scenarios and (3) evaluate the realism of predicted future distributions. We randomly placed 40 grids into 6 strata across a climate gradient in the kingdom of Eswatini. Within these grids, we sampled adult and seedling marula (Scelerocarya birrea) and knobthorn (Senegalia nigrecens) trees and used the data to model their abundance. Next, we quantified shifts in distributional patterns (e.g., expansion or contraction) by measuring the current and projected areas of overlap between seedling and adult trees. Finally, we predicted future distributions of abundance based on predicted climate conditions. We found knobthorn seedlings within a small portion of the adult distribution, suggesting it was unlikely to track climate changes. Alternatively, finding marula seedlings on and beyond one edge of the adult distribution, suggested its range would shift toward cooler climates. Predicted future distributions suggest suitable climate for both species would transition out of savannas and into grasslands. Future projections (2041-2070) appeared consistent with observed distributions of marula, but knobthorn predictions were unrealistic given the lack of evidence for regeneration outside of its current range. The idiosyncratic responses of these species to climate change are likely to decouple these keystone structures in the coming decades and are likely to have considerable cascading effects including the potential rearrangement of faunal communities.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Li C, Liu Z, Li W, et al (2023)

Projecting future risk of dengue related to hydrometeorological conditions in mainland China under climate change scenarios: a modelling study.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 7(5):e397-e406.

BACKGROUND: We have limited knowledge on the impact of hydrometeorological conditions on dengue incidence in China and its associated disease burden in a future with a changed climate. This study projects the excess risk of dengue caused by climate change-induced hydrometeorological conditions across mainland China.

METHODS: In this modelling study, the historical association between the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and dengue was estimated with a spatiotemporal Bayesian hierarchical model from 70 cities. The association combined with the dengue-transmission biological model was used to project the annual excess risk of dengue related to PDSI by 2100 across mainland China, under three representative concentration pathways ([RCP] 2·6, RCP 4·5, and RCP 8·5).

FINDINGS: 93 101 dengue cases were reported between 2013 and 2019 in mainland China. Dry and wet conditions within 3 months lag were associated with increased risk of dengue. Locations with potential dengue risk in China will expand in the future. The hydrometeorological changes are projected to substantially affect the risk of dengue in regions with mid-to-low latitudes, especially the coastal areas under high emission scenarios. By 2100, the annual average increased excess risk is expected to range from 12·56% (95% empirical CI 9·54-22·24) in northwest China to 173·62% (153·15-254·82) in south China under the highest emission scenario.

INTERPRETATION: Hydrometeorological conditions are predicted to increase the risk of dengue in the future in the south, east, and central areas of mainland China in disproportionate patterns. Our findings have implications for the preparation of public health interventions to minimise the health hazards of non-optimal hydrometeorological conditions in a context of climate change.

FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Van Hout MC, Southalan L, Kinner S, et al (2023)

COVID-19, conflict, climate change, and the human rights of people living in African prisons.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 7(5):e352-e353.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Tobias W, Manfred S, Klaus J, et al (2023)

The future of Alpine Run-of-River hydropower production: Climate change, environmental flow requirements, and technical production potential.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02555-X [Epub ahead of print].

Past studies on the impacts of climate change (CC) on Alpine hydropower production have focused on high-head accumulation power plants. We provide one of the first comprehensive, simulation-based studies on CC impacts on Alpine Run-of-River (RoR) production, also considering effects of environmental flow requirements and technical increase potential. We simulate future electricity production under three emissions scenarios for 21 Swiss RoR plants with a total production of 5.9 TWh a[-1]. The simulations show an increase in winter production (4 % to 9 %) and a decrease in summer production (-2 % to -22 %), which together lead to an annual decrease of about -2 % to -7 % by the end of the century. The production loss due to environmental flow requirements is estimated at 3.5 % of the annual production; the largest low-elevation RoR power plants show little loss, while small and medium-sized power plants are most affected. The potential for increasing production by optimising the design discharge amounts to 8 % of the annual production. The largest increase potential is related to small and medium-sized power plants at high elevations. The key results are: i) there is no linear relationship between CC impacts on streamflow and on RoR production; the impacts depend on the usable streamflow volume, which is influenced by the Flow Duration Curve, environmental flow requirements, and design discharge; ii), the simulated production impacts show a strong correlation (>0.68) with the mean catchment elevation. The plants at the highest elevations even show an increase in annual production of 3 % to 23 %, due to larger shares of precipitation falling as rain instead of snow. These general results are transferable to RoR production in similar settings in other Alpine locations and should be considered in future assessments. Future work could focus on further technical optimisation potential, considering detailed operational data.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Kang SM, Shin Y, Kim H, et al (2023)

Disentangling the mechanisms of equatorial Pacific climate change.

Science advances, 9(19):eadf5059.

Most state-of-art models project a reduced equatorial Pacific east-west temperature gradient and a weakened Walker circulation under global warming. However, the causes of this robust projection remain elusive. Here, we devise a series of slab ocean model experiments to diagnostically decompose the global warming response into the contributions from the direct carbon dioxide (CO2) forcing, sea ice changes, and regional ocean heat uptake. The CO2 forcing dominates the Walker circulation slowdown through enhancing the tropical tropospheric stability. Antarctic sea ice changes and local ocean heat release are the dominant drivers for reduced zonal temperature gradient over the equatorial Pacific, while the Southern Ocean heat uptake opposes this change. Corroborating our model experiments, multimodel analysis shows that the models with greater Southern Ocean heat uptake exhibit less reduction in the temperature gradient and less weakening of the Walker circulation. Therefore, constraining the tropical Pacific projection requires a better insight into Southern Ocean processes.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Arshad M, Yu CK, Qadir A, et al (2023)

The influence of climate change, green innovation, and aspects of green dynamic capabilities as an approach to achieving sustainable development.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Green dynamic capability is acquiring significant traction among academics, practitioners, and policymakers; however, its relationship to green innovation, climate change, and sustainable development remains unclear. This study aims to identify green innovation within the context of developing nations to cover this void. Utilizing dynamic capability and stakeholder theory, this research illuminated the significance of green dynamic capability for sustainable development. Using a two-wave research methodology, the sample for this study was comprised of organizations from the Pakistani public sector. This investigation compiled data from 342 top and middle-level employees from the ministry of climate change, the ministry of agriculture, and the capital development authority (CDA). Using SEM SMART-PLS-path modeling to test hypotheses and investigate the model's causal links. Green innovation mediates the positive relationship between green dynamic capabilities and sustainable development, as indicated by the findings. However, neither green dynamic capabilities nor the relationship between green innovation and sustainable development is moderated by climate change. The findings of the study suggest strategies for government organizations to use green innovation in environmental literature. In addition, organizations will collaborate to develop strategies to combat climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Chu J, Zhu Y, J Ji (2023)

Characterizing the semantic features of climate change misinformation on Chinese social media.

Public understanding of science (Bristol, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change misinformation leads to significant adverse impacts and has become a global concern. Identifying misinformation and investigating its characteristics are of great importance to counteract misinformation. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the semantic features (frames and authority references) of climate change misinformation in the context of Chinese social media. Posts concerning climate change were collected from Weibo between January 2010 and December 2020. First, veracity, frames, and authority references were manually labeled. Then, we applied logistic regression to examine the relationship between information veracity and semantic features. The results revealed that posts concerning environmental and health impact and science and technology were more likely to be misinformation. Moreover, posts referencing non-specific authority sources are more likely to be misinformed than posts making no references to any authority references. This study provides a theoretical understanding of the semantic characteristics of climate change misinformation and practical suggestions for combating them.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Benning JW, Faulkner A, DA Moeller (2023)

Rapid evolution during climate change: demographic and genetic constraints on adaptation to severe drought.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(1998):20230336.

Populations often vary in their evolutionary responses to a shared environmental perturbation. A key hurdle in building more predictive models of rapid evolution is understanding this variation-why do some populations and traits evolve while others do not? We combined long-term demographic and environmental data, estimates of quantitative genetic variance components, a resurrection experiment and individual-based evolutionary simulations to gain mechanistic insights into contrasting evolutionary responses to a severe multi-year drought. We examined five traits in two populations of a native California plant, Clarkia xantiana, at three time points over 7 years. Earlier flowering phenology evolved in only one of the two populations, though both populations experienced similar drought severity and demographic declines and were estimated to have considerable additive genetic variance for flowering phenology. Pairing demographic and experimental data with evolutionary simulations suggested that while seed banks in both populations probably constrained evolutionary responses, a stronger seed bank in the non-evolving population resulted in evolutionary stasis. Gene flow through time via germ banks may be an important, underappreciated control on rapid evolution in response to extreme environmental perturbations.

RevDate: 2023-05-10
CmpDate: 2023-05-10

Poeplau C, R Dechow (2023)

The legacy of one hundred years of climate change for organic carbon stocks in global agricultural topsoils.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7483.

Soil organic carbon (SOC) of agricultural soils is observed to decline in many parts of the world. Understanding the reasons behind such losses is important for SOC accounting and formulating climate mitigation strategies. Disentangling the impact of last century's climate change from effects of preceding land use, management changes and erosion is difficult and most likely impossible to address in observations outside of warming experiments. However, the record of last century's climate change is available for every part of the globe, so the potential effect of climate change on SOC stocks can be modelled. In this study, an established and validated FAO framework was used to model global agricultural topsoil (0-30 cm) SOC stock dynamics from 1919 to 2018 as attributable to climate change. On average, global agricultural topsoils could have lost 2.5 ± 2.3 Mg C ha[-1] (3.9 ± 5.4%) with constant net primary production (NPP) or 1.6 ± 3.4 Mg C ha[-1] (2.5 ± 5.5%) when NPP was considered to be modified by temperature and precipitation. Regional variability could be explained by the complex patterns of changes in temperature and moisture, as well as initial SOC stocks. However, small average SOC losses have been an intrinsic and persistent feature of climate change in all climatic zones. This needs to be taken into consideration in reporting or accounting frameworks and halted in order to mitigate climate change and secure soil health.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Lara-Arévalo J, Escobar-Burgos L, Moore ERH, et al (2023)

COVID-19, Climate Change, and Conflict in Honduras: A food system disruption analysis.

Global food security, 37:100693.

In Honduras, as in many settings between 2020 and 2022, food security was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and conflicts-what some refer to as "The Three Cs." These challenges have had overlapping impacts on food supply chains, food assistance programs, food prices, household purchasing power, physical access to food, and food acceptability. This article applies a food system disruption analysis-adapted from a fault tree analysis originally developed for a municipal context in the United States-to the context of Honduras to systematically examine how the Three Cs affected food availability, accessibility, and acceptability. This article demonstrates the value of approaching food security through a disruption analysis, especially for settings impacted by multiple, interconnected, ongoing crises.

RevDate: 2023-05-09

Gómez-Casillas A, V Gómez Márquez (2023)

The effect of social network sites usage in climate change awareness in Latin America.

Population and environment, 45(2):7.

UNLABELLED: Using data from the Latinobarómetro (Latin Barometer) survey of 2017 to analyze the effect of social network site usage on climate change awareness in 18 Latin American countries, this article makes three contributions. First, it offers results on the socioeconomic determinants of climate awareness in a region of the world where there is scant published evidence in this regard. Second, it shows the effect of social media consumption on climate change awareness by assessing the role of each of the most popular sites: YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, WhatsApp, Snapchat, and Tumblr. Third, it assesses the effects of multi-platform consumption. The results show that YouTube has the strongest and most robust positive and statistically significant effect on climate change awareness, followed by Instagram, Twitter, and WhatsApp, while being a multi-platform user also has a positive and statistically significant effect on climate change awareness. The implications of these findings for understanding the role of social media in the development of environmental awareness are discussed.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11111-023-00417-4.

RevDate: 2023-05-09

Majumder J, Saha I, Saha A, et al (2023)

Climate Change, Disasters, and Mental Health of Adolescents in India.

Indian journal of psychological medicine, 45(3):289-291.

RevDate: 2023-05-08

Dutta TK, Vicente CSL, Maleita CMN, et al (2023)

Editorial: Impact of global climate change on the interaction between plants and plant-parasitic nematodes.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1195970.

RevDate: 2023-05-08
CmpDate: 2023-05-08

Wylie K (2023)

Climate change is a health issue we need to treat.

Australian journal of general practice, 52(5):253-254.

RevDate: 2023-05-08
CmpDate: 2023-05-08

Seth A, Maxwell J, Dey C, et al (2023)

Understanding and managing psychological distress due to climate change.

Australian journal of general practice, 52(5):263-268.

BACKGROUND: Australia has warmed by 1.4°C since pre-industrial times. This is greater than the global average and is predicted to exceed 1.5°C by 2030. This will have significant environmental effects that can threaten human wellbeing. Most Australians have direct experience of climate change-related events, with health, social, cultural and economic impacts already evident and wide-ranging implications for mental health.

OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of climate distress, which encompasses both 'climate anxiety' and other forms of distress related to climate change. It outlines the features and prevalence of climate distress, as well as approaches for assessment and management based on current evidence and theory.

DISCUSSION: Climate distress is common and can take many forms. These concerns may not be readily disclosed, but can be sensitively elicited, and patients may benefit from the opportunity for empathic, non-judgemental exploration of their experiences. Care must be taken not to pathologise rational distress while identifying maladaptive coping strategies and serious mental illness. Management should focus on adaptive coping strategies, use evidence‑based psychological interventions and draw upon emerging evidence about behavioural engagement, nature connection and group processes.

RevDate: 2023-05-08
CmpDate: 2023-05-08

Wylie K (2023)

Climate change.

Australian journal of general practice, 52(5):253-254.

RevDate: 2023-05-06

Ross FWR, Boyd PW, Filbee-Dexter K, et al (2023)

Potential role of seaweeds in climate change mitigation.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02320-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Seaweed (macroalgae) has attracted attention globally given its potential for climate change mitigation. A topical and contentious question is: Can seaweeds' contribution to climate change mitigation be enhanced at globally meaningful scales? Here, we provide an overview of the pressing research needs surrounding the potential role of seaweed in climate change mitigation and current scientific consensus via eight key research challenges. There are four categories where seaweed has been suggested to be used for climate change mitigation: 1) protecting and restoring wild seaweed forests with potential climate change mitigation co-benefits; 2) expanding sustainable nearshore seaweed aquaculture with potential climate change mitigation co-benefits; 3) offsetting industrial CO2 emissions using seaweed products for emission abatement; and 4) sinking seaweed into the deep sea to sequester CO2. Uncertainties remain about quantification of the net impact of carbon export from seaweed restoration and seaweed farming sites on atmospheric CO2. Evidence suggests that nearshore seaweed farming contributes to carbon storage in sediments below farm sites, but how scalable is this process? Products from seaweed aquaculture, such as the livestock methane-reducing seaweed Asparagopsis or low carbon food resources show promise for climate change mitigation, yet the carbon footprint and emission abatement potential remains unquantified for most seaweed products. Similarly, purposely cultivating then sinking seaweed biomass in the open ocean raises ecological concerns and the climate change mitigation potential of this concept is poorly constrained. Improving the tracing of seaweed carbon export to ocean sinks is a critical step in seaweed carbon accounting. Despite carbon accounting uncertainties, seaweed provides many other ecosystem services that justify conservation and restoration and the uptake of seaweed aquaculture will contribute to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. However, we caution that verified seaweed carbon accounting and associated sustainability thresholds are needed before large-scale investment into climate change mitigation from seaweed projects.

RevDate: 2023-05-06

Jiménez-Navarro IC, Mesman JP, Pierson D, et al (2023)

Application of an integrated catchment-lake model approach for simulating effects of climate change on lake inputs and biogeochemistry.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02567-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is simultaneously affecting lakes and their catchments, resulting in altered runoff patterns in the catchment and modified mixing and biogeochemical dynamics in lakes. The effects of climate change in a catchment will eventually have an impact on the dynamics of a downstream water body as well. An integrated model would allow considering how changes in the watershed affect the lake, but coupled modelling studies are rare. In this study we integrate a catchment model (SWAT+) and a lake model (GOTM-WET) to obtain holistic predictions for Lake Erken, Sweden. Using five different global climate models, projections of climate, catchment loads and lake water quality for the mid and end of the 21st century have been obtained under two future scenarios (SSP 2-45 and SSP 5-85). Temperature, precipitation and evapotranspiration will increase in the future, overall resulting in an increase in water inflow to the lake. An increasing importance of surface runoff will also have consequences on the catchment soil, hydrologic flow paths, and the input of nutrients to the lake. In the lake, water temperatures will rise, leading to increased stratification and a drop in oxygen levels. Nitrate levels are predicted to remain unchanged, while phosphate and ammonium levels increase. A coupled catchment-lake configuration such as that illustrated here allows prediction of future biogeochemical conditions of a lake, including linking land use changes to changing lake conditions, as well as eutrophication and browning studies. Since climate affects both the lake and the catchment, simulations of climate change should ideally take into account both systems.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )