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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 Nov 2021 at 01:36 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: "climate change"[TITLE] or "global warming"[TITLE] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-11-27

Williams JJ, Freeman R, Spooner F, et al (2021)

Vertebrate population trends are influenced by interactions between land use, climatic position, habitat loss and climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Rapid human-driven environmental changes are impacting animal populations around the world. Currently, land-use and climate change are two of the biggest pressures facing biodiversity. However, studies investigating the impacts of these pressures on population trends often do not consider potential interactions between climate and land-use change. Further, a population's climatic position (how close the ambient temperature and precipitation conditions are to the species' climatic tolerance limits) is known to influence responses to climate change but has yet to be investigated with regard to its influence on land-use change responses over time. Consequently, important variations across species' ranges in responses to environmental changes may be being overlooked. Here, we combine data from the Living Planet and BioTIME databases to carry out a global analysis exploring the impacts of land use, habitat loss, climatic position, climate change and the interactions between these variables, on vertebrate population trends. By bringing these datasets together, we analyse over 7,000 populations across 42 countries. We find that land-use change is interacting with climate change and a population's climatic position to influence rates of population change. Moreover, features of a population's local landscape (such as surrounding land cover) play important roles in these interactions. For example, populations in agricultural land uses where maximum temperatures were closer to their hot thermal limit, declined at faster rates when there had also been rapid losses in surrounding semi-natural habitat. The complex interactions between these variables on populations highlight the importance of taking intraspecific variation and interactions between local and global pressures into account. Understanding how drivers of change are interacting and impacting populations, and how this varies spatially, is critical if we are to identify populations at risk, predict species' responses to future environmental changes and produce suitable conservation strategies.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Canadell JG, Meyer CPM, Cook GD, et al (2021)

Multi-decadal increase of forest burned area in Australia is linked to climate change.

Nature communications, 12(1):6921.

Fire activity in Australia is strongly affected by high inter-annual climate variability and extremes. Through changes in the climate, anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter fire dynamics. Here we compile satellite (19 and 32 years) and ground-based (90 years) burned area datasets, climate and weather observations, and simulated fuel loads for Australian forests. Burned area in Australia's forests shows a linear positive annual trend but an exponential increase during autumn and winter. The mean number of years since the last fire has decreased consecutively in each of the past four decades, while the frequency of forest megafire years (>1 Mha burned) has markedly increased since 2000. The increase in forest burned area is consistent with increasingly more dangerous fire weather conditions, increased risk factors associated with pyroconvection, including fire-generated thunderstorms, and increased ignitions from dry lightning, all associated to varying degrees with anthropogenic climate change.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Ao H, Rohling EJ, Zhang R, et al (2021)

Global warming-induced Asian hydrological climate transition across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary.

Nature communications, 12(1):6935.

Across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (MPB; 5.3 million years ago, Ma), late Miocene cooling gave way to the early-to-middle Pliocene Warm Period. This transition, across which atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased to levels similar to present, holds potential for deciphering regional climate responses in Asia-currently home to more than half of the world's population- to global climate change. Here we find that CO2-induced MPB warming both increased summer monsoon moisture transport over East Asia, and enhanced aridification over large parts of Central Asia by increasing evaporation, based on integration of our ~1-2-thousand-year (kyr) resolution summer monsoon records from the Chinese Loess Plateau aeolian red clay with existing terrestrial records, land-sea correlations, and climate model simulations. Our results offer palaeoclimate-based support for 'wet-gets-wetter and dry-gets-drier' projections of future regional hydroclimate responses to sustained anthropogenic forcing. Moreover, our high-resolution monsoon records reveal a dynamic response to eccentricity modulation of solar insolation, with predominant 405-kyr and ~100-kyr periodicities between 8.1 and 3.4 Ma.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Laible G, Cole SA, Brophy B, et al (2021)

Holstein Friesian dairy cattle edited for diluted coat color as a potential adaptation to climate change.

BMC genomics, 22(1):856.

BACKGROUND: High-producing Holstein Friesian dairy cattle have a characteristic black and white coat, often with large proportions of black. Compared to a light coat color, black absorbs more solar radiation which is a contributing factor to heat stress in cattle. To better adapt dairy cattle to rapidly warming climates, we aimed to lighten their coat color by genome editing.

RESULTS: Using gRNA/Cas9-mediated editing, we introduced a three bp deletion in the pre-melanosomal protein 17 gene (PMEL) proposed as causative variant for the semi-dominant color dilution phenotype observed in Galloway and Highland cattle. Calves generated from cells with homozygous edits revealed a strong color dilution effect. Instead of the characteristic black and white markings of control calves generated from unedited cells, the edited calves displayed a novel grey and white coat pattern.

CONCLUSION: This, for the first time, verified the causative nature of the PMEL mutation for diluting the black coat color in cattle. Although only one of the calves was healthy at birth and later succumbed to a naval infection, the study showed the feasibility of generating such edited animals with the possibility to dissect the effects of the introgressed edit and other interfering allelic variants that might exist in individual cattle and accurately determine the impact of only the three bp change.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Ayed S, Mlouhi S, I Bouhaouel (2021)

Adoption of Durum Wheat Cultivar 'Salim' with a Technical Package and Its Resilience to Climate Change Impacts in Smallholders: Case of Nebeur/Kef Region, Tunisia.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:plants10112379.

In recent years, there has been an urgent need for local strategies to ensure food sustainability in Tunisia, recognized as a climate change hotspot region. In this context, adaptation measures, including the adoption of high-yielding durum wheat cultivars with adequate agronomical practices, are an important avenue to improving the productivity of the smallholders that represent 80% of Tunisian farmers. Thus, this study highlights the impact of (i) the adoption of the recently marketed durum wheat cultivar 'Salim' as compared to the common cultivar 'Karim' and the transfer of a technical package to 11 farmers in the Nebeur delegation/Kef-Tunisia (semi-arid region) during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 cropping seasons, and (ii) climate change on the expected mean grain yield and biomass by 2070, using the CropSyst agronomic cultivation model based on multi-year crop simulations run with a daily weather series (2020-2070). The adoption of 'Salim' with the recommended package, compared to 'Karim' with the farmer practices, significantly increased the grain yield (37.84%) and biomass (55.43%). Otherwise, the impact of the 0.8 °C temperature rise on the potential yields and biomass over the next 51 years was positive. Contrary to expectations, the yield increases for the two cultivars were very close, but the yield of 'Salim' (36.02 q ha-1) remains much higher than that of 'Karim' (23.34 q ha-1). On other hand, 'Salim' experienced a higher increase for biomass compared to that of 'Karim'. These results indicate that the adoption of the 'Salim' cultivar with its technical package might be considered as a strategy of adaptation to Nebeur conditions and to future climate change events.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Sampayo-Maldonado S, Ordoñez-Salanueva CA, Mattana E, et al (2021)

Thermal Niche for Seed Germination and Species Distribution Modelling of Swietenia macrophylla King (Mahogany) under Climate Change Scenarios.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:plants10112377.

Swietenia macrophylla is an economically important tree species propagated by seeds that lose their viability in a short time, making seed germination a key stage for the species recruitment. The objective of this study was to determine the cardinal temperatures and thermal time for seed germination of S. macrophylla; and its potential distribution under different climate change scenarios. Seeds were placed in germination chambers at constant temperatures from 5 to 45 °C and their thermal responses modelled using a thermal time approach. In addition, the potential biogeographic distribution was projected according to the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). Germination rate reached its maximum at 37.3 ± 1.3 °C (To); seed germination decreased to near zero at 52.7 ± 2.2 °C (ceiling temperature, Tc) and at 12.8 ± 2.4 °C (base temperature, Tb). The suboptimal thermal time θ150 needed for 50% germination was ca. 190 °Cd, which in the current scenario is accumulated in 20 days. The CCSM4 model estimates an increase of the potential distribution of the species of 12.3 to 18.3% compared to the current scenario. The temperature had an important effect on the physiological processes of the seeds. With the increase in temperature, the thermal needs for germination are completed in less time, so the species will not be affected in its distribution. Although the distribution of the species may not be affected, it is crucial to generate sustainable management strategies to ensure its long-term conservation.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Temirbekova SK, Kulikov IM, Afanasyeva YV, et al (2021)

The Evaluation of Winter Wheat Adaptation to Climate Change in the Central Non-Black Region of Russia: Study of the Gene Pool Resistance of Wheat from the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) World Collection to Abiotic Stress Factors.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:plants10112337.

The paper presents the results of a 50-year research of the genepool of the winter wheat from the world's largest wheat collection of N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) to investigate its resistance to the abiotic stress factors of the Moscow region and see how closely it matches the attributes of a wheat ideotype as postulated by N.I. Vavilov in 1935. The critical years in studying the wheat's winter resistance were 10 years out of 50: excessive water saturation during the year 2013; soil drought in 1988; and atmospheric drought in 1972 and 2010. During the investigation, the following gene pool features were analyzed: frost characterized by the cultivar Sojuz 50 (Russia), rapid temperature change, thawing, ice, and rotting resistance characterized by the cultivars Zarya 2 (Russia), Sv 75268, (Sweden), Caristerm and Tukan (Germany), PP 114-74 and Liwilla (Poland), Maris Ploughman and Granta (Great Britain), Titan (USA), Zdar (Czech), and Zenta (Switzerland); regeneration capacity in spring after poor wintering expressed by the cultivars Pamyati Fedina (Russia), TAW 3668.71 (Germany) and Rmo (Poland); resistance to excessive soil and air saturation exhibited by the cultivars Moskovskaya 39 (Russia), Tukan, Compal, Obelisk, Orestis, and Bussard (Germany); solid standing culm that is resistant to lodging characterized by the cultivars Tukan, Kronjuwel, Compal (Germany), Zenta (Switzerland), Moskovskaya 56 (Russia), and Hvede Sarah (Denmark); resistance to enzyme-mycotic depletion of seeds characterized by the cultivars Tukan, Compal, Obelisk, Orestis, Bussard (Germany), Sv 75268, Helge, VG 73394, Salut, Sv 75355 (Sweden), Zenta (Switzerland), Moskovskaya 39, and Ferrugineum 737.76 (Russia); and resistance to soil and atmospheric drought demonstrated by the cultivars Liessau, Heine Stamm, Severin, Neuzucht 14/4, Haynes, Rus 991, Halle 1020 (Germany), Gama (Poland), Sv 71536 (Sweden), and Moskovskaya 39 (Russia). Moreover, the cultivar Mironovskaya 808 (Ukraine) showed resistance to almost all abiotic stress factors studied. The performed study contributes towards the provision of potential sources of resistance to abiotic stress factors prevalent in the Moscow region that can be incorporated in advanced breeding programs.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Gray JS, NH Ogden (2021)

Ticks, Human Babesiosis and Climate Change.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:pathogens10111430.

The effects of current and future global warming on the distribution and activity of the primary ixodid vectors of human babesiosis (caused by Babesia divergens, B. venatorum and B. microti) are discussed. There is clear evidence that the distributions of both Ixodes ricinus, the vector in Europe, and I. scapularis in North America have been impacted by the changing climate, with increasing temperatures resulting in the northwards expansion of tick populations and the occurrence of I. ricinus at higher altitudes. Ixodes persulcatus, which replaces I. ricinus in Eurasia and temperate Asia, is presumed to be the babesiosis vector in China and Japan, but this tick species has not yet been confirmed as the vector of either human or animal babesiosis. There is no definite evidence, as yet, of global warming having an effect on the occurrence of human babesiosis, but models suggest that it is only a matter of time before cases occur further north than they do at present.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Greibe Andersen J, Karekezi C, Ali Z, et al (2021)

Perspectives of Local Community Leaders, Health Care Workers, Volunteers, Policy Makers and Academia on Climate Change Related Health Risks in Mukuru Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya-A Qualitative Study.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(22): pii:ijerph182212241.

Sub-Saharan Africa has been identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and perspectives on climate change and health-related issues, with a particular focus on non-communicable diseases, in the informal settlement (urban slum) of Mukuru in Nairobi, Kenya. Three focus group discussions and five in-depth interviews were conducted with total of 28 participants representing local community leaders, health care workers, volunteers, policy makers and academia. Data were collected using semi-structured interview guides and analyzed using grounded theory. Seven main themes emerged: climate change related diseases, nutrition and access to clean water, environmental risk factors, urban planning and public infrastructure, economic risk factors, vulnerable groups, and adaptation strategies. All participants were conscious of a link between climate change and health. This is the first qualitative study on climate change and health in an informal settlement in Africa. The study provides important information on perceived health risks, risk factors and adaptation strategies related to climate change. This can inform policy making, urban planning and health care, and guide future research. One important strategy to adapt to climate change-associated health risks is to provide training of local communities, thus ensuring adaptation strategies and climate change advocacy.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Bizarria R, Kooij PW, A Rodrigues (2021)

Climate Change Influences Basidiome Emergence of Leaf-Cutting Ant Cultivars.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 7(11): pii:jof7110912.

Maintaining symbiosis homeostasis is essential for mutualistic partners. Leaf-cutting ants evolved a long-term symbiotic mutualism with fungal cultivars for nourishment while using vertical asexual transmission across generations. Despite the ants' efforts to suppress fungal sexual reproduction, scattered occurrences of cultivar basidiomes have been reported. Here, we review the literature for basidiome occurrences and associated climate data. We hypothesized that more basidiome events could be expected in scenarios with an increase in temperature and precipitation. Our field observations and climate data analyses indeed suggest that Acromyrmex coronatus colonies are prone to basidiome occurrences in warmer and wetter seasons. Even though our study partly depended on historical records, occurrences have increased, correlating with climate change. A nest architecture with low (or even the lack of) insulation might be the cause of this phenomenon. The nature of basidiome occurrences in the A. coronatus-fungus mutualism can be useful to elucidate how resilient mutualistic symbioses are in light of climate change scenarios.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Dinu DG, Ricciardi V, Demarco C, et al (2021)

Climate Change Impacts on Plant Phenology: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Bud Break in Wintertime in Southern Italy.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:foods10112769.

The effects of global warming on plants are not limited to the exacerbation of summer stresses; they could also induce dormancy dysfunctions. In January 2020, a bud break was observed in an old poly-varietal vineyard. Meteorological data elaboration of the 1951-2020 period confirmed the general climatic warming of the area and highlighted the particular high temperatures of the last winter. Phenological records appeared to be significantly correlated to wood hydration and starch reserve consumption, demonstrating a systemic response of the plant to the warm conditions. The eight cultivars, identified by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles and ampelographic description, grown in this vineyard showed different behaviors. Among them, the neglected Sprino, Baresana, Bianco Palmento, and Uva Gerusalemme, as well as the interspecific hybrid Seyve Villard 12.375, appeared to be the most interesting. Among the adaptation strategies to climate changes, the cultivar selection should be considered a priority, as it reduces the inputs required for the plant management over the entire life cycle of the vineyard. Hot Mediterranean areas, such as Salento, are a battlefront against the climate change impacts, and, thus, they represent a precious source of biodiversity for viticulture.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Zhao N, Zhang X, Shan G, et al (2021)

Evaluating the Effects of Climate Change on Spatial Aggregation of Giant Pandas and Sympatric Species in a Mountainous Landscape.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(11): pii:ani11113332.

Understanding how climate change alters the spatial aggregation of sympatric species is important for biodiversity conservation. Previous studies usually focused on spatial shifting of species but paid little attention to changes in interspecific competitions under climate change. In this study, we evaluated the potential effects of climate change on the spatial aggregation of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and three sympatric competitive species (i.e., black bears (Ursus thibetanus), golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor), and wild boars (Sus scrofa)) in the Qinling Mountains, China. We employed an ensemble species distribution modeling (SDM) approach to map the current spatial distributions of giant pandas and sympatric animals and projected them to future climate scenarios in 2050s and 2070s. We then examined the range overlapping and niche similarities of these species under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that the distribution areas of giant pandas and sympatric species would decrease remarkably under future climate changes. The shifting directions of the overlapping between giant pandas and sympatric species vary under different climate change scenarios. In conclusion, future climate change greatly shapes the spatial overlapping pattern of giant pandas and sympatric species in the Qinling Mountains, while interspecific competition would be intensified under both mild and worst-case climate change scenarios.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Goma AA, CJC Phillips (2021)

The Impact of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Egyptian Livestock Production.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(11): pii:ani11113127.

Egypt is one of the hottest countries in the world, and extreme climate events are becoming more frequent, which is consistent with the warming of the planet. The impact of this warming on ecosystems is severe, including on livestock production systems. Under Egyptian conditions, livestock already suffer heat stress periods in summer. The predicted increases in temperature as result of climate change will affect livestock production by reducing growth and milk production because of appetite suppression and conception rate reductions and will increase animal welfare concerns. In severe cases, these effects can result in death. We review the heat stress effects on livestock behaviour, reproduction, and production in the context of predicted climate change for Egypt over the course of this century and offer alternative scenarios to achieve food security for a growing human population. As an example, we combine predictions for reduced milk production during heat stress and human population trajectories to predict that milk availability per person will decline from 61 kg/year in 2011 to 26 kg/year in 2064. Mitigation strategies are discussed and include the substitution of animal-based foods for plant-based foods and laboratory-grown animal products.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Zhou R, Gao Y, Chang N, et al (2021)

Projecting the Potential Distribution of Glossinamorsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) under Climate Change Using the MaxEnt Model.

Biology, 10(11): pii:biology10111150.

Glossina morsitans is a vector for Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), which is mainly distributed in sub-Saharan Africa at present. Our objective was to project the historical and future potentially suitable areas globally and explore the influence of climatic factors. The maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) was utilized to evaluate the contribution rates of bio-climatic factors and to project suitable habitats for G. morsitans. We found that Isothermality and Precipitation of Wettest Quarter contributed most to the distribution of G. morsitans. The predicted potentially suitable areas for G. morsitans under historical climate conditions would be 14.5 million km2, including a large area of Africa which is near and below the equator, small equatorial regions of southern Asia, America, and Oceania. Under future climate conditions, the potentially suitable areas are expected to decline by about -5.38 ± 1.00% overall, under all shared socioeconomic pathways, compared with 1970-2000. The potentially suitable habitats of G. morsitans may not be limited to Africa. Necessary surveillance and preventive measures should be taken in high-risk regions.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Rivaes RP, Feio MJ, Almeida SFP, et al (2021)

River ecosystem endangerment from climate change-driven regulated flow regimes.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06933-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Major threats of freshwater systems are river damming and habitat degradation, further amplified by climate change, another major driver of biodiversity loss. This study aims to understand the effects of climate change, and its repercussions on hydropower production, on the instream biota of a regulated river. Particularly, it aims to ascertain how mesohabitat availability downstream of hydropower plants changes due to modified flow regimes driven by climate change; how mesohabitat changes will influence the instream biota; and if instream biota changes will be similar within and between biological groups. We used a mesohabitat-level ecohydraulic approach with four biological elements - macrophytes, macroalgae, diatoms and macroinvertebrates - to encompass a holistic ecosystem perspective of the river system. The ecological preferences of the biological groups for specific mesohabitats were established by field survey. The mesohabitat availability in three expected climate change-driven flow regime scenarios was determined by hydrodynamic modeling. The biota abundance/cover was computed for the mesohabitat indicator species of each biological group. Results show that climate-changed flow regimes are characterized by a significant water shortage during summer months already for 2050. Accordingly, the regulated rivers' hydraulics are expected to change towards more homogeneous flow conditions where run habitats should prevail. As a result, the biological elements are expected to face abundance/cover modifications ranging from decreases of 76% up to 67% increase, depending on the biological element and indicator taxa. Diatoms seem to endure the greatest range of modifications while macrophytes the slightest (15% decrease to 38% increase). The greatest modifications would occur on decreasing abundance/cover responses. Such underlies an important risk to fluvial biodiversity in the future, indicting climate change as a significant threat to the fluvial system in regulated rivers.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Zhang H, Cheng H, Sinha A, et al (2021)

Collapse of the Liangzhu and other Neolithic cultures in the lower Yangtze region in response to climate change.

Science advances, 7(48):eabi9275.

[Figure: see text].

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Ramadan AMH, AG Ataallah (2021)

Are climate change and mental health correlated?.

General psychiatry, 34(6):e100648 pii:gpsych-2021-100648.

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of our time and is likely to affect human beings in substantial ways. Recently, researchers started paying more attention to the changes in climate and their subsequent impact on the social, environmental and economic determinants of health, and the role they play in causing or exacerbating mental health problems. The effects of climate change-related events on mental well-being could be classified into direct and indirect effects. The direct effects of climate change mostly occur after acute weather events and include post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, substance abuse disorder, depression and even suicidal ideation. The indirect effects include economic losses, displacement and forced migration, competition over scarce resources and collective violence. The risk factors for developing those mental health issues include young age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, loss or injury of a loved one, being a member of immigrant groups or indigenous people, pre-existing mental illness and inadequate social support. However, in some individuals, especially those undisturbed by any directly observable effects of climate change, abstract awareness and acknowledgement of the ongoing climate crisis can induce negative emotions that can be intense enough to cause mental health illness. Coping strategies should be provided to the affected communities to protect their mental health from collapse in the face of climate disasters. Awareness of the mental health impacts of climate change should be raised, especially in the high-risk groups. Social and global attention to the climate crisis and its detrimental effects on mental health are crucial. This paper was written with the aim of trying to understand the currently, scientifically proven impact of climate change-related disasters on mental health and understanding the different methods of solving the problem at the corporate level, by trying to decrease greenhouse gas emissions to zero, and at the individual level by learning how to cope with the impacts of those disasters.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Garnier S, Giordanengo E, Saatkamp A, et al (2021)

Amplified drought induced by climate change reduces seedling emergence and increases seedling mortality for two Mediterranean perennial herbs.

Ecology and evolution, 11(22):16143-16152 pii:ECE38295.

Seedling recruitment is a bottleneck for population dynamics and range shift. The vital rates linked to recruitment by seed are impacted by amplified drought induced by climate change. In the Mediterranean region, autumn and winter seedling emergence and mortality may have strong impact on the overall seedling recruitment. However, studies focusing on the temporal dynamic of recruitment during these seasons are rare. This study was performed in a deciduous Mediterranean oak forest located in southern France and quantifies the impact of amplified drought conditions on autumn and winter seedling emergence and seedling mortality rates of two herbaceous plant species with meso-Mediterranean and supra-Mediterranean distribution (respectively, Silene italica and Silene nutans). Seedlings were followed from October 2019 to May 2020 in both undisturbed and disturbed plots where the litter and the aboveground biomass have been removed to create open microsites. Amplified drought conditions reduced seedling emergence and increased seedling mortality for both Silene species but these negative effects were dependent on soil disturbance conditions. Emergence of S. italica decreased only in undisturbed plots (-7%) whereas emergence of S. nutans decreased only in disturbed plots (-10%) under amplified drought conditions. The seedling mortality rate of S. italica was 51% higher under amplified drought conditions in undisturbed plots while that of S. nutans was 38% higher in disturbed plots. Aridification due to lower precipitation in the Mediterranean region will negatively impact the seedling recruitment of these two Silene species. Climate change effects on early vital rates may likely have major negative impacts on the overall population dynamic.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Grunow B, Franz GP, K Tönißen (2021)

In Vitro Fish Models for the Analysis of Ecotoxins and Temperature Increase in the Context of Global Warming.

Toxics, 9(11): pii:toxics9110286.

Rising temperatures can affect fish survival, especially from shallower waters, as temperatures increase faster and more intensively in these areas; thus, species-specific temperature tolerance can be exceeded. Additionally, the amounts of anthropogenic pollutants are higher in coastal waters. Although increasing metabolic activity at higher temperatures could lead to stronger effects of toxins, there are hardly any studies on this topic. Subsequently, the aim was to investigate the response of fish cells upon exposure to industrial solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) in relation to a temperature increase (20 °C and 25 °C). Concerning the 3Rs (the replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments), in vitro tests were used for two threatened, vulnerable fish species: maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus). Both cell lines exhibited higher proliferation at 25 °C. However, ecotoxicological results indicated significant differences regarding the cell line, toxin, temperature and exposure time. The evolutionarily older fish lineage, Atlantic sturgeon, demonstrated lower mortality rates in the presence of isopropanol and recovered better during long-term ethanol exposure than the maraena whitefish. Atlantic sturgeon cells have higher adaptation potential for these alcohols. In summary, fish species respond very specifically to toxins and changes in temperature, and new ecotoxicological questions arise with increasing water temperatures.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Skendžić S, Zovko M, Pajač Živković I, et al (2021)

Effect of Climate Change on Introduced and Native Agricultural Invasive Insect Pests in Europe.

Insects, 12(11): pii:insects12110985.

Climate change and invasive species are major environmental issues facing the world today. They represent the major threats for various types of ecosystems worldwide, mainly managed ecosystems such as agriculture. This study aims to examine the link between climate change and the biological invasion of insect pest species. Increased international trade systems and human mobility have led to increasing introduction rates of invasive insects while climate change could decrease barriers for their establishment and distribution. To mitigate environmental and economic damage it is important to understand the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the process of invasion (transport, introduction, establishment, and dispersal) in terms of climate change. We highlight the major biotic factors affecting the biological invasion process: diet breadth, phenological plasticity, and lifecycle strategies. Finally, we present alien insect pest invasion management that includes prevention, eradication, and assessment of the biological invasion in the form of modelling prediction tools.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Pinto J, Magni PA, O'Brien RC, et al (2021)

Domestic Filth Flies in New Haven, Connecticut: A Case Study on the Effects of Urbanization and Climate Change by Comparing Fly Populations after 78 Years.

Insects, 12(11): pii:insects12110972.

Changes in common and widespread insect populations such as the domestic filth fly in urban cities are useful and relevant bioindicators for overall changes in the insect biomass. The current study surveyed necrophagous flies by placing a weekly trap from June-September over a two-year period in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, to compare data on fly abundance and diversity with data collected 78 years earlier. Climate and land cover changes were also assessed in combination with the fly population for each period. The survey results suggest the domestic filth fly population is now less diverse with decreased species richness and changes in the relative abundance of species. In both surveys, 95-96% of the population was composed of only three species. The current survey data indicate the numerical dominance of Lucilia sericata has decreased, the abundance of several species, notably Lucilia coeruleiviridis, has increased, and Lucilia illustris is absent. Species that showed a significant interaction with temperature in the 1940s survey have now increased in abundance, with several of the trapped species continuing to show an interaction with temperature and rainfall. Analysis of the land cover and climate data characterizes the trap site as a region exposed to a prolonged period of industrialization and urbanization, with only 7% of the land cover remaining undeveloped and over 50% impervious, coupled with an increase in temperature and rainfall. This study serves as a model for changes in domestic filth fly populations and other insects in similarly highly urbanized established cities.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Iannella M, De Simone W, D'Alessandro P, et al (2021)

Climate change favours connectivity between virus-bearing pest and rice cultivations in sub-Saharan Africa, depressing local economies.

PeerJ, 9:e12387 pii:12387.

Aims: Rice is a staple food for many countries, being fundamental for a large part of the worlds' population. In sub-Saharan Africa, its importance is currently high and is likely to become even more relevant, considering that the number of people and the per-capita consumption are both predicted to increase. The flea beetles belonging to the Chaetocnema pulla species group (pulla group), a harmful rice pest, are an important vector of the Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, a disease which leads even to 80-100% yield losses in rice production. We present a continental-scale study aiming at: (1) locating current and future suitable territories for both pulla group and rice; (2) identifying areas where rice cultivations may occur without suffering the presence of pulla group using an Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) approach; (3) estimating current and future connectivity among pulla group populations and areas predicted to host rice cultivations, based on the most recent land-use estimates for future agricultural trends; (4) proposing a new connectivity index called "Pest Aggression Index" (PAI) to measure the agricultural susceptibility to the potential future invasions of pests and disease; (5) quantifying losses in terms of production when rice cultivations co-occur with the pulla group and identifying the SSA countries which, in the future inferred scenarios, will potentially suffer the greatest losses.

Location: Sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Since the ongoing climate and land-use changes affect species' distributions, we first assess the impact of these changes through a spatially-jackknifed Maxent-based Ecological Niche Modelling in GIS environment, for both the pulla group and rice, in two climatic/socioeconomic future scenarios (SSP_2.45 and 3.70). We then assess the connectivity potential of the pulla group populations towards rice cultivations, for both current and future predictions, through a circuit theory-based approach (Circuitscape implemented in Julia language). We finally measure the rice production and GPD loss per country through the spatial index named "Pest Aggression Index", based on the inferred connectivity magnitude.

Results: The most considerable losses in rice production are observed for Liberia, Sierra Leone and Madagascar in all future scenarios (2030, 2050, 2070). The future economic cost, calculated as USD lost from rice losses/country's GDP results are high for Central African Republic (-0.6% in SSP_2.45 and -3.0% in SSP_3.70) and Guinea-Bissau (-0.4% in SSP_2.45 and -0.68% in SSP_3.70), with relevant losses also obtained for other countries.

Main conclusions: Since our results are spatially explicit and focused on each country, we encourage careful land-use planning. Our findings could support best practices to avoid the future settlement of new cultivations in territories where rice would be attacked by pulla group and the virus, bringing economic and biodiversity losses.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Gómez-Cruz A, Santos-Hernández NG, Cruz JA, et al (2021)

Effect of climate change on the potential distribution of Helodermaalvarezi (Squamata, Helodermatidae).

ZooKeys, 1070:1-12 pii:69186.

Climate change represents a real threat to biodiversity conservation worldwide. Although the effects on several species of conservation priority are known, comprehensive information about the impact of climate change on reptile populations is lacking. In the present study, we analyze outcomes on the potential distribution of the black beaded lizard (Helodermaalvarezi Bogert & Martin del Campo, 1956) under global warming scenarios. Its potential distribution, at present and in projections for the years 2050 and 2070, under both optimistic and pessimistic climate change forecasts, were computed using current data records and seven bioclimatic variables. General results predict a shift in the future potential distribution of H.alvarezi due to temperature increase. The optimistic scenario (4.5 W/m2) for 2070 suggests an enlargement in the species' distribution as a response to the availability of new areas of suitable habitat. On the contrary, the worst-case scenario (7 W/m2) shows a distribution decrease by 65%. Moreover, the range distribution of H.alvarezi is directly related to the human footprint, which consequently could magnify negative outcomes for this species. Our research elucidates the importance of conservation strategies to prevent the extinction of the black beaded lizard, especially considering that this species is highly threatened by aversive hunting.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Han SR, Wei M, Wu Z, et al (2021)

Perceptions of workplace heat exposure and adaption behaviors among Chinese construction workers in the context of climate change.

BMC public health, 21(1):2160.

BACKGROUND: Workplace heat exposure can cause a series of heat-related illnesses and injuries. Protecting workers especially those undertake work outdoors from the risk of heat strain is a great challenge for many workplaces in China under the context of climate change. The aim of this study is to investigate the perceptions and adaptation behaviors of heat exposure among construction workers and to provide evidence for the development of targeted heat adaptation strategies nationally and internationally.

METHODS: In 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional online questionnaire survey via WeChat Survey Star in China, using a purposive snowball sampling approach. A total of 326 construction workers submitted completed questionnaires. The perceptions of workplace heat exposure were measured using seven indicators: concerns over high temperature, perception of high temperature injury, attitudes towards both heat-related training and regulations, adjustment of working habits during heat, heat prevention measures in the workplace, and reduction of work efficiency. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the factors significantly associated with workers' heat perceptions and behavioral responses.

RESULTS: 33.3% of the respondents were moderately or very concerned about heat exposure in the workplace. Less than half of the workers (43.8%) were worried about heat-related injuries. Workers who have either experienced work-related injuries (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.62) or witnessed injuries to others during high temperatures (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) were more concerned about heat exposure compared to other workers. Most respondents (63.5%) stated that their work efficiency declined during extremely hot weather. The factors significantly associated with a reduction of work efficiency included undertaking physically demanding jobs (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54) and witnessing other workers' injuries during high temperatures (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.11-1.43). More than half of the workers were willing to adjust their work habits to adapt to the impact of high temperatures (81.6%). The internet was the most common method to obtain heat prevention information (44.7%), and the most frequently used heat prevention measure was the provision of cool drinking water (64.8%).

CONCLUSIONS: Chinese construction workers lack heat risk awareness and are not well prepared for the likely increasing heat exposure in the workplace due to global warming. Therefore, there is a need to improve their awareness of heat-related injuries, strengthen high temperature related education and training, and update the current heat prevention policies to ensure compliance and implementation.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Hu H, He L, Ma H, et al (2022)

Responses of AM fungal abundance to the drivers of global climate change: A meta-analysis.

The Science of the total environment, 805:150362.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), playing critical roles in carbon cycling, are vulnerable to climate change. However, the responses of AM fungal abundance to climate change are unclear. A global-scale meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the response patterns of AM fungal abundance to warming, elevated CO2 concentration (eCO2), and N addition. Both warming and eCO2 significantly stimulated AM fungal abundance by 18.6% (95%CI: 5.9%-32.8%) and 21.4% (15.1%-28.1%) on a global scale, respectively. However, the response ratios (RR) of AM fungal abundance decreased with the degree of warming while increased with the degree of eCO2. Furthermore, in warming experiments, as long as the warming exceeded 4 °C, its effects on AM fungal abundance changed from positive to negative regardless of the experimental durations, methods, periods, and ecosystem types. The effects of N addition on AM fungal abundance are -5.4% (-10.6%-0.2%), and related to the nitrogen fertilizer input rate and ecosystem type. The RR of AM fungal abundance is negative in grasslands and farmlands when the degree of N addition exceeds 33.85 and 67.64 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively; however, N addition decreases AM fungal abundance in forests only when the degree of N addition exceeds 871.31 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The above results provide an insight into predicting ecological functions of AM fungal abundance under global changes.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Han L, Li Y, Zou Y, et al (2022)

Relationship between lake salinity and the climatic gradient in northeastern China and its implications for studying climate change.

The Science of the total environment, 805:150403.

The rising temperatures, increased evaporation, and altered precipitation patterns associated with global warming pose threats to aquatic ecosystems, especially the salinization of lake water and changes in the terrestrial carbon budget. We studied a series of samples of catchment soils, surface sediments, and sediment cores from 51 lakes and reservoirs covering an extensive climatic range in northeastern China. Measurements included salinity indices (electrical conductivity and pH) and other physicochemical parameters, including magnetic properties and color (chroma). The results indicate that the occurrence of salt minerals and the salinity of the lake sediments are dominated by the arid climatic conditions of the region. This enabled us to develop climatic transfer functions between salinity, precipitation and evaporation, with potential applications in paleoclimatic research. As carbonates are the dominant salts in most of the studied lakes and reservoirs, past salinity variations are likely reflected by changes in HCO3- and CO32- concentrations, which provides the opportunity to study the response of water-CO2-carbonate interactions to climate change. Our findings emphasize the important role of alkaline lakes in carbon burial and carbon neutralization, in the context of ongoing global warming.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Zubelzu S, Sánchez-Calvo R, Cardozo DS, et al (2022)

Suitability of Sustainable Agricultural Drainage Systems for adapting agriculture to climate change.

The Science of the total environment, 805:150319.

This paper presents a comprehensive and practical method for Sustainable Agricultural Drainage Systems (SADS) design. It is aimed at studying the suitability of using surface runoff as irrigation source. The method determines the optimum amount of surface runoff to be used for irrigation considering both environmental constraints (aquifers recharge, discharge to natural water courses) and investment and operation costs. The developed method has been applied to the Spanish irrigation district "Villalar de los Comuneros Sector 1" located in Valladolid. The estimation of the optimum SADS provision was calculated for most of the major crops at the irrigation district highlighting that SADS facilities can reduce the amount of external provision of water for irrigation while maintaining the aquifer's recharge and the natural discharge to water courses. The simulations run for climate change forecasting scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways, RCP, RCP45, RCP60, RCP85) showed that optimum SADS would reduce irrigation requirements and would increase natural fluxes (both aquifers and natural water courses) therefore improving the general water cycle in rural environments with productive agriculture.

RevDate: 2021-11-24

Naik Y, Brook A, Perraton J, et al (2021)

Fiscal and monetary policies: the cutting edge of advocacy and research on population health and climate change.

Perspectives in public health, 141(6):325-327.

RevDate: 2021-11-24

Issa R, Baker C, Spooner R, et al (2021)

Mapping the movement for climate change and health in England: a descriptive review and theory of change analysis.

Perspectives in public health, 141(6):328-337.

AIMS: There are a growing number of organisations working to address the connections between climate change and health. This article introduces the concept of 'theories of change' - the methodology by which organisations or movements hope to bring about social change - and applies it to the current climate change and health movement in England. Through movement mapping, the article describes and offers reflections on the climate change and health ecosystems in England.

METHODS: Organisations working on climate change and health in England were identified and publicly available information was collated to map movement characteristics, target stakeholders and methodologies deployed, using an inductive, iterative approach.

RESULTS: A total of 98 organisations working on health and climate change (and/or sustainability) were initially identified, of which 70 met the inclusion criteria. Most organisations target two or more stakeholders, with healthcare workers, management structures, and government being most commonly cited. Methodological approaches identified include Formal education programmes; Awareness-raising; Purchasing-procurement power; Advocacy; Financial; Media-messaging; Networking; Knowledge generation; and Policy making, of which education, awareness-raising, and advocacy are most commonly used.

CONCLUSION: There is a tendency for climate change and health organisations in England to focus on individual level and sectoral change over system change. More could be made of the potential for the healthcare professions' voice and messaging for the wider climate movement. Given the rapid boom of climate change and health organisations in recent years, a mind-set shift that recognises different players as part of a cohesive ecosystem with better coordination and collaboration may reduce unnecessary work, and facilitate more cohesive outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-11-24

Aidoo DC, Boateng SD, Freeman CK, et al (2021)

The effect of smallholder maize farmers' perceptions of climate change on their adaptation strategies: the case of two agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

Heliyon, 7(11):e08307 pii:S2405-8440(21)02410-5.

Maize is one of the most common cereals and a major staple that is cultivated across all agro-ecological zones in Ghana. However, maize productivity is affected by changes in climate, such as increased temperature and variations in rainfall. These changes in climate require farmers to implement practices (adaptation strategies) in order to reduce the magnitude of crop losses. This study examined how the perceptions of maize farmers regarding climate change affect their choice of adaptation strategies. A mixed methods approach was adopted for the study. Data was collected by means of a survey of 386 maize farmers along with focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate probit regression, while qualitative responses were used to explain the findings. Results from the data analysis indicated that maize farmers employed 17 adaptation strategies in adapting to climate change. The most common strategies identified were change of planting days, crop diversification, use of resistant varieties, and monitoring weather forecasts on radio. Furthermore, the factors that influenced the choice of adaptation strategies by maize farmers in both zones were experience in farming, household size, and perceptions about the impact and intensity of climate change.

RevDate: 2021-11-24

Sharif Nia H, Gorgulu O, Naghavi N, et al (2021)

A time-series prediction model of acute myocardial infarction in northern of Iran: the risk of climate change and religious mourning.

BMC cardiovascular disorders, 21(1):563.

BACKGROUND: Although various studies have been conducted on the effects of seasonal climate changes or emotional variables on the risk of AMI, many of them have limitations to determine the predictable model. The currents study is conducted to assess the effects of meteorological and emotional variables on the incidence and epidemiological occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Sari (capital of Mazandaran, Iran) during 2011-2018.

METHODS: In this study, a time series analysis was used to determine the variation of variables over time. All series were seasonally adjusted and Poisson regression analysis was performed. In the analysis of meteorological data and emotional distress due to religious mourning events, the best results were obtained by autoregressive moving average (ARMA) (5,5) model.

RESULTS: It was determined that average temperature, sunshine, and rain variables had a significant effect on death. A total of 2375 AMI's were enrolled. Average temperate (°C) and sunshine hours a day (h/day) had a statistically significant relationship with the number of AMI's (β = 0.011, P = 0.014). For every extra degree of temperature increase, the risk of AMI rose [OR = 1.011 (95%CI 1.00, 1.02)]. For every extra hour of sunshine, a day a statistically significant increase [OR = 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04)] in AMI risk occurred (β = 0.025, P = 0.001). Religious mourning events increase the risk of AMI 1.05 times more. The other independent variables have no significant effects on AMI's (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate that sunshine hours and the average temperature had a significant effect on the risk of AMI. Moreover, emotional distress due to religious morning events increases AMI. More specific research on this topic is recommended.

RevDate: 2021-11-24

Visser ME, Lindner M, Gienapp P, et al (2021)

Recent natural variability in global warming weakened phenological mismatch and selection on seasonal timing in great tits (Parus major).

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 288(1963):20211337.

Climate change has led to phenological shifts in many species, but with large variation in magnitude among species and trophic levels. The poster child example of the resulting phenological mismatches between the phenology of predators and their prey is the great tit (Parus major), where this mismatch led to directional selection for earlier seasonal breeding. Natural climate variability can obscure the impacts of climate change over certain periods, weakening phenological mismatching and selection. Here, we show that selection on seasonal timing indeed weakened significantly over the past two decades as increases in late spring temperatures have slowed down. Consequently, there has been no further advancement in the date of peak caterpillar food abundance, while great tit phenology has continued to advance, thereby weakening the phenological mismatch. We thus show that the relationships between temperature, phenologies of prey and predator, and selection on predator phenology are robust, also in times of a slowdown of warming. Using projected temperatures from a large ensemble of climate simulations that take natural climate variability into account, we show that prey phenology is again projected to advance faster than great tit phenology in the coming decades, and therefore that long-term global warming will intensify phenological mismatches.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Wang X, Zhang T, Zhang Q, et al (2021)

Different patterns of hypoxia aggravate the toxicity of polystyrene nanoplastics in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis: Environmental risk assessment of plastics under global climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06894-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Hypoxia, largely triggered by anthropogenic activities and global climate change, exerts widespread and expanding stress on marine ecosystems. As an emerging contaminant, the influence of nanoplastics on marine organisms has also attracted attention in recent years. However, the impact of hypoxia on the risk assessments of nanoplastics is rarely considered. This study investigated the toxicity of PS-NPs (0, 0.5, and 5 mg/L) to the coastal mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis under different patterns of hypoxia (normoxia, constant hypoxia, and fluctuating hypoxia). The results showed that constant hypoxia might reduce the accumulation of PS-NPs in mussels by decreasing the standard metabolic rate. The impairment of PS-NPs on mussel immunity was also exacerbated by constant hypoxia. Fluctuating hypoxia did not affect the accumulation of PS-NPs, but aggravated the oxidative damage caused by PS-NPs. These findings emphasize the importance of environmental factors and their temporal variability in plastic risk assessment.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

McCabe LM, Aslan CE, NS Cobb (2021)

Decreased bee emergence along an elevation gradient: Implications for climate change revealed by a transplant experiment.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Bees experience differences in thermal tolerance based on their geographical range; however, there are virtually no studies that examine how overwintering temperatures may influence immature survival rates. Here, we conducted a transplant experiment along an elevation gradient to test for climate change effects on immature overwinter survival by using movement along elevational gradient for a community of 26 cavity nesting bee species in the family Megachilidae along the San Francisco Peaks, AZ elevational gradient. In each of three years, we placed nest blocks at three elevations, to be colonized by native Megachilidae. Colonized blocks were then (a) moved to lower (warmer) elevations; (b) moved to higher (cooler) elevations; or (c) left in their natal habitat (no change in temperature). Because Megachilidae occupy high elevations with colder temperatures more than any other family of bees, we predicted that emergence would decrease in nest blocks moved to lower elevations, but that we would find no differences in emergence when nest blocks were moved to higher elevations. We found three major results: 1) Bee species moved to lower (warmer) habitats exhibited a 30% decrease in emergence compared with species moved within their natal habitat. 2) Habitat generalists were more likely, than habitat specialist to emerge when moved up or down in elevation regardless of their natal life zones. 3) At our highest elevation treatment, emergence increased when blocks were moved to higher elevations, indicating that at least some Megachilidae species can survive in colder temperatures. Our results suggest that direct effects of warming temperatures will have negative impacts on the overall survival of Megachilidae. Additionally, above tree-line, low availability of wood-nesting resources is a likely limiting factor on bees moving up in elevation.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Jurgens LJ, Ashlock LW, B Gaylord (2021)

Facilitation alters climate change risk on rocky shores.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

A huge fraction of global biodiversity resides within biogenic habitats that ameliorate physical stresses. In most cases, details of how physical conditions within facilitative habitats respond to external climate forcing remain unknown, hampering climate change predictions for many of the world's species. Using intertidal mussel beds as a model system, we characterize relationships among external climate conditions and within-microhabitat heat and desiccation conditions. We use these data, along with physiological tolerances of two common inhabitant taxa (the isopod Cirolana harfordi and the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes), to examine the magnitude of climate risk inside and outside biogenic habitat, applying an empirically derived model of evaporation to simulate mortality risk under a high-emissions climate-warming scenario. We found that biogenic microhabitat conditions responded so weakly to external climate parameters that mortality risk was largely unaffected by climate warming. In contrast, outside the biogenic habitat, desiccation drove substantial mortality in both species, even at temperatures 4.4 to 8.6 ºC below their hydrated thermal tolerances. These findings emphasize the importance of warming-exacerbated desiccation to climate-change risk and the role of biogenic habitats in buffering this less-appreciated stressor. Our results suggest that, when biogenic habitats remain intact, climate warming may have weak direct effects on organisms within them. Instead, risk to such taxa is likely to be indirect and tightly coupled with the fate of habitat-forming populations. Conserving and restoring biogenic habitats that offer climate refugia could therefore be crucial to supporting biodiversity in the face of climate warming.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Aronsson J, Nichols A, Warwick P, et al (2021)

Awareness and attitudes towards sustainability and climate change amongst students and educators in nursing: A systematic integrative review protocol.

Nursing open [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: This review identifies and synthesizes literature related to the awareness of and attitudes towards sustainability and climate change from the perspective of nursing students and educators.

DESIGN: A systematic integrative review.

METHODS: The review will follow the five stages outlined by Whittemore and Knafl: problem identification, literature search, data evaluation, data analysis and presentation. The data analysis will be based on inductive content analysis developed by Elo and Kyngäs. Principles of the Cochrane Collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) will also inform the review process.

RESULTS: This review will offer insights about sustainability and climate change in relation to an important target population: the future nursing workforce and those educating its members. Findings might inform curriculum development, potentially contributing to a nursing profession that looks after the health of the planet and the health of the population inhabiting it.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Adams J, Morano LD, Tzouanas V, et al (2021)

Classical soil gardens versus outdoor hydroponic gardens utilizing energy and water capture technologies to combat climate change.

Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass.), 19(5):505-511.

Many outdoor gardens are designed for plants to grow in soil. Few gardens are designed for plants to be hydroponically grown outside with energy and water capture technologies. The feasibility of a selfsufficient, adaptive hydroponic garden harnessing energy from multiple renewable energy (solar and wind) and rainwater collection techniques while producing food has been considered. This study's primary objective is to conduct a comparative analysis between a traditional soil garden bed and an outdoor hydroponic system, called Pangea. The study findings suggest no significant statistical difference between the plants grown in traditional soil and a Pangea system. Additional objectives of this study include a comparative analysis of water and energy differentials between a standard garden and Pangea. This study's energy findings suggest that the Pangea system produces 0.05 kWh of energy to 0 kWh of energy production in the classic soil over a month timespan. The water production findings indicate that a Pangea system produces 198.01 L of water and a classic soil of 69 L for a timespan of 1 month, concluding a positive water differential of 288.12 L and a negative water differential of 414 L after 6 months. The study findings suggest the combination of sustainable practices can limit the negative effects of weather-related events to create a positive differential for producing food, water, and energy.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Cremona F, Öglü B, McCarthy MJ, et al (2021)

Nitrate as a predictor of cyanobacteria biomass in eutrophic lakes in a climate change context.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06883-2 [Epub ahead of print].

We aimed to predict cyanobacteria biomass and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in Lake Võrtsjärv, a large, shallow, and eutrophic lake in Estonia. We used a model chain based on the succession of a mechanistic (INCA-N) model and an empirical, generalized linear model. INCA-N model calibration and validation was performed with long term climate and catchment parameters. We constructed twelve scenarios as combinations of climate forcing from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 3 scenarios), land conversion (forest to agriculture, 2 scenarios), and fertilizer use (2 scenarios). Models predicted 46% of the variance of cyanobacteria biomass and 65% of that of NO3- concentrations. The model chain simulated that scenarios comprising both forest conversion to agricultural lands and a greater use of fertilizer per surface area unit would cause increases in lacustrine NO3- (up to twice the historical mean) and cyanobacteria biomass (up to a four-fold increase compared to the historical mean). The changes in NO3- concentrations and cyanobacteria biomass were more pronounced in low and moderate warming scenarios than in high warming scenarios because of increased denitrification rates in a warmer climate. Our findings show the importance of reducing anthropogenic pressures on lake catchments in order to reduce harmful pollutant and microalgae proliferation, and highlight the counterintuitive effects of multiple stressor interactions on lake functioning.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Patrick R, Garad R, Snell T, et al (2021)

Australians report climate change as a bigger concern than COVID-19.

The journal of climate change and health, 3:100032.

Australia experienced two public health emergencies in 2020 - the catastrophic bushfires and the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Whilst these were separate events, both have similar drivers arising from human pressures on the natural environment. Here we report on relative personal concerns of Australians in a survey implemented during the global COVID-19 pandemic. The study design was a cross sectional online survey administered between 11 August and 11 November 2020. The setting was an Australia-wide online population involving 5483 individuals aged ≥18 residing in Australia. Recruitment occurred in two stages: unrestricted self-selected community sample through mainstream and social media (N = 4089); and purposeful sampling using an online panel company (N = 1055). The sample was predominantly female (N = 3187); mean age of 52.7 years; and approximately representative of adults in Australia for age, location, state and area disadvantage (IRSD quintiles). Climate change was very much a problem for 66.3% of the sample, while COVID-19 was ranked at the same level by only 25.3%. Three times as many participants reported that climate change was very much a problem than COVID-19, despite responding at a time when Australians were experiencing Stage 2 through 4 lockdowns. Demographic differences relating to relative personal concerns are discussed. Even in the midst of the uncertainty of a public health pandemic, Australians report that climate change is their most significant personal problem. Australia needs to apply an evidence-based public health approach to climate change, like it did for the pandemic, which will address the climate change concerns of Australians.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Liu D, Li Y, Wang P, et al (2021)

Sustainable Agriculture Development in Northwest China Under the Impacts of Global Climate Change.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:706552.

Northwest China has one of the most vulnerable agricultural systems in the context of global climate change. We argue that sustainable agriculture development in this region requires a systematic approach toward climate change adaptation, and propose a schematic framework for strategic thinking. We first briefly review the impacts of climate change on various agricultural environmental factors, including light, temperature, water, and atmosphere, and explores the effects of climate change on agricultural practices, such as disaster response, pests and weeds control, fertilizer application, and species selection. The study shows that climate change has increased extreme climate disasters such as drought and heat waves, and has expanded the scope and severity of pests and weeds, which in turn requires a series of changes in farming practices. These effects have profound impacts on farmland management, as well as the sustainability of the agricultural system. Based on the findings, the authors argue that the key adaptation strategies should include: (1) optimizing the geographic distribution of agriculture, (2) cultivating new crop varieties that can better adapt to the changing environment, (3) adjusting cropping timing and structure, (4) developing water-saving irrigation systems, (5) improving capacities of disaster prevention and mitigation at both household and government levels, and (6) strengthening the sciences, technology, and human resources to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change.

RevDate: 2021-11-21

Gutiérrez-Jara JP, Salazar-Viedma M, Gonzélez CR, et al (2021)

The emergence of Dirofilaria repens in a non-endemic area influenced by climate change: dynamics of transmission using a mathematical model.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(21)00408-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Dirofilaria repens is a nematode affecting domestic and wild canids, transmitted by several species of mosquitoes of different genera. It usually causes a non-pathogenic subcutaneous infection in dogs and is the principal agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old World. The geographic distribution of D. repens is changing rapidly, and several factors contribute to the spread of the infection to non-endemic areas. A mathematical model for transmission of Dirofilaria spp. was built, using a system of ordinary differential equations that consider the interactions between reservoirs, vectors, and humans. The transmission simulations of D. repens were carried out considering a projection in time, with intervals of 15 and 100 years. For the dynamics of the vector, seasonal variations were presented as series with quarter periodicity during the year. The results of the simulations highlight the peak of contagions in the reservoir and in humans, a product of the action of the vector when it remains active throughout the year. A 300% infection increase in the reservoir was observed during the first decade and remains present in the population with a representative number of cases. When the vector maintains its density and infectivity during the year, the incidence of the infection in humans increases. Accumulated cases amount to 45 per 100,000 inhabitants, which corresponds to a cumulative incidence of 0.05%, in 85 years. This indicates that early prevention of infection in canids would significantly reduce the disease, also reducing the number of accumulated cases of human dirofilariasis by D. repens. The interaction between the simulations generated by the model highlights the sensitivity of the epidemiological curve to the periodicity of seasonality, reaffirming the hypothesis of the probability of movement of the zoonotic disease to non-endemic areas, due to climate change.

RevDate: 2021-11-20

Lee D, Shin J, Song Y, et al (2021)

The development process and significance of the 3rd National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2021-2025) of the Republic of Korea.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06804-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The Republic of Korea has developed its 3rd National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2021-2025) through joint work between government departments in 2020. This follows the Framework Act on Low Carbon, Green Growth, which was enacted in 2010. In this paper, we presented the development process, main contents, significance, and limitations of the 3rd Adaptation Plan as a helpful case for the international community to consult in formulating their national adaptation plans. The plan aims to implement a climate-safe nation with the people, and its development process features a scientific evidence basis and participation of various parties. It systematically and organically recommends 232 measures to be implemented by the Korean government and related departments for the next five years to enhance the adaptive capacity to 84 climate risks. Through expert forums, working council on climate change adaptation, adaptation governance forums, online public hearings, and discussion on preparing public-oriented countermeasures, 41 representative public-oriented tasks in eight sectors were selected. The plan consists of measures to resolve national climate risks constructed based on scientific evidence. All adaptation parties participated in the entire process of establishing the adaptation plan and evaluating its implementation. Significantly, the 3rd Adaptation Plan attempts to overcome the limitations of the 2nd adaptation plan by planning for the operation of a citizen evaluation group. However, the plan's limitations have been identified as insufficient willingness to monitor and implement measures, differences in the spectrum of adaptation measures by a government department, and lack of publicity in the English language. The measures to deal with these shortcomings are being sought.

RevDate: 2021-11-20

Lima ARA, Baltazar-Soares M, Garrido S, et al (2022)

Forecasting shifts in habitat suitability across the distribution range of a temperate small pelagic fish under different scenarios of climate change.

The Science of the total environment, 804:150167.

Climate change often leads to shifts in the distribution of small pelagic fish, likely by changing the match-mismatch dynamics between these sensitive species within their environmental optima. Using present-day habitat suitability, we projected how different scenarios of climate change (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) may alter the large scale distribution of European sardine Sardina pilchardus (a model species) by 2050 and 2100. We evaluated the variability of species-specific environmental optima allowing a comparison between present-day and future scenarios. Regardless of the scenario, sea surface temperature and salinity and the interaction between current velocity and distance to the nearest coast were the main descriptors responsible for the main effects on sardine's distribution. Present-day and future potential "hotspots" for sardine were neritic zones (<250 km) with water currents <0.4 m s-1, where SST was between 10 and 22 °C and SSS > 20 (PSU), on average. Most variability in projected shifts among climatic scenarios was in habitats with moderate to low suitability. By the end of this century, habitat suitability was projected to increase in the Canary Islands, Iberian Peninsula, central North Sea, northern Mediterranean, and eastern Black Sea and to decrease in the Atlantic African coast, southwest Mediterranean, English Channel, northern North Sea and Western U.K. A gradual poleward-eastward shift in sardine distribution was also projected among scenarios. This shift was most pronounced in 2100 under RCP 8.5. In that scenario, sardines had a 9.6% range expansion which included waters along the entire coast of Norway up and into the White Sea. As habitat suitability is mediated by the synergic effects of climate variability and change on species fitness, it is critical to apply models with robust underlying species-habitat data that integrate knowledge on the full range of processes shaping species productivity and distribution.

RevDate: 2021-11-20

Zhou H, Ma A, Zhou X, et al (2022)

Soil phosphorus accumulation in mountainous alpine grassland contributes to positive climate change feedback via nitrifier and denitrifier community.

The Science of the total environment, 804:150032.

Mountainous alpine ecosystems are sensitive to global change, where soil nutrient content would potentially vary under current climate change background, and thus possibly influence the activity of nitrifiers and denitrifiers, as well as N2O emissions. However, within mountainous alpine ecosystems, the potential variation of soil nutrients under current global change and the consequence to N2O emission from nitrification and denitrification are still unclarified, hampering a comprehensive understanding of the feedback mechanisms between the nitrogen cycle and climate change. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we selected alpine grasslands at three different elevations and investigated the distribution and environmental drivers of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. The results showed that the lowest elevation site tended to have higher total phosphorus (TP) accumulation within the topsoil. The abundance of functional groups, emission of CO2 and N2O, and the N2O/CO2 ratio showed a decreasing trend along elevation. TP was the greatest influence on denitrifier composition (nosZ/narG and nirS/nirK ratios) and considerably influenced nitrifier composition (AOA/AOB ratio), and was significantly correlated to the N2O/CO2 ratio. In microcosms of soils from the highest elevation site, TP addition decreased the ratios of nosZ/narG, nirS/nirK, and AOA/AOB, and increased N2O/CO2 ratio and N2O emission, thus contributing to positive climate change feedback. This study indicates the potential for change within the nitrifier and denitrifier communities under current climate change, and highlights the role TP plays in governing nitrification and denitrification in mountainous alpine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2021-11-19

West GH, Kovacs KF, RM Nayga (Jr) (2021)

The Influence of a Climate Change Narrative on the Stated Preferences for Long-term Groundwater Management.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

The literature identifies cultural values and beliefs as key drivers of climate change risk perception, but evidence is lacking about how media narratives and cultural values influence preferences for adapting to environmental consequences of climate change, including groundwater shortage. We elicited groundwater preferences using a choice experiment survey involving outcomes of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer. We randomly assigned respondents to an individualistic cultural narrative about climate change to test for framing effects predicted by culturally congruent and incongruent messaging. Results suggest that culturally incongruent messaging (i.e., to non-individualists) emboldens opposition and makes promoted groundwater policies less tractable. This is instructive to policy makers that identifying different stakeholders and avoiding incongruent messages about climate change could improve the effectiveness of collaborative water governance.

RevDate: 2021-11-19

Scheerens C, FD Madzimbamuto (2021)

Climate change, migration, and health(care) in primary care training.

African journal of primary health care & family medicine, 13(1):e1-e2.

No abstract available.

RevDate: 2021-11-19

Thibaudon M, JP Besancenot (2021)

[Outdoor aeroallergens and climate change].

Revue des maladies respiratoires pii:S0761-8425(21)00386-7 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Pollen and fungal spore concentrations in outdoor air are partly dependent on atmospheric conditions. Since the climate is changing, there is a growing body of research on the effects of climate change on aeroallergens. The present article provides a rapid review of this literature, highlighting the points of agreement, but also drawing attention to the main mistakes to be avoided.

STATE OF ART: For pollen, the prevailing view is that rising temperatures lead to an earlier start to the pollen season, a longer season, increased allergenic potential and higher concentrations. However, there are exceptions: what is true for one taxon, in one place and at one time, can almost never be generalised. For fungal spores, it is even more difficult to state universal rules.

PERSPECTIVES: Four priorities can be set for future research: (1) to look for trends only on sufficiently long series and not to neglect possible trend reversals; (2) to give priority to the local scale and the separate consideration of the various pollen and mycological taxa; (3) not to limit oneself to temperature as an element of explanation, but also to consider the other elements of the climate; (4) not to try to explain any evolution in the abundance or seasonality of aeroallergens by climate change alone.

CONCLUSIONS: Many more analytical studies giving precedence to observation over reasoning are still required, without any preconceptions, before it is possible to synthesise the impacts of climate change on pollen and, even more so, on fungal spores.

RevDate: 2021-11-19

Byer NW, Fountain ED, Reid BN, et al (2021)

Land use and life history constrain adaptive genetic variation and reduce the capacity for climate change adaptation in turtles.

BMC genomics, 22(1):837.

BACKGROUND: Rapid anthropogenic climate change will require species to adapt to shifting environmental conditions, with successful adaptation dependent upon current patterns of genetic variation. While landscape genomic approaches allow for exploration of local adaptation in non-model systems, most landscape genomics studies of adaptive capacity are limited to exploratory identification of potentially important functional genes, often without a priori expectations as to the gene functions that may be most important for climate change responses. In this study, we integrated targeted sequencing of genes of known function and genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms to examine spatial, environmental, and species-specific patterns of potential local adaptation in two co-occuring turtle species: the Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) and the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

RESULTS: We documented divergent patterns of spatial clustering between neutral and putatively adaptive genetic variation in both species. Environmental associations varied among gene regions and between species, with stronger environmental associations detected for genes involved in stress response and for the more specialized Blanding's turtle. Land cover appeared to be more important than climate in shaping spatial variation in functional genes, indicating that human landscape alterations may affect adaptive capacity important for climate change responses.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that responses to climate change will be contingent on species-specific adaptive capacity and past history of exposure to human land cover change.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Stollberg J, E Jonas (2021)

Existential threat as a challenge for individual and collective engagement: Climate change and the motivation to act.

Current opinion in psychology, 42:145-150 pii:S2352-250X(21)00196-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The global climate crisis can be perceived as a threat to existential human needs like control, certainty, and personal existence. These threat appraisals elicit an affective state of individual anxiety - one of the strongest motivators of individual pro-environmental behavior and collective policies and activism. Direct action against a threat is associated with other affective approach-motivated states that help to overcome anxiety: Recent findings show collective emotions of anger, guilt, and 'being moved' increase collective engagement but also show a positive relationship between positive activation and individual behavior. Climate threat furthermore promotes palliative responses, such as ingroup defense, identification with nature, or salient common humanity. Here, collective responses seem to reduce anxiety, and when combined with pro-environmental norms, even promote pro-environmental action.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Barbieri M, Barberio MD, Banzato F, et al (2021)

Climate change and its effect on groundwater quality.

Environmental geochemistry and health [Epub ahead of print].

Knowing water quality at larger scales and related ground and surface water interactions impacted by land use and climate is essential to our future protection and restoration investments. Population growth has driven humankind into the Anthropocene where continuous water quality degradation is a global phenomenon as shown by extensive recalcitrant chemical contamination, increased eutrophication, hazardous algal blooms, and faecal contamination connected with microbial hazards antibiotic resistance. In this framework, climate change and related extreme events indeed exacerbate the negative trend in water quality. Notwithstanding the increasing concern in climate change and water security, research linking climate change and groundwater quality remain early. Additional research is required to improve our knowledge of climate and groundwater interactions and integrated groundwater management. Long-term monitoring of groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and land-use patterns must be supported and fortified to quantify baseline properties. Concerning the ways climate change affects water quality, limited literature data are available. This study investigates the link between climate change and groundwater quality aquifers by examining case studies of regional carbonate aquifers located in Central Italy. This study also highlights the need for strategic groundwater management policy and planning to decrease groundwater quality due to aquifer resource shortages and climate change factors. In this scenario, the role of the Society of Environmental Geochemistry is to work together within and across geochemical environments linked with the health of plants, animals, and humans to respond to multiple challenges and opportunities made by global warming.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Sharannya TM, Venkatesh K, Mudbhatkal A, et al (2021)

Effects of land use and climate change on water scarcity in rivers of the Western Ghats of India.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 193(12):820.

This paper assesses the long-term combined effects of land use (LU) and climate change on river hydrology and water scarcity of two rivers of the Western Ghats of India. The historical LU changes were studied for four decades (1988-2016) using the maximum likelihood algorithm and the long-term LU (2016-2075) was estimated using the Dyna-CLUE prediction model. Five General Circulation Models (GCMs) were utilized to assess the effects of climate change (CC) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used for hydrological modeling of the two river catchments. To characterize granular effects of LU and CC on regional hydrology, a scenario approach was adopted and three scenarios depicting near-future (2006-2040), mid-future (2041-2070), and far-future (2071-2100) based on climate were established. The present rate of LU change indicated a reduction in forest cover by 20% and an increase in urbanized areas by 9.5% between 1988 and 2016. It was estimated that forest cover in the catchments may be expected to halve compared to the present-day LU (55% in 2016 to 23% in 2075), along with large-scale conversion to agricultural lands (13.5% in 2016 to 49.5% in 2075). As a result of changes to LU and forecasted climate, it was found that rivers in the Western Ghats of India might face scarcity of fresh water in the next two decades until the year 2040. However, because of large-scale LU conversion toward the year 2050, streamflow in rivers might increase as high as 70.94% at certain times of the year. Although an increase in streamflow is perceived favorable, the streamflow changes during summer and winter may be expected to affect the cropping calendar and crop yield. The changes to streamflow were also linked to a 4.2% increase in ecologically sensitive wetlands of the Aghanashini river catchment.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Isaacs D, F Stanley (2021)

Do not despair about climate change.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1732-1734.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Isaacs D, Kiang K, JR Skinner (2021)

Time to act on climate change.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1735.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Kiang K (2021)

Children's voices: Young people thinking about climate change.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1789-1791.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Anonymous (2021)

Climate change and structural racism.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1835-1836.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Williams PC, Marais B, Isaacs D, et al (2021)

Ethical considerations regarding the effects of climate change and planetary health on children.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1775-1780.

Climate change represents one of the most significant health challenges and global inequities of our generation. As a 'wicked' problem, climate change imposes an involuntary exposure on vulnerable individuals and societies that is regressive in its nature, with those least responsible for destroying planetary health at greatest risk of suffering the direct and indirect health consequences of unabated warming of the planet. The current and future generations of children are the most vulnerable population to suffer the effects of climate change. By 2030, there will be 131 000 additional child deaths each year if climate mitigation strategies are not enacted, driven by the synergy of an increasing burden of infectious diseases, food insecurity and political instability. Over half a billion of the world's children live in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events, and there is a pressing risk that our current lack of action to mitigate and adapt to climate change will result in today's children, and future generations, being the first to have poorer physical and mental health than previous generations - creating a significant intergenerational ethical dilemma. Child health-care professionals need to advocate for policies to address climate change that consider the complex health, planetary and ethical considerations necessary to solve the most significant risk to our children's health today. Without immediate action, the health of the current and future generations of children is perilous.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Godden NJ, Farrant BM, Yallup Farrant J, et al (2021)

Climate change, activism, and supporting the mental health of children and young people: Perspectives from Western Australia.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1759-1764.

The climate crisis has detrimental impacts on the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people. Psychological effects include feelings of fear, overwhelm, worry, distress, hopelessness and anger; PTSD; depression; anxiety; phobias; panic disorder; sleep disturbances; attachment disorders; learning difficulties; substance abuse; shock and trauma symptoms; adjustment problems; behavioural problems; and, suicidal thinking. First Nations' children and young people are particularly at risk due to loss of place, identity, culture, land and customs informed by kinship relationships with the Earth; while sustainable land use practices and connection to Country and community can enhance climate resilience. In Western Australia (WA), some young people engage in climate activism - including striking from school - to demand government action to address the causes of climate change, including colonisation and capitalism. Climate activism can promote resilience, particularly when children and young people can emotionally engage in the climate crisis; when mental health is systemically supported; when climate communication is transparent and comprehensive; and, when activism is informed by the knowledges and wisdoms of First Nations peoples and grounded on Country. This article is co-authored by WA young people, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal academics, activists and practitioners engaged in youth, mental health and climate justice spaces. We argue for structural change to address the causes of the climate crisis, alongside enhanced evidence and approaches to appropriately support the mental health of children and young people. Furthermore, we support the call of Aboriginal peoples to ensure culturally appropriate, place-based responses based in caring for Country.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Quilty S, NF Jupurrurla (2021)

Climate change: A Wumpurrarni-kari and Papulanyi-kari shared problem.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1745-1748.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Williams PC, Bartlett AW, Howard-Jones A, et al (2021)

Impact of climate change and biodiversity collapse on the global emergence and spread of infectious diseases.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1811-1818.

The reality of climate change and biodiversity collapse is irrefutable in the 21st century, with urgent action required not only to conserve threatened species but also to protect human life and wellbeing. This existential threat forces us to recognise that our existence is completely dependent upon well-functioning ecosystems that sustain the diversity of life on our planet, including that required for human health. By synthesising data on the ecology, epidemiology and evolutionary biology of various pathogens, we are gaining a better understanding of factors that underlie disease emergence and spread. However, our knowledge remains rudimentary with limited insight into the complex feedback loops that underlie ecological stability, which are at risk of rapidly unravelling once certain tipping points are breached. In this paper, we consider the impact of climate change and biodiversity collapse on the ever-present risk of infectious disease emergence and spread. We review historical and contemporaneous infectious diseases that have been influenced by human environmental manipulation, including zoonoses and vector- and water-borne diseases, alongside an evaluation of the impact of migration, urbanisation and human density on transmissible diseases. The current lack of urgency in political commitment to address climate change warrants enhanced understanding and action from paediatricians - to ensure that we safeguard the health and wellbeing of children in our care today, as well as those of future generations.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Skinner JR (2021)

Doctors and climate change: First do no harm.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1754-1758.

Imagine a herd of cows in a fenced, lush green meadow shared with birds, bees and other small animals. Now imagine that everything the cows eat or drink comes in a plastic container. Humanity is on an appalling trajectory. Most of us are now aware that a crisis is upon us. If you are like me, you are struggling to consider what you should do about it. Those who read this journal are for the most part child health professionals; it is our job to look after children. This job must surely include caring for their future. Yet we, like most of the rest of human society, are actively supporting behaviours which will deprive children of their future, and potentially the future of much of the animal kingdom along with them.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Romanello M, McGushin A, MacGuire FAS, et al (2021)

Monitoring climate change and child health: The case for putting children in all policies.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1736-1740.

Climate change is threatening the health of current and future generations of children. The most recent evidence from the Lancet Countdown: Tracking Progress on Health and Climate Change finds declining trends in yield potential of major crops, rising heatwave exposures, and increasing climate suitability for the transmission of infectious diseases, putting at risk the health and wellbeing of children around the world. However, if children are considered at the core of planning and implementation, the policy responses to climate change could yield enormous benefits for the health and wellbeing of children throughout their lives. Child health professionals have a role to play in ensuring this, with the beneficiaries of their involvement ranging from the individual child to the global community. The newly established Children in All Policies 2030 initiative will work with the Lancet Countdown to provide the evidence on the climate change responses necessary to protect and promote the health of children.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Anonymous (2021)

Climate change and child health: An expanded conceptual framework.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1835.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Green D (2021)

Climate change and child health: A parent's perspective.

Journal of paediatrics and child health, 57(11):1765-1766.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Hullé M, Till M, M Plantegenest (2021)

Global Warming Could Magnify Insect-Driven Apparent Competition Between Native and Introduced Host Plants in Sub-Antarctic Islands.

Environmental entomology pii:6430832 [Epub ahead of print].

Pristine sub-Antarctic islands terrestrial ecosystems, including many endemic species, are highly threatened by human-induced cosmopolitan plant invasion. We propose that native plant suppression could be further facilitated by the subsequent invasion by generalist pest species that could exacerbate their competitive exclusion through the process of apparent competition. By comparing the biological parameters of an invasive aphid species, Myzus ascalonicus, on one native (Acaena magellanica) and one invasive (Senecio vulgaris) plant species, we showed that survival and fecundity were higher and development time lower on the native plant species than on the invasive one. Moreover, comparing the effect of a temperature increase on the population dynamics of M. ascalonicus on the two plants, we showed that the relative profitability of the native species is further amplified by warming. Hence, while pest population doubling time is 28% higher on the invasive plant under current temperature, it would become 40% higher with an increase in temperature of 3°C. Consequently, our findings demonstrate that global warming could exacerbate competitive exclusion of native plants by invasive plants in sub-Antarctic islands by its indirect effect on the apparent competition mediated by generalist phytophagous pests.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Yanda PZ, Mabhuye EB, A Mwajombe (2021)

Linking Coastal and Marine Resources Endowments and Climate Change Resilience of Tanzania Coastal Communities.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

This paper presents findings on the links between coastal/marine resources endowment and climate change resilience to coastal communities in Mchungu and Kivinja' A' village on the coastal zone of Rufiji District in Tanzania. The study focused on exploring the existing coastal resources and their support to communities' livelihood, climatic threats that are experienced, and the role of coastal resources in enhancing communities' resilience. It further sought to establish other enabling factors for climate change adaptation (e.g., gender, education, governance, by-laws, and membership in social networks). The study used focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and household surveys in data collection. Findings show that Mchungu village is endowed with fish, mangrove, natural canal, and floodplains as their major coastal resources, while Kivinja' A' is rich in salt and coconut production. Communities in both villages exploit these coastal resources for their livelihood activities such as fishing, agriculture, and business. The study further found that coastal communities are already experiencing the effects of climate change through temperature rise, flooding, drought, sea-level rise, and storm surges. These affect household food security in terms of fish catch and crop production. The study revealed that coastal and marine resources were important for increasing community resilience (P ≤ 0.05) to climate change impacts in the studied villages. However, household resilience to climate change impacts was also influenced by gender, by-laws, education, and membership in social networks.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Yang X, Tseng Y, B Lee (2021)

Merging the Social Influence Theory and the Goal-Framing Theory to Understand Consumers' Green Purchasing Behavior: Does the Level of Sensitivity to Climate Change Really Matter?.

Frontiers in psychology, 12:766754.

This study explored the formation of consumers' green purchasing behavior (GPB) and investigated the moderating effect of sensitivity to climate change (SCC) to address this current knowledge gap. An integrated model merging the Social Influence Theory and the Goal-framing Theory was developed with the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) paradigm. An empirical study was conducted, surveying 583 respondents and analyzing the questionnaire results using structural equation modeling. The results show that media, family, and peer influence (PEI) can effectively activate the consumers' goal frames. Hedonic and normative goals had significant positive influences on GPB, while gain goals had no significant effect. SCC was found to significantly moderate social influence on GPB through the consumers' goal frames. This research provided strong empirical support on understanding the relationship between social influence and GPB through three goal frames. In addition, the potential differences of the GPB formation process in two subgroups (high SCC and low SCC) are also investigated. The results of this study can help green practitioners develop more effective marketing strategies and incentives targeted to consumers with varying levels of environmental consciousness or sensitivity.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Li J, DWJ Thompson (2021)

Widespread changes in surface temperature persistence under climate change.

Nature, 599(7885):425-430.

Climate change has been and will be accompanied by widespread changes in surface temperature. It is clear that these changes include global-wide increases in mean surface temperature and changes in temperature variance that are more regionally-dependent1-3. It is less clear whether they also include changes in the persistence of surface temperature. This is important as the effects of weather events on ecosystems and society depend critically on the length of the event. Here we provide an extensive survey of the response of surface temperature persistence to climate change over the twenty-first century from the output of 150 simulations run on four different Earth system models, and from simulations run on simplified models with varying representations of radiative processes and large-scale dynamics. Together, the results indicate that climate change simulations are marked by widespread changes in surface temperature persistence that are generally most robust over ocean areas and arise due to a seemingly broad range of physical processes. The findings point to both the robustness of widespread changes in persistence under climate change, and the critical need to better understand, simulate and constrain such changes.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Niella Y, Butcher P, Holmes B, et al (2021)

Forecasting intraspecific changes in distribution of a wide-ranging marine predator under climate change.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

Globally, marine animal distributions are shifting in response to a changing climate. These shifts are usually considered at the species level, but individuals are likely to differ in how they respond to the changing conditions. Here, we investigate how movement behaviour and, therefore, redistribution, would differ by sex and maturation class in a wide-ranging marine predator. We tracked 115 tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) from 2002 to 2020 and forecast class-specific distributions through to 2030, including environmental factors and predicted occurrence of potential prey. Generalised Linear and Additive Models revealed that water temperature change, particularly at higher latitudes, was the factor most associated with shark movements. Females dispersed southwards during periods of warming temperatures, and while juvenile females preferred a narrow thermal range between 22 and 23 °C, adult female and juvenile male presence was correlated with either lower (< 22 °C) or higher (> 23 °C) temperatures. During La Niña, sharks moved towards higher latitudes and used shallower isobaths. Inclusion of predicted distribution of their putative prey significantly improved projections of suitable habitats for all shark classes, compared to simpler models using temperature alone. Tiger shark range off the east coast of Australia is predicted to extend ~ 3.5° south towards the east coast of Tasmania, particularly for juvenile males. Our framework highlights the importance of combining long-term movement data with multi-factor habitat projections to identify heterogeneity within species when predicting consequences of climate change. Recognising intraspecific variability will improve conservation and management strategies and help anticipate broader ecosystem consequences of species redistribution due to ocean warming.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Mieczkowska K, Stringer T, Barbieri JS, et al (2021)

Surveying the Attitudes of Dermatologists Regarding Climate Change.

Anthropogenic climate change affects our environment through higher temperatures, poorer air quality, polluted waters, and increased extreme weather events. These changes in our environment negatively influence the health of the population.1 The integument is not spared by climate change. Higher temperatures, decreased ozone protection, increased airborne pollutants, and decreased ultraviolet (UV) protection can cause flares of atopic dermatitis, pemphigus, lupus, and other inflammatory diseases, and increase rates of skin cancer.2.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Santos L, Oliveira JE, Maduro-Abreu A, et al (2021)

[Climate change, changes in productivity and health: complex interactions in the national literature].

Ciencia & saude coletiva, 26(suppl 3):5315-5328 pii:S1413-81232021001705315.

This article reviews the scientific output published in national journals on the interactions that are established between the concepts of climate change, productive changes (including changes in land use) and human health in the last ten years (from 2008 to 2017), highlighting the theoretical-methodological trends of this output. To achieve this, a review of the literature was made from publications made available in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the CAPES Journals Portal. The results obtained demonstrate the advances made in the last ten years by the interdisciplinary teams that dealt with the subject over the period analyzed. At the same time, this article identifies the research gaps that can be exploited in future research. In addition, a positive sophistication and refinement of analytical tools and instruments have been identified that are able to gather consistent information about a broad and complex reality characterized by the diversity of biomes, climatic scenarios and productive systems.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Evans MS, B Munslow (2021)

Climate change, health, and conflict in Africa's arc of instability.

Perspectives in public health [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Tscholl T, Nachman G, Spangl B, et al (2021)

Heat waves affect prey and predators differently via developmental plasticity: who may benefit most from global warming?.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Climate warming is considered to affect the characteristics of heat waves by increasing their duration, frequency, and intensity, which can have dramatic consequences for ectothermic arthropods. However, arthropods may respond to heat waves via plastic modifications, which could differently affect a predator and its prey. We examined this assumption using prominent counterparts in biological control, the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and its prey, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Individuals of both species were separately exposed to mild and extreme heat waves during their juvenile development.

RESULTS: Both species developed faster during extreme heat waves, but the proportional increase of the developmental rates was higher in the prey. Independent of sex, P. persimilis reached smaller size at maturity under extreme heat waves, whereas the body size modifications were sex-dependent in T. urticae: males became smaller, but females were able to maintain their size.

CONCLUSIONS: An accelerated development may result in the reduction of the exposure time of susceptible juvenile stages to heat waves and prey stages to predators. Plastic size adjustments caused a shift in the female predator-prey body size ratio in favor of the prey, which may lead to higher heat resistance and reduced predation risk for prey females under extreme heat waves. In conclusion, our findings indicate that species-specific shifts in age and size at maturity may result in lower suppression efficacy of the predator P. persimilis against its prey T. urticae with severe consequences for biological control of spider mites, if global warming continues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Morgan T, B Ryan (2021)

How does the optometry profession move up a gear to tackle the problem of climate change?.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Healy JP, Jensen A, Power MB, et al (2021)

Covid-19 and Climate Change: Crises of Structural Racism.

The journal of climate change and health pii:S2667-2782(21)00089-4 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-11-17

da Costa JC, de Souza SS, Castro JDS, et al (2021)

Climate change affects the parasitism rate and impairs the regulation of genes related to oxidative stress and ionoregulation of Colossoma macropomum.

Scientific reports, 11(1):22350.

Global climate change represents a critical threat to the environment since it influences organismic interactions, such as the host-parasite systems, mainly in ectotherms including fishes. Rising temperature and CO2 are predicted to affect this interaction other and critical physiological processes in fish. Herein, we investigated the effects of different periods of exposure to climate change scenarios and to two degrees of parasitism by monogeneans in the host-parasite interaction, as well as the antioxidant and ionoregulatory responses of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), an important species in South American fishing and aquaculture. We hypothesized that temperature and CO2 changes in combination with parasite infection would interfere with the host's physiological processes that are related to oxidative stress and ionoregulation. We experimentally exposed C. macropomum to low and high levels of parasitism in the current and extreme climate scenarios (4.5 °C and 900 ppm CO2 above current levels) for periods of seven and thirty days and we use as analyzed factors; the exposure time, the climate scenario and parasitism level in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial through a three-way ANOVA as being fish the experimental unit (n = 8). An analysis of gill enzymatic and gene expression profile was performed to assess physiological (SOD, GPx and Na+/K+-ATPase enzymes) and molecular (Nrf2, SOD1, HIF-1α and NKA α1a genes) responses. A clear difference in the parasitism levels of individuals exposed to the extreme climate scenario was observed with a rapid and aggressive increase that was higher after 7 days of exposure though showed a decrease after 30 days. The combination of exposure to the extreme climate change scenario and parasitism caused oxidative stress and osmoregulatory disturbance, which was observed through the analysis of gene expression (Nrf2, SOD1, HIF-1α and NKA α1a) and antioxidant and ionoregulatory enzymes (SOD, GPx and Na+/K+-ATPase) on the host, possibly linked to inflammatory processes caused by the high degree of parasitism. In the coming years, these conditions may result in losses of performance for this species, and as such will represent ecological damage and economical losses, and result in a possible vulnerability in relation to food security.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Coan TG, Boussalis C, Cook J, et al (2021)

Computer-assisted classification of contrarian claims about climate change.

Scientific reports, 11(1):22320.

A growing body of scholarship investigates the role of misinformation in shaping the debate on climate change. Our research builds on and extends this literature by (1) developing and validating a comprehensive taxonomy of climate contrarianism, (2) conducting the largest content analysis to date on contrarian claims, (3) developing a computational model to accurately classify specific claims, and (4) drawing on an extensive corpus from conservative think-tank (CTTs) websites and contrarian blogs to construct a detailed history of claims over the past 20 years. Our study finds that the claims utilized by CTTs and contrarian blogs have focused on attacking the integrity of climate science and scientists and, increasingly, has challenged climate policy and renewable energy. We further demonstrate the utility of our approach by exploring the influence of corporate and foundation funding on the production and dissemination of specific contrarian claims.

RevDate: 2021-11-16

Kane T (2021)

Holding World Leaders Accountable for Climate Change-and Public Health-Commitments Through Individual Active Transportation Efforts.

Journal of physical activity & health pii:jpah.2021-0634 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-11-16

Kuehn BM (2021)

WHO, Global Health Workers Demand Urgent Action on Climate Change.

JAMA, 326(19):1898.

RevDate: 2021-11-16

Wellbery CE, Lewandowski A, C Holder (2021)

Climate Change and the Local Environment: Communicating with Your Patients about Health Impacts.

American family physician, 104(5):526-530.

RevDate: 2021-11-16

Sirois-Delisle C, JT Kerr (2021)

Climate change aggravates non-target effects of pesticides on dragonflies at macroecological scales.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Critical gaps in understanding how species respond to environmental change limit our capacity to address conservation risks in a timely way. Here, we examine the direct and interactive effects of key global change drivers, including climate change, land use change, and pesticide use, on persistence of 104 odonate species between two time periods (1980-2002 and 2008-2018) within 100 X 100 km quadrats across the United States using phylogenetic mixed models. Non-target effects of pesticides interacted with higher maximum temperatures to contribute to odonate declines. Closely related species responded similarly to global change drivers, indicating a potential role of inherited traits in species' persistence or decline. Species shifting their range to higher latitudes were more robust to negative impacts of global change drivers generally. Inherited traits related to dispersal abilities and establishment in new places may govern both species' acclimation to global change and their abilities to expand their range limits, respectively. This work is among the first to assess effects of climate change, land use change, and land use intensification together on Odonata, a significant step that improves understanding of multi-species effects of global change on invertebrates, and further identifies conditions contributing to global insect loss.

RevDate: 2021-11-16

Novitzky A (2021)

Friction: from fingerprints to climate change.

Nature, 599(7885):367.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Liu L, Zhang Y, Huang Y, et al (2021)

Simulation of potential suitable distribution of original species of Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus in China under climate change scenarios.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-021-17338-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus (FCB) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine, mainly used for relieving cough and resolving phlegm. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020), the medicine comes from dried bulbs of five species and one variety in Fritillaria. Due to climate change and human disturbance, the wild resources have become critically endangered in recent years. Following three climate change scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5) under 2050s and 2070s, geographic information technology (GIS) and maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) were used to simulate the ecological suitability of FCB, a third-grade rare and endangered medicinal plant species. The results showed that the key environmental variables affecting the distribution of FCB were altitude, human activity intensity, and mean temperature of coldest quarter. Under current climate situation, the highly suitable areas were mainly located in the east of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, including Western Sichuan, southeastern Tibet, southern Gansu, Northwestern Yunnan, and Eastern Qinghai, with a total area of 31.47×104 km2, the area within the nature reserve was 7.13×104 km2, indicating that there was a large protection gap. Under the future climate change scenarios, the areas of the highly and poorly suitable areas of FCB showed a decreasing trend, while the areas of the moderately and total suitable areas showed an increasing trend. The geometric center of the total suitable area of the medicine will move to the northwest. The results could provide a strategic guidance for protection,development, and utilization of FCB though its prediction of potential distribution based on the key variables of climate change.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Heydari Alamdarloo E, Moradi E, Abdolshahnejad M, et al (2021)

Analyzing WSTP trend: a new method for global warming assessment.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 193(12):806 pii:10.1007/s10661-021-09600-2.

This paper tries to introduce a time-series of temperature parameters as a potential method for studying the global warming. So, we investigated the spatial-temporal variations of warm-season temperature parameters (WSTP), including start time, end time, length of season, base value, peak time, peak value, amplitude, large integrated value, right drive, and left drive, using a database of 30 years' period in different climates of Iran. We used daily temperature data from 1989 to 2018 over Iran to extract the parameters by TIMESAT software. We studied the trend analysis of WSTP through the Mann-Kendall method. Then, we considered the Pearson correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between WSTP and time. We assessed the trends of the slope using a simple linear regression method. Then, we compared the results of the WSTP trend analysis in climatic zones. Our results accused the hyper-arid climatic zone has the longest warm season (194.89 days a year). The warm season in this region starts earlier than other regions and increases with moderate speed (left drive, 0.19 °C day-1). Then, it reaches a peak value (31.3 °C) earlier than the different climatic zones. On the other hand, the humid regions' warm season starts with the shortest length and ends later than the other climatic zones (112.1 and 297.5 days a year for start and end times, respectively). We detected that the trend of the start time parameter has decreased by 98.02% of the study area during the last 30 years. The base value, length, and large integrated value parameters have an increasing trend of 66.47%, 80.11%, and 92.95% in Iran. The highest correlation coefficient with time was for start time and large integrated value parameters. Hence, the start time and large integrated value parameters have almost the most negative (< - 0.5) and positive (> 5) trend slope, among other parameters, respectively. In general, these results demonstrate that the studied region has faced global warming impacts over time by increasing the warm season and thermal energy, especially in arid and hyper-arid. We highlight the necessity of planning the land use under the high natural vulnerability of the studied local, especially in this new age of global warming.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Latkin C, Dayton L, Coyle C, et al (2021)

The association between climate change attitudes and COVID-19 attitudes: The link is more than political ideology.

The journal of climate change and health pii:S2667-2782(21)00096-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic and climate change are two current global threats. This study examined the relationship between climate change attitudes and COVID-19 behaviors and risk perceptions. Drivers of both climate change attitudes and COVID-19 behaviors was also assessed. Study participants were an online sample of 520 respondents from a longitudinal study of COVID-19 and well-being in the US. Logistic regression models were used to examine the outcomes of climate change opinions and COVID-19 perceptions and prevention behaviors (perceived COVID-19 risk, mask wearing, social distancing, and vaccine intentions). Covariates included political ideology, conspiracy beliefs, and trust in scientific information about COVID-19. In the multivariable models of COVID-19 perceptions and prevention behaviors, climate change opinions were also included as a covariate. In these models, climate change attitudes were significantly associated with perceived risk of COVID-19, always wearing masks, decreased time spent with others due to COVID-19, and intending to get COVID-19 vaccine. In adjusted models, the odds of wearing a mask increased 41% (CI: 1.11-1.78) for every 1-point increase on the climate attitude scale and decreased 13% (CI: 0.79-0.96) if the participant distrusted COVID-19 information. Those who reported distrust of COVID-19 information (aOR: 1.61, CI: 1.40-1.85), politically conservative ideology (aOR: 1.24, CI: 1.04-1.47), lower concern about climate change (aOR: 0.71, CI: 0.53-0.97), female sex (aOR: 2.39 CI: 1.38-4.13), and lower disbelief in conspiracy theories (aOR: 0.63, CI: 0.51-0.80) had higher odds of not intending to be vaccinated. These findings suggest that climate change attitudes are linked to COVID-19 behaviors and perceptions, which are not completely driven by political ideology or trust in scientific information.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Daniels TL (2021)

Re-designing America's suburbs for the age of climate change and pandemics.

Socio-ecological practice research pii:84 [Epub ahead of print].

The USA is the leading emitter of greenhouse gases among the developed countries, in part because it is the only developed country with more of its population in suburbs than in cities. Cities produce less greenhouse gas emissions per capita than suburbs. Meanwhile, the US and the world have been wrestling with the public health emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic. But as US cities recover from the pandemic, they are unlikely to add more population than their suburbs because of changes in favor of working from home, online shopping, and the search for more affordable housing and green space, as well as concerns about population density and contagious diseases. So, the challenge is how to design and redevelop suburbs to make them more environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable to address both climate change and the threat of future pandemics. A sustainable suburb scenario offers an alternative to the sprawling development, separation of land uses and income classes, and automobile dependence that characterizes the typical American suburban landscape. This essay reviews the literature on re-designing suburbs and describes and evaluates both a business-as-usual suburb scenario and a sustainable suburb scenario. Though challenges exist, sustainable suburbs will be needed in order to reduce US greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve greater resilience in adapting to the effects of climate change, and to guard against future pandemics while providing economic opportunities and greater equity over the long run.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Sher F, Raore D, Klemeš JJ, et al (2021)

Unprecedented Impacts of Aviation Emissions on Global Environmental and Climate Change Scenario.

Current pollution reports pii:206 [Epub ahead of print].

There has been a continuously growing trend in international commercial air traffic, with the exception of COVID-19 crises; however, after the recovery, the trend is expected to even sharpen. The consequences of released emissions and by-products in the environment range from human health hazards, low air quality and global warming. This study is aimed to investigate the role of aviation emissions in global warming. For this purpose, data on different variables including global air traffic and growth rate, air traffic in different continents, total global CO2 emissions of different airlines, direct and indirect emissions, air traffic in various UK airports and fuel-efficient aircraft was collected from various sources like EU member states, Statista, Eurostat, IATA, CAA and EUROCONTROL. The results indicated that in 2019, commercial airlines carried over 4.5 × 109 passengers on scheduled flights. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the global number of passengers was reduced to 1.8 × 109, representing around a 60% reduction in air traffic. Germany was the largest contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) from the EU, releasing 927 kt of emissions in 3 years. In the UK, Heathrow airport had the highest number of passengers in 2019 with over 80 million, and the study of monthly aircraft movement revealed that Heathrow Airport also had the highest number of EU and International flights, while Edinburgh had the domestic flights in 2018. These research findings could be beneficial for airlines, policymakers and governments targeting the reduction of aircraft emissions.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Liu M, Vecchi G, Soden B, et al (2021)

Enhanced hydrological cycle increases ocean heat uptake and moderates transient climate change.

Nature climate change, 11:848-853.

The large-scale moistening of the atmosphere in response to increasing greenhouse gases amplifies the existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) which, in turn, amplifies the spatial contrast in sea surface salinity (SSS). Through a series of transient CO2 doubling experiments, we demonstrate that surface salinification driven by the amplified dry conditions (P-E < 0), primarily in the subtropical ocean, accelerates ocean heat uptake. The salinification also drives the sequestration of upper-level heat into the deeper ocean, reducing the thermal stratification and increasing the heat uptake through a positive feedback. The change in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation due to salinification plays a secondary role in heat uptake. Consistent with the heat uptake changes, the transient climate response would increase by approximately 0.4 K without this process. Observed multi-decadal changes in subsurface temperature and salinity resembles those simulated, indicating that anthropogenically-forced changes in salinity are likely enhancing the ocean heat uptake.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Salim E, Ravanel L, Bourdeau P, et al (2021)

Glacier tourism and climate change: effects, adaptations, and perspectives in the Alps.

Regional environmental change, 21(4):120.

Climate change strongly affects mountain tourism activities. Glacier tourism is highly affected by the retreat of glaciers. However, research on the effects and adaptations of glacier tourism to climate change is scarce in Europe. By analysing the glacio-geomorphological literature, semi-structured interviews, and observations at six major Alpine glacier tourism sites, we aim to identify the physical processes that affect glacier tourism in the Alps and how stakeholders perceive and adapt to them. The results reveal that glacier retreat and the associated paraglacial dynamics and permafrost warming strongly affect glacier tourism. Stakeholders perceive six main issues: management, itinerary, infrastructure, attractiveness, safety, and activity. In response, they have been adapting with eight strategies: management change, technical means implementation, mitigation, diversification, access and itinerary maintenance, heritage development, planning, and implementation of transformation projects. These strategies are discussed regarding their relevance to tourism model transition to guarantee future sustainability.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10113-021-01849-0.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Ismail-Zadeh A (2021)

Natural hazards and climate change are not drivers of disasters.

Natural hazards (Dordrecht, Netherlands) pii:5100 [Epub ahead of print].

Many nations face challenges in assessing, understanding, and responding to the time-dependent nature of disaster risk. Changes in the intensity of occurrences of extreme events coupled with changes in vulnerability and exposure alter the impacts of natural hazards on society in mostly negative ways. Here an interrelationship between natural hazard (NH), climate change (CC), vulnerability (V), exposure (E), and decisionmaking (DM) is considered. While NHs trigger disasters and CC is likely to intensify occurrences of disasters, V and E present major drivers of disasters. Informed DM on disaster risk reduction should be based on scientific evidence from NH and CC, knowledge of V and E, and relevant options for actions on preventive disaster measures as a part of preparedness and public awareness.

RevDate: 2021-11-14

Wolff NH, Zeppetello LRV, Parsons LA, et al (2021)

The effect of deforestation and climate change on all-cause mortality and unsafe work conditions due to heat exposure in Berau, Indonesia: a modelling study.

The Lancet. Planetary health pii:S2542-5196(21)00279-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Previous studies focusing on urban, industrialised regions have found that excess heat exposure can increase all-cause mortality, heat-related illnesses, and occupational injuries. However, little research has examined how deforestation and climate change can adversely affect work conditions and population health in low latitude, industrialising countries.

METHODS: For this modelling study we used data at 1 km2 resolution to compare forest cover and temperature conditions in the Berau regency, Indonesia, between 2002 and 2018. We used spatially explicit satellite, climate model, and population data to estimate the effects of global warming, between 2002 and 2018 and after applying 1·0°C, 1·5°C, and 2·0°C of global warming to 2018 temperatures, on all-cause mortality and unsafe work conditions in the Berau regency, Indonesia.

FINDINGS: Between 2002 and 2018, 4375 km2 of forested land in Berau was cleared, corresponding to approximately 17% of the entire regency. Deforestation increased mean daily maximum temperatures by 0·95°C (95% CI 0·97-0·92; p<0·0001). Mean daily temperatures increased by a population-weighted 0·86°C, accounting for an estimated 7·3-8·5% of all-cause mortality (or 101-118 additional deaths per year) in 2018. Unsafe work time increased by 0·31 h per day (95% CI 0·30-0·32; p<0·0001) in deforested areas compared to 0·03 h per day (0·03-0·04; p<0·0001) in areas that maintained forest cover. With 2·0°C of additional future global warming, relative to 2018, deforested areas could experience an estimated 17-20% increase in all-cause mortality (corresponding to an additional 236-282 deaths per year) and up to 5 h of unsafe work per day.

INTERPRETATION: Heat exposure from deforestation and climate change has already started affecting populations in low latitude, industrialising countries, and future global warming indicates substantial health impacts in these regions. Further research should examine how deforestation is currently affecting the health and wellbeing of local communities.

FUNDING: University of Washington Population Health Initiative.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Guinto RR, Alejandre JCP, Bongcac MK, et al (2021)

An agenda for climate change and mental health in the Philippines.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 5(11):e755-e757.

RevDate: 2021-11-13

Chaiard J, S Turale (2021)

Nursing: The critical need to address climate change and to protect health.

RevDate: 2021-11-13

Vicca S, Goll D, Hagens M, et al (2021)

Is the climate change mitigation effect of enhanced silicate weathering governed by biological processes?.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

A number of negative emission technologies (NETs) have been proposed to actively remove CO2 from the atmosphere, with enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) as a relatively new NET with considerable climate change mitigation potential. Models calibrated to ESW rates in lab experiments estimate the global potential for inorganic carbon sequestration by ESW at about 0.5-5 Gt CO2 y-1 , suggesting ESW could be an important component of the future NETs mix. In real soils, however, weathering rates may differ strongly from lab conditions. Research on natural weathering has shown that biota such as plants, microbes and macro-invertebrates can strongly affect weathering rates, but biotic effects were excluded from most ESW lab assessments. Moreover, ESW may alter soil organic carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions by influencing physicochemical and biological processes, which holds potential to perpetuate in even larger negative emissions. Here, we argue that it is likely that the climate change mitigation effect of ESW will be governed by biological processes, emphasizing the need to put these processes on the agenda of this emerging research field.

RevDate: 2021-11-13

Li Y, Shao W, J Jiang (2021)

Predicting the potential global distribution of Sapindus mukorossi under climate change based on MaxEnt modelling.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Sapindus mukorossi (S. mukorossi) is an important biological washing material and biomass energy tree species whose peel is rich in saponins, and its kernels have a high oil content. We used the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) to predict the suitable habitats of S. mukorossi globally, screen the dominant environmental factors affecting its distribution and analyse the changes in its suitable habitats under climate change from prehistory to the future, and the results will provide a scientific basis for germplasm resource collection, protection, introduction and cultivation. Twenty-two environmental variables and global distribution data for S. mukorossi were used to construct the species distribution model, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to verify the accuracy of the model. The dominant environmental factors were screened through the jackknife method, and then, the geographical information system (ArcGIS) was used to complete the grade of suitable habitat division and area calculation. The results showed that the MaxEnt model had an excellent predictive effect, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) value was as high as 0.969. The precipitation of the warmest quarter (Bio18), the minimum temperature of the coldest month (Bio6), temperature seasonality (Bio4) and isothermality (Bio3) were the dominant environmental factors that affected the distribution of S. mukorossi. The largest area of the world's suitable habitats occurred during the last interglacial (LIG) (772.69 × 104 km2), and the area decreased sharply (614.46 × 104 km2) during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The area of suitable habitat showed an increasing trend during the Mid-Holocene (MH) and currently, with areas of 631.06 × 104 km2 and 706.82 × 104 km2, respectively. The area of suitable habitats for S. mukorossi globally was 718.35 × 104 km2 (SSP1-2.6), 636.85 × 104 km2 (SSP2-4.5), 657.64 × 104 km2 (SSP3-7.0) and 675.89 × 104 km2 (SSP5-8.5) under the four scenarios of the future climate. The area increased only in the SSP1 scenario. In summary, globally, the suitable area of S. mukorossi tended to migrate to higher latitudes and decrease in area with future climate change.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Peng W, Wang D, Y Cai (2021)

Assessing Ecological Vulnerability under Climate Change and Anthropogenic Influence in the Yangtze River Estuarine Island-Chongming Island, China.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(21): pii:ijerph182111642.

Understanding and assessing ecological vulnerability for estuarine islands are important for maintaining estuarine island ecosystem services and its sustainable development. However, due to its complex fresh water-sea-land interaction mechanism and multiple stressors from both climate change and anthropogenic influence, a comprehensive evaluation of ecological vulnerability for estuarine islands has been limited. Therefore, taking the typical estuary island of Chongming Island as an example, we developed a comprehensive evaluation system of ecological vulnerability for an estuarine island ecosystem based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) conceptual model, and explored the spatial and temporal distribution of ecological vulnerability in 2005 and 2015. The results indicated that the main pressures of Chongming Island from saltwater intrusion intensity and land use intensity were mainly distributed in northern coastal areas and eastern areas of wetland; the ecological vulnerability index (EV) of Chongming Island showed a slight decrease from 2005 to 2015; and three categories of towns based on ecological vulnerability assessment for an eco-island planning and environmental management were identified. Our study provides an effective evaluation system of ecological vulnerability for estuarine islands, which could be helpful for planners and decision makers in improving eco-island planning and environmental management.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Liu C, Liang Y, Zhao Y, et al (2021)

Simulation and Analysis of the Effects of Land Use and Climate Change on Carbon Dynamics in the Wuhan City Circle Area.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(21): pii:ijerph182111617.

In a climate and land use change context, the sequestration of atmospheric carbon in urban agglomeration is key to achieving carbon emission and neutrality targets. It is thus critical to understand how various climate and land use changes impact overall carbon sequestration in large-scale city circle areas. As the largest urban agglomeration in central China, carbon dynamics in the Wuhan City Circle area have been deeply affected by rapid urbanization and climate change in the past two decades. Here, we applied monthly climate data, spatially explicit land use maps, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) images and the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) model to estimate the spatial and temporal changes of carbon dynamics in the Wuhan City Circle area from 2000 to 2015. We designed six different scenarios to analyze the effects of climate change and land use change on carbon dynamics. Our simulation of NPP (Net Primary Productivity) increased from 522.63 gC × m-2 to 615.82 gC × m-2 in the Wuhan City Circle area during 2000-2015. Climate change and land use change contributed to total carbon sequestration by -73.3 × 1010 gC and 480 × 1010 gC, respectively. Both precipitation and temperature had a negative effect on carbon sequestration, while radiation had a positive effect. In addition, the positive effect on carbon sequestration from afforestation was almost equal to the negative effect from urbanization between 2000 and 2015. Importantly, these findings highlight the possibility of carrying out both rapid urbanization and ecological restoration simultaneously.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Máté D, Novotny A, DF Meyer (2021)

The Impact of Sustainability Goals on Productivity Growth: The Moderating Role of Global Warming.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(21): pii:ijerph182111034.

The objective of this paper was to gain novel insights into the complex relationships among Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in shaping productivity (GDP/capita) growth. Using dynamic panel regressions on data collected in 138 countries between 2000 and 2017, we found that rising temperatures negatively affect growth and mitigate the impact of other SDGs on growth. We also found that CO2 emissions have a U-shaped relationship with growth; life expectancy negatively influences growth (positively moderated by rising temperatures), and food security positively impacts growth (negatively moderated by rising temperatures). This study highlights the difficulty of simultaneously implementing SDGs and elucidates novel research perspectives and policies to decrease the negative impacts of climate change on socio-economic and environmental well-being.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Cole VJ, Parker LM, Scanes E, et al (2021)

Climate change alters shellfish reef communities: A temperate mesocosm experiment.

Marine pollution bulletin, 173(Pt B):113113 pii:S0025-326X(21)01147-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is expected to cause significant changes to rocky shore diversity. This study used outdoor mesocosms to test the predictions that warming and ocean acidification will alter the responses of native Trichomya hirsuta and introduced Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels, and their associated communities of infauna. Experiments consisted of orthogonal combinations of temperature (ambient 22 °C or elevated 25 °C), pCO2 (ambient 400 μatm or elevated 1000 μatm), mussel species (T. hirsuta or M. galloprovincialis), and mussel configuration (native, introduced, or both), with n = 3 replicates. Elevated pCO2 reduced the growth of T. hirsuta but not that of M. galloprovincialis, and warming and pCO2 influenced the infauna that colonised both species of mussels. There was a reduction in infaunal molluscs and an increase in polychaetes; there was, however, no effect on crustaceans. Results from this study suggest that climate-driven changes from one mussel species to another can significantly influence infaunal communities.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Jirinec V, Burner RC, Amaral BR, et al (2021)

Morphological consequences of climate change for resident birds in intact Amazonian rainforest.

Science advances, 7(46):eabk1743.

[Figure: see text].

RevDate: 2021-11-12

Sciberras E, JW Fernando (2021)

Climate change-related worry among Australian adolescents: an eight-year longitudinal study.

Child and adolescent mental health [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Worry about climate change may be associated with poorer mental health but also with greater political engagement. We determined trajectories of climate change-related worry over adolescence and whether these were associated with depression symptoms and greater engagement with news and politics in late adolescence.

METHODS: At ages 10-11, 12-13, 16-17 and 18-19 years, adolescents participating in the Kindergarten cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children rated their worry about climate change. At age 18-19 years, participants reported on depression symptoms and engagement with news and politics. Latent profile analysis determined trajectories of climate change-related worry across all time points (N = 2244). Linear regression analyses examined the association between trajectories and outcomes at 18-19 years.

RESULTS: Thirteen per cent (n = 290) of adolescents had high persistent worry. The largest proportions had moderate (n = 559, 24.9%) or increasing worry (n = 546, 24.3%), followed by persistent low worry (n = 376, 16.8%), slightly decreasing worry (n = 297, 13.2%) and steeply decreasing worry (n = 176, 7.8%). Adolescents with high persistent worry had higher depression symptoms at age 18-19 years compared to the moderate group, while those with increasing worry did not. The high persistent and increasing worry groups reported greater engagement with news and politics across several measures.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study to track climate-related worry and outcomes in young people across adolescence. A substantial number of Australian adolescents experience high or increasing worry about climate change, which is associated with greater societal engagement.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )