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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Feb 2023 at 01:51 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-02-04

Puertas R, Marti L, C Calafat (2023)

Agricultural and innovation policies aimed at mitigating climate change.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The EU supports agricultural policies to help farmers meet the challenges of climate change (CC) by promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly practices. This study focuses on the European primary sector (agriculture, forestry, and fisheries), productive activities that meet humanity's basic needs, although this sector does not account for a dominant share of GDP. The analysis uses a panel data sample of 22 European countries for the period 2012-2019, and seeks to answer the following research questions: Is there a direct relationship between agricultural innovation efficiency and the technological advances implemented? What effect do GHG emissions and innovation efficiency have on CC? Which agricultural practices have the greatest effect on the volume of GHG emissions? The results indicate that the European primary sector has registered an average rise in productivity of 4%, mainly driven by technological improvements. This underscores the need for agricultural innovation policies that focus not only on improving aspects related to technology but also on making better use of existing resources. In addition, the econometric models estimated confirm that efficiency levels are the most influential determinants of temperature change, while GHG emissions are primarily explained by their own historical values. Ultimately, research and development is a tool that can be used to curb CC, along with the proper use of land and fertilizers. There is thus a need to foster novel agricultural practices that help reduce emissions while ensuring the efficiency of the sector.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Varaldo L, Guerrina M, Dagnino D, et al (2023)

Dealing with disjunct populations of vascular plants: implications for assessing the effect of climate change.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

Species distribution models are the most widely used tool to predict species distributions for species conservation and assessment of climate change impact. However, they usually do not consider intraspecific ecological variation exhibited by many species. Overlooking the potential differentiation among groups of populations may lead to misplacing any conservation actions. This issue may be particularly relevant in species in which few populations with potential local adaptation occur, as in species with disjunct populations. Here, we used ecological niche modeling to analyze how the projections of current and future climatically suitable areas of 12 plant species can be affected using the whole taxa occurrences compared to occurrences from geographically disjunct populations. Niche analyses suggest that usually the disjunct group of populations selects the climatic conditions as similar as possible to the other according to climate availability. Integrating intraspecific variability only slightly increases models' ability to predict species occurrences. However, it results in different predictions of the magnitude of range change. In some species, integrating or not integrating intraspecific variability may lead to opposite trend in projected range change. Our results suggest that integrating intraspecific variability does not strongly improve overall models' accuracy, but it can result in considerably different conclusions about future range change. Consequently, accounting for intraspecific differentiation may enable the detection of potential local adaptations to new climate and so to design targeted conservation strategies.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Pastorino P, Colussi S, Varello K, et al (2023)

Interdisciplinary approach to solve unusual mortalities in the European common frog (Rana temporaria) in two high-mountain ponds affected by climate change.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)00203-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The global decline in amphibian populations is a major environmental issue. Chytridiomycosis, Ranaviruses and the red-leg syndrome have been identified in unusual mortality events. However, these infections do not account for all causes of declining amphibian populations. Moreover, several cases of amphibian mortality are difficult to solve without resorting to an interdisciplinary approach. Two cases of unusual mortality in Rana temporaria occurred at two high-mountain ponds (northwest Italy) in April and May 2021. Water and frog samples were analysed to understand the possible causes responsible for the unusual mortalities. Results of the main physicochemical (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand) and nutrient (ammonia/ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, total phosphorus) parameters revealed a good condition of the water quality, with the absence of the main cyanotoxins (microcystins/nodularins). However, unseasonably high spring water temperatures were recorded in both ponds (12.73 °C and 14.21 °C for Frog Pond and Selleries Pond, respectively). Frogs (n = 50; snout-vent length: 7.0-9.8 cm; body mass: 85-123 g) collected from Frog Pond mainly presented bumps on the ventral cavity and dermal ulceration associated with the isolation of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. On the other hand, frogs (n = 5; snout-vent length: 8.0-9.1 cm; body mass: 87-92 g) from Selleries Pond presented petechiae and dermal ulcerations on the rear limbs associated with the isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida and A. sobria. In both mortality events, the interdisciplinary approach revealed an association between frog mortalities and the isolation of bacteria. Isolated bacteria are considered opportunistic pathogens, and the high values of the water temperature has certainly led a stress on the frogs, favouring the spread of bacteria and the death of the frogs. Further studies are needed to assess the pathophysiological effects of the opportunistic bacteria here isolated, clarifying the interactions between emerging pathogens and climate change.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Firmino VC, Martins RT, Brasil LS, et al (2023)

Do microplastics and climate change negatively affect shredder invertebrates from an amazon stream? An ecosystem functioning perspective.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)00186-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Pollution and climate change are among the main threats to the biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems in the 21st century. We experimentally tested the effects of microplastic and climate change (i.e., increase in temperature and CO2) on the survival and consumption by an Amazonian-stream shredder invertebrate. We tested three hypotheses. (1) Increased microplastic concentrations and climate change reduce shredder survival. We assumed that the combined stressors would increase toxic stress. (2) Increased concentrations of microplastics have negative effects on shredder food consumption. We assumed that blockage of the digestive tract by microplastics would lead to reduced ability to digest food. In addition, increased temperature and CO2 would lead to an increase in metabolic cost and reduced consumption. (3) The interaction between microplastics and climate change have greater negative effects on survival and consumption than either alone. We combined different concentrations of microplastic and climate change scenarios to simulate in real-time increases in temperature and CO2 forecast for 2100 for Amazonia. We found that both stressors had lethal effects, increasing mortality risk, but there was no interaction effect. Shredder consumption was negatively affected only by climate change. The interaction of microplastics and climate change on shredder consumption was dose-dependent and more intense in the extreme climate scenario, leading to reduced consumption. Our results indicate that microplastic and climate change may have strong effects on the consumption and/or survival of insect shredders in Amazonian streams. In addition, microplastic and climate change effects may affect not only populations but also ecosystem functioning (e.g., nutrient processing). Integrative approaches to better understand and mitigate the effects of both stressors are necessary because plastic pollution and climate change co-occur in environments.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Han Y, H Bu (2023)

The impact of climate change on the water quality of Baiyangdian Lake (China) in the past 30 years (1991-2020).

The Science of the total environment, 870:161957 pii:S0048-9697(23)00572-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change significantly influenced the water quality of lakes in recent decades. This study investigated the effects of climate change on the water quality of Baiyangdian Lake (China) in the past 30 years (1991-2020) using correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the generalized additive model (GAM). The results show that water quality grade, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and annual average and minimum air temperatures of the lake showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in the one-way ANOVA during the studied period. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) and TP, annual average and minimum air temperatures, and annual precipitation decreased, while the COD and total nitrogen (TN) concentration, annual maximum temperature, and monthly maximum precipitation increased. The annual average and minimum air temperature affected all water quality variables and explained 12.3 %-54.5 % of variation deviation in correlation and GAM analyses, indicating that the changes of air temperature influenced the water temperature, which then affected the biochemical reaction rates leading to changes in water quality. The precipitation factors explained 10.5 % (TN) to 54.8 % (TP) of variation deviation, implying that the increase in precipitation improved water quality by diluting the COD concentration. However, excessive precipitation also accelerated the endogenous release of phosphorus in sediments by increasing the TP concentration. Additionally, extreme climate factors correlated with some water quality variables and explained 57.7 %-95.9 % of the total variances in correlation and regression analyses, suggesting that the extreme temperatures changed the nitrogen and DO concentration to aggravate lake pollution. However, the extreme precipitation purified the water through dilution. This study will facilitate to understand the impacts of climate change on water quality and find appropriate adaptation measures for ecosystem management of shallow lakes.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Rojas-Botero S, Teixeira LH, J Kollmann (2023)

Low precipitation due to climate change consistently reduces multifunctionality of urban grasslands in mesocosms.

PloS one, 18(2):e0275044 pii:PONE-D-22-24947.

Urban grasslands are crucial for biodiversity and ecosystem services in cities, while little is known about their multifunctionality under climate change. Thus, we investigated the effects of simulated climate change, i.e., increased [CO2] and temperature, and reduced precipitation, on individual functions and overall multifunctionality in mesocosm grasslands sown with forbs and grasses in four different proportions aiming at mimicking road verge grassland patches. Climate change scenarios RCP2.6 (control) and RCP8.5 (worst-case) were simulated in walk-in climate chambers of an ecotron facility, and watering was manipulated for normal vs. reduced precipitation. We measured eight indicator variables of ecosystem functions based on below- and aboveground characteristics. The young grassland communities responded to higher [CO2] and warmer conditions with increased vegetation cover, height, flower production, and soil respiration. Lower precipitation affected carbon cycling in the ecosystem by reducing biomass production and soil respiration. In turn, the water regulation capacity of the grasslands depended on precipitation interacting with climate change scenario, given the enhanced water efficiency resulting from increased [CO2] under RCP8.5. Multifunctionality was negatively affected by reduced precipitation, especially under RCP2.6. Trade-offs arose among single functions that performed best in either grass- or forb-dominated grasslands. Grasslands with an even ratio of plant functional types coped better with climate change and thus are good options for increasing the benefits of urban green infrastructure. Overall, the study provides experimental evidence of the effects of climate change on the functionality of urban ecosystems. Designing the composition of urban grasslands based on ecological theory may increase their resilience to global change.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Farsi M, Kalantar M, Zeinalabedini M, et al (2023)

First assessment of Iranian pomegranate germplasm using targeted metabolites and morphological traits to develop the core collection and modeling of the current and future spatial distribution under climate change conditions.

PloS one, 18(2):e0265977 pii:PONE-D-22-06916.

Pomegranate has been considered a medicinal plant due to its rich nutrients and bioactive compounds. Since environmental conditions affect the amount and composition of metabolites, selecting suitable locations for cultivation would be vital to achieve optimal production. In this study, data on the diversity of targeted metabolites and morphological traits of 152 Iranian pomegranate genotypes were collected and combined in order to establish the first core collection. The multivariate analyses were conducted including principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis. In addition, the current and future geographical distribution of pomegranate in Iran was predicted to identify suitable locations using the MaxEnt model. The results showed high diversity in the studied morphological and metabolic traits. The PCA results indicated that FFS, NFT, JA, and AA are the most important traits in discriminating the studied genotypes. A constructed core collection using maximization strategy consisted of 20 genotypes and accounted for 13.16% of the entire collection. Shannon-Weaver diversity index of a core collection was similar or greater than the entire collection. Evaluation of the core collection using four parameters of MD, VD, CR, and VR also indicated the maintenance of the genetic diversity of the original set. According to the MaxEnt model, altitude, average temperature of coldest quarter, and isothertmality were the key factors for the distribution of pomegranate. The most suitable areas for pomegranate cultivation were also determined which were located in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. The geographic distribution of pomegranate in the future showed that the main provinces of pomegranate cultivation would be less affected by climatic conditions by the middle of the century. The results of this study provide valuable information for selection of elite genotypes to develop the breeding programs to obtain the cultivars with the highest levels of metabolic compounds for pharmaceutical purposes, as well as identification of the most suitable agro-ecological zones for orchard establishment.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Somani R (2023)

Global Warming in Pakistan and Its Impact on Public Health as Viewed Through a Health Equity Lens.

International journal of social determinants of health and health services [Epub ahead of print].

Pakistan is extremely vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. The recent monsoon season caused widespread, deadly flooding, affecting 15% of the total population when extreme heat waves were followed by the worst rains and floods in the country's history. But Pakistan was not the cause of its own misfortune. The atmospheric buildup of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the greatest contributor to climate change. If we look at the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, we find that Pakistan is, like all developing nations, essentially a non-contributor of the problem, contributing considerably less than 1% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, although significant factors exacerbating the effects of climate change in Pakistan include an inadequate sewage system, air pollution from industrial waste, and deforestation, the country could not afford to proactively fix these, nor prepare for flooding and heavy rains. It lacks the funding for climate resilience efforts. As a result, Pakistan is suffering from a high prevalence of poor health outcomes. Children, the elderly, women, and the homeless, especially those living with poverty and disease, are at a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Since mitigating the devastating effects of climate change will continue to be an ongoing challenge for Pakistan, it urgently needs financial investment so that it can build climate-resilient infrastructures and institute mechanisms to deal with global warming's worst effects. Industrialized nations are responsible for global warming, and they must take responsibility for fighting global warming by helping developing countries cultivate greater public health emergency preparedness.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Mo C, Lai S, Yang Q, et al (2023)

A comprehensive assessment of runoff dynamics in response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, southwest China.

Journal of environmental management, 332:117380 pii:S0301-4797(23)00168-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The Chengbi River Basin is a typical karst watershed in Southwest China. Understanding the effects of climate change (CC) and human activities (HAs) on hydrological process is important for regional water resources management and water security. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effects of CC and HAs on runoff dynamics at different time scales in the Chengbi River Basin is still lacking. To address these needs, we used Budyko Mezentsev-Choudhurdy-Yang and Slope change ratio of accumulative quantity methods to assess the contribution of the changing environment to annual and intra-annual runoff changes in the Chengbi River Basin. The results indicated that annual runoff time series was divided into the base phase Ta (1980-1996) and the change phase Tb (1997-2019). Compared to the natural status in Ta, the relative contributions of CC and HAs to the runoff increase in Tb were 154.86% and -54.86%. In addition, the shift in intra-annual runoff occurred in 2007 and was mainly caused by HAs, with a contribution rate of 76.22%. The increase in annual runoff in Tb could be attributed to the positive contribution of rainfall. Changes in rainfall and reservoir construction altered the original state of intra-annual runoff. Furthermore, the high degree of heterogeneity in the surface karst zone increased the runoff coefficient. The spatial unsaturation of the subsurface water-bearing media and rainfall patterns caused a significant lag effect in the response of surface runoff to rainfall. This study can help researchers and policy makers to better understand the response of karst runoff to changing environment and provide insights for future water resources management and flood control measures.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Tee Lewis PG, Chiu WA, Nasser E, et al (2023)

Characterizing vulnerabilities to climate change across the United States.

Environment international, 172:107772 pii:S0160-4120(23)00045-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change will cause a range of related risks, including increases in infectious and chronic disease, intensified social and economic stresses, and more frequent extreme weather events. Vulnerable groups will be disproportionately affected due to greater exposure to climate risks and lower ability to prepare, adapt, and recover from their effects. Better understanding of the intersection of vulnerability and climate change risks is required to identify the most important drivers of future climate risks and effectively build resilience and deploy targeted adaptation efforts. Incorporating community stakeholder input, we identified and integrated available public health, social, economic, environmental, and climate data in the United States (U.S.), comprising 184 indicators, to develop a Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI) composed of four baseline vulnerabilities (health, social/economic, infrastructure, and environment) and three climate change risks (health, social/economic, extreme events). We find that the vulnerability to and risks from climate change are highly heterogeneous across the U.S. at the census tract scale, and geospatially cluster into complementary areas with similar climate risks but differing baseline vulnerabilities. Our results therefore demonstrate that not only are climate change risks both broadly and variably distributed across the U.S., but also that existing disparities are often further exacerbated by climate change. The CVI thus lays a data-driven, scientific foundation for future research on the intersection of climate change risks with health and other inequalities, while also identifying health impacts of climate change as the greatest research gap. Moreover, given U.S. government initiatives surrounding climate and equity, the CVI can be instrumental in empowering communities and policymakers to better prioritize resources and target interventions, providing a template for addressing local-scale climate and environmental justice globally.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Le Moyne C, Roberts P, Hua Q, et al (2023)

Ecological flexibility and adaptation to past climate change in the Middle Nile Valley: A multiproxy investigation of dietary shifts between the Neolithic and Kerma periods at Kadruka 1 and Kadruka 21.

PloS one, 18(2):e0280347 pii:PONE-D-22-23418.

Human responses to climate change have long been at the heart of discussions of past economic, social, and political change in the Nile Valley of northeastern Africa. Following the arrival of Neolithic groups in the 6th millennium BCE, the Northern Dongola Reach of Upper Nubia witnessed a cultural florescence manifested through elaborate funerary traditions. However, despite the wealth of archaeological data available from funerary contexts, including evidence for domesticated animals and plants as grave goods, the paucity of stratified habitation contexts hinders interpretation of local subsistence trajectories. While it is recognised archaeologically that, against the backdrop of increasing environmental deterioration, the importance of agriculture based on Southwest Asian winter cereals increased throughout the Kerma period (2500-1450 BCE), the contribution of domesticated cereals to earlier Neolithic herding economies remains unclear. This paper presents direct dietary data from a total of 55 Middle Neolithic and Kerma period individuals from Kadruka 21 and Kadruka 1. Microbotanical data obtained from human dental calculus and grave sediments are integrated with human and faunal stable isotopes to explore changes in dietary breadth over time. The combined results demonstrate the consumption of wild plant species, including C4 wetland adapted grasses, by Middle Neolithic individuals at Kadruka 1. Despite existing evidence for domesticated barley in associated graves, the results obtained in this study provide no clear evidence for the routine consumption of domesticated cereals by Middle Neolithic individuals. Rather, direct microparticle evidence for the consumption of Triticeae cereals is only associated with a single Kerma period individual and corresponds with an isotopic shift indicating a greater contribution of C3-derived resources to diet. These results provide evidence for Neolithic dietary flexibility in Upper Nubia through the persistence of foraging activities and support existing evidence linking increased agricultural reliance to the development of the Kerma culture.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Errett NA, Dolan K, Hartwell C, et al (2022)

Climate Change Adaptation Activities and Needs in US State and Territorial Health Agencies.

Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP pii:00124784-990000000-00081 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To characterize US State and Territorial Health Agencies' (S/THA) climate change adaptation activities and priorities to facilitate appropriate investments, skills development, and support that will strengthen health sector capacity in response to a changing climate.

DESIGN: In 2021, we conducted an online survey of S/THA staff requesting information on current activities related to climate change and health, the state of climate and health programming, and anticipated needs and priorities for assistance. We analyzed survey results using descriptive statistics.

SETTING: US State and Territorial Health Agencies.

PARTICIPANTS: We received responses from 41 of 59 S/THAs (69.5%).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Implementation of S/THA climate and health programs (CHPs); engagement in climate and health activities; maintenance of hazard early warning systems and action plans; employment of climate and health communications strategies; capability to assess risks and adaptation needs related to various climate-sensitive conditions; priorities and plans for climate change adaptation in relation to climate-sensitive health risks; climate change adaptation-related partnerships and collaborations; requests of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) for advancing climate change adaptation activities; and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on climate change work.

RESULTS: Nineteen S/THAs reported having CHPs, the majority of which are federally funded. On average, S/THAs without CHPs reported engagement in fewer climate and health activities and more early warning activities. The S/THAs reported the highest levels of concerns regarding non-vector-borne infectious disease (66%), vector-borne infectious diseases (61%), and extreme heat (61%) hazards.

CONCLUSIONS: As S/THAs with CHPs report substantially greater climate and health capacity than those without, additional federal and state investments (eg, Building Resilience Against Climate Effects [BRACE]) are urgently needed to catalyze climate and health capacity.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Anonymous (2022)

Climate Change and Vectorborne Diseases.

The Pediatric infectious disease journal pii:00006454-990000000-00285 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Winter N, Marchand R, Lehmann C, et al (2023)

The paradox of the life sciences: How to address climate change in the lab: How to address climate change in the lab.

EMBO reports [Epub ahead of print].

Addressing climate change and sustainability starts with individuals and moves up to institutional change. Here is what we as scientists in the life sciences can do to enact change.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

De Toni L, Finocchi F, Jawich K, et al (2022)

Global warming and testis function: A challenging crosstalk in an equally challenging environmental scenario.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:1104326.

Environmental pollution, accounting for both chemical and physical factors, is a major matter of concern due to its health consequences in both humans and animals. The release of greenhouse gases with the consequent increase in environmental temperature is acknowledged to have a major impact on the health of both animals and humans, in current and future generations. A large amount of evidence reports detrimental effects of acute heat stress on testis function, particularly on the spermatogenetic and steroidogenetic process, in both animal and human models, wich is largely related to the testis placement within the scrotal sac and outside the abdomen, warranting an overall scrotal temperature of 2°C-4°C lower than the core body temperature. This review will provide a thorough evaluation of environmental temperature's effect on testicular function. In particular, basic concepts of body thermoregulation will be discussed together with available data about the association between testis damage and heat stress exposure. In addition, the possible association between global warming and the secular decline of testis function will be critically evaluated in light of the available epidemiological studies.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Souza PGC, Aidoo OF, Farnezi PKB, et al (2023)

Tamarixia radiata global distribution to current and future climate using the climate change experiment (CLIMEX) model.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1823.

The phloem-limited bacteria, "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" and "Ca. L. americanus", are the causal pathogens responsible for Huanglongbing (HLB). The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is the principal vector of these "Ca. Liberibacter" species. Though Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been useful in biological control programmes against D. citri, information on its global distribution remains vague. Using the Climate Change Experiment (CLIMEX) model, the potential global distribution of T. radiata under the 2050s, 2070s, and 2090s for Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B and A2 was defined globally. The results showed that habitat suitability for T. radiata covered Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and the Americas. The model predicted climate suitable areas for T. radiata beyond its presently known native and non-native areas. The new locations predicted to have habitat suitability for T. radiata included parts of Europe and Oceania. Under the different climate change scenarios, the model predicted contraction of high habitat suitability (EI > 30) for T. radiata from the 2050s to the 2090s. Nevertheless, the distribution maps created using the CLIMEX model may be helpful in the search for and release of T. radiata in new regions.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Kou W, Gao Y, Zhang S, et al (2023)

High downward surface solar radiation conducive to ozone pollution more frequent under global warming.

Science bulletin pii:S2095-9273(23)00038-5 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Roberts HP, Willey LL, Jones MT, et al (2023)

Is the future female for turtles? Climate change and wetland configuration predict sex ratios of a freshwater species.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and land-use change are leading drivers of biodiversity decline, affecting demographic parameters that are important for population persistence. For example, scientists have speculated for decades that climate change may skew adult sex ratios in taxa that express temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), but limited evidence exists that this phenomenon is occurring in natural settings. For species that are vulnerable to anthropogenic land-use practices, differential mortality among sexes may also skew sex ratios. We sampled the spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata), a freshwater species with TSD, across a large portion of its geographic range (Florida to Maine), to assess the environmental factors influencing adult sex ratios. We present evidence that suggests recent climate change has skewed the adult sex ratio of spotted turtles, with samples following a pattern of increased female-bias concomitant with warming trends, but only within the warmest areas sampled. At intermediate temperatures, there was no relationship with climate, while in the coolest areas we found the opposite pattern, with samples becoming more male-biased with increasing temperatures. These patterns might be explained in part by variation in relative adaptive capacity via phenotypic plasticity in nest site selection. Our findings also suggest that spotted turtles have a context-dependent and multi-scale relationship with land use. We observed a negative relationship between male proportion and the amount of crop cover (within 300 m) when wetlands were less spatially aggregated. However, when wetlands were aggregated, sex ratios remained consistent. This pattern may reflect sex-specific patterns in movement that render males more vulnerable to mortality from agricultural machinery and other threats. Our findings highlight the complexity of species' responses to both climate change and land use, and emphasize the role that landscape structure can play in shaping wildlife population demographics.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Lennon JT, Frost SDW, Nguyen NK, et al (2023)

Microbiology and Climate Change: a Transdisciplinary Imperative.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is a complex problem involving nonlinearities and feedback that operate across scales. No single discipline or way of thinking can effectively address the climate crisis. Teams of natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, economists, and policymakers must work together to understand, predict, and mitigate the rapidly accelerating impacts of climate change. Transdisciplinary approaches are urgently needed to address the role that microorganisms play in climate change. Here, we demonstrate with case studies how diverse teams and perspectives provide climate-change insight related to the range expansion of emerging fungal pathogens, technological solutions for harmful cyanobacterial blooms, and the prediction of disease-causing microorganisms and their vector populations using massive networks of monitoring stations. To serve as valuable members of a transdisciplinary climate research team, microbiologists must reach beyond the boundaries of their immediate areas of scientific expertise and engage in efforts to build open-minded teams aimed at scalable technologies and adoptable policies.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Varghese R, Patel P, Kumar D, et al (2023)

Climate change and glacier melting: risks for unusual outbreaks?.

Journal of travel medicine pii:7017662 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Burbank AJ (2023)

Risk Factors for Respiratory Viral Infections: A Spotlight on Climate Change and Air Pollution.

Journal of asthma and allergy, 16:183-194.

Climate change has both direct and indirect effects on human health, and some populations are more vulnerable to these effects than others. Viral respiratory infections are most common illnesses in humans, with estimated 17 billion incident infections globally in 2019. Anthropogenic drivers of climate change, chiefly the emission of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants from burning of fossil fuels, and the consequential changes in temperature, precipitation, and frequency of extreme weather events have been linked with increased susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. Air pollutants like nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, diesel exhaust particles, and ozone have been shown to impact susceptibility and immune responses to viral infections through various mechanisms, including exaggerated or impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, disruption of the airway epithelial barrier, altered cell surface receptor expression, and impaired cytotoxic function. An estimated 90% of the world's population is exposed to air pollution, making this a topic with high relevance to human health. This review summarizes the available epidemiologic and experimental evidence for an association between climate change, air pollution, and viral respiratory infection.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Casson N, Cameron L, Mauro I, et al (2023)

Perceptions of the health impacts of climate change among Canadians.

BMC public health, 23(1):212 pii:10.1186/s12889-023-15105-z.

BACKGROUND: Understanding public perceptions of the health risks of climate change is critical to inform risk communication and support the adoption of adaptive behaviours. In Canada, very few studies have explored public understandings and perceptions of climate impacts on health. The objective of this study was to address this gap by exploring perceptions of the link between climate change and health.

METHODS: We conducted a survey of Canadians (n = 3,014) to address this objective. The 116-question survey measured prior consideration of the link between climate change and health, affective assessment of climate health impacts, unprompted knowledge of climate health impacts, and concern about a range of impacts. ANOVA tests were used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups.

RESULTS: Overall, Canadian's have a similar level of concern about health impacts of climate change compared with concern about other impacts (e.g. biophysical, economic, and national security). Among health-related impacts, respondents were more concerned about impacts on water, food and air quality, compared with impacts on mental health, infectious diseases and heat-related illnesses. There were differences among sociodemographic groups; women were significantly more concerned than men about all of the health-related impacts; respondents with a high school level of education were significantly less concerned about all health-related impacts compared with respondents with more education; and respondents on the political left were more concerned with those in the political centre, who were more concerned than those on the political right.

CONCLUSION: There is emerging literature suggesting that framing communication around climate change in terms of the health risks it poses may increase perceptions of the proximity of the risks. These results suggest that it is important to be specific in the types of health risks that are communicated, and to consider the concerns of the target sociodemographic groups. The differential knowledge, awareness, and concern of climate health impacts across segments of the Canadian population can inform targeted communication and engagement to build broader support for adaptation and mitigation measures.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Erhart S, K Erhart (2023)

Environmental ranking of European industrial facilities by toxicity and global warming potentials.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1772.

We present a methodology to develop the integrated toxicity and climate change risk assessment of Europe based facilities, industries and regions. There is an increasingly important need for large scale sustainability measurement solutions for company reporting with high granularity. In this paper we measure key aspects of Sustainable Development Goals in terms of human, cancer and non-cancer toxicity, ecotoxicity together with global warming impact potentials from point source pollutant releases of more than 10,000 companies and their 33,000 facilities in Europe from 2001 to 2017, by using the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. For our assessment, we deploy a scientific consensus model, USEtox for characterizing human and ecotoxicological impacts of chemicals and the global warming potential values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We discuss water and air emissions of dozens of pollutants in urban, rural, coastal and inland areas. Companies in the electricity production sector are estimated to have the largest human toxicity impact potential (46% of total) and the largest global warming impact potential (50%), while companies in the sewerage sector have the largest ecotoxicity impact potential (50%). In the overall economy, the correlation between facilities' global warming and toxicity impact potentials is positive, however, not very strong. Therefore, we argue that carbon footprint of industrial organizations can be only used as a climate change risk indicator, but not as an overall environmental performance indicator. We confirm impact potentials of major pollutants in previous research papers (Hg accounting for 76% of the total human toxicity and Zn accounting for 68% of total ecotoxicity), although we draw the attention to the limitations of USEtox in case of metals. From 2001 to 2017 total human toxicity dropped by 28%, although the downward trend reversed in 2016. Ecotoxicity and global warming impact potentials remained unchanged in the same period. Finally, we show that the European pollutant release monitoring data quality could be further improved, as only three quarters of the toxic releases are measured in the Member States of the European Union, and a high share of toxic pollutant releases are only estimated in some countries. Of the measured or calculated toxic releases, only one third is reported according to the most robust CEN/ISO standards and about one fifth according to the least preferred other methods, like engineering judgements.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Diallo T, Roberge M, Bérubé A, et al (2023)

Integrating climate change into nursing curricula and continuing education: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ open, 13(1):e068520 pii:bmjopen-2022-068520.

INTRODUCTION: Climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. Nurses have an essential role to play in protecting populations from this threat, and to fulfil this role, they must be properly prepared. The purpose of this scoping review is to examine studies on the integration of climate change into the academic curriculum or continuing education of nurses so as to identify issues and opportunities related to this integration.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The method being used is the methodological framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. First, a search strategy using keywords and their combinations will be developed. This strategy will be applied in four bibliographic databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science. Second, an initial selection of studies based on titles and abstracts will be carried out by two members of the research team using the software Covidence. They will conduct this selection process independently, with the aim of identifying relevant studies that meet the inclusion criteria for our scoping review. Third, the second stage in the selection process will be carried out by examining the full text of each article to determine which studies to include in the review. Finally, data on year of publication, authors, geographical area, article type, study objectives, methodology and key findings will be extracted from selected articles for analysis. A search of the grey literature will also be conducted to supplement the results of the bibliographic database search. The scoping review is currently ongoing. Identification of relevant literature began in the first quarter of 2022 and is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2023.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this review. The results of this study will be presented in workshops and conferences and be submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Smith MW, O'Shea AMJ, CM Wray (2023)

Health Care and Climate Change-Telemedicine's Role in Environmental Stewardship.

JAMA network open, 6(1):e2253794 pii:2800850.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Le CTU, Paul WL, Gawne B, et al (2023)

Integrating simulation models and statistical models using causal modelling principles to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to climate change.

Water research, 231:119661 pii:S0043-1354(23)00096-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is projected to threaten ecological communities through changes in temperature, rainfall, runoff patterns, and mediated changes in other environmental variables. Their combined effects are difficult to comprehend without the mathematical machinery of causal modelling. Using piecewise structural equation modelling, we aim to predict the responses of aquatic macroinvertebrate total abundance and richness to disturbances generated by climate change. Our approach involves integrating an existing hydroclimate-salinity model for the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, into our recently developed statistical models for macroinvertebrates using long-term monitoring data on macroinvertebrates, water quality, climate, and hydrology, spanning 2,300 km of the Murray River. Our exercise demonstrates the potential of causal modelling for integrating data and models from different sources. As such, optimal use of valuable existing data and merits of previously developed models in the field can be made for exploring the effects of future climate change and management interventions.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Vacek Z, Vacek S, J Cukor (2023)

European forests under global climate change: Review of tree growth processes, crises and management strategies.

Journal of environmental management, 332:117353 pii:S0301-4797(23)00141-X [Epub ahead of print].

The ongoing global climate change is challenging all sectors, forestry notwithstanding. On the one hand, forest ecosystems are exposed to and threatened by climate change, but on the other hand, forests can influence the course of climate change by regulating the water regime, air quality, carbon sequestration, and even reduce climate extremes. Therefore, it is crucial to see climate change not only as a risk causing forest disturbances and economic consequences but also as an opportunity for innovative approaches to forest management, conservation, and silviculture based on the results of long-term research. We reviewed 365 studies evaluating the impact of climate change on European forest ecosystems, all published during the last 30 years (1993-2022). The most significant consequences of climate change include more frequent and destructive large-scale forest disturbances (wildfire, windstorm, drought, flood, bark beetle, root rot), and tree species migration. Species distribution shifts and changes in tree growth rate have substantial effects on ecosystem carbon storage. Diameter/volume increment changed from -1 to +99% in Central and Northern Europe, while it decreased from -12 to -49% in Southern Europe across tree species over the last ca. 50 years. However, it is important to sharply focus on the causes of climate change and subsequently, on adaptive strategies, which can successfully include the creation of species-diverse, spatially and age-wise structured stands (decrease drought stress and increase production), prolongation of the regenerative period, or the use of suitable introduced tree species (e.g., Douglas fir, black pine, and Mediterranean oaks). But the desired changes are based on increasing diversity and the mitigation of climate change, and will require significantly higher initial costs for silviculture practices. In conclusion, the scope and complexity of the topic require further comprehensive and long-term studies focusing on international cooperation. We see a critical gap in the transfer of research results into actual forest practice, which will be the key factor influencing afforestation of forest stands and forest growth in the following decades. What our forests will look like for future generations and what the resulting impact of climate change will be on forestry is in the hands of forest managers, depending on supportive forestry research and climate change policy, including adaptive and mitigation strategies.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Shen C, Y Wang (2023)

Concerned or Apathetic? Exploring online public opinions on climate change from 2008 to 2019: A Comparative study between China and other G20 countries.

Journal of environmental management, 332:117376 pii:S0301-4797(23)00164-0 [Epub ahead of print].

G20 countries, account for the majority of global carbon emissions, need to take the lead in mitigating climate change. However, there are differences in economic, political and sociocultural backgrounds amongst G20 countries, especially between China and other G20 countries. Since the implementation of climate policies largely require domestic public support, it is vital to explore similarities and differences of public opinions on climate issues between China and other G20 countries. However, little research has investigated the micro-level climate concerns from the perspective of cross-country differences. Therefore, based on big data and text mining analysis, this study crawled user-generated data on Sina Weibo (N = 271,487) and Twitter (N = 4,874,546) from 2008 to 2019 to comprehensively catalog and compare climate opinions. Results show that climate change has become a salient issue in China and other G20 countries, with climate-related surges in public opinions always occurring after major natural, social and political events. Moreover, in China, there has been a significant shift in public attention from climate impacts to climate mitigation strategies, but in other G20 countries, people are more radical by emphasizing the climate movement and calling for authoritative actions. This study provides "snapshots" of climate communication and offers a quantification-based reference for promoting climate actions and collaborative governance.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Mahanes SA, Bracken MES, CJB Sorte (2022)

Climate Change Amelioration by Marine Producers: Does Dominance Predict Impact?.

The Biological bulletin, 243(3):299-314.

AbstractClimate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, and assessing how those changes will impact communities will be critical for conservation. Dominant primary producers can alter local-scale environmental conditions, reducing temperature via shading and mitigating ocean acidification via photosynthesis, which could buffer communities from the impacts of climate change. We conducted two experiments on the coast of southeastern Alaska to assess the effects of a common seaweed species, Neorhodomela oregona, on temperature and pH in field tide pools and tide pool mesocosms. We found that N. oregona was numerically dominant in this system, covering >60% of habitable space in the pools and accounting for >40% of live cover. However, while N. oregona had a density-dependent effect on pH in isolated mesocosms, we did not find a consistent effect of N. oregona on either pH or water temperature in tide pools in the field. These results suggest that the amelioration of climate change impacts in immersed marine ecosystems by primary producers is not universal and likely depends on species' functional attributes, including photosynthetic rate and physical structure, in addition to abundance or dominance.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Diffenbaugh NS, EA Barnes (2023)

Data-driven predictions of the time remaining until critical global warming thresholds are reached.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(6):e2207183120.

Leveraging artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained on climate model output, we use the spatial pattern of historical temperature observations to predict the time until critical global warming thresholds are reached. Although no observations are used during the training, validation, or testing, the ANNs accurately predict the timing of historical global warming from maps of historical annual temperature. The central estimate for the 1.5 °C global warming threshold is between 2033 and 2035, including a ±1σ range of 2028 to 2039 in the Intermediate (SSP2-4.5) climate forcing scenario, consistent with previous assessments. However, our data-driven approach also suggests a substantial probability of exceeding the 2 °C threshold even in the Low (SSP1-2.6) climate forcing scenario. While there are limitations to our approach, our results suggest a higher likelihood of reaching 2 °C in the Low scenario than indicated in some previous assessments-though the possibility that 2 °C could be avoided is not ruled out. Explainable AI methods reveal that the ANNs focus on particular geographic regions to predict the time until the global threshold is reached. Our framework provides a unique, data-driven approach for quantifying the signal of climate change in historical observations and for constraining the uncertainty in climate model projections. Given the substantial existing evidence of accelerating risks to natural and human systems at 1.5 °C and 2 °C, our results provide further evidence for high-impact climate change over the next three decades.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

El Atfy H, Coiffard C, El Beialy SY, et al (2023)

Vegetation and climate change at the southern margin of the Neo-Tethys during the Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous): Evidence from Egypt.

PloS one, 18(1):e0281008 pii:PONE-D-22-01364.

Changes in terrestrial vegetation during the mid-Cretaceous and their link to climate and environmental change are poorly understood. In this study, we use plant macrofossils and analysis of fossil pollen and spores from the Western Desert, Egypt, to assess temporal changes in plant communities during the Cenomanian. The investigated strata have relatively diverse sporomorph assemblages, which reflect the nature of parent vegetation. Specifically, the palynofloras represent ferns, conifers, monosulcate pollen producers, Gnetales, and a diverse group of angiosperms. Comparisons of both, dispersed palynoflora and plant macrofossils reveal different characteristics of the palaeoflora owing to a plethora of taphonomical and ecological biases including the depositional environment, production levels, and discrepancies between different plant organs. A combination of detailed records of sporomorphs, leaves, and charcoal from the studied successions provide new understandings of the palaeoclimate and palaeogeography during the Cenomanian and Albian-Cenomanian transition in Egypt. The mixed composition of the palynofloral assemblages reflects the presence of different depositional situations with a weak marine influence, as evidenced by a minor dinoflagellate cysts component. The local vegetation comprised various categories including herbaceous groups including ferns and eudicots, fluvial, open environments, and xeric arboreal communities dominated by Cheirolepidiaceae and perhaps including drought- and/or salt-tolerating ferns (Anemiaceae) and other gymnosperms (Araucariaceae, Ginkgoales, Cycadales, and Gnetales) as well as angiosperms. The presence of riparian and freshwater wetland communities favouring aquatic and/or hygrophilous ferns (of Salviniaceae and Marsileaceae), is noted. The wide variation of depositional settings derived from the palynological data may be attributed to a prevalent occurrence of producers in local vegetation during the early Cenomanian of Egypt. For the purpose of this work on the studied Bahariya Formation and its equivalent rock units, where iconic dinosaurs and other fossil fauna roamed, we attempt to improve the understanding of Egypt's Cenomanian climate, which is reconstructed as generally warm and humid punctuated by phases of considerably drier conditions of varying duration.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Kolanowska M, E Michalska (2023)

The effect of global warming on the Australian endemic orchid Cryptostylis leptochila and its pollinator.

PloS one, 18(1):e0280922 pii:PONE-D-22-14222.

Ecological stability together with the suitability of abiotic conditions are crucial for long-term survival of any organism and the maintenance of biodiversity and self-sustainable ecosystems relies on species interactions. By influencing resource availability plants affect the composition of plant communities and ultimately ecosystem functioning. Plant-animal interactions are very complex and include a variety of exploitative and mutualistic relationships. One of the most important mutualistic interactions is that between plants and their pollinators. Coevolution generates clustered links between plants and their pollen vectors, but the pollination and reproductive success of plants is reduced by increase in the specialization of plant-animal interactions. One of the most specialized types of pollination is sexual deception, which occurs almost exclusively in Orchidaceae. In this form of mimicry, male insects are attracted to orchid flowers by chemical compounds that resemble insect female sex pheromones and pollinate the flowers during attempted copulations. These interactions are often species-specific with each species of orchid attracting only males of one or very few closely related species of insects. For sexually deceptive orchids the presence of a particular pollen vector is crucial for reproductive success and any reduction in pollinator availability constitutes a threat to the orchid. Because global warming is rapidly becoming the greatest threat to all organisms by re-shaping the geographical ranges of plants, animals and fungi, this paper focuses on predicting the effect of global warming on Cryptostylis leptochila, a terrestrial endemic in eastern Australia that is pollinated exclusively via pseudo copulation with Lissopimpla excelsa. As a species with a single pollinator this orchid is a perfect model for studies on the effect of global warming on plants and their pollen vectors. According to our predictions, global warming will cause a significant loss of suitable niches for C. leptochila. The potential range of this orchid will be 36%-75% smaller than currently and as a result the Eastern Highlands will become unsuitable for C. leptochila. On the other hand, some new niches will become available for this species in Tasmania. Simultaneously, climate change will result in a substantial expansion of niches suitable for the pollinator (44-82%). Currently ca. 71% of the geographical range of the orchid is also suitable for L. excelsa, therefore, almost 30% of the areas occupied by C. leptochila already lack the pollen vector. The predicted availability of the pollen vector increased under three of the climate change scenarios analysed. The predicted habitat loss is a serious threat to this orchid even with the potential colonization of Tasmania by this plant. In the reduced range of C. leptochila the pollen vector will also be present assuring fruit set in populations of this orchid. The genetic pool of the populations in New South Wales and Queensland will probably be lost.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Gershoni M (2023)

Transgenerational transmission of environmental effects in livestock in the age of global warming.

Cell stress & chaperones [Epub ahead of print].

Recent decades provide mounting evidence for the continual increase in global temperatures, now termed "global warming," to the point of drastic worldwide change in the climate. Climatic change is a long-term shift in temperatures and weather patterns, including increased frequency and intensity of extreme environmental events such as heat waves accompanied by extreme temperatures and high humidity. Climate change and global warming put several challenges to the livestock industry by directly affecting the animal's production, reproduction, health, and welfare. The broad impact of global warming, and in particular heat stress, on-farm animals' performance has been comprehensively studied. It has been estimated that the US livestock industry's loss caused by heat stress is up to $2.4 billion annually. However, the long-term intergenerational and transgenerational effects of climatic change and global warming on farm animals are sparse. Transgenerational effects, which are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, can affect the animal's performance regardless of its immediate environment by altering its phenotypic expression to fit its ancestors' environment. In many animal species, environmental effects are epigenetically encoded within a narrow time interval during the organism's gametogenesis, and these epigenetic modifications can then be intergenerationally transmitted. Several epigenetic mechanisms mediate intergenerational transmission of environmental effects, typically in a parent-dependent manner. Therefore, exposure of the animal to an extreme climatic event and other environmental stressors during gametogenesis can undergo epigenetic stabilization in the germline and be passed to the offspring. As a result, the offspring might express a phenotype adjusted to fit the stressors experienced by their ancestors, regardless of their direct environment. The purpose of this perspective is to review current evidence for intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of environmental stress effects, specifically in the context of global warming and climate change, and to offer viewpoints on the possible impacts on the livestock industry.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

David-Schwartz R (2023)

Pine breeding programs in the face of climate change: Do we need to change direction?.

Tree physiology pii:7010543 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Qin M, Gao X, Feng M, et al (2022)

Modeling of the potential geographical distribution of naked oat under climate change.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1009577.

INTRODUCTION: Naked oat (Avena sativa L.), is an important miscellaneous grain crop in China, which is rich in protein, amino acids, fat and soluble dietary fiber. The demand for functional foods is gradually increasing as living standards rise, and the output of minor cereals in China is increasing annually. The planting layout of naked oat is scattered and lacks planning, which seriously restricts the development of the naked oat industry. The increase in miscellaneous grain production will not only be impacted by cultivation methods and management techniques, but the potential impact of global climate change needs to be considered. North China is the main area for naked oat production, worldwide.

METHODS: In this study, the potential distribution range of naked oat in North China was forecast based on historical distribution data and the Maxent model under climate change conditions. The performance of the model was relatively high.

RESULTS: The results indicated that the most suitable area for the potential geographic distribution of naked oat in North China was 27.89×104 km[2], including central and northeastern Shanxi, and northeastern and western Hebei and Beijing, gradually moving northward. The core suitable area increased, and the distribution of naked oat had an obvious regional response to climate warming; the main environmental factors affecting the potential geographic distribution were precipitation factor variables (precipitation seasonality (variation coefficient)), terrain factor variables (elevation) and temperature factor variables (temperature seasonality (Standard Deviation*100)).

DISCUSSION: In this study, the Maxent model was used to analyze and predict suitable areas for naked oat in North China, and the distribution of suitable areas was accurately divided, and the main climatic factors affecting the distribution of naked oat were identified. This research provides data support and theoretical support for the optimal planting zone of naked oat in North China.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Yahya M, Rasul M, Hussain SZ, et al (2022)

Integrated analysis of potential microbial consortia, soil nutritional status, and agro-climatic datasets to modulate P nutrient uptake and yield effectiveness of wheat under climate change resilience.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1074383.

Climate change has a devastating effect on wheat production; therefore, crop production might decline by 2030. Phosphorus (P) nutrient deficiency is another main limiting factor of reduced yield. Hence, there is a dire need to judiciously consider wheat yield, so that human requirements and nutrition balance can be sustained efficiently. Despite the great significance of biostimulants in sustainable agriculture, there is still a lack of integrated technology encompassing the successful competitiveness of inoculated phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in agricultural systems in the context of climatic conditions/meteorological factors and soil nutritional status. Therefore, the present study reveals the modulation of an integrated P nutrient management approach to develop potential PSB consortia for recommended wheat varieties by considering the respective soil health and agro-climatic conditions. The designed consortia were found to maintain adequate viability for up to 9 months, verified through field emission scanning electron microscopy and viable count. Furthermore, a significant increase in grain yield (5%-8%) and seed P (4%) content was observed in consortia-inoculated wheat plants with 20% reduced Diammonium phosphate (DAP) application under net house conditions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of roots and amplification of the gcd gene of Ochrobactrum sp. SSR indicated the survival and rhizosphere competency of the inoculated PSB. Categorical principal component analysis (CAT-PCA) showed a positive correlation of inoculated field-grown wheat varieties in native soils to grain yield, soil P content, and precipitation for sites belonging to irrigated plains and seed P content, soil organic matter, and number of tillers for sites belonging to Northern dry mountains. However, the impact of inoculation at sites belonging to the Indus delta was found significantly correlated to soil potassium (K) content, electrical conductivity (EC), and temperature. Additionally, a significant increase in grain yield (15%) and seed P (14%) content was observed in inoculated wheat plants. Thus, the present study demonstrates for the first time the need to integrate soil biological health and agro-climatic conditions for consistent performance of augmented PSB and enhanced P nutrient uptake to curtail soil pollution caused by the extensive use of agrochemicals. This study provides innovative insights and identifies key questions for future research on PSB to promote its successful implementation in agriculture.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Ongoma V, Epule TE, Brouziyne Y, et al (2023)

COVID-19 response in Africa: impacts and lessons for environmental management and climate change adaptation.

Environment, development and sustainability [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The COVID-19 pandemic adds pressure on Africa; the most vulnerable continent to climate change impacts, threatening the realization of most Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The continent is witnessing an increase in intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, and environmental change. The COVID-19 was managed relatively well across in the continent, providing lessons and impetus for environmental management and addressing climate change. This work examines the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment and climate change, analyses its management and draws lessons from it for climate change response in Africa. The data, findings and lessons are drawn from peer reviewed articles and credible grey literature on COVID-19 in Africa. The COVID-19 pandemic spread quickly, causing loss of lives and stagnation of the global economy, overshadowing the current climate crisis. The pandemic was managed through swift response by the top political leadership, research and innovations across Africa providing possible solutions to COVID-19 challenges, and redirection of funds to manage the pandemic. The well-coordinated COVID-19 containment strategy under the African Centers for Disease Control and Prevention increased sharing of resources including data was a success in limiting the spread of the virus. These strategies, among others, proved effective in limiting the spread and impact of COVID-19. The findings provide lessons that stakeholders and policy-makers can leverage in the management of the environment and address climate change. These approaches require solid commitment and practical-oriented leadership.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10668-023-02956-0.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Thrippleton T, Temperli C, Krumm F, et al (2023)

Balancing disturbance risk and ecosystem service provisioning in Swiss mountain forests: an increasing challenge under climate change.

Regional environmental change, 23(1):29.

UNLABELLED: Climate change severely affects mountain forests and their ecosystem services, e.g., by altering disturbance regimes. Increasing timber harvest (INC) via a close-to-nature forestry may offer a mitigation strategy to reduce disturbance predisposition. However, little is known about the efficiency of this strategy at the scale of forest enterprises and potential trade-offs with biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES). We applied a decision support system which accounts for disturbance predisposition and BES indicators to evaluate the effect of different harvest intensities and climate change scenarios on windthrow and bark beetle predisposition in a mountain forest enterprise in Switzerland. Simulations were carried out from 2010 to 2100 under historic climate and climate change scenarios (RCP4.5, RCP8.5). In terms of BES, biodiversity (structural and tree species diversity, deadwood amount) as well as timber production, recreation (visual attractiveness), carbon sequestration, and protection against gravitational hazards (rockfall, avalanche and landslides) were assessed. The INC strategy reduced disturbance predisposition to windthrow and bark beetles. However, the mitigation potential for bark beetle disturbance was relatively small (- 2.4%) compared to the opposite effect of climate change (+ 14% for RCP8.5). Besides, the INC strategy increased the share of broadleaved species and resulted in a synergy with recreation and timber production, and a trade-off with carbon sequestration and protection function. Our approach emphasized the disproportionally higher disturbance predisposition under the RCP8.5 climate change scenario, which may threaten currently unaffected mountain forests. Decision support systems accounting for climate change, disturbance predisposition, and BES can help coping with such complex planning situations.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10113-022-02015-w.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Trummer U, Ali T, Mosca D, et al (2023)

Climate change aggravating migration and health issues in the African context: The views and direct experiences of a community of interest in the field.

Journal of migration and health, 7:100151.

UNLABELLED: Climate change is an increasingly important theme in Africa, where a large majority of its people depend on livestock and agricultural activities for livelihood. Concurrently, the topic of health of migrants and people on the move is rapidly raising both in the health debate and migration governance agenda in the Region. The link with climate change from the perspective of health and migration experts needs to be systematically addressed.

OBJECTIVES: The article aims to contribute to the discourse on the interrelation of climate change, migration, and health by providing contributions of experts in the field of health and migration directly working with migrant and refugee communities in Africa.

METHODS: A webinar was conducted to collect and discuss first-hand experience with 25 participants from a postgraduate online course on health and migration funded by the Austrian Government and implemented in a co-operation of the Center for Health and Migration, Austria, with Makerere University, Uganda, the International Organization for Migration - UN Migration, and Lancet-Migration. As a result from the discussions, two cases from Sudan and Zimbabwe were selected to be further analysed with desk research to illustrate and underpin the points made.

RESULTS: All webinar participants reported to encounter climate change effects on health and migration in their professional practice. In their experience, climate change aggravates issues of health and migration by fueling forced migration and displacement, increasing health care needs, and deteriorating access to health care. Specific health challenges were identified for mental health problems caused by effects of climate change-induced migration, which remain widely undiagnosed and untreated, and the special affectedness of women and girls, with their mental, sexual and reproductive health severely deteriorated in insecure environments. The case studies from Sudan and Zimbabwe underline these observations.

CONCLUSIONS: The interplay of effects of climate change, (internal) migration, and health is reported by a community of experts in the field of health and migration who are residing in Africa and working with migrant communities. Webinars prove to be an easy to implement tool to collect first hand evidence from practice experts, to foster exchange of experiences, and to get people engaged in further collaboration and discussion.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Rodrigues RR, TG Shepherd (2022)

Small is beautiful: climate-change science as if people mattered.

PNAS nexus, 1(1):pgac009.

There is a widely accepted gap between the production and use of climate information. It is also widely accepted that at least part of the reason for this situation lies in the challenge of bridging between what may be characterized as ''top-down'' approaches to climate information on the global scale, and local decision contexts, which necessarily take a ''bottom-up'' perspective, in which climate change is just one factor among many to consider. We here reflect on the insights provided in a different context-that of economics-by E.F. Schumacher in his celebrated book Small is Beautiful (1973), to see what light they might shed on this challenge, with a focus on climate-change science for adaptation. Schumacher asked how economics might look if it was structured "as if people mattered". We ask the same question of climate-change science, and find many parallels. One is the need to grapple with the complexity of local situations, which can be addressed by expressing climate knowledge in a conditional form. A second is the importance of simplicity when dealing with deep uncertainty, which can be addressed through the use of physical climate storylines. A third is the need to empower local communities to make sense of their own situation, which can be addressed by developing ''intermediate technologies'' that build trust and transparency. Much of climate-change science is necessarily big science. We argue that in order to make climate information useable for adaptation, it is also necessary to discover the beauty of smallness.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Lee EY, Kim YB, Goo S, et al (2023)

Corrigendum to "Physical activity in the era of climate change and COVID-19 pandemic: Results from the South Korea's 2022 Report Card on physical activity for children and adolescents" [J Exercise Sci Fitness 21(1) (2023) 26-33].

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2022.10.014.].

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world: Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change.

European heart journal. Digital health, 3(4):496-498.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Carlson JM, Fang L, Coughtry-Carpenter C, et al (2022)

Reliability of attention bias and attention bias variability to climate change images in the dot-probe task.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:1021858.

Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of the 21st century, which is perhaps why information about climate change has been found to capture observers' attention. One of the most common ways of assessing individual differences in attentional processing of climate change information is through the use of reaction time difference scores. However, reaction time-based difference scores have come under scrutiny for their low reliability. Given that a primary goal of the field is to link individual differences in attention processing to participant variables (e.g., environmental attitudes), we assessed the reliability of reaction time-based measures of attention processing of climate change information utilizing an existing dataset with three variations of the dot-probe task. Across all three samples, difference score-based measures of attentional bias were generally uncorrelated across task blocks (r = -0.25 to 0.31). We also assessed the reliability of newer attention bias variability measures that are thought to capture dynamic shifts in attention toward and away from salient information. Although these measures were initially found to be correlated across task blocks (r = 0.17-0.67), they also tended to be highly correlated with general reaction time variability (r = 0.49-0.83). When controlling for general reaction time variability, the correlations across task blocks for attention bias variability were much weaker and generally nonsignificant (r = -0.25 to 0.33). Furthermore, these measures were unrelated to pro-environmental disposition indicating poor predictive validity. In short, reaction time-based measures of attentional processing (including difference score and variability-based approaches) have unacceptably low levels of reliability and are therefore unsuitable for capturing individual differences in attentional bias to climate change information.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Arnout BA (2023)

An epidemiological study of mental health problems related to climate change: A procedural framework for mental health system workers.

Work (Reading, Mass.) pii:WOR220040 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The Arab region has witnessed different biological hazards, including cholera, yellow fever, and the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, changes in rainfall and increased vegetation cover led to locust outbreaks in Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia. This problem still exists and affects more than 20 countries and concerns indicate food shortages and food insecurity for more than 20 million people.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to detect mental health problems related to climate change in the Arab world.

METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was applied to determine the prevalence of mental health problems related to climate change (MHPCC). A random sample consisted of 1080 participants (523 male and 557 female), residents in 18 Arab countries; their ages ranged from 25 to 60 years. The Mental Health Problems related to Climate Change Questionnaire (MHPCCQ) was completed online.

RESULTS: The results indicated average levels of MHPCC prevalence. The results also revealed no significant statistical differences in the MHPCC due to gender, educational class, and marital status except in climate anxiety; there were statistical differences in favor of married subgroup individuals. At the same time, there are statistically significant differences in the MHPCC due to the residing country variable in favor of Syria, Yemen, Algeria, Libya, and Oman regarding fears, anxiety, alienation, and somatic symptoms. In addition, Tunisia, Bahrain, Sudan, and Iraq were higher in climate depression than the other countries.

CONCLUSION: The findings shed light on the prevalence of MHPCC in the Arab world and oblige mental health system workers, including policymakers, mental health providers, and departments of psychology in Arab universities, to take urgent action to assess and develop the system for mental health to manage the risks of extreme climate change on the human mental health.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Mayembe R, Simpson NP, Rumble O, et al (2023)

Integrating climate change in Environmental Impact Assessment: A review of requirements across 19 EIA regimes.

The Science of the total environment, 869:161850 pii:S0048-9697(23)00465-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The contribution of human activities to climate change is well understood. Yet the integration of climate change considerations into local decision making tools designed to govern activities affecting the environment, such as Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), remains underdeveloped and inconsistently applied for proposed policies, programs, plans and projects. This study reviews progress across a range of 19 EIA regimes and identifies and assesses regulations and guidelines that have been established to promote the integration of climate change considerations within EIAs. A typology of levels of integration is developed to guide analysis across multiple EIA regimes. The findings identify a global and growing requirement for climate change aspects to be considered within EIAs and describe the range of ways this is done across the regimes selected. Climate change is typically concerned with the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from proposed developments in EIAs. Fewer regimes are concerned with climate change adaptation, and in general, an integration deficit is identified for regimes where climate change is only partially considered. Examples of high integration indicate that EIA holds the potential to play a substantive role in climate change governance at project level decision making, suggesting the tools hold promise for local level climate governance. However, many domestic obstacles can militate against integration, including political, socio-technical, and economic imperatives, particularly for exemptions of sector and scope. Nevertheless, examples also indicate advances can be made through jurisprudence during the EIA review stage to establish new precedents of how climate should be considered in EIAs. Potential future research and practice directions are identified, and recommendations include the development of regulations and practice guidelines; inclusion of climate change adaptation; strengthening post-decision monitoring; application to all relevant sectors and activities; alignment with SEA; and integration across all stages of the EIA process.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Zhang J, Deng M, Han Y, et al (2023)

Spatiotemporal variation of irrigation water requirements for grain crops under climate change in Northwest China.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Clarifying the spatiotemporal variation of crop irrigation water requirement (IWR) under the background of climate change is an essential basis for water resource management, determining the irrigation quota and adjusting the planting structure. Using 61 years of climate data from 205 stations in Northwest China, this study investigated the spatiotemporal variations of climatic factors and IWR during the growth period of five main grain crops (spring wheat, winter wheat, spring maize, summer maize, and rice) and explored the dominant climatic driving factors of IWR variation. Results showed that (1) the IWR of grain crops showed distinct differences. Rice was the highest water consumption crop (mean of 753.78 mm), and summer maize was the lowest (mean of 452.90 mm). (2) The variation trends and average values of IWR of different grain crops have spatial heterogeneity across Northwest China. For most crops, high values and increasing trends of IWR were mainly located in eastern Xinjiang, western Gansu, and western Inner Mongolia. (3) Tmax (maximum temperature), Tmin (minimum temperature), and Peff (effective precipitation) showed an increasing trend during the growth period of each grain crop, while U10 (wind speed at 10 m height), SD (solar radiation), and RH (relative humidity) presented decreasing trends. (4) SD, Tmax, and U10 promoted the increase of grain crops' IWR, while Peff and RH inhibited it. The impacts of climatic factors on the grain crop IWR differed among different regions. Peff was the most influential factor to the IWR of all grain crops in most areas. Therefore, under the premise of a significant increase in T and uncertain precipitation mode in the future, it is urgent to take effective water-saving measures according to the irrigation needs of the region. To cope with the adverse impact of climate change on the sustainable development of agriculture in the northwest dry area, to ensure regional and national food security.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Dembedza VP, Chopera P, Mapara J, et al (2023)

The relationship between climate change induced natural disasters and selected nutrition outcomes: a case of cyclone Idai, Zimbabwe.

BMC nutrition, 9(1):19.

BACKGROUND: The increased frequency of climate induced natural disasters has exacerbated the risks of malnutrition in the already vulnerable regions. This study was aimed at exploring the effects of Cyclone Idai on nutrition outcomes of women of child-bearing age and children under 5 years.

METHOD: The household-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Eastern Zimbabwe. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews to determine food consumption score (FCS) and household dietary diversity (HDDS), minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W) and minimum dietary diversity for children (MDD-C). Severity of Cyclone Idai was grouped into five categories based on the extent of damage to infrastructure and loss of human lives. Association between continuous and categorical variables was tested using Pearson correlation test and Chi square test, respectively. Linear and binary logistic regression was performed to investigate determinants of food security.

RESULTS: A total of 535 households were interviewed. There was a significant correlation between severity of Cyclone Idai and MDD-W (p = 0.011), HDDS (p = 0.018) and FCS (p = 0.001). However, severity of Cyclone Idai was not a determinant of any nutrition outcome, but gender of household head was a negative predictor of HDDS (β = - 0.734, p = 0.040), and marital status of household head was a positive predictor (β = 0.093, p = 0.016) of FCS.

CONCLUSION: The findings provide a good baseline to inform future programming of food aid activities during disasters. More so, our findings call for evidence-based policies regarding composition of a food aid basket and targeting of beneficiaries. The main strength of this study is that it is the first to investigate the effects of cyclones on food and nutrition security indicators and is based on a large sample size thus making our results generalisable.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Kamel Boulos MN, JP Wilson (2023)

Geospatial techniques for monitoring and mitigating climate change and its effects on human health.

International journal of health geographics, 22(1):2.

This article begins by briefly examining the multitude of ways in which climate and climate change affect human health and wellbeing. It then proceeds to present a quick overview of how geospatial data, methods and tools are playing key roles in the measurement, analysis and modelling of climate change and its effects on human health. Geospatial techniques are proving indispensable for making more accurate assessments and estimates, predicting future trends more reliably, and devising more optimised climate change adaptation and mitigation plans.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Neumann I, Antó JM, Bousquet J, et al (2023)

The impact of climate change on health needs structured evidence assessment and an evidence to action framework to make decisions: A proposal to adopt the GRADE approach.

Journal of clinical epidemiology pii:S0895-4356(23)00006-9 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To highlight how using the GRADE approach to understand the certainty in the evidence about the impact of climate change in health outcomes increases transparency. Also, how GRADE can enhance communication and decisions about adaptation and mitigation strategies.

STUDY DESIGN: We developed a narrative review based on an assessment of exiting systematic reviews adressing the effect of climate change on health outcomes and the impact of mitigation and adaptation strategies.

RESULTS: Adopting structured approaches such as GRADE to tackle the impact of climate change on health may help to: 1. Define the specific question to be addressed; 2. Summarize the evidence in a structured way and assess uncertainty; 3. Provide a systematic framework to move from evidence to action and to offer recommendations of different strength; 4. Provide a systematic way to adapt recommendations to specific settings; and 5. Provide a framework to assess the certainty of modeled evidence.

CONCLUSION: In this article, we describe epidemiologic principles that could be utilized to move decision making in climate change forward.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Adraoui I, B Jaafar (2023)

Sustainable management of water resources and assessment of the vulnerability of Moroccan oases to climate change.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

In the oases of Morocco, climate trends show an increase in average temperatures of 2.2 °C and exacerbated precipitation by + 20% between 2020 and 2050 according to climate change scenarios. The consequences of these changes have a clear decrease in water availability and an increase in water needs. Therefore, analyzing water resource capacity and searching for adequate solutions to water scarcity in oases are essential for developing drylands. In this study, we assess the possible effects of climate change on water scarcity and the oasis ecosystem and its components. The calculated water stress index (WSI) remains very low due to a decrease in the resource impacted by the combined increase in precipitation and temperature. The obtained results indicate that for scenario 1 the WSI varies from 904 to 699 m[3]/inhab/year in 2030 and for scenario 2 the WSI varies between 583 in 2030 and 451 m[3]/inhab/year in 2050. The water availability indicator takes a value in scenario 1 of 75% for Zagora and 50% for Ouarzazate at the horizons 2030 and 2050, then increase in scenario 2 to 89% for Zagora and 78% for Ouarzazate at the horizons2030 and 2050. These results were used to develop the adaptation process, which aims to identify needs, activities, and projects in the short, medium, and long term at the horizons 2030 and 2050. In addition, it could shed light on sustainable development in this region. In addition, this study could be a reference for researchers and a decision-support document for decision-makers to place economic development within an environmental management framework.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Mulyasari G, Trisusilo A, Windirah N, et al (2023)

Assessing Perceptions and Adaptation Responses to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishery on the Northern Coastal of Bengkulu, Indonesia.

TheScientificWorldJournal, 2023:8770267.

Small-scale fisheries are facing significant challenges from climate change. Fishers feel the impact of climate change, which forces them to adapt. We, therefore, analyzed local climatic changes, fishers' perceptions regarding climate change and its impacts, adaptation responses, and determinants. Three decades of meteorological data were analyzed (1985-2020). A total of 300 fishermen were selected using quota sampling and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the descriptive and binary logit regression models to explain the determinants of adaptation responses. The findings indicate that fishers' perceptions of climatic changes align with historical climatic data. Typologies of adaptation responses used in the study showed that time fishing adjustment was the most widely used adaptation option by fishermen. For this reason, fishermen are very active in looking for information about climate change to help them find the right time to go to sea and reduce the risk of climate change. Analysis using the binary logit regression model showed that fishing income, boat power, and climate change perceptions were the significant (p < 0.1) factors significantly influencing adaptation responses. Therefore, to strengthen the adaptation responses in small-scale fisheries, fishers' perceptions should be considered.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Kaniewski D, Marriner N, Morhange C, et al (2023)

Climate change threatens olive oil production in the Levant.

Nature plants [Epub ahead of print].

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is one of the species best adapted to a Mediterranean-type climate[1-8]. Nonetheless, the Mediterranean Basin is deemed to be a climate change 'hotspot' by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change[9,10] because future model projections suggest considerable warming and drying[11,12]. Within this context, new environmental challenges will arise in the coming decades, which will both weaken and threaten olive-growing areas, leading to a loss of productivity and changes in fruit and oil quality[13-15]. Olive growing, a core of the Mediterranean economy, might soon be under stress. To probe the link between climate and olive trees, we here report 5,400 years of olive tree dynamics from the ancient city of Tyre, Lebanon. We show that optimal fruiting scales closely with temperature. Present-day and palaeo data define an optimal annual average temperature of 16.9 ± 0.3 °C for olive flowering that has existed at least since the Neolithic period. According to our projections, during the second half of the twenty-first century, temperature increases in Lebanon will have detrimental consequences on olive tree growth and olive oil production, especially in the country's southern regions, which will become too hot for optimal flowering and fruiting. These data provide a template to understand present and future thresholds of olive production under climate change.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Müller L, Schneider A, Kühl M, et al (2023)

[The Climate Change Challenge: How to get research into society through an online workshop].

Zeitschrift fur Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualitat im Gesundheitswesen pii:S1865-9217(22)00182-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organisation, climate change poses the greatest health threat to humanity. At the same time, an environmentally friendly lifestyle has a positive impact on our health, such as a plant-based diet. In order to counter climate change, society needs to be informed about climate-friendly and health-promoting measures. Therefore, an online workshop was initiated at the Medical Faculty of Ulm. In an accompanying study, it was determined whether this leads to changes in environmental knowledge and awareness among the participants.

METHODS: The online workshop consisted of four 2-hour sessions. Scientific basics on climate change and possible solutions were discussed. Other focuses were on health and the health system as well as environmental psychology and climate change denial. Participants could take part in an anonymous and voluntary online survey before (pretest) and after (posttest) the workshop.

RESULTS: 86 participants took part in the workshop, of whom 24 attended all appointments and completed both surveys. While hardly any changes were observed in the subsection of environmental emotion, perception and behavior, there was a significant increase in environmental knowledge in the posttest. The workshop was evaluated very positively. Furthermore, many participants were motivated to make a personal contribution to climate protection after the workshop.

CONCLUSION: The workshop serves as a good example of how medical scientific findings can be shared at a societal level. The participants already showed a high level of environmental awareness in the pretest, which is why the question remains open as to how people can be sensitized to the (health) threats posed by climate change who do not proactively sign up for such an offer themselves.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Viñals E, Maneja R, Rufí M, et al (2023)

Reviewing social-ecological resilience for agroforestry systems under climate change conditions.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)00378-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Global change is shaping social-ecological systems, threatening both natural and socio-economic ecosystems as a whole. Landscapes with combined nature-human interactions are particularly vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. Therefore, there is a need to find viable and practical solutions for the preservation and recovery of the affected systems. A relevant way to cope with disturbances is to promote social-ecological resilience through the use of strategies targeting the social-ecological system as a whole, in order to ensure an efficient self-reorganization of a landscape. This study presents a research innovation by clarifying the concept of social-ecological resilience while being focused on providing a useful tool for landscape managers. For doing so, the research first defines social-ecological resilience and aims to give a clear idea of its characteristics and application features. Second, it explains the importance of social-ecological resilience for landscapes, focusing on the relationship of humans with nature and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) for biodiversity conservation. Third, it proposes guidelines and measures for the promotion and enhancement of social-ecological resilience. The outcomes of the study show a broad perspective on the concept of social-ecological resilience to understand the necessary adaptation to global change. As findings, this research highlights the significance of nature-human interactions for agroforestry systems, citing also the potential contribution that digital innovation can play for the conservation of those interactions in a sustainable way. Moreover, it uncovers the key role of local communities in building social-ecological resilience through the application of a variety of described strategies that can have a relevant impact and be useful for landscape management practices to face upcoming challenges linked to climate change.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Hensher M (2023)

Climate change, health and sustainable healthcare: The role of health economics.

Health economics [Epub ahead of print].

Healthcare systems around the world are responding with increasing urgency to rapidly evolving ecological crises, most notably climate change. This Perspective considers how health economics and health economists can best contribute to protecting health and building sustainable healthcare systems in the face of these challenges.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

McCoy KD, Toty C, Dupraz M, et al (2023)

Climate change in the Arctic: testing the poleward expansion of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is most strongly felt in the polar regions of the world, with significant impacts for the species that live there. The arrival of parasites and pathogens from more temperate areas may become a significant problem for these populations, but current observations of parasite presence often lack a historical reference of prior absence. Observations in the high Arctic of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae suggested that this species expanded poleward in the last two decades in relation to climate change. As this tick can have a direct impact on the breeding success of its seabird hosts and vectors several pathogens, including Lyme disease spirochaetes, understanding its invasion dynamics is essential for predicting its impact on polar seabird populations. Here, we use population genetic data and host serology to test the hypothesis that I. uriae recently expanded into Svalbard. Both Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were sampled for ticks and blood in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen. Ticks were genotyped using microsatellite and population genetic analyses were performed using data from 14 reference populations from across the tick's northern distribution. In contrast to predictions, the Spitsbergen population showed high genetic diversity and significant differentiation from reference populations, suggesting long-term isolation. Host serology also demonstrated a high exposure rate to Lyme disease spirochaetes (Bbsl). Targeted PCR and sequencing confirmed the presence of Borrelia garinii in a Spitsbergen tick, demonstrating the presence of Lyme disease bacteria in the high Arctic for the first time. Taken together, results contradict the notion that I. uriae has recently expanded into the high Arctic. Rather, this tick has likely been present for some time, maintaining relatively high population sizes and an endemic transmission cycle of Bbsl. Close future observations of population infestation/infection rates will now be necessary to relate epidemiological changes to ongoing climate modifications.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Liu Y, Shen X, Zhang J, et al (2023)

Spatiotemporal variation in vegetation phenology and its response to climate change in marshes of Sanjiang Plain, China.

Ecology and evolution, 13(1):e9755.

Sanjiang Plain is the largest marsh distribution area of China, and marshes in this region significantly affect regional carbon cycle and biodiversity protection. The vegetation phenology of marsh significantly affects the energy exchange and carbon cycle in that region. Under the influence of global climatic change, identifying the changes in phenology and their responses to climatic variation in marshes of Sanjiang Plain is essential for predicting the carbon stocks of marsh ecosystem in that region. Using climate and NDVI data, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variations in the start (SOS), end (EOS), and length (LOS) of vegetation growing season and explored the impacts of climatic variation on vegetation phenology in marshes of Sanjiang Plain. Results showed that the SOS advanced by 0.30 days/a, and EOS delayed by 0.23 days/a, causing LOS to increase significantly (p < .05) by 0.53 days/a over marshes of Sanjiang Plain. Spatially, the large SOS advance and EOS delay resulted in an obvious increasing trend for LOS in northern Sanjiang Plain. The rise of spring and winter temperatures advanced the SOS and increased the LOS, and the rise in temperature in autumn delayed the EOS in marshes of Sanjiang Plain. Our findings highlight the necessity of considering seasonal climatic conditions in simulating marsh vegetation phenology and indicate that the different influences of climatic variation on marsh vegetation phenology in different regions should be fully considered to assess the marsh ecosystem response to climatic change in Sanjiang Plain.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Maier PA, Vandergast AG, AJ Bohonak (2023)

Using landscape genomics to delineate future adaptive potential for climate change in the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus).

Evolutionary applications, 16(1):74-97.

An essential goal in conservation biology is delineating population units that maximize the probability of species persisting into the future and adapting to future environmental change. However, future-facing conservation concerns are often addressed using retrospective patterns that could be irrelevant. We recommend a novel landscape genomics framework for delineating future "Geminate Evolutionary Units" (GEUs) in a focal species: (1) identify loci under environmental selection, (2) model and map adaptive conservation units that may spawn future lineages, (3) forecast relative selection pressures on each future lineage, and (4) estimate their fitness and likelihood of persistence using geo-genomic simulations. Using this process, we delineated conservation units for the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus), a U.S. federally threatened species that is highly vulnerable to climate change. We used a genome-wide dataset, redundancy analysis, and Bayesian association methods to identify 24 candidate loci responding to climatic selection (R [2] ranging from 0.09 to 0.52), after controlling for demographic structure. Candidate loci included genes such as MAP3K5, involved in cellular response to environmental change. We then forecasted future genomic response to climate change using the multivariate machine learning algorithm Gradient Forests. Based on all available evidence, we found three GEUs in Yosemite National Park, reflecting contrasting adaptive optima: YF-North (high winter snowpack with moderate summer rainfall), YF-East (low to moderate snowpack with high summer rainfall), and YF-Low-Elevation (low snowpack and rainfall). Simulations under the RCP 8.5 climate change scenario suggest that the species will decline by 29% over 90 years, but the highly diverse YF-East lineage will be least impacted for two reasons: (1) geographically it will be sheltered from the largest climatic selection pressures, and (2) its standing genetic diversity will promote a faster adaptive response. Our approach provides a comprehensive strategy for protecting imperiled non-model species with genomic data alone and has wide applicability to other declining species.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Ma L, Conradie SR, Crawford CL, et al (2023)

Author Correction: Global patterns of climate change impacts on desert bird communities.

Nature communications, 14(1):407 pii:10.1038/s41467-023-36191-y.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Azeem MI, B Alhafi Alotaibi (2023)

Farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change, and their adaptation behavior to combat climate change in Saudi Arabia.

PloS one, 18(1):e0280838 pii:PONE-D-22-16729.

Climate change threatens the existence of humankind on the planet Earth. Owing to its arid climate and poor natural resources base, Saudi Arabia is particularly susceptible to the negative impact of ongoing climate change. Farmers' understanding of this global phenomenon is extremely important as it may help determine their adaptation behavior. This study was designed to analyze farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change as well as their views about adaptation different obstacles. Data were collected from 80 randomly farmers of the Al-Ahsa region in Eastern Province using structured interviews. The findings revealed that farmers believed that climate change is mainly occurring due to anthropogenic activities. Drought, insects, crop diseases, and heat stress were their main concerns regarding adverse impacts of climate change. Lack of knowledge about adaptation practices, and poor government and financial support are perceived as the major obstacles to adaptation. The results of non-parametric analysis identified no significant differences in farmers' climate change beliefs and concerns, and their views about obstacles to adaptation in relation to their demographic characteristics. Based on the findings, we suggest that capacity building programs should be undertaken by the government for enhancing the adaptive capacity of the farmers as well the provision of financial incentives wherever deemed necessary for promoting the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices and building a resilient national food system.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Skinner MK (2023)

Environmental epigenetics and climate change.

Environmental epigenetics, 9(1):dvac028.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Johnson TF, Isaac NJB, Paviolo A, et al (2023)

Socioeconomic factors predict population changes of large carnivores better than climate change or habitat loss.

Nature communications, 14(1):74.

Land-use and climate change have been linked to changes in wildlife populations, but the role of socioeconomic factors in driving declines, and promoting population recoveries, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we evaluate potential drivers of population changes observed in 50 species of some of the world's most charismatic and functionally important fauna-large mammalian carnivores. Our results reveal that human socioeconomic development is more associated with carnivore population declines than habitat loss or climate change. Rapid increases in socioeconomic development are linked to sharp population declines, but, importantly, once development slows, carnivore populations have the potential to recover. The context- and threshold-dependent links between human development and wildlife population health are challenges to the achievement of the UN Sustainable development goals.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Thasneem S A, Thampi SG, CN R (2023)

Uncertainties in future monsoon flow predictions in the context of projected climate change: A study of the Chaliyar River Basin.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)00093-2 [Epub ahead of print].

A major part of the annual rainfall in most parts of India is received during the monsoon. The Chaliyar River Basin in the state of Kerala is no exception with more than 85% of the annual rainfall occurring during the monsoon season. Evidences pointing towards the influence of anthropogenic activities on climate change have been reported from all over the world in recent years. One of the major problems encountered in the projection of future climate is the accumulation of uncertainties arising from different sources. This, in turn, would result in uncertainties in the predicted future streamflows. In this work, uncertainties in the monsoon flow predictions for a future period (2070-2099), stemming from the use of different climate models, hydrological models, and representative concentration pathways are analyzed. Uncertainty due to each of these sources and their interactions are partitioned by performing three-way analysis of variance. Results of the study indicate that the major source of uncertainty in the monsoon flow predictions is uncertainty from the climate models, which is about 83.73% of the total uncertainty in future monsoon flow predictions. Hydrological models account for about 5.38% and RCPs account for about 4.3% of the total uncertainty. About 6.57% is attributed to interactions between these three factors. Evaluation of the uncertainties in future monsoon flow predictions would facilitate informed decision making while formulating strategies for water management in the future.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Fathian M, Bazrafshan O, Jamshidi S, et al (2023)

Impacts of climate change on water footprint components of rainfed and irrigated wheat in a semi-arid environment.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(2):324.

Climate change is one of the biggest environmental challenges that significantly impact water resources and the quantity and quality of agricultural products. Assessment of these impacts during the historical period and under future climate is essential for achieving a sustainable agricultural system in the face of climate change threats and water scarcity. In this research, we evaluated the yield and water footprint of rainfed and irrigated wheat during the historical period (1986-2015) and two future periods (2016 to 2055) in a semi-arid environment in Fars province, Iran. The future climate data was selected from the CanESM2 model outputs (bias-corrected and downscaled using the SDSM model) under the RCP4.5 scenario, and the yield projection was made using the AquaCrop model. Our result showed that for both irrigated and rainfed wheat, the yield significantly increases in southern parts of the study area in future climates, primarily because of an increase in effective precipitation. Other regions will experience a marginal yield decrease or no yield changes (in the case of irrigated wheat). Our assessments of the water footprint of wheat production showed a significant reduction in green and blue water footprints in the southern regions. In other regions, various patterns emerged for irrigated and rainfed wheat, but an overall increase was observed. The southern regions of the study area will be more suitable for wheat production owing to the higher yield and lower water footprint.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Yu P, Xu R, Yang Z, et al (2023)

Cancer and Ongoing Climate Change: Who Are the Most Affected?.

ACS environmental Au, 3(1):5-11.

Cancer has become the leading cause of premature death in many counties in recent decades. Previous studies showed plenty of evidence that control of modifiable risk factors would reduce the cancer burden. Since modifiable risk factors could be eliminated by changing the lifestyles of individuals, a greater uptake of modifiable risk factors is critical to reducing cancer burden and inequality in cancer survival. However, climate change will widen cancer inequities through its complex connections with modifiable risk factors. In this perspective, complex connections between climate change and cancer risks via modifiable risk factors, including abnormal temperature, UV, air pollution, natural disasters, food (diet), water, infections, and inefficient physical activities, have been summarized. The associations between climate change and modifiable risk factors have no doubt expanded the inequities. People who face overlapping modifiable risk factors, but who are unable to change or adapt, are at the highest risk in the climate change-cancer linkage. Though individual actions to avoid exposure to modifiable risk factors have been recommended, limited benefits would be achieved unless the nations strive to ensure the basic needs of the people. No choice makes avoiding exposure to risk factors an empty phrase. Thus, government actions should be taken to reduce the expanded inequities in cancer risks.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Filho WL, Minhas A, Schmook B, et al (2023)

Sustainable development goal 13 and switching priorities: addressing climate change in the context of pandemic recovery efforts.

Environmental sciences Europe, 35(1):6.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had many deep social and economic impacts that go beyond health issues. One consequence is that the pandemic has made it even harder to mobilize the financial resources needed to pursue SDG 13 (Climate Action) as a whole and to fund climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts in particular. This is especially acute in respect of the efforts to achieve the targets set by the Paris Agreement and by the recent decisions in Glasgow. This paper looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated poverty and undermined climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, as a result of the switches in priorities and funding. Using a review of the recent literature, an analysis of international trends, and a survey among climate scientists, it identifies some of the impacts of the pandemic on climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts and discusses their implications. The findings indicate a decrease in funding to climate change research since the pandemic crisis. The bibliometric analysis reveals that a greater emphasis has been placed on the relationship between COVID-19 and poverty when compared to the interrelations between COVID-19 and climate change. Addressing climate change is as urgent now as it was before the pandemic crisis started, and efforts need to be made to upkeep the levels of funding needed to support research in this field.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Nimbs MJ, Wernberg T, Davis TR, et al (2023)

Climate change threatens unique evolutionary diversity in Australian kelp refugia.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1248.

Climate change has driven contemporary decline and loss of kelp forests globally with an accompanying loss of their ecological and economic values. Kelp populations at equatorward-range edges are particularly vulnerable to climate change as these locations are undergoing warming at or beyond thermal tolerance thresholds. Concerningly, these range-edge populations may contain unique adaptive or evolutionary genetic diversity that is vulnerable to warming. We explore haplotype diversity by generating a Templeton-Crandall-Sing (TCS) network analysis of 119 Cytochrome C Oxidase (COI) sequences among four major population groupings for extant and putatively extinct populations only known from herbarium specimens of the dominant Laminarian kelp Ecklonia radiata in the south-western Pacific, a region warming at 2-4 times the global average. Six haplotypes occurred across the region with one being widespread across most populations. Three unique haplotypes were found in a deep-water range-edge population off Moreton Island, Queensland, which likely represents both a contemporary and historic refuge during periods of climatic change. Hindcasting E. radiata cover estimates using extant data, we reveal that this region likely supported the highest kelp cover in eastern Australia during the last glacial maximum. The equatorward range edge, deep-water kelp populations off Moreton Island represent a genetically diverse evolutionary refuge that is currently threatened by warming and requires prompt ex-situ conservation measures.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Stelzner S, Keller G, Gockel I, et al (2023)

[Climate change and (surgical) health in context].

Chirurgie (Heidelberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The impacts of the climate crisis will result in a health crisis in addition to loss of habitats and increasing supply uncertainty. In this context, the health sector and especially surgery are relevant emitters of greenhouse gases, thus contributing to the magnitude of the climate crisis. Many reviews regarding the impacts on human health are available; however, a view from the surgical perspective has so far been underrepresented.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This narrative review summarizes the relevance of climate-related changes for the surgical disciplines based on a literature search.

RESULTS: Immediate impacts are expected by the increasing number of extreme weather events, e.g., floods, droughts and wildfires. In these settings, surgery is a part of the disaster medicine chain but simultaneously the functionality of surgical departments can be impaired or even break down when they are themselves affected by extreme weather events. Heat waves cause an increase in surgical site infections, which may lead to postponement of elective surgery for patients at high risk. Collateral impacts are mirrored by an increase in the incidence of lung and skin cancers, which often need surgical treatment within a multidisciplinary setting. Additionally, there are indirect impacts that are of a very different nature, e.g., inadequate diet which leads to further deterioration of the greenhouse gas footprint of the health sector due to the necessity of bariatric surgical capacities.

CONCLUSION: The climate crisis represents a major challenge in surgery and all other medical disciplines. At the same time is it indispensable that the health sector and therefore surgery, take steps towards a zero emission pathway.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Chattu VK (2022)

"Digital global health diplomacy" for climate change and human security in the Anthropocene.

Health promotion perspectives, 12(3):277-281.

The COVID-19 pandemic has now affected everyone, threatening every aspect of our well-being with over 617597680 confirmed cases, including 6532705 deaths globally. The context of the Anthropocene is the backdrop for the novel, interlinked, systemic, and global threats. Anthropocene is a term proposed to designate the era in which human beings have become predominant drivers of planetary change, drastically altering the planet's biosphere. The concept of global health diplomacy (GHD), which connects the domains of health and international relations, has a critical role in advancing human security. Thus, there is a need for new forms of diplomacy, which is critically important in this complex intermestic and interdependent Anthropocene era, where globalization has inevitably linked nations and population health. This paper introduces, analyzes, and attempts to define "Digital Global Health Diplomacy" (DGHD), which has gained great momentum during this COVID-19 pandemic with concurrent health and human security threats. The application of digital formats to the existing traditional structures for dialogue has become a more popular tool recently. Furthermore, digital means are being used during the COVID-19 pandemic to share the health diplomacy discourse at subnational, supranational, international, regional, and global platforms. DGHD reminds us again of the criticality of this multidisciplinary concept involving the contributions of diplomats, global health specialists, digital technology experts, economists, trade specialists, international law, political scientists, etc., in the global policymaking process. If used effectively by trained global health diplomats through innovative digital platforms, DGHD has a great scope of delivering results faster and has more reach than the traditional approach.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Mogilicherla K, A Roy (2022)

Epigenetic regulations as drivers of insecticide resistance and resilience to climate change in arthropod pests.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:1044980.

Arthropod pests are remarkably capable of rapidly adapting to novel forms of environmental stress, including insecticides and climate change. The dynamic interplay between epigenetics and genetics explains the largely unexplored reality underlying rapid climatic adaptation and the development of insecticide resistance in insects. Epigenetic regulation modulates gene expression by methylating DNA and acetylating histones that play an essential role in governing insecticide resistance and adaptation to climate change. This review summarises and discusses the significance of recent advances in epigenetic regulation that facilitate phenotypic plasticity in insects and their symbiotic microbes to cope with selection pressure implied by extensive insecticide applications and climate change. We also discuss how epigenetic changes are passed on to multiple generations through sexual recombination, which remains enigmatic. Finally, we explain how these epigenetic signatures can be utilized to manage insecticide resistance and pest resilience to climate change in Anthropocene.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Meng G, Rasmussen SK, Christensen CSL, et al (2022)

Molecular breeding of barley for quality traits and resilience to climate change.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:1039996.

Barley grains are a rich source of compounds, such as resistant starch, beta-glucans and anthocyanins, that can be explored in order to develop various products to support human health, while lignocellulose in straw can be optimised for feed in husbandry, bioconversion into bioethanol or as a starting material for new compounds. Existing natural variations of these compounds can be used to breed improved cultivars or integrated with a large number of mutant lines. The technical demands can be in opposition depending on barley's end use as feed or food or as a source of biofuel. For example beta-glucans are beneficial in human diets but can lead to issues in brewing and poultry feed. Barley breeders have taken action to integrate new technologies, such as induced mutations, transgenics, marker-assisted selection, genomic selection, site-directed mutagenesis and lastly machine learning, in order to improve quality traits. Although only a limited number of cultivars with new quality traits have so far reached the market, research has provided valuable knowledge and inspiration for future design and a combination of methodologies to achieve the desired traits. The changes in climate is expected to affect the quality of the harvested grain and it is already a challenge to mitigate the unpredictable seasonal and annual variations in temperature and precipitation under elevated [CO2] by breeding. This paper presents the mutants and encoded proteins, with a particular focus on anthocyanins and lignocellulose, that have been identified and characterised in detail and can provide inspiration for continued breeding to achieve desired grain and straw qualities.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Shiiba N, Singh P, Charan D, et al (2023)

Climate change and coastal resiliency of Suva, Fiji: a holistic approach for measuring climate risk using the climate and ocean risk vulnerability index (CORVI).

Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change, 28(2):9.

UNLABELLED: Coastal cities are under severe threat from the impacts of climate change, such as sea-level rise, extreme weather events, coastal inundation, and ecosystem degradation. It is well known that the ocean, and in particular coastal environments, have been changing at an unprecedented rate, which poses increasing risks to people in small island developing states, such as Fiji. The Greater Suva Urban Area, the capital and largest metropolitan area of Fiji, is expected to be largely impacted by climate-related risks to its socio-economic, cultural, and political positions. In the face of these threats, creating a resilient city that can withstand and adapt to the impacts of climate change and promote sustainable development should be guided by a holistic approach, encompassing stakeholders from the government, the private sector, civil society organizations, and international institutions. This study assesses the risk profile of Suva city using an innovative risk information tool, the climate and ocean risk vulnerability index (CORVI), which applies structured expert judgment to quantify climate-related risks in data-sparse environments. Through comparative quantification of diverse risk factors and narrative analysis, this study identifies three priority areas for Suva's future climate-resilient actions: development of climate risk-informed urban planning, harmonized urban development and natural restoration, and enhancing the climate resilience to the tourism sector.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11027-022-10043-4.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Tofu DA, K Wolka (2023)

Climate change induced a progressive shift of livelihood from cereal towards Khat (Chata edulis) production in eastern Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 9(1):e12790.

Global climate change affects smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa. To cope with the changing situation, farmers employ adaptation strategies such as adjusting their livelihoods. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of climate change on the gradual transition in livelihood from cereal production to Khat plantation in west Harareghe, Ethiopia. Data was gathered through interviews with 273 households, 8, focus groups, and 12 key informants. Descriptive statistics and an econometric model were used to analyze quantitative data, whereas content analysis with step preprocesses was utilized to analyze and report qualitative data. . The farm households responded that climatic extremes are posing severe impacts on soil fertility (80%), crop production (93%), livestock production (91%), water scarcity (92%), and adaptive capacity of the farmers (81%). As a result, about 86% of the farmers' have been putting more emphasis and progressively shifting their livelihood from cereal to Khat (Chata edulis) crop plantation. Asides from the shrinking livelihood due to climatic shocks, high market access with better price and profitability, drought and water scarcity tolerance, ability to grow in degraded land, suitability for intercropping and three to five times harvest in a year are mentioned as the blessings attracted farmers' to shift to Khat production. To reduce susceptibility to climate change impacts, approximately 81%, 78%, and 77% of framers, respectively, used managerial (e.g., intercropping and petty trade), technological (e.g., terracing and improved crop variety), and policy-driven (i.e., productive safety net program) strategies. In addition to this, agro-ecology, yield reduction, wealth, perceived on set of rain, soil infertility, access to markets and credit, institutional participation, land size, dependency ratio, irrigation, and access to early warning systems were found to significantly influence the adoption decision of farmers in the study area. Therefore, policy makers and planners are advised to design techniques to manage climate-induced extreme episodes and produce area specific strategies capable to increase the productivity of cereal crop and livestock.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Li H, Liang Y, Dong L, et al (2022)

Predicting global potential distribution of Peromyscopsylla hesperomys and Orchopeas sexdentatus and risk assessment for invading China under climate change.

Frontiers in public health, 10:1018327.

BACKGROUND: Peromyscopsylla hesperomys and Orchopeas sexdentatus are regarded to be representative plague vectors in the United States. The incidence of plague is rising globally, possibly due to climate change and environmental damage. Environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation have a significant impact on the temporal and spatial distribution of plague vectors.

METHODS: Maximum entropy models (MaxEnt) were utilized to predict the distributions of these two fleas and their trends into the future. The main environmental factors influencing the distribution of these two fleas were analyzed. A risk assessment system was constructed to calculate the invasion risk values of the species.

RESULTS: Temperature has a significant effect on the distribution of the potentially suitable areas for P. hesperomys and O. sexdentatus. They have the potential to survive in suitable areas of China in the future. The risk assessment system indicated that the risk level for the invasion of these two species into China was moderate.

CONCLUSION: In order to achieve early detection, early interception, and early management, China should perfect its monitoring infrastructure and develop scientific prevention and control strategies to prevent the invasion of foreign flea vectors.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Sah SS, Maulud KNA, Karim OA, et al (2023)

Extensive assessment of climate change impacts on coastal zone paddy growth using multispectral analysis and hydrodynamic modeling.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)00200-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming has led to sea levels raise (SLRs) and Malaysia is no exception to this problem. Especially for low-lying coastal areas including the Kuala Kedah area which is active in agricultural and fisheries activities. Farmers have had to bear up to 75 % of yield losses due to seawater breaches since 2016. Therefore, this study is designed to assess the impact of seawater encroachment on water quality through spatial technology approaches and hydrodynamic modeling related to the growth of paddy trees. The study was conducted during two different paddy cultivation seasons namely Season 1-2019 and Season 2-2019 which take place in the southwest and northeast monsoon in Kuala Kedah, Malaysia. The study involved three phases, which are the assessment of salinity and pH concentration levels, the assessment of the health of paddy crops through multispectral image analysis involving three plant indices (VI), namely Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Blue Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (BNDVI) and Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE), and finally, the assessment of the impact of SLR through the numerical method in MIKE 21 for hydrodynamic modeling considering two conditions that are without mitigation factor (K1) and with existing mitigating factor (K2). According to the findings, the salinity concentration trend is decreasing across the growth stage during Season 1-2019, whereas it is the contrary during Season 2-2019. It was discovered that during the study period for both tidal events, 73 % of the 44 sampling points in Season 1-2019, as opposed to just 3 % in Season 2-2019, were categorized as Class 4 and Class 5. Even though there were fluctuations throughout the observation, the pH reading is still within the allowed range of 6.5 to 9.0 for the estuary area. Following that, the ANOVA analysis proved that salinity concentration a statistically significant difference with tidal variations and pH levels. Moreover, the multispectral image analysis findings revealed that the VI value was correlated with both the yield and the health of the rice crop, with R-square values of 0.842 compared to 0.706 and 0.575 for NDVI and BNDVI values, respectively. It confirmed that NDRE granted a more accurate and reliable measurements. Additionally, the hydrodynamic simulation results demonstrated that, if the mitigation factors were considered in the modeling, overflow seawater to the mainland could be reduced by up to 20 %, reducing the impact of coastal flooding on the local area as well as the nearby rice cultivation area. Ultimately, these three elements-water quality, vegetation index, and hydrodynamic modeling-can assist in identifying the underlying cause of the problem and develop short and long-term solutions.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Ward N, Nichols M, Moodie M, et al (2023)

Is climate change action present in obesity prevention policy?.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Pollastri S, Velikova V, Castaldini M, et al (2023)

Isoprene-Emitting Tobacco Plants Are Less Affected by Moderate Water Deficit under Future Climate Change Scenario and Show Adjustments of Stress-Related Proteins in Actual Climate.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2): pii:plants12020333.

Isoprene-emitting plants are better protected against thermal and oxidative stresses, which is a desirable trait in a climate-changing (drier and warmer) world. Here we compared the ecophysiological performances of transgenic isoprene-emitting and wild-type non-emitting tobacco plants during water stress and after re-watering in actual environmental conditions (400 ppm of CO2 and 28 °C of average daily temperature) and in a future climate scenario (600 ppm of CO2 and 32 °C of average daily temperature). Furthermore, we intended to complement the present knowledge on the mechanisms involved in isoprene-induced resistance to water deficit stress by examining the proteome of transgenic isoprene-emitting and wild-type non-emitting tobacco plants during water stress and after re-watering in actual climate. Isoprene emitters maintained higher photosynthesis and electron transport rates under moderate stress in future climate conditions. However, physiological resistance to water stress in the isoprene-emitting plants was not as marked as expected in actual climate conditions, perhaps because the stress developed rapidly. In actual climate, isoprene emission capacity affected the tobacco proteomic profile, in particular by upregulating proteins associated with stress protection. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis is related to metabolic changes at the gene and protein levels involved in the activation of general stress defensive mechanisms of plants.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Grigore MN, O Vicente (2023)

Wild Halophytes: Tools for Understanding Salt Tolerance Mechanisms of Plants and for Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2): pii:plants12020221.

Halophytes, wild plants adapted to highly saline natural environments, represent extremely useful-and, at present, underutilised-experimental systems with which to investigate the mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants at the anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. They can also provide biotechnological tools for the genetic improvement of salt tolerance in our conventional crops, such as salt tolerance genes or salt-induced promoters. Furthermore, halophytes may constitute the basis of sustainable 'saline agriculture' through commercial cultivation after some breeding to improve agronomic traits. All these issues are relevant in the present context of climate emergency, as soil salinity is-together with drought-the most critical environmental factor in reducing crop yield worldwide. In fact, climate change represents the most serious challenge for agricultural production and food security in the near future. Several of the topics mentioned above-mainly referring to basic studies on salt tolerance mechanisms-are addressed in the articles published within this Special Issue.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Agostoni C, Baglioni M, La Vecchia A, et al (2023)

Interlinkages between Climate Change and Food Systems: The Impact on Child Malnutrition-Narrative Review.

Nutrients, 15(2): pii:nu15020416.

The pandemics of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change represent severe threats to child health. They co-occur; interact with each other to produce sequelae at biological, psychological, or social levels; and share common underlying drivers. In this paper, we review the key issues concerning child diet and nutritional status, focusing on the interactions with climate and food systems. Inadequate infant and young child feeding practices, food insecurity, poverty, and limited access to health services are the leading causes of malnutrition across generations. Food system industrialization and globalization lead to a double burden of malnutrition, whereby undernutrition (i.e., stunting, wasting, and deficiencies in micronutrients) coexists with overweight and obesity, as well as to harmful effects on climate. Climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic are worsening child malnutrition, impacting the main underlying causes (i.e., household food security, dietary diversity, nutrient quality, and access to maternal and child health), as well as the social, economic, and political factors determining food security and nutrition (livelihoods, income, infrastructure resources, and political context). Existing interventions have the potential to be further scaled-up to concurrently address undernutrition, overnutrition, and climate change by cross-cutting education, agriculture, food systems, and social safety nets. Several stakeholders must work co-operatively to improve global sustainable nutrition.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Sattler DN, Graham JM, Whippy A, et al (2023)

Developing a Climate Change Risk Perception Model in the Philippines and Fiji: Posttraumatic Growth Plays Central Role.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(2): pii:ijerph20021518.

BACKGROUND: This two-study paper developed a climate change risk perception model that considers the role of posttraumatic growth (i.e., a reappraisal of life priorities and deeper appreciation of life), resource loss, posttraumatic stress, coping, and social support.

METHOD: In Study 1, participants were 332 persons in the Philippines who experienced Super Typhoon Haiyan. In Study 2, participants were 709 persons in Fiji who experienced Cyclone Winston. Climate change can increase the size and destructive potential of cyclones and typhoons as a result of warming ocean temperatures, which provides fuel for these storms. Participants completed measures assessing resource loss, posttraumatic stress, coping, social support, posttraumatic growth, and climate change risk perception.

RESULTS: Structural equation modeling was used to develop a climate change risk perception model with data collected in the Philippines and to confirm the model with data collected in Fiji. The model showed that climate change risk perception was influenced by resource loss, posttraumatic stress, coping activation, and posttraumatic growth. The model developed in the Philippines was confirmed with data collected in Fiji.

CONCLUSIONS: Posttraumatic growth played a central role in climate change risk perception. Public health educational efforts should focus on vividly showing how climate change threatens life priorities and that which gives life meaning and can result in loss, stress, and hardship. Disaster response organizations may also use this approach to promote preparedness for disaster threats.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

van Baal K, Stiel S, P Schulte (2023)

Public Perceptions of Climate Change and Health-A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(2): pii:ijerph20021464.

Climate change is inseparably linked to human health. Although there is growing awareness of the threats to human health caused by climate change, it remains unclear how the German population perceives the relevance of climate change and its health consequences. Between May and September 2022, German residents were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey that explored three content areas: (1) the relevance of climate change, (2) health risks in connection with climate change and (3) collective and individual options for action against climate change. A total of 697 full data sets were collected for analysis (72% female, 51% ≥55 years old). The majority of participants agreed that human-induced climate change exists (85%), and that it has an impact on human health (83%). They also perceived the global population to be more strongly impacted by climate change than themselves (89% versus 68%). Most participants (76%) claimed to personally contribute to climate protection and 23% felt that their city or council contributed to climate protection. Although the majority of participants saw climate change as a threat to human health, they perceived other population groups to be most strongly affected. Cognitive dissonance might explain this lack of individual concern and one approach to addressing such distorted perceptions might be the dissemination of appropriate risk communication with health professionals involved in the communication.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Corvetto JF, Helou AY, Dambach P, et al (2023)

A Systematic Literature Review of the Impact of Climate Change on the Global Demand for Psychiatric Services.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(2): pii:ijerph20021190.

Climate Change (CC) imposes important global health risks, including on mental health (MH). They are related mostly to psychological suffering caused by climate-related events and to the heat-vulnerability caused by psychiatric disorders. This growing burden may press MH services worldwide, increasing demand on public and private systems in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. According to PRISMA, two independent reviewers searched four databases for papers published before May 2022 that associated climate-related events with healthcare demand for psychiatric conditions. Of the 7432 papers retrieved, we included 105. Only 29 were carried out in low- and middle-income countries. Twelve related the admission numbers to (i) extreme events, while 93 to (ii) meteorological factors-mostly heat. Emergency visits and hospitalizations were significantly higher during hot periods for MH disorders, especially until lag 5-7. Extreme events also caused more consultations. Suicide (completed or attempted), substance misuse, schizophrenia, mood, organic and neurotic disorders, and mortality were strongly affected by CC. This high healthcare demand is evidence of the burden patients may undergo. In addition, public and private services may face a shortage of financial and human resources. Finally, the increased use of healthcare facilities, in turn, intensifies greenhouse gas emissions, representing a self-enforcing cycle for CC. Further research is needed to better clarify how extreme events affect MH services and, in addition, if services in low- and middle-income countries are more intensely demanded by CC, as compared to richer countries.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Wang F, Zhan C, L Zou (2023)

Risk of Crop Yield Reduction in China under 1.5 °C and 2 °C Global Warming from CMIP6 Models.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2): pii:foods12020413.

Warmer temperatures significantly influence crop yields, which are a critical determinant of food supply and human well-being. In this study, a probabilistic approach based on bivariate copula models was used to investigate the dependence (described by joint distribution) between crop yield and growing season temperature (TGS) in the major producing provinces of China for three staple crops (i.e., rice, wheat, and maize). Based on the outputs of 12 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) under Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 5-8.5, the probability of yield reduction under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming was estimated, which has great implications for agricultural risk management. Results showed that yield response to TGS varied with crop and region, with the most vulnerable being rice in Sichuan, wheat in Sichuan and Gansu, and maize in Shandong, Liaoning, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, and Hebei. Among the selected five copulas, Archimedean/elliptical copulas were more suitable to describe the joint distribution between TGS and yield in most rice-/maize-producing provinces. The probability of yield reduction was greater in vulnerable provinces than in non-vulnerable provinces, with maize facing a higher risk of warming-driven yield loss than rice and wheat. Compared to the 1.5 °C global warming, an additional 0.5 °C warming would increase the yield loss risk in vulnerable provinces by 2-17%, 1-16%, and 3-17% for rice, wheat, and maize, respectively. The copula-based model proved to be an effective tool to provide probabilistic estimates of yield reduction due to warming and can be applied to other crops and regions. The results of this study demonstrated the importance of keeping global warming within 1.5 °C to mitigate the yield loss risk and optimize agricultural decision-making in vulnerable regions.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Swedan NH (2022)

Thermodynamic Analysis of Climate Change.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 25(1): pii:e25010072.

The climate change assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change is based on a radiative forcing methodology, and thermodynamic analysis of the climate does not appear to be utilized. Although equivalent to the radiative model, the thermodynamic model captures details of thermodynamic interactions among the earth's subsystems. Carbon dioxide emission returns the net chemical energy exchanged with the climate system to the surface of the earth as heat. The heat is equal to the sum of the heat produced by fossil fuels and deforestation minus the heat of surface greening. Accordingly, trends of climate parameters are calculated. Nearly 51.40% of carbon dioxide production has been sequestered by green matter, and surface greening is approximately 3.0% per decade. Through 2020, the heat removed by surface greening has approached 12.84% of the total heat. Deforestation on the other hand has contributed nearly 22.85% of the total heat of carbon conversion to carbon dioxide. The increase in sea and average land surface air temperatures are 0.80 °C and 1.39 °C, respectively. Present annual sea level rise is nearly 3.35 mm, and the calculated reductions in the temperature and geopotential height of the lower stratosphere are about -0.66 °C and -67.24 m per decade, respectively. Unlike natural sequestration of carbon dioxide, artificial sequestration is not a photosynthetic heat sink process and does not appear to be a viable methodology for mitigating climate change.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Dvoretsky VG, Vodopianova VV, AS Bulavina (2023)

Effects of Climate Change on Chlorophyll a in the Barents Sea: A Long-Term Assessment.

Biology, 12(1): pii:biology12010119.

The Arctic climate strongly affects phytoplankton production and biomass through several mechanisms, including warming, sea ice retreat, and global atmospheric processes. In order to detect the climatic changes in phytoplankton biomass, long-term variability of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) was estimated in situ with the changes in the surface sea temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters during the period of 1984-2021. Spatial differences were detected in SST, SSS, and Chl-a. Chl-a increased parallel to SST in the summer-autumn and spring periods, respectively. Chl-a peaks were found near the ice edge and frontal zones in the spring season, while the highest measures were observed in the coastal regions during the summer seasons. SST and Chl-a demonstrated increasing trends with greater values during 2010-2020. Generalized additive models (GAMs) revealed that SST and Chl-a were positively related with year. Climatic and oceanographic variables explained significant proportions of the Chl-a fluctuations, with six predictors (SST, annual North Atlantic Oscillation index, temperature/salinity anomalies at the Kola Section, and sea ice extent in April and September) being the most important. GAMs showed close associations between increasing Chl-a and a decline in sea ice extent and rising water temperature. Our data may be useful for monitoring the Arctic regions during the era of global changes and provide a basis for future research on factors driving phytoplankton assemblages and primary productivity in the Barents Sea.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Daly EZ, Gerlich HS, Frenot Y, et al (2023)

Climate Change Helps Polar Invasives Establish and Flourish: Evidence from Long-Term Monitoring of the Blowfly Calliphora vicina.

Biology, 12(1): pii:biology12010111.

The isolated sub-Antarctic islands are of major ecological interest because of their unique species diversity and long history of limited human disturbance. However, since the presence of Europeans, these islands and their sensitive biota have been under increasing pressure due to human activity and associated biological invasions. In such delicate ecosystems, biological invasions are an exceptional threat that may be further amplified by climate change. We examined the invasion trajectory of the blowfly Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy 1830). First introduced in the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands in the 1970s, it is thought to have persisted only in sheltered microclimates for several decades. Here, we show that, in recent decades, C. vicina has been able to establish itself more widely. We combine experimental thermal developmental data with long-term ecological and meteorological monitoring to address whether warming conditions help explain its current success and dynamics in the eastern Kerguelen Islands. We found that warming temperatures and accumulated degree days could explain the species' phenological and long-term invasion dynamics, indicating that climate change has likely assisted its establishment. This study represents a unique long-term view of a polar invader and stresses the rapidly increasing susceptibility of cold regions to invasion under climate change.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Adhikari P, Lee YH, Poudel A, et al (2023)

Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on the Habitat Distribution of Parthenium&nbsp;hysterophorus around the World and in South Korea.

Biology, 12(1): pii:biology12010084.

The global climate change, including increases in temperature and precipitation, may exacerbate the invasion by P. hysterophorus. Here, MaxEnt modeling was performed to predict P. hysterophorus distribution worldwide and in South Korea under the current and future climate global climate changes, including increases in temperature and precipitation. Under the current climate, P. hysterophorus was estimated to occupy 91.26%, 83.26%, and 62.75% of the total land area of Australia, South America, and Oceania, respectively. However, under future climate scenarios, the habitat distribution of P. hysterophorus would show the greatest change in Europe (56.65%) and would extend up to 65°N by 2081-2100 in South Korea, P. hysterophorus currently potentially colonizing 2.24% of the land area, particularly in six administrative divisions. In the future, P. hysterophorus would spread rapidly, colonizing all administrative divisions, except Incheon, by 2081-2100. Additionally, the southern and central regions of South Korea showed greater habitat suitability than the northern region. These findings suggest that future climate change will increase P. hysterophorus distribution both globally and locally. Therefore, effective control and management strategies should be employed around the world and in South Korea to restrict the habitat expansion of P. hysterophorus.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Sapkota A, P Kotanko (2023)

Climate change-fuelled natural disasters and chronic kidney disease: a call for action.

Nature reviews. Nephrology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Richardson LM, Thaker J, DC Holmes (2023)

Comparative analysis of Australian climate change and COVID-19 vaccine audience segments shows climate skeptics can be vaccine enthusiasts.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1118.

Denialism and the spreading of misinformation have occurred regarding both climate change and COVID-19, delaying uptake of urgent actions. Audience segmentation analysis identifies audience subgroups likely to have similar responses to messaging, and is a valuable tool for effective campaigns encouraging critical behaviors in both contexts. This study compared audience segmentations based on a representative sample of 1054 Australians. One segmentation was based on the 'Global Warming's Six Americas' online SASSY tool. The second segmentation applied the Theory of Planned Behavior and found five distinct COVID-19 vaccine segments. Both studies showed those most concerned and those most skeptical in the climate change segmentation tended to be in more enthusiastic COVID-19 vaccine segments, while those in the center on climate change were more skeptical on COVID-19 vaccines. Differences identified relating to age, gender, and political views may be explained by a combination of the specific nature and histories of these issues. These findings have implications for effective communication on science and health issues across diverse disciplines.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Ballarin AS, Sone JS, Gesualdo GC, et al (2023)

CLIMBra - Climate Change Dataset for Brazil.

Scientific data, 10(1):47.

General Circulation and Earth System Models are the most advanced tools for investigating climate responses to future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions, playing the role of projecting the climate throughout the century. Nevertheless, climate projections are model-dependent and may show systematic biases, requiring a bias correction for any further application. Here, we provide a dataset based on an ensemble of 19 bias-corrected CMIP6 climate models projections for the Brazilian territory based on the SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios. We used the Quantile Delta Mapping approach to bias-correct daily time-series of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, solar net radiation, near-surface wind speed, and relative humidity. The bias-corrected dataset is available for both historical (1980-2013) and future (2015-2100) simulations at a 0.25° × 0.25° spatial resolution. Besides the gridded product, we provide area-averaged projections for 735 catchments included in the Catchments Attributes for Brazil (CABra) dataset. The dataset provides important variables commonly used in environmental and hydroclimatological studies, paving the way for the development of high-quality research on climate change impacts in Brazil.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Ivanescu LM, Bodale I, Grigore-Hristodorescu S, et al (2023)

The Risk of Emerging of Dengue Fever in Romania, in the Context of Global Warming.

Tropical medicine and infectious disease, 8(1): pii:tropicalmed8010065.

(1) Background: Few studies to date have assessed the influences induced by climate change on the spatial distribution and population abundance of Aedes albopictus using the latest climate scenarios. In this study, we updated the current distribution of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes and evaluated the changes in their distribution under future climate conditions, as well as the risk of dengue virus emergence in Romania. (2) Methods: Under the two scenarios: High scenario (HS) when no drastic measures to reduce the effects of global warming will be taken, or they are not effective and low scenario (LS) when very stringent greenhouse control measures will be implemented. (3) Results: The results estimate an increase in temperatures in Romania of up to 2.6 °C in HS and up to 0.4 °C in LS, with an increase in the period of virus replication within the vector from June to October in HS and from May to September in LS. Moreover, in 2022, Ae. albopictus was reported in a new county, where it was not identified at the last monitoring in 2020. (4) Conclusions: The rapid spread of this invasive species and the need to implement monitoring and control programs for the Aedes population in Romania are emphasized.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Borges FO, Lopes VM, Santos CF, et al (2022)

Impacts of Climate Change on the Biogeography of Three Amnesic Shellfish Toxin Producing Diatom Species.

Toxins, 15(1): pii:toxins15010009.

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are considered one of the main risks for marine ecosystems and human health worldwide. Climate change is projected to induce significant changes in species geographic distribution, and, in this sense, it is paramount to accurately predict how it will affect toxin-producing microalgae. In this context, the present study was intended to project the potential biogeographical changes in habitat suitability and occurrence distribution of three key amnesic shellfish toxin (AST)-producing diatom species (i.e., Pseudo-nitzschia australis, P. seriata, and P. fraudulenta) under four different climate change scenarios (i.e., RCP-2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) up to 2050 and 2100. For this purpose, we applied species distribution models (SDMs) using four abiotic predictors (i.e., sea surface temperature, salinity, current velocity, and bathymetry) in a MaxEnt framework. Overall, considerable contraction and potential extirpation were projected for all species at lower latitudes together with projected poleward expansions into higher latitudes, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The present study aims to contribute to the knowledge on the impacts of climate change on the biogeography of toxin-producing microalgae species while at the same time advising the correct environmental management of coastal habitats and ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Zhao H, Xian X, Liang T, et al (2023)

Constructing an Ensemble Model and Niche Comparison for the Management Planning of Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer Phoracantha semipunctata under Climate Change.

Insects, 14(1): pii:insects14010084.

Phoracantha semipunctata is a destructive invasive alien forest pest worldwide. It primarily damages the eucalyptus via adults, affecting almost all parts of the eucalyptus. Its larvae develop in almost all major tissues of the plant. Phoracantha semipunctata spreads both via the migration of adults and global trade in intercontinental translocation. Currently, this pest has spread to six continents worldwide, except Antarctica, resulting in substantial economic losses. Based on global occurrence data and environmental variables, the potential global geographical distribution of P. semipunctata was predicted using an ensemble model. The centroid shift, overlap, unfilling, and expansion scheme were selected to assess niche dynamics during the global invasion process. Our results indicated that the AUC and TSS values of the ensemble model were 0.993 and 0.917, respectively, indicating the high prediction accuracy of the model. The distribution pattern of P. semipunctata is primarily attributed to the temperature seasonality (bio4), mean temperature of the warmest quarter (bio10), and human influence index variables. The potential geographical distribution of P. semipunctata is primarily in western and southwestern Asia, western Europe, western and southern North America, southern South America, southern Africa, and eastern and southern Oceania. The potential geographical distribution of P. semipunctata showed a downward trend in the 2030s and the 2050s. The distribution centroid showed a general tendency to shift southward from the near-current to future climate. Phoracantha semipunctata has largely conserved its niche during the global invasion process. More attention should be paid to the early warning, prevention, and control of P. semipunctata in the countries and regions where it has not yet become invasive.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Régnier B, Legrand J, Calatayud PA, et al (2023)

Developmental Differentiations of Major Maize Stemborers Due to Global Warming in Temperate and Tropical Climates.

Insects, 14(1): pii:insects14010051.

While many insects are in decline due to global warming, the effect of rising temperatures on crop insect pests is uncertain. A capacity to understand future changes in crop pest populations remains critical to ensure food security. Using temperature-dependent mathematical models of the development of four maize stemborers in temperate and tropical regions, we evaluated the potential impacts of different climate change scenarios on development time. While recognizing the limitations of the temperature-dependent development rate approach, we found that global warming could either be beneficial or detrimental to pest development, depending on the optimal temperature for the development of the species and scenarios of climate change. Expected responses range from null development to 1.5 times faster development than expected today. These results suggest that in the medium term, the studied species could benefit from global warming with an accelerated development, while in the long term, their development could either be delayed or accelerated, which may impact their dynamics with implications on maize cultivation.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Laporta GZ, Potter AM, Oliveira JFA, et al (2023)

Global Distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a Climate Change Scenario of Regional Rivalry.

Insects, 14(1): pii:insects14010049.

Arboviral mosquito vectors are key targets for the surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases worldwide. In recent years, changes to the global distributions of these species have been a major research focus, aimed at predicting outbreaks of arboviral diseases. In this study, we analyzed a global scenario of climate change under regional rivalry to predict changes to these species' distributions over the next century. Using occurrence data from VectorMap and environmental variables (temperature and precipitation) from WorldClim v. 2.1, we first built fundamental niche models for both species with the boosted regression tree modelling approach. A scenario of climate change on their fundamental niche was then analyzed. The shared socioeconomic pathway scenario 3 (regional rivalry) and the global climate model Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model v. 4.1 (GFDL-ESM4.1; gfdl.noaa.gov) were utilized for all analyses, in the following time periods: 2021-2040, 2041-2060, 2061-2080, and 2081-2100. Outcomes from these analyses showed that future climate change will affect Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus distributions in different ways across the globe. The Northern Hemisphere will have extended Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus distributions in future climate change scenarios, whereas the Southern Hemisphere will have the opposite outcomes. Europe will become more suitable for both species and their related vector-borne diseases. Loss of suitability in the Brazilian Amazon region further indicated that this tropical rainforest biome will have lower levels of precipitation to support these species in the future. Our models provide possible future scenarios to help identify locations for resource allocation and surveillance efforts before a significant threat to human health emerges.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Zhao JQ, Gao T, Du JJ, et al (2023)

Future Trends in Obolodiplosis robiniae Distribution across Eurasian Continent under Global Climate Change.

Insects, 14(1): pii:insects14010048.

Obolodiplosis robiniae was discovered in Eurasia at the beginning of the 21st century. In this study, we explore the present and future (in the years 2050 and 2070) trends in the potential distribution of O. robiniae in Eurasia under diverse climate change scenarios based on a maximum entropy model. Our findings indicated that the current potential distribution area of O. robiniae is within the range of 21°34' and 65°39' N in the Eurasian continent. The primary factor controlling the distribution of O. robiniae is temperature. The highly and moderately suitable areas are mainly distributed in the semi-humid and semi-arid regions, which also happen to be the locations where the host black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) grows at its fastest rate. The forecast of the potential distribution area of O. robiniae revealed that the species would benefit from global warming. The region suitable for the habitat of O. robiniae is characterized by a large-scale northward expansion trend and an increase in temperature. This information would help the forestry quarantine departments of Asian and European countries provide early warnings on the probable distribution areas of O. robiniae and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of O. robiniae spread and outbreaks.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Silverstein MR, Segrè D, JM Bhatnagar (2023)

Environmental microbiome engineering for the mitigation of climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental microbiome engineering is emerging as a potential avenue for climate change mitigation. In this process, microbial inocula are introduced to natural microbial communities to tune activities that regulate the long-term stabilization of carbon in ecosystems. In this review, we outline the process of environmental engineering and synthesize key considerations about ecosystem functions to target, means of sourcing microorganisms, strategies for designing microbial inocula, methods to deliver inocula, and the factors that enable inocula to establish within a resident community and modify an ecosystem function target. Recent work, enabled by high-throughput technologies and modeling approaches, indicate that microbial inocula designed from the top down, particularly through directed evolution, may generally have a higher chance of establishing within existing microbial communities than other historical approaches to microbiome engineering. We address outstanding questions about the determinants of inocula establishment and provide suggestions for further research about the possibilities and challenges of environmental microbiome engineering as a tool to combat climate change.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Gatto CR, Williamson SA, RD Reina (2023)

Mitigating the effects of climate change on the nests of sea turtles with artificial irrigation.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

For sea turtles, like many oviparous species, increasing temperatures during development threaten to increase embryonic mortality, alter offspring quality, and potentially create suboptimal primary sex ratios. Various methods are being implemented to mitigate the effects of climate change on reproductive success, but these methods, such as breeding programs, translocations, and shading, are often invasive and expensive. Irrigation is an alternative strategy for cooling nests that, depending on location, can be implemented relatively quickly and cheaply. However, multiple factors, including ambient conditions, nest substrate, and species characteristics can influence irrigation success. Additionally, irrigation can vary in duration, frequency, and the volume of water applied to nests, which influences the cooling achieved and embryonic survival. Thus, it is critical to understand how to maximize cooling and manage risks before implementing irrigation as a nest-cooling strategy. We reviewed the literature on nest irrigation to examine whether artificial irrigation is feasible as a population management tool. Key factors that affected cooling were the volume of water applied and the frequency of applications. Embryonic responses varied with species, ambient conditions, and the timing of irrigation during development. Nest inundation was the key risk to a successful irrigation regime. Future irrigation regimes must identify clear targets, either primary or adult sex ratios, that maximize population viability. Monitoring population responses and adjusting the irrigation regime in response to population characteristics will be critical. Most studies reported on the manipulation of only 1 or 2 variables, further research is required to understand how altering multiple factors in an irrigation regime influences the cooling achieved and embryonic responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Ma L, Hou C, Jiang ZW, et al (2023)

Divergent effects of climate change on the egg-laying opportunity of species in cold and warm regions.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate warming can substantially impact embryonic development and juvenile growth in oviparous species. Estimating the overall impacts of climate warming on oviparous reproduction is difficult because egg-laying events happen throughout the reproductive season. Successful egg-laying requires the completion of embryonic development as well as hatching timing conducive to offspring survival and energy accumulation. We propose a new metric - egg-laying opportunity (EO) - to estimate the annual hours during which a clutch of freshly laid eggs yields surviving offspring that store sufficient energy for overwintering. We estimated the EO within the distribution of a model species, Sceloporus undulatus, under recent climate condition and a climate-warming scenario by combining microclimate data, developmental functions, and biophysical models. We predicted that EO will decline as the climate warms at 74.8% of 11407 sites. Decreasing hatching success and offspring energy accounted for more lost EO hours (72.6% and 72.9%) than the occurrence of offspring heat stress (59.9%). Nesting deeper (at a depth of 12 cm) may be a more effective behavioral adjustment for retaining EO than using shadier (50% shade) nests because the former fully mitigated the decline of EO under the considered warming scenario at more sites (66.1%) than the latter (28.3%). We advocate for the use of EO in predicting the impacts of climate warming on oviparous animals because it encapsulates the integrative impacts of climate warming on all stages of reproductive life-history. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Baral K, Adhikari B, Bhandari S, et al (2023)

Impact of climate change on distribution of common leopard (Panthera pardus) and its implication on conservation and conflict in Nepal.

Heliyon, 9(1):e12807.

Climate change is projected to create alterations in species distributions over the planet. The common leopard (Panthera pardus) serves an important ecological function as a member of the big carnivore guild, but little is known about how climate change may affect their distribution. In this study, we use MaxEnt to simulate the geographic distributions by illustrating potential present and future ranges of common leopard by utilizing presence records alongside important topographic and bioclimatic variables based on two shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5) scenarios. The goals of this study was to look into possible distribution ranges of common leopards due to climate change, as well as explore the implications for conservation and potential conflict with humans. At present, 4% of Nepal was found to be highly suitable for common leopards, 43% suitable, 19% marginally suitable, and 34% unsuitable. A large portion of the climatically suitable habitat was confined to non-protected areas, and the majority of the highly suitable habitat was encompassed by forest land, followed by agricultural areas. Elevation, mean temperature of driest quarter, annual precipitation, and precipitation seasonality were the variables influencing habitat suitability for the common leopard. A significant increase in marginally suitable habitat was observed in the high mountain region, indicating a shift of habitat in upper elevation areas due to the effects of climate change. We recommend timely management of these potential habitats to expand the range of this vulnerable species. At the same time, a combination of expanding new habitats and poor management practices could escalate human-leopard conflict. Therefore, further study on the impact of climate change on the distribution of prey species and proper habitat management techniques should be prioritized to mitigate conflicts.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )