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Bibliography on: Climate Change

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 21 Sep 2021 at 01:51 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: "climate change"[TITLE] or "global warming"[TITLE] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-09-20

Mendoza-Ponce A, Corona-Núñez RO, Nava LF, et al (2021)

Impacts of land management and climate change in a developing and socioenvironmental challenging transboundary region.

Journal of environmental management, 300:113748 pii:S0301-4797(21)01810-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Land-use/cover change is the major cause of terrestrial ecosystem degradation. However, its impacts will be exacerbated due to climate change and population growth, driving agricultural expansion because of higher demand of food and lower agricultural yields in some tropical areas. International strategies aimed to mitigate impacts of climate change and land use-cover change are challenging in developing regions. This study aims to evaluate alternatives to minimize the impacts of these threats under socioeconomic trajectories, in one of the biologically richest regions in Guatemala and Mexico. This study is located at the Usumacinta watershed, a transboundary region that shares a common history, with similar biophysical properties and economic constraints which have led to large land use/cover changes. To understand the impacts on deforestation and carbon emissions of different land-management practices, we developed three scenarios (1): business as usual (BAU), (2) a reducing emissions scenario aimed to reduce deforestation and degradation (REDD+), and (3) zero-deforestation from 2030 onwards based on the international commitments. Our results suggest that by 2050, natural land cover might reduce 22.3 and 12.2% of its extent under the BAU and REDD + scenarios, respectively in comparison with 2012. However, the zero-deforestation scenario shows that by 2050, it would be possible to avoid losing 22.4% of the forested watershed (1.7 million ha) and recover 5.9% (0.4 million hectares) of it. In terms of carbon sequestration, REDD + projects can reduce the carbon losses in natural vegetation, but a zero-deforestation policy can double the carbon sequestration produced by REDD + projects only. This study shows that to reduce the pressures on ecosystems, particularly in regions highly marginalized with significant migration, it is necessary to implement transboundary land-management policies that also integrate poverty alleviation strategies.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Gonçalves C, Honrado JP, Cerejeira J, et al (2021)

On the development of a regional climate change adaptation plan: Integrating model-assisted projections and stakeholders' perceptions.

The Science of the total environment, 805:150320 pii:S0048-9697(21)05397-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is expected to have strong social-ecological implications, with global but especially regional and local challenges. To assess the climatic vulnerability of a given territory, it is necessary to evaluate its exposure to climate change and its adaptive capacity. This study describes the development of an Action Plan for Adapting to Climate Change in the Tâmega and Sousa Region, a mountainous inter-municipal community in the North of Portugal. The goals were to identify the main impacts of climate change on water resources, agriculture, forests, biodiversity, and socioeconomic sectors, as well as to develop a plan, merging local and scientific knowledge through a transdisciplinary lens. This study describes an approach that combines modelling methods, applied in the different sectors, and participatory methods, based on the analysis of the perceptions of local actors. Results indicate that the target region will experience a generalized increase in temperature and a decrease in precipitation, which will negatively impact all studied social-ecological dimensions. Overall, local business and institutional agents perceive the primary and tourism sectors as the most vulnerable in the region. The described framework demonstrates the engagement process between relevant scientific experts and local practitioners, as well as how it is critical to understand the impacts of climate change and to support the co-design of an adaptation plan, which in turn can guide political and economic decision-making towards effective implementation of the plan. In addition, the difficulties and challenges encountered during this process are discussed to support future plans and strategies for local adaptation.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Schickele A, Guidetti P, Giakoumi S, et al (2021)

Improving predictions of invasive fish ranges combining functional and ecological traits with environmental suitability under climate change scenarios.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasions represent one of the main threats to marine biodiversity. From a conservation perspective, especially in the context of increasing sea warming, it is critical to examine the suitability potential of geographical areas for the arrival of Range Expanding Introduced and Native Species (REINS), and hence anticipate the risk of such species to become invasive in their new distribution areas. Here, we developed an empirical index, based on functional and bio-ecological traits, that estimates the Invasive Potential (IP; i.e. the potential success in transport, introduction and population establishment) for a set of 13 fishes that are expanding their distributional range into the Mediterranean Sea, the most invaded sea in the world. The IP index showed significant correlation with the observed spreading of REINS. For the six species characterised by the highest IP, we calculated contemporary and future projections of their Environmental Suitability Index (ESI). By using an ensemble modelling approach, we estimated the geographical areas that are likely to be the most impacted by REINS spreading under climate change. Our results demonstrated the importance of functional traits related to reproduction for determining high invasion potential. For most species, we found high contemporary ESI values in the South-eastern Mediterranean Sea and low to intermediate contemporary ESI values in the Adriatic Sea and North-western Mediterranean sector. Moreover, we highlighted a major potential future expansion of high ESI values, and thus REINS invasive potential, towards the northern Mediterranean, especially in the northern Adriatic Sea. This potential future northward expansion highlights the risk associated with climate-induced impacts on ecosystem conservation and fish stock management throughout the entire Mediterranean Sea.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Smith J, Grace D, HS Lee (2021)

Introduction - Veterinary Services in a changing world: climate change and other external factors.

Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), 40(2):371-382.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Stephen C, C Soos (2021)

The implications of climate change for Veterinary Services.

Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), 40(2):421-430.

Climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the most pressing issues facing society on a global scale. The growth of GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 was higher than in each of the previous three decades, and each of the past four decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decades since 1850. Continued GHG emissions will cause further warming and changes in the climate system. Climate change affects livestock production in multiple ways, both directly and indirectly. Many of the impacts on the livestock sector result from increasing frequency and magnitude of weather and climate extremes such as droughts, flash floods, untimely rains, frost, hail and severe storms. This article describes some of the most vulnerable disaster communities in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and South America. It then describes the importance of meteorological information provided by national Meteorological and Hydrological Services to help Veterinary Services support sustainable management of livestock in vulnerable pastoral communities.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Leung A, RF Sage (2021)

Digest: Between invasive species and a hot place: plant evolution under climate change.

Will climate change lead to invasive species evolving faster than native or naturalized species? Gianoli and Molina-Montenegro (2021) showed that, under warming and drought, the evolution of photosynthetic capacity does not always favor invasive species. These data raise interesting questions for the study of evolution of invasive species under climate change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Bailey C, Farrell A, Purty T, et al (2021)

Development of Privacy Features on, a Free Citizen Science Platform for Collecting Datasets for Climate Change and Related Projects.

Frontiers in climate, 3:.

The Anecdata website and its corresponding mobile app provide unique features to meet the needs of a wide variety of diverse citizen science projects from across the world. The platform has been developed with the help of continuous feedback from community partners, project leaders, and website users and currently hosts more than 200 projects. Over 8,000 registered users have contributed more than 30,000 images and over 50,000 observations since the platform became open to the public in 2014. From its inception, one of the core tenets of Anecdata's mission has been to make data from citizen science projects freely accessible to project participants and the general public, and in the platform's first few years, it followed a completely open data access model. As the platform has grown, hosting ever more projects, we have found that this model does not meet all project needs, especially where endangered species, property access rights, participant safety in the field, and personal privacy are concerned. We first introduced features for data and user privacy as part of "All About Arsenic," a National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA)-funded project at MDI Biological Laboratory, which engages middle and high school teachers and students from schools across Maine and New Hampshire in sampling their home well water for analysis of arsenic and other heavy metals. In order to host this project on Anecdata, we developed features for spatial privacy or "geoprivacy" to conceal the coordinates of samplers' homes, partial data redaction tools we call "private fields" to withhold certain sample registration questions from public datasets, and "participant anonymity" to conceal which user account uploaded an observation. We describe the impetus for the creation of these features, challenges we encountered, and our technical approach. While these features were originally developed for the purposes of a public health and science literacy project, they are now available to all project leaders setting up projects on and have been adopted by a number of projects, including Mass Audubon's Eastern Meadowlark Survey, South Carolina Aquarium's SeaRise, and Coastal Signs of the Seasons (SOS) Monitoring projects.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Okon EM, Falana BM, Solaja SO, et al (2021)

Systematic review of climate change impact research in Nigeria: implication for sustainable development.

Heliyon, 7(9):e07941 pii:S2405-8440(21)02044-2.

There is evidence that Nigeria is already experiencing environmental challenges attributed to climate change (CC) and its impacts. This has clearly highlighted the need for knowledge-based strategies to help plan adequate mitigation and adaptation measures for the country. One of the basic requirements to ensure such strategies is the development of a database of national CC research. This will aid in the assessment of past and present scientific publications from which directions for future study can be mapped. The present study used standard, systematic, and bibliographic literature reviews to analyse the trend, focus, spatial variability, and effectiveness of published research on CC impacts in Nigeria. Four thematic areas of CC impact research were defined: Agriculture, Environment, Human and Multi-disciplinary study. A total of 701 articles were found to be relevant and the review shows that CC impacts and adaptations in the literature vary across research categories and locations. The period between 2011 (68 studies) and 2015 (80 studies) showed a tremendous rise in CC impact research with a peak in 2014 (84 studies). Studies in the agriculture category had the highest publications in 23 States of Nigeria. The review revealed three research gaps: (1) lack of research that investigated the magnitude of present and potential future impacts in the aquatic environment (2) little attention on CC impacts and adaptation in the Northern regions of Nigeria (3) absence of study investigating the effects of multiple variables of CC at the same time. The findings suggest that it would be useful to advance CC research in Nigeria beyond perceptive approaches to more quantitative ones. This is particularly important for highly vulnerable animals, crops, locations, and for better planning of adaptation strategies.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Lastra Landa DE, CVG Bueno (2021)

"Climate change might have caused our small harvest": indigenous vulnerability, livelihoods, and environmental changes in lowland and high jungle indigenous communities in Peru.

Journal of environmental studies and sciences pii:722 [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of this article is to analyze how indigenous livelihoods are challenged by the global phenomenon of climate change while paying particular attention to how historically shaped, non-climatic factors influence how climate change is experienced in the Peruvian Amazon. In this sense, we will address indigenous people's lived experiences of climate variations using a theoretical framework based on concepts of vulnerability. Methodologically, we draw on both a recent literature review and fieldwork conducted during 2015 and 2016 with two Kukama Kukamiria communities in Loreto (low jungle) and three Ashaninka communities in Junín (high jungle). After describing our theoretical framework and qualitative methods, we discuss the economic history of the addressed areas and show how non-climatic factors, such as colonialism, influence these communities' experiences. This context allows us to better understand indigenous people's experience of seasonal variations, precipitations and climatic events, its effect on their livelihoods, and their adaptive strategies in response to challenges imposed by climate unpredictability and broader transformations in their territories. Our conclusions are twofold: (a) addressing climate change must incorporate multiple temporal and spatial scales and (b) non-climatic factors are integral to understanding the role of climate change vulnerability of indigenous population.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Leal Filho W, Wall T, Alves F, et al (2021)

The impacts of the early outset of the COVID-19 pandemic on climate change research: Implications for policy-making.

Environmental science & policy, 124:267-278.

Since January 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has dominated the media and exercises pressure on governments worldwide. Apart from its effects on economies, education systems and societies, the pandemic has also influenced climate change research. This paper examines the extent to which COVID-19 has influenced climate change research worldwide during the first wave at the beginning of 2020 and how it is perceived to exploit it in the future. This study utilised an international survey involving those dedicated to climate change science and management research from Academia, Government, NGOs, and international agencies in 83 countries. The analysis of responses encompasses four independent variables: Institutions, Regions, Scientific Areas, and the level of economic development represented by the Human Development Index (HDI). Results show that: (1) COVID-19 modified the way the surveyed researchers work, (2) there are indicators that COVID-19 has already influenced the direction of climate change and adaptation policy implementation, and (3) respondents perceived (explicitly concerning the COVID-19 lockdowns of March-April 2020), that the pandemic has drawn attention away from climate policy. COVID- 19 has influenced the agenda of climate change research for more than half of the respondents and is likely to continue in the future, suggesting that the impacts on their research will still be felt for many years. The paper concludes by outlining critical implications for policy-making.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Morales-Castilla I, Pappalardo P, Farrell MJ, et al (2021)

Forecasting parasite sharing under climate change.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 376(1837):20200360.

Species are shifting their distributions in response to climate change. This geographic reshuffling may result in novel co-occurrences among species, which could lead to unseen biotic interactions, including the exchange of parasites between previously isolated hosts. Identifying potential new host-parasite interactions would improve forecasting of disease emergence and inform proactive disease surveillance. However, accurate predictions of future cross-species disease transmission have been hampered by the lack of a generalized approach and data availability. Here, we propose a framework to predict novel host-parasite interactions based on a combination of niche modelling of future host distributions and parasite sharing models. Using the North American ungulates as a proof of concept, we show this approach has high cross-validation accuracy in over 85% of modelled parasites and find that more than 34% of the host-parasite associations forecasted by our models have already been recorded in the literature. We discuss potential sources of uncertainty and bias that may affect our results and similar forecasting approaches, and propose pathways to generate increasingly accurate predictions. Our results indicate that forecasting parasite sharing in response to shifts in host geographic distributions allow for the identification of regions and taxa most susceptible to emergent pathogens under climate change. This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.

RevDate: 2021-09-19

Ruklani S, Rubasinghe SCK, G Jayasuriya (2021)

A review of frameworks for using bryophytes as indicators of climate change with special emphasis on Sri Lankan bryoflora.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The tropical island of Sri Lanka, with a land area of 65,610 km2 and 1340 km of coastline, is highly vulnerable to impacts of climate change, with detrimental effects on agriculture, water resources, human health, coastal zones, infrastructure, industry, and biodiversity. A general increase in temperature and precipitation patterns, rising sea levels, and increase in weather-related natural disasters, such as floods and droughts, have been traced over the years. Bryophytes (liverworts, mosses, hornworts) occupy a pivotal position in the land plant evolution and form a unique part of the vegetation. Many taxa of bryophytes exhibit observable, distinct adaptations in response to changes in environmental conditions quickly. Bryophytes can be used to monitor climate change in two ways; (i) presence or absence in the ecosystem and (ii) changes in morphology and physiology that can be used for monitoring. Sri Lanka has a rich bryophyte flora consisting of 575 species of mosses, 338 species of liverworts, and 07 species of hornworts. It is estimated that 11% of mosses are endemic; there are no endemic thalloid liverworts or hornworts found in Sri Lanka, and the endemicity of leafy liverworts is yet to be investigated. The taxonomic status of endemic taxa and the biogeographic affinities of many taxa remain unexplored. Further, the potential use of bryophytes as indicators of climate change in Sri Lanka has not yet been investigated. This paper compiles the information on morphological and physiological responses of bryophytes to elevated temperature, increase in greenhouse gases, increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, and fluctuations in humidity. In the light of this gathered global knowledge, possible species of bryophytes to be used in assessing and predicting climate change and developing a climate change model in Sri Lanka are proposed. Asian bryophytes, in general, have poorly been represented in climate change literature. We believe that this knowledge will form the foundation for future research focused on climate change mitigation in other tropical and Asian countries.

RevDate: 2021-09-19

Ergin E, Altinel B, E Aktas (2021)

A mixed method study on global warming, climate change and the role of public health nurses from the perspective of nursing students.

Nurse education today, 107:105144 pii:S0260-6917(21)00401-9 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of the nursing students taking the Public Health Nursing course about global warming, climate change, the impact on health and the role of the public health nurse.

DESIGN: The study is a mixed method study that includes descriptive data and focus group discussions on global warming, the effects of climate change and the role of the public health nurse.

METHODS: The data were collected from the nursing faculty of a university located in the Central Anatolia region, where agricultural lands are widespread and climate change effects are most commonly observed. The data were collected from 154 undergraduate senior nursing students between February 2020 and May 2020. Firstly, the students completed the Global Warming Questionnaire that includes 26 items about global warming, climate change, their effects and the role of the public health nurse. Secondly, some students (n = 19) selected through the purposive sampling method participated in online focus group meetings.

RESULTS: Our study revealed that 87.7% of the students know the main cause of climate change. The mean scale scores of the students who watch documentaries on the environment, who participate in activities related to the environment, and who know that climate change, sustainable development and health services are closely related were found to be statistically significantly higher (p ≤ 0.005). The views of the students on global warming and the environment were analyzed in focus group interviews according to five themes (global warming perception; the impact of global warming on health; methods of protection; roles of nurses; nursing education).

CONCLUSION: Global warming and climate change are sensitive and important issues that cannot be evaluated considering only knowledge level.

IMPACT: Global warming, climate change, their effects on health and the roles and responsibilities of nurses need to be included in the nursing curricula so that health professionals who can take measures against global warming, climate change and their health effects can be educated.

RevDate: 2021-09-19

Morgado ME, Jiang C, Zambrana J, et al (2021)

Climate change, extreme events, and increased risk of salmonellosis: foodborne diseases active surveillance network (FoodNet), 2004-2014.

Environmental health : a global access science source, 20(1):105.

BACKGROUND: Infections with nontyphoidal Salmonella cause an estimated 19,336 hospitalizations each year in the United States. Sources of infection can vary by state and include animal and plant-based foods, as well as environmental reservoirs. Several studies have recognized the importance of increased ambient temperature and precipitation in the spread and persistence of Salmonella in soil and food. However, the impact of extreme weather events on Salmonella infection rates among the most prevalent serovars, has not been fully evaluated across distinct U.S. regions.

METHODS: To address this knowledge gap, we obtained Salmonella case data for S. Enteriditis, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, and S. Javiana (2004-2014; n = 32,951) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and weather data from the National Climatic Data Center (1960-2014). Extreme heat and precipitation events for the study period (2004-2014) were identified using location and calendar day specific 95th percentile thresholds derived using a 30-year baseline (1960-1989). Negative binomial generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between exposure to extreme events and salmonellosis rates.

RESULTS: We observed that extreme heat exposure was associated with increased rates of infection with S. Newport in Maryland (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR): 1.07, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.01, 1.14), and Tennessee (IRR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.09), both FoodNet sites with high densities of animal feeding operations (e.g., broiler chickens and cattle). Extreme precipitation events were also associated with increased rates of S. Javiana infections, by 22% in Connecticut (IRR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.35) and by 5% in Georgia (IRR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08), respectively. In addition, there was an 11% (IRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04-1.18) increased rate of S. Newport infections in Maryland associated with extreme precipitation events.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study suggests a stronger association between extreme precipitation events, compared to extreme heat, and salmonellosis across multiple U.S. regions. In addition, the rates of infection with Salmonella serovars that persist in environmental or plant-based reservoirs, such as S. Javiana and S. Newport, appear to be of particular significance regarding increased heat and rainfall events.

RevDate: 2021-09-19

Yin G, Wang G, Zhang X, et al (2021)

Multi-scale assessment of water security under climate change in North China in the past two decades.

The Science of the total environment, 805:150103 pii:S0048-9697(21)05178-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is projected to affect the hydrological cycles in China, while the effects are expected to vary spatiotemporally. Understanding the variations in water security conditions and their sensitivity to climatic variables is crucial for assessing regional ecosystem responses to climate change. In the present study, we estimated the water yield capacity, an important indicator of water security in North China (NC), at a spatial resolution of 1 km during the last two decades based on the Budyko framework and quantified the sensitivity of water yield change to climate change among different vegetation types. The results showed that the performances of the Budyko framework were reliable both at the pixel scale and across large watersheds. The annual water yield in North China was estimated to be 7.61 ± 2.67 ∗ 1010 m3/yr, with an average mean water yield (MWY) of 49.51 ± 17.49 mm/yr. The spatial pattern of mean water yield change (MWYC) exhibited high heterogeneity; 46% of the study region was dominated by an increasing trend, while 9.84% was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with temperature, the water yield capacity was more sensitive to precipitation variation. A consistent trend of variation was found in cropland between water yield and precipitation, while negative sensitivity coefficients were found in natural vegetation types. The variation in sensitivity coefficients (Swyp) in natural vegetation showed that in regions with a decrease in precipitation, the variation in water yield capacity also decreased, while in regions with an increase in precipitation from 0 to 8 mm/yr, the water yield capacity first decreased and then increased with precipitation. Our findings suggest that grass and shrubs would be more beneficial to regional water security in North China's revegetation, while afforestation would provide protection for the regional environment from extreme rainfall events.

RevDate: 2021-09-18

Bakken S (2021)

Climate change, security, privacy, and data sharing: Important areas for advocacy and informatics solutions.

Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA, 28(10):2072-2073.

RevDate: 2021-09-18

Schimel DS, JC Corley (2021)

Invited Feature: Climate change and western wildfires.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

This feature explores topics of enduring ecological concern - fire regimes, climate change, and forest management of the North American West. The authors describe the dual challenges of past forest management legacies and fire exclusion confronted by a changing fire regime due to the coupling of stark climatic changes and abundant fuels. They argue for intentional management to create more drought- and fire-resilient forests, emphasizing key forest characteristics that conserve biodiversity and ecosystem values, while recognizing that this implies the use of mechanical thinning, prescribed burning and managed wildfire as tools.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Bell SA, Czerwinski M, Horowitz J, et al (2019)

Climate change and health beliefs, knowledge, and educational needs among disaster providers.

International journal of public health research, 9(2):1127-1134.

Introduction: Climate change has been called the greatest public health threat of our time. Increasing morbidity and mortality is expected to continue as climate-associated disasters become more prevalent. Disaster health professionals are on the front lines of addressing these health sequalae, making the need to assess their knowledge of climate change and health and their perceived need for a policy response critically important.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge, opinions, and educational needs of disaster health providers surrounding climate change and health.

Methods: A web-based questionnaire assessing disaster health professionals' attitudes and knowledge on the health effects of climate change and associated policy recommendations was administered to a sample of disaster health professionals.

Results: Among the study's 150 participants, 95% responded affirmatively that climate change exists and is largely caused by humans. Two-thirds (67%) indicated climate change affects their patient's health and 93% indicated climate change will continue to affect patients in the future. Respondents also believed climate change will impact vulnerable populations such as children under four years old (75%), the elderly (72%) and those living in poverty (71%). Three-quarters (76%) indicated educating patients about climate change and its association with health outcomes should be integrated into health professions education.

Conclusion: Disaster health professionals need access to education on climate-change related health impacts, materials for patients and relevant policy information. This research provides evidence from front-line disaster and emergency health professionals that can inform policy on climate change and health.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Chambers T, Hales S, Shaw C, et al (2021)

New Zealand's Climate Change Commission report: the critical need to address the missing health co-benefits of reducing emissions.

The New Zealand medical journal, 134(1542):109-118.

The Climate Change Commission's draft report and recommendations provide a pathway towards achieving the New Zealand Government's commitment to net zero emissions by 2050. However, the Commission has not adequately considered the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation. In this viewpoint, we assess how the Commission has considered health co-benefits in the key response domains. Extrapolating UK evidence to the New Zealand context suggests climate change mitigation strategies that reduce air pollution, transition the population towards plant-based diets and increase physical activity via active transport could prevent thousands of deaths per year in coming decades. Substantial health co-benefits would also arise from improved housing, cleaner water, noise reductions, afforestation and more compact cities. The Commission's draft report only briefly mentions many of these health co-benefits, and some are completely absent. We recommend the Commission's final report: (i) use health co-benefits as an explicit frame; (ii) ensure the government's Treaty of Waitangi obligations are met in all the domains covered to maximise benefits for Māori health and wellbeing; (iii) build on the successful COVID-19 response that demonstrated rapid, science-informed and vigorous government action can address major global health threats; (iv) include both public health expertise and Māori health expertise among its commissioners; (v) explain how health co-benefits are likely to generate major cost-savings to the health system.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Moon TH, Chae Y, Lee DS, et al (2021)

Analyzing climate change impacts on health, energy, water resources, and biodiversity sectors for effective climate change policy in South Korea.

Scientific reports, 11(1):18512.

This study analyzes how climate change affects the economy, society, and environment in South Korea. Then, the study explores the ways to strengthen capabilities that can alleviate climate change impacts. To find them, the study employs a system dynamics simulation method and builds a model with several sectors including the urban, rural, population, and social-environmental sectors. The study compares the size of climate change damages in rural and urban areas. The results with representative concentration path (RCP) 8.5 show that the size of climate change damage will continue to increase by 2050. The projected damages from the reduced industrial outputs in urban areas will be larger than that in rural areas. The results also show that the service sector will face stronger impacts from climate change than the manufacturing and agricultural sectors. However, the total size of damage in the rural areas will be bigger than that of the urban areas. It is because the size of reduced industrial outputs per capita in the rural areas is twice bigger than that of the urban areas. The climate change damage in the social and environmental sectors (including a loss of biodiversity and an increase in health costs) account for the largest part of the total damage. The study finally provides suggestions and policies that can improve the capabilities to reduce the climate change damages. One of the major suggestions of this study is that the increase in the climate change budget corresponding to the GDP growth can minimize the size of climate change impacts.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Guzmán P, Tarín-Carrasco P, Morales-Suárez-Varela M, et al (2021)

Effects of air pollution on dementia over Europe for present and future climate change scenarios.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(21)01307-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The scientific literature is scarce when referring to the influence of atmospheric pollutants on neurodegenerative diseases for present and future climate change scenarios. In this sense, this contribution evaluates the incidence of dementia (Alzheimer's disease, AD, and dementia from unspecified cause, DU) occurring in Europe associated with the exposure to air pollution (essentially NO2 and PM2.5) for the present climatic period (1991-2010) and for a future climate change scenario (RCP8.5, 2031-2050). The GEMM methodology has been applied to air pollution simulations using the chemistry/climate regional model WRF-Chem. Present population data were obtained from NASA's Center for Socioeconomic Data and Applications (SEDAC); while future population projections for the year 2050 were derived from the United Nations (UN) Department of Economic and Social Affairs-Population Dynamics. Overall, the estimated incidence rate (cases per year) of AD and DU associated with exposure to air pollution over Europe is 498,000 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 348,600-647,400] and 314,000 (95% CI 257,500-401,900), respectively. An important increase in the future incidence rate is projected (around 72% for both types of dementia) when considering the effect of climate change together with the foreseen changes in the future population, because of the expected aging of European population. The climate penalty (impacts of future climate change alone on air quality) has a limited effect on the total changes of dementia (approx. 0.5%), because the large increase in the incidence rate over southern Europe is offset by its decrease over more northern countries, favored by an improvement of air pollution caused by the projected enhancement of rainfall.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Holland OJ, Young MA, Sherman CDH, et al (2021)

Ocean warming threatens key trophic interactions supporting a commercial fishery in a climate change hotspot.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Worldwide, rising ocean temperatures are causing declines and range shifts in marine species. The direct effects of climate change on the biology of marine organisms are often well documented, yet knowledge on the indirect effects, particularly through trophic interactions, is largely lacking. We provide evidence of ocean warming decoupling critical trophic interactions supporting a commercially important mollusc in a climate change hotspot. Dietary assessments of the Australian blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) indicate primary dependency on a widespread macroalgal species (Phyllospora comosa) which we show to be in state of decline due to ocean warming, resulting in abalone biomass reductions. Niche models suggest further declines in P. comosa over the coming decades and ongoing risks to H. rubra. This study highlights the importance of studies from climate change hotspots and understanding the interplay between climate and trophic interactions when determining the likely response of marine species to environmental changes.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Wiesing U (2021)

Climate change and the different roles of physicians: a critical response to "A Planetary Health Pledge for Health Professionals in the Anthropocene".

Medicine, health care, and philosophy [Epub ahead of print].

The article critically responds to "A Planetary Health Pledge for Health Professionals in the Anthropocene" which was published by Wabnitz et al. in The Lancet in November 2020. It focuses on the different roles and responsibilities of a physician. The pledge is criticised because it neglects the different roles, gives no answers in case of conflicting goals, and contains numerous inconsistencies. The relationship between the Planetary Health Pledge and the Declaration of Geneva is examined. It is argued that the Planetary Health Pledge should have supplemented the Declaration of Geneva instead of changing it.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Dagdeviren H, Elangovan A, R Parimalavalli (2021)

Climate change, monsoon failures and inequality of impacts in South India.

Journal of environmental management, 299:113555 pii:S0301-4797(21)01617-0 [Epub ahead of print].

This article examines the structural aspects of climate vulnerabilities in the context of monsoon failures. The paper is based on a unique household survey, conducted in Tamil Nadu, India. The study uses a rural differentiation framework to interrogate unequal vulnerabilities to monsoon failures, based on measures such as Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves of monetary losses. Results show that negative consequences of climate change in general, and monsoon failures in particular, intensify pre-existing socio-economic disparities. When the rural differentiation theory is applied in a broader sense, the analysis shows that landed and farming households have greater exposure and losses. When we move beyond these aggregate categories, the revelation is that households with pre-existing disadvantages such as marginal landholders, subsistence farmers and agricultural workers are more vulnerable.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Birkmann J, Jamshed A, McMillan JM, et al (2021)

Understanding human vulnerability to climate change: A global perspective on index validation for adaptation planning.

The Science of the total environment, 803:150065 pii:S0048-9697(21)05140-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is a severe global threat. Research on climate change and vulnerability to natural hazards has made significant progress over the last decades. Most of the research has been devoted to improving the quality of climate information and hazard data, including exposure to specific phenomena, such as flooding or sea-level rise. Less attention has been given to the assessment of vulnerability and embedded social, economic and historical conditions that foster vulnerability of societies. A number of global vulnerability assessments based on indicators have been developed over the past years. Yet an essential question remains how to validate those assessments at the global scale. This paper examines different options to validate global vulnerability assessments in terms of their internal and external validity, focusing on two global vulnerability indicator systems used in the WorldRiskIndex and the INFORM index. The paper reviews these global index systems as best practices and at the same time presents new analysis and global results that show linkages between the level of vulnerability and disaster outcomes. Both the review and new analysis support each other and help to communicate the validity and the uncertainty of vulnerability assessments. Next to statistical validation methods, we discuss the importance of the appropriate link between indicators, data and the indicandum. We found that mortality per hazard event from floods, drought and storms is 15 times higher for countries ranked as highly vulnerable compared to those classified as low vulnerable. These findings highlight the different starting points of countries in their move towards climate resilient development. Priority should be given not just to those regions that are likely to face more severe climate hazards in the future but also to those confronted with high vulnerability already.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Ferretto A, Brooker R, Matthews R, et al (2021)

Climate change and drinking water from Scottish peatlands: Where increasing DOC is an issue?.

Journal of environmental management, 300:113688 pii:S0301-4797(21)01750-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been detected in the last decades in water bodies of the Northern hemisphere, and climate change might fuel this rise. For drinking water reservoirs located in peatland catchments, already subjected to elevated amounts of DOC that needs to be removed, this might pose a further problem. Scotland is predicted to face warmer temperatures and a change in rainfall patterns, which will result in more frequent and severe summer droughts and in heavier winter precipitation. These conditions are not ideal for peatlands, which may undergo a drastic reduction in area. Using two bioclimatic envelope models (Blanket bog Tree model and Lindsay Modified model) that project blanket bog distribution in Scotland in the 2050s, we extracted the area of blanket bog that is at risk of loss. Assuming that part of the carbon stored in this area is likely to be lost, we calculated how much of it could be added to DOC in catchments that contain public drinking water reservoirs each year. This analysis is a first estimate of the risk for the provision of drinking water from peatlands in Scotland due to climate change. The aim is to identify the catchments that may face the highest consequences of future climates in terms of the concentration of DOC ([DOC]), where more sophisticated water treatments might be needed. Our results show a great variability among the catchments, with only a few being unaffected by this problem, whereas others could experience substantial seasonal increase in [DOC]. This highlights the necessity to frequently monitor DOC levels in the reservoirs located in catchments where the major problems could arise, and to take the necessary measures to reduce it. Given that peatland condition and vegetation cover play a fundamental role in influencing DOC losses, this study also offers an indication of where peatland restoration might be useful to counteract the projected DOC increase and bring the highest benefits in terms of safe drinking water provision.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Bhawra J, Skinner K, Favel D, et al (2021)

The Food Equity and Environmental Data Sovereignty (FEEDS) Project: Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental Study Evaluating a Digital Platform for Climate Change Preparedness.

JMIR research protocols, 10(9):e31389 pii:v10i9e31389.

BACKGROUND: Despite having the tools at our disposal to enable an adequate food supply for all people, inequities in food acquisition, distribution, and most importantly, food sovereignty, worsen food insecurity. The detrimental impact of climate change on food systems and mental health is further exacerbated by a lack of food sovereignty. We urgently require innovative solutions to enable food sovereignty, minimize food insecurity, and address climate change-related mental distress (ie, solastalgia). Indigenous communities have a wealth of Traditional Knowledge for climate change adaptation and preparedness to strengthen food systems. Traditional Knowledge combined with Western methods can revolutionize ethical data collection, engagement, and knowledge mobilization.

OBJECTIVE: The Food Equity and Environmental Data Sovereignty (FEEDS) Project takes a participatory action, citizen science approach for early detection and warning of climate change impacts on food sovereignty, food security, and solastalgia. The aim of this project is to develop and implement a sustainable digital platform that enables real-time decision-making to mitigate climate change-related impacts on food systems and mental well-being.

METHODS: Citizen science enables citizens to actively contribute to all aspects of the research process. The FEEDS Project is being implemented in five phases: participatory project planning, digital climate change platform customization, community-led evaluation, digital platform and project refinement, and integrated knowledge translation. The project is governed by a Citizen Scientist Advisory Council comprising Elders, Traditional Knowledge Keepers, key community decision makers, youth, and FEEDS Project researchers. The Council governs all phases of the project, including coconceptualizing a climate change platform, which consists of a smartphone app and a digital decision-making dashboard. Apart from capturing environmental and health-related big data (eg, weather, permafrost degradation, fire hazards, and human movement), the custom-built app uses artificial intelligence to engage and enable citizens to report on environmental hazards, changes in biodiversity or wildlife, and related food and mental health issues in their communities. The app provides citizens with valuable information to mitigate health-related risks and relays big data in real time to a digital dashboard.

RESULTS: This project is currently in phase 1, with the subarctic Métis jurisdiction of Île-à-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan, Canada.

CONCLUSIONS: The FEEDS Project facilitates Indigenous Peoples' self-determination, governance, and data sovereignty. All citizen data are anonymous and encrypted, and communities have ownership, access, control, and possession of their data. The digital dashboard system provides decision makers with real-time data, thereby increasing the capacity to self-govern. The participatory action research approach, combined with digital citizen science, advances the cocreation of knowledge and multidisciplinary collaboration in the digital age. Given the urgency of climate change, leveraging technology provides communities with tools to respond to existing and emerging crises in a timely manner, as well as scientific evidence regarding the urgency of current health and environmental issues.


RevDate: 2021-09-15

Quarsie J, van de Pas R, Fanoy E, et al (2021)

[The impact of climate change on health in the Netherlands: the latest insights].

Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 165:.

This synthesis provides the latest insights into the impact of climate change in the Netherlands for which five separate health effects are particularly relevant. Climate change is associated with increased frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves. Major heat-related health risks include heat stroke, exacerbations of renal dysfunction due to dehydration and cardiovascular disease due to overheating. Climate change is associated with more hours of sunshine and more ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Heat and air pollution, both effects of climate change, lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Climate change is associated with an increase in water, food and vector-related infectious diseases due to, among other things, an increased temperature, increased water recreation and an altered water quality. Another effect is an increase in allergies and respiratory complaints via the prolongation and intensification of the pollen season. Our conclusion is that climate change in the Netherlands mainly entails negative health effects.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Nomaki H, Rastelli E, Ogawa NO, et al (2021)

In situ experimental evidences for responses of abyssal benthic biota to shifts in phytodetritus compositions linked to global climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Abyssal plains cover more than half of Earth's surface, and the main food source in these ecosystems is phytodetritus, mainly originating from primary producers in the euphotic zone of the ocean. Global climate change is influencing phytoplankton abundance, productivity and distributions. Increasing importance of picoplankton over diatom as primary producers in surface oceans (especially projected for higher latitudes) is projected and hence altering the quantity of organic carbon supplied to the abyssal seafloor as phytodetritus, consequences of which remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the in situ responses of abyssal biota from viruses to megafauna to different types of phytoplankton input (diatoms or cyanobacteria which were labelled with stable isotopes) at equatorial (oligotrophic) and temperate (eutrophic) benthic sites in the Pacific Ocean (respectively, 1°N at 4277 m water depth, and 39°N at 5260 m water depth). Our results show that meiofauna and macrofauna generally preferred diatoms as a food source and played a relatively larger role in the consumption of phytodetritus at higher latitudes (39°N). Contrarily, prokaryotes and viruses showed similar or even stronger responses to cyanobacterial than to diatom supply. Moreover, the response of prokaryotes and viruses was very rapid (within 1-2 days) at both 1°N and 39°N, with quickest responses reported in case of cyanobacterial supply at higher latitudes. Overall, our results suggest that benthic deep-sea eukaryotes will be negatively affected by the predicted decrease of diatoms in surface oceans, especially at higher latitudes, where benthic prokaryotes and viruses will otherwise likely increase their quantitative role and organic carbon cycling rates. In turn, such changes can contribute to decrease carbon transfer to higher trophic levels, with strong potential to affect oceanic food webs, their biodiversity and consequently carbon sequestration capacity at the global scale.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Changjun G, Yanli T, Linshan L, et al (2021)

Predicting the potential global distribution of Ageratina adenophora under current and future climate change scenarios.

Ecology and evolution, 11(17):12092-12113 pii:ECE37974.

Aim: Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten ecosystems and humans worldwide, and future climate change may accelerate the expansion of IAS. Predicting the suitable areas of IAS can prevent their further expansion. Ageratina adenophora is an invasive weed over 30 countries in tropical and subtropical regions. However, the potential suitable areas of A. adenophora remain unclear along with its response to climate change. This study explored and mapped the current and future potential suitable areas of Ageratina adenophora.

Location: Global.

Taxa: Asteraceae A. adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob. Commonly known as Crofton weed.

Methods: Based on A. adenophora occurrence data and climate data, we predicted its suitable areas of this weed under current and future (four RCPs in 2050 and 2070) by MaxEnt model. We used ArcGIS 10.4 to explore the potential suitable area distribution characteristics of this weed and the "ecospat" package in R to analyze its altitudinal distribution changes.

Results: The area under the curve (AUC) value (>0.9) and true skill statistics (TSS) value (>0.8) indicated excelled model performance. Among environment factors, mean temperature of coldest quarter contributed most to the model. Globally, the suitable areas for A. adenophora invasion decreased under climate change scenarios, although regional increases were observed, including in six biodiversity hotspot regions. The potential suitable areas of A. adenophora under climate change would expand in regions with higher elevation (3,000-3,500 m).

Main conclusions: Mean temperature of coldest quarter was the most important variable influencing the potential suitable area of A. Adenophora. Under the background of a warming climate, the potential suitable area of A. adenophora will shrink globally but increase in six biodiversity hotspot regions. The potential suitable area of A. adenophora would expand at higher elevation (3,000-3,500 m) under climate change. Mountain ecosystems are of special concern as they are rich in biodiversity and sensitive to climate change, and increasing human activities provide more opportunities for IAS invasion.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Arietta ZA, DK Skelly (2021)

Rapid microgeographic evolution in response to climate change.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental change is predicted to accelerate into the future and will exert strong selection pressure on biota. While many species may be fated to extinction, others may survive through their capacity to evolve rapidly at highly localized (i.e. microgeographic) scales. Yet, even as new examples have been discovered, the limits to such evolutionary responses have not often been evaluated. One of the first examples of microgeographic variation involved pond populations of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Although separated by just tens to hundreds of meters, these populations exhibited countergradient variation in intrinsic embryonic development rates when reared in a common garden. We repeated this experiment 17 years (approx. 6-9 generations) later and found that microgeographic variation persists in contemporary populations. Furthermore, we found that contemporary embryos have evolved to develop 14% to 19% faster than those in 2001. Structural equation models indicate that the predominant cause for this response is likely due to changes in climate over the intervening 17 years. Despite potential for rapid and fine-scale evolution, demographic declines in populations experiencing the greatest changes in climate and habitat imply a limit to the species' ability to mitigate extreme environmental change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Jin K, Wang F, Zong Q, et al (2021)

Spatiotemporal differences in climate change impacts on vegetation cover in China from 1982 to 2015.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The impacts of climate change on vegetation cover in different regions in China are not entirely clear because of the interference of non-climatic factors, such as human activity. This study aims to analyze the spatiotemporal differences in climate impacts qualitatively and quantitatively by applying trend, correlation, and multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses to the data of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and two climatic factors (air temperature and precipitation) during 1982-2015 in China. The MLR equation linking two climatic variables with NDVI was used to identify the NDVI trend caused by climate change. We demonstrated that the central and eastern regions of China, dominated by deciduous and evergreen broadleaf forests, experienced a rapid increase in NDVI from 1982 to 2015. The response of NDVI to variations in temperature and precipitation exhibited large spatiotemporal differences across China, which was closely related to climatic conditions and vegetation types. Overall, warming, particularly the sharp rise in spring, was the main climatic driving force behind China's NDVI increase, and precipitation also influenced the NDVI increase in temperate grassland and desert regions due to the relatively arid climate, particularly in summer. The contributions of climate change to the total NDVI trend (CC) showed a large spatiotemporal heterogeneity across China. Overall, only 45% of the pixels (with a resolution of 8 km) in the study area showed that the MLR equations between NDVI and two climatic factors were significant at the 0.05 significance level during the growing season (April-October), and the average CC of these pixels was 38%. Among the eight vegetation sub-regions of China, the temperate desert and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine meadow regions generally exhibited relatively larger CCs than other vegetation sub-regions in different seasons. At a national scale, the regional average CC reached 64% during the growing season. These results at multiple scales can help to deeply understand the mechanisms of regional environmental variation and sustainability.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Ji S, Ren S, Li Y, et al (2021)

The response of net primary productivity to climate change and its impact on hydrology in a water-limited agricultural basin.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has remarkably altered growing-season vegetation growth, but the impacts of vegetation variability on the regional hydrological cycle remain poorly understood. Exploring the relationships between climate change, vegetation dynamics, and hydrologic factors would contribute to the sustainable management of ecosystems. Here, we investigated the response of vegetation dynamics to climate change and its impact on hydrologic factors in a traditional agricultural basin with limited water resources in China, Nansi Lake Basin (NLB). To this end, CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) model and the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model were applied to simulate the net primary productivity (NPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and soil water in the growing season (April-October) from 2000 to 2016. Results showed that the mean growing-season NPP (NPPGS) exhibited an ascending trend at a rate of 2.93 g C/m2/year during the 17-year period. The intra-annual variation of NPPGS displayed two peaks in May and July, respectively. The first peak in May was accompanied by relative deficits in soil water, which might inhibit vegetation productivity. Precipitation was the principal climatic factor controlling NPPGS dynamics in the water-limited NLB. The positive influence of temperature on NPPGS was relatively weak, and even future warming could negatively affect ecosystem productivity in the south-central regions of the NLB. Furthermore, a strongly positive relationship between NPPGS and ET was detected, suggesting that increasing NPP in the future might stimulate the rise in ET and then exacerbate drought at the watershed scale. This study provides an integrated model for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction between vegetation, climate, and hydrological cycle, and highlights the importance of water-saving agriculture for future food security.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Ebi KL, Bowen KJ, Calkins J, et al (2021)

Interactions between two existential threats: COVID-19 and climate change.

Climate risk management, 34:100363.

The COVID-19 pandemic and climate change are complex existential threats, unpredictable in many ways and unprecedented in modern times. There are parallels between the scale and scope of their impacts and responses. Understanding shared drivers, coupled vulnerabilities, and criteria for effective responses will help societies worldwide prepare for the simultaneous threats of climate change and future pandemics. We summarize some shared characteristics of COVID-19 and climate change impacts and interventions and discuss key policy implications and recommendations.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Chowdhury MAW, Müller J, S Varela (2021)

Climate change and the increase of human population will threaten conservation of Asian cobras.

Scientific reports, 11(1):18113.

Asian cobras (genus Naja) are venomous snakes distributed from the Middle East to Southeast Asia. Because cobras often live near humans settlements, they are responsible for a large part of snakebite incidents and as such pose a challenge for public health systems. In the light of growing human populations, correctly mapping the present and future ranges of Asian cobras is therefore important for both biological conservation and public health management. Here, we mapped the potential climatic niches of ten Asian cobra species for both the present and the future, with the aim to quantify changes in climate and human population densities relative to their current and future ranges. Our analyses reveal that cobras that are adapted to dry climates and inhabit islands have narrow climatic niches, while those of mainland species with larger geographic ranges are much wider. We also found a higher degree of fragmentation of future cobra distributions; within the next 50 years, Asian cobras will lose an average of around 60% of their current suitable climatic range. In the near future, Naja mandalayensis, N. sputatrix, N. samarensis, and N. philippinensis are likely to have no accessible suitable climate space left. Besides, a further increase of human populations in this region may also exponentially accelerate the effects of anthropogenic impacts. Solutions for conservation may involve awareness and appropriate use of law to overcome the rate of habitat degradation and the increase of animal trade of Asian cobras, while promoting investment on health systems to avoid snakebite fatalities.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Martinez S, Bellworthy J, Ferrier-Pagès C, et al (2021)

Selection of mesophotic habitats by Oculina patagonica in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea following global warming.

Scientific reports, 11(1):18134.

Globally, species are migrating in an attempt to track optimal isotherms as climate change increasingly warms existing habitats. Stony corals are severely threatened by anthropogenic warming, which has resulted in repeated mass bleaching and mortality events. Since corals are sessile as adults and with a relatively old age of sexual maturity, they are slow to latitudinally migrate, but corals may also migrate vertically to deeper, cooler reefs. Herein we describe vertical migration of the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica from less than 10 m depth to > 30 m. We suggest that this range shift is a response to rapidly warming sea surface temperatures on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline. In contrast to the vast latitudinal distance required to track temperature change, this species has migrated deeper where summer water temperatures are up to 2 °C cooler. Comparisons of physiology, morphology, trophic position, symbiont type, and photochemistry between deep and shallow conspecifics revealed only a few depth-specific differences. At this study site, shallow colonies typically inhabit low light environments (caves, crevices) and have a facultative relationship with photosymbionts. We suggest that this existing phenotype aided colonization of the mesophotic zone. This observation highlights the potential for other marine species to vertically migrate.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Jump AS, J Peñuelas (2005)

Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change.

Ecology letters, 8(9):1010-1020.

Climate is a potent selective force in natural populations, yet the importance of adaptation in the response of plant species to past climate change has been questioned. As many species are unlikely to migrate fast enough to track the rapidly changing climate of the future, adaptation must play an increasingly important role in their response. In this paper we review recent work that has documented climate-related genetic diversity within populations or on the microgeographical scale. We then describe studies that have looked at the potential evolutionary responses of plant populations to future climate change. We argue that in fragmented landscapes, rapid climate change has the potential to overwhelm the capacity for adaptation in many plant populations and dramatically alter their genetic composition. The consequences are likely to include unpredictable changes in the presence and abundance of species within communities and a reduction in their ability to resist and recover from further environmental perturbations, such as pest and disease outbreaks and extreme climatic events. Overall, a range-wide increase in extinction risk is likely to result. We call for further research into understanding the causes and consequences of the maintenance and loss of climate-related genetic diversity within populations.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Fotso-Nguemo TC, Vondou DA, Diallo I, et al (2021)

Potential impact of 1.5, 2 and 3 °C global warming levels on heat and discomfort indices changes over Central Africa.

The Science of the total environment, 804:150099 pii:S0048-9697(21)05174-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Investigating the effects of the increased global warming through the lens of the Paris agreements would be of particular importance for Central African countries, which are already experiencing multiple socio-political and socio-economic constraints, but are also subject to severe natural hazards that interact to limit their adaptive capacity and thus increase their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. This study explores changes in heat stress and the proportion of population at risk of discomfort over Central Africa, based on an ensemble-mean of high-resolution regional climate model simulations that cover a 30-year period, under 1.5, 2 and 3 °C Global Warming Levels (GWLs). The heat index was computed according to Rothfusz's equation, while the discomfort index was obtained from Thom's formula. The results show that throughout the year but with a predominance from March to August, the spatial extent of both heat and discomfort categories is projected to gradually increase according to the considered GWLs (nearly threefold for an increasing warming thresholds from 1.5 to 3 °C). As these heat conditions become more frequent, they lead to the emergence of days with potentially dangerous heat-related risks, where almost everyone feels discomfort due to heat stress. It thus appears that the majority of populations living in countries located along the Atlantic coast and in the northern and central part of the study area are likely to be more vulnerable to certain health problems, which could have repercussions on the socio-economic development of the sub-region through decreased workers' productivity and increased cooling degree days. Overall, these heat-related risks are more extended and more frequent when the GWL reaches 2 °C and above.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Jackson ST (2021)

Transformational ecology and climate change.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 373(6559):1085-1086.

[Figure: see text].

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Kumar V, Sarma VV, Thambugala KM, et al (2021)

Ecology and Evolution of Marine Fungi With Their Adaptation to Climate Change.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:719000.

Climate change agitates interactions between organisms and the environment and forces them to adapt, migrate, get replaced by others, or extinct. Marine environments are extremely sensitive to climate change that influences their ecological functions and microbial community including fungi. Fungi from marine habitats are engaged and adapted to perform diverse ecological functions in marine environments. Several studies focus on how complex interactions with the surrounding environment affect fungal evolution and their adaptation. However, a review addressing the adaptation of marine fungi to climate change is still lacking. Here we have discussed the adaptations of fungi in the marine environment with an example of Hortaea werneckii and Aspergillus terreus which may help to reduce the risk of climate change impacts on marine environments and organisms. We address the ecology and evolution of marine fungi and the effects of climate change on them to explain the adaptation mechanism. A review of marine fungal adaptations will show widespread effects on evolutionary biology and the mechanism responsible for it.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Knapp D, Fernández Castro B, Marty D, et al (2021)

The Red Harmful Plague in Times of Climate Change: Blooms of the Cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens Triggered by Stratification Dynamics and Irradiance.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:705914.

Planktothrix rubescens is a harmful planktonic cyanobacterium, forming concentrated metalimnetic populations in deep oligo- and mesotrophic lakes, even after successful restoration. In Lake Zurich (Switzerland), P. rubescens emerged as a keystone species with annual mass developments since the 1970s. Its success was partly attributed to effects of lake warming, such as changes in thermal stratification and seasonal deep mixing. However, recent observations based on a biweekly monitoring campaign (2009-2020) revealed two massive breakdowns and striking seasonal oscillations of the population. Here, we disentangle positive from negative consequences of secular lake warming and annual variations in weather conditions on P. rubescens dynamics: (i) despite the high survival rates of overwintering populations (up to 25%) during three consecutive winters (2014-2016) of incomplete deep convective mixing, cyanobacterial regrowth during the following stratified season was moderate and not overshooting a distinct standing stock threshold. Moreover, we recorded a negative trend for annual population maxima and total population size, pointing to a potential nutrient limitation after a series of incomplete winter mixing. Thus, the predication of steadily increasing blooms of P. rubescens could not be confirmed for the last decade. (ii) The seasonal reestablishment of P. rubescens was strongly coupled with a timely formation of a stable metalimnion structure, where the first positive net growth in the following productive summer season was observed. The trigger for the vertical positioning of filaments within the metalimnion was irradiance and not maximal water column stability. Repetitive disruptions of the vernal metalimnion owing to unstable weather conditions, as in spring 2019, went in parallel with a massive breakdown of the standing stock and marginal regrowth during thermal stratification. (iii) Driven by light intensity, P. rubescens was entrained into the turbulent epilimnion in autumn, followed by a second peak in population growth. Thus, the typical bimodal growth pattern was still intact during the last decade. Our long-term study highlights the finely tuned interplay between climate-induced changes and variability of thermal stratification dynamics and physiological traits of P. rubescens, determining its survival in a mesotrophic temperate lake.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Shah M, Seraj S, JW Pennebaker (2021)

Climate Denial Fuels Climate Change Discussions More Than Local Climate-Related Disasters.

Frontiers in psychology, 12:682057.

Most scientists agree that climate change is the largest existential threat of our time. Despite the magnitude of the threat, surprisingly few climate-related discussions take place on social media. What factors drive online discussions about climate change? In this study, we examined the occurrence of Reddit discussions around three types of climate-related events: natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes, wildfires), political events (i.e., 2016 United States Presidential election), and policy events (i.e., United States' withdrawal from Paris Climate Agreement, release of IPCC report). The objective was to understand how different types of events influence collective action as measured by discussions of climate change. Six large US cities were selected based on the occurrence of at least one locally-relevant natural disaster since 2014. Posts (N = 4.4 million) from subreddits of the selected cities were collected to obtain a six-month period before and after local natural disasters as well as climate-related political and policy events (which applied equally to all cities). Climate change discussions increased significantly for all three types of events, with the highest discussion during the 2016 elections. Further, discussions returned to baseline levels within 2 months following natural disasters and policy events but continued at elevated rates for up to 4 months following the 2016 elections. The findings suggest that collective discussions on climate change are driven more by political leaders' controversial positions than life-threatening local natural disasters themselves. Implications for collective action are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-09-12

Jacobs JW (2021)

The impact of climate change and emerging infectious diseases on the blood supply.

RevDate: 2021-09-11

Nisa CF, Bélanger JJ, Schumpe BM, et al (2021)

Secure human attachment can promote support for climate change mitigation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(37):.

Attachment theory is an ethological approach to the development of durable, affective ties between humans. We propose that secure attachment is crucial for understanding climate change mitigation, because the latter is inherently a communal phenomenon resulting from joint action and requiring collective behavioral change. Here, we show that priming attachment security increases acceptance (Study 1: n = 173) and perceived responsibility toward anthropogenic climate change (Study 2: n = 209) via increased empathy for others. Next, we demonstrate that priming attachment security, compared to a standard National Geographic video about climate change, increases monetary donations to a proenvironmental group in politically moderate and conservative individuals (Study 3: n = 196). Finally, through a preregistered field study conducted in the United Arab Emirates (Study 4: n = 143,558 food transactions), we show that, compared to a message related to carbon emissions, an attachment security-based message is associated with a reduction in food waste. Taken together, our work suggests that an avenue to promote climate change mitigation could be grounded in core ethological mechanisms associated with secure attachment.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Hajek OL, AK Knapp (2021)

Shifting seasonal patterns of water availability: ecosystem responses to an unappreciated dimension of climate change.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Seasonal patterns of water availability can differ dramatically among ecosystems, with well-known consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. Less appreciated is that climate change can shift the seasonality of water availability (e.g., to wetter springs, drier summers), resulting in both subtle and profound ecological impacts. Here we 1) review evidence that the seasonal availability of water is being altered in ecosystems worldwide, 2) explore several mechanisms potentially driving these changes, and 3) highlight the breadth of ecological consequences resulting from shifts in the seasonality of water availability. We conclude that seasonal patterns of water availability are changing globally, but in regionally specific ways requiring more rigorous and nuanced assessments of ecosystem vulnerability as well as the ecological consequences.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Kural E, Dellmuth LM, MT Gustafsson (2021)

International organizations and climate change adaptation: A new dataset for the social scientific study of adaptation, 1990-2017.

PloS one, 16(9):e0257101 pii:PONE-D-21-06511.

This article introduces a new dataset on the climate change adaptation activities of international organizations (IOs). While climate change adaptation has been studied at the local level and in the context of major climate organizations, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, we provide a first quantitative dataset on non-environmental IOs that can be linked to different social scientific datasets relevant for adaptation. Our new dataset contains information on the governance activities of 30 IOs from 1990 to 2017. Based on this dataset, we introduce different types of adaptation-related activities and develop a quantitative measure of IOs' climate adaptation engagement. We map the adaptation engagement of the 30 IOs across organizations, across issue areas, and over time. This dataset can be used to compare adaptation activities across and within IOs, but also as an empirical foundation for the emerging research field of global adaptation governance, for which IO climate change adaptation activities are relevant.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Jarvis S (2021)

Changing course on climate change.

The Veterinary record, 189(5):171.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Gøtske EK, M Victoria (2021)

Future operation of hydropower in Europe under high renewable penetration and climate change.

iScience, 24(9):102999 pii:S2589-0042(21)00967-6.

As large renewable capacities penetrate the European energy system and the climate faces significant alterations, the future operation of hydropower reservoirs might deviate from today. In this work, we first analyze the changes in hydropower operation required to balance a wind- and solar-dominated European energy system. Second, we apply runoff data obtained from combining five different global circulation models and two regional climate models to estimate future reservoir inflow at three CO2 emissions scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). This enables us to address the climate model uncertainty reported in previous literature. Despite large interannual and intermodel variability, significant changes are measured in the climate model signal between today and future climate. Annual inflow decreases by 31% (20%) in Southern countries and increases by 21% (14%) in Northern countries for high (mid)-emission scenarios. Projections also show impacts on seasonal profiles and more frequent and prolonged droughts in Mediterranean countries.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Desai Z, Y Zhang (2021)

Climate Change and Women's Health: A Scoping Review.

GeoHealth, 5(9):e2021GH000386 pii:GH2269.

Climate change is a significant global health threat that is, underpinned by the existing issue of gender inequality. A scoping review was conducted to better understand the relationship between climate change and women's health. We found a notably higher proportion of existing studies focused on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Most of the studies included were published after 2010, with predominantly qualitative study designs. Four key themes were identified, including women's exposure to climate change risks, the impacts on women's health, factors contributing to the vulnerability, and responding strategies in addressing climate change. The scoping review indicates that women's health is at higher risks due to the vulnerability to climate change, especially in LMICs. Meanwhile, it is beneficial to have insights from women in terms of adaptation and mitigation strategies to build stronger resilience. Mixed methods are strongly recommended to support evidence-based policy making in responding to climate change.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Pallarés S, Sanchez-Hernandez JC, Colado R, et al (2020)

Beyond survival experiments: using biomarkers of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity to assess vulnerability of subterranean fauna to climate change.

Conservation physiology, 8(1):coaa067 pii:coaa067.

Accurate assessments of species vulnerability to climate change need to consider the physiological capacity of organisms to deal with temperature changes and identify early signs of thermally induced stress. Oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity are useful proxies of stress at the cellular and nervous system level. Such responses are especially relevant for poor dispersal organisms with limited capacity for behavioural thermoregulation, like deep subterranean species. We combined experimental measurements of upper lethal thermal limits, acclimation capacity and biomarkers of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity to assess the impact of heat stress (20°C) at different exposure times (2 and 7 days) on the Iberian endemic subterranean beetle Parvospeonomus canyellesi. Survival response (7 days of exposure) was similar to that reported for other subterranean specialist beetles (high survival up to 20°C but no above 23°C). However, a low physiological plasticity (i.e. incapacity to increase heat tolerance via acclimation) and signs of impairment at the cellular and nervous system level were observed after 7 days of exposure at 20°C. Such sublethal effects were identified by significant differences in total antioxidant capacity, glutathione S-transferase activity, the ratio of reduced to oxidized forms of glutathione and acetylcholinesterase activity between the control (cave temperature) and 20°C treatment. At 2 days of exposure, most biomarker values indicated some degree of oxidative stress in both the control and high-temperature treatment, likely reflecting an initial altered physiological status associated to factors other than temperature. Considering these integrated responses and the predicted increase in temperature in its unique locality, P. canyellesi would have a narrower thermal safety margin to face climate change than that obtained considering only survival experiments. Our results highlight the importance of exploring thermally sensitive processes at different levels of biological organization to obtain more accurate estimates of the species capacity to face climate change.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Maran DA, T Begotti (2021)

Media Exposure to Climate Change, Anxiety, and Efficacy Beliefs in a Sample of Italian University Students.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(17): pii:ijerph18179358.

The climate crisis poses a serious threat to the health and well-being of individuals. For many, climate change knowledge is derived from indirect exposure to information transmitted through the media. Such content can elicit a variety of emotional responses, including anger, sadness, despair, fear, and guilt. Worry and anxiety are especially common responses, usually referred to as "climate anxiety". The main objectives of this study were to analyze how exposure to climate change through the media relates to climate anxiety and individual and collective self-efficacy, and to evaluate the relationship between climate anxiety and efficacy beliefs. A total of 312 Italian university students (aged 18-26 years) participated in the research by filling out an anonymous questionnaire. Participants reported being exposed several times per week to information about climate change, especially from social media, newspapers, and television programs. Moreover, the results showed that the attention paid to information about climate change was not only positively related to climate anxiety, but also to individual and collective self-efficacy. Most notably, participants' efficacy beliefs were found to be positively related to climate anxiety. This somewhat controversial finding stresses that, in the context of pro-environmental behavior changes, a moderate level of anxiety could engender feelings of virtue, encouraging people to rethink actions with negative ecological impacts.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Latkin CA, Dayton L, Lee DI, et al (2021)

Correlates of Levels of Willingness to Engage in Climate Change Actions in the United States.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(17): pii:ijerph18179204.

While the majority of the American public believe climate change is occurring and are worried, few are engaged in climate change action. In this study, we assessed factors associated with the level of willingness to engage in climate change actions using an online, longitudinal US study of adults. Climate change action outcomes included the level of willingness to post materials online, take political actions, talk with peers about climate change, and donate to or help an organization. Predictors included climate change attitudes, environmental attitudes, political ideology, political party affiliation, and demographic variables. Most (72%) of the 644 respondents only talked about climate change with peers a few times a year or less, though 65% were very or extremely worried about climate change. Many respondents indicated a willingness to do somewhat or a lot more, from 38% willing to talk to peers to 25% for willing to take political actions. In multinomial regression models, the Climate Change Concern scale was strongly and consistently associated with willingness to engage in climate change action. These findings indicate a need to both identify those who are willing to act and finding activities that fit with their interests and availability.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Gao W, Guo Y, F Jiang (2021)

Playing for a Resilient Future: A Serious Game Designed to Explore and Understand the Complexity of the Interaction among Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and Urban Development.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(17): pii:ijerph18178949.

Urban development and disaster risk are deeply linked, especially now when we are facing increasingly frequent climate change. Hence, knowledge of the potential trade-offs between urban development and disaster risk reduction (DRR) may have potential to build a resilient and sustainable future. The objectives of this study are (1) to present education for a sustainability (EfS) program and to evaluate its performance: a serious game of knowledge communication for the interactions among climate change, disaster risk, and urban development; (2) to explore factors that will influence the players' decision making in the trade-offs between urban development and DRR under an urbanization background through counterfactual scenarios constructed by a series of serious games. The Yudai Trench, once a critical component of the urban green infrastructure of ancient Guangzhou, has disappeared under rapid urban expansion, leaving the city exposed to environmental hazards caused by climate change. Is the disappearance of the Yudai Trench an inevitable event in the progress of urbanization? To answer this question, the study constructed counterfactual scenarios by recuring the historical progress through the same serious game. Gameplay involved the players' decision making with associated impacts on the urbanization progress and the DRR in diverse climate hazard scenarios. For this study, 107 undergraduates from related majors, who are also would-be policymakers, were selected as players. The methodology combined questionnaire survey and participant observation complemented by interviews. The t-test results indicated that undergraduates' knowledge levels had significant positive changes after the end of the serious game. Importantly, the results showed that the knowledge could potentially contribute to the players' decision-making process for DRR by assisting them in making pre-decision. Beside this knowledge, the results expanded the range of influencing factors and solutions reported by previous literature on DRR under an urbanization background against climate hazards by constructing counterfactual scenarios, e.g., higher economic levels and policy incentives. In this study, the serious game was evaluated as an innovative communication and the EfS method in counterfactual scenarios. These findings of the study provide a reference for future practice, policymaking, and decision making so as to help harness lessons learned from unrealized environmental hazards to support a more resilient future through informed policies and plans.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Han J, Zhang A, Kang Y, et al (2021)

Biochar promotes soil organic carbon sequestration and reduces net global warming potential in apple orchard: A two-year study in the Loess Plateau of China.

The Science of the total environment, 803:150035 pii:S0048-9697(21)05110-X [Epub ahead of print].

The Loess Plateau is China's primary apple-growing area, and the orchard is a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions due to high nitrogen fertilizer input. Thus, a two-year field study was carried out to investigate the effects of apple wood derived biochar on GHGs emissions during apple orchard production, including soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCSR) and net global warming potential (NGWP) assessments. There are four treatments in this study: 20 t ha-1 biochar in a non-fertilized plot (B); no biochar in a fertilized plot (F); 20 t ha-1 biochar in a fertilized plot (FB); no biochar in a non-fertilized plot (CK). Results showed that the combined application of biochar and fertilizer stimulated CO2 emissions by 9.25% and 8.39% than either biochar or fertilizer alone. Meanwhile, biochar in fertilized plot increased annual N2O emissions by 32.6% as compared to fertilized plot without biochar amendment. Compared with CK, biochar had no significant effect on GHG emissions in unfertilized plot. The N2O emission factor of FB and F were 0.91% and 0.45% respectively in 2017-2018 and they were both 0.34% in 2018-2019. Moreover, compared with CK, the FB and B treatments increased the SOCSR by 316.52% and 354.78%, while, decreased the NGWP by 368.93% and 480.91%, respectively. Thus, biochar application may help reduce the impact of apple production on climate change by sequestering more soil organic carbon and decreasing the NGWP.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

McLean M, Mouillot D, Maureaud AA, et al (2021)

Disentangling tropicalization and deborealization in marine ecosystems under climate change.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(21)01138-6 [Epub ahead of print].

As climate change accelerates, species are shifting poleward and subtropical and tropical species are colonizing temperate environments.1-3 A popular approach for characterizing such responses is the community temperature index (CTI), which tracks the mean thermal affinity of a community. Studies in marine,4 freshwater,5 and terrestrial6 ecosystems have documented increasing CTI under global warming. However, most studies have only linked increasing CTI to increases in warm-affinity species. Here, using long-term monitoring of marine fishes across the Northern Hemisphere, we decomposed CTI changes into four underlying processes-tropicalization (increasing warm-affinity), deborealization (decreasing cold-affinity), borealization (increasing cold-affinity), and detropicalization (decreasing warm-affinity)-for which we examined spatial variability and drivers. CTI closely tracked changes in sea surface temperature, increasing in 72% of locations. However, 31% of these increases were primarily due to decreases in cold-affinity species, i.e., deborealization. Thus, increases in warm-affinity species were prevalent, but not ubiquitous. Tropicalization was stronger in areas that were initially warmer, experienced greater warming, or were deeper, while deborealization was stronger in areas that were closer to human population centers or that had higher community thermal diversity. When CTI (and temperature) increased, species that decreased were more likely to be living closer to their upper thermal limits or to be commercially fished. Additionally, warm-affinity species that increased had smaller body sizes than those that decreased. Our results show that CTI changes arise from a variety of underlying community responses that are linked to environmental conditions, human impacts, community structure, and species characteristics.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Zgouridou A, Tripidaki E, Giantsis IA, et al (2021)

The current situation and potential effects of climate change on the microbial load of marine bivalves of the Greek coastlines: An integrative review.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming affects the aquatic ecosystems, accelerating pathogenic microorganisms' and toxic microalgae's growth and spread in marine habitats, and in bivalve molluscs. New parasite invasions are directly linked to oceanic warming. Consumption of pathogen-infected molluscs impacts human health at different rates, depending, inter alia, on the bacteria taxa. It is therefore necessary to monitor microbiological and chemical contamination of food. Many global cases of poisoning from bivalve consumption can be traced back to Mediterranean regions. This paper's aim is to examine the marine bivalve's infestation rate within the scope of climate change, as well as to evaluate the risk posed by climate change to bivalve welfare and public health. Biological and climatic data literature review was performed from international scientific sources, Greek authorities and State organizations. Focusing on Greek aquaculture and bivalve fisheries, high risk index pathogenic parasites and microalgae were observed during summer months, particularly in Thermaikos Gulf. Considering the climate models that predict further temperature increases, it seems that marine organisms will be subjected in the long-term to higher temperatures. Due to the positive linkage between temperature and microbial load, the marine areas most affected by this phenomenon are characterized as "high risk" for consumer health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Zuza EJ, Maseyk K, Bhagwat SA, et al (2021)

Climate suitability predictions for the cultivation of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) in Malawi using climate change scenarios.

PloS one, 16(9):e0257007 pii:PONE-D-21-15846.

Climate change is altering suitable areas of crop species worldwide, with cascading effects on people reliant upon those crop species as food sources and for income generation. Macadamia is one of Malawi's most important and profitable crop species; however, climate change threatens its production. Thus, this study's objective is to quantitatively examine the potential impacts of climate change on the climate suitability for macadamia in Malawi. We utilized an ensemble model approach to predict the current and future (2050s) suitability of macadamia under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We achieved a good model fit in determining suitability classes for macadamia (AUC = 0.9). The climatic variables that strongly influence macadamia's climatic suitability in Malawi are suggested to be the precipitation of the driest month (29.1%) and isothermality (17.3%). Under current climatic conditions, 57% (53,925 km2) of Malawi is climatically suitable for macadamia. Future projections suggest that climate change will decrease the suitable areas for macadamia by 18% (17,015 km2) and 21.6% (20,414 km2) based on RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, with the distribution of suitability shifting northwards in the 2050s. The southern and central regions of the country will suffer the greatest losses (≥ 8%), while the northern region will be the least impacted (4%). We conclude that our study provides critical evidence that climate change will reduce the suitable areas for macadamia production in Malawi, depending on climate drivers. Therefore area-specific adaptation strategies are required to build resilience among producers.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Villamizar-Gomez A, Wang HH, Peterson MR, et al (2021)

Environmental determinants of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the likelihood of further dispersion in the face of climate change in Texas, USA.

Diseases of aquatic organisms, 146:29-39.

One of the major drivers of amphibian population declines is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We sought to identify the major environmental drivers of Bd prevalence in Texas, USA, by drawing results from museum specimens. We sampled one of the largest museum collections in Texas, the Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections at Texas A&M University. Our sampling focused on the 9 amphibian species with the widest geographical distribution within the state, where we sub-sampled 30% of each species per decade from 1930 to present via skin swabs, totaling 1501 independent sampling events, and used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect pathogen presence. We analyzed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Bd using boosted regression trees. Our final model suggests the most influential variables are mean temperature of driest quarter, annual mean temperature, temperature annual range, and mean diurnal range. The most likely suitable range for Bd is currently found in the Blackland Prairie and Cross Timbers ecoregions. Results of our future (to the year 2040) projections suggest that Bd could expand its current distribution. Our model could play an important role when developing an integrated conservation plan through (1) focusing future field work on locations with a high likelihood of presence, (2) assisting in the choice of locations for restoration, and (3) developing future research plans including those necessary for projecting reactions to climate change. Our model also could integrate new presence data of Bd when they become available to enhance prediction precision.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Koch CA, Sharda P, Patel J, et al (2021)

Climate Change and Obesity.

Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme, 53(9):575-587.

Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Streib LC, Stone JR, Lyon EC, et al (2021)

Anthropogenic climate change has altered lake state in the Sierra Nevada (California, USA).

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Climatic changes threaten freshwater resources and aquatic ecosystem health in the Sierra Nevada (California, USA), which has important consequences for millions of people and the world's fifth largest economy. However, the timing and magnitude of ecological changes driven by hydroclimate oscillations remain poorly understood in California's headwater region. Here, we develop a precisely dated, annually to decadally resolved lake sediment record of ecological change from the eastern Sierra Nevada that spans the last three millennia. Diatom paleoecology reveals a detailed history of abrupt limnologic transitions, best explained by modifications in water column stratification, mixing, and nutrient status in response to changing seasonality. Seasonally stratified conditions were registered during the Late Holocene Dry Period and the Medieval Climate Anomaly, illustrating the sensitivity of fossil diatoms to well-known periods of drought. Yet the most striking feature of the record is the uniqueness of ~1840-2016 CE: a period of singularly strong water column stratification, increased algal diversity, and reduced diatom productivity consistent with unprecedented "hot droughts." The data demonstrate that hot-dry conditions of the Industrial Era altered lake state to conditions unseen in the past ~3180 years, and suggest that regional trends identified by historical monitoring began far earlier than previously recognized. Our record illustrates the profound influence of anthropogenic climate warming on high-elevation lakes and the ecosystem services they provide in the Sierra Nevada, which hold implications for water quality and availability in California.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Yu L, Wu ZT, DU ZQ, et al (2020)

[Quantitative analysis of the effects of human activities on vegetation in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source region under the climate change].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 31(6):2007-2014.

It is of great practical significance for regional ecological management to understand the quantitative impacts of human activities on vegetation under climate change. Based on GIMMS NDVI3g data, meteorological data (temperature, precipitation) and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), we used correlation analysis and trend analysis to examine the spatio-temporal variation of vegetation and its driving factors in different periods from 1982 to 2014 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source region. Regression analysis and residual analysis were used to quantify the impacts of human activities on vegetation changes in different sub-regions. The results showed that from 1982 to 2014, the degradation status in 77.1% of degraded vegetation was significantly improved and 64.1% of vegetation had an increasing trend in the study area, with mean annual NDVI decreasing from southeast to northwest. Vegetation coverage increased in 74.5% of the areas after the implementation of the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source control project, with mountains in northern Shanxi showing the most obvious increases. Among all the climate factors, rainfall had the strongest correlation with vegetation change. Human activities, such as ecological engineering, played an active role in most areas, especially in mountains of northern Shanxi, where the contribution of human activities reached 94.9%.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Emeryk AW, Sosnowski T, Kupczyk M, et al (2021)

Impact of inhalers used in the treatment of respiratory diseases on global warming.

Advances in respiratory medicine, 89(4):427-438.

The term "carbon footprint" describes the emission of greenhouse gases into the environment as a result of human activities. The healthcare sector is responsible for 5-8% of the value of global greenhouse gas emissions, of which medical aerosols account for only 0.03% of the total emissions. The reduction of greenhouse gases, including those used for the production and use of medicinal products and medical devices, is part of the responsibilities that Poland and the respective countries should undertake in order to implement the assumptions of international law. At the level of medical law, this obligation correlates with the need to exercise due diligence in the process of providing health services, including the selection of low-emission medical products and devices (inhalers) and providing patients with information on how to handle used products and devices, with particular emphasis on those that imply greenhouse gas emissions. Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) containing the hydrofluoroalkane 134a demonstrate the largest carbon footprint, followed by a metered dose liquid inhaler and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The carbon footprint of DPI with a given drug is 13-32 times lower than it is in the case of the corresponding pMDI. Replacement of pMDI by DPI is one of the effective methods to reduce the carbon footprint of inhalers, and the replacement should be based on current medical knowledge. A recycling system for all types of inhalers must be urgently implemented.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Marx W, Haunschild R, L Bornmann (2021)

Heat waves: a hot topic in climate change research.

Theoretical and applied climatology pii:3758 [Epub ahead of print].

Research on heat waves (periods of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity) is a newly emerging research topic within the field of climate change research with high relevance for the whole of society. In this study, we analyzed the rapidly growing scientific literature dealing with heat waves. No summarizing overview has been published on this literature hitherto. We developed a suitable search query to retrieve the relevant literature covered by the Web of Science (WoS) as complete as possible and to exclude irrelevant literature (n = 8,011 papers). The time evolution of the publications shows that research dealing with heat waves is a highly dynamic research topic, doubling within about 5 years. An analysis of the thematic content reveals the most severe heat wave events within the recent decades (1995 and 2003), the cities and countries/regions affected (USA, Europe, and Australia), and the ecological and medical impacts (drought, urban heat islands, excess hospital admissions, and mortality). An alarming finding is that the limit for survivability may be reached at the end of the twenty-first century in many regions of the world due to the fatal combination of rising temperatures and humidity levels measured as "wet-bulb temperature" (WBT). Risk estimation and future strategies for adaptation to hot weather are major political issues. We identified 104 citation classics, which include fundamental early works of research on heat waves and more recent works (which are characterized by a relatively strong connection to climate change).

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Fuller MG, Cavanaugh N, Green S, et al (2021)

Climate Change and State of the Science for Children's Health and Environmental Health Equity.

Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners pii:S0891-5245(21)00190-5 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Climate change is impacting the physical and mental health of children and families. This is a state of the science update regarding the impacts of climate change for pediatric-focused health care providers and advanced practice registered nurses.

METHOD: Using an equity lens, the authors reviewed and synthesized current literature regarding the adverse impacts of climate change.

RESULTS: The poor and communities of color are disproportionately impacted by climate change. Physical health impacts include increased vector and water-born infectious diseases, increases in asthma and respiratory infections, and undernutrition. Social disruptions lead to human trafficking. Climate change is associated with mental health concerns, including anxiety and posttraumatic stress after natural disasters.

DISCUSSION: As clinicians, pediatric-focused providers, and advanced practice registered nurses should use multipronged and interdisciplinary approaches to address or prevent the adverse impacts of climate change. Advocacy at all government levels is necessary to safeguard children and vulnerable populations.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Bokor B, Santos CS, Kostoláni D, et al (2021)

Mitigation of climate change and environmental hazards in plants: Potential role of the beneficial metalloid silicon.

Journal of hazardous materials, 416:126193.

In the last decades, the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and the average temperature have been increasing, and this trend is expected to become more severe in the near future. Additionally, environmental stresses including drought, salinity, UV-radiation, heavy metals, and toxic elements exposure represent a threat for ecosystems and agriculture. Climate and environmental changes negatively affect plant growth, biomass and yield production, and also enhance plant susceptibility to pests and diseases. Silicon (Si), as a beneficial element for plants, is involved in plant tolerance and/or resistance to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The beneficial role of Si has been shown in various plant species and its accumulation relies on the root's uptake capacity. However, Si uptake in plants depends on many biogeochemical factors that may be substantially altered in the future, affecting its functional role in plant protection. At present, it is not clear whether Si accumulation in plants will be positively or negatively affected by changing climate and environmental conditions. In this review, we focused on Si interaction with the most important factors of global change and environmental hazards in plants, discussing the potential role of its application as an alleviation strategy for climate and environmental hazards based on current knowledge.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Gusmão AC, Evangelista-Vale JC, Pires-Oliveira JC, et al (2021)

New records and modelling the impacts of climate change on the black-tailed marmosets.

PloS one, 16(9):e0256270 pii:PONE-D-20-36902.

Climate change represents an unprecedented threat to global biodiversity and, for many species, gaps in our knowledge of their biology remain acute. Gaps in baseline knowledge, such as confirmed identifications (Linnean shortfalls) and adequate collections (Wallacean shortfalls), need to be minimized with new studies, since this is often critical for effective conservation. Despite the increase in scientific research on primates in the southwest of the Brazilian Amazon, little is known about the species Mico nigriceps (Ferrari & Lopes, 1992) Primates, Platirryni. In the current study, we sought to reduce the extent of the Wallacean shortfall for M. nigriceps, understand whether climate change represents a threat to the distribution of the species, and identify priority areas for its conservation. Accordingly, we provide 121 new records in 14 locations, obtained directly from the field, and five from the literature. Using this, we carried out ecological niche modeling, to better understand how environmental suitability might limit the area occupied by the species. We then projected a distribution for 2070 with the SSP2-4.5 (more optimistic) and SSP5-8.5 (more pessimistic) scenarios. Our data confirmed the geographic distribution of the species as being restricted to headwaters of the Ji-Paraná/Machado river, but with a 400 km extension to the south. Under the modeled climate change scenarios, the area suitable for the species declines by 21% under the most optimistic, and by 27% in the pessimistic, scenario across the projected 50-year period. Although we have expanded the area of known occurrence for this species, we point out that climate change threatens the stability of this newly-discovered population strongly, and that this danger is intensified by deforestation, fire and hunting. We recommend that further studies be carried out to confirm the presence of the species in adjacent areas, those indicated by generated models as being potential environmentally suitable. In addition, we recommend intensifying forest restoration in currently pastured areas, and protection of the areas forming the current and future habitat of this species through such measures as protected area creation.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Nabeel I, Caraballo-Arias Y, Perkison WB, et al (2021)

Proposed Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies Related to Climate Change: Guidance for OEM Professionals.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 63(9):e650-e656.

Climate change is an urgent challenge amplified by socioeconomic factors that demands thoughtful public health responses from OEM professionals. This guidance statement from the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine focuses on the different strategies that these health professionals can implement to protect workers from health impacts associated with climate change hazards, foster workplace resilience in the face of rapidly changing environments, and take the necessary steps to mitigate the effects of global climate change.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Wege M, Salas L, M LaRue (2021)

Ice matters: Life-history strategies of two Antarctic seals dictate climate change eventualities in the Weddell Sea.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

The impacts of climate change in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are not uniform and ice-obligate species with dissimilar life-history characteristics will likely respond differently to their changing ecosystems. We use a unique data set of Weddell Leptonychotes weddellii and crabeater seals' (CESs) Lobodon carcinophaga breeding season distribution in the Weddell Sea, determined from satellite imagery. We contrast the theoretical climate impacts on both ice-obligate predators who differ in life-history characteristics: CESs are highly specialized Antarctic krill Euphausia superba predators and breed in the seasonal pack ice; Weddell seals (WESs) are generalist predators and breed on comparatively stable fast ice. We used presence-absence data and a suite of remotely sensed environmental variables to build habitat models. Each of the environmental predictors is multiplied by a 'climate change score' based on known responses to climate change to create a 'change importance product'. Results show CESs are more sensitive to climate change than WESs. Crabeater seals prefer to breed close to krill, and the compounding effects of changing sea ice concentrations and sea surface temperatures, the proximity to krill and abundance of stable breeding ice, can influence their post-breeding foraging success and ultimately their future breeding success. But in contrast to the Ross Sea, here WESs prefer to breed closer to larger colonies of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). This suggests that the Weddell Sea may currently be prey-abundant, allowing the only two air-breathing Antarctic silverfish predators (Pleuragramma antarctica) (WESs and emperor penguins) to breed closer to each other. This is the first basin-scale, region-specific comparison of breeding season habitat in these two key Antarctic predators based on real-world data to compare climate change responses. This work shows that broad-brush, basin-scale approaches to understanding species-specific responses to climate change are not always appropriate, and regional models are needed-especially when designing marine protected areas.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Barnes DKA, Sands CJ, Paulsen ML, et al (2021)

Societal importance of Antarctic negative feedbacks on climate change: blue carbon gains from sea ice, ice shelf and glacier losses.

Die Naturwissenschaften, 108(5):43.

Diminishing prospects for environmental preservation under climate change are intensifying efforts to boost capture, storage and sequestration (long-term burial) of carbon. However, as Earth's biological carbon sinks also shrink, remediation has become a key part of the narrative for terrestrial ecosystems. In contrast, blue carbon on polar continental shelves have stronger pathways to sequestration and have increased with climate-forced marine ice losses-becoming the largest known natural negative feedback on climate change. Here we explore the size and complex dynamics of blue carbon gains with spatiotemporal changes in sea ice (60-100 MtCyear-1), ice shelves (4-40 MtCyear-1 = giant iceberg generation) and glacier retreat (< 1 MtCyear-1). Estimates suggest that, amongst these, reduced duration of seasonal sea ice is most important. Decreasing sea ice extent drives longer (not necessarily larger biomass) smaller cell-sized phytoplankton blooms, increasing growth of many primary consumers and benthic carbon storage-where sequestration chances are maximal. However, sea ice losses also create positive feedbacks in shallow waters through increased iceberg movement and scouring of benthos. Unlike loss of sea ice, which enhances existing sinks, ice shelf losses generate brand new carbon sinks both where giant icebergs were, and in their wake. These also generate small positive feedbacks from scouring, minimised by repeat scouring at biodiversity hotspots. Blue carbon change from glacier retreat has been least well quantified, and although emerging fjords are small areas, they have high storage-sequestration conversion efficiencies, whilst blue carbon in polar waters faces many diverse and complex stressors. The identity of these are known (e.g. fishing, warming, ocean acidification, non-indigenous species and plastic pollution) but not their magnitude of impact. In order to mediate multiple stressors, research should focus on wider verification of blue carbon gains, projecting future change, and the broader environmental and economic benefits to safeguard blue carbon ecosystems through law.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Vione D, Minero C, L Carena (2021)

Fluorophores in surface freshwaters: importance, likely structures, and possible impacts of climate change.

Environmental science. Processes & impacts [Epub ahead of print].

Fluorescence spectroscopy is one of the most useful techniques currently available for the characterisation of organic matter in natural water samples, because it combines easy availability of instrumentation, high sensitivity and limited requirements for sample treatment. The main fluorophores that can be found in natural waters are usually proteins (and/or free amino acids) and humic substances (humic and fulvic acids). The identification of these fluorescent compounds in water samples helps to obtain information about, among others, biological activity in the water body, possible transport of organic matter from soil, and the phenomenon of photobleaching that decreases both the absorbance and (usually) the fluorescence of natural organic matter. Interestingly, all these phenomena can be affected by climate change, which could alter to different extents the ratio between aquagenic and pedogenic fluorophores. Several events induced by warming in natural waters (and especially lake water) could enhance algal growth, thereby also enhancing the production of aquagenic organic matter. Intense precipitation events could increase the export of pedogenic material to surface waters, while photobleaching would be enhanced in the epilimnion of lakes when summer stratification becomes longer and more stable because of higher temperatures. Interestingly, photobleaching affects humic substances to a higher extent compared to protein-like material, thus protein fluorescence signals could be more preserved in stratified waters.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Else H (2021)

Climate change implicated in Germany's deadly floods.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Zhu Y, Yu Q, Luo Q, et al (2021)

Impacts of climate change on suitability zonation for potato cultivation in Jilin Province, Northeast China.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13103.

Global climate change is causing notable shifts in the environmental suitability of the main regions involved in potato cultivation and has, thus, changed the production potential of potatoes. These shifts can be mapped at fine scales to better understand climate change within areas of potato cultivation and to find infrastructural- and breeding-based solutions. As a case study, we have identified and mapped the structural and spatial shifts that occurred in areas suitable for potato cultivation in Jilin Province, China. We identified a discontinuity in climate change trends between 1961 and 2018 based on data for Jilin Province, and analyzed the averages and linear trends for six important climatic parameters. We used the averages of these climatic parameters to establish climate models for the province and determined cultivation using a multi-criteria, decision-based model that integrates Analytical Hierarchy Process Weighted Principal Component Analysis (AHP-PCA) and Geographic Information System (GIS). We mapped the environmentally suitable areas for potato cultivation at a 3-km resolution based on the geo-climate model for each time period and analyzed differences between them. We found that "Most suitable" areas for potato cultivation were mainly distributed in the central area of Jilin Province, "Suitable" areas were located in the northwestern plains, and "Sub-suitable" areas were located in the eastern mountainous areas. In contrast, "Not suitable" areas occur mainly in the high-altitude areas in the east. The areas of "Most suitable" and "Suitable" areas for potato cultivation in Jilin Province were increasing, with increasing rates of 0.37 × 1,000 km2 decade-1 (R2 = 0.58, P < 0.01) and 0.20 × 1,000 km2 decade-1 (R2 = 0.28, P < 0.01), respectively, while the extent of "Sub-suitable" areas is decreasing, with a decreasing rate of 0.58 × 1,000 km2 decade-1 (R2 = 0.53, P < 0.05). The area of "Not suitable" areas had undergone little change. "Most suitable" and "Suitable" areas for potato cultivation showed a trend towards northward expansion. Overall, our results suggest that global climate change has had a positive impact on potato cultivation in Jilin Province over the past 58 years.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Merino JG (2021)

Comment: Climate Change.

Neurology pii:WNL.0000000000012692 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Salas RN, KL Ebi (2021)

The Health Benefits of Urgent Upstream Action on Climate Change.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Brockhaus M, Di Gregorio M, Djoudi H, et al (2021)

The forest frontier in the Global South: Climate change policies and the promise of development and equity.

Ambio [Epub ahead of print].

Halting forest loss and achieving sustainable development in an equitable manner require state, non-state actors, and entire societies in the Global North and South to tackle deeply established patterns of inequality and power relations embedded in forest frontiers. Forest and climate governance in the Global South can provide an avenue for the transformational change needed-yet, does it? We analyse the politics and power in four cases of mitigation, adaptation, and development arenas. We use a political economy lens to explore the transformations taking place when climate policy meets specific forest frontiers in the Global South, where international, national and local institutions, interests, ideas, and information are at play. We argue that lasting and equitable outcomes will require a strong discursive shift within dominant institutions and among policy actors to redress policies that place responsibilities and burdens on local people in the Global South, while benefits from deforestation and maladaptation are taken elsewhere. What is missing is a shared transformational objective and priority to keep forests standing among all those involved from afar in the major forest frontiers in the tropics.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Baumbusch J, Blakey E, Carapellotti A, et al (2021)

This alarm is not a drill: We call gerontological nurses to act on climate change.

International journal of older people nursing, 16(5):e12421.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Burnier M, D Fouque (2021)

Global warming applied to dialysis: facts and figures.

Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association pii:6364153 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Waaswa A, Nkurumwa AO, Kibe AM, et al (2021)

Communicating climate change adaptation strategies: climate-smart agriculture information dissemination pathways among smallholder potato farmers in Gilgil Sub-County, Kenya.

Heliyon, 7(8):e07873 pii:S2405-8440(21)01976-9.

Proven and sustainable practices like climate-smart agricultural practices (CSAPs) need to be prioritized and promoted for uptake especially by the farmers to achieve sustainable development. These are capable of contributing to the realization of sustainable development goals through averting food and nutritional insecurity, increasing and sustaining yields that translate into increased incomes and later reduced poverty. This is because CSAPs enable farmers to adapt and mitigate climate change effects. However, due to inappropriate communication of CSAPs to the farmers, to date, some farmers still see no escape route from the frightening effects of climate change and they are currently adopting a rather fatalistic attitude. This study investigated the information dissemination pathways used by different categories of smallholder potato farmers for and practice of CSAPs. It found a difference between information sources and practice of CSAPs at a 5% level of significance (χ2 = 100.12139, df = 2, p < 0.05, Cramer's V = 1.0), and a difference in the use of the three information dissemination pathways between men and women at a 5% level of significance (χ2 = 6.05949, df = 2, p < 0.05, Cramer's V = 0.17406). The three information dissemination pathways included media, neighbors and friends, and extension officers. Generally, farmers were aware and practiced the CSAPs investigated in this study except for irrigation with high awareness yet with low uptake percentage and potato seedlings and minitubers both with low awareness and practice respectively. This study recommended mainstreaming of CSAPs information.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Bunten D, ME Kahn (2017)

Optimal real estate capital durability and localized climate change disaster risk.

Journal of housing economics, 36:1-7.

The durability of the real estate capital stock could hinder climate change adaptation because past construction anchors the population in beautiful and productive but increasingly-risky coastal areas. However, coastal developers anticipate that their assets face increasing risk and this creates an incentive to seek adaptation strategies. This paper models climate change as a joint process of (1) increasingly destructive storms and (2) a risk of sea-level rise that submerges coastal property. We study how forward-looking developers and real estate investors respond to the new risks along a number of dimensions including their choices of location, capital durability, capital mobility (modular real estate), and maintenance of existing properties. The net effect of such investments is a more resilient urban population.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Sanford M, Painter J, Yasseri T, et al (2021)

Controversy around climate change reports: a case study of Twitter responses to the 2019 IPCC report on land.

Climatic change, 167(3-4):59.

In August 2019, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its Special Report on Climate Change and Land (SRCCL), which generated extensive societal debate and interest in mainstream and social media. Using computational and conceptual text analysis, we examined more than 6,000 English-language posts on Twitter to establish the relative presence of different topics. Then, we assessed their levels of toxicity and sentiment polarity as an indication of contention and controversy. We find first that meat consumption and dietary options became one of the most discussed issues on Twitter in response to the IPCC report, even though it was a relatively minor element of the report; second, this new issue of controversy (meat and diet) had similar, high levels of toxicity to strongly contentious issues in previous IPCC reports (skepticism about climate science and the credibility of the IPCC). We suggest that this is in part a reflection of increasingly polarized narratives about meat and diet found in other areas of public discussion and of a movement away from criticism of climate science towards criticism of climate solutions. Finally, we discuss the possible implications of these findings for the work of the IPCC in anticipating responses to its reports and responding to them effectively.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10584-021-03182-1.

RevDate: 2021-09-05

Bairos-Novak KR, Hoogenboom MO, van Oppen MJH, et al (2021)

Coral adaptation to climate change: Meta-analysis reveals high heritability across multiple traits.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic climate change is a rapidly intensifying selection pressure on biodiversity across the globe and, particularly, on the world's coral reefs. The rate of adaptation to climate change is proportional to the amount of phenotypic variation that can be inherited by subsequent generations (i.e., narrow-sense heritability, h2). Thus, traits that have higher heritability (e.g., h2 > 0.5) are likely to adapt to future conditions faster than traits with lower heritability (e.g., h2 < 0.1). Here, we synthesize 95 heritability estimates across 19 species of reef-building corals. Our meta-analysis reveals low heritability (h2 < 0.25) of gene expression metrics, intermediate heritability (h2 = 0.25-0.50) of photochemistry, growth, and bleaching, and high heritability (h2 > 0.50) for metrics related to survival and immune responses. Some of these values are higher than typically observed in other taxa, such as survival and growth, while others were more comparable, such as gene expression and photochemistry. There was no detectable effect of temperature on heritability, but narrow-sense heritability estimates were generally lower than broad-sense estimates, indicative of significant non-additive genetic variation across traits. Trait heritability also varied depending on coral life stage, with bleaching and growth in juveniles generally having lower heritability compared to bleaching and growth in larvae and adults. These differences may be the result of previous stabilizing selection on juveniles or may be due to constrained evolution resulting from genetic trade-offs or genetic correlations between growth and thermotolerance. While we find no evidence that heritability decreases under temperature stress, explicit tests of the heritability of thermal tolerance itself-such as coral thermal reaction norm shape-are lacking. Nevertheless, our findings overall reveal high trait heritability for the majority of coral traits, suggesting corals may have a greater potential to adapt to climate change than has been assumed in recent evolutionary models.

RevDate: 2021-09-05

Ozdemir D (2021)

The impact of climate change on agricultural productivity in Asian countries: a heterogeneous panel data approach.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

While climate change is having serious impacts on agriculture and may require ongoing adaptation, short-run threats to global food security are also crucial for developing countries. We use dynamic and asymmetric panel autoregressive distributed lag estimators to investigate how the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity vary depending upon the short run and long run in Asia over the period of 1980-2016. The results confirmed that there is a long-run relationship between agricultural productivity and climate change variables; however, only CO2 emissions could be linked to agricultural productivity in the short run. Moreover, while the direction of this effect is positive for the short run, it turns into negative in the long run confirming that carbon fertilization in the atmosphere can to some extent have a positive effect on agricultural productivity.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Mafi-Gholami D, Pirasteh S, Ellison JC, et al (2021)

Fuzzy-based vulnerability assessment of coupled social-ecological systems to multiple environmental hazards and climate change.

Journal of environmental management, 299:113573 pii:S0301-4797(21)01635-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and combining related parameters of environmental hazards have left a considerable challenge in assessing social-ecological vulnerability. Here we integrated a fuzzy-based approach in the vulnerability assessment of mangrove social-ecological systems combining environmental parameters, socio-economic, and vegetative components from exposure dimensions, sensitivity and adaptive capacity along the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman for the first time. This study aims to provide critical information for habitat-scale management strategies and adaptation plans by assessing the vulnerability of mangrove social-ecological systems. This study provides a methodology framework that consists of five steps. Step 1: We combined the fuzzy weighted maps of seven environmental hazards, including tidal range, maximum wind speeds, drought magnitude, maximum temperatures, extreme storm surge, sea-level rise, significant wave height, and social vulnerability. This map combination determined that the computed exposure index is from 1.07 to 4.32 across the study areas, with an increasing trend from the coasts of the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman. Step 2: We integrated the fuzzy weighted maps of four sensitivity variables, including area change, health change, seaward edge retreat, and production potential change. The findings show that the sensitivity index is from 1.40 to 2.64 across the study areas, increasing the trend from the Persian Gulf coast to the Gulf of Oman. Step 3: Besides, we combined the fuzzy weighted maps of three adaptive capacity variables, including the availability of migration areas, recruitment, and local communities' participation in restoration projects and education programs. The result showed that the index value across the study areas varies between 0.087 and 2.38, decreasing the trend from the Persian Gulf coast to the Gulf of Oman. Step 4: Implementing fuzzy hierarchical analysis process to determine the relative weight of variables corresponding to exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Step 5: The integration of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity and the vulnerability index maps in the study areas showed variation from 0.25 to 5.92, with the vulnerability of mangroves from the west coast of the Persian Gulf (Nayband) decreasing towards Khamir, then increasing to the eastern coasts of the Gulf of Oman (Jask and Gwadar). Overall, the results indicate the importance of the proposed approach to the vulnerability of mangroves at the habitat scale along a coastal area and across environmental gradients of climatic, maritime and socio-economic variables. This study validated the findings based on the ground truth measurements, and high-resolution satellite data incorporated the Consistency Rate (CR) in the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP). The overall accuracy of all classified remote sensing images and maps consistently exceeded 90%, and the CR of the 25 completed questionnaires was <0.1. Finally, this study indicates differences in vulnerability of various habitats, leading to focus conservation completion and rehabilitation and climate change adaptation planning to support the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-13 implementation.

RevDate: 2021-09-04

Marques R, Krüger RF, Cunha SK, et al (2021)

Climate change impacts on Anopheles (K.) cruzii in urban areas of Atlantic Forest of Brazil: challenges for malaria diseases.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(21)00302-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Around 27% of South Americans live in central and southern Brazil. Of 19,400 human malaria cases in Brazil in 2018, some were from the southern and southeastern states. High abundance of malaria vectors is generally positively associated with malaria incidence. Expanding geographic distributions of Anopheles vector mosquito species (e.g. A. cruzii) in the face of climate change processes would increase risk of such malaria transmission; such risk is of particular concern in regions that hold human population concentrations near present limits of vector species' geographic distributions. We modeled effects of likely climate changes on the distribution of A. cruzii, evaluating two scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions for 2050, as simulated in 21 general circulation models and two greenhouse gas scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) for 2050. We tested 1305 candidate models, and chose among them based on statistical significance, predictive performance, and complexity. The models closely approximated the known geographic distribution of the species under current conditions. Under scenarios of future climate change, we noted increases in suitable area for the mosquito vector species in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states, including areas close to 30 densely populated cities. Under RCP 8.5, our models anticipate areal increases of >75% for this important malaria vector in the vicinity of 20 large Brazilian cities. We developed models that anticipate increased suitability for the mosquito species; around 50% of Brazilians reside in these areas, and ∼89% of foreign tourists visit coastal areas in this region. Under climate change thereefore, the risk and vulnerability of human populations to malaria transmission appears bound to increase.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Franke JA, Müller C, Minoli S, et al (2021)

Agricultural breadbaskets shift poleward given adaptive farmer behavior under climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Modern food production is spatially concentrated in global "breadbaskets". A major unresolved question is whether these peak production regions will shift poleward as the climate warms, allowing some recovery of potential climaterelated losses. While agricultural impacts studies to date have focused on currently cultivated land, the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison Project (GGCMI) Phase 2 experiment allows us to assess changes in both yields and the location of peak productivity regions under warming. We examine crop responses under projected end-of-century warming using 7 process-based models simulating 5 major crops (maize, rice, soybeans, and spring and winter wheat) with a variety of adaptation strategies. We find that in no-adaptation cases, when planting date and cultivar choices are held fixed, regions of peak production remain stationary and yield losses can be severe, since growing seasons contract strongly with warming. When adaptations in management practices are allowed (cultivars that retain growing season length under warming and modified planting dates), peak productivity zones shift poleward and yield losses are largely recovered. While most growing-zone shifts are ultimately limited by geography, breadbaskets studied here move poleward over 600 km on average by end of the century under RCP8.5. These results suggest that agricultural impacts assessments can be strongly biased if restricted in spatial area or in the scope of adaptive behavior considered. Accurate evaluation of food security under climate change requires global modeling and careful treatment of adaptation strategies.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Xu X, Ouyang X, Gu Y, et al (2021)

Climate change may interact with nitrogen fertilizer management leading to different ammonia loss in China's croplands.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Despite research into the response of ammonia (NH3) volatilization in farmland to various meteorological factors, the potential impact of future climate change on NH3 volatilization is not fully understood. Based on a database consisting of 1063 observations across China, nonlinear NH3 models considering crop type, meteorological, soil and management variables were established via four machine learning methods, including support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron, gradient boosting machine and random forest (RF). The RF model had the highest R2 of 0.76 and the lowest RMSE of 0.82, showing the best simulation capability. Results of model importance indicated that NH3 volatilization was mainly controlled by total input of N fertilizer, followed by meteorological factors, human managements and soil characteristics. The NH3 emissions of China's cereal production (paddy rice, wheat and maize) in 2018 was estimated to be 3.3 Mt NH3 -N. By 2050, NH3 volatilization will increase by 23.1-32.0% under different climate change scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways, RCPs), and climate change will have the greatest impact on NH3 volatilization in the Yangtze river agro-region of China due to high warming effects. However, the potential increase of NH3 volatilization under future climate change can be mitigated by 26.1-47.5% through various N fertilizer management optimization options.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Nadeau KC, Agache I, Jutel M, et al (2021)

Climate change: A call to action for the United Nations.

In recent decades, increased burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heating and transportation have led to increases in greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases) while deforestation and decreased biodiversity has reduced the Earth's ability to remove CO2 , the major greenhouse gas emission. Greenhouse gases trap the sun's energy leading to fundamental shifts in the physical and chemical nature of our planet. They also increase global temperatures both on land and in the oceans and increase acidification of the ocean. More than 90 percent of the warming that happened on Earth between 1971-2010 occurred in the oceans. In the 141 years that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has tracked global heat, the 10 warmest years on record have occurred since 2005.1.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Tang SL, Song YB, Zeng B, et al (2021)

Potential distribution of the extremely endangered species Ostrya rehderiana (Betulaceae) in China under future climate change.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, which may increase the extinction risk of rare species, particularly those like Ostrya rehderiana Chun (Betulaceae) with very few remaining extant wild individuals. We aimed to estimate the potential distribution of O. rehderiana under climate change and to analyze possible relevant climatic factors. Maximum entropy (Maxent) was employed to model the potential distribution of O. rehderiana under present and future climate scenarios. Suitable habitat areas in different periods and the main contributing climate factors were identified using species distribution models. The minimum temperature in winter and precipitation seasonality were the principal climatic factors influencing the establishment of O. rehderiana. The proportion of high potential distribution area in China was 3.91% and would further shrink significantly under changing climate, especially reduce by 97% under high radiative forcing. The extinction risk of O. rehderiana would still be extraordinarily high under future climate scenarios. The Tianmu and Luoxiao Mountains would be the only potential refugia for O. rehderiana in the future. Special conservation efforts are urgently required to rescue extremely endangered species as O. rehderiana. We propose priorities for the conservation region and suggestions for conservation management strategies.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Khan AA, Khan SU, Ali MAS, et al (2021)

An impact of climate change and groundwater salinity on shadow price of water, farmers' revenue, and socioeconomic and environmental indicators in district Kohat-Pakistan.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Globally, agricultural productivity is adversely impacted due to climatic changes as the temperatures rises and precipitation decreases, and especially in Pakistan, which ultimately enhanced groundwater salinity and harmed water quality in the country. However, the impacts of groundwater salinity and climate change on farmers' revenue have not been fully understood in Pakistan. Therefore, the focus of current research is the assessment of shadow price of water, farmers' revenue, and socioeconomic and environmental indicators affected by variations in groundwater salinity, precipitation, and temperature. The estimation of crop yield sensitivity to groundwater salinity, precipitation, and temperature and their prediction for 2030, 2040, and 2050 time periods was accomplished through the technique of General Maximum Entropy and Response-Yield function. Moreover, the assessment of groundwater quality and climate variable impacts on socioeconomic and environmental indicators was obtained through Target Motad-PMP model. In the end, the most suitable climate change scenario in the study area was established by applying a multi-criteria decision-making method. The results revealed that groundwater salinity and temperature expressed a significantly increasing trend with the Z values of 5.82 and 2.15, respectively. While the precipitation depicted a significantly decreasing trend (Z value = -3.37). The negative impact of climatic changes and groundwater salinity was revealed for revenue risk and shadow prices of water. The most negative impact on income risk and shadow prices is during 2050 horizon with a decrease by 11.4 and 19.4% respectively. The environmental index is the most important with a priority of 43.4% compared to the socio-economic indicators. The sub-index water use is also significant in the study area with a priority of 28.1%. A2 is the most appropriate climate scenario conferring to the TOPSIS ranking method. Therefore, the A2 scenario should be taken into account for the policy of adaptation to the climate change wonder in district Kohat.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Gong L, Liu D, Jiang L, et al (2021)

Distribution characteristics of climate potential productivity of soybean in frigid region and its response to climate change.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The scope of this study is to analyze the climatic potential productivity of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and explore the impact of climate change on soybean in the frigid region in China by using daily climatic variables from 144 meteorological stations for the period 1971‒2019. The gradually descending model is used to estimate photosynthesis, light-temperature, and climatic potential productivity of soybean. The results show that climate potential productivity of soybean in the frigid region ranges from large to small: Liaoning > Jilin > Heilongjiang > East Four Leagues (four cities in eastern Inner Mongolia), with Heilongjiang and East Four Leagues showing a significant upward trend. Spatially, the climate potential productivity is larger on plains than that on mountains. The Northeast Plain and Sanjiang Plain are areas with high climate potential productivity. Changes in climatic factors have different impacts on the climate potential productivity of soybean. The influence of temperature changes on the climate potential productivity shows a positive effect, and climate warming compensates for the lack of heat in the frigid region. Furthermore, radiation and precipitation are the main climatic factors leading to spatial differences in the climate potential productivity of soybean in the frigid region. Radiation changes have a positive effect on soybean climate potential productivity in plain areas and a negative effect on the mountains. However, precipitation reduction negatively affects most of the frigid region, while it has a positive effect on the two plains of Heilongjiang. Precipitation responses the needs of soybean growth. Our findings recommend that a transition of soybean planting from the mountainous region to plain, that is, from low potential productivity areas to high potential productivity areas, could be an effective strategy for regional optimization for planting structure and rational utilization of irrigation technology.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Bundell S, N Petrić Howe (2021)

Dead trees play an under-appreciated role in climate change.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Dudney J, Willing CE, Das AJ, et al (2021)

Author Correction: Nonlinear shifts in infectious rust disease due to climate change.

Nature communications, 12(1):5326 pii:10.1038/s41467-021-25692-3.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Zangiabadi S, Zaremaivan H, Brotons L, et al (2021)

Using climatic variables alone overestimate climate change impacts on predicting distribution of an endemic species.

PloS one, 16(9):e0256918 pii:PONE-D-20-39169.

Plant species distribution is constrained by both dynamic and static environmental variables. However, relative contribution of dynamic and static variables in determining species distributions is not clear and has far reaching implications for range change dynamics in a changing world. Prunus eburnea (Spach) Aitch. & Hemsl. is an endemic and medicinal plant species of Iran. It has rendered itself as ecologically important for its functions and services and is currently in need of habitat conservation measures requiring investigation of future potential distribution range. We conducted sampling of 500 points that cover most of Iran plateau and recorded the P. eburnea presence and absence during the period 2015-2017. In this study, we evaluated impacts of using only climatic variables versus combined with topographic and edaphic variables on accuracy criteria and predictive ability of current and future habitat suitability of this species under climate change (CCSM4, RCP 2.6 in 2070) by generalized linear model and generalized boosted model. Models' performances were evaluated using area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and the true skill statistic. Then, we evaluated here, driving environmental variables determining the distribution of P. eburnea by using principal component analysis and partitioning methods. Our results indicated that prediction with high accuracy of the spatial distribution of P. eburnea requires both climate information, as dynamic primary factors, but also detailed information on soil and topography variables, as static factors. The results emphasized that environmental variable grouping influenced the modelling prediction ability strongly and the use of only climate variables would exaggerate the predicted distribution range under climate change. Results supported using both dynamic and static variables improved accuracy of the modeling and provided more realistic prediction of species distribution under influence of climate change.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Sasai F, Roncal-Jimenez C, Rogers K, et al (2021)

Climate Change and Nephrology.

Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association pii:6362903 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change should be of special concern for the nephrologist as the kidney has a critical role in protecting the host from dehydration, but is also a favorite target of heat stress and dehydration. Here we discuss how rising temperatures and extreme heat events may affect the kidney. The most severe presentation of heat stress is heat stroke, which can result in severe electrolyte disturbance and both acute and chronic kidney disease. However, lesser levels of heat stress also have multiple effects, including exacerbating kidney disease and precipitating cardiovascular events in subjects with established kidney disease. Heat stress can also increase the risk for kidney stones, cause multiple electrolyte abnormalities, and induce both acute and chronic kidney disease. Recently there have been multiple epidemics of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in various regions of the world, including Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand. There is increasing evidence that climate change and heat stress may have a contributory role in these conditions, although other causes including toxins could also be involved. As climate change worsens, the nephrologist should prepare for an increase in diseases associated with heat stress and dehydration.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Florko KRN, Tai TC, Cheung WWL, et al (2021)

Predicting how climate change threatens the prey base of Arctic marine predators.

Arctic sea ice loss has direct consequences for predators. Climate-driven distribution shifts of native and invasive prey species may exacerbate these consequences. We assessed potential changes by modelling the prey base of a widely distributed Arctic predator (ringed seal; Pusa hispida) in a sentinel area for change (Hudson Bay) under high- and low-greenhouse gas emission scenarios from 1950 to 2100. All changes were relatively negligible under the low-emission scenario, but under the high-emission scenario, we projected a 50% decline in the abundance of the well-distributed, ice-adapted and energy-rich Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and an increase in the abundance of smaller temperate-associated fish in southern and coastal areas. Furthermore, our model predicted that all fish species declined in mean body size, but a 29% increase in total prey biomass. Declines in energy-rich prey and restrictions in their spatial range are likely to have cascading effects on Arctic predators.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Nelson KN, O'Dean E, Knapp EE, et al (2021)

Persistent yet vulnerable: resurvey of an Abies ecotone reveals few differences but vulnerability to climate change.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is shifting forest tree species distributions across elevational and latitudinal gradients, and these changes are often pronounced at ecotones where species meet their climatic bounds and are replaced by other species. Using an extensive ecotone composed of lower-montane white fir (Abies concolor var. lowiana) and upper-montane red fir (Abies magnifica var. magnifica) in the central Sierra Nevada range of California, USA, we (1) examined how the demographics of the ecotone have responded to recent climate using a field observational study and a historic dataset, (2) quantified climate drivers across species life stages using contemporary demographic data, and (3) tested the potential impacts of future climate on species-specific seedling survival and growth in a fully-factorial growth chamber experiment that varied temperature, growing season length, and water availability. A re-examination of the ecotone midpoint after 35-years suggests a reduction in A. concolor sapling and tree densities and a rise in A. magnifica proportional dominance between surveys. Seedling abundances across the ecotone indicate that A. magnifica tends to dominate the regeneration layer and currently forms an important component of the seedling community at elevations below those where A. magnifica saplings or trees begin to co-dominate stands. Observational and experimental assessments suggest that temperature and precipitation serve as important drivers differentiating A. concolor versus A. magnifica distributions and are primary stressors at the seedling stage. Seedlings of both species were adversely affected by experimental climate treatments, although A. concolor exhibited greater survival and a more conservative growth strategy under extreme climatic stress than A. magnifica. Projections indicate that historic climate conditions will rise by an amount greater than the ecotone's current elevational extent by the end of the 21st century. Differential drivers of species abundances suggest that projected climate will expand conditions that promote A. concolor abundance and impede A. magnifica abundance across the ecotone; however, disturbance activity and microclimatic conditions will also influence regeneration and overstory tree dynamics. Our study demonstrates the importance of quantifying species-specific responses to climate and indicates that widespread regeneration failure may be one possible consequence where species exhibit strong sensitivity to projected climate conditions.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Greenglass A (2017)

Climate Change and Population Health.

Delaware journal of public health, 3(5):60-66 pii:djph-35-010.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Meredith WH, SC Eppes (2017)

Climate Change:: Vector-Borne Diseases and Their Control; Mosquitoes and Ticks.

Delaware journal of public health, 3(5):52-57 pii:djph-35-009.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Gost A, Hess-Mutinda R, Mitchell C, et al (2017)

Climate and Health in Maryland:: The Maryland Climate Change Health Adaptation Program.

Delaware journal of public health, 3(5):44-50 pii:djph-35-008.

Maryland's response to climate change has included creation of the Maryland Commission on Climate Change in 2007, and initiatives across many State agencies. The Commission coordinates these initiatives through the State Climate Action Plan. The Maryland Department of Health has partnered with the School of Public Health at the University of Maryland College Park to develop the 2016 Climate and Health Profile report, which estimates the health impacts of climate change in Maryland. Using historical health data and climate model projections, the report found that climate change will have a disproportionate impact on certain populations across the state. For example, extreme heat and extreme precipitation events during summer months increased the risk of hospitalization for asthma in Maryland by 22% and 11% respectively. But the extreme heat related risk for asthma hospitalization was more pronounced among non-Hispanic whites (33%) than non-Hispanic blacks (20%). Based on these findings, the Department and School have begun to engage with community organizations and various stakeholders to develop interventions and adaptations aimed at increasing resilience and mitigating some of the health impacts. Through these partnerships and projects, Maryland is using health data, climate projections, and the State Climate Action Plan to assist local communities and regional partners in climate adaptation activities.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Duffy PB (2017)

Climate Change and Health.

Delaware journal of public health, 3(5):24-25 pii:djph-35-006.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )