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Bibliography on: CRISPR-Cas

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 03 Jul 2022 at 01:38 Created: 


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of "spacer DNA" from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g a virus or plasmid). The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, and food crops. The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015.

Created with PubMed® Query: "CRISPR.CAS" OR "crispr/cas" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-07-02

Alfaro T, Elmore JR, Stromberg ZR, et al (2022)

Engineering Citrobacter freundii using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

Journal of microbiological methods pii:S0167-7012(22)00128-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated proteins) system is a useful tool to edit genomes quickly and efficiently. However, the use of CRISPR/Cas9 to edit bacterial genomes has been limited to select microbial chassis primarily used for bioproduction of high value products. Thus, expansion of CRISPR/Cas9 tools to other microbial organisms is needed. Here, our aim was to assess the suitability of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing of the Citrobacter freundii type strain ATCC 8090. We evaluated the commonly used two plasmid pCas/pTargetF system to enable gene deletions and insertions in C. freundii and determined editing efficiency. The CRISPR/Cas9 based method enabled high editing efficiency (~91%) for deletion of galactokinase (galk) and enabled deletion with various single guide RNA (sgRNA) sequences. To assess the ability of CRISPR/Cas9 tools to insert genes, we used the fluorescent reporter mNeonGreen, an endopeptidase (yebA), and a transcriptional regulator (xylS) and found successful insertion with high efficiency (81-100%) of each gene individually. These results strengthen and expand the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to C. freundii as an additional microbial chassis.

RevDate: 2022-07-01

Zavvar TS, Khoshbin Z, Ramezani M, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas-engineered technology: Innovative approach for biosensor development.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 214:114501 pii:S0956-5663(22)00541-3 [Epub ahead of print].

On-site and real-time clinical monitoring have been progressed dramatically by integrating biosensor science with portable digital electronic technology. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with association of RNA-guided nucleases (CrRNA-Cas enzymes) have achieved novel CRISPR/Cas biosensing science as a promising revolutionized diagnostic technology for portable and on-site healthcare monitoring and diagnostics. Among several available CRISPR/Cas systems, CRISPR/Cas12a and CRISPR/Cas13a conjugates are utilized broadly in biosensor design, because of their capability to cleave both target and non-target sequences. With the advantages of portability, cost-effectiveness, facile operation, high durability, and reproducibility, CRISPR/Cas-based biosensing techniques are a perfect choice for designing ultra-sensitive point-of-care diagnostic devices with amplified response signals. In the present review, we summarize the advances in the CRISPR/Cas-based biosensors with the focus on healthcare and diagnostic purposes. The cooperation of nanomaterial engineering with CRISPR/Cas biosensors is also represented to attain a promising viewpoint for offering novel user-friendly test kits for announcing ultra-low levels of diverse targets in the future.

RevDate: 2022-07-01

Quan M, Oh Y, Cho SY, et al (2022)

Polo-Like Kinase 1 Regulates Chromosomal Instability and Paclitaxel Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells.

Journal of breast cancer, 25(3):178-192.

PURPOSE: Chromosomal instability (CIN) contributes to intercellular genetic heterogeneity and has been implicated in paclitaxel (PTX) resistance in breast cancer. In this study, we explored polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as an important regulator of mitotic integrity and as a useful predictive biomarker for PTX resistance in breast cancer.

METHODS: We performed PTX resistance screening using the human kinome CRISPR/Cas9 library in breast cancer cells. In vitro cell proliferation and apoptosis assays and in vivo xenograft experiments were performed to determine the effects of PLK1 on breast cancer cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to measure the degree of multipolar cell division.

RESULTS: Kinome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening identified various kinases involved in PTX resistance in breast cancer cells; among these, PLK1 was chosen for further experiments. PLK1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, PLK1 silencing sensitized breast cancer cells and mouse xenograft tumor models to PTX cytotoxicity. Silencing of PLK1 induced the formation of multipolar spindles and increased the percentage of multipolar cells. In addition, PLK1 silencing resulted in the downregulation of BubR1 and Mad2 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, PLK1 upregulation in primary breast cancer was associated with decreased overall patient survival based on the analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium databases.

CONCLUSION: PLK1 plays an important role in PTX resistance by regulating CIN in breast cancer cells. Targeting PLK1 may be an effective treatment strategy for PTX-resistant breast cancers.

RevDate: 2022-07-01

Sathee L, Jagadhesan B, Pandesha PH, et al (2022)

Genome Editing Targets for Improving Nutrient Use Efficiency and Nutrient Stress Adaptation.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:900897 pii:900897.

In recent years, the development of RNA-guided genome editing (CRISPR-Cas9 technology) has revolutionized plant genome editing. Under nutrient deficiency conditions, different transcription factors and regulatory gene networks work together to maintain nutrient homeostasis. Improvement in the use efficiency of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is essential to ensure sustainable yield with enhanced quality and tolerance to stresses. This review outlines potential targets suitable for genome editing for understanding and improving nutrient use (NtUE) efficiency and nutrient stress tolerance. The different genome editing strategies for employing crucial negative and positive regulators are also described. Negative regulators of nutrient signalling are the potential targets for genome editing, that may improve nutrient uptake and stress signalling under resource-poor conditions. The promoter engineering by CRISPR/dead (d) Cas9 (dCas9) cytosine and adenine base editing and prime editing is a successful strategy to generate precise changes. CRISPR/dCas9 system also offers the added advantage of exploiting transcriptional activators/repressors for overexpression of genes of interest in a targeted manner. CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) are variants of CRISPR in which a dCas9 dependent transcription activation or interference is achieved. dCas9-SunTag system can be employed to engineer targeted gene activation and DNA methylation in plants. The development of nutrient use efficient plants through CRISPR-Cas technology will enhance the pace of genetic improvement for nutrient stress tolerance of crops and improve the sustainability of agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-07-01

Obermeier M, Vadolas J, Verhulst S, et al (2022)

Lipofection of Non-integrative CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins in Male Germline Stem Cells: A Simple and Effective Knockout Tool for Germline Genome Engineering.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:891173 pii:891173.

Gene editing in male germline stem (GS) cells is a potent tool to study spermatogenesis and to create transgenic mice. Various engineered nucleases already demonstrated the ability to modify the genome of GS cells. However, current systems are limited by technical complexity diminishing application options. To establish an easier method to mediate gene editing, we tested the lipofection of site-specific Cas9:gRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes to knockout the enhanced green fluorescent protein (Egfp) in mouse EGFP-GS cells via non-homologous end joining. To monitor whether gene conversion through homology-directed repair events occurred, single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides were co-lipofected to deliver a Bfp donor sequence. Results showed Egfp knockout in up to 22% of GS cells, which retained their undifferentiated status following transfection, while only less than 0.7% EGFP to BFP conversion was detected in gated GS cells. These data show that CRISPR/Cas9 RNP-based lipofection is a promising system to simply and effectively knock out genes in mouse GS cells. Understanding the genes involved in spermatogenesis could expand therapeutic opportunities for men suffering from infertility.

RevDate: 2022-06-30

Croteau SE (2022)

Hemophilia A/B.

Hematology/oncology clinics of North America pii:S0889-8588(22)00030-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer has successfully raised, and in some cases transiently normalized, FVIII or FIX activity levels in adults with severe hemophilia. Raising FVIII/IX levels, particularly greater than ∼15 IU/dL (mild deficiency), corresponds to a marked decrease in spontaneous and provoked bleeding, dramatic reduction in factor concentrate use, and improved quality of life (QoL). Limited understanding of innate and adaptive immune system responses and hepatocyte transgene expression and stress responses to AAV-mediated gene transfer contribute to the variability in initial and long-term factor protein expression. Lentiviral (LV) and CRISPR/Cas-9 gene therapy approaches may further bolster the range of eligible participants and improve transgene expression and durability.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Zhao S, Wang Y, Yang N, et al (2022)

Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screen reveals novel regulators of B7-H3 in tumor cells.

Journal for immunotherapy of cancer, 10(6):.

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in B7 homolog 3 protein (B7-H3) based immunotherapy, the development of drug resistance remains a major clinical concern. The heterogeneity and emerging loss of B7-H3 expression are the main causes of drug resistance and treatment failure in targeted therapies, which reveals an urgent need to elucidate the mechanism underlying the regulation of B7-H3 expression. In this study, we identified and explored the crucial role of the transcription factor SPT20 homolog (SP20H) in B7-H3 expression and tumor progression.

METHODS: Here, we performed CRISPR/Cas9-based genome scale loss-of-function screening to identify regulators of B7-H3 in human ovarian cancer cells. Signaling pathways altered by SP20H knockout were revealed by RNA sequencing. The regulatory role and mechanism of SP20H in B7-H3 expression were validated using loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays in vitro. The effects of inhibiting SP20H on tumor growth and efficacy of anti-B7-H3 treatment were evaluated in tumor-bearing mice.

RESULTS: We identified SUPT20H (SP20H) as negative and eIF4E as positive regulators of B7-H3 expression in various cancer cells. Furthermore, we provided evidence that either SP20H loss or TNF-α stimulation in tumor cells constitutively activates p38 MAPK-eIF4E signaling, thereby upregulating B7-H3 expression. Loss of SP20H upregulated B7-H3 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, deletion of SP20H significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased immune cells infiltration in tumor microenvironment. More importantly, antibody-drug conjugates targeting B7-H3 exhibited superior antitumor performance against SP20H-deficient tumors relative to control groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Activation of p38 MAPK-eIF4E signaling serves as a key event in the transcription initiation and B7-H3 protein expression in tumor cells. Genetically targeting SP20H upregulates target antigen expression and sensitizes tumors to anti-B7-H3 treatment. Collectively, our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying B7-H3 expression and introduce a potential synergistic target for existing antibody-based targeted therapy against B7-H3.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Ishizaki T, Hernandez S, Paoletta MS, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9 and genetic screens in malaria parasites: small genomes, big impact.

Biochemical Society transactions, 50(3):1069-1079.

The ∼30 Mb genomes of the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria each encode ∼5000 genes, but the functions of the majority remain unknown. This is due to a paucity of functional annotation from sequence homology, which is compounded by low genetic tractability compared with many model organisms. In recent years technical breakthroughs have made forward and reverse genome-scale screens in Plasmodium possible. Furthermore, the adaptation of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-Associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technology has dramatically improved gene editing efficiency at the single gene level. Here, we review the arrival of genetic screens in malaria parasites to analyse parasite gene function at a genome-scale and their impact on understanding parasite biology. CRISPR/Cas9 screens, which have revolutionised human and model organism research, have not yet been implemented in malaria parasites due to the need for more complex CRISPR/Cas9 gene targeting vector libraries. We therefore introduce the reader to CRISPR-based screens in the related apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii and discuss how these approaches could be adapted to develop CRISPR/Cas9 based genome-scale genetic screens in malaria parasites. Moreover, since more than half of Plasmodium genes are required for normal asexual blood-stage reproduction, and cannot be targeted using knockout methods, we discuss how CRISPR/Cas9 could be used to scale up conditional gene knockdown approaches to systematically assign function to essential genes.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Liu J, Vogel AK, Miao J, et al (2022)

Rapid Hypothesis Testing in Candida albicans Clinical Isolates Using a Cloning-Free, Modular, and Recyclable System for CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Mutant and Revertant Construction.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(3):e0263021.

As increasing evidence emerges that interstrain genetic diversity among Candida albicans clinical isolates underpins phenotypic variation compared to the reference isolate SC5314, new genetic tools are required to interrogate gene function across strain backgrounds. Here, the SAT1-flipper plasmid was reengineered to contain a C. albicans codon optimized hygromycin B resistance gene (CaHygB). Cassettes were PCR-amplified from both SAT1-flipper and CaHygB-flipper plasmids using primers with homologous sequences flanking target genes of interest to serve as repair templates. Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes containing proprietary CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), universal transactivating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA), and Cas9 protein were assembled in vitro and transformed, along with both repair templates, by electroporation into C. albicans. Homozygous deletion of the ADE2 gene results in red-pigmented colonies and this gene was used to validate our approach. Both in SC5314 and a variety of clinical isolates (529L, JS15, SJCA1, TW1), homozygous gene targeting was nearly 100% when plating on media containing nourseothricin and hygromycin B with transformation efficiencies exceeding 104 homozygous deletion mutants per μg of DNA. A gene reversion system was also employed with plasmids pDUP3 and pDIS3 engineered to contain the ADH1 terminator and an overlap extension PCR-mediated approach combined with CRISPR-Cas9 targeting at the NEUT5 neutral locus. A variety of single or compound mutants (Δ/Δals3, Δ/Δcph1 Δ/Δefg1, Δ/Δece1) and their revertant strains were constructed and phenotypically validated by a variety of assays, including biofilm formation, hyphal growth, and macrophage IL-1β response. Thus, we have established a cloning-free, modular system for highly efficient homozygous gene deletion and reversion in diverse isolates. IMPORTANCE Recently, phenotypic heterogeneity in Candida albicans isolates has been recognized as an underappreciated factor contributing to gene diversification and broadly impacts strain-to-strain antifungal resistance, fitness, and pathogenicity. We have designed a cloning-free genetic system for rapid gene deletion and reversion in C. albicans clinical isolates that interlaces established recyclable genetic systems with CRISPR-Cas9 technology. The SAT1-flipper was reengineered to contain CaHygB encoding resistance to hygromycin B. Using a modular PCR-mediated approach coupled with in vitro ribonucleoprotein assembly with commercial reagents, both SAT1- and CaHygB-flipper cassettes were simultaneously integrated at loci with high efficiency (104 transformants per μg DNA) and upward of 99% homozygous gene targeting across a collection of diverse isolates of various anatomical origin. Revertant strains were constructed by overlap extension PCR with CRISPR-Cas9 targeted integration at the NEUT5 locus. Thus, this facile system will aid in unraveling the genetic factors contributing to the complexity of intraspecies diversity.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Tian Y, Shen R, Li Z, et al (2022)

Efficient C-to-G editing in rice using an optimized base editor.

Plant biotechnology journal, 20(7):1238-1240.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Omachi K, JH Miner (2022)

Comparative analysis of dCas9-VP64 variants and multiplexed guide RNAs mediating CRISPR activation.

PloS one, 17(6):e0270008 pii:PONE-D-22-06035.

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated transcriptional activation (CRISPRa) is a powerful tool for investigating complex biological phenomena. Although CRISPRa approaches based on the VP64 transcriptional activator have been widely studied in both cultured cells and in animal models and exhibit great versatility for various cell types and developmental stages in vivo, different dCas9-VP64 versions have not been rigorously compared. Here, we compared different dCas9-VP64 constructs in identical contexts, including the cell lines used and the transfection conditions, for their ability to activate endogenous and exogenous genes. Moreover, we investigated the optimal approach for VP64 addition to VP64- and p300-based constructs. We found that MS2-MCP-scaffolded VP64 enhanced basal dCas9-VP64 and dCas9-p300 activity better than did direct VP64 fusion to the N-terminus of dCas9. dCas9-VP64+MCP-VP64 and dCas9-p300+MCP-VP64 were superior to VP64-dCas9-VP64 for all target genes tested. Furthermore, multiplexing gRNA expression with dCas9-VP64+MCP-VP64 or dCas9-p300+MCP-VP64 significantly enhanced endogenous gene activation to a level comparable to CRISPRa-SAM with a single gRNA. Our findings demonstrate improvement of the dCas9-VP64 CRISPRa system and contribute to development of a versatile, efficient CRISPRa platform.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Chen R, Yuan W, Zheng Y, et al (2022)

Delivery of engineered extracellular vesicles with miR-29b editing system for muscle atrophy therapy.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 20(1):304.

Muscle atrophy is a frequently observed complication, characterized by the loss of muscle mass and strength, which diminishes the quality of life and survival. No effective therapy except exercise is currently available. In our previous study, repressing miR-29b has been shown to reduce muscle atrophy. In our current study, we have constructed artificially engineered extracellular vesicles for the delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 to target miR-29b (EVs-Cas9-29b). EVs-Cas9-29b has shown a favorable functional effect with respect to miR-29b repression in a specific and rapid manner by gene editing. In in vitro conditions, EVs-Cas9-29b could protect against muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone (Dex), angiotensin II (AngII), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). And EVs-Cas9-29b introduced in vivo preserved muscle function in the well-established immobilization and denervation-induced muscle atrophy mice model. Our work demonstrates an engineered extracellular vesicles delivery of the miR-29b editing system, which could be potentially used for muscle atrophy therapy.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Kanca O, Zirin J, Hu Y, et al (2022)

An expanded toolkit for Drosophila gene tagging using synthesized homology donor constructs for CRISPR-mediated homologous recombination.

eLife, 11: pii:76077.

Previously, we described a large collection of Drosophila strains that each carry an artificial exon containing a T2AGAL4 cassette inserted in an intron of a target gene based on CRISPR-mediated homologous recombination. These alleles permit numerous applications and have proven to be very useful. Initially, the homologous recombination-based donor constructs had long homology arms (>500 bps) to promote precise integration of large constructs (>5 kb). Recently, we showed that in vivo linearization of the donor constructs enables insertion of large artificial exons in introns using short homology arms (100-200 bps). Shorter homology arms make it feasible to commercially synthesize homology donors and minimize the cloning steps for donor construct generation. Unfortunately, about 58% of Drosophila genes lack a suitable coding intron for integration of artificial exons in all of the annotated isoforms. Here, we report the development of new set of constructs that allow the replacement of the coding region of genes that lack suitable introns with a KozakGAL4 cassette, generating a knock-out/knock-in allele that expresses GAL4 similarly as the targeted gene. We also developed custom vector backbones to further facilitate and improve transgenesis. Synthesis of homology donor constructs in custom plasmid backbones that contain the target gene sgRNA obviates the need to inject a separate sgRNA plasmid and significantly increases the transgenesis efficiency. These upgrades will enable the targeting of nearly every fly gene, regardless of exon-intron structure, with a 70-80% success rate.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Xu X, G Wu (2022)

Human C1orf27 protein interacts with α2A-adrenergic receptor and regulates its anterograde transport.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 298(6):102021.

The molecular mechanisms underlying the anterograde surface transport of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) after their synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are not well defined. In C. elegans, odorant response abnormal 4 has been implicated in the delivery of olfactory GPCRs to the cilia of chemosensory neurons. However, the function and regulation of its human homolog, C1orf27, in GPCR transport or in general membrane trafficking remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that siRNA-mediated knockdown of C1orf27 markedly impedes the ER-to-Golgi export kinetics of newly synthesized α2A-adrenergic receptor (α2A-AR), a prototypic GPCR, with the half-time being prolonged by more than 65%, in mammalian cells in retention using the selective hooks assays. Using modified bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays and ELISAs, we also show that C1orf27 knockdown significantly inhibits the surface transport of α2A-AR. Similarly, C1orf27 knockout by CRISPR-Cas9 markedly suppresses the ER-Golgi-surface transport of α2A-AR. In addition, we demonstrate that C1orf27 depletion attenuates the export of β2-AR and dopamine D2 receptor but not of epidermal growth factor receptor. We further show that C1orf27 physically associates with α2A-AR, specifically via its third intracellular loop and C terminus. Taken together, these data demonstrate an important role of C1orf27 in the trafficking of nascent GPCRs from the ER to the cell surface through the Golgi and provide novel insights into the regulation of the biosynthesis and anterograde transport of the GPCR family members.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Yuan G, Lu H, De K, et al (2022)

An Intein-Mediated Split-nCas9 System for Base Editing in Plants.

ACS synthetic biology [Epub ahead of print].

Virus-assisted delivery of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system represents a promising approach for editing plant genomes. Among the CRISPR/Cas systems, CRISPR/Cas9 is most widely used; however, to pack the relatively large size of the CRISPR/Cas9 system into viral vectors with confined packaging capacity is challenging. To address this technical challenge, we developed a strategy based on split inteins that splits the required CRISPR/Cas9 components across a dual-vector system. The CRISPR/Cas reassembles into an active form following co-infection to achieve targeted genome editing in plant cells. An intein-mediated split system was adapted and optimized in plant cells by a successful demonstration of split-eYGFPuv expression. Using a plant-based biosensor, we demonstrated for the first time that the split-nCas9 can induce efficient base editing in plant cells. We identified several split sites for future biodesign strategies. Overall, this strategy provides new opportunities to bridge different CRISPR/Cas9 tools including base editor, prime editor, and CRISPR activation with virus-mediated gene editing.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Liang Y, Iqbal Z, Wang J, et al (2022)

Cell-derived extracellular vesicles for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery: engineering strategies for cargo packaging and loading.

Biomaterials science [Epub ahead of print].

Genome editing technology has emerged as a potential therapeutic tool for treating incurable diseases. In particular, the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas systems and the design of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) have revolutionized genome editing applications. Unfortunately, compared with the rapid development of gene-editing tools, the progress in the development of delivery technologies is lagging behind and thus limiting the clinical application of genome editing. To overcome these limitations, researchers have investigated various delivery systems, including viral and non-viral vectors for delivering CRISPR/Cas and sgRNA complexes. As natural endogenous nanocarriers, extracellular vesicles (EVs) present advantages of biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, stability, and high permeability, making them one of the most promising drug delivery vehicles. This review provides an overview of the fundamental mechanisms of EVs from the aspects of biogenesis, trafficking, cargo delivery, and function as nanotherapeutic agents. We also summarize the latest trends in EV-based CRISPR/Cas delivery systems and discuss the prospects for future development. In particular, we put our emphasis on the state-of-the-art engineering strategies to realize efficient cargo packaging and loading. Altogether, EVs hold promise in bridging genome editing in the laboratory and clinical applications of gene therapies by providing a safe, effective, and targeted delivery vehicle.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Zheng L, Lu H, Zan B, et al (2022)

Loosely-packed dynamical structures with partially-melted surface being the key for thermophilic argonaute proteins achieving high DNA-cleavage activity.

Nucleic acids research pii:6619476 [Epub ahead of print].

Prokaryotic Argonaute proteins (pAgos) widely participate in hosts to defend against the invasion of nucleic acids. Compared with the CRISPR-Cas system, which requires a specific motif on the target and can only use RNA as guide, pAgos exhibit precise endonuclease activity on any arbitrary target sequence and can use both RNA and DNA as guide, thus rendering great potential for genome editing applications. Hitherto, most in-depth studies on the structure-function relationship of pAgos were conducted on thermophilic ones, functioning at ∼60 to 100°C, whose structures were, however, determined experimentally at much lower temperatures (20-33°C). It remains unclear whether these low-temperature structures can represent the true conformations of the thermophilic pAgos under their physiological conditions. The present work studied three pAgos, PfAgo, TtAgo and CbAgo, whose physiological temperatures differ significantly (95, 75 and 37°C). By conducting thorough experimental and simulation studies, we found that thermophilic pAgos (PfAgo and TtAgo) adopt a loosely-packed structure with a partially-melted surface at the physiological temperatures, largely different from the compact crystalline structures determined at moderate temperatures. In contrast, the mesophilic pAgo (CbAgo) assumes a compact crystalline structure at its optimal function temperature. Such a partially-disrupted structure endows thermophilic pAgos with great flexibility both globally and locally at the catalytic sites, which is crucial for them to achieve high DNA-cleavage activity. To further prove this, we incubated thermophilic pAgos with urea to purposely disrupt their structures, and the resulting cleavage activity was significantly enhanced below the physiological temperature, even at human body temperature. Further testing of many thermophilic Agos present in various thermophilic prokaryotes demonstrated that their structures are generally disrupted under physiological conditions. Therefore, our findings suggest that the highly dynamical structure with a partially-melted surface, distinct from the low-temperature crystalline structure, could be a general strategy assumed by thermophilic pAgos to achieve the high DNA-cleavage activity.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Hassan MM, Yuan G, Liu Y, et al (2022)

Precision genome editing in plants using gene targeting and prime editing: Existing and emerging strategies.

Biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

Precise modification of plant genomes, such as seamless insertion, deletion, or replacement of DNA sequences at a predefined site, is a challenging task. Gene targeting and prime editing are currently the best approaches for this purpose. However, these techniques are inefficient in plants, which limits their applications for crop breeding programs. Recently, substantial developments have been made to improve the efficiency of these techniques in plants. Several strategies, such as RNA donor templating, chemically modified donor DNA template, and tandem-repeat homology-directed repair, are aimed at improving gene targeting. Additionally, improved prime editing gRNA design, use of engineered reverse transcriptase enzymes, and splitting prime editing components have improved the efficacy of prime editing in plants. These emerging strategies and existing technologies are reviewed along with various perspectives on their future improvement and the development of robust precision genome editing technologies for plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Tiwari JK, A J, Tuteja N, et al (2022)

Genome editing (CRISPR-Cas)-mediated virus resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Plant viruses are the major pathogens that cause heavy yield loss in potato. The important viruses are potato virus X, potato virus Y and potato leaf roll virus around the world. Besides these three viruses, a novel tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus is serious in India. Conventional cum molecular breeding and transgenics approaches have been applied to develop virus resistant potato genotypes. But progress is slow in developing resistant varieties due to lack of host genes and long breeding process, and biosafety concern with transgenics. Hence, CRISPR-Cas mediated genome editing has emerged as a powerful technology to address these issues. CRISPR-Cas technology has been deployed in potato for several important traits. We highlight here CRISPR-Cas approaches of virus resistance through targeting viral genome (DNA or RNA), host factor gene and multiplexing of target genes simultaneously. Further, advancement in CRISPR-Cas research is presented in the area of DNA-free genome editing, virus-induced genome editing, and base editing. CRISPR-Cas delivery, transformation methods, and challenges in tetraploid potato and possible methods are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Tao J, Wang Q, Mendez-Dorantes C, et al (2022)

Frequency and mechanisms of LINE-1 retrotransposon insertions at CRISPR/Cas9 sites.

Nature communications, 13(1):3685.

CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing has revolutionized experimental molecular biology and entered the clinical world for targeted gene therapy. Identifying DNA modifications occurring at CRISPR/Cas9 target sites is critical to determine efficiency and safety of editing tools. Here we show that insertions of LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons can occur frequently at CRISPR/Cas9 editing sites. Together with PolyA-seq and an improved amplicon sequencing, we characterize more than 2500 de novo L1 insertions at multiple CRISPR/Cas9 editing sites in HEK293T, HeLa and U2OS cells. These L1 retrotransposition events exploit CRISPR/Cas9-induced DSB formation and require L1 RT activity. Importantly, de novo L1 insertions are rare during genome editing by prime editors (PE), cytidine or adenine base editors (CBE or ABE), consistent with their reduced DSB formation. These data demonstrate that insertions of retrotransposons might be a potential outcome of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and provide further evidence on the safety of different CRISPR-based editing tools.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Elkayam S, Y Orenstein (2022)

DeepCRISTL: deep transfer learning to predict CRISPR/Cas9 functional and endogenous on-target editing efficiency.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 38(Supplement_1):i161-i168.

MOTIVATION: CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been revolutionizing the field of gene editing in recent years. Guide RNAs (gRNAs) enable Cas9 proteins to target specific genomic loci for editing. However, editing efficiency varies between gRNAs. Thus, computational methods were developed to predict editing efficiency for any gRNA of interest. High-throughput datasets of Cas9 editing efficiencies were produced to train machine-learning models to predict editing efficiency. However, these high-throughput datasets have low correlation with functional and endogenous editing. Another difficulty arises from the fact that functional and endogenous editing efficiency is more difficult to measure, and as a result, functional and endogenous datasets are too small to train accurate machine-learning models on.

RESULTS: We developed DeepCRISTL, a deep-learning model to predict the on-target efficiency given a gRNA sequence. DeepCRISTL takes advantage of high-throughput datasets to learn general patterns of gRNA on-target editing efficiency, and then uses transfer learning (TL) to fine-tune the model and fit it to the functional and endogenous prediction task. We pre-trained the DeepCRISTL model on more than 150 000 gRNAs, produced through the DeepHF study as a high-throughput dataset of three Cas9 enzymes. We improved the DeepHF model by multi-task and ensemble techniques and achieved state-of-the-art results over each of the three enzymes: up to 0.89 in Spearman correlation between predicted and measured on-target efficiencies. To fine-tune model weights to predict on-target efficiency of functional or endogenous datasets, we tested several TL approaches, with gradual learning being the overall best performer, both when pre-trained on DeepHF and when pre-trained on CRISPROn, another high-throughput dataset. DeepCRISTL outperformed state-of-the-art methods on all functional and endogenous datasets. Using saliency maps, we identified and compared the important features learned by the model in each dataset. We believe DeepCRISTL will improve prediction performance in many other CRISPR/Cas9 editing contexts by leveraging TL to utilize both high-throughput datasets, and smaller and more biologically relevant datasets, such as functional and endogenous datasets.

DeepCRISTL is available via

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Shin JH, Lee J, Jung YK, et al (2022)

Therapeutic applications of gene editing in chronic liver diseases: an update.

BMB reports, 55(6):251-258.

Innovative genome editing techniques developed in recent decades have revolutionized the biomedical research field. Liver is the most favored target organ for genome editing owing to its ability to regenerate. The regenerative capacity of the liver enables ex vivo gene editing in which the mutated gene in hepatocytes isolated from the animal model of genetic disease is repaired. The edited hepatocytes are injected back into the animal to mitigate the disease. Furthermore, the liver is considered as the easiest target organ for gene editing as it absorbs almost all foreign molecules. The mRNA vaccines, which have been developed to manage the COVID-19 pandemic, have provided a novel gene editing strategy using Cas mRNA. A single injection of gene editing components with Cas mRNA is reported to be efficient in the treatment of patients with genetic liver diseases. In this review, we first discuss previously reported gene editing tools and cases managed using them, as well as liver diseases caused by genetic mutations. Next, we summarize the recent successes of ex vivo and in vivo gene editing approaches in ameliorating liver diseases in animals and humans. [BMB Reports 2022; 55(6): 251-258].

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Kempton HR, Love KS, Guo LY, et al (2022)

Scalable biological signal recording in mammalian cells using Cas12a base editors.

Nature chemical biology, 18(7):742-750.

Biological signal recording enables the study of molecular inputs experienced throughout cellular history. However, current methods are limited in their ability to scale up beyond a single signal in mammalian contexts. Here, we develop an approach using a hyper-efficient dCas12a base editor for multi-signal parallel recording in human cells. We link signals of interest to expression of guide RNAs to catalyze specific nucleotide conversions as a permanent record, enabled by Cas12's guide-processing abilities. We show this approach is plug-and-play with diverse biologically relevant inputs and extend it for more sophisticated applications, including recording of time-delimited events and history of chimeric antigen receptor T cells' antigen exposure. We also demonstrate efficient recording of up to four signals in parallel on an endogenous safe-harbor locus. This work provides a versatile platform for scalable recording of signals of interest for a variety of biological applications.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Rouatbi N, McGlynn T, KT Al-Jamal (2022)

Pre-clinical non-viral vectors exploited for in vivo CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing: an overview.

Biomaterials science, 10(13):3410-3432.

Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats or CRISPR/Cas9 has emerged as a potent and versatile tool for efficient genome editing. This technology has been exploited for several applications including disease modelling, cell therapy, diagnosis, and treatment of many diseases including cancer. The in vivo application of CRISPR/Cas9 is hindered by poor stability, pharmacokinetic profile, and the limited ability of the CRISPR payloads to cross biological barriers. Although viral vectors have been implemented as delivery tools for efficient in vivo gene editing, their application is associated with high immunogenicity and toxicity, limiting their clinical translation. Hence, there is a need to explore new delivery methods that can guarantee safe and efficient delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to target cells. In this review, we first provide a brief history and principles of nuclease-mediated gene editing, we then focus on the different CRISPR/Cas9 formats outlining their potentials and limitations. Finally, we discuss the alternative non-viral delivery strategies currently adopted for in vivo CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Nagalakshmi U, Meier N, Liu JY, et al (2022)

High-efficiency multiplex biallelic heritable editing in Arabidopsis using an RNA virus.

Plant physiology, 189(3):1241-1245.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Mahas A, Marsic T, Lopez-Portillo Masson M, et al (2022)

Characterization of a thermostable Cas13 enzyme for one-pot detection of SARS-CoV-2.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(28):e2118260119.

Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems have been repurposed for various applications such as gene knockdown, viral interference, and diagnostics. However, the identification and characterization of thermophilic orthologs will expand and unlock the potential of diverse biotechnological applications. Herein, we identified and characterized a thermostable ortholog of the Cas13a family from the thermophilic organism Thermoclostridium caenicola (TccCas13a). We show that TccCas13a has a close phylogenetic relation to the HheCas13a ortholog from the thermophilic bacterium Herbinix hemicellulosilytica and shares several properties such as thermostability and inability to process its own pre-CRISPR RNA. We demonstrate that TccCas13a possesses robust cis and trans activities at a broad temperature range of 37 to 70 °C, compared with HheCas13a, which has a more limited range and lower activity. We harnessed TccCas13a thermostability to develop a sensitive, robust, rapid, and one-pot assay, named OPTIMA-dx, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. OPTIMA-dx exhibits no cross-reactivity with other viruses and a limit of detection of 10 copies/μL when using a synthetic SARS-CoV-2 genome. We used OPTIMA-dx for SARS-CoV-2 detection in clinical samples, and our assay showed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrated that OPTIMA-dx is suitable for multiplexed detection and is compatible with the quick extraction protocol. OPTIMA-dx exhibits critical features that enable its use at point of care (POC). Therefore, we developed a mobile phone application to facilitate OPTIMA-dx data collection and sharing of patient sample results. This work demonstrates the power of CRISPR-Cas13 thermostable enzymes in enabling key applications in one-pot POC diagnostics and potentially in transcriptome engineering, editing, and therapies.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Kahraman-Ilıkkan Ö (2022)

Comparison of Propionibacterium genomes: CRISPR-Cas systems, phage/plasmid diversity, and insertion sequences.

Archives of microbiology, 204(7):434.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems constitute the adaptive immune system in prokaryotes that provide resistance against invasive genetic elements. The genus Propionibacterium comprises gram-positive, facultative anaerobe, non-spore-forming bacteria, and is the source of some B group vitamins such as B12 as well as bacteriocins. Some of the selected species of the genus Propionibacterium spp. were reclassified into the three genera in 2016 (Acidipropionibacterium spp., Pseudopropionibacterium spp., Cutibacterium spp.). Therefore, this study compared CRISPR/Cas systems, Cas 1 and repeat sequences phylogeny, phage/plasmid surveys as well as insertion sequences of new genera members. In this study, a total of 34 genomes of 13 species were observed with a bioinformatic approach. CRISPR-Cas + + and CRISPRDetect were used to detect CRISPR/Cas systems, direct repeats, and spacers. 39 CRISPR-Cas systems were detected. Type I-E, Type I-U, and one incomplete III-B CRISPR-Cas subtypes were identified. Most of the strains had Cas1/Cas4 fusion proteins. Pseudopropionibacterium propionicum strains had two types I-U and one of the CRISPR loci had csx17 cas genes. Common phage invaders were Propionibacterium phage E6, G4, E1, Anatole, and Doucette. The BLSM62 similarity score of all Cas1 sequences was 48.4% while the pairwise identity of repeat sequences was 48.7%. Common insertion sequences were ISL3, IS3, IS30. The diversity analysis of the CRISPR/Cas system in the genus Propionibacterium provided a new perspective for determining the role of the CRISPR-Cas system in the evolution of new genera.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Khan IS, Faiyaz Z, AU Khan (2022)

Use Of Crispr In Infection Control.

Current protein & peptide science pii:CPPS-EPUB-124816 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the greatest threats of the global world is infectious diseases. The morbidity and fatality of infectious diseases causes 17 million deaths annually. The recent COVID-19 pandemic describes the uncertain potential of these diseases. Understanding the pathogenesis of infectious agents, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc. and the evolution of rapid diagnostic techniques and treatments has become a pressing priority to improve infectious disease outcomes worldwide. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) constitutes the adaptive immune system of archaea and bacteria along with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins that recognizes and destroys foreign DNA acting as molecular scissors. Since their discovery, CRISPR systems are classified into 6 types and 22 subtypes. The type II, V and VI are used for diagnostic purposes. This potential of the CRISPR-Cas system is being used to create innovative delivery systems, to access interactions between hosts and pathogens, which helps develop new and improved diagnostics and further advance to prevent and treat infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Jiang J, Zeng T, Zhang L, et al (2022)

Optimization of Cas9 RNA sequence to reduce its unexpected effects as a microRNA sponge.

Molecular cancer, 21(1):136.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Miskel D, Poirier M, Beunink L, et al (2022)

The cell cycle stage of bovine zygotes electroporated with CRISPR/Cas9-RNP affects frequency of Loss-of-heterozygosity editing events.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10793.

At the embryonic level, CRISPR technologies have been used to edit genomes reliably and efficiently in various mammalian models, with Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) electroporation potentially representing a superior delivery method into mammalian zygotes. However, detailed insights of the interactions between varying technical settings as well as the time point of electroporation in a bovine zygote's cell cycle on developmental metrics and the frequency and type of editing events are largely unknown. The present study uncovers that increasing pulse lengths result in higher Full Edit rates, with Mosaicism in Full-Edit embryos being significantly affected by adjusting RNP-electroporation relative to zygote cell cycle. A considerable proportion of Full Edit embryos demonstrated loss-of-heterozygosity after RNP-electroporation prior to S-phase. Some of these loss-of-heterozygosity events are a consequence of chromosomal disruptions along large sections of the target chromosomes making it necessary to check for their presence prior use of this technique in animal breeding. One out of 2 of these loss-of-heterozygosity events, however, was not associated with loss of an entire chromosome or chromosomal sections. Whether analysed loss-of-heterozygosity in these cases, however, was a false negative result due to loss of PCR primer sequences after INDEL formation at the target side or indeed due to interhomolog recombination needs to be clarified in follow up studies since the latter would for sure offer attractive options for future breeding schedules.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Kang M, Zuo Z, Yin Z, et al (2022)

Molecular Mechanism of D1135E-Induced Discriminated CRISPR-Cas9 PAM Recognition.

Journal of chemical information and modeling, 62(12):3057-3066.

The off-target effects of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) pose a significant challenge to harness it as a therapeutical approach. Two major factors can result in SpCas9 off-targeting: tolerance to target DNA-guide RNA (gRNA) mismatch and less stringent recognition of protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) flanking the target DNA. Despite the abundance of engineered SpCas9-gRNA variants with improved sensitivity to target DNA-gRNA mismatch, studies focusing on enhancing SpCas9 PAM recognition stringency are quite few. A recent pioneering study identified a D1135E variant of SpCas9 that exhibits much-reduced editing activity at the noncanonical NAG/NGA PAM sites while preserving robust on-target activity at the canonical NGG-flanking sites (N is any nucleobase). Herein, we aim to clarify the molecular mechanism by which this single D1135E mutation confers on SpCas9 enhanced specificity for PAM recognition by molecular dynamics simulations. The results suggest that the variant maintains the base-specific recognition for the canonical NGG PAM via four hydrogen bonds, akin to that in the wild type (WT) SpCas9. While the noncanonical NAG PAM is engaged to the two PAM-interacting arginine residues (i.e., R1333 and R1335) in WT SpCas9 via two to three hydrogen bonds, the D1135E variant prefers to establish two hydrogen bonds with the PAM bases, accounting for its minimal editing activity on the off-target sites with an NAG PAM. The impaired NAG recognition by D1135E SpCas9 results from the PAM duplex displacement such that the hydrogen bond of R1333 to the second PAM base is disfavored. We further propose a mechanistic model to delineate how the mutation perturbs the noncanonical PAM recognition. We anticipate that the mechanistic knowledge could be leveraged for continuous optimization of SpCas9 PAM recognition specificity toward high-precision demanding applications.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Xing , Su B, Li S, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Transgenesis of the Masu Salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) elovl2 Gene Improves n-3 Fatty Acid Content in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

Marine biotechnology (New York, N.Y.), 24(3):513-523.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), play a very important role in human health. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is one of the leading freshwater aquaculture species in the USA, but has low levels of EPA and DHA compared to some fish such as salmon. To improve EPA and DHA content, a modification of the n-3 PUFA biosynthetic pathway was achieved through the insertion of an elovl2 transgene isolated from masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) driven by a carp β-actin promoter using a two-hit by gRNA and two oligos with a targeting plasmid (2H2OP) CRISPR/Cas9 approach. Integration rate of the transgene was high (37.5%) and detected in twelve different tissues of P1 transgenic fish with tissue-specific gene expression. Liver and muscle had relative high gene expression (13.4- and 9.2-fold change, respectively). Fatty acid analysis showed DHA content in the muscle from transgenic fish was 1.62-fold higher than in non-transgenic fish (P < 0.05). Additionally, total n-3 PUFAs and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) increased to 1.41-fold and 1.50-fold, respectively, suggesting the β-actin-elovl2 transgene improved biosynthesis of PUFAs in channel catfish as a whole. The n-9 fatty acid level decreased in the transgenic fish compared to the control. Morphometric analysis showed that there were significant differences between injected fish with sgRNAs (including positive and negative fish) and sham-injected controls (P < 0.001). Potential off-target effects are likely the major factor responsible for morphological deformities. Optimization of sgRNA design to maximize activity and reduce off-target effects of CRISPR/Cas9 should be examined in future transgenic research, but this research shows a promising first step in the improvement of n-3 PUFAs in channel catfish.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Giordano A, Santo Domingo M, Quadrana L, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing uncovers the roles of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE 1 and REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 in melon fruit ripening and epigenetic regulation.

Journal of experimental botany, 73(12):4022-4033.

Melon (Cucumis melo) has emerged as an alternative model to tomato for studying fruit ripening due to the coexistence of climacteric and non-climacteric varieties. Previous characterization of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), ETHQV8.1, that is able to trigger climacteric ripening in a non-climacteric background resulted in the identification of a negative regulator of ripening CTR1-like (MELO3C024518) and a putative DNA demethylase ROS1 (MELO3C024516) that is the orthologue of DML2, a DNA demethylase that regulates fruit ripening in tomato. To understand the role of these genes in climacteric ripening, in this study we generated homozygous CRISPR knockout mutants of CTR1-like and ROS1 in a climacteric genetic background. The climacteric behavior was altered in both loss-of-function mutants in two growing seasons with an earlier ethylene production profile being observed compared to the climacteric wild type, suggesting a role of both genes in climacteric ripening in melon. Single-cytosine methylome analyses of the ROS1-knockout mutant revealed changes in DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the key ripening genes such as ACS1, ETR1, and ACO1, and in transcription factors associated with ripening including NAC-NOR, RIN, and CNR, suggesting the importance of ROS1-mediated DNA demethylation for triggering fruit ripening in melon.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Zhou H, Wang X, Steer CJ, et al (2022)

Efficient silencing of hepatitis B virus S gene through CRISPR-mediated base editing.

Hepatology communications, 6(7):1652-1663.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has been used to precisely edit the HBV genome and eliminate HBV through non-homologous end-joining repair of double-stranded break (DSB). However, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated DSB triggers instability of host genome and exhibits low efficiency to edit genome, limiting its application. CRISPR cytidine base editors (CBEs) could silence genes by generating a premature stop codon. Here we developed a CRISPR base editor approach to precisely edit single nucleotide within the HBV genome to impair HBV gene expression. Specifically, a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) was designed to edit the 30th codon of HBV S gene, which encodes HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), from CAG (glutamine) to stop codon TAG. We next used human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells carrying the HBV genome to establish a cell line that expresses a CBE (PLC/PRF/5-CBE). Lentivirus was used to introduce sgRNA into PLC/PRF/5-CBE cells. Phenotypically, 71% of PLC/PRF/5-CBE cells developed a premature stop codon within the S gene. Levels of HBs messenger RNA were significantly decreased. A 92% reduction of HBsAg secretion was observed in PLC/PRF/5-CBE cells. The intracellular HBsAg was also reduced by 84% after treatment of gRNA_S. Furthermore, no off-target effect was detected in predicted off-target loci within the HBV genome. Sequencing confirmed that 95%, 93%, 93%, 9%, and 72% S gene sequences of HBV genotypes B, C, F, G, and H had the binding site of sgRNA. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that CRISPR-mediated base editing is an efficient approach to silence the HBV S gene, suggesting its therapeutic potential to eliminate HBV.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Moretti A, Ponzo M, Nicolette CA, et al (2022)

The Past, Present, and Future of Non-Viral CAR T Cells.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:867013.

Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T lymphocytes is a powerful technology that has revolutionized the way we conceive immunotherapy. The impressive clinical results of complete and prolonged response in refractory and relapsed diseases have shifted the landscape of treatment for hematological malignancies, particularly those of lymphoid origin, and opens up new possibilities for the treatment of solid neoplasms. However, the widening use of cell therapy is hampered by the accessibility to viral vectors that are commonly used for T cell transfection. In the era of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated) precise genome editing, novel and virus-free methods for T cell engineering are emerging as a more versatile, flexible, and sustainable alternative for next-generation CAR T cell manufacturing. Here, we discuss how the use of non-viral vectors can address some of the limitations of the viral methods of gene transfer and allow us to deliver genetic information in a stable, effective and straightforward manner. In particular, we address the main transposon systems such as Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB), the utilization of mRNA, and innovative approaches of nanotechnology like Lipid-based and Polymer-based DNA nanocarriers and nanovectors. We also describe the most relevant preclinical data that have recently led to the use of non-viral gene therapy in emerging clinical trials, and the related safety and efficacy aspects. We will also provide practical considerations for future trials to enable successful and safe cell therapy with non-viral methods for CAR T cell generation.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Whitworth KM, Green JA, Redel BK, et al (2022)

Improvements in pig agriculture through gene editing.

CABI agriculture and bioscience, 3(1):41.

Genetic modification of animals via selective breeding is the basis for modern agriculture. The current breeding paradigm however has limitations, chief among them is the requirement for the beneficial trait to exist within the population. Desirable alleles in geographically isolated breeds, or breeds selected for a different conformation and commercial application, and more importantly animals from different genera or species cannot be introgressed into the population via selective breeding. Additionally, linkage disequilibrium results in low heritability and necessitates breeding over successive generations to fix a beneficial trait within a population. Given the need to sustainably improve animal production to feed an anticipated 9 billion global population by 2030 against a backdrop of infectious diseases and a looming threat from climate change, there is a pressing need for responsive, precise, and agile breeding strategies. The availability of genome editing tools that allow for the introduction of precise genetic modification at a single nucleotide resolution, while also facilitating large transgene integration in the target population, offers a solution. Concordant with the developments in genomic sequencing approaches, progress among germline editing efforts is expected to reach feverish pace. The current manuscript reviews past and current developments in germline engineering in pigs, and the many advantages they confer for advancing animal agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Liu Y, Zhang X, Chen D, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Disruption of the lef8 and lef9 to Inhibit Nucleopolyhedrovirus Replication in Silkworms.

Viruses, 14(6): pii:v14061119.

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a pathogen that causes severe disease in silkworms. In a previous study, we demonstrated that by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to disrupt the BmNPV ie-1 and me53 genes, transgenic silkworms showed resistance to BmNPV infection. Here, we used the same strategy to simultaneously target lef8 and lef9, which are essential for BmNPV replication. A PCR assay confirmed that double-stranded breaks were induced in viral DNA at targeted sequences in BmNPV-infected transgenic silkworms that expressed small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) and Cas9. Bioassays and qPCR showed that replication of BmNPV and mortality were significantly reduced in the transgenic silkworms in comparison with the control groups. Microscopy showed degradation of midgut cells in the BmNPV-infected wild type silkworms, but not in the transgenic silkworms. These results demonstrated that transgenic silkworms using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to disrupt BmNPV lef8 and lef9 genes could successfully prevent BmNPV infection. Our research not only provides more alternative targets for the CRISPR antiviral system, but also aims to provide new ideas for the application of virus infection research and the control of insect pests.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Zhang J, Zhou Q, Zhang D, et al (2022)

The Agronomic Traits, Alkaloids Analysis, FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR Spectroscopy Identification of the Low-Nicotine-Content Nontransgenic Tobacco Edited by CRISPR-Cas9.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(12): pii:molecules27123817.

In this study, the agricultural traits, alkaloids content and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR) analysis of the tobacco after Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like Proteins (BBLs) knockout were investigated. The knockout of BBLs has limited effect on tobacco agricultural traits. After the BBLs knockout, nicotine and most alkaloids are significantly reduced, but the content of myosmine and its derivatives increases dramatically. In order to identify the gene editing of tobacco, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR spectroscopy data. The results showed that FT-IR can distinguish between tobacco roots and leaves but cannot classify the gene mutation tobacco from the wild one. 2DCOS-IR can enhance the characteristics of the samples due to the increased apparent resolution of the spectra. Using the autopeaks in the synchronous map for PCA analysis, we successfully identified the mutants with an accuracy of over 90%.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Chang YJ, Kang Z, Bei J, et al (2022)

Generation of TRIM28 Knockout K562 Cells by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing and Characterization of TRIM28-Regulated Gene Expression in Cell Proliferation and Hemoglobin Beta Subunits.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126839.

TRIM28 is a scaffold protein that interacts with DNA-binding proteins and recruits corepressor complexes to cause gene silencing. TRIM28 contributes to physiological functions such as cell growth and differentiation. In the chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562, we edited TRIM28 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and the complete and partial knockout (KO) cell clones were obtained and confirmed using quantitative droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) technology. The amplicon sequencing demonstrated no off-target effects in our gene editing experiments. The TRIM28 KO cells grew slowly and appeared red, seeming to have a tendency towards erythroid differentiation. To understand how TRIM28 controls K562 cell proliferation and differentiation, transcriptome profiling analysis was performed in wild-type and KO cells to identify TRIM28-regulated genes. Some of the RNAs that encode the proteins regulating the cell cycle were increased (such as p21) or decreased (such as cyclin D2) in TRIM28 KO cell clones; a tumor marker, the MAGE (melanoma antigen) family, which is involved in cell proliferation was reduced. Moreover, we found that knockout of TRIM28 can induce miR-874 expression to downregulate MAGEC2 mRNA via post-transcriptional regulation. The embryonic epsilon-globin gene was significantly increased in TRIM28 KO cell clones through the downregulation of transcription repressor SOX6. Taken together, we provide evidence to demonstrate the regulatory network of TRIM28-mediated cell growth and erythroid differentiation in K562 leukemia cells.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Voisard P, Diofano F, Glazier AA, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Constitutive Loss of VCP (Valosin-Containing Protein) Impairs Proteostasis and Leads to Defective Striated Muscle Structure and Function In Vivo.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126722.

Valosin-containing protein (VCP) acts as a key regulator of cellular protein homeostasis by coordinating protein turnover and quality control. Mutations in VCP lead to (cardio-)myopathy and neurodegenerative diseases such as inclusion body myopathy with Paget's disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To date, due to embryonic lethality, no constitutive VCP knockout animal model exists. Here, we generated a constitutive CRISPR/Cas9-induced vcp knockout zebrafish model. Similar to the phenotype of vcp morphant knockdown zebrafish embryos, we found that vcp-null embryos displayed significantly impaired cardiac and skeletal muscle function. By ultrastructural analysis of skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes, we observed severely disrupted myofibrillar organization and accumulation of inclusion bodies as well as mitochondrial degeneration. vcp knockout was associated with a significant accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, suggesting impaired proteasomal function. Additionally, markers of unfolded protein response (UPR)/ER-stress and autophagy-related mTOR signaling were elevated in vcp-deficient embryos, demonstrating impaired proteostasis in VCP-null zebrafish. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the successful generation of a stable constitutive vcp knockout zebrafish line that will enable characterization of the detailed mechanistic underpinnings of vcp loss, particularly the impact of disturbed protein homeostasis on organ development and function in vivo.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Merckx NLL, HV Esch (2022)

Human Brain Models of Intellectual Disability: Experimental Advances and Novelties.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126476.

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by deficits in conceptual, social and practical domains. ID can be caused by both genetic defects and environmental factors and is extremely heterogeneous, which complicates the diagnosis as well as the deciphering of the underlying pathways. Multiple scientific breakthroughs during the past decades have enabled the development of novel ID models. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables the study of patient-derived human neurons in 2D or in 3D organoids during development. Gene-editing tools, such as CRISPR/Cas9, provide isogenic controls and opportunities to design personalized gene therapies. In practice this has contributed significantly to the understanding of ID and opened doors to identify novel therapeutic targets. Despite these advances, a number of areas of improvement remain for which novel technologies might entail a solution in the near future. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the existing literature on scientific breakthroughs that have been advancing the way ID can be studied in the human brain. The here described human brain models for ID have the potential to accelerate the identification of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of therapies.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Vuelta E, Ordoñez JL, Sanz DJ, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Directed Gene Trap Constitutes a Selection System for Corrected BCR/ABL Leukemic Cells in CML.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126386.

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a haematological neoplasm driven by the BCR/ABL fusion oncogene. The monogenic aspect of the disease and the feasibility of ex vivo therapies in haematological disorders make CML an excellent candidate for gene therapy strategies. The ability to abolish any coding sequence by CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases offers a powerful therapeutic opportunity to CML patients. However, a definitive cure can only be achieved when only CRISPR-edited cells are selected. A gene-trapping approach combined with CRISPR technology would be an ideal approach to ensure this. Here, we developed a CRISPR-Trap strategy that efficiently inserts a donor gene trap (SA-CMV-Venus) cassette into the BCR/ABL-specific fusion point in the CML K562 human cell line. The trapping cassette interrupts the oncogene coding sequence and expresses a reporter gene that enables the selection of edited cells. Quantitative mRNA expression analyses showed significantly higher level of expression of the BCR/Venus allele coupled with a drastically lower level of BCR/ABL expression in Venus+ cell fractions. Functional in vitro experiments showed cell proliferation arrest and apoptosis in selected Venus+ cells. Finally, xenograft experiments with the selected Venus+ cells showed a large reduction in tumour growth, thereby demonstrating a therapeutic benefit in vivo. This study represents proof of concept for the therapeutic potential of a CRISPR-Trap system as a novel strategy for gene elimination in haematological neoplasms.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Irshad F, Li C, Wu HY, et al (2022)

The Function of DNA Demethylase Gene ROS1a Null Mutant on Seed Development in Rice (Oryza Sativa) Using the CRISPR/CAS9 System.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126357.

The endosperm is the main nutrient source in cereals for humans, as it is a highly specialized storage organ for starch, lipids, and proteins, and plays an essential role in seed growth and development. Active DNA demethylation regulates plant developmental processes and is ensured by cytosine methylation (5-meC) DNA glycosylase enzymes. To find out the role of OsROS1a in seed development, the null mutant of OsROS1a was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The null mutant of OsROS1a was stable and heritable, which affects the major agronomic traits, particularly in rice seeds. The null mutant of OsROS1a showed longer and narrower grains, and seeds were deformed containing an underdeveloped and less-starch-producing endosperm with slightly irregularly shaped embryos. In contrast to the transparent grains of the wild type, the grains of the null mutant of OsROS1a were slightly opaque and rounded starch granules, with uneven shapes, sizes, and surfaces. A total of 723 differential expression genes (DEGs) were detected in the null mutant of OsROS1a by RNA-Seq, of which 290 were downregulated and 433 were upregulated. The gene ontology (GO) terms with the top 20 enrichment factors were visualized for cellular components, biological processes, and molecular functions. The key genes that are enriched for these GO terms include starch synthesis genes (OsSSIIa and OsSSIIIa) and cellulose synthesis genes (CESA2, CESA3, CESA6, and CESA8). Genes encoding polysaccharides and glutelin were found to be downregulated in the mutant endosperm. The glutelins were further verified by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that glutelin genes could be involved in the null mutant of OsROS1a seed phenotype and OsROS1a could have the key role in the regulation of glutelins. Furthermore, 378 differentially alternative splicing (AS) genes were identified in the null mutant of OsROS1a, suggesting that the OsROS1a gene has an impact on AS events. Our findings indicated that the function on rice endosperm development in the null mutant of OsROS1a could be influenced through regulating gene expression and AS, which could provide the base to properly understand the molecular mechanism related to the OsROS1a gene in the regulation of rice seed development.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Sayed S, Sürün D, Mircetic J, et al (2022)

Using CRISPR-Cas9 to Dissect Cancer Mutations in Cell Lines.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2508:235-260.

The CRISPR-Cas9 technology has revolutionized the scope and pace of biomedical research, enabling the targeting of specific genomic sequences for a wide spectrum of applications. Here we describe assays to functionally interrogate mutations identified in cancer cells utilizing both CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease and base editors. We provide guidelines to interrogate known cancer driver mutations or functionally screen for novel vulnerability mutations with these systems in characterized human cancer cell lines. The proposed platform should be transferable to primary cancer cells, opening up a path for precision oncology on a functional level.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Schuler G, Hu C, A Ke (2022)

Structural basis for RNA-guided DNA cleavage by IscB-ωRNA and mechanistic comparison with Cas9.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 376(6600):1476-1481.

Class 2 CRISPR effectors Cas9 and Cas12 may have evolved from nucleases in IS200/IS605 transposons. IscB is about two-fifths the size of Cas9 but shares a similar domain organization. The associated ωRNA plays the combined role of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA) to guide double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage. Here we report a 2.78-angstrom cryo-electron microscopy structure of IscB-ωRNA bound to a dsDNA target, revealing the architectural and mechanistic similarities between IscB and Cas9 ribonucleoproteins. Target-adjacent motif recognition, R-loop formation, and DNA cleavage mechanisms are explained at high resolution. ωRNA plays the equivalent function of REC domains in Cas9 and contacts the RNA-DNA heteroduplex. The IscB-specific PLMP domain is dispensable for RNA-guided DNA cleavage. The transition from ancestral IscB to Cas9 involved dwarfing the ωRNA and introducing protein domain replacements.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Ai Y, Liang D, JE Wilusz (2022)

CRISPR/Cas13 effectors have differing extents of off-target effects that limit their utility in eukaryotic cells.

Nucleic acids research, 50(11):e65.

CRISPR/Cas13 effectors have garnered increasing attention as easily customizable tools for detecting and depleting RNAs of interest. Near perfect complementarity between a target RNA and the Cas13-associated guide RNA is required for activation of Cas13 ribonuclease activity. Nonetheless, the specificity of Cas13 effectors in eukaryotic cells has been debated as the Cas13 nuclease domains can be exposed on the enzyme surface, providing the potential for promiscuous cleavage of nearby RNAs (so-called collateral damage). Here, using co-transfection assays in Drosophila and human cells, we found that the off-target effects of RxCas13d, a commonly used Cas13 effector, can be as strong as the level of on-target RNA knockdown. The extent of off-target effects is positively correlated with target RNA expression levels, and collateral damage can be observed even after reducing RxCas13d/guide RNA levels. The PspCas13b effector showed improved specificity and, unlike RxCas13d, can be used to deplete a Drosophila circular RNA without affecting the expression of the associated linear RNA. PspCas13b nonetheless still can have off-target effects and we notably found that the extent of off-target effects for Cas13 effectors differs depending on the cell type and target RNA examined. In total, these results highlight the need for caution when designing and interpreting Cas13-based knockdown experiments.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Zhao Z, Shang P, Sage F, et al (2022)

Ligation-assisted homologous recombination enables precise genome editing by deploying both MMEJ and HDR.

Nucleic acids research, 50(11):e62.

CRISPR/Cas12a is a single effector nuclease that, like CRISPR/Cas9, has been harnessed for genome editing based on its ability to generate targeted DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Unlike the blunt-ended DSB generated by Cas9, Cas12a generates sticky-ended DSB that could potentially aid precise genome editing, but this unique feature has thus far been underutilized. In the current study, we found that a short double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) repair template containing a sticky end that matched one of the Cas12a-generated DSB ends and a homologous arm sharing homology with the genomic region adjacent to the other end of the DSB enabled precise repair of the DSB and introduced a desired nucleotide substitution. We termed this strategy 'Ligation-Assisted Homologous Recombination' (LAHR). Compared to the single-stranded oligo deoxyribonucleotide (ssODN)-mediated homology directed repair (HDR), LAHR yields relatively high editing efficiency as demonstrated for both a reporter gene and endogenous genes. We found that both HDR and microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) mechanisms are involved in the LAHR process. Our LAHR genome editing strategy, extends the repertoire of genome editing technologies and provides a broader understanding of the type and role of DNA repair mechanisms involved in genome editing.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Guo G, Wang Z, Li Q, et al (2022)

Genomic characterization of Streptococcus parasuis, a close relative of Streptococcus suis and also a potential opportunistic zoonotic pathogen.

BMC genomics, 23(1):469.

Streptococcus parasuis (S. parasuis) is a close relative of Streptococcus suis (S. suis), composed of former members of S. suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26. S. parasuis could infect pigs and cows, and recently, human infection cases have been reported, making S. parasuis a potential opportunistic zoonotic pathogen. In this study, we analysed the genomic characteristics of S. parasuis, using pan-genome analysis, and compare some phenotypic determinants such as capsular polysaccharide, integrative conjugative elements, CRISPR-Cas system and pili, and predicted the potential virulence genes by associated analysis of the clinical condition of isolated source animals and genotypes. Furthermore, to discuss the relationship with S. suis, we compared these characteristics of S. parasuis with those of S. suis. We found that the characteristics of S. parasuis are similar to those of S. suis, both of them have "open" pan-genome, their antimicrobial resistance gene profiles are similar and a srtF pilus cluster of S. suis was identified in S. parasuis genome. But S. parasuis still have its unique characteristics, two novel pilus clusters are and three different type CRISPR-Cas system were found. Therefore, this study provides novel insights into the interspecific and intraspecific genetic characteristics of S. parasuis, which can be useful for further study of this opportunistic pathogen, such as serotyping, diagnostics, vaccine development, and study of the pathogenesis mechanism.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

de Freitas Almeida GM, Hoikkala V, Ravantti J, et al (2022)

Mucin induces CRISPR-Cas defense in an opportunistic pathogen.

Nature communications, 13(1):3653.

Parasitism by bacteriophages has led to the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms in their host bacteria. However, it is unclear what factors lead to specific defenses being deployed upon phage infection. To explore this question, we co-evolved the bacterial fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare and its virulent phage V156 in presence and absence of a eukaryotic host signal (mucin) for sixteen weeks. The presence of mucin leads to a dramatic increase in CRISPR spacer acquisition, especially in low nutrient conditions where over 60% of colonies obtain at least one new spacer. Additionally, we show that the presence of a competitor bacterium further increases CRISPR spacer acquisition in F. columnare. These results suggest that ecological factors are important in determining defense strategies against phages, and that the phage-bacterium interactions on mucosal surfaces may select for the diversification of bacterial immune systems.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Qin S, Xiao W, Zhou C, et al (2022)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa: pathogenesis, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, interaction with host, technology advances and emerging therapeutics.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 7(1):199.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that infects patients with cystic fibrosis, burn wounds, immunodeficiency, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), cancer, and severe infection requiring ventilation, such as COVID-19. P. aeruginosa is also a widely-used model bacterium for all biological areas. In addition to continued, intense efforts in understanding bacterial pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa including virulence factors (LPS, quorum sensing, two-component systems, 6 type secretion systems, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), CRISPR-Cas and their regulation), rapid progress has been made in further studying host-pathogen interaction, particularly host immune networks involving autophagy, inflammasome, non-coding RNAs, cGAS, etc. Furthermore, numerous technologic advances, such as bioinformatics, metabolomics, scRNA-seq, nanoparticles, drug screening, and phage therapy, have been used to improve our understanding of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and host defense. Nevertheless, much remains to be uncovered about interactions between P. aeruginosa and host immune responses, including mechanisms of drug resistance by known or unannotated bacterial virulence factors as well as mammalian cell signaling pathways. The widespread use of antibiotics and the slow development of effective antimicrobials present daunting challenges and necessitate new theoretical and practical platforms to screen and develop mechanism-tested novel drugs to treat intractable infections, especially those caused by multi-drug resistance strains. Benefited from has advancing in research tools and technology, dissecting this pathogen's feature has entered into molecular and mechanistic details as well as dynamic and holistic views. Herein, we comprehensively review the progress and discuss the current status of P. aeruginosa biophysical traits, behaviors, virulence factors, invasive regulators, and host defense patterns against its infection, which point out new directions for future investigation and add to the design of novel and/or alternative therapeutics to combat this clinically significant pathogen.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Sirohi U, Kumar M, Sharma VR, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9 System: A Potential Tool for Genetic Improvement in Floricultural Crops.

Molecular biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Demand of flowers is increasing with time worldwide. Floriculture has become one of the most important commercial trades in agriculture. Although traditional breeding methods like hybridization and mutation breeding have contributed significantly to the development of important flower varieties, flower production and quality of flowers can be significantly improved by employing modern breeding approaches. Novel traits of significance have interest to consumers and producers, such as fragrance, new floral color, change in floral architecture and morphology, vase life, aroma, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, have been introduced by genetic manipulation. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has recently emerged as a powerful genome-editing tool for accurately changing DNA sequences at specific locations. It provides excellent means of genetically improving floricultural crops. CRISPR/Cas system has been utilized in gene editing in horticultural cops. There are few reports on the utilization of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in flowers. The current review summarizes the research work done by employing the CRISPR/Cas9 system in floricultural crops including improvement in flowering traits such as color modification, prolonging the shelf life of flowers, flower initiation, and development, changes in color of ornamental foliage by genome editing. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing could be useful in developing novel cultivars with higher fragrance and enhanced essential oil and many other useful traits. The present review also highlights the basic mechanism and key components involved in the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Datta A, Sarmah D, Kaur H, et al (2022)

Advancement in CRISPR/Cas9 Technology to Better Understand and Treat Neurological Disorders.

Cellular and molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Neurological disorders have complicated pathophysiology that may involve several genetic mutations. Conventional treatment has limitations as they only treat apparent symptoms. Although, personalized medicine is emerging as a promising neuro-intervention, lack of precision is the major pitfall. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is evolving as a technological platform that may overcome the therapeutic limitations towards precision medicine. In the future, targeting genes in neurological disorders may be the mainstay of modern therapy. The present review on CRISPR/Cas9 and its application in various neurological disorders may provide a platform for its future clinical relevance towards developing precise and personalized medicine.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Khan SH, Zaidi SK, M Gilani (2022)

PCR to CRISPR: Role of Nucleic Acid Tests (NAT) in detection of COVID-19.

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 72(6):1166-1174.

COVID-19 infection has emerged as an unparalleled pandemic with morbidity and mortality tolls challenging diagnostic approaches and therapeutic interventions, and raising serious questions for healthcare policy-makers. From the diagnostic perspective, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction remains the gold standard. However, issues associated with gene primer variation in different countries, low analytical sensitivity, cross-reactivity with certain human coronaviruses have raised serious concerns within the scientific community. Alongside longer turnaround times, requirements of sophisticated equipment and trained technicians are the other challenges for conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. The recent biotechnological boom has now allowed newer nucleic acid testing options for diagnosing severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronovairus 2 (SARS-CoV2) with much better diagnostic efficiency, reduced turnaround times and possible benefit for use as a point-of-care test. Isothermal techniques with simple equipment requirements along with uniform temperature for analysis have emerged to be more sensitive and specific with turnaround times as low as 10-15 minutes. Similarly, Cluster Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats have also been seen to play a very decisive role in COVID-19 diagnostics with much superior diagnostic efficiency and feasibility as a point-of-care test and its possible use for sequencing. The current narrative review was planned to consolidate data for all possible nucleic acid testing options under research/clinical use, and to provide a comparative assessment from the perspective of both the clinician and the laboratory.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Hillary VE, SA Ceasar (2022)

Prime editing in plants and mammalian cells: Mechanism, achievements, limitations, and future prospects.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system has revolutionized genetic research in the life sciences. Four classes of CRISPR/Cas-derived genome editing agents, such as nuclease, base editor, recombinase, and prime editor have been introduced for engineering the genomes of diverse organisms. The recently introduced prime editing system offers precise editing without many off-target effects than traditional CRISPR-based systems. Many researchers have successfully applied this gene-editing toolbox in diverse systems for various genome-editing applications. This review presents the mechanism of prime editing and summarizes the details of the prime editing system applied in plants and mammalian cells for precise genome editing. We also discuss the advantages, limitations, and potential future applications of prime editing in these systems. This review enables the researcher to gain knowledge on prime editing tools and their potential applications in plants and mammalian cells.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Mohammad-Rafiei F, Safdarian E, Adel B, et al (2022)

CRISPR: A Promising Tool for Cancer Therapy.

Current molecular medicine pii:CMM-EPUB-124774 [Epub ahead of print].

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats system, called CRISPR, as one of the major technological advances, allows geneticists and researchers to perform genome editing. This remarkable technology is quickly eclipsing zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and other editing tools, and its ease of use and accuracy have thus far revolutionized genome editing, from fundamental science projects to medical research and treatment options. This system consists of two key components: a CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease, which binds and cuts deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and a guide ribonucleic acid (gRNA) sequence, directing the Cas nuclease to its target site. In the research arena, CRISPR has been up to now exploited in various ways alongside gene editing, such as epigenome modifications, genome-wide screening, targeted cancer therapies, and so on. This article reviews the current perceptions of the CRISPR/Cas systems with special attention to studies reflecting on the relationship between the CRISPR/Cas systems and their role in cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Thomson MJ, Biswas S, Tsakirpaloglou N, et al (2022)

Functional Allele Validation by Gene Editing to Leverage the Wealth of Genetic Resources for Crop Improvement.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126565.

Advances in molecular technologies over the past few decades, such as high-throughput DNA marker genotyping, have provided more powerful plant breeding approaches, including marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. At the same time, massive investments in plant genetics and genomics, led by whole genome sequencing, have led to greater knowledge of genes and genetic pathways across plant genomes. However, there remains a gap between approaches focused on forward genetics, which start with a phenotype to map a mutant locus or QTL with the goal of cloning the causal gene, and approaches using reverse genetics, which start with large-scale sequence data and work back to the gene function. The recent establishment of efficient CRISPR-Cas-based gene editing promises to bridge this gap and provide a rapid method to functionally validate genes and alleles identified through studies of natural variation. CRISPR-Cas techniques can be used to knock out single or multiple genes, precisely modify genes through base and prime editing, and replace alleles. Moreover, technologies such as protoplast isolation, in planta transformation, and the use of developmental regulatory genes promise to enable high-throughput gene editing to accelerate crop improvement.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Wang HQ, Wang T, Gao F, et al (2022)

Application of CRISPR/Cas Technology in Spermatogenesis Research and Male Infertility Treatment.

Genes, 13(6): pii:genes13061000.

As the basis of animal reproductive activity, normal spermatogenesis directly determines the efficiency of livestock production. An in-depth understanding of spermatogenesis will greatly facilitate animal breeding efforts and male infertility treatment. With the continuous development and application of gene editing technologies, they have become valuable tools to study the mechanism of spermatogenesis. Gene editing technologies have provided us with a better understanding of the functions and potential mechanisms of action of factors that regulate spermatogenesis. This review summarizes the applications of gene editing technologies, especially CRISPR/Cas9, in deepening our understanding of the function of spermatogenesis-related genes and disease treatment. The problems of gene editing technologies in the field of spermatogenesis research are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Hernandez-Garcia A, Morales-Moreno MD, Valdés-Galindo EG, et al (2022)

Diagnostics of COVID-19 Based on CRISPR-Cas Coupled to Isothermal Amplification: A Comparative Analysis and Update.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:diagnostics12061434.

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic prompted fast development of novel diagnostic methods of the etiologic virus SARS-CoV-2. Methods based on CRISPR-Cas systems have been particularly promising because they can achieve a similar sensitivity and specificity to the benchmark RT-qPCR, especially when coupled to an isothermal pre-amplification step. Furthermore, they have also solved inherent limitations of RT-qPCR that impede its decentralized use and deployment in the field, such as the need for expensive equipment, high cost per reaction, and delivery of results in hours, among others. In this review, we evaluate publicly available methods to detect SARS-CoV-2 that are based on CRISPR-Cas and isothermal amplification. We critically analyze the steps required to obtain a successful result from clinical samples and pinpoint key experimental conditions and parameters that could be optimized or modified to improve clinical and analytical outputs. The COVID outbreak has propelled intensive research in a short time, which is paving the way to develop effective and very promising CRISPR-Cas systems for the precise detection of SARS-CoV-2. This review could also serve as an introductory guide to new labs delving into this technology.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Selvam K, Ahmad Najib M, Khalid MF, et al (2022)

CRISPR-Cas Systems-Based Bacterial Detection: A Scoping Review.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:diagnostics12061335.

Recently, CRISPR-Cas system-based assays for bacterial detection have been developed. The aim of this scoping review is to map existing evidence on the utilization of CRISPR-Cas systems in the development of bacterial detection assays. A literature search was conducted using three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library) and manual searches through the references of identified full texts based on a PROSPERO-registered protocol (CRD42021289140). Studies on bacterial detection using CRISPR-Cas systems that were published before October 2021 were retrieved. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) qualitative checklist was used to assess the risk of bias for all the included studies. Of the 420 studies identified throughout the search, 46 studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in the final analysis. Bacteria from 17 genera were identified utilising CRISPR-Cas systems. Most of the bacteria came from genera such as Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Mycobacterium and Streptococcus. Cas12a (64%) is the most often used Cas enzyme in bacterial detection, followed by Cas13a (13%), and Cas9 (11%). To improve the signal of detection, 83% of the research exploited Cas enzymes' trans-cleavage capabilities to cut tagged reporter probes non-specifically. Most studies used the extraction procedure, whereas only 17% did not. In terms of amplification methods, isothermal reactions were employed in 66% of the studies, followed by PCR (23%). Fluorescence detection (67%) was discovered to be the most commonly used method, while lateral flow biosensors (13%), electrochemical biosensors (11%), and others (9%) were found to be less commonly used. Most of the studies (39) used specific bacterial nucleic acid sequences as a target, while seven used non-nucleic acid targets, including aptamers and antibodies particular to the bacteria under investigation. The turnaround time of the 46 studies was 30 min to 4 h. The limit of detection (LoD) was evaluated in three types of concentration, which include copies per mL, CFU per mL and molarity. Most of the studies used spiked samples (78%) rather than clinical samples (22%) to determine LoD. This review identified the gap in clinical accuracy evaluation of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial detection. More research is needed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of amplification-free CRISPR-Cas systems in bacterial detection for nucleic acid-based tests.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Lainšček D, Forstnerič V, Mikolič V, et al (2022)

Coiled-coil heterodimer-based recruitment of an exonuclease to CRISPR/Cas for enhanced gene editing.

Nature communications, 13(1):3604.

The CRISPR/Cas system has emerged as a powerful and versatile genome engineering tool, revolutionizing biological and biomedical sciences, where an improvement of efficiency could have a strong impact. Here we present a strategy to enhance gene editing based on the concerted action of Cas9 and an exonuclease. Non-covalent recruitment of exonuclease to Cas9/gRNA complex via genetically encoded coiled-coil based domains, termed CCExo, recruited the exonuclease to the cleavage site and robustly increased gene knock-out due to progressive DNA strand recession at the cleavage site, causing decreased re-ligation of the nonedited DNA. CCExo exhibited increased deletion size and enhanced gene inactivation efficiency in the context of several DNA targets, gRNA selection, Cas variants, tested cell lines and type of delivery. Targeting a sequence-specific oncogenic chromosomal translocation using CCExo in cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia patients and in an animal model led to the reduction or elimination of cancer, establishing it as a highly specific tool for treating CML and potentially other appropriate diseases with genetic etiology.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Lei Z, Meng H, Liu L, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial base editor induces substantial nuclear off-target mutations.

Nature, 606(7915):804-811.

DddA-derived cytosine base editors (DdCBEs)-which are fusions of split DddA halves and transcription activator-like effector (TALE) array proteins from bacteria-enable targeted C•G-to-T•A conversions in mitochondrial DNA1. However, their genome-wide specificity is poorly understood. Here we show that the mitochondrial base editor induces extensive off-target editing in the nuclear genome. Genome-wide, unbiased analysis of its editome reveals hundreds of off-target sites that are TALE array sequence (TAS)-dependent or TAS-independent. TAS-dependent off-target sites in the nuclear DNA are often specified by only one of the two TALE repeats, challenging the principle that DdCBEs are guided by paired TALE proteins positioned in close proximity. TAS-independent off-target sites on nuclear DNA are frequently shared among DdCBEs with distinct TALE arrays. Notably, they co-localize strongly with binding sites for the transcription factor CTCF and are enriched in topologically associating domain boundaries. We engineered DdCBE to alleviate such off-target effects. Collectively, our results have implications for the use of DdCBEs in basic research and therapeutic applications, and suggest the need to thoroughly define and evaluate the off-target effects of base-editing tools.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Devanna BN, Jain P, Solanke AU, et al (2022)

Understanding the Dynamics of Blast Resistance in Rice-Magnaporthe oryzae Interactions.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(6): pii:jof8060584.

Rice is a global food grain crop for more than one-third of the human population and a source for food and nutritional security. Rice production is subjected to various stresses; blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the major biotic stresses that has the potential to destroy total crop under severe conditions. In the present review, we discuss the importance of rice and blast disease in the present and future global context, genomics and molecular biology of blast pathogen and rice, and the molecular interplay between rice-M. oryzae interaction governed by different gene interaction models. We also elaborated in detail on M. oryzae effector and Avr genes, and the role of noncoding RNAs in disease development. Further, rice blast resistance QTLs; resistance (R) genes; and alleles identified, cloned, and characterized are discussed. We also discuss the utilization of QTLs and R genes for blast resistance through conventional breeding and transgenic approaches. Finally, we review the demonstrated examples and potential applications of the latest genome-editing tools in understanding and managing blast disease in rice.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Li X, Xu S, Fuhrmann-Aoyagi MB, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9 Technique for Temperature, Drought, and Salinity Stress Responses.

Current issues in molecular biology, 44(6):2664-2682 pii:cimb44060182.

Global warming and climate change have severely affected plant growth and food production. Therefore, minimizing these effects is required for sustainable crop yields. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in response to abiotic stresses and improving agricultural traits to make crops tolerant to abiotic stresses have been going on unceasingly. To generate desirable varieties of crops, traditional and molecular breeding techniques have been tried, but both approaches are time-consuming. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are genome-editing technologies that have recently attracted the attention of plant breeders for genetic modification. These technologies are powerful tools in the basic and applied sciences for understanding gene function, as well as in the field of crop breeding. In this review, we focus on the application of genome-editing systems in plants to understand gene function in response to abiotic stresses and to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as temperature, drought, and salinity stresses.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Kobelt D, Pahle J, W Walther (2022)

A Brief Introduction to Current Cancer Gene Therapy.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2521:1-21.

Gene therapy has started in the late 1980s as novel, clinically applicable therapeutic option. It revolutionized the treatment of genetic diseases with the initial intent to repair or replace defective genes. Gene therapy has been adapted for treatment of malignant diseases to improve the outcome of cancer patients. In fact, cancer gene therapy has rapidly gained great interest and evolved into a research field with highest proportion of research activities in gene therapy. In this context, cancer gene therapy has long entered translation into clinical trials and therefore more than two-thirds of all gene therapy trials worldwide are aiming at the treatment of cancer disease using different therapeutic strategies. During the decades in cancer gene therapy, tremendous knowledge has accumulated. This led to significant improvements in vector design, transgene repertoire, more targeted interventions, use of novel gene therapeutic technologies such as CRISPR/Cas, sleeping beauty vectors, and development of effective cancer immunogene therapies. In this chapter, a brief overview of current key developments in cancer gene therapy is provided to gain insights into the recent directions in research as well as in clinical application of cancer gene therapy.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Hu M, Qiu Z, Bi Z, et al (2022)

Photocontrolled crRNA activation enables robust CRISPR-Cas12a diagnostics.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(26):e2202034119.

CRISPR diagnostics based on nucleic acid amplification faces barriers to its commercial use, such as contamination risks and insufficient sensitivity. Here, we propose a robust solution involving optochemical control of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) activation in CRISPR detection. Based on this strategy, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and CRISPR-Cas12a detection systems can be integrated into a completely closed test tube. crRNA can be designed to be temporarily inactivated so that RPA is not affected by Cas12a cleavage. After the RPA reaction is completed, the CRISPR-Cas12a detection system is activated under rapid light irradiation. This photocontrolled, fully closed CRISPR diagnostic system avoids contamination risks and exhibits a more than two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared with the conventional one-pot assay. This photocontrolled CRISPR method was applied to the clinical detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, achieving detection sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of PCR. Furthermore, a compact and automatic photocontrolled CRISPR detection device was constructed.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Ametrano A, MR Coscia (2022)

Production of a Chimeric Mouse-Fish Monoclonal Antibody by the CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2498:337-350.

The CRISPR/Cas9 system, a defense mechanism naturally occurring in prokaryotes, has been recently repurposed as an RNA-guided DNA targeting platform and widely used as a powerful tool for genome editing. Here we describe how to modify the carboxy-terminal region, called Fragment crystallizable (Fc) region, of a murine monoclonal antibody by replacing the heavy chain constant exons with those from a teleost fish antibody by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We outline optimal conditions for knockout and knockin mechanisms to edit the Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) constant region gene locus in a murine hybridoma cell line. A chimeric mouse-fish monoclonal antibody can be successfully produced by hybridoma cell lines engineered according to this protocol.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Russo MT, Santin A, Rogato A, et al (2022)

Optimized Proteolistic Protocol for the Delivery of the Cas9 Protein in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2498:327-336.

The CRISPR/Cas9 system coupled with proteolistics is a DNA-free nuclear transformation method based on the introduction of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes into cells. The method has been set up for diatoms as an alternative to genetic transformation via biolistics and has the advantages of reducing off-target mutations, limiting the working time of the Cas9 endonuclease, and overcoming the occurrence of random insertions of the transgene in the genome. We present a point-by-point description of the protocol with modifications that make it more cost-effective, by reducing the amount of the enzyme while maintaining a comparable efficiency to the original protocol, and with an increased concentration of the selective drug which allows to reduce false positives.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Chen W, She W, Li A, et al (2022)

Site-Directed Mutagenesis Method Mediated by Cas9.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2461:165-174.

This study presents an in vitro CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenic (ICM) system that allows rapid construction of designed mutants or site-saturation mutagenesis libraries in a PCR-independent manner. The plasmid DNA is double digested with Cas9 bearing specific single guide RNAs to remove the target nucleotides. Next, T5 exonuclease excises both 5'-ends of the linearized plasmid to generate homologous regions of approximately 15 nt. Subsequently, a short dsDNA of approximately 30-50 bp containing the desired mutation cyclizes the plasmid through base pairing and introduces the mutation into the plasmid. The gaps are repaired in Escherichia coli host cells after transformation. This method is highly efficient and accurate. Both single and multiple site-directed mutagenesis can be successfully performed, especially to large sized plasmids. This method demonstrates the great potential for creating high-quality mutant libraries in directed evolution as an alternative to PCR-based saturation mutagenesis, thus facilitating research on synthetic biology.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Zhang RX, Li BB, Yang ZG, et al (2022)

Dissecting Plant Gene Functions Using CRISPR Toolsets for Crop Improvement.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 70(24):7343-7359.

The CRISPR-based gene editing technology has become more and more powerful in genome manipulation for agricultural breeding, with numerous improved toolsets springing up. In recent years, many CRISPR toolsets for gene editing, such as base editors (BEs), CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), CRISPR activation (CRISPRa), and plant epigenetic editors (PEEs), have been developed to clarify gene function and full-level gene regulation. Here, we comprehensively summarize the application and capacity of the different CRISPR toolsets in the study of plant gene expression regulation, highlighting their potential application in gene regulatory networks' analysis. The general problems in CRISPR application and the optimal solutions in the existing schemes for high-throughput gene function analysis are also discussed. The CRISPR toolsets targeting gene manipulation discussed here provide new solutions for further genetic improvement and molecular breeding of crops.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Thongsin N, M Wattanapanitch (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein Complex-Mediated Efficient B2M Knockout in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs).

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2454:607-624.

Advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology provide a renewable source of cells for tissue regeneration and therefore hold great promise for cell replacement therapy. However, immune rejection of allograft due to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching remains a major challenge. Considerable efforts have been devoted to overcoming the immunogenicity of allograft transplantation. One of the approaches is an elimination of HLA molecules on the surface of allogeneic cells using genome editing technology to generate universal stem cells. Here, we present a simple and effective genome editing approach to knockout the β-2-immunoglobulin (B2M) gene, which encodes B2M protein that forms a heterodimer with HLA class I proteins, in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) leading to HLA class I (HLA-I) depletion. We also describe detailed procedures for validation of the B2M-knockout iPSCs using flow cytometry, and genotypic analysis for potential off-target regions. Our protocol is also applicable for knocking out other genes in iPSCs and other cell types.

RevDate: 2022-06-10
CmpDate: 2022-06-10

Kratzer K, Getz LJ, Peterlini T, et al (2022)

Addressing the dark matter of gene therapy: technical and ethical barriers to clinical application.

Human genetics, 141(6):1175-1193.

Gene therapies for genetic diseases have been sought for decades, and the relatively recent development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system has encouraged a new wave of interest in the field. There have nonetheless been significant setbacks to gene therapy, including unintended biological consequences, ethical scandals, and death. The major focus of research has been on technological problems such as delivery, potential immune responses, and both on and off-target effects in an effort to avoid negative clinical outcomes. While the field has concentrated on how we can better achieve gene therapies and gene editing techniques, there has been less focus on when and why we should use such technology. Here we combine discussion of both the technical and ethical barriers to the widespread clinical application of gene therapy and gene editing, providing a resource for gene therapy experts and novices alike. We discuss ethical problems and solutions, using cystic fibrosis and beta-thalassemia as case studies where gene therapy might be suitable, and provide examples of situations where human germline gene editing may be ethically permissible. Using such examples, we propose criteria to guide researchers and clinicians in deciding whether or not to pursue gene therapy as a treatment. Finally, we summarize how current progress in the field adheres to principles of biomedical ethics and highlight how this approach might fall short of ethical rigour using examples in the bioethics literature. Ultimately by addressing both the technical and ethical aspects of gene therapy and editing, new frameworks can be developed for the fair application of these potentially life-saving treatments.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Thamodaran V, Rani S, SR Velayudhan (2022)

Gene Editing in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Doxycycline-Inducible CRISPR-Cas9 System.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2454:755-773.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from patients are a valuable tool for disease modelling, drug screening, and studying the functions of cell/tissue-specific genes. However, for this research, isogenic iPSC lines are important for comparison of phenotypes in the wild type and mutant differentiated cells generated from the iPSCs. The advent of gene editing technologies to correct or generate mutations helps in the generation of isogenic iPSC lines with the same genetic background. Due to the ease of programming, CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas9-based gene editing tools have gained pace in gene manipulation studies, including investigating complex diseases like cancer. An iPSC line with drug inducible Cas9 expression from the Adeno-Associated Virus Integration Site 1 (AAVS1) safe harbor locus offers a controllable expression of Cas9 with robust gene editing. Here, we describe a stepwise protocol for the generation and characterization of such an iPSC line (AAVS1-PDi-Cas9 iPSC) with a doxycycline (dox)-inducible Cas9 expression cassette from the AAVS1 safe harbor site and efficient editing of target genes with lentiviral vectors expressing gRNAs. This approach with a tunable Cas9 expression that allows investigating gene functions in iPSCs or in the differentiated cells can serve as a versatile tool in disease modelling studies.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Brandão KO, Grandela C, Yiangou L, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Introduction of Specific Heterozygous Mutations in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2454:531-557.

Advances in genome editing and our ability to derive and differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into a wide variety of cell types present in the body is revolutionizing how we model human diseases in vitro. Central to this has been the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as an inexpensive and highly efficient tool for introducing or correcting disease-associated mutations. However, the ease with which CRISPR/Cas9 enables genetic modification is a double-edged sword, with the challenge now being to introduce changes precisely to just one allele without disrupting the other.In this chapter, we describe strategies to introduce specific mutations into hiPSCs without enrichment steps. Monoallelic modification is contingent on the target activity of the guide RNA, delivery method of the CRISPR/Cas9 components and design of the oligonucleotide(s) transfected. As well as addressing these aspects, we detail high throughput culturing, freezing and screening methods to identify clonal hiPSCs with the desired nucleotide change. This set of protocols offers an efficient and ultimately time- and labor-saving approach for generating isogenic pairs of hiPSCs to detect subtle phenotypic differences caused by the disease variant.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Sanjurjo-Soriano C, Erkilic N, Mamaeva D, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing to Generate Clonal iPSC Lines.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2454:589-606.

The ability to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was developed in 2006 and represented a major breakthrough in stem cell research. A more recent milestone in biomedical research was reached in 2013 when the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to edit the genome of mammalian cells. The coupling of both human (h)iPSCs and CRISPR/Cas9 technology offers great promise for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. However, several limitations including time and labor consumption, efficiency and efficacy of the system, and the potential off-targets effects induced by the Cas9 nuclease still need to be addressed. Here, we describe a detailed method for easily engineering genetic changes in hiPSCs, using a nucleofection-mediated protocol to deliver the CRISPR/Cas9 components into the cells, and discuss key points to be considered when designing your experiment. The clonal, genome-edited hiPSC line generated via our method can be directly used for downstream applications.

RevDate: 2022-06-03
CmpDate: 2022-06-03

Chen Y, Wen R, Yang Z, et al (2022)

Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 to treat hereditary hematological disorders.

Gene therapy, 29(5):207-216.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a versatile and convenient genome-editing tool with prospects in gene therapy. This technique is based on customized site-specific nucleases with programmable guiding RNAs that cleave and introduce double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the target locus and achieve precise genome modification by triggering DNA repair mechanisms. Human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) are conventional cell targets for gene therapy in hematological diseases and have been widely used in most studies. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from a variety of somatic cells and hold great promise for personalized cell-based therapies. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in autologous HSPCs and iPSCs is an ideal therapeutic solution for treating hereditary hematological disorders. Here, we review and summarize the latest studies about CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in patient-derived HSPCs and iPSCs to treat hereditary hematological disorders. Current challenges and prospects are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Khademi Z, Ramezani M, Alibolandi M, et al (2022)

A novel dual-targeting delivery system for specific delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 using hyaluronic acid, chitosan and AS1411.

Carbohydrate polymers, 292:119691.

A facile method was designed that can specifically deliver CRISPR/Cas9 into target cells nuclei and reduce the off-target effects. A multifunctional delivery vector for FOXM1 knockout was composed by integration of cell targeting polymer (hyaluronic acid) and cell and nuclear targeting group (AS1411 aptamer) on the surface of nanoparticles formed by genome editing plasmid and chitosan (CS) as the core (Apt-HA-CS-CRISPR/Cas9). The data of cytotoxicity experiment and western blot confirmed this issue. The results of flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence imaging demonstrated that Apt-HA-CS-CRISPR/Cas9 was significantly internalized into target cells (MCF-7, SK-MES-1, HeLa) but not into nontarget cells (HEK293). Furthermore, the in vivo studies displayed that the Apt-HA-CS-CRISPR/Cas9 was strongly rendered tumor inhibitory effect and delivered efficiently CRISPR/Cas9 into the tumor with no detectable distribution in other organs compared with naked plasmid. This approach provides an avenue for specific in vivo gene editing therapeutics with the lowest side effect.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Rathbone T, Ates I, Stuart C, et al (2022)

Electroporation-mediated Delivery of Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins and mRNA into Freshly Isolated Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

This protocol describes a fast and effective method for isolating primary mouse hepatocytes followed by electroporation-mediated delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and mRNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated using a three-step retrograde perfusion method resulting in high yields of up to 50 × 106 cells per liver and cell viability of >85%. This protocol provides detailed instructions for plating, staining, and culturing hepatocytes. The results indicate that electroporation provides a high transfection efficiency of 89%, as measured by the percentage of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive cells and modest cell viability of >35% in mouse hepatocytes. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase gene was electroporated into primary mouse hepatocytes as proof-of-principle gene editing to disrupt a therapeutic gene related to an inherited metabolic disease (IMD) of the liver. A higher on-target edit of 78% was observed for RNPs compared to 47% editing efficiency with mRNA. The functionality of hepatocytes was evaluated in vitro using an albumin assay that indicated that delivering CRISPR-Cas9 as RNPs and mRNA results in comparable cell viability in primary mouse hepatocytes. A promising application for this protocol is the generation of mouse models for human genetic diseases affecting the liver.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Zuo Q, Xu W, Wan Y, et al (2022)

Efficient generation of a CYP3A4-T2A-luciferase knock-in HepaRG subclone and its optimized differentiation.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 152:113243.

CRISPR/Cas9 has allowed development of better and easier-to-use ADME models than traditional methods by complete knockout or knock-in of genes. However, gene editing in HepaRG cells remains challenging because long-term monoclonal cultivation may alter their differentiation capacity to a large extent. Here, CRISPR/Cas9 was used to generate a CYP3A4-T2A-luciferase knock-in HepaRG subclone by Cas9-mediated homologous recombination and monoclonal cultivation. The knock-in HepaRG-#9 subclone retained a similar differentiation potential to wildtype HepaRG cells (HepaRG-WT). To further improve differentiation and expand the applications of knock-in HepaRG cells, two optimized differentiation procedures were evaluated by comparison with the standard differentiation procedure using the knock-in HepaRG-#9 subclone and HepaRG-WT. The results indicated that addition of forskolin (an adenylate cyclase activator) and SB431542 (a TGF-β pathway inhibitor) to the first optimized differentiation procedure led to better differentiation consequence in terms of not only the initiation time for differentiation and morphological characterization, but also the mRNA levels of hepatocyte-specific genes. These data may contribute to more extensive applications of genetically modified HepaRG cells in ADME studies.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Zhang W, Shi R, Dong K, et al (2022)

The Off-Target Effect of CRISPR-Cas12a System toward Insertions and Deletions between Target DNA and crRNA Sequences.

Analytical chemistry, 94(24):8596-8604.

The CRISPR-Cas12a system is a new type of genome editing tool with high efficiency and targeting. However, other sequences in the genome may also be cleaved nonspecifically, resulting in unavoidable off-target effects. Therefore, it is necessary to learn more about the mechanism of CRISPR-Cas12a to recognize target sequences to avoid its off-target effects. Here, we show that insertion (DNA bubble) or deletion (RNA bubble) of the target dsDNA sequence compared with the crRNA sequence, the CRISPR-Cas12a system can still recognize and cleave the target dsDNA sequence. We conclude that the tolerance of CRISPR-Cas12a to the bubbles is closely related to the location and size of the bubble and the GC base content of crRNA. In addition, we used the unique property of CRISPR-Cas12a to invent a new method to detect mutations and successfully detect the CD41-42(-CTTT) mutation. The detection limit of this method is 0.001%. Overall, our results strongly indicate that in addition to considering off-target effects caused by base mismatches, a comprehensive off-target analysis of the insertion and deletion of the target dsDNA sequence is required, and specific guidelines for effectively reducing potential off-target cleavage are proposed, to improve the safety manual of CRISPR-Cas12a biological application.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Hou Y, Wang D, Lu S, et al (2022)

Optogenetic Control of Background Fluorescence Reduction for CRISPR-Based Genome Imaging.

Analytical chemistry, 94(24):8724-8731.

The CRISPR/dCas9 system has become an essential tool for live-cell imaging of genomic loci, but it has limited applications in imaging low-/non-repetitive genomic loci due to the strong nuclear background noise emerging from many untargeted fluorescent modules. Here, we propose an optogenetically controlled background fluorescence reduction strategy that combines the CRISPR-SunTag system with a light-inducible nuclear export tag (LEXY). Utilizing the SunTag system, multiple copies of LEXY-tagged sfGFP were recruited to the C-terminal dCas9, recognizing the target genomic loci. As the nuclear export sequence at the C-terminal LEXY could be exposed to pulsed blue light irradiation, the untargeted nuclear labeling modules were light controllably transferred to the cytoplasm. Consequently, genomic loci containing as few as nine copies of repeats were clearly visualized, and a significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio was achieved. This simple and controllable method is expected to have a wide range of applications in cell biology.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Widjaya MA, Ju JC, SD Lee (2022)

CRISPR-Edited Stem Cell Transplantation for HIV-Related Gene Modification In Vivo: A Systematic Review.

Stem cell reviews and reports, 18(5):1743-1755.

BACKGROUND: CRISPR is a novel genomic editing technology which can be useful for the treatment of immune diseases such as HIV. However, the application of CRISPR in stem cells for HIV-related research was not effective, and most of the research was done in vivo. This systematic review is to identify a new research idea about increase CRISPR-editing efficiencies in stem cell transplantation for HIV treatment, as well as its future perspective.

METHOD: Four databases were searched for articles published during 1952 to 2020. PRISMA method was used to select appropriate research papers. CAMARADES was used to identify the paper quality. The outcome was engraftment efficiency, gene disruption percentage, differentiation ability, HIV-resistant efficiency.

RESULT: Screening method showed 196 papers mentioned the topic. However, only 5 studies were reliable with the research objective. We found that (1) Two research ideas which was double gene knockout and knockout-knockin method to provide HIV-resistant cells, engraftment support and avoid cardiac disease as an HIV disease side effect. (2) Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) delivery was the best way to deliver the CRISPR/Cas9 and Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) would be effective for knockin purpose. (3) CRISPR/SaCas9 could replace CRISPR/Cas9 role in editing HIV-related gene.

CONCLUSION: Potential genes to increase HIV resistance and stem cell engraftment should be explored more in the future. Double knockout and knock-in procedures should be applied to set up a better engraftment for improving HIV treatment or resistance of patients. CRISPR/SaCas9 and RNP delivery should be explored more in the future.

PROSPERO CRD42020203312.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Fu J, Fu YW, Zhao JJ, et al (2022)

Improved and Flexible HDR Editing by Targeting Introns in iPSCs.

Stem cell reviews and reports, 18(5):1822-1833.

Highly efficient gene knockout (KO) editing of CRISPR-Cas9 has been achieved in iPSCs, whereas homology-directed repair (HDR)-mediated precise gene knock-in (KI) and high-level expression are still bottlenecks for the clinical applications of iPSCs. Here, we developed a novel editing strategy that targets introns. By targeting the intron before the stop codon, this approach tolerates reading frameshift mutations caused by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated indels, thereby maintaining gene integrity without damaging the non-HDR-edited allele. Furthermore, to increase the flexibility and screen for the best intron-targeting sgRNA, we designed an HDR donor with an artificial intron in place of the endogenous intron. The presence of artificial introns, particularly an intron that carries an enhancer element, significantly increased the reporter expression levels in iPSCs compared to the intron-deleted control. In addition, a combination of the small molecules M3814 and trichostatin A (TSA) significantly improves HDR efficiency by inhibiting NHEJ. These results should find applications in gene therapy and basic research, such as creating reporter cell lines.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Fan W, Yu M, Wang X, et al (2022)

Non-homologous dsODN increases the mutagenic effects of CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt oncogene E7 in HPV positive cells.

Cancer gene therapy, 29(6):758-769.

Genome editing tools targeting high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogene could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HPV-related cervical cancer. We aimed to improve the editing efficiency and detect off-target effects concurrently for the clinical translation strategy by using CRISPR-Cas9 system co-transfected with 34nt non-homologous double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (dsODN). We firstly tested this strategy on targeting the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene, of which the expression is easily observed. Our results showed that the GFP+ cells were significantly decreased when using GFP-sgRNAs with dsODN, compared to using GFP-sgRNAs without donors. By PCR and Sanger sequencing, we verified the dsODN integration into the break sites of the GFP gene. And by amplicon sequencing, we observed that the indels% of the targeted site on the GFP gene was increased by using GFP-sgRNAs with dsODN. Next, we went on to target the HPV18 E7 oncogene by using single E7-sgRNA and multiplexed E7-sgRNAs respectively. Whenever using single sgRNA or multiplexed sgRNAs, the mRNA expression of HPV18 E7 oncogene was significantly decreased when adding E7-sgRNAs with dsODN, compared to E7-sgRNAs without donor. And the indels% of the targeted sites on the HPV18 E7 gene was markedly increased by adding dsODN with E7-sgRNAs. Finally, we performed GUIDE-Seq to verify that the integrated dsODN could serve as the marker to detect off-target effects in using single or multiplexed two sgRNAs. And we detected fewer on-target reads and off-target sites in multiplexes compared to the single sgRNAs when targeting the GFP and the HPV18 E7 genes. Together, CRISPR-Cas9 system co-transfected with 34nt dsODN concurrently improved the editing efficiency and monitored off-target effects, which might provide new insights in the treatment of HPV infections and related cervical cancer.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Lee YY, Park R, Miller SM, et al (2022)

Genetic compensation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Genetic compensation has been proposed to explain phenotypic differences between gene knockouts and knockdowns in several metazoan and plant model systems. With the rapid development of reverse genetic tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 and RNAi in microalgae, it is increasingly important to assess whether genetic compensation affects the phenotype of engineered algal mutants. While exploring triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it was discovered that knockout of certain genes catalyzing rate-limiting steps of TAG biosynthesis, type-2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes (DGTTs), triggered genetic compensation under abiotic stress conditions. Genetic compensation of a DGTT1 null mutation by a related PDAT gene was observed regardless of the strain background or mutagenesis approach, e.g., CRISPR/Cas 9 or insertional mutagenesis. However, no compensation was found in the PDAT knockout mutant. The effect of PDAT knockout was evaluated in a Δvtc1 mutant, in which PDAT was up-regulated under stress, resulting in a 90% increase in TAG content. Knockout of PDAT in the Δvtc1 background induced a 12.8-fold upregulation of DGTT1 and a 272.3% increase in TAG content in Δvtc1/pdat1 cells, while remaining viable. These data suggest that genetic compensation contributes to the genetic robustness of microalgal TAG biosynthetic pathways, maintaining lipid and redox homeostasis in the knockout mutants under abiotic stress. This work demonstrates examples of genetic compensation in microalgae, implies the physiological relevance of genetic compensation in TAG biosynthesis under stress, and provides guidance for future genetic engineering and mutant characterization efforts.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Vaghari-Tabari M, Hassanpour P, Sadeghsoltani F, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing: a new approach for overcoming drug resistance in cancer.

Cellular & molecular biology letters, 27(1):49.

The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an RNA-based adaptive immune system in bacteria and archaea. Various studies have shown that it is possible to target a wide range of human genes and treat some human diseases, including cancers, by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In fact, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing is one of the most efficient genome manipulation techniques. Studies have shown that CRISPR/Cas9 technology, in addition to having the potential to be used as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of cancers, can also be used to enhance the effectiveness of existing treatments. Undoubtedly, the issue of drug resistance is one of the main obstacles in the treatment of cancers. Cancer cells resist anticancer drugs by a variety of mechanisms, such as enhancing anticancer drugs efflux, enhancing DNA repair, enhancing stemness, and attenuating apoptosis. Mutations in some proteins of different cellular signaling pathways are associated with these events and drug resistance. Recent studies have shown that the CRISPR/Cas9 technique can be used to target important genes involved in these mechanisms, thereby increasing the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. In this review article, studies related to the applications of this technique in overcoming drug resistance in cancer cells will be reviewed. In addition, we will give a brief overview of the limitations of the CRISP/Cas9 gene-editing technique.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Montano Gomez P (2022)


Journal international de bioethique et d'ethique des sciences, 33(1):85-101.

There are many reasons why we might think that the human species might be in danger. We talk about global warming which produces major unusual natural disasters; increasingly destructive weapons; serious terrorist attacks with chemical weapons, etc. But we cannot ignore one of the threats hanging over the human species, which is transhumanism or posthumanism. It is from the point of view of this last subject, on which much has already been written, that we will try to focus our analysis, paying particular attention to the question relating to gene editing (CRISPR/Cas 9).

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Zhou J, Liu Y, Guo X, et al (2022)

Centromeres: from chromosome biology to biotechnology applications and synthetic genomes in plants.

Plant biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

Centromeres are the genomic regions that organize and regulate chromosome behaviors during cell cycle, and their variations are associated with genome instability, karyotype evolution, and speciation in eukaryotes. The highly repetitive and epigenetic nature of centromeres were documented during the past half century. With the aid of rapid expansion in genomic biotechnology tools, the complete sequence and structural organization of several plant and human centromeres were revealed recently. Here, we systematically summarize the current knowledge of centromere biology with regard to the DNA compositions and the histone H3 variant (CENH3)-dependent centromere establishment and identity. We discuss the roles of centromere to ensure cell division and to maintain the three-dimensional (3D) genomic architecture in different species. We further highlight the potential applications of manipulating centromeres to generate haploids or to induce polyploids offspring in plant for breeding programs, and of targeting centromeres with CRISPR/Cas for chromosome engineering and speciation. Finally, we also assess the challenges and strategies for de novo design and synthesis of centromeres in plant artificial chromosomes. The biotechnology applications of plant centromeres will be of great potential for the genetic improvement of crops and precise synthetic breeding in the future.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Parra-Flores J, Holý O, Acuña S, et al (2022)

Genomic Characterization of Cronobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Strains Isolated From Powdered Infant Formula in Chile.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:884721.

This study characterized five Cronobacter spp. and six Salmonella spp. strains that had been isolated from 155 samples of powdered infant formula (PIF) sold in Chile and manufactured in Chile and Mexico in 2018-2020. Two strains of Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type (ST) ST1 and ST31 (serotypes O:1 and O:2) and one strain of Cronobacter malonaticus ST60 (O:1) were identified. All Salmonella strains were identified as Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 (serotype O:4) by average nucleotide identity, ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST), and core genome MLST (cgMLST). The C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates were resistant to cephalothin, whereas the Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxacillin and ampicillin. Nineteen antibiotic resistance genes were detected in the C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates; the most prevalent were mcr-9.1, blaCSA , and blaCMA . In Salmonella, 30 genes encoding for aminoglycoside and cephalosporin resistance were identified, including aac(6')-Iaa, β-lactamases ampH, ampC1, and marA. In the Cronobacter isolates, 32 virulence-associated genes were detected by WGS and clustered as flagellar proteins, outer membrane proteins, chemotaxis, hemolysins, invasion, plasminogen activator, colonization, transcriptional regulator, survival in macrophages, use of sialic acid, and toxin-antitoxin genes. In the Salmonella strains, 120 virulence associated genes were detected, adherence, magnesium uptake, resistance to antimicrobial peptides, secretion system, stress protein, toxin, resistance to complement killing, and eight pathogenicity islands. The C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus strains harbored I-E and I-F CRISPR-Cas systems and carried Col(pHHAD28) and IncFIB(pCTU1) plasmids, respectively. The Salmonella strains harbored type I-E CRISPR-Cas systems and carried IncFII(S) plasmids. The presence of C. sakazakii and Salmonella in PIF is a health risk for infants aged less than 6 months. For this reason, sanitary practices should be reinforced for its production and retail surveillance.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Panahi B, Majidi M, MA Hejazi (2022)

Genome Mining Approach Reveals the Occurrence and Diversity Pattern of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-Associated Systems in Lactobacillus brevis Strains.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:911706.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) together with their CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes are widely distributed in prokaryotes that provide an adaptive defense mechanism against foreign invasive DNA. There is relatively little knowledge about the CRISPR-Cas diversity and evolution in Lactobacillus brevis strains. Therefore, in this study, a genome-mining approach was employed to investigate the diversity and occurrence of the CRISPR-Cas system in 83 L. brevis strains. Moreover, trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA) and protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) as pivotal elements for the successful targeting and inference of phages by the subtype II CRISPR-Cas systems were surveyed. Finally, evolutionary paths of L. brevis strains under selective pressure from foreign invasive DNA such as plasmids and phages of studied strains were surveyed using acquisition and deletion events analysis of spacers. A total of 127 confirmed CRISPRs were identified, which were distributed in 69 strains. Among strains with confirmed CRISPRs, 35 strains only contained one CRISPR locus, 23 strains contained two CRISPR loci, and 12 strains contained three to six CRISPR loci. L. brevis strains frequently harbor more than one CRISPR system. Analysis of confirmed CRISPR arrays showed that 31 out of 127 confirmed CRISPRs included Cas genes which were categorized as one of the II-A, II-C, and I-E subtypes. Analysis of subtype II-A spacers reflected divergent evolution for 18 strains into 16 unique groups. Additional analysis of spacer sequences also confirmed the implication of characterizing CRISPR-Cas systems in targeting of phages and plasmids. The current study highlighted the potential of utilizing CRISPR spacer polymorphism in genotyping lactobacillus strains. Moreover, it provides deep insights into the occurrence, diversity, and functional impacts of the CRISPR-Cas system in L. brevis strains.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Zhang Y, Ge H, MA Marchisio (2022)

A Mutated Nme1Cas9 Is a Functional Alternative RNase to Both LwaCas13a and RfxCas13d in the Yeast S. cerevisiae.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 10:922949 pii:922949.

CRISPR-Cas systems provide powerful biological tools for genetic manipulation and gene expression regulation. Class 2 systems, comprising type II, type V, and type VI, have the significant advantage to require a single effector Cas protein (Cas9, Cas12, and Cas13 respectively) to cleave nucleic acids upon binding the crRNA. Both Cas9 and Cas12 recognize DNA and induce a double-strand break in it. In contrast, Cas13 bind and cleave RNA exclusively. However, some Cas9 homologs have shown RNase activity as well. Here, we harnessed Nme1Cas9, LwaCas13a, and RfxCas13d to carry out gene downregulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by triggering mRNA degradation. To avoid potential DNA damage, we mutated Nme1Cas9 into d16ANme1Cas9 that lost the nuclease activity of the RuvC domain but retained the active HNH domain, able to act on the target DNA strand and, therefore, on the corresponding transcript. Our results showed that d16ANme1Cas9 is a functional RNase in vivo, although with moderate activity since it provoked a fluorescence reduction from 21% to 32%. Interestingly, d16ANme1Cas9 works in a PAM-independent way nor demands helper PAMmer molecules. LwaCas13a and RfxCas13d appeared substantially unfunctional in S. cerevisiae, though they were shown to perform well in mammalian cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the working in vivo of a variant of Nme1Cas9 as an RNase and the issues connected with the usage of Cas13 proteins in S. cerevisiae.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Chilian M, Vargas Parra K, Sandoval A, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tissue-specific knockout and cDNA rescue using sgRNAs that target exon-intron junctions in Drosophila melanogaster.

STAR protocols, 3(3):101465 pii:S2666-1667(22)00345-8.

In this protocol, we take CRISPR/Cas9 and Gal4/UAS approaches to achieve tissue-specific knockout in parallel with rescue of the knockout by cDNA expression in Drosophila. We demonstrate that guide RNAs targeting the exon-intron junction of target genes cleave the genomic locus of the genes, but not UAS-cDNA transgenes, in a tissue where Gal4 drives Cas9 expression. The efficiency of this approach enables the determination of pathogenicity of disease-associated variants in human genes in a tissue-specific manner in Drosophila. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Yap et al. (2021).

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Qiu X, Xu S, Liu X, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas12a-Based Diagnostic Platform Accurately Detects Nocardia farcinica Targeting a Novel Species-Specific Gene.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:884411.

Under the COVID-19 pandemic background, nucleic acid detection has become the gold standard to rapidly diagnose the infectious disease. A rapid, low cost, reliable nucleic acid detection platform will be the key to control next potential pandemic. In this study, a nucleic acid detection platform, which combined CRISPR/Cas12a-based detection with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), was developed and termed CRISPR-CLA. In the CRISPR-CLA system, LAMP preamplification was employed, and CRISPR/Cas12a-based detection was used to monitor the preamplicons. The forward inner primer (FIP) was engineered with a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) site TTTA of Cas12a effector at the linker region; thus, the CRISPR-CLA platform can detect any sequence as long as the primer design meets the requirement of LAMP. To demonstrate the validity of the CRISPR-CLA system, it was applied for the molecular diagnosis of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia farcinica (N. farcinica). A highly conserved and species-specific gene pbr1 of N. farcinica, which was first reported in this study, was used as the target of detection. A set of LAMP primers targeting a fragment of pbr1 of the N. farcinica reference strain IFM 10152 was designed according to the principle of CRISPR-CLA. Three CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) with different lengths were designed, and the most efficient crRNA was screened out. Additionally, three single-strand DNA (ssDNA) probes were tested to further optimize the detection system. As a result, the N. farcinica CRISPR-CLA assay was established, and the whole detection process, including DNA extraction (20 min), LAMP preamplification (70°C, 40 min), and CRISPR/Cas12a-mediated detection (37°C, 8 min), can be completed within 70 min. A fluorescence reader (for fluorescence CRISPR-CLA) or a lateral flow biosensor (for lateral-flow CRISPR-CLA) can be the media of the result readout. Up to 132 strains were used to examine the specificity of N. farcinica CRISPR-CLA assay, and no cross-reaction was observed with non-N. farcinica templates. The limit of detection (LoD) of the N. farcinica CRISPR-CLA assay was 100 fg double-strand DNA per reaction. N. farcinica was detected accurately in 41 sputum specimens using the N. farcinica CRISPR-CLA assay, which showed higher specificity than a real-time qPCR method. Hence, the N. farcinica CRISPR-CLA assay is a rapid, economic and accurate method to diagnose N. farcinica infection.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Velimirovic M, Zanetti LC, Shen MW, et al (2022)

Peptide fusion improves prime editing efficiency.

Nature communications, 13(1):3512.

Prime editing enables search-and-replace genome editing but is limited by low editing efficiency. We present a high-throughput approach, the Peptide Self-Editing sequencing assay (PepSEq), to measure how fusion of 12,000 85-amino acid peptides influences prime editing efficiency. We show that peptide fusion can enhance prime editing, prime-enhancing peptides combine productively, and a top dual peptide-prime editor increases prime editing significantly in multiple cell lines across dozens of target sites. Top prime-enhancing peptides function by increasing translation efficiency and serve as broadly useful tools to improve prime editing efficiency.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Ali S, Khan N, Y Tang (2022)

Epigenetic marks for mitigating abiotic stresses in plants.

Journal of plant physiology, 275:153740 pii:S0176-1617(22)00126-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Abiotic stressors are one of the major factors affecting agricultural output. Plants have evolved adaptive systems to respond appropriately to various environmental cues. These responses can be accomplished by modulating or fine-tuning genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Understanding the response of plants' molecular features to abiotic stress is a priority in the current period of continued environmental changes. Epigenetic modifications are necessary that control gene expression by changing chromatin status and recruiting various transcription regulators. The present study summarized the current knowledge on epigenetic modifications concerning plant responses to various environmental stressors. The functional relevance of epigenetic marks in regulating stress tolerance has been revealed, and epigenetic changes impact the effector genes. This study looks at the epigenetic mechanisms that govern plant abiotic stress responses, especially DNA methylation, histone methylation/acetylation, chromatin remodeling, and various metabolites. Plant breeders will benefit from a thorough understanding of these processes to create alternative crop improvement approaches. Genome editing with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR/Cas) provides genetic tools to make agricultural genetic engineering more sustainable and publicly acceptable.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Taghdisi SM, Ramezani M, Alibolandi M, et al (2022)

A highly sensitive fluorescent aptasensor for detection of prostate specific antigen based on the integration of a DNA structure and CRISPR-Cas12a.

Analytica chimica acta, 1219:340031.

Herein, a facile fluorescent CRISPR-Cas12a-based sensing strategy is presented for prostate specific antigen (PSA), as a prostate cancer biomarker, with the assistance of a cruciform DNA nanostructure and PicoGreen (PG) as a fluorochrome. Highly sensitive recognition of PSA is one of the virtues of the proposed method which comes from the use of unique features of both CRISPR-Cas12a and DNA structure in the design of the aptasensor. The presence of PSA creates a cruciform DNA nanostructure in the sample which can be loaded by PG and make sharp fluorescence emission. While, when there is no PSA, the CRISPR-Cas12a digests sequences 1 and 3 as single-stranded DNAs, causing no DNA structure and a negligible fluorescence is detected after addition of PG. This aptasensor presents a sensitive recognition performance with detection limit of 4 pg/mL and a practical use for determination of PSA in serum samples. So, this analytical strategy introduces a convenient and highly sensitive approach for detection of disease biomarkers.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Rather GA, Ayzenshtat D, Teper-Bamnolker P, et al (2022)

Advances in protoplast transfection promote efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in tetraploid potato.

Planta, 256(1):14.

MAIN CONCLUSION: An efficient method of DNA-free gene-editing in potato protoplasts was developed using linearized DNA fragments, UBIQUITIN10 promoters of several plant species, kanamycin selection, and transient overexpression of the BABYBOOM transcription factor. Plant protoplasts represent a reliable experimental system for the genetic manipulation of desired traits using gene editing. Nevertheless, the selection and regeneration of mutated protoplasts are challenging and subsequent recovery of successfully edited plants is a significant bottleneck in advanced plant breeding technologies. In an effort to alleviate the obstacles related to protoplasts' transgene expression and protoplasts' regeneration, a new method was developed. In so doing, it was shown that linearized DNA could efficiently transfect potato protoplasts and that UBIQUITIN10 promoters from various plants could direct transgene expression in an effective manner. Also, the inhibitory concentration of kanamycin was standardized for transfected protoplasts, and the NEOMYCIN PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE2 (NPT2) gene could be used as a potent selection marker for the enrichment of transfected protoplasts. Furthermore, transient expression of the BABYBOOM (BBM) transcription factor promoted the regeneration of protoplast-derived calli. Together, these methods significantly increased the selection for protoplasts that displayed high transgene expression, and thereby significantly increased the rate of gene editing events in protoplast-derived calli to 95%. The method developed in this study facilitated gene-editing in tetraploid potato plants and opened the way to sophisticated genetic manipulation in polyploid organisms.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Yang H, Wei Y, Zhang Q, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9‑induced saturated mutagenesis identifies Rad51 haplotype as a marker of PARP inhibitor sensitivity in breast cancer.

Molecular medicine reports, 26(2):.

Breast cancer treatment with poly(ADP‑ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitors is currently limited to cells defective in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway. The chemical inhibition of many HRR deficiency genes may sensitize cancer cells to PARP inhibitors. In the present study, Rad51, a central player in the HRR pathway, was selected to explore additional low variation and highly representative markers for PARP inhibitor activity. A CRISPR/Cas9‑based saturated mutation approach for the Rad51 WALKER domain was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the PARP inhibitor olaparib. Five amino acid mutation sites were identified in olaparib‑resistant cells. Two Rad51 haplotypes were assembled from the mutations, and may represent useful pharmacogenomic markers of PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Mattiello L, Rütgers M, Sua-Rojas MF, et al (2022)

Molecular and Computational Strategies to Increase the Efficiency of CRISPR-Based Techniques.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:868027.

The prokaryote-derived Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas mediated gene editing tools have revolutionized our ability to precisely manipulate specific genome sequences in plants and animals. The simplicity, precision, affordability, and robustness of this technology have allowed a myriad of genomes from a diverse group of plant species to be successfully edited. Even though CRISPR/Cas, base editing, and prime editing technologies have been rapidly adopted and implemented in plants, their editing efficiency rate and specificity varies greatly. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-derived technologies and their implications on enhancing editing efficiency. We highlight the major efforts of engineering Cas9, Cas12a, Cas12b, and Cas12f proteins aiming to improve their efficiencies. We also provide a perspective on the global future of agriculturally based products using DNA-free CRISPR/Cas techniques. The improvement of CRISPR-based technologies efficiency will enable the implementation of genome editing tools in a variety of crop plants, as well as accelerate progress in basic research and molecular breeding.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Novarina D, Koutsoumpa A, A Milias-Argeitis (2022)

A user-friendly and streamlined protocol for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in budding yeast.

STAR protocols, 3(2):101358 pii:S2666-1667(22)00238-6.

CRISPR/Cas9 technology allows accurate, marker-less genome editing. We report a detailed, robust, and streamlined protocol for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, based on the widely used MoClo-Yeast Toolkit ( This step-by-step protocol guides the reader from sgRNA design to verification of the desired genome editing event and provides preassembled plasmids for cloning the sgRNA(s), making this technology easily accessible to any yeast research group. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Novarina et al. (2021).

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Wang Q, Park KH, Geng B, et al (2022)

MG53 Inhibits Necroptosis Through Ubiquitination-Dependent RIPK1 Degradation for Cardiac Protection Following Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 9:868632.

Rationale: While reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been recognized as one of the main causes of cardiac injury following myocardial infarction, the clinical application of antioxidants has shown limited effects on protecting hearts against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Thus, the precise role of ROS following cardiac injury remains to be fully elucidated.

Objective: We investigated the role of mitsugumin 53 (MG53) in regulating necroptosis following I/R injury to the hearts and the involvement of ROS in MG53-mediated cardioprotection.

Methods and Results: Antioxidants were used to test the role of ROS in MG53-mediated cardioprotection in the mouse model of I/R injury and induced human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia or re-oxygenation (H/R) injury. Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation were used to identify potential cell death pathways that MG53 was involved in. CRISPR/Cas 9-mediated genome editing and mutagenesis assays were performed to further identify specific interaction amino acids between MG53 and its ubiquitin E3 ligase substrate. We found that MG53 could protect myocardial injury via inhibiting the necroptosis pathway. Upon injury, the generation of ROS in the infarct zone of the hearts promoted interaction between MG53 and receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1). As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, MG53 added multiple ubiquitin chains to RIPK1 at the sites of K316, K604, and K627 for proteasome-mediated RIPK1 degradation and inhibited necroptosis. The application of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) disrupted the interaction between MG53 and RIPK1 and abolished MG53-mediated cardioprotective effects.

Conclusions: Taken together, this study provided a molecular mechanism of a potential beneficial role of ROS following acute myocardial infarction. Thus, fine-tuning ROS levels might be critical for cardioprotection.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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By delivering the Cas9 nuclease, complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be precisely cut at any desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. That is, the CRISPR-Cas system provides a tool for the cut-and-paste editing of genomes. Welcome to the brave new world of genome editing. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )