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Bibliography on: CRISPR-Cas

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2023 at 01:39 Created: 


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of "spacer DNA" from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g a virus or plasmid). The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, and food crops. The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "CRISPR.CAS" OR "crispr/cas" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-05-25

Li W, Wang Z, Jiang Z, et al (2023)

MiR-3960 inhibits bladder cancer progression via targeting of DEXI.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 668:8-18 pii:S0006-291X(23)00618-6 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dominant cargo in exosomes and act as master regulators of cell function, inhibiting mRNA translation and affecting gene silencing. Some aspects of tissue-specific miRNA transport in bladder cancer (BC) and its role in cancer progression are not fully understood.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A microarray was used to identify miRNAs in mouse bladder carcinoma cell line MB49 exosomes. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of miRNAs in BC and healthy donor serum. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine the expression of dexamethasone-induced protein (DEXI) in patients with BC. CRISPR-Cas 9 was used to knock out Dexi in MB49, and flow cytometry was performed to test cell proliferation ability and apoptosis under chemotherapy. Human BC organoid culture, miR-3960 transfection, and 293T-exosome-loaded miR-3960 delivery were used to analyze the effect of miR-3960 on BC progression.

RESULTS: The results showed that miR-3960 levels in BC tissue were positively correlated with patient survival time. Dexi was a major target of miR-3960. Dexi knockout inhibited MB49 cell proliferation and promoted cisplatin- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Transfection of miR-3960 mimic inhibited DEXI expression and organoid growth. In parallel, 293T-exosome-loaded miR-3960 delivery and Dexi knockout significantly inhibited subcutaneous growth of MB49 cells in vivo.

CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the potential role of miR-3960-mediated inhibition of DEXI as a therapeutic strategy against BC.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Schmidt M, Kircheis W, Simons A, et al (2023)

A diachronic perspective on citation latency in Wikipedia articles on CRISPR/Cas-9: an exploratory case study.

Scientometrics, 128(6):3649-3673.

This paper analyzes Wikipedia's representation of the Nobel Prize winning CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a method for gene editing. We propose and evaluate different heuristics to match publications from several publication corpora against Wikipedia's central article on CRISPR and against the complete Wikipedia revision history in order to retrieve further Wikipedia articles relevant to the topic and to analyze Wikipedia's referencing patterns. We explore to what extent the selection of referenced literature of Wikipedia's central article on CRISPR adheres to scientific standards and inner-scientific perspectives by assessing its overlap with (1) the Web of Science (WoS) database, (2) a WoS-based field-delineated corpus, (3) highly-cited publications within this corpus, and (4) publications referenced by field-specific reviews. We develop a diachronic perspective on citation latency and compare the delays with which publications are cited in relevant Wikipedia articles to the citation dynamics of these publications over time. Our results confirm that a combination of verbatim searches by title, DOI, and PMID is sufficient and cannot be improved significantly by more elaborate search heuristics. We show that Wikipedia references a substantial amount of publications that are recognized by experts and highly cited, but that Wikipedia also cites less visible literature, and, to a certain degree, even not strictly scientific literature. Delays in occurrence on Wikipedia compared to the publication years show (most pronounced in case of the central CRISPR article) a dependence on the dynamics of both the field and the editor's reaction to it in terms of activity.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Kayo D, Kimura S, Yamazaki T, et al (2023)

Spatio-temporal control of targeted gene expression in combination with CRISPR/Cas and Tet-On systems in Medaka.

Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000) [Epub ahead of print].

Spatial and temporal control of transgene expression is a powerful approach to understand gene functions in specific cells and tissues. The Tet-On system is a robust tool for controlling transgene expression spatially and temporally; however, few studies have examined whether this system can be applied to postembryonic stages of Medaka (Oryzias latipes) or other fishes. Here, we first improved a basal promoter sequence on the donor vector for a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-based knock-in (KI) system. Next, using transgenic Medaka for establishing the Tet-On system by KI, we demonstrated that doxycycline administration for four or more days by feeding can be a stable and efficient method to achieve expression of the transduced reporter gene in adult fish. From these analyses, we propose an optimized approach for a spatio-temporal gene-expression system in the adult stage of Medaka and other small fishes.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Walker-Sünderhauf D, Klümper U, Pursey E, et al (2023)

Removal of AMR plasmids using a mobile, broad host-range CRISPR-Cas9 delivery tool.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 169(5):.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes are widely disseminated on plasmids. Therefore, interventions aimed at blocking plasmid uptake and transfer may curb the spread of AMR. Previous studies have used CRISPR-Cas-based technology to remove plasmids encoding AMR genes from target bacteria, using either phage- or plasmid-based delivery vehicles that typically have narrow host ranges. To make this technology feasible for removal of AMR plasmids from multiple members of complex microbial communities, an efficient, broad host-range delivery vehicle is needed. We engineered the broad host-range IncP1-plasmid pKJK5 to encode cas9 programmed to target an AMR gene. We demonstrate that the resulting plasmid pKJK5::csg has the ability to block the uptake of AMR plasmids and to remove resident plasmids from Escherichia coli. Furthermore, due to its broad host range, pKJK5::csg successfully blocked AMR plasmid uptake in a range of environmental, pig- and human-associated coliform isolates, as well as in isolates of two species of Pseudomonas. This study firmly establishes pKJK5::csg as a promising broad host-range CRISPR-Cas9 delivery tool for AMR plasmid removal, which has the potential to be applied in complex microbial communities to remove AMR genes from a broad range of bacterial species.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Yue Y, Wang S, Jin Q, et al (2023)

A triple amplification strategy using GR-5 DNAzyme as a signal medium for ultrasensitive detection of trace Pb[2+] based on CRISPR/Cas12a empowered electrochemical biosensor.

Analytica chimica acta, 1263:341241.

Lead ions (Pb[2+]) are a well-known toxic heavy metal that poses a significant threat to human health. Therefore, the development of a simple and ultrasensitive technique for detecting Pb[2+] is essential. With their trans-cleavage properties, the newly discovered CRISPR-V effectors have become a potential high-precision biometric tool. In this regard, a CRISPR/Cas12a-based electrochemical biosensor (E-CRISPR) has been developed, which is combined with the GR-5 DNAzyme that can specifically recognize Pb[2+]. In this strategy, the GR-5 DNAzyme acts as a signal-mediated intermediary, which can convert Pb[2+] into nucleic acid signals, thereby becoming single-stranded DNA that triggers strand displacement amplification (SDA) reaction. This is coupled with following activated CRISPR/Cas12a cleavage of the electrochemical signal probe, enabling cooperative signal amplification for ultrasensitive Pb[2+] detection. The proposed method has a detection limit as low as 0.02 pM. Therefore, we have developed an E-CRISPR detection platform with GR-5 DNAzyme as a signal medium (called SM-E-CRISPR biosensor). This provides a method for the CRISPR system to specifically detect non-nucleic substances by converting the signal using a medium.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Miezner G, Turgeman-Grott I, Zatopek KM, et al (2023)

An archaeal Cas3 protein facilitates rapid recovery from DNA damage.

microLife, 4:uqad007.

CRISPR-Cas systems provide heritable acquired immunity against viruses to archaea and bacteria. Cas3 is a CRISPR-associated protein that is common to all Type I systems, possesses both nuclease and helicase activities, and is responsible for degradation of invading DNA. Involvement of Cas3 in DNA repair had been suggested in the past, but then set aside when the role of CRISPR-Cas as an adaptive immune system was realized. Here we show that in the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii a cas3 deletion mutant exhibits increased resistance to DNA damaging agents compared with the wild-type strain, but its ability to recover quickly from such damage is reduced. Analysis of cas3 point mutants revealed that the helicase domain of the protein is responsible for the DNA damage sensitivity phenotype. Epistasis analysis indicated that cas3 operates with mre11 and rad50 in restraining the homologous recombination pathway of DNA repair. Mutants deleted for Cas3 or deficient in its helicase activity showed higher rates of homologous recombination, as measured in pop-in assays using non-replicating plasmids. These results demonstrate that Cas proteins act in DNA repair, in addition to their role in defense against selfish elements and are an integral part of the cellular response to DNA damage.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Alinejad T, Modarressi S, Sadri Z, et al (2023)

Diagnostic applications and therapeutic option of Cascade CRISPR/Cas in the modulation of miRNA in diverse cancers: promises and obstacles.

Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas technology is a molecular tool specific to sequences for engineering genomes. Among diverse clusters of Cas proteins, the class 2/type II CRISPR/Cas9 system, despite several challenges, such as off-target effects, editing efficiency, and efficient delivery, has shown great promise for driver gene mutation discovery, high-throughput gene screening, epigenetic modulation, nucleic acid detection, disease modeling, and more importantly for therapeutic purposes. CRISPR-based clinical and experimental methods have applications across a wide range of areas, especially for cancer research and, possibly, anticancer therapy. On the other hand, given the influential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulations of cellular division, carcinogenicity, tumorigenesis, migration/invasion, and angiogenesis in diverse normal and pathogenic cellular processes, in different stages of cancer, miRNAs are either oncogenes or tumor suppressors, according to what type of cancer they are involved in. Hence, these noncoding RNA molecules are conceivable biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutic targets. Moreover, they are suggested to be adequate predictors for cancer prediction. Conclusive evidence proves that CRISPR/Cas system can be applied to target small non-coding RNAs. However, the majority of studies have highlighted the application of the CRISPR/Cas system for targeting protein-coding regions. In this review, we specifically discuss diverse applications of CRISPR-based tools for probing miRNA gene function and miRNA-based therapeutic involvement in different types of cancers.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Engstler M, T Beneke (2023)

Gene editing and scalable functional genomic screening in Leishmania species using the CRISPR/Cas9 cytosine base editor toolbox LeishBASEedit.

eLife, 12:.

CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has revolutionised loss-of-function experiments in Leishmania, the causative agent of leishmaniasis. As Leishmania lack a functional non-homologous DNA end joining pathway however, obtaining null mutants typically requires additional donor DNA, selection of drug resistance-associated edits or time-consuming isolation of clones. Genome-wide loss-of-function screens across different conditions and across multiple Leishmania species are therefore unfeasible at present. Here, we report a CRISPR/Cas9 cytosine base editor (CBE) toolbox that overcomes these limitations. We employed CBEs in Leishmania to introduce STOP codons by converting cytosine into thymine and created for CBE primer design in kinetoplastids. Through reporter assays and by targeting single- and multi-copy genes in L. mexicana, L. major, L. donovani, and L. infantum, we demonstrate how this tool can efficiently generate functional null mutants by expressing just one single-guide RNA, reaching up to 100% editing rate in non-clonal populations. We then generated a Leishmania-optimised CBE and successfully targeted an essential gene in a plasmid library delivered loss-of-function screen in L. mexicana. Since our method does not require DNA double-strand breaks, homologous recombination, donor DNA, or isolation of clones, we believe that this enables for the first time functional genetic screens in Leishmania via delivery of plasmid libraries.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Lu J, S Wang (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Knockout in Cells and Tissues Using Lentivirus.

Current protocols, 3(5):e772.

CRISPR-Cas9 has become a powerful and popular gene editing tool. However, successful application of this tool in the lab can still be quite daunting to many newcomers to molecular biology, mostly because it is a relatively lengthy process involving multiple steps with variations of each step. Here, we provide a reliable, stepwise, and newcomer-friendly protocol to knock out a target gene in wild-type human fibroblasts. This protocol involves sgRNA design using CRISPOR, construction of an "all-in-one" vector expressing both sgRNA and Cas9 using Golden Gate cloning, streamlined production of high-titer lentiviruses in 1 week after molecular cloning, and transduction of cells to generate a knockout cell pool. We further introduce a protocol for lentiviral transduction of ex vivo mouse embryonic salivary epithelial explants. In summary, our protocol is useful for new researchers to apply CRISPR-Cas9 to generate stable gene knockout cells and tissue explants using lentivirus. Published 2023. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Basic Protocol 1: sgRNA design Basic Protocol 2: Cloning sgRNA in plasmid vector containing Cas9 encoding sequence using golden gate cloning Basic Protocol 3: Lentivirus packaging Basic Protocol 4: Lentivirus transduction of cells Basic Protocol 5: Lentivirus transduction of salivary gland epithelial buds.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Shi Y, Kopparapu N, Ohler L, et al (2023)

Efficient and rapid fluorescent protein knock-in with universal donors in mouse embryonic stem cells.

Development (Cambridge, England), 150(10):.

Fluorescent protein (FP) tagging is a key method for observing protein distribution, dynamics and interaction with other proteins in living cells. However, the typical approach using overexpression of tagged proteins can perturb cell behavior and introduce localization artifacts. To preserve native expression, fluorescent proteins can be inserted directly into endogenous genes. This approach has been widely used in yeast for decades, and more recently in invertebrate model organisms with the advent of CRISPR/Cas9. However, endogenous FP tagging has not been widely used in mammalian cells due to inefficient homology-directed repair. Recently, the CRISPaint system used non-homologous end joining for efficient integration of FP tags into native loci, but it only allows C-terminal knock-ins. Here, we have enhanced the CRISPaint system by introducing new universal donors for N-terminal insertion and for multi-color tagging with orthogonal selection markers. We adapted the procedure for mouse embryonic stem cells, which can be differentiated into diverse cell types. Our protocol is rapid and efficient, enabling live imaging in less than 2 weeks post-transfection. These improvements increase the versatility and applicability of FP knock-in in mammalian cells.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Tanihara F, Hirata M, Namula Z, et al (2023)

GHR-mutant pig derived from domestic pig and microminipig hybrid zygotes using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

Molecular biology reports, 50(6):5049-5057.

BACKGROUND: Pigs are excellent large animal models with several similarities to humans. They provide valuable insights into biomedical research that are otherwise difficult to obtain from rodent models. However, even if miniature pig strains are used, their large stature compared with other experimental animals requires a specific maintenance facility which greatly limits their usage as animal models. Deficiency of growth hormone receptor (GHR) function causes small stature phenotypes. The establishment of miniature pig strains via GHR modification will enhance their usage as animal models. Microminipig is an incredibly small miniature pig strain developed in Japan. In this study, we generated a GHR mutant pig using electroporation-mediated introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9 system into porcine zygotes derived from domestic porcine oocytes and microminipig spermatozoa.

METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we optimized the efficiency of five guide RNAs (gRNAs) designed to target GHR in zygotes. Embryos that had been electroporated with the optimized gRNAs and Cas9 were then transferred into recipient gilts. After embryo transfer, 10 piglets were delivered, and one carried a biallelic mutation in the GHR target region. The GHR biallelic mutant showed a remarkable growth-retardation phenotype. Furthermore, we obtained F1 pigs derived from the mating of GHR biallelic mutant with wild-type microminipig, and GHR biallelic mutant F2 pigs through sib-mating of F1 pigs.

CONCLUSIONS: We have successfully demonstrated the generation of biallelic GHR-mutant small-stature pigs. Backcrossing of GHR-deficient pig with microminipig will establish the smallest pig strain which can contribute significantly to the field of biomedical research.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Hu M, Liu R, Qiu Z, et al (2023)

Light-Start CRISPR-Cas12a Reaction with Caged crRNA Enables Rapid and Sensitive Nucleic Acid Detection.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 62(23):e202300663.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system is a promising platform for nucleic acid detection. Regulating the CRISPR reaction would be extremely useful to improve the detection efficiency and speed of CRISPR diagnostic applications. Here, we have developed a light-start CRISPR-Cas12a reaction by employing caged CRISPR RNA (crRNA). When combined with recombinase polymerase amplification, a robust photocontrolled one-pot assay is achieved. The photocontrolled one-pot assay is simpler and is 50-fold more sensitive than the conventional assay. This improved detection efficiency also facilitates the development of a faster CRISPR diagnostic method. The detection of clinical samples demonstrated that 10-20 min is sufficient for effective detection, which is much faster than the current gold-standard technique PCR. We expect this advance in CRISPR diagnostics to promote its widespread detection applications in biomedicine, agriculture, and food safety.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Davachi ND, Bartlewski PM, Masoudi R, et al (2023)

Suitability of a universal electroporation device for genome editing and production of transgenic rats.

Reproductive biology, 23(2):100755.

Mammalian genome editing has utilized expensive and highly specialized electroporator devices. The "Gene Pulser XCell," a modular electroporation system for transfecting all cell types, has not been used extensively in mammalian embryo genome editing. The present experiment was undertaken to determine the usefulness of the Gene Pulser XCell for inserting the CRISPR/Cas9 system into intact zygotes in order to obtain the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter rats (eGFP-R). An electroporation pulse response test using mCherry mRNA was performed to optimize the settings of the electroporator. Forty-five combinations of five pulse voltages (15, 25, 30, 35 and 40 V), three pulse durations (5, 10 and 25 ms), and three pulse frequencies (2, 5 and 6 pulses) applied at a constant 100-ms pulse interval and temperature of 37.5 °C were evaluated. The test revealed that the 35 V was the only voltage suitable for insertion of mCherry mRNA into intact rat zygotes and the only one that resulted in the production of embryos attaining the blastocyst stage. The incorporation of mCherry mRNA increased but the survival of the electroporated embryos declined with an increment in the number of pulses. Subsequent transfer of 1112 surviving Sprague Dawley rat embryos (after 8 h of incubating 1800 zygotes electroporated with the CRISPR/Cas9) resulted in the production of 287 offspring (25.8%). Ensuing PCR and phenotypic evaluation confirmed that twenty animals (6.96%) expressed eGFP in all body organs/tissues except for blood and blood vessels. The mortality of males and females before the attainment of puberty was 2 and 3 pups, respectively, and the final number/ratio of male to female of offspring was 9:11. All the surviving rats mated naturally and successfully transmitted the GFP transgene to their progeny. The Gene Pulser XCell total system with the settings predetermined in the present experiment can effectively be used to produce transgenic rats through the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of zygotes.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Li X, Liu X, Wei J, et al (2023)

Ultrasensitive detection of microRNAs based on click chemistry-terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase combined with CRISPR/Cas12a.

Biochimie, 208:38-45.

The specificity and sensitivity of microRNA (miRNA) detection play a vital role in the early diagnosis of cancer and the treatment of various diseases. Here, we constructed a fluorescent biosensor based on click chemistry-terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (ccTdT) combined with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas)12a cascade amplification system to achieve ultrasensitive miRNA-21 detection. Target miRNA-21 was employed as a template for click chemistry ligation of two nucleic acid probes, the product of which can be combined with magnetic microbeads (MBs). Then the 3'-end of the ligated nucleic acid and complementary strand miRNA-21 was extended by TdT. The extended poly-T tails activated the trans-cleavage ability of CRISPR/Cas12a, cleaving the reporter gene to generate the fluorescent signal. The proposed biosensor has a wide linear detection range, from 1 pM to 10[5] pM, with detection limits as low as 88 fM under optimal experimental conditions. Hence, this fluorescent biosensor enables simple, sensitive detection of miRNAs and offers a promising analytical platform for clinical diagnostics and biomedical research.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Anonymous (2023)

Correction to: Clonally Selected Lines After CRISPR-Cas Editing Are Not Isogenic by Panda et al. The CRISPR Journal, 2023;6(2):176-182; DOI: 10.1089/crispr.2022.0050.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Chen D, Huang W, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

CRISPR-Mediated Profiling of Viral RNA at Single Nucleotide Resolution.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) [Epub ahead of print].

Mass pathogen screening is critical to preventing the outbreaks and spread of infectious diseases. The large-scale epidemic of COVID-19 and the rapid mutation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus have put forward new requirements for virus detection and identification techniques. Here, we report a CRISPR-based Amplification-free Viral RNA Electrical Detection platform (CAVRED) for the rapid detection and identification of SARS-CoV-2 variants. A series of CRISPR RNA assays were designed to amplify the CRISPR-Cas system's ability to discriminate between mutant and wild RNA genomes with a single-nucleotide difference. The identified viral RNA information was converted into readable electrical signals through field-effect transistor biosensors for the achievement of highly sensitive detection of single-base mutations. CAVRED can detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus genome as low as 1 cp/µL within 20 mins without amplification, and this value is comparable to the detection limit of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Based on the excellent RNA mutation detection ability, an 8-in-1 CAVRED array was constructed and realized the rapid identification of 40 simulated throat swab samples of SARS-CoV-2 variants with a 95.0% accuracy. The advantages of accuracy, sensitivity, and fast speed of CAVRED promise its application in rapid and large-scale epidemic screening.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Takebayashi K, Wittayarat M, Lin Q, et al (2023)

Efficiency of genetic modification in gene-knockout sperm-derived zygotes followed by electroporation of guide RNA targeting the same gene.

Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho, 94(1):e13842.

Genetic mosaicism is considered one of the main limitations of the electroporation method used to transfer CRISPR-Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) into porcine zygotes. We hypothesized that fertilization of oocytes with sperm from gene-deficient boars, in combination with electroporation (EP) to target the same region of the gene in subsequent zygotes, would increase the gene modification efficiency. As myostatin (MSTN) and α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) have beneficial effects on agricultural production and xenotransplantation, respectively, we used these two genes to test our hypothesis. Spermatozoa from gene-knockout boars were used for oocyte fertilization in combination with EP to transfer gRNAs targeting the same gene region to zygotes. No significant differences in the rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation as well as in the mutation rates of blastocysts were observed between the wild-type and gene-deficient spermatozoa groups, irrespective of the targeted gene. In conclusion, the combination of fertilization with gene-deficient spermatozoa and gene editing of the same targeted gene region using EP had no beneficial effects on embryo genetic modification, indicating that EP alone is a sufficient tool for genome modification.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Lyu M, Sun Y, Yan N, et al (2023)

Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in mammalian cells by the novel selectable traffic light reporters.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)01820-2 [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful tool for gene editing in various cell types and organisms. However, it is still challenging to screen genetically modified cells from an excess of unmodified cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that surrogate reporters can be used for efficient screening of genetically modified cells. Here, we developed two novel traffic light screening reporters, puromycin-mCherry-EGFP (PMG) based on single-strand annealing (SSA) and homology-directed repair (HDR), respectively, to measure the nuclease cleavage activity within transfected cells and to select genetically modified cells. We found that the two reporters could be self-repaired coupling the genome editing events driven by different CRISPR/Cas nucleases, resulting in a functional puromycin-resistance and EGFP selection cassette that can be afforded to screen genetically modified cells by puromycin selection or FACS enrichment. We further compared the novel reporters with different traditional reporters at several endogenous loci in different cell lines, for the enrichment efficiencies of genetically modified cells. The results indicated that the SSA-PMG reporter exhibited improvements in enriching gene knockout cells, while the HDR-PMG system was very useful in enriching knock-in cells. These results provide robust and efficient surrogate reporters for the enrichment of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing in mammalian cells, thereby advancing basic and applied research.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Hamdi I, Boni F, Shen Q, et al (2023)

Characteristics of subtype III-A CRISPR-Cas system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An overview.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases pii:S1567-1348(23)00043-6 [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas systems are the only RNA- guided adaptive immunity pathways that trigger the detection and destruction of invasive phages and plasmids in bacteria and archaea. Due to its prevalence and mystery, the Class 1 CRISPR-Cas system has lately been the subject of several studies. This review highlights the specificity of CRISPR-Cas system III-A in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the tuberculosis-causing pathogen, for over twenty years. We discuss the difference between the several subtypes of Type III and their defence mechanisms. The anti-CRISPRs (Acrs) recently described, the critical role of Reverse transcriptase (RT) and housekeeping nuclease for type III CRISPR-Cas systems, and the use of this cutting-edge technology, its impact on the search for novel anti-tuberculosis drugs.

RevDate: 2023-05-25
CmpDate: 2023-05-25

Fatehi S, Marks RM, Rok MJ, et al (2023)

Advances in CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing for the Treatment of Muscular Dystrophies.

Human gene therapy, 34(9-10):388-403.

Muscular dystrophies (MDs) comprise a diverse group of inherited disorders characterized by progressive muscle loss and weakness. Given the genetic etiology underlying MDs, researchers have explored the potential of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) genome editing as a therapeutic intervention, resulting in significant advances. Here, we review recent progress on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing as a potential therapy for MDs. Significant strides have been made in this realm, made possible through innovative techniques such as precision genetic editing by modified forms of CRISPR/Cas9. These approaches have shown varying degrees of success in animal models of MD, including Duchenne MD, congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Even so, there are several challenges facing the development of CRISPR/Cas9-based MD therapies, including the targeting of satellite cells, improved editing efficiency in skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue, delivery vehicle enhancements, and the host immunogenic response. Although more work is needed to advance CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing past the preclinical stages, its therapeutic potential for MD is extremely promising and justifies concentrated efforts to move into clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-05-25
CmpDate: 2023-05-25

Chemello F, Olson EN, R Bassel-Duby (2023)

CRISPR-Editing Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Human gene therapy, 34(9-10):379-387.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating genetic disorder that results in progressive muscle degeneration and premature death. DMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin protein, a membrane-associated protein required for maintenance of muscle structure and function. Although the genetic mutations causing the disease are well known, no curative therapies have been developed to date. The advent of genome-editing technologies provides new opportunities to correct the underlying mutations responsible for DMD. These mutations have been successfully corrected in human cells, mice, and large animal models through different strategies based on CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. Ideally, CRISPR-editing could offer a one-time treatment for DMD by correcting the genetic mutations and enabling normal expression of the repaired gene. However, numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including optimization of gene editing, delivery of gene-editing components to all the muscles of the body, and the suppression of possible immune responses to the CRISPR-editing therapy. This review provides an overview of the recent advances toward CRISPR-editing therapy for DMD and discusses the opportunities and the remaining challenges in the path to clinical translation.

RevDate: 2023-05-25
CmpDate: 2023-05-25

Iyer DN, Schimmer AD, H Chang (2023)

Applying CRISPR-Cas9 screens to dissect hematological malignancies.

Blood advances, 7(10):2252-2270.

Bit by bit, over the last few decades, functional genomic tools have been piecing together the molecular puzzle driving tumorigenesis in human patients. Nevertheless, our understanding of the role of several genes and regulatory elements that drive critical cancer-associated physiological processes from disease development to progression to spread is very limited, which significantly affects our ability of applying these insights in the context of improved disease management. The recent advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-based technology and its application in cancer genomics has, however, allowed the generation of a wealth of knowledge that has helped decipher several critical questions associated with translational cancer research. Precisely, the high-throughput capability coupled with a high level of technological plasticity associated with the CRISPR-Cas9 screens have expanded our horizons from a mere struggle to appreciate cancer as a genetic disease to observing the integrated genomic/epigenomic network of numerous malignancies and correlating it with our present knowledge of drugging strategies to develop innovative approaches for next-generation precision cancer medicine. Specifically, within blood cancers, current CRISPR screens have specifically focused on improving our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms, disease biology, the development of novel therapeutic approaches, and identifying the molecular mechanisms of current therapies, with an underlying aim of improving disease outcomes. Here, we review the development of the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing strategy, explicitly focusing on the recent advances in the CRISPR-Cas9-based screening approaches, its current capabilities, limitations, and future applications in the context of hematological malignancies.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Zhou F, Yu X, Gan R, et al (2023)

CRISPRimmunity: an interactive web server for CRISPR-associated Important Molecular events and Modulators Used in geNome edIting Tool identifYing.

Nucleic acids research pii:7175359 [Epub ahead of print].

The CRISPR-Cas system is a highly adaptive and RNA-guided immune system found in bacteria and archaea, which has applications as a genome editing tool and is a valuable system for studying the co-evolutionary dynamics of bacteriophage interactions. Here introduces CRISPRimmunity, a new web server designed for Acr prediction, identification of novel class 2 CRISPR-Cas loci, and dissection of key CRISPR-associated molecular events. CRISPRimmunity is built on a suite of CRISPR-oriented databases providing a comprehensive co-evolutionary perspective of the CRISPR-Cas and anti-CRISPR systems. The platform achieved a high prediction accuracy of 0.997 for Acr prediction when tested on a dataset of 99 experimentally validated Acrs and 676 non-Acrs, outperforming other existing prediction tools. Some of the newly identified class 2 CRISPR-Cas loci using CRISPRimmunity have been experimentally validated for cleavage activity in vitro. CRISPRimmunity offers the catalogues of pre-identified CRISPR systems to browse and query, the collected resources or databases to download, a well-designed graphical interface, a detailed tutorial, multi-faceted information, and exportable results in machine-readable formats, making it easy to use and facilitating future experimental design and further data mining. The platform is available at Moreover, the source code for batch analysis are published on Github (

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Han W, Li Z, Guo Y, et al (2023)

Efficient precise integration of large DNA sequences with 3'-overhang dsDNA donors using CRISPR/Cas9.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(22):e2221127120.

CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing tools have tremendously boosted our capability of manipulating the eukaryotic genomes in biomedical research and innovative biotechnologies. However, the current approaches that allow precise integration of gene-sized large DNA fragments generally suffer from low efficiency and high cost. Herein, we developed a versatile and efficient approach, termed LOCK (Long dsDNA with 3'-Overhangs mediated CRISPR Knock-in), by utilizing specially designed 3'-overhang double-stranded DNA (odsDNA) donors harboring 50-nt homology arm. The length of the 3'-overhangs of odsDNA is specified by the five consecutive phosphorothioate modifications. Compared with existing methods, LOCK allows highly efficient targeted insertion of kilobase-sized DNA fragments into the mammalian genomes with low cost and low off-target effects, yielding >fivefold higher knock-in frequencies than conventional homologous recombination-based approaches. This newly designed LOCK approach based on homology-directed repair is a powerful tool suitable for gene-sized fragment integration that is urgently needed for genetic engineering, gene therapies, and synthetic biology.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Srivastava P, D Prasad (2023)

Isothermal nucleic acid amplification and its uses in modern diagnostic technologies.

3 Biotech, 13(6):200.

Nucleic acids are prominent biomarkers for diagnosing infectious pathogens using nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs). PCR, a gold standard technique for amplifying nucleic acids, is widely used in scientific research and diagnosis. Efficient pathogen detection is a key to adequate food safety and hygiene. However, using bulky thermal cyclers and costly laboratory setup limits its uses in developing countries, including India. The isothermal amplification methods are exploited to develop miniaturized sensors against viruses, bacteria, fungi and other pathogenic organisms and have been applied for in situ diagnosis. Isothermal amplification techniques have been found suitable for POC techniques and follow WHO's ASSURED criteria. LAMP, NASBA, SDA, RCA and RPA are some of the isothermal amplification techniques which are preferable for POC diagnostics. Furthermore, methods such as WGA, CPA, HDA, EXPAR, SMART, SPIA and DAMP were introduced for even more accuracy and robustness. Using recombinant polymerases and other nucleic acid-modifying enzymes has dramatically broadened the detection range of target pathogens under the scanner. The coupling of isothermal amplification methods with advanced technologies such as CRISPR/Cas systems, fluorescence-based chemistries, microfluidics and paper-based sensors has significantly influenced the biosensing and diagnosis field. This review comprehensively analyzed isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods, emphasizing their advantages, disadvantages and limitations.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Fichter KM, Setayesh T, P Malik (2023)

Strategies for precise gene edits in mammalian cells.

Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids, 32:536-552.

CRISPR-Cas technologies have the potential to revolutionize genetic medicine. However, work is still needed to make this technology clinically efficient for gene correction. A barrier to making precise genetic edits in the human genome is controlling how CRISPR-Cas-induced DNA breaks are repaired by the cell. Since error-prone non-homologous end-joining is often the preferred cellular repair pathway, CRISPR-Cas-induced breaks often result in gene disruption. Homology-directed repair (HDR) makes precise genetic changes and is the clinically desired pathway, but this repair pathway requires a homology donor template and cycling cells. Newer editing strategies, such as base and prime editing, can affect precise repair for relatively small edits without requiring HDR and circumvent cell cycle dependence. However, these technologies have limitations in the extent of genetic editing and require the delivery of bulky cargo. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of precise gene correction using CRISPR-Cas-induced HDR, as well as base and prime editing for repairing small mutations. Finally, we consider emerging new technologies, such as recombination and transposases, which can circumvent both cell cycle and cellular DNA repair dependence for editing the genome.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Migliara A, Cappelluti MA, Giannese F, et al (2023)

In Vitro Selection of Engineered Transcriptional Repressors for Targeted Epigenetic Silencing.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Gene inactivation is instrumental to study gene function and represents a promising strategy for the treatment of a broad range of diseases. Among traditional technologies, RNA interference suffers from partial target abrogation and the requirement for life-long treatments. In contrast, artificial nucleases can impose stable gene inactivation through induction of a DNA double strand break (DSB), but recent studies are questioning the safety of this approach. Targeted epigenetic editing via engineered transcriptional repressors (ETRs) may represent a solution, as a single administration of specific ETR combinations can lead to durable silencing without inducing DNA breaks. ETRs are proteins containing a programmable DNA-binding domain (DBD) and effectors from naturally occurring transcriptional repressors. Specifically, a combination of three ETRs equipped with the KRAB domain of human ZNF10, the catalytic domain of human DNMT3A and human DNMT3L, was shown to induce heritable repressive epigenetic states on the ETR-target gene. The hit-and-run nature of this platform, the lack of impact on the DNA sequence of the target, and the possibility to revert to the repressive state by DNA demethylation on demand, make epigenetic silencing a game-changing tool. A critical step is the identification of the proper ETRs' position on the target gene to maximize on-target and minimize off-target silencing. Performing this step in the final ex vivo or in vivo preclinical setting can be cumbersome. Taking the CRISPR/catalytically dead Cas9 system as a paradigmatic DBD for ETRs, this paper describes a protocol consisting of the in vitro screen of guide RNAs (gRNAs) coupled to the triple-ETR combination for efficient on-target silencing, followed by evaluation of the genome-wide specificity profile of top hits. This allows for reduction of the initial repertoire of candidate gRNAs to a short list of promising ones, whose complexity is suitable for their final evaluation in the therapeutically relevant setting of interest.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Mao G, Luo X, Ye S, et al (2023)

Fluorescence and Colorimetric Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus Based on the RPA-Assisted CRISPR/Cas12a Strategy.

Analytical chemistry, 95(20):8063-8069.

It is well-established that different detection modes are necessary for corresponding applications, which can effectively reduce matrix interference and improve the detection accuracy. Here, we reported a magnetic separation method based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-assisted clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas12a for dual-mode analysis of African swine fever virus (ASFV) genes, including colorimetry and fluorescence. The ASFV gene was selected as the initial RPA template to generate the amplicon. The RPA amplicon was then recognized by CRISPR-associated RNA (crRNA), activating the trans-cleavage activity of Cas12a and leading to the nonspecific cleavage of ssDNA as well as a significant release of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the ALP-ssDNA modified magnetic bead. The released ALP can catalyze para-nitrophenyl phosphate to generate para-nitrophenol, resulting in substantial changes in absorbance and fluorescence, both of which can be used for detection with the naked eye. This strategy allows the sensitive detection of ASFV DNA, with a 20 copies/mL detection limit; no cross-reactivity with other viruses was observed. A good linear relationship was obtained in serum. In addition, this sensor displayed 100% specificity and sensitivity for clinical sample analysis. This method integrates the high sensitivity of fluorescence with easy readout of colorimetry and enables a simple, low-cost, and highly sensitive dual-mode detection of viral nucleic acid, thereby providing a broad prospect for the practical application in the diagnosis of virus infection.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Xiang X, Song M, Xu X, et al (2023)

Microfluidic Biosensor Integrated with Signal Transduction and Enhancement Mechanism for Ultrasensitive Noncompetitive Assay of Multiple Mycotoxins.

Analytical chemistry, 95(20):7993-8001.

To achieve high-throughput ultrasensitive detection of mycotoxins in food, a functional DNA-guided transition-state CRISPR/Cas12a microfluidic biosensor (named FTMB) was successfully constructed. The signal transduction CRISPR/Cas12a strategy in FTMB has utilized DNA sequences with a specific recognition function and activators to form trigger switches. Meanwhile, the transition-state CRISPR/Cas12a system was constructed by adjusting the composition ratio of crRNA and activator to achieve a high response for low concentrations of target mycotoxins. On the other hand, the signal enhancement of FTMB has efficiently integrated the signal output of quantum dots (QDs) with the fluorescence enhancement effect of photonic crystals (PCs). The construction of universal QDs for the CRISPR/Cas12a system and PC films matching the photonic bandgap produced a significant signal enhancement by a factor of 45.6. Overall, FTMB exhibited a wide analytic range (10[-5]-10[1] ng·mL[-1]), low detection of limit (fg·mL[-1]), short detection period (∼40 min), high specificity, good precision (coefficients of variation <5%), and satisfactory practical sample analysis capacity (the consistency with HPLC at 88.76%-109.99%). It would provide a new and reliable solution for the rapid detection of multiple small molecules in the fields of clinical diagnosis and food safety.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Gu J, Sun J, Tian K, et al (2023)

Reversal of hepatic fibrosis by the co-delivery of drug and ribonucleoprotein-based genome editor.

Biomaterials, 298:122133.

Liver fibrosis is a chronic disease without effective treatment in the clinic. Gene editing systems such as the well-known CRISPR/Cas9 have shown great potential in the biomedical field. However, the delivery of the ribonucleoprotein is challenging due to the unstable RNA probe and the requirement for the entrance to the nucleus. Recently, a structure-guided endonuclease (SGN) has been reported as an effective gene-editing system composed of a nuclease and stable DNA probes, which can regulate the protein expression by targeting specific mRNA outside the nucleus. Here, we conjugated the SGN to a nanomicelle as the delivery system. In the resulting material, the chance of the collision between the endonuclease and the probe was raised due to the confinement of the two components within the 40-nm nanomicelle, thus the mRNA can be cleaved immediately after being captured by the probe, resulting in a space-induced nucleotide identification-cleavage acceleration effect. The delivery system was used to treat liver fibrosis via the co-delivery of SGN and a drug rosiglitazone to the hepatic stellate cells, which separately downregulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 and inactivated the hepatic stellate cells. The system successfully reversed the liver fibrosis in mice through the bidirectional regulatory that simultaneously promoted the degradation and inhibited the production of the collagen, demonstrating the great potency of the SGN system as gene medicine.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Fang L, Yang L, Han M, et al (2023)

CRISPR-cas technology: A key approach for SARS-CoV-2 detection.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1158672.

The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Spaced Short Palindromic Repeats) system was first discovered in prokaryotes as a unique immune mechanism to clear foreign nucleic acids. It has been rapidly and extensively used in basic and applied research owing to its strong ability of gene editing, regulation and detection in eukaryotes. Hererin in this article, we reviewed the biology, mechanisms and relevance of CRISPR-Cas technology and its applications in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnosis. CRISPR-Cas nucleic acid detection tools include CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cas12, CRISPR-Cas13, CRISPR-Cas14, CRISPR nucleic acid amplification detection technology, and CRISPR colorimetric readout detection system. The above CRISPR technologies have been applied to the nucleic acid detection, including SARS-CoV-2 detection. Common nucleic acid detection based on CRISPR derivation technology include SHERLOCK, DETECTR, and STOPCovid. CRISPR-Cas biosensing technology has been widely applied to point-of-care testing (POCT) by targeting recognition of both DNA molecules and RNA Molecules.

RevDate: 2023-05-23
CmpDate: 2023-05-23

Yang X, Zeng X, Chen X, et al (2023)

Development of a CRISPR/Cas12a-recombinase polymerase amplification assay for visual and highly specific identification of the Congo Basin and West African strains of mpox virus.

Journal of medical virology, 95(5):e28757.

Human mpox is a zoonotic disease, similar to smallpox, caused by the mpox virus, which is further subdivided into Congo Basin and West African clades with different pathogenicity. In this study, a novel diagnostic protocol utilizing clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 12a nuclease (CRISPR/Cas12a)-mediated recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) was developed to identify mpox in the Congo Basin and West Africa (CRISPR-RPA). Specific RPA primers targeting D14L and ATI were designed. CRISPR-RPA assay was performed using various target templates. In the designed CRISPR-RPA reaction system, the exponentially amplified RPA amplification products with a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) site can locate the Cas12a/crRNA complex to its target regions, which successfully activates the CRISPR/Cas12a effector and achieves ultrafast trans-cleavage of a single-stranded DNA probe. The limit of detection for the CRISPR-RPA assay was 10 copies per reaction for D14L- and ATI-plasmids. No cross-reactivity was observed with non-mpox strains, confirming the high specificity of the CRISPR-RPA assay for distinguishing between the Congo Basin and West African mpox. The CRISPR-RPA assay can be completed within 45 min using real-time fluorescence readout. Moreover, the cleavage results were visualized under UV light or an imaging system, eliminating the need for a specialized apparatus. In summary, the developed CRISPR/RPA assay is a visual, rapid, sensitive, and highly specific detection technique that can be used as an attractive potential identification tool for Congo Basin and West African mpox in resource-limited laboratories.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Chirco KR, Martinez C, DA Lamba (2023)

Advancements in pre-clinical development of gene editing-based therapies to treat inherited retinal diseases.

Vision research, 209:108257 pii:S0042-6989(23)00081-0 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the major goals in the inherited retinal disease (IRD) field is to develop an effective therapy that can be applied to as many patients as possible. Significant progress has already been made toward this end, with gene editing at the forefront. The advancement of gene editing-based tools has been a recent focus of many research groups around the world. Here, we provide an update on the status of CRISPR/Cas-derived gene editors, promising options for delivery of these editing systems to the retina, and animal models that aid in pre-clinical testing of new IRD therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-05-23
CmpDate: 2023-05-23

Keppeke GD, Diogenes L, Gomes K, et al (2023)

"Untargeting" autoantibodies using genome editing, a proof-of-concept study.

Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 251:109343.

Autoantibodies (AAbs) are useful biomarkers and many have direct pathogenic role. Current standard therapies for elimination of specific B/plasma-cell clones are not fully efficient. We apply CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing to knockout V(D)J rearrangements that produce pathogenic AAbs in vitro. HEK293T cell-lines were established stably expressing a humanized anti-dsDNA Ab (clone 3H9) and a human-derived anti-nAChR-α1 Ab (clone B12L). For each clone, five CRISPR/Cas9 heavy-chain's CDR2/3-targeting guided-RNAs (T-gRNAs) were designed. Non-Target-gRNA (NT-gRNA) was control. After editing, levels of secreted Abs were evaluated, as well as 3H9 anti-dsDNA and B12L anti-AChR reactivities. T-gRNAs editing decreased expression of heavy-chain genes to ∼50-60%, compared to >90% in NT-gRNA, although secreted Abs levels and reactivity to their respective antigens in T-gRNAs decreased ∼90% and ∼ 95% compared with NT-gRNA for 3H9 and B12L, respectively. Sequencing indicated indels at Cas9 cut-site, which could lead to codon jam, and consequently, knockout. Additionally, remaining secreted 3H9-Abs presented variable dsDNA reactivity among the five T-gRNA, suggesting the exact Cas9 cut-site and indels further interfere with antibody-antigen interaction. CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing was very effective to knockout the Heavy-Chain-IgG genes, considerably affecting AAbs secretion and binding capacity, fostering application of this concept to in vivo models as a potential novel therapeutic approach for AAb-mediated diseases.

RevDate: 2023-05-23
CmpDate: 2023-05-23

Carusillo A, Haider S, Schäfer R, et al (2023)

A novel Cas9 fusion protein promotes targeted genome editing with reduced mutational burden in primary human cells.

Nucleic acids research, 51(9):4660-4673.

Precise genome editing requires the resolution of nuclease-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) via the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway. In mammals, this is typically outcompeted by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) that can generate potentially genotoxic insertion/deletion mutations at DSB sites. Because of higher efficacy, clinical genome editing has been restricted to imperfect but efficient NHEJ-based approaches. Hence, strategies that promote DSB resolution via HDR are essential to facilitate clinical transition of HDR-based editing strategies and increase safety. Here we describe a novel platform that consists of a Cas9 fused to DNA repair factors to synergistically inhibit NHEJ and favor HDR for precise repairing of Cas-induced DSBs. Compared to canonical CRISPR/Cas9, the increase in error-free editing ranges from 1.5-fold to 7-fold in multiple cell lines and in primary human cells. This novel CRISPR/Cas9 platform accepts clinically relevant repair templates, such as oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors, and has a lower propensity to induce chromosomal translocations as compared to benchmark CRISPR/Cas9. The observed reduced mutational burden, resulting from diminished indel formation at on- and off-target sites, provides a remarkable gain in safety and advocates this novel CRISPR system as an attractive tool for therapeutic applications depending on precision genome editing.

RevDate: 2023-05-23
CmpDate: 2023-05-23

Byun G, Yang J, SW Seo (2023)

CRISPRi-mediated tunable control of gene expression level with engineered single-guide RNA in Escherichia coli.

Nucleic acids research, 51(9):4650-4659.

Precise control of gene expression is essential for flux redistribution in metabolic pathways. Although the CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system can effectively repress gene expression at the transcriptional level, it has still been difficult to precisely control the level without loss of specificity or an increase in cell toxicity. In this study, we developed a tunable CRISPRi system that performs transcriptional regulation at various levels. We constructed a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) library targeting repeat, tetraloop, and anti-repeat regions to modulate the binding affinity against dCas9. Each screened sgRNA could regulate the gene expression at a certain level between fully-repressing and non-repressing states (>45-fold). These sgRNAs also enabled modular regulation with various target DNA sequences. We applied this system to redistribute the metabolic flux to produce violacein derivatives in a predictable ratio and optimize lycopene production. This system would help accelerate the flux optimization processes in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology.

RevDate: 2023-05-23
CmpDate: 2023-05-23

Pan C, Li R, Shui L, et al (2023)

A new method to synthesize multiple gRNA libraries and functional mapping of mammalian H3K4me3 regions.

Nucleic acids research, 51(9):e50.

Genetic screening based on the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system has been indicated to be a powerful tool for identifying regulatory genes or cis-elements. However, when applying CRISPR screens to pinpoint functional elements at particular loci, a large number of guide RNA (gRNA) spacers may be required to achieve saturated coverage. Here, we present a controlled template-dependent elongation (CTDE) method relying on reversible terminators to synthesize gRNA libraries with genomic regions of interest. By applying this approach to H3K4me3 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-derived DNA of mammalian cells, mega-sized gRNA libraries were synthesized in a tissue-specific manner, with which we conducted screening experiments to annotate essential sites for cell proliferation. Additionally, we confirmed that an essential site within the intron of LINC00339 regulates its own mRNA and that LINC00339 is a novel regulator of the cell cycle that maintains HepG2 proliferation. The CTDE method has the potential to be automated with high efficiency at low cost, and will be widely used to identify functional elements in mammalian genomes.

RevDate: 2023-05-23
CmpDate: 2023-05-23

Rahman K, Jamal M, Chen X, et al (2022)

Reprogramming Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR System for Gene Editing and Genome-wide RNA Interference Screening.

Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics, 20(6):1180-1196.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), which is still the leading cause of mortality from a single infectious disease worldwide. The development of novel anti-TB drugs and vaccines is severely hampered by the complicated and time-consuming genetic manipulation techniques for M. tuberculosis. Here, we harnessed an endogenous type III-A CRISPR/Cas10 system of M. tuberculosis for efficient gene editing and RNA interference (RNAi). This simple and easy method only needs to transform a single mini-CRISPR array plasmid, thus avoiding the introduction of exogenous protein and minimizing proteotoxicity. We demonstrated that M. tuberculosis genes can be efficiently and specifically knocked in/out by this system as confirmed by DNA high-throughput sequencing. This system was further applied to single- and multiple-gene RNAi. Moreover, we successfully performed genome-wide RNAi screening to identify M. tuberculosis genes regulating in vitro and intracellular growth. This system can be extensively used for exploring the functional genomics of M. tuberculosis and facilitate the development of novel anti-TB drugs and vaccines.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Wang X, Jing S, Wang W, et al (2023)

Direct and noninvasive fluorescence analysis of an RNA-protein interaction based on a CRISPR/Cas12a-powered assay.

Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy, 299:122884 pii:S1386-1425(23)00569-3 [Epub ahead of print].

RNA-protein interactions (RPIs) play critical roles in gene transcription and protein expression, but current analytical methods for RPIs are mainly performed in an invasive manner, involving special RNA/protein labeling, hampering access to intact and precise information on RPIs. In this work, we present the first CRISPR/Cas12a-based fluorescence assay for the direct analysis of RPIs without RNA/protein labeling steps. Select vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165)/its RNA aptamer interaction as a model, the RNA sequence simultaneously serves as both the aptamer of VEGF165 and crRNA of CRISPR/Cas12a system, and the presence of VEGF165 facilitates VEGF165/its RNA aptamer interaction, thus prohibiting the formation of Cas12a-crRNA-DNA ternary complex along with low fluorescence signal. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.23 pg mL[-1], and good performance in serum-spiked samples with an RSD of 0.4 %-13.1 %. This simple and selective strategy opens the door for establishing CRISPR/Cas-based biosensors for gaining intact information on RPIs, and shows widespread potential for other RPIs analysis.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Wu J, Tao Y, Deng D, et al (2023)

The applications of CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing in genetic hearing loss.

Cell & bioscience, 13(1):93.

Hearing loss (HL) can be caused by a number of different genetic factors. Non-syndromic HL refers that HL occurs as an isolated symptom in an individual, whereas syndromic HL refers that HL is associated with other symptoms or abnormalities. To date, more than 140 genes have been identified as being associated with non-syndromic HL, and approximately 400 genetic syndromes can include HL as one of the clinical symptoms. However, no gene therapeutic approaches are currently available to restore or improve hearing. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to elucidate the possible pathogenesis of specific mutations in HL-associated genes and to investigate the promising therapeutic strategies for genetic HL. The development of the CRISPR/Cas system has revolutionized the field of genome engineering, which has become an efficacious and cost-effective tool to foster genetic HL research. Moreover, several in vivo studies have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas-mediated treatments for specific genetic HL. In this review, we briefly introduce the progress in CRISPR/Cas technique as well as the understanding of genetic HL, and then we detail the recent achievements of CRISPR/Cas technique in disease modeling and therapeutic strategies for genetic HL. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges for the application of CRISPR/Cas technique in future clinical treatments.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Even-Zohar N, Metin-Armagan D, Ben-Shlomo A, et al (2023)

Generation of isogenic and homozygous MEN1 mutant cell lines from patient-derived iPSCs using CRISPR/Cas9.

Stem cell research, 69:103124 pii:S1873-5061(23)00110-1 [Epub ahead of print].

MEN1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, manifests with co-occurrence of multiple endocrine/neuroendocrine neoplasms. An iPSC line derived from an index patient carrying the mutation c.1273C>T (p.Arg465*) was edited using a single multiplex CRISPR/Cas approach to create an isogenic control non-mutated line and a homozygous double mutant line. These cell lines will be useful for elucidating subcellular MEN1 pathophysiology and for screening to identify potential MEN1 therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Lee K, C Lee (2023)

Generation of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockin mutant models in mice and MEFs for studies of polymorphism in clock genes.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8109.

The creation of mutant mice has been invaluable for advancing biomedical science, but is too time- and resource-intensive for investigating the full range of mutations and polymorphisms. Cell culture models are therefore an invaluable complement to mouse models, especially for cell-autonomous pathways like the circadian clock. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the use of CRISPR to create cell models in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as compared to mouse models. We generated two point mutations in the clock genes Per1 and Per2 in mice and in MEFs using the same sgRNAs and repair templates for HDR and quantified the frequency of the mutations by digital PCR. The frequency was about an order of magnitude higher in mouse zygotes compared to that in MEFs. However, the mutation frequency in MEFs was still high enough for clonal isolation by simple screening of a few dozen individual cells. The Per mutant cells that we generated provide important new insights into the role of the PAS domain in regulating PER phosphorylation, a key aspect of the circadian clock mechanism. Quantification of the mutation frequency in bulk MEF populations provides a valuable basis for optimizing CRISPR protocols and time/resource planning for generating cell models for further studies.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Wu J, Xu H, Hu F, et al (2023)

CRISPR-Cas and catalytic hairpin assembly technology for target-initiated amplification detection of pancreatic cancer specific tsRNAs.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1169424.

Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) tRF-LeuCAG-002 (ts3011a RNA) is a novel class of non-coding RNAs biomarker for pancreatic cancer (PC). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been unfit for community hospitals that are short of specialized equipment or laboratory setups. It has not been reported whether isothermal technology can be used for detection, because the tsRNAs have rich modifications and secondary structures compared with other non-coding RNAs. Herein, we have employed a catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) circuit and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) to develop an isothermal and target-initiated amplification method for detecting ts3011a RNA. In the proposed assay, the presence of target tsRNA triggers the CHA circuit that transforms new DNA duplexes to activate collateral cleavage activity of CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) 12a, achieving cascade signal amplification. This method showed a low detection limit of 88 aM at 37 °C within 2 h. Moreover, it was demonstrated for the first time that, this method is less likely to produce aerosol contamination than RT-qPCR by simulating aerosol leakage experiments. This method has good consistency with RT-qPCR in the detection of serum samples and showed great potential for PC-specific tsRNAs point-of-care testing (POCT).

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Shi L, Su J, Cho MJ, et al (2023)

Promoter editing for the genetic improvement of crops.

Journal of experimental botany pii:7173264 [Epub ahead of print].

The proper gene expression plays a fundamental role in the regulation of agronomically important traits in crop plants. The genetic manipulation of plant promoters through genome editing has emerged as an effective strategy to create favorable traits in crops by altering the expression pattern of the pertinent genes. Promoter editing can be applied in a directed manner, where nucleotide sequences associated with favorable traits are precisely generated. Alternatively, promoter editing can also be exploited as a random mutagenic approach to generate novel genetic variations within a designated promoter, from which elite alleles are selected based on their phenotypic effects. Pioneering studies have demonstrated the potential of promoter editing in engineering agronomically important traits as well as in mining novel promoter alleles valuable for plant breeding. In this review article, we update the progress in the application of promoter editing in crops for increased yield, enhanced tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improved quality. We also discuss several remaining technical bottlenecks and how this strategy may be better employed for the genetic improvement of crops in the future.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Chaudhry A, Hassan AU, Khan SH, et al (2023)

The changing landscape of agriculture: role of precision breeding in developing smart crops.

Functional & integrative genomics, 23(2):167.

Food plants play a crucial role in human survival, providing them essential nutrients. However, traditional breeding methods have not been able to keep up with the demands of the growing population. The improvement of food plants aims to increase yield, quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. With CRISPR/Cas9, researchers can identify and edit key genes conferring desirable qualities in agricultural plants, including increased yield, enhanced product quality attributes, and increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic challenges. These modifications have enabled the creation of "smart crops" that exhibit rapid climatic adaptation, resistance to extreme weather conditions and high yield and quality. The use of CRISPR/Cas9 combined with viral vectors or growth regulators has made it possible to produce more efficient modified plants with certain conventional breeding methods. However, ethical and regulatory aspects of this technology must be carefully considered. Proper regulation and application of genome editing technology can bring immense benefits to agriculture and food security. This article provides an overview of genetically modified genes and conventional as well as emerging tools, including CRISPR/Cas9, that have been utilized to enhance the quality of plants/fruits and their products. The review also discusses the challenges and prospects associated with these techniques.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Zhang J, Zhu A, Mei M, et al (2023)

Repurposing CRISPR/Cas to Discover SARS-CoV-2 Detecting and Neutralizing Aptamers.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

RNA aptamers provide useful biological probes and therapeutic agents. New methodologies to screen RNA aptamers will be valuable by complementing the traditional Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). Meanwhile, repurposing clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated systems (Cas) has expanded their utility far beyond their native nuclease function. Here, CRISmers, a CRISPR/Cas-based novel screening system for RNA aptamers based on binding to a chosen protein of interest in a cellular context, is presented. Using CRISmers, aptamers are identified specifically targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two aptamer leads enable sensitive detection and potent neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants in vitro. Intranasal administration of one aptamer, further modified with 2'-fluoro pyrimidines (2'-F), 2'-O-methyl purines (2'-O), and conjugation with both cholesterol and polyethylene glycol of 40 kDa (PEG40K), achieves effective prophylactic and therapeutic antiviral activity against live Omicron BA.2 variants in vivo. The study concludes by demonstrating the robustness, consistency, and potential broad utility of CRISmers using two newly identified aptamers but switching CRISPR, selection marker, and host species.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Ma Y, Zou L, Liang Y, et al (2023)

[Rapid detection and genotyping of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 variants using a RT-PCR and CRISPR-Cas12a-based assay].

Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University, 43(4):516-526.

OBJECTIVE: To establish a rapid detection and genotyping method for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 variants using CRISPPR-Cas12a gene editing technology.

METHODS: We combined reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and CRISPR gene editing technology and designed a specific CRISPPR RNA (crRNA) with suboptimal protospacer adjacent motifs (PAM) for rapid detection and genotyping of SARS- CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 variants. The performance of this RT- PCR/ CRISPPR-Cas12a assay was evaluated using 43 clinical samples of patients infected by wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA. 1 and BA. 4/5 variants and 20 SARS- CoV- 2-negative clinical samples infected with 11 respiratory pathogens. With Sanger sequencing method as the gold standard, the specificity, sensitivity, concordance (Kappa) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of RT-PCR/CRISPPR-Cas12a assay were calculated.

RESULTS: This assay was capable of rapid and specific detection of SARS- CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 variant within 30 min with the lowest detection limit of 10 copies/μL, and no cross-reaction was observed in SARS-CoV-2-negative clinical samples infected with 11 common respiratory pathogens. The two Omicron BA.4/5 specific crRNAs (crRNA-1 and crRNA-2) allowed the assay to accurately distinguish Omicron BA.4/5 from BA.1 sublineage and other major SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. For detection of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 variants, the sensitivity of the established assay using crRNA-1 and crRNA-2 was 97.83% and 100% with specificity of 100% and AUC of 0.998 and 1.000, respectively, and their concordance rate with Sanger sequencing method was 92.83% and 96.41%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: By combining RT-PCR and CRISPPR-Cas12a gene editing technology, we successfully developed a new method for rapid detection and identification of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 variants with a high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility, which allows rapid detection and genotyping of SARS- CoV-2 variants and monitoring of the emerging variants and their dissemination.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Liu C, Yao X, Liu C, et al (2023)

Development and evaluation of RPA-NFO-LFT and RPA-Cas12a-LFT systems for the detection of Candida albicans.

Analytical methods : advancing methods and applications, 15(19):2355-2365.

Recently, the growing number of medical interventions has led to the risk of invasive candidiasis. Among them, Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection has the highest incidence, which has led to great demand for developing early diagnosis methods. In this study, two lateral flow device based molecular assay systems, RPA-NFO-LFT and RPA-Cas12a-LFT, were established and optimized to achieve the detection of C. albicans. Firstly, efficient and specific primers for C. albicans detection were designed and screened, and the purification of amplification products was also explored. Then, many important conditions and issues for each system were investigated and discussed to improve the performances of the test strip devices in C. albicans detection. An evaluation study revealed that both systems showed favorable specificity and sensitivity in the detection of C. albicans samples with a lower detection limit of 10[3] CFU ml[-1], while RPA-Cas12a-LFT is more accurate for visual interpretation and more stable toward samples that exhibit serum nucleic acid interference. Finally, the performances of RPA-NFO-LFT and RPA-Cas12a-LFT were compared with that of the conventional qPCR method. This work might provide a reference for the development of molecular assay devices in practical candidiasis diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Foss DV, Muldoon JJ, Nguyen DN, et al (2023)

Peptide-mediated delivery of CRISPR enzymes for the efficient editing of primary human lymphocytes.

Nature biomedical engineering, 7(5):647-660.

CRISPR-mediated genome editing of primary human lymphocytes is typically carried out via electroporation, which can be cytotoxic, cumbersome and costly. Here we show that the yields of edited primary human lymphocytes can be increased substantially by delivering a CRISPR ribonucleoprotein mixed with an amphiphilic peptide identified through screening. We evaluated the performance of this simple delivery method by knocking out genes in T cells, B cells and natural killer cells via the delivery of Cas9 or Cas12a ribonucleoproteins or an adenine base editor. We also show that peptide-mediated ribonucleoprotein delivery paired with an adeno-associated-virus-mediated homology-directed repair template can introduce a chimaeric antigen receptor gene at the T-cell receptor α constant locus, and that the engineered cells display antitumour potency in mice. The method is minimally perturbative, does not require dedicated hardware, and is compatible with multiplexed editing via sequential delivery, which minimizes the risk of genotoxicity. The peptide-mediated intracellular delivery of ribonucleoproteins may facilitate the manufacturing of engineered T cells.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Guo J, Yu W, Li M, et al (2023)

A DddA ortholog-based and transactivator-assisted nuclear and mitochondrial cytosine base editors with expanded target compatibility.

Molecular cell, 83(10):1710-1724.e7.

Bacterial double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cytosine deaminase DddAtox-derived cytosine base editor (DdCBE) and its evolved variant, DddA11, guided by transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) proteins, enable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) editing at TC or HC (H = A, C, or T) sequence contexts, while it remains relatively unattainable for GC targets. Here, we identified a dsDNA deaminase originated from a Roseburia intestinalis interbacterial toxin (riDddAtox) and generated CRISPR-mediated nuclear DdCBEs (crDdCBEs) and mitochondrial CBEs (mitoCBEs) using split riDddAtox, which catalyzed C-to-T editing at both HC and GC targets in nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Moreover, transactivator (VP64, P65, or Rta) fusion to the tail of DddAtox- or riDddAtox-mediated crDdCBEs and mitoCBEs substantially improved nuclear and mtDNA editing efficiencies by up to 3.5- and 1.7-fold, respectively. We also used riDddAtox-based and Rta-assisted mitoCBE to efficiently stimulate disease-associated mtDNA mutations in cultured cells and in mouse embryos with conversion frequencies of up to 58% at non-TC targets.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Sherkatghanad Z, Abdar M, Charlier J, et al (2023)

Using traditional machine learning and deep learning methods for on- and off-target prediction in CRISPR/Cas9: a review.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 24(3):.

CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9) is a popular and effective two-component technology used for targeted genetic manipulation. It is currently the most versatile and accurate method of gene and genome editing, which benefits from a large variety of practical applications. For example, in biomedicine, it has been used in research related to cancer, virus infections, pathogen detection, and genetic diseases. Current CRISPR/Cas9 research is based on data-driven models for on- and off-target prediction as a cleavage may occur at non-target sequence locations. Nowadays, conventional machine learning and deep learning methods are applied on a regular basis to accurately predict on-target knockout efficacy and off-target profile of given single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs). In this paper, we present an overview and a comparative analysis of traditional machine learning and deep learning models used in CRISPR/Cas9. We highlight the key research challenges and directions associated with target activity prediction. We discuss recent advances in the sgRNA-DNA sequence encoding used in state-of-the-art on- and off-target prediction models. Furthermore, we present the most popular deep learning neural network architectures used in CRISPR/Cas9 prediction models. Finally, we summarize the existing challenges and discuss possible future investigations in the field of on- and off-target prediction. Our paper provides valuable support for academic and industrial researchers interested in the application of machine learning methods in the field of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Everette KA, Newby GA, Levine RM, et al (2023)

Ex vivo prime editing of patient haematopoietic stem cells rescues sickle-cell disease phenotypes after engraftment in mice.

Nature biomedical engineering, 7(5):616-628.

Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is caused by an A·T-to-T·A transversion mutation in the β-globin gene (HBB). Here we show that prime editing can correct the SCD allele (HBB[S]) to wild type (HBB[A]) at frequencies of 15%-41% in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with SCD. Seventeen weeks after transplantation into immunodeficient mice, prime-edited SCD HSPCs maintained HBB[A] levels and displayed engraftment frequencies, haematopoietic differentiation and lineage maturation similar to those of unedited HSPCs from healthy donors. An average of 42% of human erythroblasts and reticulocytes isolated 17 weeks after transplantation of prime-edited HSPCs from four SCD patient donors expressed HBB[A], exceeding the levels predicted for therapeutic benefit. HSPC-derived erythrocytes carried less sickle haemoglobin, contained HBB[A]-derived adult haemoglobin at 28%-43% of normal levels and resisted hypoxia-induced sickling. Minimal off-target editing was detected at over 100 sites nominated experimentally via unbiased genome-wide analysis. Our findings support the feasibility of a one-time prime editing SCD treatment that corrects HBB[S] to HBB[A], does not require any viral or non-viral DNA template and minimizes undesired consequences of DNA double-strand breaks.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Guan Z, Z Jiang (2023)

Transformer-based anti-noise models for CRISPR-Cas9 off-target activities prediction.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 24(3):.

The off-target effect occurring in the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been a challenging problem for the practical application of this gene editing technology. In recent years, various prediction models have been proposed to predict potential off-target activities. However, most of the existing prediction methods do not fully exploit guide RNA (gRNA) and DNA sequence pair information effectively. In addition, available prediction methods usually ignore the noise effect in original off-target datasets. To address these issues, we design a novel coding scheme, which considers the key features of mismatch type, mismatch location and the gRNA-DNA sequence pair information. Furthermore, a transformer-based anti-noise model called CrisprDNT is developed to solve the noise problem that exists in the off-target data. Experimental results of eight existing datasets demonstrate that the method with the inclusion of the anti-noise loss functions is superior to available state-of-the-art prediction methods. CrisprDNT is available at

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Maestroni L, Butti P, Milanesi R, et al (2023)

Easy Modular Integrative fuSion-ready Expression (Easy-MISE) Toolkit for Fast Engineering of Heterologous Productions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

ACS synthetic biology, 12(5):1508-1519.

Nowadays, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the platform of choice for demonstrating the proof of concept of the production of metabolites with a complex structure. However, introducing heterologous genes and rewiring the endogenous metabolism is still not standardized enough, affecting negatively the readiness-to-market of such metabolites. We developed the Easy Modular Integrative fuSion-ready Expression (Easy-MISE) toolkit, which is a novel combination of synthetic biology tools based on a single Golden Gate multiplasmid assembly meant to further ameliorate the rational predictability and flexibility of the process of yeast engineering. Thanks to an improved cloning screening strategy, double and independent transcription units are easily assembled and subsequently integrated into previously characterized loci. Moreover, the devices can be tagged for localization. This design allows for a higher degree of modularity and increases the flexibility of the engineering strategy. We show with a case study how the developed toolkit accelerates the construction and the analysis of the intermediate and the final engineered yeast strains, leaving space to better characterize the heterologous biosynthetic pathway in the final host and, overall, to improve the fermentation performances. Different S. cerevisiae strains were built harboring different versions of the biochemical pathway toward glucobrassicin (GLB) production, an indolyl-methyl glucosinolate. In the end, we could demonstrate that in the tested conditions the best-producing strain leads to a final concentration of GLB of 9.80 ± 0.267 mg/L, a titer 10-fold higher than the best result previously reported in the literature.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Xiong X, Tasan I, Yang C, et al (2023)

Imaging Method Using CRISPR/dCas9 and Engineered gRNA Scaffolds Can Perturb Replication Timing at the HSPA1 Locus.

ACS synthetic biology, 12(5):1424-1436.

Fluorescence microscopy imaging of specific chromosomal sites is essential for genome architecture research. To enable visualization of endogenous loci in mammalian cells, programmable DNA-binding proteins such as TAL effectors and CRISPR/dCas9 are commonly utilized. In addition, site-specific insertion of a TetO repeat array, coupled with TetR-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein expression, can be used for labeling nonrepetitive endogenous loci. Here, we performed a comparison of several live-cell chromosome tagging methods, including their effect on subnuclear positioning, expression of adjacent genes, and DNA replication timing. Our results showed that the CRISPR-based imaging method can delay DNA replication timing and sister chromatid resolution at certain region. However, subnuclear localization of the labeled locus and gene expression from adjacent loci were unaffected by either TetO/TetR or CRISPR-based methods, suggesting that CRISPR-based imaging could be used for applications that do not require DNA replication analysis.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Kawamata M, Suzuki HI, Kimura R, et al (2023)

Optimization of Cas9 activity through the addition of cytosine extensions to single-guide RNAs.

Nature biomedical engineering, 7(5):672-691.

The precise regulation of the activity of Cas9 is crucial for safe and efficient editing. Here we show that the genome-editing activity of Cas9 can be constrained by the addition of cytosine stretches to the 5'-end of conventional single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Such a 'safeguard sgRNA' strategy, which is compatible with Cas12a and with systems for gene activation and interference via CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), leads to the length-dependent inhibition of the formation of functional Cas9 complexes. Short cytosine extensions reduced p53 activation and cytotoxicity in human pluripotent stem cells, and enhanced homology-directed repair while maintaining bi-allelic editing. Longer extensions further decreased on-target activity yet improved the specificity and precision of mono-allelic editing. By monitoring indels through a fluorescence-based allele-specific system and computational simulations, we identified optimal windows of Cas9 activity for a number of genome-editing applications, including bi-allelic and mono-allelic editing, and the generation and correction of disease-associated single-nucleotide substitutions via homology-directed repair. The safeguard-sgRNA strategy may improve the safety and applicability of genome editing.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Meng J, Qiu Y, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

CMI: CRISPR/Cas9 Based Efficient Multiplexed Integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

ACS synthetic biology, 12(5):1408-1414.

Genomic integration is the preferred method for gene expression in microbial industrial production. However, traditional homologous recombination based multiplexed integration methods often suffer from low integration efficiency and complex experimental procedures. Here, we report a CRISPR/Cas9 based multiplexed integration (CMI) system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can achieve quadruple integration at an individual locus without pre-engineering the host. A fused protein, Cas9-Brex27, was used as a bait to attract Rad51 recombinase to the proximity of the double-strand breaks introduced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The efficiency of quadruple integration was increased to 53.9% with 40 bp homology arms (HAs) and 78% with 100 bp HAs. CMI was applied to integrate a heterologous mogrol biosynthetic pathway consisting of four genes in a one-step transformation and offered an efficient solution for multiplexed integration. This method expands the synthetic biology toolbox of S. cerevisiae.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Yan S, Zheng X, Lin Y, et al (2023)

Cas9-mediated replacement of expanded CAG repeats in a pig model of Huntington's disease.

Nature biomedical engineering, 7(5):629-646.

The monogenic nature of Huntington's disease (HD) and other neurodegenerative diseases caused by the expansion of glutamine-encoding CAG repeats makes them particularly amenable to gene therapy. Here we show the feasibility of replacing expanded CAG repeats in the mutant HTT allele with a normal CAG repeat in genetically engineered pigs mimicking the selective neurodegeneration seen in patients with HD. A single intracranial or intravenous injection of adeno-associated virus encoding for Cas9, a single-guide RNA targeting the HTT gene, and donor DNA containing the normal CAG repeat led to the depletion of mutant HTT in the animals and to substantial reductions in the dysregulated expression and neurotoxicity of mutant HTT and in neurological symptoms. Our findings support the further translational development of virally delivered Cas9-based gene therapies for the treatment of genetic neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Maier CR, Hartmann O, Prieto-Garcia C, et al (2023)

USP28 controls SREBP2 and the mevalonate pathway to drive tumour growth in squamous cancer.

Cell death and differentiation [Epub ahead of print].

SREBP2 is a master regulator of the mevalonate pathway (MVP), a biosynthetic process that drives the synthesis of dolichol, heme A, ubiquinone and cholesterol and also provides substrates for protein prenylation. Here, we identify SREBP2 as a novel substrate for USP28, a deubiquitinating enzyme that is frequently upregulated in squamous cancers. Our results show that silencing of USP28 reduces expression of MVP enzymes and lowers metabolic flux into this pathway. We also show that USP28 binds to mature SREBP2, leading to its deubiquitination and stabilisation. USP28 depletion rendered cancer cells highly sensitive to MVP inhibition by statins, which was rescued by the addition of geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate. Analysis of human tissue microarrays revealed elevated expression of USP28, SREBP2 and MVP enzymes in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) compared to lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Moreover, CRISPR/Cas-mediated deletion of SREBP2 selectively attenuated tumour growth in a KRas/p53/LKB1 mutant mouse model of lung cancer. Finally, we demonstrate that statins synergise with a dual USP28/25 inhibitor to reduce viability of SCC cells. Our findings suggest that combinatorial targeting of MVP and USP28 could be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Kalamakis G, RJ Platt (2023)

CRISPR for neuroscientists.

Neuron pii:S0896-6273(23)00306-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Genome engineering technologies provide an entry point into understanding and controlling the function of genetic elements in health and disease. The discovery and development of the microbial defense system CRISPR-Cas yielded a treasure trove of genome engineering technologies and revolutionized the biomedical sciences. Comprising diverse RNA-guided enzymes and effector proteins that evolved or were engineered to manipulate nucleic acids and cellular processes, the CRISPR toolbox provides precise control over biology. Virtually all biological systems are amenable to genome engineering-from cancer cells to the brains of model organisms to human patients-galvanizing research and innovation and giving rise to fundamental insights into health and powerful strategies for detecting and correcting disease. In the field of neuroscience, these tools are being leveraged across a wide range of applications, including engineering traditional and non-traditional transgenic animal models, modeling disease, testing genomic therapies, unbiased screening, programming cell states, and recording cellular lineages and other biological processes. In this primer, we describe the development and applications of CRISPR technologies while highlighting outstanding limitations and opportunities.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Sheng L, Madika A, Lau MSH, et al (2023)

Metabolic engineering for the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol at elevated temperature in Parageobacillus thermoglucosidasius NCIMB 11955.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1191079.

The current climate crisis has emphasised the need to achieve global net-zero by 2050, with countries being urged to set considerable emission reduction targets by 2030. Exploitation of a fermentative process that uses a thermophilic chassis can represent a way to manufacture chemicals and fuels through more environmentally friendly routes with a net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, the industrially relevant thermophile Parageobacillus thermoglucosidasius NCIMB 11955 was engineered to produce 3-hydroxybutanone (acetoin) and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), organic compounds with commercial applications. Using heterologous acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetolactate decarboxylase (ALD) enzymes, a functional 2,3-BDO biosynthetic pathway was constructed. The formation of by-products was minimized by the deletion of competing pathways surrounding the pyruvate node. Redox imbalance was addressed through autonomous overexpression of the butanediol dehydrogenase and by investigating appropriate aeration levels. Through this, we were able to produce 2,3-BDO as the predominant fermentation metabolite, with up to 6.6 g/L 2,3-BDO (0.33 g/g glucose) representing 66% of the theoretical maximum at 50°C. In addition, the identification and subsequent deletion of a previously unreported thermophilic acetoin degradation gene (acoB1) resulted in enhanced acetoin production under aerobic conditions, producing 7.6 g/L (0.38 g/g glucose) representing 78% of the theoretical maximum. Furthermore, through the generation of a ΔacoB1 mutant and by testing the effect of glucose concentration on 2,3-BDO production, we were able to produce 15.6 g/L of 2,3-BDO in media supplemented with 5% glucose, the highest titre of 2,3-BDO produced in Parageobacillus and Geobacillus species to date.

RevDate: 2023-05-19
CmpDate: 2023-05-19

Dholariya S, Parchwani D, Radadiya M, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9: A Molecular Tool for Ovarian Cancer Management beyond Gene Editing.

Critical reviews in oncogenesis, 27(4):1-22.

Ovarian cancer manifests with early metastases and has an adverse outcome, impacting the health of women globally. Currently, this malignancy is often treated with cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. This treatment option has a limited success rate due to tumor recurrence and chemoresistance. Consequently, the fundamental objective of ovarian cancer treatment is the development of novel treatment approaches. As a new robust tool, the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system has shown immense promise in elucidating the molecular basis of all the facets of ovarian cancer. Due to the precise gene editing capabilities of CRISPR-Cas9, researchers have been able to conduct a more comprehensive investigation of the genesis of ovarian cancer. This gained knowledge can be translated into the development of novel diagnostic approaches and newer therapeutic targets for this dreadful malignancy. There is encouraging preclinical evidence that suggests that CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful versatile tool for selectively targeting cancer cells and inhibiting tumor growth, establishing new signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis, and verifying biomolecules as druggable targets. In this review, we analyzed the current research and progress made using CRISPR/Cas9-based engineering strategies in the diagnosis and treatment, as well as the challenges in bringing this method to clinics. This comprehensive analysis will lay the basis for subsequent research in the future for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

RevDate: 2023-05-19
CmpDate: 2023-05-19

Li J, Liang Q, Zhou H, et al (2023)

Profiling the impact of the promoters on CRISPR-Cas12a system in human cells.

Cellular & molecular biology letters, 28(1):41.

The plasmid vector platform is the most commonly used vector for the expression of the versatile CRISPR-Cas technique and the promoter is a crucial element for the expression vector, thus profiling the impact of the promoters on CRISPR editors provides the basic information for the gene-editing toolkits and can be a guideline for its design. Herein, we made a parallel comparison among four commonly used promoters (CAG, ~ 1700 bp; EF1a core, ~ 210 bp; CMV, ~ 500 bp; and PGK, ~ 500 bp) in CRISPR-Cas12a system in mammalian cells to explore the impact of promoters on this powerful tool. We found that without badly damaging targeting specificity, the CAG promoter-driving Cas12a editor exhibited the most active (efficiency takes as 100%, specificity index = ~ 75%) in genomic cleavage, multiplex editing, transcriptional activation, and base editing, followed by promoter CMV (efficiency = 70 ~ 90% (vs CAG), specificity index = ~ 78%), and then EF1a core and PGK (both efficiency = 40-60%, vs CAG) but with higher specificity (specificity index = ~ 84% and ~ 82%, respectively). Therefore, CAG is recommended in the CRISPR-Cas12a system for the applications that need a robust editing activity but without size limitation, CMV mostly can be an alternative for CAG when requiring a smaller space, EF1a is similar to PGK with relatively high specificity, but has a smaller size, thus is more suitable for in vivo therapeutic applications. The data outlined the properties of the widely used promoters in the CRISPR-Cas12a system, which can be a guide for its applications and can be a useful resource for the gene-editing field.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Qiu HY, Ji RJ, Y Zhang (2022)

Current advances of CRISPR-Cas technology in cell therapy.

Cell insight, 1(6):100067.

CRISPR-Cas is a versatile genome editing technology that has been broadly applied in both basic research and translation medicine. Ever since its discovery, the bacterial derived endonucleases have been engineered to a collection of robust genome-editing tools for introducing frameshift mutations or base conversions at site-specific loci. Since the initiation of first-in-human trial in 2016, CRISPR-Cas has been tested in 57 cell therapy trials, 38 of which focusing on engineered CAR-T cells and TCR-T cells for cancer malignancies, 15 trials of engineered hematopoietic stem cells treating hemoglobinopathies, leukemia and AIDS, and 4 trials of engineered iPSCs for diabetes and cancer. Here, we aim to review the recent breakthroughs of CRISPR technology and highlight their applications in cell therapy.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Koonin EV, Gootenberg JS, OO Abudayyeh (2023)

Discovery of Diverse CRISPR-Cas Systems and Expansion of the Genome Engineering Toolbox.

Biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR systems mediate adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea through diverse effector mechanisms and have been repurposed for versatile applications in therapeutics and diagnostics thanks to their facile reprogramming with RNA guides. RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas targeting and interference are mediated by effectors that are either components of multisubunit complexes in class 1 systems or multidomain single-effector proteins in class 2. The compact class 2 CRISPR systems have been broadly adopted for multiple applications, especially genome editing, leading to a transformation of the molecular biology and biotechnology toolkit. The diversity of class 2 effector enzymes, initially limited to the Cas9 nuclease, was substantially expanded via computational genome and metagenome mining to include numerous variants of Cas12 and Cas13, providing substrates for the development of versatile, orthogonal molecular tools. Characterization of these diverse CRISPR effectors uncovered many new features, including distinct protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) that expand the targeting space, improved editing specificity, RNA rather than DNA targeting, smaller crRNAs, staggered and blunt end cuts, miniature enzymes, promiscuous RNA and DNA cleavage, etc. These unique properties enabled multiple applications, such as harnessing the promiscuous RNase activity of the type VI effector, Cas13, for supersensitive nucleic acid detection. class 1 CRISPR systems have been adopted for genome editing, as well, despite the challenge of expressing and delivering the multiprotein class 1 effectors. The rich diversity of CRISPR enzymes led to rapid maturation of the genome editing toolbox, with capabilities such as gene knockout, base editing, prime editing, gene insertion, DNA imaging, epigenetic modulation, transcriptional modulation, and RNA editing. Combined with rational design and engineering of the effector proteins and associated RNAs, the natural diversity of CRISPR and related bacterial RNA-guided systems provides a vast resource for expanding the repertoire of tools for molecular biology and biotechnology.

RevDate: 2023-05-19
CmpDate: 2023-05-19

Kang Y, Zhang J, Zhao L, et al (2023)

Colorimetric miRNA detection based on self-primer-initiated CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted amplification.

BioTechniques, 74(4):172-178.

miRNAs alter significantly throughout pregnancy to support the development of the fetus. However, sensitive detection of miRNA remains a challenge. Herein, a reliable miRNA detection approach integrating self-assembly-triggered signal amplification and CRISPR-Cas12a-system cleavage-based color generation is described. The colorimetric approach contains three signal amplification processes. The first signal amplification is formed by the released miRNA in a chain extension process. The produced sequence that is similar to the target miRNA initiates the second signal recycle. Finally, CRISPR-Cas12a-based transcleavage on linker sequences induces the third signal amplification. The method exhibits high sensitivity and a low limit of detection of 254 aM, showing promising prospects in disease diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Alalmaie A, Diaf S, R Khashan (2023)

Insight into the molecular mechanism of the transposon-encoded type I-F CRISPR-Cas system.

Journal, genetic engineering & biotechnology, 21(1):60.

CRISPR-Cas9 is a popular gene-editing tool that allows researchers to introduce double-strand breaks to edit parts of the genome. CRISPR-Cas9 system is used more than other gene-editing tools because it is simple and easy to customize. However, Cas9 may produce unintended double-strand breaks in DNA, leading to off-target effects. There have been many improvements in the CRISPR-Cas system to control the off-target effect and improve the efficiency. The presence of a nuclease-deficient CRISPR-Cas system in several bacterial Tn7-like transposons inspires researchers to repurpose to direct the insertion of Tn7-like transposons instead of cleaving the target DNA, which will eventually limit the risk of off-target effects. Two transposon-encoded CRISPR-Cas systems have been experimentally confirmed. The first system, found in Tn7 like-transposon (Tn6677), is associated with the variant type I-F CRISPR-Cas system. The second one, found in Tn7 like-transposon (Tn5053), is related to the variant type V-K CRISPR-Cas system. This review describes the molecular and structural mechanisms of DNA targeting by the transposon-encoded type I-F CRISPR-Cas system, from assembly around the CRISPR-RNA (crRNA) to the initiation of transposition.

RevDate: 2023-05-18
CmpDate: 2023-05-18

Rivera-Torres N, Bialk P, EB Kmiec (2023)

CRISPR-Directed Gene Editing as a Method to Reduce Chemoresistance in Lung Cancer Cells.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2660:263-271.

We are advancing a novel strategy for the treatment of solid tumors by employing CRISPR-directed gene editing to reduce levels of standard of care required to halt or reverse the progression of tumor growth. We intend to do this by utilizing a combinatorial approach in which CRISPR-directed gene editing is used to eliminate or significantly reduce the acquired resistance emerging from chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or immunotherapy. We will utilize CRISPR/Cas as a biomolecular tool to disable specific genes involved in the sustainability of resistance to cancer therapy. We have also developed a CRISPR/Cas molecule that can distinguish between the genome of a tumor cell in the genome of a normal cell, thereby conferring target selectivity onto this therapeutic approach. We envision delivering these molecules by direct injection into solid tumors for the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, esophageal cancer, and head and neck cancer. We provide experimental details and methodology for utilizing CRISPR/Cas as a supplement to chemotherapy to destroy lung cancer cells.

RevDate: 2023-05-17
CmpDate: 2023-05-17

Bhokisham N, Laudermilch E, Traeger LL, et al (2023)

CRISPR-Cas System: The Current and Emerging Translational Landscape.

Cells, 12(8):.

CRISPR-Cas technology has rapidly changed life science research and human medicine. The ability to add, remove, or edit human DNA sequences has transformative potential for treating congenital and acquired human diseases. The timely maturation of the cell and gene therapy ecosystem and its seamless integration with CRISPR-Cas technologies has enabled the development of therapies that could potentially cure not only monogenic diseases such as sickle cell anemia and muscular dystrophy, but also complex heterogenous diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Here, we review the current landscape of clinical trials involving the use of various CRISPR-Cas systems as therapeutics for human diseases, discuss challenges, and explore new CRISPR-Cas-based tools such as base editing, prime editing, CRISPR-based transcriptional regulation, CRISPR-based epigenome editing, and RNA editing, each promising new functionality and broadening therapeutic potential. Finally, we discuss how the CRISPR-Cas system is being used to understand the biology of human diseases through the generation of large animal disease models used for preclinical testing of emerging therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-05-18
CmpDate: 2023-05-18

Neugebauer ME, Hsu A, Arbab M, et al (2023)

Evolution of an adenine base editor into a small, efficient cytosine base editor with low off-target activity.

Nature biotechnology, 41(5):673-685.

Cytosine base editors (CBEs) are larger and can suffer from higher off-target activity or lower on-target editing efficiency than current adenine base editors (ABEs). To develop a CBE that retains the small size, low off-target activity and high on-target activity of current ABEs, we evolved the highly active deoxyadenosine deaminase TadA-8e to perform cytidine deamination using phage-assisted continuous evolution. Evolved TadA cytidine deaminases contain mutations at DNA-binding residues that alter enzyme selectivity to strongly favor deoxycytidine over deoxyadenosine deamination. Compared to commonly used CBEs, TadA-derived cytosine base editors (TadCBEs) offer similar or higher on-target activity, smaller size and substantially lower Cas-independent DNA and RNA off-target editing activity. We also identified a TadA dual base editor (TadDE) that performs equally efficient cytosine and adenine base editing. TadCBEs support single or multiplexed base editing at therapeutically relevant genomic loci in primary human T cells and primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. TadCBEs expand the utility of CBEs for precision gene editing.

RevDate: 2023-05-18
CmpDate: 2023-05-18

Chen L, Zhu B, Ru G, et al (2023)

Re-engineering the adenine deaminase TadA-8e for efficient and specific CRISPR-based cytosine base editing.

Nature biotechnology, 41(5):663-672.

Cytosine base editors (CBEs) efficiently generate precise C·G-to-T·A base conversions, but the activation-induced cytidine deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (AID/APOBEC) protein family deaminase component induces considerable off-target effects and indels. To explore unnatural cytosine deaminases, we repurpose the adenine deaminase TadA-8e for cytosine conversion. The introduction of an N46L variant in TadA-8e eliminates its adenine deaminase activity and results in a TadA-8e-derived C-to-G base editor (Td-CGBE) capable of highly efficient and precise C·G-to-G·C editing. Through fusion with uracil glycosylase inhibitors and further introduction of additional variants, a series of Td-CBEs was obtained either with a high activity similar to that of BE4max or with higher precision compared to other reported accurate CBEs. Td-CGBE/Td-CBEs show very low indel effects and a background level of Cas9-dependent or Cas9-independent DNA/RNA off-target editing. Moreover, Td-CGBE/Td-CBEs are more efficient in generating accurate edits in homopolymeric cytosine sites in cells or mouse embryos, suggesting their accuracy and safety for gene therapy and other applications.

RevDate: 2023-05-17
CmpDate: 2023-05-17

Vora DS, Yadav S, D Sundar (2023)

Hybrid Multitask Learning Reveals Sequence Features Driving Specificity in the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

Biomolecules, 13(4):.

CRISPR/Cas9 technology is capable of precisely editing genomes and is at the heart of various scientific and medical advances in recent times. The advances in biomedical research are hindered because of the inadvertent burden on the genome when genome editors are employed-the off-target effects. Although experimental screens to detect off-targets have allowed understanding the activity of Cas9, that knowledge remains incomplete as the rules do not extrapolate well to new target sequences. Off-target prediction tools developed recently have increasingly relied on machine learning and deep learning techniques to reliably understand the complete threat of likely off-targets because the rules that drive Cas9 activity are not fully understood. In this study, we present a count-based as well as deep-learning-based approach to derive sequence features that are important in deciding on Cas9 activity at a sequence. There are two major challenges in off-target determination-the identification of a likely site of Cas9 activity and the prediction of the extent of Cas9 activity at that site. The hybrid multitask CNN-biLSTM model developed, named CRISP-RCNN, simultaneously predicts off-targets and the extent of activity on off-targets. Employing methods of integrated gradients and weighting kernels for feature importance approximation, analysis of nucleotide and position preference, and mismatch tolerance have been performed.

RevDate: 2023-05-17
CmpDate: 2023-05-17

Zuo Y, Mei X, A Singson (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Fluorescent Tagging of Caenorhabditis elegans SPE-38 Reveals a Complete Localization Pattern in Live Spermatozoa.

Biomolecules, 13(4):.

The Caenorhabditis elegans spe-38 gene encodes a four-pass transmembrane molecule that is required in sperm for fertilization. In previous work, the localization of the SPE-38 protein was examined using polyclonal antibodies on spermatids and mature amoeboid spermatozoa. SPE-38 is localized to unfused membranous organelles (MOs) in nonmotile spermatids. Different fixation conditions revealed that SPE-38 either localized to fused MOs and the cell body plasma membrane or the pseudopod plasma membrane of mature sperm. To address this localization paradox in mature sperm, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing was used to tag endogenous SPE-38 with fluorescent wrmScarlet-I. Homozygous male and hermaphrodite worms encoding SPE-38::wrmScarlet-I were fertile indicating the fluorescent tag does not interfere with SPE-38 function during sperm activation or fertilization. We found that SPE-38::wrmScarlet-I localized to MOs in spermatids consistent with previous antibody localization. In mature and motile spermatozoa we found SPE-38::wrmScarlet-I in fused MOs, the cell body plasma membrane, and the pseudopod plasma membrane. We conclude that the localization pattern observed with SPE-38::wrmScarlet-I represents the complete distribution of SPE-38 in mature spermatozoa and this localization pattern is consistent with a hypothesized role of SPE-38 directly in sperm-egg binding and/or fusion.

RevDate: 2023-05-17
CmpDate: 2023-05-17

Chin S, Goyon A, Zhang K, et al (2023)

Middle-out sequence confirmation of CRISPR/Cas9 single guide RNA (sgRNA) using DNA primers and ribonuclease T1 digestion.

Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 415(14):2809-2818.

Accurate sequencing of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is critical for patient safety, as the sgRNA guides the Cas9 nuclease to target site-specific cleavages in DNA. An approach to fully sequence sgRNA using protective DNA primers followed by ribonuclease (RNase) T1 digestion was developed to facilitate the analysis of these larger molecules by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HILIC-HRMS). Without RNase digestion, top-down mass spectrometry alone struggles to properly fragment precursor ions in large RNA oligonucleotides to provide confidence in sequence coverage. With RNase T1 digestion of these larger oligonucleotides, however, bottom-up analysis cannot confirm full sequence coverage due to the presence of short, redundant digestion products. By combining primer protection with RNase T1 digestion, digestion products are large enough to prevent redundancy and small enough to provide base resolution by tandem mass spectrometry to allow for full sgRNA sequence coverage. An investigation into the general requirements for adequate primer protection of specific regions of the RNA was conducted, followed by the development of a generic protection and digestion strategy that may be applied to different sgRNA sequences. This middle-out technique has the potential to expedite accurate sequence confirmation of chemically modified sgRNA oligonucleotides.

RevDate: 2023-05-17
CmpDate: 2023-05-17

Feng ZY, Yun YF, Li X, et al (2023)

Impact of Divalent Metal Ions on Regulation of Trans-Cleavage Activity of CRISPR-Cas13a: A Combined Experimental and Computational Study.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology, 24(10):e202300034.

CRISPR-LbuCas13a has emerged as a revolutionary tool for in vitro diagnosis. Similar to other Cas effectors, LbuCas13a requires Mg[2+] to maintain its nuclease activity. However, the effect of other divalent metal ions on its trans-cleavage activity remains less explored. Herein, we addressed this issue by combining experimental and molecular dynamics simulation analysis. In vitro studies showed that both Mn[2+] and Ca[2+] could replace Mg[2+] as cofactors of LbuCas13a. In contrast, Ni[2+] , Zn[2+] , Cu[2+] , or Fe[2+] inhibits the cis- and trans-cleavage activity, while Pb[2+] does not affect it. Importantly, molecular dynamics simulations confirmed that calcium, magnesium, and manganese hydrated ions have a strong affinity to nucleotide bases, thus stabilizing the conformation of crRNA repeat region and enhancing the trans-cleavage activity. Finally, we showed that combination of Mg[2+] and Mn[2+] can further enhance the trans-cleavage activity to allow amplified RNA detection, revealing its potential advantage for in vitro diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Li L, Liu W, Zhang H, et al (2023)

A New Method for Programmable RNA Editing Using CRISPR Effector Cas13X.1.

The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, 260(1):51-61.

Type VI CRISPR-Cas13 is the only CRISPR system that can bind and cleave RNA without DNase activity. We used the newly discovered, smaller Cas13X.1 protein to construct an editing system in mammalian cells, aiming to break the delivery restrictions of CRISPR-Cas13 system in vivo and promote the application of Cas13X system in clinical therapy. We employed exogenous fluorescence reporter gene mCherry and endogenous gene transketolase (TKT) closely related to cancer cell metabolism as target genes to evaluate the Cas13X.1 system. The recombinant plasmids targeting exogenous gene mCherry and endogenous gene TKT were constructed based on Cas13X.1 backbone plasmid. The editing efficiency, protein expression level, downstream gene transcript level and safety of Cas13X.1 system were evaluated. Both TKT transcripts of endogenous genes and mCherry transcripts of exogenous genes were significantly degraded by Cas13X.1 system with a knockdown efficiency up to 50%. At the same time, Cas13X.1 down-regulated the expression of the corresponding protein level in the editing of transcripts. In addition, the transcripts of key metabolic enzymes related to TKT were also down-regulated synchronously, suggesting that the degradation of TKT transcripts by Cas13X.1 system affected the main metabolic pathways related to TKT. The morphology, RNA integrity and apoptosis of cells loaded with Cas13X.1 system were not affected. The Cas13X.1 system we constructed had strong RNA knockdown ability in mammalian cells with low cellular toxicity. Compared with other CRISPR-Cas13 systems, Cas13X.1 system with smaller molecular weight has more advantages in vivo delivery. The Cas13X.1 system targeting TKT transcripts also provides an alternative method for the study of anti-cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2023-05-17
CmpDate: 2023-05-17

Han JL, E Entcheva (2023)

Gene Modulation with CRISPR-based Tools in Human iPSC-Cardiomyocytes.

Stem cell reviews and reports, 19(4):886-905.

Precise control of gene expression (knock-out, knock-in, knockdown or overexpression) is at the heart of functional genomics - an approach to dissect the contribution of a gene/protein to the system's function. The development of a human in vitro system that can be patient-specific, induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSC, and the ability to obtain various cell types of interest, have empowered human disease modeling and therapeutic development. Scalable tools have been deployed for gene modulation in these cells and derivatives, including pharmacological means, DNA-based RNA interference and standard RNA interference (shRNA/siRNA). The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system, borrowed from bacteria and adopted for use in mammalian cells a decade ago, offers cell-specific genetic targeting and versatility. Outside genome editing, more subtle, time-resolved gene modulation is possible by using a catalytically "dead" Cas9 enzyme linked to an effector of gene transcription in combination with a guide RNA. The CRISPRi / CRISPRa (interference/activation) system evolved over the last decade as a scalable technology for performing functional genomics with libraries of gRNAs. Here, we review key developments of these approaches and their deployment in cardiovascular research. We discuss specific use with iPSC-cardiomyocytes and the challenges in further translation of these techniques.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Altindiş M, EP Kahraman Kilbaş (2023)

Managing Viral Emerging Infectious Diseases via Current and Future Molecular Diagnostics.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(8): pii:diagnostics13081421.

Emerging viral infectious diseases have been a constant threat to global public health in recent times. In managing these diseases, molecular diagnostics has played a critical role. Molecular diagnostics involves the use of various technologies to detect the genetic material of various pathogens, including viruses, in clinical samples. One of the most commonly used molecular diagnostics technologies for detecting viruses is polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR amplifies specific regions of the viral genetic material in a sample, making it easier to detect and identify viruses. PCR is particularly useful for detecting viruses that are present in low concentrations in clinical samples, such as blood or saliva. Another technology that is becoming increasingly popular for viral diagnostics is next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS can sequence the entire genome of a virus present in a clinical sample, providing a wealth of information about the virus, including its genetic makeup, virulence factors, and potential to cause an outbreak. NGS can also help identify mutations and discover new pathogens that could affect the efficacy of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In addition to PCR and NGS, there are other molecular diagnostics technologies that are being developed to manage emerging viral infectious diseases. One of these is CRISPR-Cas, a genome editing technology that can be used to detect and cut specific regions of viral genetic material. CRISPR-Cas can be used to develop highly specific and sensitive viral diagnostic tests, as well as to develop new antiviral therapies. In conclusion, molecular diagnostics tools are critical for managing emerging viral infectious diseases. PCR and NGS are currently the most commonly used technologies for viral diagnostics, but new technologies such as CRISPR-Cas are emerging. These technologies can help identify viral outbreaks early, track the spread of viruses, and develop effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Ishikawa K, S Saitoh (2023)

Transcriptional Regulation Technology for Gene Perturbation in Fission Yeast.

Biomolecules, 13(4): pii:biom13040716.

Isolation and introduction of genetic mutations is the primary approach to characterize gene functions in model yeasts. Although this approach has proven very powerful, it is not applicable to all genes in these organisms. For example, introducing defective mutations into essential genes causes lethality upon loss of function. To circumvent this difficulty, conditional and partial repression of target transcription is possible. While transcriptional regulation techniques, such as promoter replacement and 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) disruption, are available for yeast systems, CRISPR-Cas-based technologies have provided additional options. This review summarizes these gene perturbation technologies, including recent advances in methods based on CRISPR-Cas systems for Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We discuss how biological resources afforded by CRISPRi can promote fission yeast genetics.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Liu J, Carmichael C, Hasturk H, et al (2023)

Rapid specific detection of oral bacteria using Cas13-based SHERLOCK.

Journal of oral microbiology, 15(1):2207336.

Decades of ongoing research has established that oral microbial communities play a role in oral diseases such as periodontitis and caries. Yet the detection of oral bacteria and the profiling of oral polymicrobial communities currently rely on methods that are costly, slow, and technically complex, such as qPCR or next-generation sequencing. For the widescale screening of oral microorganisms suitable for point-of-care settings, there exists the need for a low-cost, rapid detection technique. Here, we tailored the novel CRISPR-Cas-based assay SHERLOCK for the species-specific detection of oral bacteria. We developed a computational pipeline capable of generating constructs suitable for SHERLOCK and experimentally validated the detection of seven oral bacteria. We achieved detection within the single-molecule range that remained specific in the presence of off-target DNA found within saliva. Further, we adapted the assay for detecting target sequences directly from unprocessed saliva samples. The results of our detection, when tested on 30 healthy human saliva samples, fully aligned with 16S rRNA sequencing. Looking forward, this method of detecting oral bacteria is highly scalable and can be easily optimized for implementation at point-of-care settings.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Sahel DK, Goswami SG, Jatyan R, et al (2023)

Lipopolymeric nanocarrier enables effective delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 expressing plasmid.

Macromolecular rapid communications [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR/Cas9 has proven its accuracy and precision for gene editing by making a double-strand break at the predetermined nucleic acid sequence. Despite being a mainstream gene editing tool, CRISPR/Cas9 has limitations for its in vivo delivery due to the physico-chemical properties such as high molecular weight, supranegative charge, degradation in the presence of nucleases in the biological fluid, etc. Viral vector has been vastly used to deliver CRISPR/Cas components but possesses ample drawbacks and is challenging to translate. We hereby explored a cationic lipopolymer, i.e, mPEG b-(CB-{g-cationic chain; g-Chol; g-Morph}) for its efficiency in delivering CRISPR/Cas9 plasmid (pCas9) in vitro and in vivo. The polymer was utilized to form blank cationic nanoplexes having a zeta potential of +15.8 ± 0.7 mV. Being cationic, the blank nanoplexes were able to condense the pCas9 plasmid at a ratio of 1:20 with a complexation efficiency of ∼98% and showed a size and zeta potential of ∼141 ± 16 nm and 4.2 mV ± 0.7, respectively. The pCas9-loaded nanoplexes showed a transfection efficiency of ∼69% in ARPE-19 cells and showed ∼22% of indel frequency indicating the successful translation of Cas9 protein and guide RNA in the cytosol. Further, they were found to be stable under in vivo environment when given intravenously in Swiss albino mice. These lipopolymeric nanoplexes could be a potential carrier for CRISPR plasmids for genome editing applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Luelf UJ, Böhmer LM, Li S, et al (2023)

Effect of chromosomal integration on catalytic performance of a multi-component P450 system in Escherichia coli.

Biotechnology and bioengineering [Epub ahead of print].

Cytochromes P450 are useful biocatalysts in synthetic chemistry and important bio-bricks in synthetic biology. Almost all bacterial P450s require separate redox partners for their activity, which are often expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli using multiple plasmids. However, the application of CRISPR/Cas recombineering facilitated chromosomal integration of heterologous genes which enables more stable and tunable expression of multi-component P450 systems for whole-cell biotransformations. Herein, we compared three E. coli strains W3110, JM109, and BL21(DE3) harboring three heterologous genes encoding a P450 and two redox partners either on plasmids or after chromosomal integration in two genomic loci. Both loci proved to be reliable and comparable for the model regio- and stereoselective two-step oxidation of (S)-ketamine. Furthermore, the CRISPR/Cas-assisted integration of the T7 RNA polymerase gene enabled an easy extension of T7 expression strains. Higher titers of soluble active P450 were achieved in E. coli harboring a single chromosomal copy of the P450 gene compared to E. coli carrying a medium copy pET plasmid. In addition, improved expression of both redox partners after chromosomal integration resulted in up to 80% higher (S)-ketamine conversion and more than fourfold increase in total turnover numbers.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Scrascia M, Roberto R, D'Addabbo P, et al (2023)

Bioinformatic survey of CRISPR loci across 15 Serratia species.

MicrobiologyOpen, 12(2):e1339.

The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) system of prokaryotes is an adaptative immune defense mechanism to protect themselves from invading genetic elements (e.g., phages and plasmids). Studies that describe the genetic organization of these prokaryotic systems have mainly reported on the Enterobacteriaceae family (now reorganized within the order of Enterobacterales). For some genera, data on CRISPR-Cas systems remain poor, as in the case of Serratia (now part of the Yersiniaceae family) where data are limited to a few genomes of the species marcescens. This study describes the detection, in silico, of CRISPR loci in 146 Serratia complete genomes and 336 high-quality assemblies available for the species ficaria, fonticola, grimesii, inhibens, liquefaciens, marcescens, nematodiphila, odorifera, oryzae, plymuthica, proteomaculans, quinivorans, rubidaea, symbiotica, and ureilytica. Apart from subtypes I-E and I-F1 which had previously been identified in marcescens, we report that of I-C and the I-E unique locus 1, I-E*, and I-F1 unique locus 1. Analysis of the genomic contexts for CRISPR loci revealed mdtN-phnP as the region mostly shared (grimesii, inhibens, marcescens, nematodiphila, plymuthica, rubidaea, and Serratia sp.). Three new contexts detected in genomes of rubidaea and fonticola (puu genes-mnmA) and rubidaea (osmE-soxG and ampC-yebZ) were also found. The plasmid and/or phage origin of spacers was also established.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Ronai I (2023)

How molecular techniques are developed from natural systems.

Genetics pii:7162666 [Epub ahead of print].

A striking characteristic of the molecular techniques of genetics is that they are derived from natural occurring systems. RNA interference, for example, utilizes a mechanism that evolved in eukaryotes to destroy foreign nucleic acid. Other case studies I highlight are restriction enzymes, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, gene targeting, fluorescent proteins (such as, green fluorescent protein), induced pluripotent stem cells, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated 9. The natural systems' strategy for technique development means that biologists utilize the activity of a mechanism's effector (protein or RNA) and exploit biological specificity (protein or nucleic acid can cause precise reactions). I also argue that the developmental trajectory of novel molecular techniques, such as RNA interference, has 4 characteristic phases. The first phase is discovery of a biological phenomenon. The second phase is identification of the biological mechanism's trigger(s): the effector and biological specificity. The third phase is the application of the trigger(s) as a technique. The final phase is the maturation and refinement of the technique. Developing new molecular techniques from nature is crucial for future genetic research.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Comunanza V, Gigliotti C, Lamba S, et al (2023)

Dual VEGFA/BRAF targeting boosts PD-1 blockade in melanoma through GM-CSF-mediated infiltration of M1 macrophages.

Molecular oncology [Epub ahead of print].

The introduction of targeted therapies represented one of the most significant advances in the treatment of BRAFV600E melanoma. However, the onset of acquired resistance remains a challenge. Previously, we showed in mouse xenografts that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) removal enhanced the antitumor effect of BRAF inhibition through the recruitment of M1 macrophages. In this work, we explored the strategy of VEGFA/BRAF inhibition in immunocompetent melanoma murine models. In BRAF mutant D4M melanoma tumors, VEGFA/BRAF targeting reshaped the tumor microenvironment, largely by stimulating infiltration of M1 macrophages and CD8[+] T cells, and sensitized tumors to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Further, we reported that the association of VEGFA/BRAF targeting with anti-PD-1 antibody (triple therapy) resulted in a durable response and enabled complete tumor eradication in 50% of the mice, establishing immunological memory. Neutralization and CRISPR-Cas-mediated editing of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) abrogated anti-tumor response prompted by triple therapy and identified GM-CSF as the cytokine instrumental in M1-macrophage recruitment. Our data suggest that VEGFA/BRAF targeting in melanoma induces the activation of innate and adaptive immunity and prepares tumors for ICB. Our study contributes to understanding the tumor biology of BRAFV600E melanoma, and suggests VEGFA as therapeutic target.

RevDate: 2023-05-16
CmpDate: 2023-05-16

Mijiti M, Maimaiti A, Chen X, et al (2023)

CRISPR-cas9 screening identified lethal genes enriched in Hippo kinase pathway and of predictive significance in primary low-grade glioma.

Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.), 29(1):64.

BACKGROUND: Low-grade gliomas (LGG) are a type of brain tumor that can be lethal, and it is essential to identify genes that are correlated with patient prognosis. In this study, we aimed to use CRISPR-cas9 screening data to identify key signaling pathways and develop a genetic signature associated with high-risk, low-grade glioma patients.

METHODS: The study used CRISPR-cas9 screening data to identify essential genes correlated with cell survival in LGG. We used RNA-seq data to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to cell viability. Moreover, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method to construct a genetic signature for predicting overall survival in patients. We performed enrichment analysis to identify pathways mediated by DEGs, overlapping genes, and genes shared in the Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Finally, the study used western blot, qRT-PCR, and IHC to detect the expression of hub genes from signature in clinical samples.

RESULTS: The study identified 145 overexpressed oncogenes in low-grade gliomas using the TCGA database. These genes were intersected with lethal genes identified in the CRISPR-cas9 screening data from Depmap database, which are enriched in Hippo pathways. A total of 19 genes were used to construct a genetic signature, and the Hippo signaling pathway was found to be the predominantly enriched pathway. The signature effectively distinguished between low- and high-risk patients, with high-risk patients showing a shorter overall survival duration. Differences in hub gene expression were found in different clinical samples, with the protein and mRNA expression of REP65 being significantly up-regulated in tumor cells. The study suggests that the Hippo signaling pathway may be a critical regulator of viability and tumor proliferation and therefore is an innovative new target for treating cancerous brain tumors, including low-grade gliomas.

CONCLUSION: Our study identified a novel genetic signature associated with high-risk, LGG patients. We found that the Hippo signaling pathway was significantly enriched in this signature, indicating that it may be a critical regulator of tumor viability and proliferation in LGG. Targeting the Hippo pathway could be an innovative new strategy for treating LGG.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Li L, Hong F, Pan S, et al (2023)

"Lollipop" particle counting immunoassay based on antigen-powered CRISPR-Cas12a dual signal amplification for the sensitive detection of deoxynivalenol in the environment and food samples.

Journal of hazardous materials, 455:131573 pii:S0304-3894(23)00856-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Deoxynivalenol is one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins in cereals and poses tremendous threats to the agricultural environment and public health. Therefore, it is particularly important to develop sensitive and interference-resistant deoxynivalenol analysis methods. Here, we establish a "Lollipop" particle counting immunoassay (LPCI) based on antigen-powered CRISPR-Cas12a dual signal amplification. LPCI achieves high sensitivity and accuracy through antigen-powered CRISPR-Cas dual signal amplification combined with particle counting immunoassay. This strategy not only broadens the applicability of the CRISPR-Cas system in the field of non-nucleic acid target detection; it also improves the sensitivity of particle counting immunoassay. The introduction of a polystyrene "lollipop" immunoassay carrier further enables efficiently simultaneous pre-treatment of multiple samples and overcomes complex matrix interference in real samples. The linear detection range of LPCI for deoxynivalenol was 0.1-500 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.061 ng/mL. The platform greatly broadens the scope of the CRISPR-Cas sensor for the detection of non-nucleic acid hazards in the environment and food samples.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Thevendran R, S Maheswaran (2023)

Recognizing CRISPR as the New Age Disease-Modifying Drug: Strategies to Bioengineer CRISPR/Cas for Direct in vivo Delivery.

Biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR has established itself as a frontier technology in genetic engineering. Researchers have successfully used the CRISPR/Cas system as precise gene editing tools and have further expanded their scope beyond both imaging and diagnostic applications. The most prominent utility of CRISPR is its capacity for gene therapy, serving as the contemporary, disease-modifying drug at the genetic level of human medical disorders. Correcting these diseases using CRISPR-based gene editing has developed to the extent of preclinical trials and possible patient treatments. A major impediment in actualizing this is the complications associated with in vivo delivery of the CRISPR/Cas complex. Currently, only the viral vectors (e.g. lentivirus) and non-viral encapsulation (e.g. lipid particles, polymer-based and gold nanoparticles) techniques have been extensively reviewed, neglecting the efficiency of direct delivery. However, the direct delivery of CRISPR/Cas for in vivo gene editing therapies is an intricate process with numerous drawbacks. Hence, this paper discusses in detail both the need and the strategies that can potentially improve the direct delivery aspects of CRISPR/Cas biomolecules for gene therapy of human diseases. Here, we focus on enhancing the molecular and functional features of the CRISPR/Cas system for targeted in vivo delivery such as on-site localization, internalization, reduced immunogenicity, and better in vivo stability. We additionally emphasize the CRISPR/Cas complex as a multifaceted, biomolecular vehicle for co-delivery with therapeutic agents in targeted disease treatments. The delivery formats of efficient CRISPR/Cas systems for human gene editing are also briefly elaborated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Ijaz M, Khan F, Zaki HEM, et al (2023)

Recent Trends and Advancements in CRISPR-Based Tools for Enhancing Resistance against Plant Pathogens.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9):.

Targeted genome editing technologies are becoming the most important and widely used genetic tools in studies of phytopathology. The "clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)" and its accompanying proteins (Cas) have been first identified as a natural system associated with the adaptive immunity of prokaryotes that have been successfully used in various genome-editing techniques because of its flexibility, simplicity, and high efficiency in recent years. In this review, we have provided a general idea about different CRISPR/Cas systems and their uses in phytopathology. This review focuses on the benefits of knock-down technologies for targeting important genes involved in the susceptibility and gaining resistance against viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens by targeting the negative regulators of defense pathways of hosts in crop plants via different CRISPR/Cas systems. Moreover, the possible strategies to employ CRISPR/Cas system for improving pathogen resistance in plants and studying plant-pathogen interactions have been discussed.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Gajardo HA, Gómez-Espinoza O, Boscariol Ferreira P, et al (2023)

The Potential of CRISPR/Cas Technology to Enhance Crop Performance on Adverse Soil Conditions.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9):.

Worldwide food security is under threat in the actual scenery of global climate change because the major staple food crops are not adapted to hostile climatic and soil conditions. Significant efforts have been performed to maintain the actual yield of crops, using traditional breeding and innovative molecular techniques to assist them. However, additional strategies are necessary to achieve the future food demand. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) technology, as well as its variants, have emerged as alternatives to transgenic plant breeding. This novelty has helped to accelerate the necessary modifications in major crops to confront the impact of abiotic stress on agriculture systems. This review summarizes the current advances in CRISPR/Cas applications in crops to deal with the main hostile soil conditions, such as drought, flooding and waterlogging, salinity, heavy metals, and nutrient deficiencies. In addition, the potential of extremophytes as a reservoir of new molecular mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance, as well as their orthologue identification and edition in crops, is shown. Moreover, the future challenges and prospects related to CRISPR/Cas technology issues, legal regulations, and customer acceptance will be discussed.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Eckerstorfer MF, Dolezel M, Engelhard M, et al (2023)

Recommendations for the Assessment of Potential Environmental Effects of Genome-Editing Applications in Plants in the EU.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9):.

The current initiative of the European Commission (EC) concerning plants produced using certain new genomic techniques, in particular, targeted mutagenesis and cisgenesis, underlines that a high level of protection for human and animal health and the environment needs to be maintained when using such applications. The current EU biosafety regulation framework ensures a high level of protection with a mandatory environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) products prior to the authorization of individual GMOs for environmental release or marketing. However, the guidance available from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for conducting such an ERA is not specific enough regarding the techniques under discussion and needs to be further developed to support the policy goals towards ERA, i.e., a case-by-case assessment approach proportionate to the respective risks, currently put forward by the EC. This review identifies important elements for the case-by-case approach for the ERA that need to be taken into account in the framework for a risk-oriented regulatory approach. We also discuss that the comparison of genome-edited plants with plants developed using conventional breeding methods should be conducted at the level of a scientific case-by-case assessment of individual applications rather than at a general, technology-based level. Our considerations aim to support the development of further specific guidance for the ERA of genome-edited plants.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Karginov AV, Tarutina MG, Lapteva AR, et al (2023)

A Split-Marker System for CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing in Methylotrophic Yeasts.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(9):.

Methylotrophic yeasts such as Ogataea polymorpha and Komagataella phaffii (sin. Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pastoris, respectively) are commonly used in basic research and biotechnological applications, frequently those requiring genome modifications. However, the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing approaches reported for these species so far are relatively complex and laborious. In this work we present an improved plasmid vector set for CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in methylotrophic yeasts. This includes a plasmid encoding Cas9 with a nuclear localization signal and plasmids with a scaffold for the single guide RNA (sgRNA). Construction of a sgRNA gene for a particular target sequence requires only the insertion of a 24 bp oligonucleotide duplex into the scaffold. Prior to yeast transformation, each plasmid is cleaved at two sites, one of which is located within the selectable marker, so that the functional marker can be restored only via recombination of the Cas9-containing fragment with the sgRNA gene-containing fragment. This recombination leads to the formation of an autonomously replicating plasmid, which can be lost from yeast clones after acquisition of the required genome modification. The vector set allows the use of G418-resistance and LEU2 auxotrophic selectable markers. The functionality of this setup has been demonstrated in O. polymorpha, O. parapolymorpha, O. haglerorum and Komagataella phaffii.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Sheng X, Ai Z, Tan Y, et al (2023)

Novel Salinity-Tolerant Third-Generation Hybrid Rice Developed via CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(9):.

Climate change has caused high salinity in many fields, particularly in the mud flats in coastal regions. The resulting salinity has become one of the most significant abiotic stresses affecting the world's rice crop productivity. Developing elite cultivars with novel salinity-tolerance traits is regarded as the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for utilizing saline-alkali land. To develop a highly efficient green strategy and create novel rice germplasms for salt-tolerant rice breeding, this study aimed to improve rice salinity tolerance by combining targeted CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the OsRR22 gene with heterosis utilization. The novel alleles of the genic male-sterility (GMS) and elite restorer line (733S[rr22]-T1447-1 and HZ[rr22]-T1349-3) produced 110 and 1 bp deletions at the third exon of OsRR22 and conferred a high level of salinity tolerance. Homozygous transgene-free progeny were identified via segregation in the T2 generation, with osrr22 showing similar agronomic performance to wild-type (733S and HZ). Furthermore, these two osrr22 lines were used to develop a new promising third-generation hybrid rice line with novel salinity tolerance. Overall, the results demonstrate that combining CRISPR/Cas9 targeted gene editing with the "third-generation hybrid rice system" approach allows for the efficient development of novel hybrid rice varieties that exhibit a high level of salinity tolerance, thereby ensuring improved cultivar stability and enhanced rice productivity.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Muto V, Benigni F, Magliocca V, et al (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9 and piggyBac Transposon-Based Conversion of a Pathogenic Biallelic TBCD Variant in a Patient-Derived iPSC Line Allows Correction of PEBAT-Related Endophenotypes.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(9):.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been established as a reliable in vitro disease model system and represent a particularly informative tool when animal models are not available or do not recapitulate the human pathophenotype. The recognized limit in using this technology is linked to some degree of variability in the behavior of the individual patient-derived clones. The development of CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing solves this drawback by obtaining isogenic iPSCs in which the genetic lesion is corrected, allowing a straightforward comparison with the parental patient-derived iPSC lines. Here, we report the generation of a footprint-free isogenic cell line of patient-derived TBCD-mutated iPSCs edited using the CRISPR/Cas9 and piggyBac technologies. The corrected iPSC line had no genetic footprint after the removal of the selection cassette and maintained its "stemness". The correction of the disease-causing TBCD missense substitution restored proper protein levels of the chaperone and mitotic spindle organization, as well as reduced cellular death, which were used as read-outs of the TBCD KO-related endophenotype. The generated line represents an informative in vitro model to understand the impact of pathogenic TBCD mutations on nervous system development and physiology.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Lu J, Ding Y, Zhang W, et al (2023)

SQSTM1/p62 Knockout by Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cells, 12(9):.

Migration and invasion play crucial roles in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Analysis of clinical samples indicates that SQSTM1/p62 is highly expressed in HCC and seriously affects the prognosis of patients. Subsequently, we showed that SQSTM1/p62 knockout using the CRISPR/Cas9 system led to impaired migration and invasion of HCC, upregulated Keap1, and promoted the inhibitory effect of Keap1 on Nrf2. Then, the inactivation of Nrf2 inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thus attenuating the migration and invasion of HCC. We also found that SQSTM1/p62 knockout significantly inhibited migration and invasion in a lung metastasis model of nude mice with HCC. Furthermore, we found that cisplatin not only significantly inhibited the expression of SQSTM1/p62 but also slowed down the migration and invasion of HCC, while the inflammatory microenvironment accelerated the migration and invasion of HCC. These results suggest for the first time that SQSTM1/p62 knockout inhibits the migration and invasion of HCC through the Keap1/Nrf2/MMP2 signaling pathway. SQSTM1/p62 may be developed into a key drug target to regulate the migration and invasion of HCC cells.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Perk EA, Arruebarrena Di Palma A, Colman S, et al (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated phospholipase C 2 knock-out tomato plants are more resistant to Botrytis cinerea.

Planta, 257(6):117.

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Phospholipase C2 knock-out tomato plants are more resistant to Botrytis cinerea than wild-type plants, with less ROS and an increase and reduction of (JA) and (SA)-response marker genes, respectively. Genome-editing technologies allow non-transgenic site-specific mutagenesis of crops, offering a viable alternative to traditional breeding methods. In this study we used CRISPR/Cas9 to inactivate the tomato Phospholipase C2 gene (SlPLC2). Plant PLC activation is one of the earliest responses triggered by different pathogens regulating plant responses that, depending on the plant-pathogen interaction, result in plant resistance or susceptibility. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) PLC gene family has six members, named from SlPLC1 to SlPLC6. We previously showed that SlPLC2 transcript levels increased upon xylanase infiltration (fungal elicitor) and that SlPLC2 participates in plant susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. An efficient strategy to control diseases caused by pathogens is to disable susceptibility genes that facilitate infection. We obtained tomato SlPLC2-knock-out lines with decreased ROS production upon B. cinerea challenge. Since this fungus requires ROS-induced cell death to proliferate, SlPLC2-knock-out plants showed an enhanced resistance with smaller necrotic areas and reduced pathogen proliferation. Thus, we obtained SlPLC2 loss-of-function tomato lines more resistant to B. cinerea by means of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Hany D, Vafeiadou V, D Picard (2023)

CRISPR-Cas9 screen reveals a role of purine synthesis for estrogen receptor α activity and tamoxifen resistance of breast cancer cells.

Science advances, 9(19):eadd3685.

In breast cancer, resistance to endocrine therapies that target estrogen receptor α (ERα), such as tamoxifen and fulvestrant, remains a major clinical problem. Whether and how ERα[+] breast cancers switch from being estrogen-dependent to estrogen-independent remains unclear. With a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen, we identified previously unknown biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets of endocrine resistance. We demonstrate that high levels of PAICS, an enzyme involved in the de novo biosynthesis of purines, can shift the balance of ERα activity to be more estrogen-independent and tamoxifen-resistant. We find that this may be due to elevated activities of cAMP-activated protein kinase A and mTOR, kinases known to phosphorylate ERα specifically and to stimulate its activity. Genetic or pharmacological targeting of PAICS sensitizes tamoxifen-resistant cells to tamoxifen. Addition of purines renders them more resistant. On the basis of these findings, we propose the combined targeting of PAICS and ERα as a new, effective, and potentially safe therapeutic regimen.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Bu W, Creighton CJ, Heavener KS, et al (2023)

Efficient cancer modeling through CRISPR-Cas9/HDR-based somatic precision gene editing in mice.

Science advances, 9(19):eade0059.

CRISPR-Cas9 has been used successfully to introduce indels in somatic cells of rodents; however, precise editing of single nucleotides has been hampered by limitations of flexibility and efficiency. Here, we report technological modifications to the CRISPR-Cas9 vector system that now allows homology-directed repair-mediated precise editing of any proto-oncogene in murine somatic tissues to generate tumor models with high flexibility and efficiency. Somatic editing of either Kras or Pik3ca in both normal and hyperplastic mammary glands led to swift tumorigenesis. The resulting tumors shared some histological, transcriptome, and proteome features with tumors induced by lentivirus-mediated expression of the respective oncogenes, but they also exhibited some distinct characteristics, particularly showing less intertumor variation, thus potentially offering more consistent models for cancer studies and therapeutic development. Therefore, this technological advance fills a critical gap between the power of CRISPR technology and high-fidelity mouse models for studying human tumor evolution and preclinical drug testing.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Karapurkar JK, Kim MS, Colaco JC, et al (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-wide screening of the deubiquitinase subfamily identifies USP3 as a protein stabilizer of REST blocking neuronal differentiation and promotes neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.

Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR, 42(1):121.

BACKGROUND: The repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), a master transcriptional repressor, is essential for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation in neuroblastoma. An elevated expression of REST is associated with impaired neuronal differentiation, which results in aggressive neuroblastoma formation. E3 ligases are known to regulate REST protein abundance through the 26 S proteasomal degradation pathway in neuroblastoma. However, deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which counteract the function of E3 ligase-mediated REST protein degradation and their impact on neuroblastoma tumorigenesis have remained unexplored.

METHODS: We employed a CRISPR/Cas9 system to perform a genome-wide knockout of ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs) and used western blot analysis to screen for DUBs that regulate REST protein abundance. The interaction between USP3 and REST was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and Duolink in situ proximity assays. The deubiquitinating effect of USP3 on REST protein degradation, half-life, and neuronal differentiation was validated by immunoprecipitation, in vitro deubiquitination, protein-turnover, and immunostaining assays. The correlation between USP3 and REST expression was assessed using patient neuroblastoma datasets. The USP3 gene knockout in neuroblastoma cells was performed using CRISPR/Cas9, and the clinical relevance of USP3 regulating REST-mediated neuroblastoma tumorigenesis was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo oncogenic experiments.

RESULTS: We identified a deubiquitinase USP3 that interacts with, stabilizes, and increases the half-life of REST protein by counteracting its ubiquitination in neuroblastoma. An in silico analysis showed a correlation between USP3 and REST in multiple neuroblastoma cell lines and identified USP3 as a prognostic marker for overall survival in neuroblastoma patients. Silencing of USP3 led to a decreased self-renewal capacity and promoted retinoic acid-induced differentiation in neuroblastoma. A loss of USP3 led to attenuation of REST-mediated neuroblastoma tumorigenesis in a mouse xenograft model.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that USP3 is a critical factor that blocks neuronal differentiation, which can lead to neuroblastoma. We envision that targeting USP3 in neuroblastoma tumors might provide an effective therapeutic differentiation strategy for improved survival rates of neuroblastoma patients.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Cheng S, Park M, J Yong (2023)

RNA and Protein Interactomes of an RNA-Binding Protein Tagged with FLAG Epitopes Using Combinatory Approaches of Genome Engineering and Stable Transfection.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2666:247-263.

To study the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), an overexpression or knockout approach is generally used. However, as many RBPs are essential to cellular functions, the complete knockout of these proteins may be lethal to the cell. Overexpression of RBPs, on the other hand, may create an altered transcriptome and aberrant phenotypes that can mask their physiological function. Additionally, biochemical characterization of RBP often requires highly specific antibodies for efficient immunoprecipitation for downstream mass spectrometry or RNA footprinting profiling. To overcome these hurdles, we have developed a strategy to generate cellular systems either using a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated epitope tag knock-in approach or a two-step workflow to first stably express an exogenous Flag-tagged RBP and subsequently knockout the endogenous RBP using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. The generation of these cell lines will be beneficial for downstream RNA footprinting studies and mass spectrometry-mediated interactome studies.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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By delivering the Cas9 nuclease, complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be precisely cut at any desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. That is, the CRISPR-Cas system provides a tool for the cut-and-paste editing of genomes. Welcome to the brave new world of genome editing. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )