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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Aug 2022 at 01:34 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 29906 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") AND review[SB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-08-07

Georgakopoulou VE, Gkoufa A, Garmpis N, et al (2022)

COVID-19 and Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series.

Annals of Saudi medicine, 42(4):276-287.

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents mainly with mild symptoms and involvement of the respiratory system. Acute pancreatitis has also been reported during the course of COVID-19.

OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to review and analyze all reported cases of COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis, reporting the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, comorbidities and outcomes.

DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic search of Pubmed/MEDLINE, SciELO and Google Scholar to identify case reports and case series, reporting COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis in adults.

STUDY SELECTION: There were no ethnicity, gender or language restrictions. The following terms were searched in combination:"COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "Coronavirus 19" AND "Pancreatic Inflammation" OR "Pancreatitis" OR "Pancreatic Injury" OR "Pancreatic Disease" OR "Pancreatic Damage". Case reports and case series describing COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis in adults were included. COVID-19 infection was established with testing of nasal and throat swabs using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed in accordance to the revised criteria of Atlanta classification of the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis was also required for the selection of the cases.

DATA EXTRACTION: The following data were extracted from each report: the first author, year of publication, age of the patient, gender, gastrointestinal symptoms due to acute pancreatitis, respiratory-general symptoms, COVID-19 severity, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, imaging features and outcome.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Finally, we identified and analyzed 31 articles (30 case reports and 1 case series of 2 cases), which included 32 cases of COVID-19 induced acute pancreatitis.

CONCLUSION: COVID-19 associated acute pancreatitis affected mostly females. The median age of the patients was 53.5 years. Concerning laboratory findings, lipase and amylase were greater than three times the ULN while WBC counts and CRP were elevated in the most of the cases. The most frequent gastrointestinal, respiratory and general symptom was abdominal pain, dyspnea and fever, respectively. The most common imaging feature was acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis and the most frequent comorbidity was arterial hypertension while several patients had no medical history. The outcome was favorable despite the fact that most of the patients experienced severe and critical illness.

LIMITATIONS: Our results are limited by the quality and extent of the data in the reports. More specifically, case series and case reports are unchecked, and while they can recommend hypotheses they are not able to confirm robust associations.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Kaur I, Behl T, Sehgal A, et al (2022)

A motley of possible therapies of the COVID-19: reminiscing the origin of the pandemic.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The 2019 outbreak of corona virus disease began from Wuhan (China), transforming into a leading pandemic, posing an immense threat to the global population. The WHO coined the term nCOVID-19 for the disease on 11th February, 2020 and the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses named it SARS-CoV-2, on account of its similarity with SARS-CoV-1 of 2003. The infection is associated with fever, cough, pneumonia, lung damage, and ARDS along with clinical implications of lung opacities. Brief understanding of the entry target of virus, i.e., ACE2 receptors has enabled numerous treatment options as discussed in this review. The manuscript provides a holistic picture of treatment options in COVID-19, such as non-specific anti-viral drugs, immunosuppressive agents, anti-inflammatory candidates, anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, antibodies and anti-parasitic, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, anti-retroviral, vitamins and hormones, JAK inhibitors, and blood plasma therapy. The text targets to enlist the investigations conducted on all the above categories of drugs, with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic, to accelerate their significance in hindering the disease progression. The data collected primarily targets recently published articles and most recent records of clinical trials, focusing on the last 10-year database. The current review provides a comprehensive view on the critical need of finding a suitable treatment for the currently prevalent COVID-19 disease, and an opportunity for the researchers to investigate the varying possibilities to find and optimized treatment approach to mitigate and ameliorate the chaos created by the pandemic worldwide.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Deutsch-Link S, Curtis B, AK Singal (2022)

Covid-19 and alcohol associated liver disease.

Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver pii:S1590-8658(22)00586-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic is having substantial impacts on the health status of individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD). AUD and ALD have both been impacted throughout the pandemic, with increases in alcohol use during the early stages of the pandemic, reduced access to treatment during the mid-pandemic, and challenges in managing the downstream effects in the post-COVID era. This review will focus on how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted AUD and ALD epidemiology and access to treatment, and will discuss to address this rising AUD and ALD disease burden.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Mahroum N, Elsalti A, Alwani A, et al (2022)

The mosaic of autoimmunity - Finally discussing in person. The 13th international congress on autoimmunity 2022 (AUTO13) Athens.

Autoimmunity reviews pii:S1568-9972(22)00136-7 [Epub ahead of print].

While autoimmunity is a branch of medicine linked to every single organ system via direct and indirect pathways, meeting in person to discuss autoimmunity during the 13th international congress on autoimmunity (AUTO13) with participants from all over the world had a very good reason. The mechanisms involved in autoimmune diseases are of extreme importance and in fact critical in understanding the course of diseases as well as selecting proper therapies. COVID-19 has served as a great example of how autoimmunity is deeply involved in the disease and directly correlated to severity, morbidity, and mortality. For instance, initially the term cytokine storm dominated, then COVID-19 was addressed as the new member of the hyperferritinemic syndrome, and also the use of immunosuppressants in patients with COVID-19 throughout the pandemic, all shed light on the fundamental role of autoimmunity. Unsurprisingly, SARS-CoV-2 was called the "autoimmune virus" during AUTO13. Subsequently, the correlation between autoimmunity and COVID-19 vaccines and post-COVID, all were discussed from different autoimmune aspects during the congress. In addition, updates on the mechanisms of diseases, autoantibodies, novel diagnostics and therapies in regard to autoimmune diseases such as antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis and others, were discussed in dedicated sessions. Due to the magnificence of the topics discussed, we aimed to bring in our article hereby, the pearls of AUTO13 in terms of updates, new aspects of autoimmunity, and interesting findings. While more than 500 abstract were presented, concluding all the topics was not in reach, hence major findings were summarized.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Chen L, Xu L, Xia L, et al (2022)

Decomposition of residential electricity-related CO2 emissions in China, a spatial-temporal study.

Journal of environmental management, 320:115754 pii:S0301-4797(22)01327-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic brings a surge in household electricity consumption, thereby enabling extensive research interest on residential carbon emissions as one of the hot topics in carbon reduction. However, research on spatial-temporal driving forces for the increase of residential CO2 emissions between regions still remains unknown in terms of emissions mitigation in post-pandemic era. Therefore, we studied the residential CO2 emissions from the electricity consumption of China during the period 1997-2019. Afterward, the regional specified production emission factors, combining with electricity use pattern, living standard and household size, were modelled to reveal the spatial-temporal driving forces at national and provincial scales. We observed that the national residential electricity-related CO2 increased from 1997 to 2013, before fluctuating to a peak in 2019. Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu, from East China were the top emitters with 27% of the national scale. The decomposition results showed that the income improvement was the primary driving force behind the emission increase in most provinces, while the household size and production emission effects were the main negative effects. For the spatial decomposition, differences in the total households between regions further widen the gaps of total emissions. At the provincial scale of temporal decomposition, eastern developed regions exhibited the most significant decrease in production emissions. In contrast, electricity intensity effect showed negative emission influences in the east and central regions, and positive in north-eastern and western China. The research identified the different incremental patterns of residential electricity-related CO2 emissions in various Chinese provinces, thereby providing scientific ways to save energy and reduce emissions.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Rus AA, C Mornoş (2022)

The Impact of Meteorological Factors and Air Pollutants on Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Current cardiology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several studies have found that air pollution and climate change can have an impact on acute coronary syndromes (ACS), the leading cause of death worldwide. We synthesized the latest information about the impact of air pollution and climate change on ACS, the latest data about the pathophysiological mechanisms of meteorological factors and atmospheric pollutants on atherosclerotic disease, and an overall image of air pollution and coronary heart disease in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

RECENT FINDINGS: The variation of meteorological factors in different seasons increased the risk of ACS. Both the increase and the decrease in apparent temperature were found to be risk factors for ACS admissions. It was also demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants, especially particulate matter, increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Climate change as well as increased emissions of air pollutants have a major impact on ACS. The industrialization era and the growing population cause a constant increase in air pollution worldwide. Thus, the number of ACS favored by air pollution and the variations in meteorological factors is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Alves EAS, Salazar TCDN, Silvino VO, et al (2022)

Association between phase angle and adverse clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A systematic review.

Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Phase angle, obtained by bioelectrical impedance, is an indicator of cellular integrity and has been proposed as a prognostic parameter in patients who are critically ill. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between phase angle and adverse clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). An extensive literature search was performed in the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases, with interest in observational studies evaluating the association between phase angle and adverse clinical outcomes in individuals aged ≥18 years hospitalized with COVID-19. Studies were independently selected by two reviewers, according to eligibility criteria. Subsequently, data were extracted and presented in a qualitative synthesis. The evaluation of the quality of the studies was performed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The full methodology was published in PROSPERO (ID CRD42022306177). A total of 392 articles were identified, resulting in seven selected studies, of which six were prospective cohorts and one was retrospective. In the quality assessment, six studies obtained scores equal to or greater than seven, indicating a low risk of bias. A total of 750 participants composed the samples of the selected studies. Five studies reported an independent association between phase angle and adverse clinical outcomes during hospitalization for COVID-19, with emphasis on prolonged hospitalization and mechanical ventilation and higher mortality in patients with a lower phase angle. Thus, phase angle measurement can be useful in the early identification of risks in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, for the purpose of adequacy of clinical management.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Zhao Y, Deng S, Bai Y, et al (2022)

Promising natural products against SARS-CoV-2: Structure, function, and clinical trials.

Phytotherapy research : PTR [Epub ahead of print].

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-COV-2) poses a severe threat to human health and still spreads globally. Due to the high mutation ratio and breakthrough infection rate of the virus, vaccines and anti-COVID-19 drugs require continual improvements. Drug screening research has shown that some natural active products can target the critical proteins of SARS-CoV-2, including 3CLpro, ACE2, FURIN, and RdRp, which could produce great inhibitory effects on SARS-COV-2. In addition, some natural products have displayed activities of immunomodulation, antiinflammatory, and antihepatic failure in COVID-19 clinical trials, which may relate to their non-monomeric structures. However, further evaluation and high-quality assessments, including safety verification tests, drug interaction tests, and clinical trials, are needed to substantiate natural products' multi-target and multi-pathway effects on COVID-19. Here, we review the literature on several promising active natural products that may act as vaccine immune enhancers or provide targeted anti-COVID-19 drugs. The structures, mechanisms of action, and research progress of these natural products are analyzed, to hopefully provide effective ideas for the development of targeted drugs that possess better structure, potency, and safety.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Oliveira BB, Ferreira D, Fernandes AR, et al (2022)

Engineering gold nanoparticles for molecular diagnostics and biosensing.

Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Advances in nanotechnology and medical science have spurred the development of engineered nanomaterials and nanoparticles with particular focus on their applications in biomedicine. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been the focus of great interest, due to their exquisite intrinsic properties, such as ease of synthesis and surface functionalization, tunable size and shape, lack of acute toxicity and favorable optical, electronic, and physicochemical features, which possess great value for application in biodetection and diagnostics purposes, including molecular sensing, photoimaging, and application under the form of portable and simple biosensors (e.g., lateral flow immunoassays that have been extensively exploited during the current COVID-19 pandemic). We shall discuss the main properties of AuNPs, their synthesis and conjugation to biorecognition moieties, and the current trends in sensing and detection in biomedicine and diagnostics. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Yong CY, Liew WPP, Ong HK, et al (2022)

Development of virus-like particles-based vaccines against coronaviruses.

Biotechnology progress [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are the most impactful coronaviruses in human history, especially the latter, which brings revolutionary changes to human vaccinology. Due to its high infectivity, the virus spreads rapidly throughout the world and was declared a pandemic in March 2020. A vaccine would normally take more than 10 years to be developed. As such, there is no vaccine available for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Currently, 10 vaccines have been approved for emergency use by World Health Organization (WHO) against SARS-CoV-2. Virus-like particle (VLP)s are nanoparticles resembling the native virus but devoid of the viral genome. Due to their self-adjuvanting properties, VLPs have been explored extensively for vaccine development. However, none of the approved vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 was based on VLP and only 4% of the vaccine candidates in clinical trials were based on VLPs. In the current review, we focused on discussing the major advances in the development of VLP-based vaccine candidates against the SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, including those in clinical and pre-clinical studies, to give a comprehensive overview of the VLP-based vaccines against the coronaviruses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Conway EM, Mackman N, Warren RQ, et al (2022)

Understanding COVID-19-associated coagulopathy.

Nature reviews. Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) is a life-threatening complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms driving this condition are unclear. Evidence supports the concept that CAC involves complex interactions between the innate immune response, the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, and the vascular endothelium, resulting in a procoagulant condition. Understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition at the genomic, molecular and cellular levels is needed in order to mitigate thrombosis formation in at-risk patients. In this Perspective, we categorize our current understanding of CAC into three main pathological mechanisms: first, vascular endothelial cell dysfunction; second, a hyper-inflammatory immune response; and last, hypercoagulability. Furthermore, we pose key questions and identify research gaps that need to be addressed to better understand CAC, facilitate improved diagnostics and aid in therapeutic development. Finally, we consider the suitability of different animal models to study CAC.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Fernandes RS, Neto MRT, Carvalho FB, et al (2022)

ALAMANDINE: A PROMISING TREATMENT FOR FIBROSIS.

Peptides pii:S0196-9781(22)00114-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Angiotensin (Ang) II, the main active member of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), is essential for the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. However, hyperactivation of the RAS causes fibrotic diseases. Angiotensin (Ang) II has pro-inflammatory actions, and moreover activates interstitial fibroblasts and/or dysregulates extracellular matrix degradation. The discovery of new RAS pathways has revealed the complexity of this system. Among the RAS peptides, alamandine (ALA, Ala1 Ang 1-7) has been identified in humans, rats, and mice, with protective actions in different pathological conditions. ALA has similar effects to its well-known congener, Ang-(1-7), as a vasodilator, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic. Its protective role against cardiovascular diseases is well-reviewed in the literature. However, the protective actions of ALA in fibrotic conditions have been little explored. Therefore, in this article, we review the ability of ALA to modulate the inflammatory process and collagen deposition, to serve as an antioxidant, and to mediate protection against functional disorders. In this scenario, we also explore ALA as a promising therapy for pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19 infection.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Palmisano A, Gambardella M, D'Angelo T, et al (2022)

Advanced cardiac imaging in the spectrum of COVID-19 related cardiovascular involvement.

Clinical imaging, 90:78-89 pii:S0899-7071(22)00187-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Cardiovascular involvement is a common complication of COVID-19 infection and is associated to increased risk of unfavorable outcome. Advanced imaging modalities (coronary CT angiography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance) play a crucial role in the diagnosis, follow-up and risk stratification of patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia with suspected cardiovascular involvement. In the present manuscript we firstly review current knowledge on the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 can trigger endothelial and myocardial damage. Secondly, the implications of the cardiovascular damage on patient's prognosis are presented. Finally, we provide an overview of the main findings at advanced cardiac imaging characterizing COVID-19 in the acute setting, in the post-acute syndrome, and after vaccination, emphasizing the potentiality of CT and CMR, the indication and their clinical implications.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Tang G, Liu Z, D Chen (2022)

Human coronaviruses: Origin, host and receptor.

Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 155:105246 pii:S1386-6532(22)00178-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus is a type of RNA-positive single-stranded virus with an envelope, and the spines on its surface derived its official name. Seven human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, SARS, NL63, HKU1, MERS, SARS-CoV-2 can cause both a mild cold and an epidemic of large-scale deaths and injuries. Although their clinical manifestations and many other pathogens that cause human colds are similar, studying the relationship between their evolutionary history and the receptors that infect the host can provide important insights into the natural history of human epidemics in the past and future. In this review, we describe the basic virology of these seven coronaviruses, their partial genome characteristics, and emphasize the function of receptors. We summarize the current understanding of these viruses and discuss the potential host of wild animals of these coronaviruses and the origin of zoonotic diseases.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

O' Doherty J, O' Doherty S, Abreu C, et al (2022)

Evolving operational guidance and experiences for radiology and nuclear medicine facilities in response to and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

The British journal of radiology [Epub ahead of print].

The resulting pandemic from the novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), continues to exert a strain on worldwide health services due to the incidence of hospitalization and mortality associated with infection. The aim of clinical services throughout the period of the pandemic and likely beyond to endemic infections as the situation stabilizes is to enhance safety aspects to mitigate transmission of COVID-19 while providing a high quality of service to all patients (COVID-19 positive and negative) while still upholding excellent medical standards. In order to achieve this, new strategies of clinical service operation are essential. Researchers have published peer-reviewed reference materials such as guidelines, experiences and advice to manage the resulting issues from the unpredictable challenges presented by the pandemic. There is a range of international guidance also from professional medical organizations, including best practice and advice in order to help imaging facilities adjust their standard operating procedures and workflows in line with infection control principles. This work provides a broad review of the main sources of advice and guidelines for radiology and nuclear medicine facilities during the pandemic, and also of rapidly emerging advice and local/national experiences as facilities begin to resume previously canceled non-urgent services as well as effects on imaging research.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Spinelli MA, Jones BLH, M Gandhi (2022)

COVID-19 Outcomes and Risk Factors Among People Living with HIV.

Current HIV/AIDS reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we examine the intersection of the HIV and COVID-19 epidemics with focus on COVID-19-related health outcomes and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 among people living with HIV (PLWH).

RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence to date do not suggest a higher incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH compared to the general population, although-once exposed-PLWH are at greater risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Key risk factors for severe COVID-19 include non-HIV comorbidities known to be associated with severe disease, as well as HIV-specific risk factors such as low CD4 + T-cell count, unsuppressed viral load, and tuberculosis co-infection. The disproportionate impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic among Black, Latinx, and Native American/Alaskan Native PLWH could worsen pre-existing disparities in health outcomes among PLWH. Data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine protection among PLWH needs additional study, although some studies suggest decreased humoral responses among those with low CD4 + T-cell counts, while there is a signal of increased vaccine breakthrough rates among PLWH in two large observational cohorts. Data on post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) among PLWH is also limited. PLWH do not have a higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, but once exposed, they are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Additional resources will need to be dedicated to the development of interventions to improve health outcomes and address disparities among PLWH impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Castañeda-Juárez M, Linares-Hernández I, Martínez-Miranda V, et al (2022)

SARS-CoV-2 pharmaceutical drugs: a critical review on the environmental impacts, chemical characteristics, and behavior of advanced oxidation processes in water.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

This review summarizes research data on the pharmaceutical drugs used to treat the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, their characteristics, environmental impacts, and the advanced oxidation processes (AOP) applied to remove them. A literature survey was conducted using the electronic databases Science Direct, Scopus, Taylor & Francis, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Springer. This complete research includes and discusses relevant studies that involve the introduction, pharmaceutical drugs used in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: chemical characteristics and environmental impact, advanced oxidation process (AOP), future trends and discussion, and conclusions. The results show a full approach in the versatility of AOPs as a promising solution to minimize the environmental impact associated with these compounds by the fact that they offer different ways for hydroxyl radical production. Moreover, this article focuses on introducing the fundamentals of each AOP, the main parameters involved, and the concomitance with other sources and modifications over the years. Photocatalysis, sonochemical technologies, electro-oxidation, photolysis, Fenton reaction, ozone, and sulfate radical AOP have been used to mineralize SARS-CoV-2 pharmaceutical compounds, and the efficiencies are greater than 65%. According to the results, photocatalysis is the main technology currently applied to remove these pharmaceuticals. This process has garnered attention because solar energy can be directly utilized; however, low photocatalytic efficiencies and high costs in large-scale practical applications limit its use. Furthermore, pharmaceuticals in the environment are diverse and complex. Finally, the review also provides ideas for further research needs and major concerns.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Yalcin N, K Allegaert (2022)

COVID-19 and antiepileptic drugs: an approach to guide practices when nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is co-prescribed.

European journal of clinical pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

Management and dose adjustment are a major concern for clinicians in the absence of specific clinical outcome data for patients on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), in the event of short-term (5 days) nirmatrelvir/ritonavir co-exposure. Therefore, in this report, we identified drugs that require dose adjustment because of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and AEDs. We hereby used four databases (Micromedex Drug Interaction, Liverpool Drug Interaction Group for COVID-19 Therapies, Medscape Drug Interaction Checker, and Lexicomp Drug Interactions) and DDI-Predictor.In the light of applying the DDI-Predictor, for carbamazepine, clobazam, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, pentobarbital, rufinamide, and valproate as CYP3A4 inducers, we recommend that a dose adjustment of short-term nirmatrelvir/ritonavir as a substrate (victim) drug would be more appropriate instead of these AEDs to avoid impending DDI-related threats in patients with epilepsy.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

van Breemen RB, RN Muchiri (2022)

Affinity selection-mass spectrometry in the discovery of anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds.

Mass spectrometry reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Small molecule therapeutic agents are needed to treat or prevent infections by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. To expedite the discovery of lead compounds for development, assays have been developed based on affinity selection-mass spectrometry (AS-MS), which enables the rapid screening of mixtures such as combinatorial libraries and extracts of botanicals or other sources of natural products. AS-MS assays have been used to find ligands to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for inhibition of cell entry as well as to the 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex constituent Nsp9, which are targets for inhibition of viral replication. The AS-MS approach of magnetic microbead affinity selection screening has been used to discover high-affinity peptide ligands to the spike protein as well as the hemp cannabinoids cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid, which can prevent cell infection by SARS-CoV-2. Another AS-MS method, native mass spectrometry, has been used to discover that the flavonoids baicalein, scutellarein, and ganhuangenin, can inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 protease 3CLpro. Native mass spectrometry has also been used to find an ent-kaurane natural product, oridonin, that can bind to the viral protein Nsp9 and interfere with RNA replication. These natural lead compounds are under investigation for the development of therapeutic agents to prevent or treat SARS-CoV-2 infection.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Yoo SH, Kim L, Lu M, et al (2022)

A Review of Clinical Efficacy Data Supporting Emergency Use Authorization for COVID-19 Therapeutics and Lessons for Future Pandemics.

Clinical and translational science [Epub ahead of print].

Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) allows the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the availability of therapeutics in the context of a public health emergency. To date, an evidentiary standard for clinical efficacy to support an EUA has not yet been established. This review examines the clinical data submitted in support of EUA for anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapeutics for COVID-19 through December of 2021 and the resilience of the authorization as new clinical data arose subsequent to the authorization. In the vast majority of cases, EUA was supported by at least one well powered randomized controlled trial (RCT) where statistically significant efficacy was demonstrated. This included branded medications already approved for use outside of the context of COVID-19. When employed, the standard of a single RCT seemed to provide adequate evidence of clinical efficacy such that subsequent clinical studies generally supported or expanded the EUA of the therapeutic in question. The lone generic agent that was granted EUA (Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine) was not supported by a well-controlled RCT, and the EUA was withdrawn within three months time. This highlighted not only the ambiguity of the EUA standard, but also the need to provide avenues through which high quality clinical evidence for the efficacy of a generic medication could be obtained. Therefore, maintaining the clinical trial networks assembled during the COVID-19 pandemic could be a critical component of our preparation for future pandemics. Consideration could also be given to establishing a single successful RCT as regulatory guidance for obtaining an EUA.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Ghaleb Dailah H (2022)

The ethnomedicinal evidences pertaining to traditional medicinal herbs used in the treatment of respiratory illnesses and disorders in Saudi Arabia: A review.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 29(9):103386.

Due to their prevalence, respiratory diseases have attained great attention from the historical time. Furthermore, it has been explored in a new dimension due to recent viral outbreaks such as COVID-19. Even though modern medicine treats the majority of respiratory ailments, it is reported that the majority of people (≥80 %) who suffer from respiratory disorders do not take medication for their conditions, and a considerable number of people still believe in and use herbal medicines. Herbal therapies have been utilized all over the world for thousands of years. Traditional herbal treatment has long been seen as a valuable practice in Saudi Arabia, long before modern medicine. Due to its location in the desert and humid climate, Saudi Arabia suffers from a high rate of respiratory illnesses caused by dust, pollens, and viruses. Several published literature have employed different plants and plant products for respiratory problems, but there has yet to be a single, complete study centered on Saudi Arabia. In this review, 41 plants were identified, which has complete details regarding their usage in traditional practice for respiratory disorders. A thorough investigation was conducted and the results were detailed.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Yang L, Tang L, Zhang M, et al (2022)

Recent Advances in the Molecular Design and Delivery Technology of mRNA for Vaccination Against Infectious Diseases.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:896958.

Vaccines can prevent many millions of illnesses against infectious diseases and save numerous lives every year. However, traditional vaccines such as inactivated viral and live attenuated vaccines cannot adapt to emerging pandemics due to their time-consuming development. With the global outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the virus continues to evolve and mutate, producing mutants with enhanced transmissibility and virulence; the rapid development of vaccines against such emerging global pandemics becomes more and more critical. In recent years, mRNA vaccines have been of significant interest in combating emerging infectious diseases due to their rapid development and large-scale production advantages. However, their development still suffers from many hurdles such as their safety, cellular delivery, uptake, and response to their manufacturing, logistics, and storage. More efforts are still required to optimize the molecular designs of mRNA molecules with increased protein expression and enhanced structural stability. In addition, a variety of delivery systems are also needed to achieve effective delivery of vaccines. In this review, we highlight the advances in mRNA vaccines against various infectious diseases and discuss the molecular design principles and delivery systems of associated mRNA vaccines. The current state of the clinical application of mRNA vaccine pipelines against various infectious diseases and the challenge, safety, and protective effect of associated vaccines are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Yang CY, Chen YH, Liu PJ, et al (2022)

The emerging role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of COVID-19: Protective effects of nutraceutical polyphenolic compounds against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

International journal of medical sciences, 19(8):1340-1356 pii:ijmsv19p1340.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause immunosuppression and cytokine storm, leading to lung damage and death. The clinical efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs in preventing viral entry into host cells and suppressing viral replication remains inadequate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial to the immune response to and pathogenesis of coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2. However, the specific roles of miRNAs in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 remain unclear. miRNAs can participate in SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis through at least four possible mechanisms: 1. host cell miRNA expression interfering with SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, 2. SARS-CoV-2-derived RNA transcripts acting as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) that may attenuate host cell miRNA expression, 3. host cell miRNA expression modulating SARS-CoV-2 replication, and 4. SARS-CoV-2-encoded miRNAs silencing the expression of host protein-coding genes. SARS-CoV-2-related miRNAs may be used as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for predicting outcomes among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, accumulating evidence suggests that dietary polyphenolic compounds may protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection by modulating host cell miRNA expression. These findings have major implications for the future diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Duan N, Liu B, Li X, et al (2022)

Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treating Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Scoping Review.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 10:935551.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently widely spread across the world. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the overall treatment process. As a special group of population, the treatment outcome of children with COVID-19 has attracted much attention. Our study summarizes the current situation of TCM treatment of children with COVID-19. The results showed that TCM displayed a positive role in the treatment process, and that no significant adverse reactions were found. Our findings provide analytical evidence for the efficacy and safety of TCM participation in the treatment of COVID-19 in children.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Thakur S (2022)

Advances in orphan drug development: Time to change the status and stereotype.

Perspectives in clinical research, 13(3):123-128.

Rare diseases remain a challenge for many of the countries in the world. The millions of people collectively suffering from rare diseases, in the context of raging COVID-19 pandemics globally, require an innovative and recent solution from different stakeholders. Regulatory bodies such as the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have come up with many different approaches including financial assistance to prompt drug development and approval. Novel approaches pertinent to clinical trials of such drugs such as patient centricity, early interaction with regulatory bodies, and establishing clinical outcome of interest have been experimented. Various international organizations including cross-country collaborators have initiated various projects or consortiums to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. The challenges remain more pivotal in developing countries such as India, which has adopted few noteworthy initiatives by involving relevant stakeholders in the presence of limited resources, infrastructures, and a nascent regulatory framework. Therefore, it is imperative to revisit the key aspects of orphan drug development to fulfill the unmet needs of such patients suffering from various rare diseases.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Shen H, Han M, Shen Y, et al (2022)

Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Controlling Airborne Viruses: Present Status, Standardization of Aerosol Filtration Tests, and Future Development.

ACS environmental Au, 2(4):290-309.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has raised great public concern about the airborne transmission of viral pathogens. Virus-laden aerosols with small size could be suspended in the air for a long duration and remain infectious. Among a series of measures implemented to mitigate the airborne spread of infectious diseases, filtration by face masks, respirators, and air filters is a potent nonpharmacologic intervention. Compared with conventional air filtration media, nanofibrous membranes fabricated via electrospinning are promising candidates for controlling airborne viruses due to their desired characteristics, i.e., a reduced pore size (submicrometers to several micrometers), a larger specific surface area and porosity, and retained surface and volume charges. So far, a wide variety of electrospun nanofibrous membranes have been developed for aerosol filtration, and they have shown excellent filtration performance. However, current studies using electrospinning for controlling airborne viruses vary significantly in the practice of aerosol filtration tests, including setup configurations and operations. The discrepancy among various studies makes it difficult, if not impossible, to compare filtration performance. Therefore, there is a pressing need to establish a standardized protocol for evaluating the electrospun nanofibrous membranes' performance for removing viral aerosols. In this perspective, we first reviewed the properties and performance of diverse filter media, including electrospun nanofibrous membranes, for removing viral aerosols. Next, aerosol filtration protocols for electrospun nanofibrous membranes were discussed with respect to the aerosol generation, filtration, collection, and detection. Thereafter, standardizing the aerosol filtration test system for electrospun nanofibrous membranes was proposed. In the end, the future advancement of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for enhanced air filtration was discussed. This perspective provides a comprehensive understanding of status and challenges of electrospinning for air filtration, and it sheds light on future nanomaterial and protocol development for controlling airborne viruses, preventing the spread of infectious diseases, and beyond.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Jenkins GR, Cunningham D, Barcelli MF, et al (2022)

Transition to wellness: developing a telehealth wellness program to address student fieldwork challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic.

mHealth, 8:27 pii:mh-08-21-35.

The Transition to Wellness Program is an occupational therapy (OT) based program that was developed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. For OT students, fieldwork is a required element of their training. In March 2020, these were being halted due to lockdowns and the risk to students in healthcare settings. Facing significant delays to graduation for 60 students, including some unable to be placed into healthcare settings due to underlying conditions, the development of a telehealth program was conceived to address this, while still meeting the accreditation clinical/health/wellness standards for OT fieldwork. A group of students, with faculty oversight, developed the theoretical basis, tools, policies and procedures for the program. An incremental launch allowed testing and refinement of the program to meet the educational needs of the students and the wellness needs of the clients. At its launch, the program supported 10 of that cohorts' 60 students to continue to meet the required academic standards and progress through their fieldwork towards graduation. Each student got to experience the "telehealth" model in providing OT wellness interventions to individuals in the local community. Future work will focus on continuing to broaden the reach of the program and measure the outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Thornber K, C Kirchhelle (2022)

Hardwiring antimicrobial resistance mitigation into global policy.

JAC-antimicrobial resistance, 4(4):dlac083 pii:dlac083.

In the wake of COVID-19, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become termed the 'silent pandemic', with a growing number of editorials warning that international momentum for AMR mitigation is being lost amidst the global turmoil of COVID-19, economic crises and the climate emergency. Yet, is it sufficient to now simply turn the volume of the pre-existing AMR policy discourse back up? Although existing AMR initiatives have previously achieved high levels of international attention, their impact remains limited. We believe it is time to critically reflect on the achievements of the past 7 years and adapt our AMR policies based on the substantial literature and evidence base that exists on the socioecological drivers of AMR. We argue that developing a more sustainable and impactful response requires a shift away from framing AMR as a unique threat in competition with other global challenges. Instead, we need to move towards an approach that emphasizes AMR as inherently interlinked and consciously hardwires upstream interventions into broader global developmental agendas.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Kaler J, Hussain A, Flores G, et al (2022)

Monkeypox: A Comprehensive Review of Transmission, Pathogenesis, and Manifestation.

Cureus, 14(7):e26531.

As the fear of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic subsides, countries around the globe are now dealing with a fear of the epidemic surrounding the prevalence of monkeypox cases in various regions. Previously endemic to regions of Africa, the majority of monkeypox cases associated with the 2022 outbreak are being noted in countries around Europe and in the western hemisphere. While contact-tracing projects are being conducted by various organizations, it is unknown how this outbreak began. Monkeypox virus is one of the many zoonotic viruses that belong to the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. Monkeypox cases received global attention during the 1970s, after the global eradication of smallpox. The smallpox vaccine provided cross-immunity to the monkeypox virus. Upon the cessation of smallpox vaccine administration, monkeypox cases became more prevalent. It was not until the 2003 US outbreak that monkeypox truly gained global attention. Despite the virus being named monkeypox, monkeys are not the origin of the virus. Several rodents and small mammals have been attributed as the source of the virus; however, it is unknown what the true origin of monkeypox is. The name monkeypox is due to the viral infection being first witnessed in macaque monkeys. Though human-to-human transmission of monkeypox is very rare, it is commonly attributed to respiratory droplets or direct contact with mucocutaneous lesions of an infected individual. Currently, there is no treatment allocated for infected individuals, however, supportive treatments can be administered to provide symptom relief to individuals; Medications such as tecovirimat may be administered in very severe cases. These treatments are subjective, as there are no exact guidelines for symptom relief.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Săbiescu DM, Kamal AM, Kamal CK, et al (2022)

Liver damage in the context of SARS-CoV-2. Covid-19 treatment and its effects on the liver.

Journal of medicine and life, 15(6):727-734.

Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization, the scientific community has tried to protect the population from the infection and its effects through multiple lines of evidence. Patients at high risk of developing severe disease were advised to protect themselves and practice effective physical distancing. Phenotypes specific to this infection need to be reviewed to understand COVID-19 and its clinical manifestations. When the pandemic began, the scientific community was concerned with the unfavorable outcome of cases with pre-existing liver disease. There have been speculations about risk factors for severe diseases such as liver disease, age, gender, and association with obesity or diabetes.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Hasegawa Y, Ma M, Sawa A, et al (2022)

Olfactory impairment in psychiatric disorders: Does nasal inflammation impact disease psychophysiology?.

Translational psychiatry, 12(1):314.

Olfactory impairments contribute to the psychopathology of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression. Recent neuroscience research has shed light on the previously underappreciated olfactory neural circuits involved in regulation of higher brain functions. Although environmental factors such as air pollutants and respiratory viral infections are known to contribute to the risk for psychiatric disorders, the role of nasal inflammation in neurobehavioral outcomes and disease pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Here, we will first provide an overview of published findings on the impact of nasal inflammation in the olfactory system. We will then summarize clinical studies on olfactory impairments in schizophrenia and depression, followed by preclinical evidence on the neurobehavioral outcomes produced by olfactory dysfunction. Lastly, we will discuss the potential impact of nasal inflammation on brain development and function, as well as how we can address the role of nasal inflammation in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. Considering the current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which often causes nasal inflammation and serious adverse effects for olfactory function that might result in long-lasting neuropsychiatric sequelae, this line of research is particularly critical to understanding of the potential significance of nasal inflammation in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Chen Y, Phoon PHY, NC Hwang (2022)

Heparin Resistance During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Adult Cardiac Surgery.

Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia pii:S1053-0770(22)00463-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The use of heparin for anticoagulation has changed the face of cardiac surgery by allowing a bloodless and motionless surgical field throughout the introduction of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, heparin is a drug with complex pharmacologic properties that can cause significant interpatient differences in terms of responsiveness. Heparin resistance during CPB is a weighty issue due to the catastrophic consequences stemming from inadequate anticoagulation, and the treatment of it necessitates a rationalized stepwise approach due to the multifactorial contributions toward this entity. The widespread use of activated clotting time (ACT) as a measurement of anticoagulation during CPB is examined, as it may be a false indicator of heparin resistance. Heparin resistance also has been repeatedly reported in patients infected with COVID-19, which deserves further exploration in this pandemic era. This review aims to examine the variability in heparin potency, underlying mechanisms, and limitations of using ACT for monitoring, as well as provide a framework towards the current management of heparin resistance.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Ramanujam H, K Palaniyandi (2022)

COVID-19 in animals: A need for One Health approach.

Indian journal of medical microbiology pii:S0255-0857(22)00126-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the cause of the COVID-19, which caused a global pandemic. It is a pathogen that causes respiratory disease and can easily navigate the interspecies barrier. A significant number of COVID-19 cases in animals have been reported worldwide, including but not limited to animals in farms, captivity, and household pets. Thus, assessing the affected population and anticipating 'at risk' population becomes essential.

OBJECTIVES: This article aims to emphasize the zoonotic potential of SARS- CoV-2 and discuss the One Health aspects of the disease.

CONTENT: This is a narrative review of recently published studies on animals infected with SARS-CoV-2, both experimental and natural. The elucidation of the mechanism of infection by binding SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the ACE-2 receptor cells in humans has led to bioinformatic analysis that has identified a few other susceptible species in silico. While infections in animals have been extensively reported, no intermediary host has yet been identified for this disease. The articles collected in this review have been grouped into four categories; experimental inoculations, infection in wild animals, infection in farm animals and infection in pet animals, along with a review of literature in each category. The risk of infection transmission between humans and animals and vice versa and the importance of the One Health approach has been discussed at length in this article.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Sebothoma B, K Khoza-Shangase (2022)

Middle ear status - structure, function and pathology: A scoping review on middle ear status of COVID-19 positive patients.

The South African journal of communication disorders = Die Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir Kommunikasieafwykings, 69(2):e1-e7.

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the latest public health emergency that has presented challenges globally. Limited evidence exists on the association between COVID-19 and middle ear pathologies, regardless of the respiratory nature of some of the core symptoms.

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aimed at exploring evidence on the effects of COVID-19 on middle ear functioning as part of symptom mapping and preventive planning for ear and hearing care.

METHOD: Electronic bibliographic databases, including Medline, ProQuest, PubMed, Science Direct, ERIC and Scopus, were searched to identify peer reviewed publications, published in English, between December 2019 and January 2022, related to the effects of COVID-19 on middle ear functioning. The keywords used as MeSH terms included 'middle ear pathology', 'middle ear disorder', 'otitis media', 'hearing loss', 'hearing impairment', 'audiology' and 'COVID-19' or 'coronavirus'.

RESULTS: From eight studies that met the inclusion criteria, the findings revealed that middle ear pathologies occur in this population, with the occurrence ranging from 1.15% to 75%. Tympanic membrane structural changes, otitis media and conductive hearing loss (CHL) were commonly reported. The current findings must be interpreted with caution given that most of the studies reviewed had extremely small sample sizes or were case studies or series, thus limiting generalisability.

CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the value of strategic research planning to collate data during pandemics, ensuring that future studies use appropriate and well-designed methodologies. Trends and patterns of middle ear pathologies in this population must also be established to determine the need for periodic monitoring.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Khoza-Shangase K, Monroe N, B Sebothoma (2022)

Conducting clinical research in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic: Challenges and lessons for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology research.

The South African journal of communication disorders = Die Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir Kommunikasieafwykings, 69(2):e1-e14.

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presented new and unanticipated challenges to the academic training and performance of clinical research at undergraduate and postgraduate levels of training. This highlighted the need for reimagining research designs and methods to ensure continued generation of knowledge - a core function of a research-intensive university. Whilst adhering to government regulations geared towards protecting both the research participants and researchers, innovative research methods are required.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review is to explore published evidence on innovative clinical research methods and processes employed during COVID-19 and to document challenges encountered and lessons that the fields of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology can learn.

METHODS: Electronic bibliographic databases including Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, ProQuest were searched to identify peer-reviewed publications, published in English, between 2019 and 2021, related to innovative clinical research methods and processes applied where in-person contact is regulated.

RESULTS: Significant challenges with conducting research in the COVID-19 era were identified, with important lessons learned and numerous opportunities that have relevance for this pandemic era and beyond. These findings are presented under 10 themes that emerged that highlight important considerations for research methods and processes during a pandemic and beyond. The findings of this study also raise implications for telehealth from which low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resource challenges exist, can benefit.

CONCLUSION: Challenges and opportunities identified in this review have relevance for the field of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology as far as current and future (beyond COVID-19) clinical research planning is concerned.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Adeyemi DH, Odetayo AF, Hamed MA, et al (2022)

Impact of COVID 19 on erectile function.

The aging male : the official journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male, 25(1):202-216.

Purpose: COVID-19, a novel infection, presented with several complications, including socioeconomical and reproductive health challenges such as erectile dysfunction (ED). The present review summarizes the available shreds of evidence on the impact of COVID-19 on ED.Materials and methods: All published peer-reviewed articles from the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak to date, relating to ED, were reviewed. Results: Available pieces of evidence that ED is a consequence of COVID-19 are convincing. COVID-19 and ED share common risk factors such as disruption of vascular integrity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cytokine storm, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). COVID-19 also induces impaired pulmonary haemodynamics, increased ang II, testicular damage and low serum testosterone, and reduced arginine-dependent NO bioavailability that promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endothelial dysfunction, resulting in ED. In addition, COVID-19 triggers psychological/mental stress and suppresses testosterone-dependent dopamine concentration, which contributes to incident ED.Conclusions: In conclusion, COVID-19 exerts a detrimental effect on male reproductive function, including erectile function. This involves a cascade of events from multiple pathways. As the pandemic dwindles, identifying the long-term effects of COVID-19-induced ED, and proffering adequate and effective measures in militating against COVID-19-induced ED remains pertinent.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Kinoshita S, T Kishimoto (2022)

Current Status and Challenges of the Dissemination of Telemedicine in Japan After the Start of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association, 28(8):1220-1224.

Background: The use of telemedicine is expanding worldwide in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and deregulation is occurring even in countries with strict regulations, such as Japan. Methods: We conducted a narrative review of the activities and initiatives undertaken by the government and professional organizations to promote the use of telemedicine in Japan from January 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, to September 2021. Results: In Japan, where before the pandemic the spread of telemedicine had been limited, various recommendations and deregulations have now been made, resulting in the expanded use of telemedicine. In particular, the government's overall policy direction has become a catalyst for deregulation. Conclusions: With the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine is now moving toward widespread use. However, further activities and initiatives, including policy changes such as reimbursement and the establishment of evidence to show the effectiveness of telemedicine in Japan, are needed to properly disseminate telemedicine.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Hashim Z, Neyaz Z, Marak RSK, et al (2022)

Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis of COVID-19-Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis in an Intensive Care Setting.

Journal of intensive care medicine, 37(8):985-997.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a new disease characterized by secondary Aspergillus mold infection in patients with COVID-19. It primarily affects patients with COVID-19 in critical state with acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring intensive care and mechanical ventilation. CAPA has a higher mortality rate than COVID-19, posing a serious threat to affected individuals. COVID-19 is a potential risk factor for CAPA and has already claimed a massive death toll worldwide since its outbreak in December 2019. Its second wave is currently progressing towards a peak, while the third wave of this devastating pandemic is expected to follow. Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosis of CAPA is of utmost importance for effective clinical management of this highly fatal disease. However, there are no uniform criteria for diagnosing CAPA in an intensive care setting. Therefore, based on a review of existing information and our own experience, we have proposed new criteria in the form of practice guidelines for diagnosing CAPA, focusing on the points relevant for intensivists and pulmonary and critical care physicians. The main highlights of these guidelines include the role of CAPA-appropriate test specimens, clinical risk factors, computed tomography of the thorax, and non-culture-based indirect and direct mycological evidence for diagnosing CAPA in the intensive care unit. These guidelines classify the diagnosis of CAPA into suspected, possible, and probable categories to facilitate clinical decision-making. We hope that these practice guidelines will adequately address the diagnostic challenges of CAPA, providing an easy-to-use and practical algorithm to clinicians for rapid diagnosis and clinical management of the disease.

RevDate: 2022-07-31
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Panet F, Tétreault-Langlois M, Morin V, et al (2022)

The risks associated with the widespread use of telemedicine in oncology: Four cases and review of the literature.

Cancer reports (Hoboken, N.J.), 5(7):e1531.

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 changed the way we practice oncology in multiple ways. Because most cancer patients are comorbid or immunocompromised, we are trying as much as possible to reduce their risk of infection. Marginal just 2 years ago, telemedicine quickly became preeminent with the pandemic to reduce hospital exposure. However, using only virtual visits in oncology patients risk delaying cancer diagnosis or the identification of a complication.

CASE SERIES: We present here four cases where a serious medical problem evident on physical exam was overlooked during a virtual visit. Two of our patients experienced a delay in cancer diagnosis thus putting them at risk of local or distant spread. The two others were established oncology patients where a serious medical complication was missed on a virtual visit.

CONCLUSIONS: Now more than a year into the pandemic, telemedicine has clearly been a useful tool by limiting unnecessary hospital visits. Yet, as our cases illustrate, its use in oncology without clear boundary can undermine the quality of care. Now that effective vaccines are reducing the transmission and the severity of infection, most oncology patients can be evaluated by a real-time visit.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Nishibori M (2022)

Novel aspects of sepsis pathophysiology: NETs, plasma glycoproteins, endotheliopathy and COVID-19.

Journal of pharmacological sciences, 150(1):9-20.

In 2016, sepsis was newly defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis remains one of the crucial medical problems to be solved worldwide. Although the world health organization has made sepsis a global health priority, there remain no specific and effective therapy for sepsis so far. Indeed, over the previous decades almost all attempts to develop novel drugs have failed. This may be partly ascribable to the multifactorial complexity of the septic cascade and the resultant difficulties of identifying drug targets. In addition, there might still be missing links among dysregulated host responses in vital organs. In this review article, recent advances in understanding of the complex pathophysiology of sepsis are summarized, with a focus on neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), the significant role of NETs in thrombosis/embolism, and the functional roles of plasma proteins, histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) and inter-alpha-inhibitor proteins (IAIPs). The specific plasma proteins that are markedly decreased in the acute phase of sepsis may play important roles in the regulation of blood cells, vascular endothelial cells and coagulation. The accumulating evidence may provide us with insights into a novel aspect of the pathophysiology of sepsis and septic ARDS, including that in COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Roth GA, Vaduganathan M, GA Mensah (2022)

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Cardiovascular Health in 2020: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 80(6):631-640.

The impact of COVID-19 on the burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during the early pandemic remains unclear. COVID-19 has become one of the leading causes of global mortality, with a disproportionate impact on persons with CVD. Studies of health facility admissions for CVD found significant decreases during the pandemic. Studies of hospital mortality for CVD were more variable. Studies of population-level CVD mortality differed across countries, with most showing decreases, although some revealed increases in deaths. In some countries where large increases in CVD deaths were reported in vital registration systems, misclassification of COVID-19 as CVD may have occurred. Taken together, studies suggest heterogeneous effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on CVD without large increases in CVD mortality in 2020 for a number of countries. Clinical and population science research is needed to examine the ways in which the pandemic has affected CVD burden.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Song J, Li M, Li C, et al (2022)

Friend or foe: RIG- I like receptors and diseases.

Autoimmunity reviews pii:S1568-9972(22)00131-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), which are pivotal sensors of RNA virus invasions, mediate the transcriptional induction of genes encoding type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines, successfully establishing host antiviral immune response. A few excellent reviews have elaborated on the structural biology of RLRs and the antiviral mechanisms of RLR activation. In this review, we give a basic understanding of RLR biology and summarize recent findings of how RLR signaling cascade is strictly controlled by host regulatory mechanisms, which include RLR-interacting proteins, post-translational modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs). Furthermore, we pay particular attention to the relationship between RLRs and diseases, especially how RLRs participate in SARS-CoV-2, malaria or bacterial infections, how single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or mutations in RLRs and antibodies against RLRs lead to autoinflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases, and how RLRs are involved in anti-tumor immunity. These findings will provide insights and guidance for antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies targeting RLRs.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Kearns FL, Sandoval DR, Casalino L, et al (2022)

Spike-heparan sulfate interactions in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Current opinion in structural biology, 76:102439 pii:S0959-440X(22)00118-X [Epub ahead of print].

Recent biochemical, biophysical, and genetic studies have shown that heparan sulfate, a major component of the cellular glycocalyx, participates in infection of SARS-CoV-2 by facilitating the so-called open conformation of the spike protein, which is required for binding to ACE2. This review highlights the involvement of heparan sulfate in the SARS-CoV-2 infection cycle and argues that there is a high degree of coordination between host cell heparan sulfate and asparagine-linked glycans on the spike in enabling ACE2 binding and subsequent infection. The discovery that spike protein binding and infection depends on both viral and host glycans provides insights into the evolution, spread and potential therapies for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Payan T (2022)

Understanding the nexus between undocumented immigration and mental health.

Current opinion in psychology, 47:101414 pii:S2352-250X(22)00135-X [Epub ahead of print].

Based on the growing literature on the link between government policy and mental health, this article proposes a socio-ecological model to understand the way immigration policy and law enforcement specifically have become a key determinant of mental health among undocumented immigrants and their families. Based on the latest research on the subject, the article organizes and defines the spiral that goes from the main features of governmental immigration policy and law enforcement to the stressors they generate among the migrant community and mental health outcomes among different groups within it. It also considers the coping mechanisms migrants adopt to deal with their legal vulnerability, classifying them into those which worsen mental health outcomes and some which, paradoxically, make migrant communities resilient.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Renz-Polster H, C Scheibenbogen (2022)

[Post-COVID syndrome with fatigue and exercise intolerance: myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome].

Innere medizin (Heidelberg, Germany), 63(8):830-839.

BACKGROUND: A sizable part of post-COVID syndrome meets the diagnostic criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A doubling of cases of ME/CFS within the next years is therefore projected.

OBJECTIVES: Presentation of the current state of knowledge on ME/CFS.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unsystematic review of the literature and of own contributions in research and patient care.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: ME/CFS is a neuroimmunological disease, mostly infection-induced, usually persisting throughout life. Clinically it is characterized by fatigue lasting at least 6 months and the defining core feature of exercise intolerance (post-exertional malaise, PEM). Exercise intolerance is defined as a worsening of symptoms after (even mild) everyday exertion, which usually begins after several hours or on the following day, is still noticeable at least 14 h after exertion, and often lasts for several days (up to weeks or longer). Furthermore, ME/CFS is characterized by pain, disturbances of sleep, thinking and memory, and dysregulation of the circulatory, endocrine, and immune systems. As a separate clinical entity, ME/CFS should be distinguished from chronic fatigue, which occurs as a symptom of a range of very different diseases. The diagnosis of ME/CFS is made clinically using established international diagnostic criteria and requires careful stepwise diagnosis to exclude other diagnoses. A causal therapy for ME/CFS has not been established; the focus is on symptoms relief, treatment of the often accompanying orthostatic intolerance, and assistance with anticipatory energy management (pacing).

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Sommer N, B Schmeck (2022)

[Pulmonary manifestations in long COVID].

Innere medizin (Heidelberg, Germany), 63(8):819-829.

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary manifestations are very common sequelae after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, which are summarized under the term long COVID (coronavirus disease) syndrome.

AIM/METHODS: This article summarizes the current literature on pulmonary manifestations with a focus on expert opinions and recommendations.

RESULTS: After chronic fatigue, dyspnea is the most common symptom in patients with long COVID syndrome. Pathological findings are mainly found after a severe acute course of COVID-19 and include radiological changes with characteristics of interstitial lung diseases, restrictive ventilation patterns and limitations in diffusion capacity as the most common pathological finding. Although both symptoms and pathological pulmonary alterations improve over time, some patients may still suffer from abnormalities months after the acute infection. The relevance of the pathological findings, as well as the involvement of functional respiratory limitations, cardiopulmonary deconditioning, non-somatic causes and pre-existing lung diseases, is currently unclear. The advanced diagnostic assessment thus focusses on high-risk patients and includes, in addition to imaging and pulmonary function tests, a cardiopulmonary exercise test and, if the findings are unclear, an echocardiography to diagnose a pulmonary vascular component. The therapeutic options currently include treatment of the underlying causes of the symptoms (e.g. interstitial lung diseases, cough) according to the respective guidelines and rehabilitation measures.

DISCUSSION: The current knowledge about pulmonary manifestations in long COVID patients is constantly being expanded, but due to limited availability of clinical trials, there are still no evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of pulmonary manifestations in long COVID syndrome.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Bauernfeind S, B Schmidt (2022)

[The value of COVID-19 vaccination in the context of Long-COVID].

Innere medizin (Heidelberg, Germany), 63(8):840-850.

There are currently no strategies available on how to deal with Long-COVID (COVID "coronavirus disease"). COVID-19 vaccination could be both a preemptive and a therapeutic option for the future. The evaluation of the available studies is complicated by varying definitions. There are, however, indications that (complete) COVID-19 vaccination is able not only to prevent symptomatic infection but also to reduce the risk of Long-COVID. In some patients with Long-COVID, symptoms are modified after (first and/or second) COVID-19 vaccination; however, there is no clear evidence for a real therapeutic effect on Long-COVID.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Pink I, T Welte (2022)

[Frequency, spectrum and risk factors of long COVID].

Innere medizin (Heidelberg, Germany), 63(8):813-818.

Between 10 and 20% of individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) suffer from symptoms up to weeks after initial infection. The most frequently reported symptoms include fatigue, dyspnea, anosmia and ageusia, as well as headaches, joint pain, cough, cognitive impairment and impaired sleeping. After exclusion of other etiologies and symptom duration of more than 4 weeks after initial infection this is referred to as long COVID. In contrast to acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), no specific risk factors have been identified as yet as being associated with the occurrence of this disease. Furthermore, there are varying hypotheses concerning the pathomechanism of long COVID. Dividing patients into groups is beneficial in the clinical context. Regardless of long COVID symptoms the risk of cardiovascular events is increased even 1 year after COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Chang YC, Lee DJ, Wei CH, et al (2022)

SARS-CoV-2 versus other minor viral infection on kidney injury in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients.

Virulence, 13(1):1349-1357.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has become a global pandemic since December 2019. Most of the patients are mild or asymptomatic and recovered well as those suffered from other respiratory viruses. SARS-CoV-2 infection is supposed to demonstrate more sequelae. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among COVID-19 patients and is associated with disease severity and outcomes. Only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of kidney damage in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Whether any minor viral infection is likely to exhibit similar minor effect on renal function as COVID-19 is still unclear, and the definite pathophysiology of viral invasion is not fully understood. Currently, the proposed mechanisms of AKI include direct effects of virus on kidney, dysregulated immune response, or as a result of multi-organs failure have been proposed. This study will discuss the difference between COVID-19 and other viruses, focusing on proposed mechanisms, biomarkers and whether it matters with clinical significance.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Mohtady Ali H, Ranse J, Roiko A, et al (2022)

Investigating Organizational Learning and Adaptations for Improved Disaster Response Towards "Resilient Hospitals:" An Integrative Literature Review.

Prehospital and disaster medicine pii:S1049023X2200108X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: For hospitals, learning from disaster response efforts and adapting organizational practices can improve resilience in dealing with future disruptions. However, amidst global disruptions by climate change, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and other disasters, hospitals' ability to cope continues to be highly variable. Hence, there are increasing calls to improve hospitals' capabilities to grow and adapt towards enhanced resilience.

AIM: This study aims two-fold: (1) to characterize the current state of knowledge about how hospitals are gaining knowledge from their responses to disasters, and (2) to explore how this knowledge can be applied to inform organizational practices for hospital resilience.

METHOD: This study used Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for data collection and framework for data analysis, Covidence software, and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords relevant to "hospitals," "learn," "disaster response," and "resilience." The quality appraisal used an adapted version of the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool (MMAT).

RESULTS: After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality appraisal, out of the 420 articles retrieved, 22 articles remained for thematic and content analysis. The thematic analysis included the hospital's functional (operational) and physical (structural and non-structural) sections. The content analysis followed nine learning areas (Governance and Leadership, Planning and Risk Assessment, Surveillance and Monitoring, Communication and Network Engagement, Staff Practices and Safety, Equipment and Resources, Facilities and Infrastructure, Novelty and Innovation, and Learning and Evaluation).On applying the Deming cycle, only four studies described a completed learning cycle wherein hospitals adapted their organizational structures using the prior experience and evaluation gained in responding to disaster(s).

CONCLUSIONS: There is a gap between hospitals' organizational learning and institutionalized practice. The conceptualized Hybrid Resilience Learning Framework (HRLF) aims to guide the hospitals' decision makers in evaluating organizational resilience and knowledge.In the face of disasters, both the stressful factors and the coping strategies that affect the health care workers (HCWs) should be substantially considered.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Ghosh SK (2022)

Evolving strategies in whirlwind mode: The changing face of anatomy education during Covid-19 pandemic.

Anatomical sciences education [Epub ahead of print].

The Covid-19 pandemic stipulated adoption of unfamiliar strategies for delivering anatomy education in online mode. The factors which determine education strategies are variable across geographical regions. It was perceived than an overview of education strategies around the globe would be useful for anatomists. Hence this narrative review was undertaken to collate observations from different geographical regions pertaining to education strategies adopted during the pandemic. Data relevant to the topic of study were extracted from 12 articles that were selected from an initial pool of 317 articles based on search criteria set for the review. Subtle differences in core education strategies implied that baseline response from anatomists were similar across regions. It was evident that online digital tools were key elements of education strategies adopted by educators for delivering online anatomy classes across the globe. Interestingly, a considerable gap in terms of number and variety of online tools used for anatomy education (those requiring commercial purchase) was noted between economically developed and developing regions. This may have an impact on learning outcome for students and may even lead to variations in anatomical knowledge by regions. It was observed that offline human dissection sessions were incorporated into online practical classes in one region as positive cases showed a declining trend. This positive development is worth emulating elsewhere based on cautious assessment of prevailing situation. From a broad perspective timely introduction of education strategies ensured delivery of anatomy education during the pandemic and gave an evolved outlook to the fabric of anatomy education.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Reghunath A, Ghasi RG, Sharma A, et al (2022)

Neuroimaging Findings in COVID-19 Associated Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis: A Review.

The Indian journal of radiology & imaging, 32(2):224-234 pii:2211311.

The involvement of the neurological system by coronavirus has been well established. Since its onset, the systemic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been evolving rapidly and imaging plays a pivotal role in diagnosing the various primary and secondary effects of the disease. As the pandemic continues to defy human civilization, secondary impacts of the disease and the treatment given to patients afflicted with the disease have stemmed up. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is one such potentially dangerous infection now commonly seen in COVID-19 patients, especially the ones treated with immunosuppressants. Early diagnosis is key for COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM), and radiologists should be well aware of its alarming neurological manifestations from the involvement of parenchyma, meninges, vessels, cranial nerves, and skull base. This review highlights the magnetic resonance imaging features of neuraxial involvement in CAM.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Mollalign H, Chala D, D Beyene (2022)

Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome of Coronavirus and Tuberculosis Co-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review of Case Reports.

Infection and drug resistance, 15:4037-4046 pii:370837.

Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are among the top ongoing health crises globally. Both cause respiratory diseases, and the clinical presentations are similar. There is no summarized information about cases of COVID-19 patients with concomitant TB infection from different settings. Therefore this review aimed to summerize the clinical features and treatment outcomes of coronavirus and tuberculosis co-infected patients.

Methods: An electronic search of case reports published between 2020 and 2021 was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. From eligible reports, data were collected for the selected variables. We analyzed the collected information using SPSS version 27 software. Descriptive statistics were computed for the selected variables.

Results: A total of 83 patient histories were collected from 47 case reports. The majority (80%) of the cases were reported for male patients. The mean age was 42.6 years (3 months to 84 years, SD=17.3). Fever was reported in 80% of cases, followed by cough (73.3%) and hypotension (37.1%). Blood cell parameters revealed lymphopenia (52%), lower hemoglobin (30%), elevated CRP (70%), elevated ferritin (28%), and increased D-dimer (23.4%). Treatment outcome is significantly associated with blood cell count results (p-0.044) and a rise in blood inflammatory cytokines(p-0.041). The mean days for viral clearance or negative PCR was 23 days (Range 5-82 days) and the overall mean duration of hospitalization was 27 days. The total death rate was 22.4%. Recovery was reported for 76.6% of cases. Survival status (p-0.613) and disease severity (p-0.68) are not significantly associated with the gender of the participants.

Conclusion: An alteration in blood cell parameters is associated with an unfavorable treatment outcome. There is a higher death rate in COVID-19/TB co-infection. The death is associated with older age, smoking or smoking history, drug abuse, and co-morbidity of non-communicable diseases. Conversely, there is a lower death rate in HIV patients.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Li D, Wang Q, Jia C, et al (2022)

An Overview of Neurological and Psychiatric Complications During Post-COVID Period: A Narrative Review.

Journal of inflammation research, 15:4199-4215 pii:375494.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a multi-organ and multi-system disease with high morbidity and mortality in severe cases due to respiratory failure and severe cardiovascular events. However, the various manifestations of neurological and psychiatric (N/P) systems of COVID-19 should not be neglected. Some clinical studies have reported a high risk of N/P disorders in COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients and that their outcomes were positively associated with the disease severity. These clinical manifestations could attribute to direct SARS-CoV-2 invasion into the central nervous system (CNS), which is often complicated by systemic hypoxia, the dysfunctional activity of the renin-angiotensin system and other relevant pathological changes. These changes may remain long term and may even lead to persistent post-COVID consequences on the CNS, such as memory, attention and focus issues, persistent headaches, lingering loss of smell and taste, enduring muscle aches and chronic fatigue. Mild confusion and coma are serious adverse outcomes of neuropathological manifestations in COVID-19 patients, which could be diversiform and vary at different stages of the clinical course. Although lab investigations and neuro-imaging findings may help quantify the disease's risk, progress and prognosis, large-scale and persistent multicenter clinical cohort studies are needed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the N/P systems. However, we used "Boolean Operators" to search for relevant research articles, reviews and clinical trials from PubMed and the ClinicalTrials dataset for "COVID-19 sequelae of N/P systems during post-COVID periods" with the time frame from December 2019 to April 2022, only found 42 in 254,716 COVID-19-related articles and 2 of 7931 clinical trials involved N/P sequelae during post-COVID periods. Due to the increasing number of infected cases and the incessant mutation characteristics of this virus, diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for N/P manifestations should be further refined.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Holderread BM, Han A, Mand DS, et al (2022)

Effects of COVID-19 on Geographical Trends in the Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Match.

JB & JS open access, 7(3): pii:JBJSOA-D-21-00107.

Historically, medical students often match within the same geographic location or to an orthopaedic surgery residency program affiliated with their medical school. The objective of this investigation was to determine differences in geographic trends between orthopaedic residents matching before and during the Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic.

METHODS: This study analyzed 2 groups of orthopaedic residents: Pre-COVID cohort (years 2016-2020) and COVID-impacted cohort (year 2021). A list of accredited orthopaedic surgery residency programs (n = 202) was obtained. Orthopaedic residency program webpages were located (region [n = 4], division [n = 9], state [n = 50]). For each resident, their medical school and year of postgraduate training were recorded. Year 2021 resident information was obtained from the orthopaedic residency program webpages, social media accounts, and medical school match lists. Residency programs affiliated with a medical school were also assigned. Descriptive statistics were performed. Two sample Student t tests with Bonferroni correction applied to p-values (α < 0.05 significant) were performed.

RESULTS: There were 4,832 residents analyzed (4,074 in Pre-COVID cohort; 758 in COVID-impacted cohort [758/868 of all positions in 2021 Match]). Statistically significant differences were detected between the COVID-impacted cohort (39.6%, p < 0.001) matching in the same state as their medical school (Pre-COVID 33.1%) and the COVID-impacted cohort (28.0%, p < 0.001) matching to a residency program affiliated with their medical school (Pre-COVID 21.2%). In the COVID-impacted cohort, students who matched in state matched to their home program more frequently (69.3%) compared with the Pre-COVID cohort (60.5%). Geographically, there was a difference in the COVID-impacted cohort (52.5%, p < 0.011) matching in the same division (Pre-COVID 47.5%). No statistically significant differences were identified for residents matching to the same region as their medical school (Pre-COVID 60.1%; COVID-impacted 61%, p = 0.968).

CONCLUSION: Residents matching in the same state, in the same division, and to a residency program affiliated with their medical school increased significantly in the COVID-impacted cohort. There was no difference between cohorts matching in the same region as their medical school.

Level of Evidence: Observational/Cross-Sectional.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Sharma R, Kumar P, Rauf A, et al (2022)

Mucormycosis in the COVID-19 Environment: A Multifaceted Complication.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:937481.

The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused severe infections with high mortality. An increase in the cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) was reported predominantly in India. Commonly present in immunocompromised individuals, mucormycosis is often a life-threatening condition. Confounding factors and molecular mechanisms associated with CAM are still not well understood, and there is a need for careful research in this direction. In this review, a brief account of the diagnosis, management, and advancement in drug discovery for mucormycosis has been provided. Here, we summarize major factors that dictate the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients through the analysis of published literature and case reports. Major predisposing factors to mucormycosis appear to be uncontrolled diabetes, steroid therapy, and certain cancers. At the molecular level, increased levels of iron in COVID-19 might contribute to mucormycosis. We have also discussed the potential role and regulation of iron metabolism in COVID-19 patients in establishing fungal growth. Other factors including diabetes prevalence and fungal spore burden in India as contributing factors have also been discussed.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Jiang Y, Zhao T, Zhou X, et al (2022)

Inflammatory pathways in COVID-19: Mechanism and therapeutic interventions.

MedComm, 3(3):e154 pii:MCO2154.

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global crisis. In the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces an excessive inflammatory response in patients, causing an inflammatory cytokine storm in severe cases. Cytokine storm leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary and other multiorgan failure, which is an important cause of COVID-19 progression and even death. Among them, activation of inflammatory pathways is a major factor in generating cytokine storms and causing dysregulated immune responses, which is closely related to the severity of viral infection. Therefore, elucidation of the inflammatory signaling pathway of SARS-CoV-2 is important in providing otential therapeutic targets and treatment strategies against COVID-19. Here, we discuss the major inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, including induction, function, and downstream signaling, as well as existing and potential interventions targeting these cytokines or related signaling pathways. We believe that a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory pathways of COVID-19 immune dysregulation and inflammation will help develop better clinical therapy strategies to effectively control inflammatory diseases, such as COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Chaudhary FA, Fazal A, Ahmad B, et al (2022)

The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Psychological Health and Dental Practice of Oral Healthcare Workers: A Scoping Review.

Risk management and healthcare policy, 15:1421-1431 pii:370125.

This study aims to identify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological health and dental practice of oral health-care workers (OHCWs). The search for relevant literature was carried out online using PubMed, Web of science, and science direct databases from January 2020 to February 2021. Those articles were included that provided complete information about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on oral health-care workers during covid-19 and were original articles and reviews. Those articles were excluded from the current study that was not in English Language and involved case reports/book chapters/short communications. Finally, only 8 articles were selected for the scoping review considering that complete information regarding the provision of dental care in the time of COVID-19 was provided. Increased psychological distress (especially those with existing comorbidities) was noted among the OHCWs during this pandemic. They had enough knowledge about COVID-19 and showed concern regarding the future of dentistry. Either complete or partial closure of dental clinics had introduced financial constraints among them. However, the majority of them did not switch their profession. The institutions were not prepared for any such situation and no training was conducted to control the spread of COVID-19 infection. OHCWs are fully aware of the knowledge regarding COVID-19 and showed concerns for dentistry and dental health-care workers during this pandemic. Complete or partial closure of dental clinics has had adverse effects on the future of dentistry, economically as well as psychologically. Institutions need to upgrade and strengthen their systems to cater to any such situation efficiently. Proper counseling sessions should be conducted for the OHCWs to monitor, identify and treat the cases found.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Sharma K, Patel S, Patel Z, et al (2022)

Immune Thrombocytopenia in Previously Healthy Individuals Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination (COVID-19 Immunization): A Descriptive Research of 70 Instances With a Focus on Biomarkers, Predictive Outcomes, and Consequences.

Cureus, 14(7):e26480.

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is exacerbating the worldwide healthcare crisis. The pandemic has had an impact on nearly every system of our body. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave immediate authorization of several vaccines to avoid critical COVID-19 outcomes following the rapid spread of the COVID-19. There have only been a few cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination-induced immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) so far. There should be enough information to identify whether some vaccination adverse effects, such as ITP, are caused by the vaccine. This study aims to determine how common ITP occurs after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, as well as gender, age, symptoms, biomarkers, predicted outcomes, and sequelae. We looked at a number of research and compiled the best evidence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia currently available. To find the recommended reporting items, the search technique included keywords like "Immune thrombocytopenia," "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," and "Vaccination." The search results were grouped using Boolean operators ("OR," "AND").

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Fawzy MS, SA AlSadrah (2022)

COVID-19 and Saudi Arabia: Awareness, Attitude, and Practice.

Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 15:1595-1618 pii:373007.

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has transformed our appreciation of healthcare awareness worldwide. The amount of related data accumulated during this time has surpassed any other outbreak of a viral pathogen. Healthcare awareness is related to one of the nine pillars of the "World health organization (WHO) operational planning guidelines to support country preparedness and response". This review is structured around the awareness/knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP)-related publications in Saudi Arabia up to date to understand the impact of COVID-19 on these domains. The excellent communication effort response from governments, international, and individuals to keep the public informed about the outbreak is highlighted. Unraveling such impacts on the Saudi communities, including healthcare workers (HCWs)/professionals (HCPs), students, patients with different diseases, and non-professional individuals, is essential in containing the outbreak and planning preventive measures in case of future outbreaks.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Parker TK, Jansen J, Behroozmand AA, et al (2022)

Applied Geophysics for Managed Aquifer Recharge.

Ground water [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing water stress and decreasing supplies caused by growth and climate variability have expanded demand for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) projects to provide water supply resilience. Some of the most important factors in determining the performance of a MAR project include site selection, subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics and associated properties of the storage zone. Costs for invasive subsurface investigations to address these factors have slowly increased over the past two decades, with drilling costs increasing dramatically by as much as 30 percent or more since COVID 19 hit, a result of supply chain issues, steel prices, and manpower challenges. This paper provides a high-level review of major geophysical methods that have become more mainstream over the past decade or two to supplement invasive subsurface investigations and are very cost effective when compared to drilling boreholes and installing wells, which provide only point data. The more commonly used surface geophysical methods include ground-based and airborne time-domain electromagnetic methods (TEM), electrical resistivity, and seismic reflection. Airborne TEM methods (AEM) collect data very quickly, avoiding ground-based access constraints, and land-based methods are especially efficient using towed arrays. Electrical resistivity measurements provide resolution comparable to TEM but require more time than towed methods. Seismic reflection surveys are more expensive than other methods but typically have a much greater depth of penetration and can provide high resolution information on aquifer geometry, geology, and faults. Borehole geophysics is one of the more common methods used in MAR, providing near hole formation data and ground truths surface geophysics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Steardo L, Steardo L, C Scuderi (2022)

Astrocytes and the Psychiatric Sequelae of COVID-19: What We Learned from the Pandemic.

Neurochemical research [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19, initially regarded as specific lung disease, exhibits an extremely broad spectrum of symptoms. Extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease also include important neuropsychiatric symptoms with atypical characteristics. Are these disturbances linked to stress accompanying every systemic infection, or are due to specific neurobiological changes associated with COVID-19? Evidence accumulated so far indicates that the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is characterized by systemic inflammation, hypoxia resulting from respiratory failure, and neuroinflammation (either due to viral neurotropism or in response to cytokine storm), all affecting the brain. It is reasonable to hypothesize that all these events may initiate or worsen psychiatric and cognitive disorders. Damage to the brain triggers a specific type of reactive response mounted by neuroglia cells, in particular by astrocytes which are the homeostatic cell par excellence. Astrocytes undergo complex morphological, biochemical, and functional remodeling aimed at mobilizing the regenerative potential of the central nervous system. If the brain is not directly damaged, resolution of systemic pathology usually results in restoration of the physiological homeostatic status of neuroglial cells. The completeness and dynamics of this process in pathological conditions remain largely unknown. In a subset of patients, glial cells could fail to recover after infection thus promoting the onset and progression of COVID-19-related neuropsychiatric diseases. There is evidence from post-mortem examinations of the brains of COVID-19 patients of alterations in both astrocytes and microglia. In conclusion, COVID-19 activates a huge reactive response of glial cells, that physiologically act as the main controller of the inflammatory, protective and regenerative events. However, in some patients the restoration of glial physiological state does not occur, thus compromising glial function and ultimately resulting in homeostatic failure underlying a set of specific neuropsychiatric symptoms related to COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Al-Kuraishy HM, Al-Gareeb AI, Negm WA, et al (2022)

Ursolic acid and SARS-CoV-2 infection: a new horizon and perspective.

Inflammopharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2) has been identified as the source of a world coronavirus pandemic in 2019. Covid-19 is considered a main respiratory disease-causing viral pneumonia and, in severe cases, leads to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although, extrapulmonary manifestations of Covid-19 like neurological, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal have been confirmed. Exaggerated immune response and release of a high amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines may progress, causing a cytokine storm. Consequently, direct and indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection can evolve into systemic complications due to the progression of hyper inflammation, oxidative stress and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Therefore, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents could be efficient in alleviating these disorders. Ursolic acid has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral effects; it reduces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, improves anti-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In virtue of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, ursolic acid may minimize SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced complications. Also, by regulating RAS and inflammatory signaling pathways, ursolic acid might effectively reduce the development of ALI in ARDS in Covid-19. In this state, this perspective discusses how ursolic acid can mitigate hyper inflammation and oxidative stress in Covid-19.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Pilia E, Belletti A, Fresilli S, et al (2022)

Efficacy and safety of heparin full-dose anticoagulation in hospitalized non-critically ill COVID-19 patients: a meta-analysis of multicenter randomized controlled trials.

Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis [Epub ahead of print].

Arterial and venous thrombotic events in COVID-19 cause significant morbidity and mortality among patients. Although international guidelines agree on the need for anticoagulation, it is unclear whether full-dose heparin anticoagulation confers additional benefits over prophylactic-dose anticoagulation. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of heparin full-dose anticoagulation in hospitalized non-critically ill COVID-19 patients. We searched Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Clinicaltrials.gov, medRxiv.org and Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials dated up to April 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing full-dose heparin anticoagulation to prophylactic-dose anticoagulation or standard treatment in hospitalized non-critically ill COVID-19 patients were included in our pooled analysis. The primary endpoint was the rate of major thrombotic events and the co-primary endpoint was the rate of major bleeding events. We identified 4 studies, all of them multicenter, randomizing 2926 patients. Major thrombotic events were 23/1524 (1.5%) in full-dose heparin anticoagulation versus 57/1402 (4.0%) in prophylactic-dose [relative risk (RR) 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.62; p˂0.01; I2 = 0%]. Clinical relevant bleeding events occurred in 1.7% (26/1524) among patients treated with heparin full anticoagulation dose compared to 1.1% (15/1403) in prophylactic-dose group (RR 1.60; 95% CI 0.85-3.03; p = 0.15; I2 = 20%). Mortality was 6.6% (101/1524) versus 8.6% (121/1402) (RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.33-1.19; p = 0.15). In this meta-analysis of high quality multicenter randomized trials, full-dose anticoagulation with heparin was associated with lower rate of major thrombotic events without differences in bleeding risk and mortality in hospitalized non critically ill COVID-19 patients.Study registration PROSPERO, review no. CRD42022301874.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-04

Meneguin S, Pollo CF, Garuzi M, et al (2022)

Creation and content validity of a scale for assessing adherence to good practices for COVID-19.

Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 75(5):e20210223 pii:S0034-71672022000600163.

OBJECTIVE: to create a scale for assessing the adherence of healthcare providers to good practices for COVID-19 in the hospital setting and determine its content and face validity.

METHODS: A methodological study was developed in three sequential phases: creation of items and domains based on a literature review and administration of the questionnaire to 16 nursing professionals; assessment of content and face validity by experts; and semantic analysis.

RESULTS: The 51-item scale was submitted to the evaluation of seven experts. Items with a content validity index ≥ 0.83 were maintained. During the semantic analysis performed by the administration of the scale to 37 healthcare providers, no suggestions for changes were made and the comprehension rate was 87%.

CONCLUSIONS: the 47-item instrument with three dimensions (personal, organizational, and psychosocial) achieved satisfactory content and face validity, meeting the parameters established in the literature.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-04

Psihogios A, Madampage C, BE Faught (2022)

Contemporary nutrition-based interventions to reduce risk of infection among elderly long-term care residents: A scoping review.

PloS one, 17(8):e0272513 pii:PONE-D-21-40383.

BACKGROUND: Elderly long-term care residents (ELTCRs) face considerable burden of infection, especially evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. The nutritional status of the host can influence susceptibility to infection by altering immune system integrity, therefore, nutrition-based interventions may be a viable complement to existing infection prevention measures.

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review sought to identify nutritional interventions and factors that have the strongest evidence to benefit ELTCRs, and thus best poised for rigorous clinical trial evaluation and subsequent implementation.

METHODS: A database search of OVID-Medline, OVID-Embase, and Web of Science was performed from 2011 to 2021 to identify nutritional intervention studies which attribute to changes in infection in contemporary ELTCR settings. Articles were screened in duplicate and data extraction completed by a single reviewer, while a second reviewer verified the data which was fitted to identify evidence for nutritional interventions related to reducing rates of infection among ELTCRs.

RESULTS: The search identified 1018 studies, of which 11 (nine clinical trials and two observational cohort studies) satisfied screening criteria. Interventions that significantly reduced risk of infection included whey protein (any infection), Black Chokeberry (urinary tract infection), and vitamin D (acute respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection). Both zinc and a dedicated meal-plan significantly improved lymphocyte parameters. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with the development of respiratory tract infections. Probiotic and soy-based protein interventions did not significantly affect risk of infection or lymphocyte parameters, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The current scoping review was effective in identifying the use of nutrition-based interventions for infection prevention among ELTCRs. In this study, some nutrition-based interventions were observed to significantly influence the risk of infection among ELTCRs. Nutritional interventions such as vitamin D (preventing deficiency/insufficiency), Black Chokeberry juice, zinc gluconate, whey protein, and varied and nutrient dense meal plans may be suitable for future rigorous clinical trial evaluation.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-04

Ortiz Contreras J, Quiroz Carreño JM, Neira Contreras R, et al (2022)

Systematization of initiatives in sexual and reproductive health about good practices criteria in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in primary health care in Chile.

Medwave, 22(6):.

Introduction The COVID- 19 pandemic discontinued sexual and reproductive health care in Chile and the world. The national focus on hospital care led primary care teams to respond in natural and diverse ways. Understanding the factors involved in this process may improve future responses from the judgment of good practices. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and systematize sexual and reproductive health initiatives raised by primary care teams in response to the COVID- 19 pandemic in Chile. Methods We systematically evaluated initiatives and practices in sexual and reproductive health in prima-ry care between June 2020 and November 2021. This study was developed in three methodological phases: a review of documents, a collection of experiences through an electronic instrument sent to the 29 health services in Chile, and in-depth interviews. According to best practice criteria, mapping and characterizing the initiatives and critical discourse analysis of narratives and interviews were carried out. Results Forty-one initiatives from 19 health services were identified, mainly from the South Central macro zone and urban areas. In these areas, care was recognized. These practices were relevant, aligned with their objectives, rapidly implemented, and used novel strategies through new technologies. However, these initiatives had little intercultural relevance or evaluation. Perceived success was related to motivation, leadership, and institutional and community resilience. The adaptability of initiatives emerged as a new need and criterion of analysis. Conclusion The lessons learned from these initiatives invite us to consider health care teams' mental health, their relationship with the community, the use of new technologies, the evaluation of practices considering satisfaction, cross- cutting approaches, and their adaptability. In all, these aspects may improve primary care response in sexual and reproductive health to new crises.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-04

Conway EM, ELG Pryzdial (2022)

Complement contributions to COVID-19.

Current opinion in hematology, 29(5):259-265.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 remains a major source of concern, particularly as new variants emerge and with recognition that patients may suffer long-term effects. Mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 mediated organ damage and the associated vascular endotheliopathy remain poorly understood, hindering new drug development. Here, we highlight selected key concepts of how the complement system, a major component of innate immunity that is dysregulated in COVID-19, participates in the thromboinflammatory response and drives the vascular endotheliopathy.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have revealed mechanisms by which complement is activated directly by SARS-CoV-2, and how the system interfaces with other innate thromboinflammatory cellular and proteolytic pathways involving platelets, neutrophils, neutrophil extracellular traps and the coagulation and kallikrein-kinin systems. With this new information, multiple potential sites for therapeutic intervention are being uncovered and evaluated in the clinic.

SUMMARY: Infections with SARS-CoV-2 cause damage to the lung alveoli and microvascular endothelium via a process referred to as thromboinflammation. Although not alone in being dysregulated, complement is an early player, prominent in promoting the endotheliopathy and consequential organ damage, either directly and/or via the system's complex interplay with other cellular, molecular and biochemical pathways. Delineating these critical interactions is revealing novel and promising strategies for therapeutic intervention.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Skafle I, Nordahl-Hansen A, Quintana DS, et al (2022)

Misinformation About COVID-19 Vaccines on Social Media: Rapid Review.

Journal of medical Internet research, 24(8):e37367 pii:v24i8e37367.

BACKGROUND: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has been crucial in fighting the pandemic. However, misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic and vaccines is spread on social media platforms at a rate that has made the World Health Organization coin the phrase infodemic. False claims about adverse vaccine side effects, such as vaccines being the cause of autism, were already considered a threat to global health before the outbreak of COVID-19.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to synthesize the existing research on misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines spread on social media platforms and its effects. The secondary aim was to gain insight and gather knowledge about whether misinformation about autism and COVID-19 vaccines is being spread on social media platforms.

METHODS: We performed a literature search on September 9, 2021, and searched PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register. We included publications in peer-reviewed journals that fulfilled the following criteria: original empirical studies, studies that assessed social media and misinformation, and studies about COVID-19 vaccines. Thematic analysis was used to identify the patterns (themes) of misinformation. Narrative qualitative synthesis was undertaken with the guidance of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) 2020 Statement and the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis reporting guideline. The risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool. Ratings of the certainty of evidence were based on recommendations from the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

RESULTS: The search yielded 757 records, with 45 articles selected for this review. We identified 3 main themes of misinformation: medical misinformation, vaccine development, and conspiracies. Twitter was the most studied social media platform, followed by Facebook, YouTube, and Instagram. A vast majority of studies were from industrialized Western countries. We identified 19 studies in which the effect of social media misinformation on vaccine hesitancy was measured or discussed. These studies implied that the misinformation spread on social media had a negative effect on vaccine hesitancy and uptake. Only 1 study contained misinformation about autism as a side effect of COVID-19 vaccines.

CONCLUSIONS: To prevent these misconceptions from taking hold, health authorities should openly address and discuss these false claims with both cultural and religious awareness in mind. Our review showed that there is a need to examine the effect of social media misinformation on vaccine hesitancy with a more robust experimental design. Furthermore, this review also demonstrated that more studies are needed from the Global South and on social media platforms other than the major platforms such as Twitter and Facebook.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42021277524; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021277524.

RR2-10.31219/osf.io/tyevj.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-04

Fabbro M, Patel PA, Henderson RA, et al (2022)

Coagulation and Transfusion Updates From 2021.

Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, 36(9):3447-3458.

2021 and the COVID 19 pandemic have brought unprecedented blood shortages worldwide. These deficits have propelled national efforts to reduce blood usage, including limiting elective services and accelerating Patient Blood Management (PBM) initiatives. A host of research dedicated to blood usage and management within cardiac surgery has continued to emerge. The intent of this review is to highlight this past year's research pertaining to PBM and COVID-19-related coagulation changes.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-04

Uthurralt N, McGlinn A, O'Donnell M, et al (2022)

The impact of a 24-hour syringe dispensing machine on a face-to-face needle and syringe program and targeted primary healthcare clinic.

Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 46(4):524-526.

OBJECTIVE: Automatic syringe dispensing machines (ADM) have become an important adjunct to Australia's needle and syringe programs (NSP). However, concerns that they reduce face-to-face contact with health staff and other health interventions remain. We examined changes in the number of needle/syringes dispensed at an ADM and occasions of service at a co-located face-to-face NSP and targeted primary healthcare clinic during the first wave of COVID-19 restrictions.

METHODS: We reviewed data from an inner-city harm reduction program during the study period of April 2020 to March 2021 compared to the previous year. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association between occasions of service and equipment distribution.

RESULTS: ADM-dispensed equipment increased significantly by 41.1%, while face-to-face NSP occasions decreased by 16.2%. Occasions provided by the targeted primary healthcare clinic increased by 59.7% per month.

CONCLUSION: We have shown that 24-hour ADM access did not adversely affect the number of people using targeted primary healthcare when provided within close proximity. Implication for public health: These findings reinforce the demand for 24-hour needle/syringe access and can be used to support the expanded access to ADMs, especially where people who inject drugs (PWID) have access to appropriate healthcare.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Dehority W, Spence D, DL Dinwiddie (2020)

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: Genomic Observations and Emerging Therapies.

Pediatric allergy, immunology, and pulmonology, 33(2):49-52.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of the disease COVID-19, first emerged in late December 2019 in China, and has subsequently become a pandemic with unprecedented clinical impact. The virus appears to more severely affect older individuals and those with co-morbid medical conditions, specifically those with chronic lung disease, obesity, heart failure and diabetes. Fortunately, children appear to be less severely affected, though mortality and severe disease have been reported. In addition, children's role in spreading the disease (potentially through asymptomatic shedding of the virus) remains an important area requiring further investigation. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted the importance of metagenomic next generation sequencing as a tool for pandemic investigation. Though no proven therapeutic options currently exist, ongoing genomic and clinical trial data may help inform the identification and development of both repurposed and novel therapeutic agents for use in this disease.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

El-Chaar G (2020)

Pharmacotherapy of Acute COVID-19 Infection and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: Current State of Knowledge.

Pediatric allergy, immunology, and pulmonology, 33(4):177-189.

Background: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is a health care emergency across the world. Although mitigation measures, such as social distancing and face masks, have attempted to slow the spread of the infection, cases continue to rise. Children who are otherwise healthy tend to develop a milder acute Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and have lower mortality rates compared with adults. Methods: Guidelines and current primary and secondary literature on the treatment of COVID-19 and the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children were searched and reviewed. There are 6 published pediatric series that included 252 children with acute COVID-19 infection and describe various treatments and outcomes. Results: Guidelines recommend treating pediatric patients similarly to adult patients. Currently, no prophylactic drug therapy has been shown to reduce the spread of infection. Treatment options for acute COVID-19 are limited to remdesivir and glucocorticoids for patients who require oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation. The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin has not been proven and their safety has been a concern. Other therapies that are being explored include interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 inhibitors. In children, an atypical Kawasaki-like disease emerged after recent exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and has been named Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Nine case series, including 418 pediatric patients, described pharmacotherapies used and patient outcomes. These pharmacotherapies included intravenous immune globulin and glucocorticoids and in some patients, IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors. Conclusion: Given the paucity of data in children, this article presents currently recommended pharmacotherapies for the treatment of acute COVID-19 infection in adult patients and whenever available, in pediatric patients. Pharmacotherapies used in the treatment of MIS-C in children are also reviewed.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Alafeef M, D Pan (2022)

Diagnostic Approaches For COVID-19: Lessons Learned and the Path Forward.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a transmitted respiratory disease caused by the infection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although humankind has experienced several outbreaks of infectious diseases, the COVID-19 pandemic has the highest rate of infection and has had high levels of social and economic repercussions. The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the limitations of existing virological tests, which have failed to be adopted at a rate to properly slow the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2. Pandemic preparedness has developed as a focus of many governments around the world in the event of a future outbreak. Despite the largely widespread availability of vaccines, the importance of testing has not diminished to monitor the evolution of the virus and the resulting stages of the pandemic. Therefore, developing diagnostic technology that serves as a line of defense has become imperative. In particular, that test should satisfy three criteria to be widely adopted: simplicity, economic feasibility, and accessibility. At the heart of it all, it must enable early diagnosis in the course of infection to reduce spread. However, diagnostic manufacturers need guidance on the optimal characteristics of a virological test to ensure pandemic preparedness and to aid in the effective treatment of viral infections. Nanomaterials are a decisive element in developing COVID-19 diagnostic kits as well as a key contributor to enhance the performance of existing tests. Our objective is to develop a profile of the criteria that should be available in a platform as the target product. In this work, virus detection tests were evaluated from the perspective of the COVID-19 pandemic, and then we generalized the requirements to develop a target product profile for a platform for virus detection.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Rosa L, Cutone A, Conte MP, et al (2022)

An overview on in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of lactoferrin: its efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Beyond the absolute and indisputable relevance and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, the rapid transmission, the severity of infection, the absence of the protection on immunocompromised patients, the propagation of variants, the onset of infection and/or disease in vaccinated subjects and the lack of availability of worldwide vaccination require additional antiviral treatments. Since 1987, lactoferrin (Lf) is well-known to possess an antiviral activity related to its physico-chemical properties and to its ability to bind to both heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) of host cells and/or surface components of viral particles. In the present review, we summarize in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the efficacy of Lf against DNA, RNA, enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. Recent studies have revealed that the in vitro antiviral activity of Lf is also extendable to SARS-CoV-2. In vivo, Lf oral administration in early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection counteracts COVID-19 pathogenesis. In particular, the effect of Lf on SARS-CoV-2 entry, inflammatory homeostasis, iron dysregulation, iron-proteins synthesis, reactive oxygen formation, oxidative stress, gut-lung axis regulation as well as on RNA negativization, and coagulation/fibrinolysis balance will be critically reviewed. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underneath, including the Lf binding to HSPGs and spike glycoprotein, will be disclosed and discussed. Taken together, present data not only support the application of the oral administration of Lf alone in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients or as adjuvant of standard of care practice in symptomatic ones but also constitute the basis for enriching the limited literature on Lf effectiveness for COVID-19 treatment.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Andreas M, Iannizzi C, Bohndorf E, et al (2022)

Interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake: a scoping review.

The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 8:CD015270.

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are effective in preventing severe COVID-19, a disease for which few treatments are available and which can lead to disability or death. Widespread vaccination against COVID-19 may help protect those not yet able to get vaccinated. In addition, new and vaccine-resistant mutations of SARS-CoV-2 may be less likely to develop if the spread of COVID-19 is limited. Different vaccines are now widely available in many settings. However, vaccine hesitancy is a serious threat to the goal of nationwide vaccination in many countries and poses a substantial threat to population health. This scoping review maps interventions aimed at increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake and decreasing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. OBJECTIVES: To scope the existing research landscape on interventions to enhance the willingness of different populations to be vaccinated against COVID-19, increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake, or decrease COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and to map the evidence according to addressed populations and intervention categories. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded and Emerging Sources Citation Index), WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease, PsycINFO, and CINAHL to 11 October 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that assess the impact of interventions implemented to enhance the willingness of different populations to be vaccinated against COVID-19, increase vaccine uptake, or decrease COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised studies of intervention (NRSIs), observational studies and case studies with more than 100 participants. Furthermore, we included systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We did not limit the scope of the review to a specific population or to specific outcomes assessed. We excluded interventions addressing hesitancy towards vaccines for diseases other than COVID-19.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were analysed according to a protocol uploaded to the Open Science Framework. We used an interactive scoping map to visualise the results of our scoping review. We mapped the identified interventions according to pre-specified intervention categories, that were adapted to better fit the evidence. The intervention categories were: communication interventions, policy interventions, educational interventions, incentives (both financial and non-financial), interventions to improve access, and multidimensional interventions. The study outcomes were also included in the mapping. Furthermore, we mapped the country in which the study was conducted, the addressed population, and whether the design was randomised-controlled or not. MAIN RESULTS: We included 96 studies in the scoping review, 35 of which are ongoing and 61 studies with published results. We did not identify any relevant systematic reviews. For an overview, please see thehttps://egmopenaccess.3ieimpact.org/evidence-maps/interventions-increase-covid-19-vaccine-uptake?type=share https://egmopenaccess.3ieimpact.org/evidence-maps/interventions-increase-covid-19-vaccine-uptake?type=share. Studies with published results Of the 61 studies with published results, 46 studies were RCTs and 15 NRSIs. The interventions investigated in the studies were heterogeneous with most studies testing communication strategies to enhance COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Most studies assessed the willingness to get vaccinated as an outcome. The majority of studies were conducted in English-speaking high-income countries. Moreover, most studies investigated digital interventions in an online setting. Populations that were addressed were diverse. For example, studies targeted healthcare workers, ethnic minorities in the USA, students, soldiers, at-risk patients, or the general population. Ongoing studies Of the 35 ongoing studies, 29 studies are RCTs and six NRSIs. Educational and communication interventions were the most used types of interventions. The majority of ongoing studies plan to assess vaccine uptake as an outcome. Again, the majority of studies are being conducted in English-speaking high-income countries. In contrast to the studies with published results, most ongoing studies will not be conducted online. Addressed populations range from minority populations in the USA to healthcare workers or students. Eleven ongoing studies have estimated completion dates in 2022. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We were able to identify and map a variety of heterogeneous interventions for increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake or decreasing vaccine hesitancy. Our results demonstrate that this is an active field of research with 61 published studies and 35 studies still ongoing. This review gives a comprehensive overview of interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake and can be the foundation for subsequent systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake. A research gap was shown for studies conducted in low and middle-income countries and studies investigating policy interventions and improved access, as well as for interventions addressing children and adolescents. As COVID-19 vaccines become more widely available, these populations and interventions should not be neglected in research.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Polis CB, Biddlecom A, Singh S, et al (2022)

Impacts of COVID-19 on contraceptive and abortion services in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review.

Sexual and reproductive health matters, 30(1):2098557.

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionate effects on people living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), exacerbating weak health systems. We conducted a scoping review to identify, map, and synthesise studies in LMICs that measured the impact of COVID-19 on demand for, provision of, and access to contraceptive and abortion-related services, and reproductive outcomes of these impacts. Using a pre-established protocol, we searched bibliographic databases (December 2019-February 2021) and key grey literature sources (December 2019-April 2021). Of 71 studies included, the majority (61%) were not peer-reviewed, and 42% were based in Africa, 35% in Asia, 17% were multi-region, and 6% were in Latin America and the Caribbean. Most studies were based on data through June 2020. The magnitude of contraceptive service-related impacts varied widely across 55 studies (24 of which also included information on abortion). Nearly all studies assessing changes over time to contraceptive service provision noted declines of varying magnitude, but severe disruptions were relatively uncommon or of limited duration. Twenty-six studies addressed the impacts of COVID-19 on abortion and postabortion care (PAC). Overall, studies found increases in demand, reductions in provision and increases in barriers to accessing these services. The use of abortion services declined, but the use of PAC was more mixed with some studies finding increases compared to pre-COVID-19 levels. The impacts of COVID-19 varied substantially, including the country context, health service, and population studied. Continued monitoring is needed to assess impacts on these key health services, as the COVID-19 pandemic evolves.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Major M, Majowicz SE, Oremus M, et al (2022)

Systematic Literature Review of SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Surveys in Canada through April 2021.

IJID Regions (Online) pii:S2772-7076(22)00094-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Objectives: : Through April 2021, sixteen months into the pandemic and four months after availability of COVID-19 vaccines, estimate the proportion infected by SARS-CoV-2 in Canada.

Methods: : We searched publication databases, preprint servers, public health databases and the grey literature for seroprevalence surveys conducted in Canada from November 1, 2019, to July 10, 2021. Studies were assessed for bias using the Joanna Briggs Checklist. Number infections derived from seroprevalence estimates were compared to reported cases to estimate under-ascertainment ratios.

Results: : We identified 12 serosurveys with 210,321 participants. Three (25%) serosurveys were conducted at the national level, 1 (8.3%) at the provincial level, and 8 (66.7%) at the local level. All 12 serosurveys had moderate or high risk of bias. The proportion infected by April 2021 was low (2.6%). The proportion infected were higher in surveys of residents of long-term care facilities (43.0% - 86%), workers at long-term care facilities (22.4%-32.4%), and workers in healthcare institutions (1.4% - 14%).

Conclusions: : As of April 2021, the proportion of the Canadians infected by SARS-CoV-2 was low in the overall population but high in healthcare facilities, particularly long-term care facilities, supporting the need for vaccines.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Gjoneska B, Potenza MN, Jones J, et al (2022)

Problematic use of the internet in low- and middle-income countries before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review.

Current opinion in behavioral sciences pii:S2352-1546(22)00114-0 [Epub ahead of print].

People from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) represent large portions of the world population, often occupy less favorable living conditions, and typically suffer greater health risks, yet frequently receive little research and global health attention. The present study reviews emerging evidence on problematic use of the internet (PUI) in LMICs prior/during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyzed studies mainly focused on general properties of PUI in university students, problematic gaming in youth, or problematic use of social media in adults, registering higher prevalence estimates, as compared to earlier reports. Research mainly focused on initially affected regions and COVID-exposed populations. Overall, unfavorable circumstances including poor social support, family relationships and lifestyle tendencies/habits may present potential risk for PUI in LMICs, likely exacerbated during the pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Preston AE, Drakesmith H, JN Frost (2021)

Adaptive immunity and vaccination - iron in the spotlight.

Immunotherapy advances, 1(1):ltab007 pii:ltab007.

Vaccination programmes are critically important to suppress the burden of infectious diseases, saving countless lives globally, as emphasised by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Effective adaptive immune responses are complex processes subject to multiple influences. Recent genetic, pre-clinical, and clinical studies have converged to show that availability of iron is a key factor regulating the development of T and B cell responses to infection and immunisation. Lymphocytes obtain iron from circulating transferrin. The amount of iron bound to transferrin is dependent on dietary iron availability and is decreased during inflammation via upregulation of the iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin. As iron deficiency and chronic inflammatory states are both globally prevalent health problems, the potential impact of low iron availability on immune responses is significant. We describe the evidence supporting the importance of iron in immunity, highlight important unknowns, and discuss how therapeutic interventions to modulate iron availability might be implementable in the context of vaccination and infectious disease.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Rossi RE, Chen J, ME Caplin (2022)

The Role of Diet and Supplements in the Prevention and Progression of COVID-19: Current Knowledge and Open Issues.

Preventive nutrition and food science, 27(2):137-149.

A healthy diet and dietary supplements have gained attention as potential co-adjuvants in managing and preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper critically reviews the current evidence regarding the impact of diet and supplements on the prevention and progression of COVID-19. According to available data, a healthy diet and normal weight are considered protective factors. Regarding dietary supplementation, the most robust results from human studies are for vitamin C, which appears to decrease inflammatory markers and suppress cytokine storm. A small, randomized trial showed that a high dose of vitamin D significantly reduced the need for intensive care unit treatment of patients requiring hospitalization for COVID-19. According to retrospective human studies, there is limited evidence for vitamin E and selenium supplements. Animal studies have investigated the effects of green tea and curcumin. Xanthohumol and probiotics, interesting for their antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory properties, need formal clinical study. In summary, there is promising evidence supporting the role of diet and supplements as co-adjuvants in the treatment of COVID-19. Further studies and properly designed clinical trials are necessary to draw more robust conclusions; however, it is not unreasonable to take a pragmatic approach and promote the use of appropriate diet and supplements to counter the effects of COVID-19, ideally with a mechanism to assess outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Sanaullah AR, Das A, Das A, et al (2022)

Applications of machine learning for COVID-19 misinformation: a systematic review.

Social network analysis and mining, 12(1):94.

The inflammable growth of misinformation on social media and other platforms during pandemic situations like COVID-19 can cause significant damage to the physical and mental stability of the people. To detect such misinformation, researchers have been applying various machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques. The objective of this study is to systematically review, assess, and synthesize state-of-the-art research articles that have used different ML and DL techniques to detect COVID-19 misinformation. A structured literature search was conducted in the relevant bibliographic databases to ensure that the survey was solely centered on reproducible and high-quality research. We reviewed 43 papers that fulfilled our inclusion criteria out of 260 articles found from our keyword search. We have surveyed a complete pipeline of COVID-19 misinformation detection. In particular, we have identified various COVID-19 misinformation datasets and reviewed different data processing, feature extraction, and classification techniques to detect COVID-19 misinformation. In the end, the challenges and limitations in detecting COVID-19 misinformation using ML techniques and the future research directions are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Salih F, Kohler S, Schönborn L, et al (2022)

Early recognition and treatment of pre-VITT syndrome after adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may prevent from thrombotic complications: review of published cases and clinical pathway.

European heart journal open, 2(3):oeac036 pii:oeac036.

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but highly morbid complication after adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The pre-VITT syndrome is defined as vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia without thrombosis typically presenting with new-onset headache. This review aims to identify at-risk patients before complications such as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis occur. We review previously published reports of 19 patients (median age 35 years, range 23-74; 16 females) who met the diagnostic criteria for a pre-VITT syndrome. Seven patients progressed to VITT, 12 patients did not. Patients who experienced VITT received delayed treatment. The median interval between the onset of headache and VITT-treatment (i.e. anticoagulation, immune globulins, or corticosteroids) was 5 days (range 1-8 days) compared with 2 days (0-5 days) in those without subsequent VITT (P = 0.033). The interval from onset of headache to anticoagulation was longer in patients with VITT (median 7 vs. 2 days; range 3-9 vs. 0-7 days; P = 0.01). Anticoagulation was safe in all patients with a pre-VITT syndrome as no haemorrhagic complications occurred after anticoagulation was started despite low platelets. The transient decline of platelet count after admission was significantly more pronounced in patients who progressed to VITT (median 67 vs. 0 × 103/µL; range 0-77 × 103/µL vs. 0-10 × 103/µL; P = 0.005). d-dimers did not differ between groups. Pre-VITT syndrome is a 'red flag' and allows to identify and preemptively treat patients at-risk of further progression to VITT. However, it must be distinguished from post-vaccination immune thrombocytopenia.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Balai MK, Avasthi RD, Va R, et al (2022)

Psychological Impacts among Health Care Personnel during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review.

Journal of caring sciences, 11(2):118-125.

Introduction: The COVID-19 outbreak is a health emergency, in which health care personnel (HCP) face psychological consequences, working as frontline workers. Therefore, we conducted this study to find out associated psychological impacts among HCP during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. The reviewed studies were searched from PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Google scholar electronic database using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms. Results: We searched through 2676 articles, 19 of which were finally included, most of them were cross-sectional and descriptive studies with 12910 participants. HCP were found to be exposed to a variety of psychological problems; anxiety symptoms were reported in 33% (3081 of 9269), depression 28% (2681 of 9487), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 41% (2933 of 7167), sleep problems 26% (903 of 3442), stress 13% (487 of 3496) and fear 67.3% (392 of 582). The severity of impacts was often mild to moderate. The nurses were twice as likely to develop these symptoms. The factors associated with psychological impacts were fear of infection to self and family members, lack of resources and facilities at workplace, demanding work conditions, working closely with COVID-19 clients in intensive care unit and pre-existing medical and psychological problems. Conclusion: Psychological impacts was mild to moderate among majority of HCP during COVID-19 pandemic. The outcome of this review is to provide some utilitarian information for making supportive policies and strategies to improve the psychological wellbeing of frontline HCP during this pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Li P, Wang Y, Liang J, et al (2022)

Takotsubo syndrome and respiratory diseases: a systematic review.

European heart journal open, 2(2):oeac009 pii:oeac009.

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a rare cardiovascular condition characterized by reversible ventricular dysfunction and a presentation resembling that of acute myocardial infarction. An increasing number of studies has shown the association of respiratory diseases with TTS. Here, we comprehensively reviewed the literature and examined the available evidence for this association. After searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, two investigators independently reviewed 3117 studies published through May 2021. Of these studies, 99 met the inclusion criteria (n = 108 patients). In patients with coexisting respiratory disease and TTS, the most common TTS symptom was dyspnoea (70.48%), followed by chest pain (24.76%) and syncope (2.86%). The most common type of TTS was apical, accounting for 81.13% of cases, followed by the midventricular (8.49%), basal (8.49%), and biventricular (1.89%) types. Among the TTS cases, 39.82% were associated with obstructive lung disease and 38.89% were associated with pneumonia. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been increasingly reported in patients with TTS, was identified in 29 of 42 (69.05%) patients with pneumonia. The overall mortality rate for patients admitted for respiratory disease complicated by TTS was 12.50%. Obstructive lung disease and pneumonia are the most frequently identified respiratory triggers of TTS. Medications and invasive procedures utilized in managing respiratory diseases may also contribute to the development of TTS. Furthermore, the diagnosis of TTS triggered by these conditions can be challenging due to its atypical presentation. Future prospective studies are needed to establish appropriate guidelines for managing respiratory disease with concurrent TTS.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Forouzani-Haghighi B, Rezvani A, A Vazin (2022)

Immune Targeted Therapies for COVID-19 Infection: A Narrative Review.

Iranian journal of medical sciences, 47(4):291-299.

In December 2019, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak emerged in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization officially declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Reports indicated that the associated mortality of the infection is quite higher in the elderly, individuals with specific comorbidities (such as diabetes mellitus), and generally the ones with a compromised immune system. A cohort study in Wuhan, China, reported a dysregulated immune response in 452 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. As a result of this suppressed immune response, an increase in neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, T lymphopenia, and a decrease in CD4+ T cells were all common laboratory findings, especially in severe cases. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence of T cell exhaustion in critically ill patients. Accordingly, the immune system seems to play an important role in the prognosis and pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, this study aims to review the evidence on the immune response dysregulation in COVID-19 infection and the potential role of immunoregulatory treatments such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, interferons, and CD200 inhibitors in altering disease prognosis, especially in critically ill patients.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Edwards-Maddox S (2022)

Burnout and impostor phenomenon in nursing and newly licensed registered nurses: A scoping review.

Journal of clinical nursing [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and severity of impostor phenomenon and burnout in newly licensed registered nurses, map the current literature on impostor phenomenon in nursing, and identify related factors affecting the new nurse's transition to practice.

BACKGROUND: Impostor phenomenon is an internalised intellectual phoniness resulting in persistent self-doubt despite prior success. It can evoke feelings of emotional exhaustion associated with burnout, negatively affecting employee retention. Due to changes in nursing education resulting from COVID-19, self-doubt and uncertainty among new nurses are expected to be heightened, leading to burnout which adversely effects nurse well-being, patient care and retention.

DESIGN: The scoping review follows the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and the Reporting Checklist for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines.

METHODS: The literature search was conducted utilising PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Inclusion criteria were studies published between 2011 and 2021, written in English, peer-reviewed, and focused on newly licensed registered nurses. Eighteen articles were reviewed.

RESULTS: Studies on impostor phenomenon in nursing are limited to nursing students and clinical nurse specialists. Prevalence of impostor feelings in these populations range from 36% to 75%, and 12.3% to 46% of new nurses report burnout. Impostor feelings arise from role ambiguity, lack of self-compassion, transitions, and minimal clinical experience. Burnout was associated with stress, feeling unprepared, inadequate socialisation, and lack of self-compassion. Overlap in these factors could increase impostor feelings and burnout in new nurses.

CONCLUSIONS: Effects of impostor phenomenon and burnout can negatively impact the well-being of the new nurse. Currently, no studies simultaneously examine impostor phenomenon and burnout in new nurses. Further research on the relationship between these phenomena should be conducted.

Understanding the impact of impostor phenomenon and burnout on new nurses could help mitigate challenges they face transitioning into practice.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Gammon R, Katz LM, Strauss D, et al (2022)

Beyond COVID-19 and lessons learned in the United States.

Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England) [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic severely tested the resilience of the US blood supply with wild fluctuations in blood donation and utilisation rates as community donation opportunities ebbed and hospitals post-poned elective surgery. Key stakeholders in transfusion services, blood centres, supply chains and manufacturers reviewed their experiences during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic as well as available literature to describe successes, opportunities for improvement and lessons learned. The blood community found itself in uncharted territory responding to restriction of its access to donors (approximately 20% decrease) and some supplies; environmental adjustments to address staff and donor concerns about coronavirus transmission; and the development of a new product (COVID-19 convalescent plasma [CCP]). In assuring that the needs of the patients were paramount, the donation process was safe, that clinicians had access to CCP, and vendor relationships aligned, the blood banking community relearned its primary focus: improving patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Hoenigl M, Seidel D, Sprute R, et al (2022)

COVID-19-associated fungal infections.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated invasive fungal infections are an important complication in a substantial number of critically ill, hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Three groups of fungal pathogens cause co-infections in COVID-19: Aspergillus, Mucorales and Candida species, including Candida auris. Here we review the incidence of COVID-19-associated invasive fungal infections caused by these fungi in low-, middle- and high-income countries. By evaluating the epidemiology, clinical risk factors, predisposing features of the host environment and immunological mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of these co-infections, we set the scene for future research and development of clinical guidance.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Ryan EG, Couturier DL, S Heritier (2022)

Bayesian adaptive clinical trial designs for respiratory medicine.

Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) [Epub ahead of print].

The use of Bayesian adaptive designs for clinical trials has increased in recent years, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Bayesian adaptive designs offer a flexible and efficient framework for conducting clinical trials and may provide results that are more useful and natural to interpret for clinicians, compared to traditional approaches. In this review, we provide an introduction to Bayesian adaptive designs and discuss its use in recent clinical trials conducted in respiratory medicine. We illustrate this approach by constructing a Bayesian adaptive design for a multi-arm trial that compares two non-invasive ventilation treatments to standard oxygen therapy for patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. We highlight the benefits and some of the challenges involved in designing and implementing Bayesian adaptive trials.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Mauro A, De Grazia F, Anderloni A, et al (2022)

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in coronavirus disease 2019 patients.

Current opinion in gastroenterology, 38(5):443-449.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) has significant morbidity and UGIB cases have been described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Management of this condition can be challenging considering both the possible severe COVID-19-related pneumonia as well as the risk of the virus spreading from patients to health operators. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent studies available in the literature in order to evaluate the actual incidence of UGIB, its clinical and endoscopic manifestations and its optimal management.

RECENT FINDINGS: UGIB has an incidence between 0.5% and 1.9% among COVID-19 patients, and it typically presents with melena or hematemesis. Peptic ulcers are the most common endoscopic findings. High Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), dialysis, acute kidney injury and advanced oncological disease increase the risk for UGIB. Although anticoagulants are commonly used in COVID-19 patients they are not associated with an increased incidence of UGIB. Conservative management is a common approach that results in similar outcomes compared to upper GI endoscopic treatment. Apparently, UGIB in COVID-19 seems not have a detrimental effect and only one study showed an increased mortality in those who developed UGIB during hospitalization.

SUMMARY: Incidence of UGIB in COVID-19 patients is similar to that of the general population. Despite the widespread use of anticoagulants in these patients, they are not associated with an increased risk of UGIB. Conservative management could be an effective option, especially for patients that are at risk of intubation.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Maretzki M, Geiger R, JA Buxton (2022)

How COVID-19 has impacted access to healthcare and social resources among individuals experiencing homelessness in Canada: a scoping review.

BMJ open, 12(8):e058233.

OBJECTIVES: In Canada, individuals experiencing homelessness (IEH) rely on public health and social services for healthcare, food and basic necessities. The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected marginalised populations, in part by impacting their access to such services. We performed a scoping review to identify from the published literature how access to services has changed for Canadian IEH during the pandemic.

DATA SOURCES: OVID Medline, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, CINAHL and OVID EmCare databases, and websites for the Salvation Army, Homeless Hub, Canadian Alliance to End Homelessness, Canadian Network for the Health and Housing of People Experiencing Homelessness and BC Centre for Disease Control.

STUDY DESIGN: We used the scoping review methodology developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute framework and defined access to healthcare and social services using the 10-component Levesque framework. Academic databases and grey literature searches were used, with the final searches for each taking place 24 May and 1 June 2021, respectively. Data were compiled into an Excel spreadsheet. Title and abstract screening and full-text review were completed by two independent reviewers (RG and MM). Data extraction was completed by MM and cross checked by RG.

RESULTS: In total, 17 academic and grey literature articles were included. Positive and negative changes in service access were reported in the literature. During the COVID-19 pandemic, access to social and healthcare resources was generally reduced for Canadian IEH. A new component of access, digital connectivity, was identified. Unexpectedly, coordination and collaboration of services improved, as did the number of outreach services.

CONCLUSIONS: Positive changes to service access such as improved coordination of services should be scaled up. Further work should be done to improve access to digital technologies for IEH.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Schimschal SE, Visentin D, Kornhaber R, et al (2022)

Achieving Long-term Goals Amidst Uncertainty: An Integrative Model for the Psychological Resources of Grit.

Journal of continuing education in nursing, 53(8):355-363.

This article proposes an integrative model for the psychological resources of grit. The growing body of work in nursing on the topic of grit indicates considerable interest in achieving long-term goals, especially amidst uncertainty from the COVID-19 pandemic. Motivational behaviors are thought to influence engagement in continuing education in nursing, thereby improving clinical practice and patient outcomes. The model was informed by a comprehensive review of the literature. Sixteen attributes for acquiring and strengthening four psychological resources of grit were identified. Each attribute is discussed along with interrelationships and implications for professional nursing development. Given the complex demands placed on health professionals, this model is both timely and relevant for all nurse and education providers interested in enhancing personal characteristics that may mitigate against stress and build capabilities for goal achievement. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(8):355-363.].

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Meidaninikjeh S, Sabouni N, Taheri M, et al (2022)

SARS-CoV-2 and Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Lessons from Viral Infections.

Viral immunology, 35(6):404-417.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has a broad clinical spectrum from asymptomatic patients to multiorgan dysfunction and septic shock. Most of the common symptoms of COVID-19 are classified as respiratory disorders, but some reports show neurological involvements. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a case series of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), were reported. GBS is a neuroimmune disorder with acute inflammatory radicular polyneuropathy in different parts of the peripheral nerve. Some studies have reported GBS as an inflammatory neuropathy related to various viral infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza, and Zika virus. There are some immunomodulation approaches for the management of GBS. Studies have evaluated the effects of the various therapeutic approaches, including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasma exchange (PE), complement inhibitors, and corticosteroids to regulate overactivation of immune responses during GBS in experimental and clinical studies. In this regard, the possible association between GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection during the outbreak of the current pandemic and also the mentioned therapeutic approaches were reviewed.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Horwitz RI, Conroy AH, Cullen MR, et al (2022)

Long COVID and Medicine's Two Cultures.

The American journal of medicine, 135(8):945-949.

Medicine has separated the two cultures of biological science and social science in research, even though they are intimately connected in the lives of our patients. To understand the cause, progression, and treatment of long COVID , biology and biography, the patient's lived experience, must be studied together.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Arshi A, Wellens B, CA Krueger (2022)

How the Shift in Arthroplasty Surgery Location Impacts the Relationship of Private Surgeons, Hospitals, and Ambulatory Surgery Centers.

The Journal of arthroplasty, 37(8):1455-1458.

The recent removal of total hip and knee arthroplasty from the Medicare inpatient-only list, COVID-19 pandemic, decreasing reimbursements, and bundled payment programs have all had tremendous impact on the practice of arthroplasty. Surgeons and practices must adapt to these challenges to achieve the ideal triad of quality patient care, low cost to payors, and sustainable financial margins for stakeholders. Here, we review institutional data and present our experience with the changing arthroplasty practice landscape. With the principle of demand matching, arthroplasty surgeons and practices can risk-stratify and shuttle patients in the appropriate operative and rehabilitation setting to optimize quality and efficiency.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Ji HL, Dai Y, R Zhao (2022)

Fibrinolytic therapy for COVID-19: a review of case series.

Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 43(8):2168-2170.

RevDate: 2022-08-01
CmpDate: 2022-08-01

Gopi P, Anju TR, Pillai VS, et al (2022)

SARS-Coronavirus 2, A Metabolic Reprogrammer: A Review in the Context of the Possible Therapeutic Strategies.

Current drug targets, 23(8):770-781.

Novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is advancing at a staggering pace to devastate the health care system and foster concerns over public health. In contrast to the past outbreaks, coronaviruses are not clinging themselves as a strict respiratory virus. Rather, becoming a multifaceted virus, it affects multiple organs by interrupting a number of metabolic pathways leading to significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Following infection, they rigorously reprogram multiple metabolic pathways of glucose, lipid, protein, nucleic acid, and their metabolites to extract adequate energy and carbon skeletons required for their existence and further molecular constructions inside a host cell. Although the mechanism of these alterations is yet to be known, the impact of these reprogramming is reflected in the hyperinflammatory responses, so called cytokine storm and the hindrance of the host immune defence system. The metabolic reprogramming during SARSCoV- 2 infection needs to be considered while devising therapeutic strategies to combat the disease and its further complication. The inhibitors of cholesterol and phospholipids synthesis and cell membrane lipid raft of the host cell can, to a great extent, control the viral load and further infection. Depletion of energy sources by inhibiting the activation of glycolytic and hexosamine biosynthetic pathways can also augment antiviral therapy. The cross talk between these pathways also necessitates the inhibition of amino acid catabolism and tryptophan metabolism. A combinatorial strategy that can address the cross talks between the metabolic pathways might be more effective than a single approach, and the infection stage and timing of therapy will also influence the effectiveness of the antiviral approach. We herein focus on the different metabolic alterations during the course of virus infection that help exploit the cellular machinery and devise a therapeutic strategy that promotes resistance to viral infection and can augment body's antivirulence mechanisms. This review may cast light on the possibilities of targeting altered metabolic pathways to defend against virus infection in a new perspective.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Sharma P, Dhanjal DS, Chopra C, et al (2022)

Targeting eosinophils in chronic respiratory diseases using nanotechnology-based drug delivery.

Chemico-biological interactions pii:S0009-2797(22)00255-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Asthma, COPD, COVID-19, EGPA, Lung cancer, and Pneumonia are major chronic respiratory diseases (or CRDs) affecting millions worldwide and account for substantial morbidity and mortality. These CRDs are irreversible diseases that affect different parts of the respiratory system, imposing a considerable burden on different socio-economic classes. All these CRDs have been linked to increased eosinophils in the lungs. Eosinophils are essential immune mediators that contribute to tissue homeostasis and the pathophysiology of various diseases. Interestingly, elevated eosinophil level is associated with cellular processes that regulate airway hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion, and inflammation in the lung. Therefore, eosinophil is considered the therapeutic target in eosinophil-mediated lung diseases. Although, conventional medicines like antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and bronchodilators are available to prevent CRDs. But the development of resistance to these therapeutic agents after long-term usage remains a challenge. However, progressive development in nanotechnology has unveiled the targeted nanocarrier approach that can significantly improve the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic drug. The potential of the nanocarrier system can be specifically targeted on eosinophils and their associated components to obtain promising results in the pharmacotherapy of CRDs. This review intends to provide knowledge about eosinophils and their role in CRDs. Moreover, it also discusses nanocarrier drug delivery systems for the targeted treatment of CRDs.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Mosconi MG, M Paciaroni (2022)

Treatments in Ischemic Stroke: Current and Future.

European neurology pii:000525822 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite progress made over the last 30 years, stroke is still a leading cause of disability and mortality; likewise, its burden is expected to increase over the next decades, due to population growth and aging. The development of drugs with better safety-efficacy profiles as well as strategies able to improve ischemic stroke management from the pre-hospital setting is needed.

SUMMARY: The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke involves multiple pathways resulting in cerebral artery obstruction and brain tissue ischemia. To date, the only approved drug for acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolytic alteplase. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) can be administered alone or in combination with endovascular treatment (EVT) with mechanical thrombectomy, in case of large vessel occlusion and generally within 6 h from symptoms onset. The risk of potential bleeding complications, especially symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, is one of the reasons for the reluctance to administer IVT. Tenecteplase is a promising alternative fibrinolytic agent, having a better safety profile than alteplase. Moreover, recent evidences have allowed an extension of the IVT ± EVT time window for patients with unknown onset time and for those with a known onset time thanks to the new "tissue-window" approach guided by advanced neuroimaging techniques, which also helps in collateral circulation estimation. Regarding primary-secondary prevention, researchers are focused on improving the efficacy of antithrombotic drugs with a "hemostasis-sparing" approach. Neuroprotective agents are also under development, particularly stem cells. The COVID-19 pandemic has critically stressed global healthcare systems, with collateral damage resulting in access delivery of only emergency care, such as ischemic stroke. Regarding telemedicine, it has had a minor role in acute stroke management, and with the onset of COVID-19, this role will most likely be adopted to increase access and delivery in stroke assessment, but also in the follow-up.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )