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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Jun 2024 at 01:42 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 45859 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-06-07

Valadez-Cuen K, Bhatt T, Mendez IE, et al (2024)

E-cigarette Use and Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.

Cureus, 16(5):e59591.

E-cigarettes have been known to cause varied poor health outcomes prior to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but after the impact of COVID-19, evidence came out that was, in some instances, not as expected regarding the severity of COVID-19 among e-cigarette users (vapers). A meta-analysis was performed on the available evidence to comprehensively find the effect of COVID-19 on existing or past e-cigarette users (vapers). The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were used to perform this meta-analysis. PubMed was searched for observational studies that described outcomes after COVID-19 positivity from December 1, 2019, to December 2023. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords were used for searching the relevant studies highlighting the relationship between COVID-19 and e-cigarette users. Calculations for pooled prevalence, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), weights for current e-cigarette users and vapers, and outcomes (events) were made. To analyze the data, Review Manager V.5.4 was used. The I[2] statistic was used to assess statistical heterogeneity. The I[2] statistic of >50% was considered significant heterogeneity. The "leave-one-out" method was used for sensitivity analysis. Out of 3231 studies, four studies reported data on vaping and non-vaping status and composite outcomes, resulting in a sample size of 653 COVID-19-positive cases. The pooled prevalence of being COVID-19 positive, having symptoms, or visiting an emergency room was 7.78% (653/8392). COVID-19 patients with current vaping status had decreased odds of poor outcomes compared to non-smokers, with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 0.09 (95% CI 0.00-2.42; p>0.05) with heterogeneity between studies (I[2]=99%, p=0.15). Because of difficulties related to data collection and other factors, this meta-analysis was unable to conclusively establish the correlation between e-cigarette usage and severe COVID-19 outcomes such as hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, and fatality. Additional research using more detailed data is necessary to fully understand this correlation.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Dutra LS, N Shigaeff (2024)

Proposed protocol for post COVID-19 cognitive rehabilitation for attention and memory.

Dementia & neuropsychologia, 18:e20230109.

UNLABELLED: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people suffered from Long Covid Syndrome, in which affected individuals do not recover immediately after the end of the infectious and inflammatory process caused by the virus. The most common neuropsychological symptoms of this syndrome are: memory decline, lack of attention, anxiety and depression.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a proposed cognitive rehabilitation protocol for post-COVID individuals with cognitive symptoms.

METHODS: A rehabilitation proposed protocol focusing on attention and memory was developed, based on the tests used in the neuropsychological evaluation of affected patients. Researchers held weekly sessions for six months, each lasting 60 minutes. Homework activities were also assigned and corrected in the following session. The attention and memory sessions were conducted with activities based on the applied tests.

RESULTS: Despite the methodological separation of attention and memory, the activities indirectly affect other cognitive functions and abilities, such as executive function, language, reasoning, execution strategies, and cognitive flexibility. A computer, a sheet of paper, and a pen were used to present the slides for the activities. Attention training included all types of attention: sustained, alternating, selective and divided. Memory training sessions included activities that stimulated both short-term and long-term memory. With each session, the difficulty of the activities was gradually increased.

CONCLUSION: Cognitive rehabilitation already has more consolidated evidence about its effectiveness for the treatment of other pathologies, so it can be thought that it will also be a promising strategy for COVID-19 too.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Potestio L, Lauletta G, Tommasino N, et al (2024)

Risk Factors for Psoriasis Flares: A Narrative Review.

Psoriasis (Auckland, N.Z.), 14:39-50.

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease with multifactorial pathogenesis involving both genetic and environmental factors as well as the innate and acquired immune response. Several triggering factors may exacerbate or worsen the disease. In this context, we performed a review manuscript with the aim of investigating current literature on psoriasis risk factors, also showing possible mechanisms by which they act on psoriasis. Globally, risk factors can be divided in classic risk factors (eg, mechanical stress, infections and dysbiosis of the skin, common drugs, environment and pollution, lifestyle, psychological stress, hormonal and metabolic alterations) which have long been known to be responsible for worsening and/or reoccurrence of psoriatic manifestations, and emerging risk factors (eg, biological drugs, immunotherapy for oncologic disease, Covid-19, and vaccines) defined as those newly identified risk factors. Accurate patient information and monitoring of risk factors as well as planned follow-ups may help to prevent and treat the worsening of psoriasis and consequently improve the quality of life of psoriatic patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Ankolekar A, Eppings L, Bottari F, et al (2024)

Using artificial intelligence and predictive modelling to enable learning healthcare systems (LHS) for pandemic preparedness.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 24:412-419.

In anticipation of potential future pandemics, we examined the challenges and opportunities presented by the COVID-19 outbreak. This analysis highlights how artificial intelligence (AI) and predictive models can support both patients and clinicians in managing subsequent infectious diseases, and how legislators and policymakers could support these efforts, to bring learning healthcare system (LHS) from guidelines to real-world implementation. This report chronicles the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic, emphasizing the diverse data sets generated throughout its course. We propose strategies for harnessing this data via AI and predictive modelling to enhance the functioning of LHS. The challenges faced by patients and healthcare systems around the world during this unprecedented crisis could have been mitigated with an informed and timely adoption of the three pillars of the LHS: Knowledge, Data and Practice. By harnessing AI and predictive analytics, we can develop tools that not only detect potential pandemic-prone diseases early on but also assist in patient management, provide decision support, offer treatment recommendations, deliver patient outcome triage, predict post-recovery long-term disease impacts, monitor viral mutations and variant emergence, and assess vaccine and treatment efficacy in real-time. A patient-centric approach remains paramount, ensuring patients are both informed and actively involved in disease mitigation strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Rezabakhsh A, Sadaie MR, Ala A, et al (2024)

STING agonists as promising vaccine adjuvants to boost immunogenicity against SARS-related coronavirus derived infection: possible role of autophagy.

Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 22(1):305.

As a major component of innate immunity and a positive regulator of interferons, the Stimulator of interferon gene (STING) has an immunotherapy potential to govern a variety of infectious diseases. Despite the recent advances regarding vaccines against COVID-19, nontoxic novel adjuvants with the potential to enhance vaccine efficacy are urgently desired. In this connection, it has been well-documented that STING agonists are applied to combat COVID-19. This approach is of major significance for boosting immune responses most likely through an autophagy-dependent manner in susceptible individuals against infection induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS‑CoV‑2). Given that STING agonists exert substantial immunomodulatory impacts under a wide array of pathologic conditions, these agents could be considered novel adjuvants for enhancing immunogenicity against the SARS-related coronavirus. Here, we intend to discuss the recent advances in STING agonists' recruitment to boost innate immune responses upon vaccination against SARS-related coronavirus infections. In light of the primordial role of autophagy modulation, the potential of being an antiviral vaccine adjuvant was also explored.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Vallée A (2024)

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the socioeconomic gradient of hypertension.

Journal of public health policy [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought into sharp focus the impact of socioeconomic factors on hypertension outcomes. This review examines the implications of the pandemic on the socioeconomic gradient of hypertension and explores the physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying this relationship. Changes in socioeconomic factors have disproportionately affected individuals with lower socioeconomic status, leading to adverse hypertension outcomes. The pandemic-related stressors, coupled with social isolation and disrupted daily routines, have contributed to elevated stress levels among individuals, particularly those with lower socioeconomic status. Equitable access to healthcare, enhancing health literacy and patient empowerment, and addressing social determinants of health are essential components of hypertension management strategies. By recognizing the specific challenges faced by individuals with lower socioeconomic status and implementing targeted interventions, public health efforts can help reduce the socioeconomic gradient of hypertension.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Bibi A, Bartekova M, Gandhi S, et al (2024)

Circular RNA regulatory role in pathological cardiac remodelling.

British journal of pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

Cardiac remodelling involves structural, cellular and molecular alterations in the heart after injury, resulting in progressive loss of heart function and ultimately leading to heart failure. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a recently rediscovered class of non-coding RNAs that play regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the role of circRNAs in the processes governing cardiac remodelling may set the ground for the development of circRNA-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this review, the current knowledge about circRNA origin, conservation, characteristics and function is summarized. Bioinformatics and wet-lab methods used in circRNA research are discussed. The regulatory function of circRNAs in cardiac remodelling mechanisms such as cell death, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, fibrosis and metabolism is highlighted. Finally, key challenges and opportunities in circRNA research are discussed, and orientations for future work to address the pharmacological potential of circRNAs in heart failure are proposed.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Shah R, Loo CE, Hanna NM, et al (2024)

Global review of COVID-19 mitigation strategies and their impact on cancer service disruptions.

Journal of cancer policy, 41:100486 pii:S2213-5383(24)00020-1 [Epub ahead of print].

During the COVID-19 pandemic, countries adopted mitigation strategies to reduce disruptions to cancer services. We reviewed their implementation across health system functions and their impact on cancer diagnosis and care during the pandemic. A systematic search was performed using terms related to cancer and COVID-19. Included studies reported on individuals with cancer or cancer care services, focusing on strategies/programs aimed to reduce delays and disruptions. Extracted data were grouped into four functions (governance, financing, service delivery, and resource generation) and sub-functions of the health system performance assessment framework. We included 30 studies from 16 countries involving 192,233 patients with cancer. Multiple mitigation approaches were implemented, predominantly affecting sub-functions of service delivery to control COVID-19 infection via the suspension of non-urgent cancer care, modified treatment guidelines, and increased telemedicine use in routine cancer care delivery. Resource generation was mainly ensured through adequate workforce supply. However, less emphasis on monitoring or assessing the effectiveness and financing of these strategies was observed. Seventeen studies suggested improved service uptake after mitigation implementation, yet the resulting impact on cancer diagnosis and care has not been established. This review emphasizes the importance of developing effective mitigation strategies across all health system (sub)functions to minimize cancer care service disruptions during crises. Deficiencies were observed in health service delivery (to ensure equity), governance (to monitor and evaluate the implementation of mitigation strategies), and financing. In the wake of future emergencies, implementation research studies that include pre-prepared protocols will be essential to assess mitigation impact across cancer care services.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Alway T, Bastiaenen R, Pantazis A, et al (2024)

The development of inherited cardiac conditions services: current position and future perspectives.

British medical bulletin, 150(1):11-22.

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, inherited cardiac conditions (ICC) centres have emerged with the aim of improving outcomes for patients and their families, through early diagnosis, genetic testing, risk assessment and specialist treatment.

SOURCES OF DATA: A literature search was performed using PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). Commissioned ICC service reviews from NHS England, NHS Improvement and PHG Foundation were evaluated.

AREAS OF AGREEMENT: ICC patient management requires a multi-disciplinary approach. ICC services are predominantly based within tertiary centres. Despite expansion, provision of care remains inadequate to meet rising demands. Access to services is inconsistent, partly due to geographic variation and lack of standardized pathways.

AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: The optimal ICC care model remains undecided, although there is growing interest in 'hub-and-spoke' networks, which could aid secondary and tertiary service integration and repatriation of care.

GROWING POINTS: Genetic mainstreaming is a priority for the Genomic Medicine Service Alliance. The benefits of telehealth and virtual clinics have been validated by their use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Other innovations to improve resource efficiency, such as clinical scientist-led and nurse-led clinics, show promise.

An update for the NHS ICC service specifications is planned that appears well timed given the rapid evolution of the ICC landscape in the decade since last review. This has the potential to address needs including national audit, standardized pathways and ICC networks to improve governance and equity of care. Delegation of commissioning for specialist services to integrated care systems may also provide opportunity for increased regional direction.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

O'Brien CV, D Charura (2023)

Refugees, asylum seekers, and practitioners' perspectives of embodied trauma: A comprehensive scoping review.

Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy, 15(7):1115-1127.

INTRODUCTION: Individuals seeking refuge and asylum commonly present to health care practitioners with embodiment of mental distress resulting from the traumatic nature of their migration experiences. The number of displaced individuals has doubled over the past decade due to the impacts of war, religious and political conflict, climate change, and COVID-19. Studies point towards the need for a comprehensive scoping review to fully explicate the concept of embodied trauma, bridging the gap between phenomenological lived experience and the many treatments available.

OBJECTIVES: To inform psychotherapy guidelines by identifying the evidence for embodied trauma, clarifying key terms, examining how research is conducted, and identifying gaps in the knowledge.

METHOD: A five-stage scoping review protocol was operationalized to explore and analyze the existing literature and associated terminology by (a) identifying the research question, (b) identifying the relevant literature, (c) selecting the studies, (d) charting the data, and (e) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results.

RESULTS: Highlight the need for a clear definition of terms, the development of a culturally informed assessment and formulation for individuals experiencing embodied trauma, and reveal a gap in the research for the best treatment approach(es).

CONCLUSION: Proposal of a clear definition of embodied trauma and key themes for future research including culturally informed care, psychosocial support, language considerations, relational belonging, and inclusion of sexual, spiritual, and existential factors, moving away from purely Westernized diagnoses and treatments towards culturally informed care. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Koiso S, Gulbas E, Dike L, et al (2024)

Modeling approaches to inform travel-related policies for COVID-19 containment: a scoping review and future directions.

Travel medicine and infectious disease pii:S1477-8939(24)00044-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Travel-related strategies to reduce the spread of COVID-19 evolved rapidly in response to changes in the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and newly available tools for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Modeling is an important methodology to investigate the range of outcomes that could occur from different disease containment strategies.

METHODS: We examined 43 articles published from December 2019 through September 2022 that used modeling to evaluate travel-related COVID-19 containment strategies. We extracted and synthesized data regarding study objectives, methods, outcomes, populations, settings, strategies, and costs. We used a standardized approach to evaluate each analysis according to 26 criteria for modeling quality and rigor.

RESULTS: The most frequent approaches included compartmental modeling to examine quarantine, isolation, or testing. Early in the pandemic, the goal was to prevent travel-related COVID-19 cases with a focus on individual-level outcomes and assessing strategies such as travel restrictions, quarantine without testing, social distancing, and on-arrival PCR testing. After the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines, modeling studies projected population-level outcomes and investigated these tools to limit COVID-19 spread. Very few published studies included rapid antigen screening strategies, costs, explicit model calibration, or critical evaluation of the modeling approaches.

CONCLUSION: Future modeling analyses should leverage open-source data, improve the transparency of modeling methods, incorporate newly available prevention, diagnostics, and treatments, and include costs and cost-effectiveness so that modeling analyses can be informative to address future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and other emerging infectious diseases (e.g., mpox and Ebola) for travel-related health policies.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Gridneva GI, Belov BS, ES Aronova (2024)

[Chronic hepatitis B in rheumatic diseases: issues of screening and reactivation of infection: A review].

Terapevticheskii arkhiv, 96(5):523-530.

Patients with rheumatic diseases infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are difficult to manage not only due to the presence of risk factors for the development and rapid progression of liver cirrhosis, but also due to the likelihood of reactivation of this infection. Despite the successes achieved in the fight against HBV, the virus cannot be completely defeated due to the presence of hidden forms of the disease, escaping the field of vision of a rheumatologist and an infectionist. Based on the results of the analysis of current publications, the paper presents the rationale for a complete immunological screening of patients with rheumatic diseases when prescribing antirheumatic therapy. The issues of the role of COVID-19 in the exacerbation of chronic viral hepatitis B, antiviral prevention and monitoring are discussed, the classification of antirheumatic drugs according to the risk of HBV reactivation is presented.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Julide T, Cigdem T, T Baris (2024)

Cognitive impairment in long-COVID.

Ideggyogyaszati szemle, 77(5-6):151-159.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Long Covid is a complex con­dition characterised by symptoms that per­sist for weeks and months after the Co­vid infection, accompanied by cognitive im­pairment that negatively affects daily life. Understanding this complex condition is im­portant for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of cognitive impairment in long-COVID, including its definition, symptoms, pathophysiology, risk factors, assessment tools, imaging abnormalities, potential biomarkers, management strategies, long-term outcomes, and future directions for research.




.

METHODS:

The search methodology used in this review aimed to include a wide range of research on cognitive impairment related to both COVID-19 and long-COVID. Systematic searches of PubMed and Google Scholar databases were conducted using a mixture of MeSH terms and keywords including ‘cognition’, ‘cognitive impairment’, ‘brain fog’, ‘COVID-19’ and ‘long-COVID’. The search was restricted to studies published in English between 1 January 2019 and 11 February 2024, which presented findings on neurological manifestations in human participants.

.

RESULTS:

Long-COVID is characterized by persistent symptoms following COVID-19 infection, with cognitive impairment being a prominent feature. Symptoms include brain fog, difficulties with concentration, memory issues, and executive function deficits. Pa­tho­physiological mechanisms involve vi­ral persistence, immune responses, and vas­cular damage. Risk factors include age, pre-existing conditions, and disease seve­rity. Cognitive assessment tools such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) are essential for diagnosis. Imaging studies, including MRI, PET, and SPECT, reveal structural and functional brain alterations. Potential biomarkers include C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and neuron-specific enolase. Management strategies encompass cognitive rehabilitation, occupational therapy, medications, and lifestyle modifications.

.

CONCLUSION:

Long-COVID poses a multifaceted challenge, and cognitive impairment significantly impacts patients’ lives. A multi­disciplinary approach, including cognitive rehabilitation and medication when appropriate, is essential for effective management. Future research should focus on validating biomarkers and understanding long-term cognitive outcomes.

Conclusion – Long-COVID is a global health concern, and cognitive impairment is a distressing symptom. While pharmacological interventions have potential, they require careful consideration. Continued research is crucial for improving the understanding and treatment of cognitive impairment in long-COVID.

.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Dong Y, Wang J, Chen L, et al (2024)

Aptamer-based assembly systems for SARS-CoV-2 detection and therapeutics.

Chemical Society reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Nucleic acid aptamers are oligonucleotide chains with molecular recognition properties. Compared with antibodies, aptamers show advantages given that they are readily produced via chemical synthesis and elicit minimal immunogenicity in biomedicine applications. Notably, aptamer-encoded nucleic acid assemblies further improve the binding affinity of aptamers with the targets due to their multivalent synergistic interactions. Specially, aptamers can be engineered with special topological arrangements in nucleic acid assemblies, which demonstrate spatial and valence matching towards antigens on viruses, thus showing potential in the detection and therapeutic applications of viruses. This review presents the recent progress on the aptamers explored for SARS-CoV-2 detection and infection treatment, wherein applications of aptamer-based assembly systems are introduced in detail. Screening methods and chemical modification strategies for aptamers are comprehensively summarized, and the types of aptamers employed against different target domains of SARS-CoV-2 are illustrated. The evolution of aptamer-based assembly systems for the detection and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the construction principle and characteristics of aptamer-based DNA assemblies are demonstrated. The typically representative works are presented to demonstrate how to assemble aptamers rationally and elaborately for specific applications in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and neutralization. Finally, we provide deep insights into the current challenges and future perspectives towards aptamer-based nucleic acid assemblies for virus detection and neutralization in nanomedicine.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Brailovskaia J (2024)

The "Vicious Circle of addictive Social Media Use and Mental Health" Model.

Acta psychologica, 247:104306.

Social media use (SMU) is a significant part of many people's everyday life. Research around the globe describes an increase of addictive SMU tendencies since the COVID-19 outbreak. The present work combines available findings in the "Vicious Circle of addictive Social Media Use and Mental Health" model to explain how social media (SM) activity can contribute to the development of addictive tendencies, which consequences they have for mental health, and how to prevent them. Following the model, the interplay between the risk factors negative experiences caused by daily hassles and by unexpected global and traumatic events, SMU (dimension "quality"), and SM flow can directly contribute to addictive SMU through the "vicious circle". Time spent on SMU (dimension "quantity"), symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the personality trait narcissism contribute to the circle as moderators. Symptoms of stress, insomnia, and suicide-related outcomes are described as potential consequences of addictive SMU. Based on longitudinal intervention studies, a conscious reduction of SMU time and an increase of physical activity, as well as positive mental health and mindfulness are identified as protective factors that reduce the risk of addictive tendencies. The model contributes to a better understanding of addictive SMU. Implications of the model for future research and praxis, specifically for mental health programs and therapeutic treatment are discussed.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Bowdle A, Brosseau LM, Tellier R, et al (2024)

Reducing airborne transmissible diseases in perioperative environments.

British journal of anaesthesia, 133(1):19-23.

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed our understanding of aerosol transmissible disease and the measures required to minimise transmission. Anaesthesia providers are often in close proximity to patients and other hospital staff for prolonged periods while working in operating and procedure rooms. Although enhanced ventilation provides some protection from aerosol transmissible disease in these work areas, close proximity and long duration of exposure have the opposite effect. Surgical masks provide only minimal additional protection. Surgical patients are also at risk from viral and bacterial aerosols. Despite having recently experienced the most significant pandemic in 100 yr, we continue to lack adequate understanding of the true risks encountered from aerosol transmissible diseases in the operating room, and the best course of action to protect patients and healthcare workers from them in the future. Nevertheless, hospitals can take specific actions now by providing respirators for routine use, encouraging staff to utilise respirators routinely, establishing triggers for situations that require respirator use, educating staff concerning the prevention of aerosol transmissible diseases, and providing portable air purifiers for perioperative spaces with low levels of ventilation.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Takefuji Y (2024)

Exploring the connection between frailty and cardiovascular diseases.

Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 124:105449.

This study explores the significant correlation between frailty and an elevated risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that increased frailty screening could enhance disease management and optimize resource distribution. An analysis of peer-reviewed papers on frailty and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) over a ten-year period reveals a peak of 4480 articles from September 2021 to September 2022. The literature review conducted on frailty and CVD highlights the high prevalence of frailty in older adults with CVD and its role as a predictor of cardiovascular death. The study suggests that frailty can inform treatment decisions, offering more personalized care. However, standardizing frailty assessment in clinical practice and trials is needed. The impact of frailty on coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and atrial fibrillation requires further research. The study also discusses the increasing global burden of CVD among older adults due to aging populations and improved care. It highlights the challenges posed by older age, multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy, frailty, and adverse noncardiovascular outcomes. The review focuses on geriatric conditions that significantly impacted health status, quality of life, and overall prognosis. The study concludes that frailty significantly increases the risk of CVD events and major adverse cardiovascular events in older adults without prior CVD. Screening for frailty could help identify those at higher risk and facilitate targeted preventive measures.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Kaufman MR, Palmer C, Hirner S, et al (2024)

Inequities in COVID-19-Related Patient Outcomes by Socio-Demographic Characteristics: A Scoping Review.

Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 35(2):391-424.

Socio-demographic inequities in health treatment and outcomes are not new. However, the COVID-19 pandemic presented new opportunities to examine and address biases. This article describes a scoping review of 170 papers published prior to the onset of global vaccinations and treatment (December 2021). We report differentiated COVID-19-related patient outcomes for people with various socio-demographic characteristics, including the need for intubation and ventilation, intensive care unit admission, discharge to hospice care, and mortality. Using the PROGRESS-Plus framework, we determined that the most researched socio-demographic factor was race/ethnicity/culture/language. Members of minoritized racial and ethnic groups tended to have worse COVID-19-related patient outcomes; more research is needed about other categories of social disadvantage, given the scarcity of literature on these factors at the time of the review. It is only by researching and addressing the causes of social disadvantage that we can avoid such injustice in future public health crises.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Hu YC, Yang YH, BL Chiang (2024)

Immunoglobulin A vasculitis: The clinical features and pathophysiology.

The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Palpable purpura, gastrointestinal symptoms, joint involvement, and renal disease characterize immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV). Renal involvement ranging from mild proteinuria to severe nephritic or nephrotic syndrome highlights the importance of monitoring kidney function in patients with IgAV. Recognizing these key features is crucial for early diagnosis and appropriate management to prevent long-term complications related to kidney disease. However, the pathogenesis of IgAV remains unclear. Disease mechanisms involve various factors, including the interplay of aberrantly glycosylated IgA, anti-endothelial cell antibodies, and neutrophils following infection triggers, which are the main pathogenic mechanisms of IgAV. Insights from cases of IgAV related to Coronavirus disease 2019 have offered additional understanding of the connection between infection and IgAV pathogenesis. This review provides a valuable resource for healthcare professionals and rheumatology researchers seeking a better understanding of the clinical features and pathophysiology of IgAV.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Yong J, CH Toh (2024)

The convergent model of coagulation.

Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH pii:S1538-7836(24)00297-6 [Epub ahead of print].

It is increasingly apparent that the pathologic interplay between coagulation and innate immunity, ie, immunothrombosis, forms the common basis of many challenges across the boundaries of specialized medicine and cannot be fully explained by the conventional concepts of cascade and cell-based coagulation. To improve our understanding of coagulation, we propose a model of coagulation that converges with inflammation and innate immune activation as a unified response toward vascular injury. Evolutionarily integral to the convergent response are damage-associated molecular patterns, which are released as a consequence of injury. Damage-associated molecular patterns facilitate diverse interactions within and between systems, not only to complement and reinforce cell-based clot formation but also to steer the response toward clot resolution and wound healing. By extending coagulation beyond its current boundaries, the convergent model aims to deliver novel diagnostics and therapeutics for contemporary and unexpected challenges across medicine, as exposed by COVID-19 and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

de Campos-Rudinsky TC, Bosha SL, Wainstock D, et al (2024)

Decolonising global health: why the new Pandemic Agreement should have included the principle of subsidiarity.

The Lancet. Global health, 12(7):e1200-e1203.

The negotiations for the WHO Pandemic Agreement have brought attention to issues of racism and colonialism in global health. Although the agreement aims to promote global solidarity, it fails to address these deeply embedded problems. This Viewpoint argues that not including the principle of subsidiarity into Article 4 of the agreement as a pragmatic strategy was a missed opportunity to decolonise global health governance and promote global solidarity. Subsidiarity, as a structural principle, empowers local units to make decisions and address issues at their level, fostering collaboration, coordination, and cooperation. By integrating subsidiarity, the agreement could have ensured contextually appropriate responses, empowered local communities, and achieved justice in global health. This paper discusses the elements of subsidiarity-namely, agency and non-abandonment-and highlights the need to strike a balance between them. It also maps the principle of subsidiarity within the Pandemic Agreement, emphasising the importance of creating a practical framework for its implementation. By integrating subsidiarity into the agreement, a just and decolonialised approach to pandemic prevention and response could have been closer to being realised, promoting global solidarity and addressing health inequities.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Pasharawipas T (2024)

Host factors influencing variable symptoms of COVID-19.

Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology, 42(2):97-104.

Similar to many other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causes various symptoms in individuals who have been exposed to the virus. Individuals exposed to the virus can be asymptomatic, mild, severe, and critical for mortality. Most hypotheses explaining the uncertainty of symptoms are based on innate immunity, which is unclear in explaining some issues. For example, 1. uncertain symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2. failure to induce immunity for prevention by vaccines in some individuals, and 3. repeated infections in some individuals. With the ambition of explaining this clearly, this article proposed another perspective to explain the cause of uncertain symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. This could be influenced by host factors with a variety of cellular molecules (viral receptors/co-receptors) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms, which are crucial factors in explaining this question. Hopefully, this perspective could encourage further research and pave the way for developing new public health policies to deal with COVID-19 and emergent viral epidemics in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Ciliberti V, Maffei E, Giudice V, et al (2024)

COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy: a review.

Le infezioni in medicina, 32(2):119-130.

Following the introduction of RNA-based vaccines, COVID-19 vaccine-associated clinical lymphadenopathy (C19-LAP) has been reported as a side effect. Moreover, subclinical lymphadenopathy detected on imaging (SLDI) has also been observed, mainly as incidental findings while performing screening tests on oncological patients. In these cases, surgical lymphadenectomy, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) have been used as a valuable diagnostic tool for SLDI and C19-LAP. In this review the clinical, histologic and cytologic features of SLDI and C19-LAP have been investigated. A search for studies that reported on C19-LAP and SLDI histopathology and cytopathology was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar, on 11 January 2023. Thirty-one reports on SLDI and C19-LAP were retrieved and included in a pooled analysis. In total, we included 54 patients with a median age of 47 years. In our research, surgical excision, CNB and/or FNAC of C19-LAP or SLDI enlarged lymph nodes have been performed in 54 cases. Of all cases, only two metastases were diagnosed and one case was diagnosed as reactive hyperplasia with atypical follicles. The remaining cases were reactive lymphadenopathy (28 cases), follicular hyperplasia (13 cases), Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (6 cases), granulomatous lymphadenitis (2 cases), eosinophilic lymph node abscesses (1 case), Langherans cell histiocytosis (1 case), Rosai-Dorfman disease (1 case). SLDI and C19-LAP have represented a diagnostic dilemma, especially in oncologic patients. The role of different diagnostic tools for SLDI and C19-LAP has been discussed.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Adeiza SS, I Aminul (2024)

Meta-meta-analysis of the mortality risk associated with MRSA compared to MSSA bacteraemia.

Le infezioni in medicina, 32(2):131-137.

Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a bloodstream infection that carries a high risk of exacerbating a diseased state and may result in an increased death rate. The aim of this study was to assess mortality risk in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia compared to Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia through meta-meta-analyses. The study followed PRISMA guidelines, conducting a comprehensive search in Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. It included full-text systematic reviews and meta-analyses comparing MRSA vs. MSSA bacteraemia, excluding reviews without data pooling and unclear selection criteria. Validity was assessed using QUOROM and AMSTAR. Edwards' Venn diagrams were used to visualized overlaps between primary studies. Aggregated odds ratio (OR) and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the random-effect model. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Higgins I2 statistic. The study included 3 meta-analysis studies, a total of 38,159 patients, with 9,056 having MRSA bacteraemia and 29,103 having MSSA bacteraemia. Data were collected from 46 different outcome studies published between 2001 and 2022. The meta-analyses used 7 to 33 primary studies from 1990 to 2020, with no overlap. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.78 to 2.92, while relative risks (RR) ranged from 1.57 to 2.37 for the included meta-anlysis. The pooled analysis confirmed a higher risk of mortality in patients with MRSA bacteraemia (OR: 2.35, RR: 2.01, HR: 1.61) compared to MSSA bacteraemia. Heterogeneity among the studies was considerable (I2: 90-91%). The study strongly supports that most patient deaths from SAB are linked to MRSA rather than MSSA. This highlights the significant public health problem posed by SAB, with difficult and often unsuccessful treatment leading to increased mortality and high healthcare costs.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

De Greve H, A Fioravanti (2024)

Single domain antibodies from camelids in the treatment of microbial infections.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1334829.

Infectious diseases continue to pose significant global health challenges. In addition to the enduring burdens of ailments like malaria and HIV, the emergence of nosocomial outbreaks driven by antibiotic-resistant pathogens underscores the ongoing threats. Furthermore, recent infectious disease crises, exemplified by the Ebola and SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, have intensified the pursuit of more effective and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic solutions. Among the promising options, antibodies have garnered significant attention due to their favorable structural characteristics and versatile applications. Notably, nanobodies (Nbs), the smallest functional single-domain antibodies of heavy-chain only antibodies produced by camelids, exhibit remarkable capabilities in stable antigen binding. They offer unique advantages such as ease of expression and modification and enhanced stability, as well as improved hydrophilicity compared to conventional antibody fragments (antigen-binding fragments (Fab) or single-chain variable fragments (scFv)) that can aggregate due to their low solubility. Nanobodies directly target antigen epitopes or can be engineered into multivalent Nbs and Nb-fusion proteins, expanding their therapeutic potential. This review is dedicated to charting the progress in Nb research, particularly those derived from camelids, and highlighting their diverse applications in treating infectious diseases, spanning both human and animal contexts.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Krishna S, Kurrey C, Yadav M, et al (2024)

Insights into the emergence and evolution of monkeypox virus: Historical perspectives, epidemiology, genetic diversity, transmission, and preventative measures.

Infectious medicine, 3(2):100105.

In 2022, just before the COVID-19 pandemic ended, many countries noticed a viral monkeypox outbreak. Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic pathogen, causes a febrile illness in humans and resembles smallpox. Prevention strategies encompass vaccination, strict infection control measures, and avoiding contact with infected persons. As monkeypox and related poxviruses continue to pose challenges, ongoing surveillance, early diagnosis, prompt isolation, and effective control measures are crucial for limiting transmission and mitigating the impact of outbreaks on public health. This review provides valuable insights into the evolution of the monkeypox virus and its various modes of transmission, including postmortem transmission, and offers an overall perspective on the guidelines issued by the Government of India to prevent and effectively control the spread of this disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Ming A, Zhao J, Liu Y, et al (2024)

O-glycosylation in viruses: A sweet tango.

mLife, 3(1):57-73.

O-glycosylation is an ancient yet underappreciated protein posttranslational modification, on which many bacteria and viruses heavily rely to perform critical biological functions involved in numerous infectious diseases or even cancer. But due to the innate complexity of O-glycosylation, research techniques have been limited to study its exact role in viral attachment and entry, assembly and exit, spreading in the host cells, and the innate and adaptive immunity of the host. Recently, the advent of many newly developed methodologies (e.g., mass spectrometry, chemical biology tools, and molecular dynamics simulations) has renewed and rekindled the interest in viral-related O-glycosylation in both viral proteins and host cells, which is further fueled by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we summarize recent advances in viral-related O-glycosylation, with a particular emphasis on the mucin-type O-linked α-N-acetylgalactosamine (O-GalNAc) on viral proteins and the intracellular O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modifications on host proteins. We hope to provide valuable insights into the development of antiviral reagents or vaccines for better prevention or treatment of infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Montes de Oca-B P (2021)

Evidence of mitochondria origin of SARS-CoV-2 double-membrane vesicles: a review.

F1000Research, 10:1009.

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that has infected in a year more than 200 million people and has killed almost 4.5 million people worldwide. This infection affects mainly certain groups of people that have high susceptibility to present severe COVID-19 due to comorbidities. Moreover, the long-COVID-19 comprises a series of symptoms that may remain in some patients for months after infection that further compromises health of individuals. Therefore, this pandemic poses a serious emergency worldwide. Thus, since this pandemic is profoundly affecting economic and social life of societies, a deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection cycle could help to envisage novel therapeutic alternatives that limit or stop COVID-19. Several recent findings have unexpectedly found that mitochondria play a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 cell infection. Indeed, it has been suggested that this organelle could be the origin of its replication niches, the double membrane vesicles (DMV), as its been observed with another virus. In this regard, mitochondria derived vesicles (MDV), involved in mitochondria quality control, were discovered more than 10 years ago and interestingly there is a population characterized by a double membrane. MDV shedding is induced by mitochondrial stress and it has a fast assembly dynamic, reason that perhaps has precluded their identification in electron microscopy or tomography studies. These and other features of MDV together with recent SARS-CoV-2 protein interactome with the host and other findings linking SARS-CoV-2 to mitochondria, support that these vesicles are the precursors of SARS-CoV-2 induced DMV. In this work, the celular, molecular, phenotypical and biochemical evidence that supports this hypothesis is reviewed and integrated into the current model of SARS-CoV-2 cell infection. In this scheme, some relevant questions are raised as pending topics for research that would help in the near future to test this hypothesis. The intention (abstract truncated).

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Chen S, C Cheng (2024)

Unveiling Coronasomnia: Pandemic Stress and Sleep Problems During the COVID-19 Outbreak.

Nature and science of sleep, 16:543-553.

The COVID-19 pandemic posed an unprecedented challenge to public well-being, necessitating an examination of its health impact. This review discusses the relationship between pandemic-induced stressors and individual sleep patterns and quality. The pandemic stressors include lockdown or physical distancing measures, direct virus exposure, and the dissemination of misinformation and disinformation. The pandemic led to delayed sleep-wake cycles, except for healthcare professionals, and worsened sleep quality. The prevalence of insomnia was higher for women due to pre-existing conditions and susceptibility stressors such as lockdown stress and family responsibilities. Healthcare professionals, who experienced worsened work conditions during the pandemic, reported higher rates of insomnia and sleep difficulties due to infection anxiety and post-traumatic stress from direct virus exposure. For the general population, stress stemmed from social isolation under lockdown and overwhelming false information available online, resulting in sleep problems. Taken together, the findings highlight the importance of promoting social interactions, providing psychological support services, and caution in navigating health information. In summary, this review underscores the need for individual- and group-centered approaches in ongoing research and interventions to address pandemic-related stress and sleep issues during COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Thilakasiri K, Wijegunawardana PKI, de Silva S, et al (2024)

"1990 Suwa Seriya" the national pre-hospital care ambulance service of Sri Lanka; a narrative review describing the EMS system with special emphasis on Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) in Sri Lanka.

Resuscitation plus, 19:100649.

BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka is a leading nation in healthcare provision in the South Asia. Notably, it recorded amongst the lowest maternal and neonatal mortality rates in the region. However a significant deficit in improving all-cause mortality rates was the absence of a cohesive system of pre-hospital care.

METHOD: This narrative review delves into the evolution of Sri Lanka's Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system over the past decade. It examines the historical context, challenges encountered, and the transformative role of the "1990 Suwa Seriya" ambulance service on all causes of morbidity and mortality rates including out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

RESULTS: The review elucidates the path from no organised pre-hospital system in 2015 to a comprehensive free to public, pre-hospital care emergency ambulance service that effectively serves 22 million people nationa-wide in 6 short years. Collaborations with emergency medicine, novel approaches to training and credentialing, as well as evolving research initiatives illustrate an approach to be emulated in countries with emerging pre-hospital systems. 1990 Suwa Seriya's response during the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications on public perception are discussed in conjunction with efforts to limit morbidity and mortality from OHCA.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the article underscores 1990 Suwa Seriya's dedication to continuous improvement and its potential as a model for bolstering emergency healthcare. By addressing challenges, fostering collaborations, and adapting to crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, 1990 Suwa Seriya exemplifies a pathway towards elevating pre-hospital care standards in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs).

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Nagahawatta DP, Liyanage NM, Jayawardena TU, et al (2024)

Role of marine natural products in the development of antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2: potential and prospects.

Marine life science & technology, 6(2):280-297.

UNLABELLED: A novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has surfaced and caused global concern owing to its ferocity. SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019; however, it was only discovered at the end of the year and was considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Therefore, the development of novel potent inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and future outbreaks is urgently required. Numerous naturally occurring bioactive substances have been studied in the clinical setting for diverse disorders. The intricate infection and replication mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 offers diverse therapeutic drug targets for developing antiviral medicines by employing natural products that are safer than synthetic compounds. Marine natural products (MNPs) have received increased attention in the development of novel drugs owing to their high diversity and availability. Therefore, this review article investigates the infection and replication mechanisms, including the function of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and structure. Furthermore, we highlighted anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic intervention efforts utilizing MNPs and predicted SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor design.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42995-023-00215-9.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Prusinski C, Yan D, Klasova J, et al (2024)

Multidisciplinary Management Strategies for Long COVID: A Narrative Review.

Cureus, 16(5):e59478.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of infections to date and has led to a worldwide pandemic. Most patients had a complete recovery from the acute infection, however, a large number of the affected individuals experienced symptoms that persisted more than 3 months after diagnosis. These symptoms most commonly include fatigue, memory difficulties, brain fog, dyspnea, cough, and other less common ones such as headache, chest pain, paresthesias, mood changes, muscle pain, and weakness, skin rashes, and cardiac, endocrine, renal and hepatic manifestations. The treatment of this syndrome remains challenging. A multidisciplinary approach to address combinations of symptoms affecting multiple organ systems has been widely adopted. This narrative review aims to bridge the gap surrounding the broad treatment approaches by providing an overview of multidisciplinary management strategies for the most common long COVID conditions.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Hamouda NI, Amin AM, Hasan MT, et al (2024)

Persistence of COVID-19 Human Milk Antibodies After Maternal COVID-19 Vaccination: Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis.

Cureus, 16(5):e59500.

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), WHO, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend vaccination of pregnant and lactating women, aiming to protect both mothers and their infants through transplacental and human milk antibody transmission. This study aims to assess the quantity of antibodies in human milk and determine the effect of time, vaccine type, and dose on antibody level. Single-arm prospective observational studies reporting the COVID-19-specific antibody level in human milk after COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy or lactation were included. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, EBSCO, and Web of Science were searched from December 2019 to November 22, 2022. Data were extracted in a uniform Google sheet. A total of 2657 studies were identified. After the removal of duplicates and screening, 24 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-regression. Human milk COVID-19-specific antibody levels increased with subsequent vaccine doses, as reflected by a positive relationship for the second (coefficient=0.91, P-value 0.043 for IgA and coefficient=1.77, P-value 0.009 for IgG) and third (coefficient=1.23, P-value 0.0029 for IgA and coefficient=3.73, P-value 0.0068 for IgG) doses. The antibody level exhibited a weak positive relationship with the follow-up time (coefficient=0.13, P-value 0.0029 for IgA and coefficient=0.18, P-value 0.016 for IgG). Only one of the 38 infants showed detectable COVID-19 IgM and IgA antibody levels in their blood. There was an increase in the neutralizing activity of COVID-19 antibodies in human milk following the COVID-19 vaccination. From the analysis of published data, we found high positive levels of antibodies in human milk that increased with subsequent doses. Additionally, the human milk antibodies exhibit a positive neutralizing effect. Only one infant had detectable COVID-19 IgM+IgA antibodies in the blood. Further research is needed to discuss infant protection through a mother's vaccination.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Kandaswamy E (2024)

Areas of Interest in Dental Education: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Last Decade.

Cureus, 16(5):e59589.

This study aimed to perform a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of journals focused on dental education (Journal of Dental Education and European Journal of Dental Education) from 2014 to 2023. An ISI Web of Science Search was performed in October 2023 with no filters for language or keywords. Published articles between 2014 and 2018, 2019 and 2023, and 2014-2023, along with the top 100 cited articles published within this period were exported as txt files. Keyword and title word network maps and occurrences were generated using VOS Viewer software. Author-affiliated countries with the most publications were tabulated from the Web of Science. Dental education and dental students and education were consistently in the top six keywords and title word occurrences in all periods and top 100 cited articles. Similar trends were observed for keyword and title word network maps with an emphasis on dental education and students. However, the 2019-2023 period saw the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019, three-dimensional printing, virtual reality, and education technology, with the earlier period (2014-2018) showing clusters around students, perceptions, dental hygiene education, and assessment. The United States ranked top of the list for most published author-affiliated countries, with England, Canada, Australia, and Saudi Arabia in the top six for all periods analyzed. In conclusion, within the limitations of this study, areas of interest in dental education journals in the last decade were identified along with the countries with most publications.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Köntös Z (2024)

Lessons should be learned: Why did we not learn from the Spanish flu?.

SAGE open medicine, 12:20503121241256820.

COVID-19 has become a global pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide. The disease is caused by the novel coronavirus that was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The virus is highly contagious and can spread from person to person through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes. The symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, pneumonia, and death. The Spanish flu, caused by the H1N1 influenza virus, and the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are two of the most significant global health crises in history. While these two pandemics occurred almost a century apart and are caused by different types of viruses, there are notable similarities in their impact, transmission, and public health responses. Here are some key similarities between the Spanish flu and SARS-CoV-2. The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919 stands as one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, claiming the lives of an estimated 50 million people worldwide. Its impact reverberated across continents, leaving behind a legacy of devastation and lessons that, unfortunately, seem to have been forgotten or ignored over time. Despite the advancements in science, medicine, and public health in the intervening century, humanity found itself facing a strikingly similar situation with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, amidst the search for effective measures to combat COVID-19, novel approaches such as iodine complexes, such as Iodine-V has emerged as potential interventions, reflecting the ongoing quest for innovative solutions to mitigate the impact of pandemics. This raises the poignant question: why did we not learn from the Spanish flu?

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Morgan J, G M Breau (2024)

Access to maternal health services for Indigenous women in low- and middle-income countries: an updated integrative review of the literature from 2018 to 2023.

Rural and remote health, 24(2):8520.

INTRODUCTION: Ninety-seven per cent of Indigenous Peoples live in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). A previous systematic integrative review of articles published between 2000 and 2017 identified numerous barriers for Indigenous women in LMICs in accessing maternal healthcare services. It is timely given the aim of achieving Universal Health Coverage in six years' time, by 2030, to undertake another review. This article updates the previous review exploring the recent available literature on Indigenous women's access to maternal health services in LMICs identifying barriers to services.

METHODS: An integrative review of literature published between 2018 and 2023 was undertaken. This review followed a systematic process using Whittemore and Knafl's five-step framework for integrative reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 944 articles were identified from six databases: Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, APA PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus with Full Text and APA PsycArticles (through EBSCOhost). The search was undertaken on 16 January 2023. After screening of the title/abstract and the full text using inclusion and exclusion criteria 26 articles were identified. Critical appraisal resulted in 24 articles being included in the review. Data were extracted using a matrix informed by Penchansky and Thomas's taxonomy, extended by Saurman, which focused on six dimensions of access to health care: affordability, accessibility, availability, accommodation, acceptability and awareness. Ten studies took place in Asia, 10 studies were from the Americas and four studies took place in the African region. Seventeen articles were qualitative, two were quantitative and five were mixed methods. The methods for the integrative review were prespecified in a protocol, registered at Open Science Framework.

RESULTS: Barriers identified included affordability; community awareness of services including poor communication between providers and women; the availability of services, with staff often missing from the facilities; poor quality services, which did not consider the cultural and spiritual needs of Indigenous Peoples; an overreliance on the biomedical model; a lack of facilities to enable appropriate maternal care; services that did not accommodate the everyday needs of women, including work and family responsibilities; lack of understanding of Indigenous cultures from health professionals; and evidence of obstetric violence and mistreatment of Indigenous women.

CONCLUSION: Barriers to Indigenous women's access to maternal health services are underpinned by the social exclusion and marginalisation of Indigenous Peoples. Empowerment of Indigenous women and communities in LMICs is required as well as initiatives to challenge the stigmatisation and marginalisation that they face. The importance of community involvement in design and interventions that support the political and human rights of Indigenous Peoples are required. Limitations of this review include the possibility of missing articles as it was sometimes unclear from the articles whether a particular group was from an Indigenous community. More research on access to services in the postnatal period is still needed, as well as quality quantitative research. There is also a lack of research on Indigenous groups in North Africa, and in sub-Saharan Africa - especially hunter-gatherer groups - as well as the impact of COVID-19 on access to services.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-02

Cao LM, Yu YF, Li ZZ, et al (2024)

Adjuvants for cancer mRNA vaccines in the era of nanotechnology: strategies, applications, and future directions.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 22(1):308.

Research into mRNA vaccines is advancing rapidly, with proven efficacy against coronavirus disease 2019 and promising therapeutic potential against a variety of solid tumors. Adjuvants, critical components of mRNA vaccines, significantly enhance vaccine effectiveness and are integral to numerous mRNA vaccine formulations. However, the development and selection of adjuvant platforms are still in their nascent stages, and the mechanisms of many adjuvants remain poorly understood. Additionally, the immunostimulatory capabilities of certain novel drug delivery systems (DDS) challenge the traditional definition of adjuvants, suggesting that a revision of this concept is necessary. This review offers a comprehensive exploration of the mechanisms and applications of adjuvants and self-adjuvant DDS. It thoroughly addresses existing issues mentioned above and details three main challenges of immune-related adverse event, unclear mechanisms, and unsatisfactory outcomes in old age group in the design and practical application of cancer mRNA vaccine adjuvants. Ultimately, this review proposes three optimization strategies which consists of exploring the mechanisms of adjuvant, optimizing DDS, and improving route of administration to improve effectiveness and application of adjuvants and self-adjuvant DDS.

RevDate: 2024-06-02
CmpDate: 2024-06-02

Yamada K, H Kakeya (2024)

Status and Challenge of Antifungal Stewardship at the Osaka Metropolitan University Hospital.

Medical mycology journal, 65(2):33-38.

Antifungal stewardship (AFS), compared with antimicrobial stewardship (AS), requires more advanced knowledge, skills, and multidisciplinary collaboration in its implementation. Therefore, fewer facilities are performing AFS compared with AS. At our hospital, we started AS and AFS in 2014. Our AFS programs include the following: i) interventions for patients with yeast-positive blood cultures, ii) introduction of a conditional antifungal notification system, and iii) commencement of AS team rounds. AFS for filamentous fungi includes bronchoscopy and microbial identification, including genetic and drug susceptibility testing. These AFS activities have improved several processes and outcome measures. However, our AFS team has faced several problems owing to the impact of COVID-19. This review introduces the practice of AFS, which we initiated at our hospital in 2014, and presents the current problems.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Ceasovschih A, Mantzouranis E, Dimitriadis K, et al (2024)

Coronary artery thromboembolism as a cause of myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA).

Hellenic journal of cardiology : HJC = Hellenike kardiologike epitheorese pii:S1109-9666(24)00105-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) usually represents the clinical manifestation of atherothrombotic coronary artery disease (CAD) resulting from atherosclerotic plaque rupture. However, there are cases in which coronary angiography or coronary computed tomography angiography reveals patients with acute coronary syndrome with non-obstructive CAD. This clinical entity is defined as myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and often is considered as a clinical dynamic working diagnosis, that needs further investigations for the establishment of a final etiological diagnosis. The main causes of a MINOCA working diagnosis include atherosclerotic, non-atherosclerotic (vessel-related and non-vessel related) and thromboembolic causes This literature review is aimed at investigating the major thromboembolic causes in patients presenting with MINOCA in regards of their etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as diagnostic and treatment methods.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Chaqroun A, Bertrand I, Wurtzer S, et al (2024)

Assessing infectivity of emerging enveloped viruses in wastewater and sewage sludge: Relevance and procedures.

The Science of the total environment, 943:173648 pii:S0048-9697(24)03795-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has heightened the need to evaluate the detection of enveloped viruses in the environment, particularly in wastewater, within the context of wastewater-based epidemiology. The studies published over the past 80 years focused primarily on non-enveloped viruses due to their ability to survive longer in environmental matrices such as wastewater or sludge compared to enveloped viruses. However, different enveloped viruses survive in the environment for different lengths of time. Therefore, it is crucial to be prepared to assess the potential infectious risk that may arise from future emerging enveloped viruses. This will require appropriate tools, notably suitable viral concentration methods that do not compromise virus infectivity. This review has a dual purpose: first, to gather all the available literature on the survival of infectious enveloped viruses, specifically at different pH and temperature conditions, and in contact with detergents; second, to select suitable concentration methods for evaluating the infectivity of these viruses in wastewater and sludge. The methodology used in this data collection review followed the systematic approach outlined in the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. Concentration methods cited in the data gathered are more tailored towards detecting the enveloped viruses' genome. There is a lack of suitable methods for detecting infectious enveloped viruses in wastewater and sludge. Ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, and polyethylene glycol precipitation methods, under specific/defined conditions, appear to be relevant approaches. Further studies are necessary to validate reliable concentration methods for detecting infectious enveloped viruses. The choice of culture system is also crucial for detection sensitivity. The data also show that the survival of infectious enveloped viruses, though lower than that of non-enveloped ones, may enable environmental transmission. Experimental data on a wide range of enveloped viruses is required due to the variability in virus persistence in the environment.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Van Loy B, Stevaert A, L Naesens (2024)

The coronavirus nsp15 endoribonuclease: A puzzling protein and pertinent antiviral drug target.

Antiviral research, 228:105921 pii:S0166-3542(24)00130-X [Epub ahead of print].

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has bolstered unprecedented research efforts to better understand the pathogenesis of coronavirus (CoV) infections and develop effective therapeutics. We here focus on non-structural protein nsp15, a hexameric component of the viral replication-transcription complex (RTC). Nsp15 possesses uridine-specific endoribonuclease (EndoU) activity for which some specific cleavage sites were recently identified in viral RNA. By preventing accumulation of viral dsRNA, EndoU helps the virus to evade RNA sensors of the innate immune response. The immune-evading property of nsp15 was firmly established in several CoV animal models and makes it a pertinent target for antiviral therapy. The search for nsp15 inhibitors typically proceeds via compound screenings and is aided by the rapidly evolving insight in the protein structure of nsp15. In this overview, we broadly cover this fascinating protein, starting with its structure, biochemical properties and functions in CoV immune evasion. Next, we summarize the reported studies in which compound screening or a more rational method was used to identify suitable leads for nsp15 inhibitor development. In this way, we hope to raise awareness on the relevance and druggability of this unique CoV protein.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Willing L, J Schreiber (2024)

Using Advocacy to Address the Crisis of Children's Mental Health.

Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3):319-330.

Children and youth in the United States are experiencing a mental health crisis that predates the COVID-19 pandemic. Child and adolescent psychiatrists have the knowledge and skillset to advocate for improving the pediatric mental health care system at the local, state, and federal levels. Child psychiatrists can use their knowledge and expertise to advocate legislatively or through regulatory advocacy to improve access to mental health care for youth. Further, including advocacy education in psychiatry and child psychiatry graduate medical education would help empower child psychiatrists to make an impact through their advocacy efforts.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Khan S (2024)

Interleukin 6 Antagonists in Severe COVID-19 Disease: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Outcomes.

Protein and peptide letters, 31(3):178-191.

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of interleukin 6 [IL-6] have been utilized to treat severe COVID-19 disease. Their immunosuppressive or immunomodulating impact may be beneficial in COVID-19.

OBJECTIVES: To discuss the role of IL-6 inhibitors and assess various trials conducted to evaluate the efficacy of IL-6 inhibitors in COVID-19 disease.

SUMMARY: Two of the most common causes of mortality in COVID-19-infected critically ill individuals are acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines suggest that a cytokine storm, also known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS), is involved in the etiology of COVID-19. Most tissue damage, sepsis, and pulmonary and cardiovascular problems are caused mainly by the host defense system. Therefore, regulating this inflammatory cascade using immunomodulators is a prudent strategy. Although corticosteroids, as immunomodulators, are routinely used in COVID-19 management, interleukin (IL) inhibitors, especially IL-6 inhibitors, are also tested in many trials. Many studies have demonstrated that IL-6 inhibitors improve disease outcomes and decrease mortality, whereas others have shown that they are ineffective. In this paper, we briefly examined the role of IL-6 in COVID-19 pathogenesis and trials that support or refute the use of IL-6 inhibitors in treating COVID-19 disease.

RESULTS: Though mixed results are coming from trials regarding the adjuvant use of IL-6 inhibitors and standard anti-viral therapy with dexamethasone, a consensus favors using IL-6 inhibitors in severely ill COVID-19 patients regardless of the outcome.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Zendedel E, Tayebi L, Nikbakht M, et al (2024)

Clinical Trials of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of COVID 19.

Current stem cell research & therapy, 19(8):1055-1071.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are being investigated as a treatment for a novel viral disease owing to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, tissue repair and regeneration characteristics, however, the exact processes are unknown. MSC therapy was found to be effective in lowering immune system overactivation and increasing endogenous healing after SARS-CoV-2 infection by improving the pulmonary microenvironment. Many studies on mesenchymal stem cells have been undertaken concurrently, and we may help speed up the effectiveness of these studies by collecting and statistically analyzing data from them. Based on clinical trial information found on clinicaltrials. gov and on 16 November 2020, which includes 63 clinical trials in the field of patient treatment with COVID-19 using MSCs, according to the trend of increasing studies in this field, and with the help of meta-analysis studies, it is possible to hope that the promise of MSCs will one day be realized. The potential therapeutic applications of MSCs for COVID-19 are investigated in this study.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

de Lima WD, da Silva MD, de Souza Costa E, et al (2024)

Abusive use of Zolpidem as a Result of COVID-19 and Perspectives of Continuity of the Problem in the Post-Pandemic Period.

Current neuropharmacology, 22(10):1578-1582.

Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug that works as a positive modulator of Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid-A (GABA-A) receptors, with high selectivity for α1 subunits. Given this selective binding, the drug has a strong hypnotic activity. Social isolation during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has contributed to increased rates of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. As a result, studies have pointed to a possible increase in the indiscriminate use of drugs with sedative effects, such as Zolpidem, during the pandemic. The aim of this work was to present prospective evidence that warns of the possibility of the abusive use of Zolpidem even after the pandemic. High rates of addiction to this drug have been reported around the world after the emergence of the coronavirus. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and from Medicaid support the continuing growth in prescription and indiscriminate use of Zolpidem during the pandemic and afterward. Therefore, there is enough evidence to support the indiscriminate use of this drug since the beginning of the pandemic. Rates of indiscriminate use of sedatives may continue to increase in the post-pandemic period, especially if strict control measures are not taken by health authorities.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Benton TD, Beers L, Carlson G, et al (2024)

The Declaration of the National Emergency in Child and Adolescent Mental Health: It Takes a Village.

Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3):277-291.

Recognition of the high prevalence of children's mental health conditions and challenges to accessing needed care faced by children and their families have been long-standing concerns, emerging well before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Global data examining the prevalence of at least one mental health and/or substance-use disorder for 2516 million people aged 5 to 24 years in 2019 found that at least 293 million people were affected by at least one mental health disorder and 31 million affected by a substance-use disorder.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Storer B, Holden M, Kershaw KA, et al (2024)

The prevalence of anxiety in respiratory and sleep diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Respiratory medicine, 230:107677 pii:S0954-6111(24)00151-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Anxiety is common in those with chronic physical health conditions and can have significant impacts on both quality of life and physical health outcomes. Despite this, there are limited studies comprehensively investigating the prevalence of anxiety in respiratory and sleep medicine settings. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to provide insight into the global prevalence of anxiety symptoms/disorders in respiratory and sleep medicine outpatients.

METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched from database inception to January 23, 2023 for studies assessing the prevalence of anxiety in adult (≥16 years) respiratory and sleep medicine outpatients. Data was screened and extracted independently by two investigators. Anxiety was measured using various self-report questionnaires, structured interviews, and/or patient records. Using CMA software for the meta-analysis, a random-effects model was used for pooled estimates, and subgroup analysis was conducted on relevant models using a mixed-effects model.

RESULTS: 116 studies were included, featuring 36,340 participants across 40 countries. The pooled prevalence of anxiety was 30.3 % (95%CI 27.9-32.9 %, 10,679/36,340). Subgroup analysis found a significant difference across type of condition, with pulmonary tuberculosis the highest at 43.1 % and COVID-19 outpatients the lowest at 23.4 %. No significant difference was found across anxiety types, country or age. Female sex and the use of self-report measures was associated with significantly higher anxiety estimates.

CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety is a common experience amongst patients in respiratory and sleep medicine outpatient settings. Thus, it is crucial that anxiety identification and management is considered by physicians in the field.

REGISTRATION: The protocol is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021282416).

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Ghadimi M, Siemieniuk RAC, Guyatt G, et al (2024)

The effects of empiric antibiotic regimens in adults with non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(24)00254-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The optimal empiric antibiotic regimen for non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is uncertain.

OBJECTIVES: To compare alternative empiric antibiotic regimens in HAP using a network meta-analysis (NMA).

METHODS: Data sources: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, and CINAHL from database inception to July 06, 2023.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCT).

PARTICIPANTS: Adults with clinical suspicion of HAP.

INTERVENTION: Any empiric antibiotic regimen versus another, placebo, or no treatment.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF BIAS: Paired reviewers independently assessed risk of bias using a modified Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials.

METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS: Paired reviewers independently extracted data on trial and patient characteristics, antibiotic regimens, and outcomes of interest. We conducted frequentist random-effects NMAs for treatment failure and all-cause mortality and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

RESULTS: 39 trials proved eligible. 30 RCTs involving 4,807 participants found low certainty evidence that piperacillin-tazobactam (RR compared to all cephalosporins: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.01) and carbapenems (RR compared to all cephalosporins: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.11) might be among the most effective in reducing treatment failure. The findings were robust to the secondary analysis comparing piperacillin-tazobactam vs antipseudomonal cephalosporins or antipseudomonal carbapenems vs antipseudomonal cephalosporins. 11 RCTs involving 2,531 participants found low certainty evidence that ceftazidime and linezolid combination may not be convincingly different from cephalosporin alone in reducing all-cause mortality. Evidence on other antibiotic regimens is very uncertain. Data on other patient-important outcomes including adverse events was sparse, and we did not perform network or pairwise meta-analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: For empiric antibiotic therapy of adults with HAP, piperacillin-tazobactam might be among the most effective in reducing treatment failure in HAP. Empiric MRSA coverage may not exert additional benefit in reducing mortality in HAP.

REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD 42022297224).

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Yang Y, Li F, L Du (2024)

Therapeutic nanobodies against SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogenic human coronaviruses.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 22(1):304.

Nanobodies, single-domain antibodies derived from variable domain of camelid or shark heavy-chain antibodies, have unique properties with small size, strong binding affinity, easy construction in versatile formats, high neutralizing activity, protective efficacy, and manufactural capacity on a large-scale. Nanobodies have been arisen as an effective research tool for development of nanobiotechnologies with a variety of applications. Three highly pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs), SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, have caused serious outbreaks or a global pandemic, and continue to post a threat to public health worldwide. The viral spike (S) protein and its cognate receptor-binding domain (RBD), which initiate viral entry and play a critical role in virus pathogenesis, are important therapeutic targets. This review describes pathogenic human CoVs, including viral structures and proteins, and S protein-mediated viral entry process. It also summarizes recent advances in development of nanobodies targeting these CoVs, focusing on those targeting the S protein and RBD. Finally, we discuss potential strategies to improve the efficacy of nanobodies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and other CoVs with pandemic potential. It will provide important information for rational design and evaluation of therapeutic agents against emerging and reemerging pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Dey P, L De Souza-Kenney (2024)

Public Health Challenges for Post-secondary Students During COVID-19: A Scoping Review.

Community health equity research & policy [Epub ahead of print].

Research about public health impacts of COVID-19 on post-secondary students is slowly beginning to emerge. This scoping review identified common public health challenges among post-secondary students in higher-income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Five databases were searched to find relevant peer-reviewed literature up to March 2022. Results were categorized according to reported public health challenges and relevant socio-economic variables. After screening, 53 articles were reviewed. Most articles were from the USA (39/53). The seven main public health challenges identified were mental health (35/53), financial instability (25/53), physical health (13/53), food insecurity (12/53), social well-being (8/53), digital access (7/53), and housing or relocation (6/53). Students with low socioeconomic status experienced heightened public health challenges. This review offers insight and opportunities for the development of longitudinal tools to support social determinants of health in post-secondary populations in high-income countries and may offer insight into similar experiences for students in other settings.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Chilson S, Charais C, Jones J, et al (2024)

Rapid Nurse Training to Meet Surge Capacity: An Integrative Review.

Critical care nurse, 44(3):19-27.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented health care challenges and transformation of nursing practice. A significant challenge faced by health care systems was the rapid identification and training of nurses in various specialties, including critical care, to care for a large influx of critically ill patients.

OBJECTIVE: To identify common themes and modalities that support best practices for the rapid training of registered nurses in team-based critical care nursing.

METHODS: With the Whittemore and Knafl integrative review methodology as a framework, a literature review was conducted using a priori search terms.

RESULTS: The integrative review included 11 articles and revealed 3 common themes: communication challenges, team dynamics, and the methodological approach to implementing training.

DISCUSSION: This integrative review highlighted 3 main implications for future practice and policy in the event of another pandemic. Clear and frequent communication, multidisciplinary huddles, and open communication are paramount for mitigating role confusion and enhancing team dynamics. A multimodal approach to training appears to be feasible and effective for rapidly training support registered nurses to care for critically ill patients. However, the optimal training duration remains unidentified.

CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly training registered nurses to care for critically ill patients in a team-based dynamic is a safe and effective course of action to mitigate staff shortages if another pandemic occurs.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Patwary MM, Bardhan M, Disha AS, et al (2024)

Nature exposure and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: A Navigation Guide systematic review with meta-analysis.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(24)00998-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Prior reviews have highlighted that nature exposure was a valuable coping strategy enchancing mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, no existing reviews have determined the quality of evidence and risk of bias of the empirical studies supporting this claim. To address this gap, we employed a Navigation Guide systematic review and meta-analysis approach to investigate associations between nature exposure and mental health during the pandemic. Searches in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycInfo retrieved relevant articles published between January 1, 2020, and March 4, 2024. We used the Navigation Guide methodology to assess the risk of bias and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) assessment to evaluate the overall quality of evidence. Our search retrieved 113 studies that met the inclusion criteria and reported diverse types of exposure, including nature availability, nature visit frequency, green space accessibility, and green space type, alongside associations with 12 mental health outcomes. Meta-analyses found access to gardens was associated with lower odds of depression [(Pooled OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.61, 0.82), I[2]=0%, n=3] and anxiety [(Pooled odds ratio [OR]=0.73, 95%CI=0.63, 0.84), I[2]=0%, n=3]. Increased time in green spaces were associated with lower level of stress [(Pooled Corr=-0.11, 95%CI=-0.17, -0.05), I[2]=0%, n=2]. Higher frequency of visits to nature was associated with improved mental well-being [(Pooled standardized beta estimate during COVID-19 period [ES]=0.10, 95%CI=0.07, 0.14), I[2]=0%, n=2] and general mental health [(Pooled standardized beta estimate [ES]=0.11, 95%CI=0.03-0.38), I[2]=82%, n=2]. However, the number of pooled studies was small and the overall quality of evidence was "very low" for all outcomes, and high levels of bias were observed (26% of studies had high, 71% probably high). Nonetheless, given the trends in the results, nature-based solutions emphasizing exposure to gardens and green spaces near the home may have promoted psychological resilience during this public health crisis.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Cao Q, Fang H, H Tian (2024)

mRNA vaccines contribute to innate and adaptive immunity to enhance immune response in vivo.

Biomaterials, 310:122628.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics have been widely employed as strategies for the treatment and prevention of diseases. Amid the global outbreak of COVID-19, mRNA vaccines have witnessed rapid development. Generally, in the case of mRNA vaccines, the initiation of the innate immune system serves as a prerequisite for triggering subsequent adaptive immune responses. Critical cells, cytokines, and chemokines within the innate immune system play crucial and beneficial roles in coordinating tailored immune reactions towards mRNA vaccines. Furthermore, immunostimulators and delivery systems play a significant role in augmenting the immune potency of mRNA vaccines. In this comprehensive review, we systematically delineate the latest advancements in mRNA vaccine research, present an in-depth exploration of strategies aimed at amplifying the immune effectiveness of mRNA vaccines, and offer some perspectives and recommendations regarding the future advancements in mRNA vaccine development.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Dalko K, Elsuson HA, Kalter I, et al (2024)

Virtual Reality Applications for the Implementation of Domestic Respiratory Rehabilitation Programs for Patients With Long COVID and Post-COVID Condition: Scoping Review.

JMIR serious games, 12:e52309 pii:v12i1e52309.

BACKGROUND: Due to a high number of patients affected by long COVID or post-COVID condition, an essential step to address the long-term effects of COVID-19 lies in the development and implementation of flexible and accessible rehabilitation programs. Virtual reality (VR) technologies offer the potential to support traditional therapies with individualized at-home programs.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide an overview of existing scientific evidence on the development and implementation of VR-assisted respiratory rehabilitation programs for patients with long COVID and post-COVID condition and to synthesize the results.

METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of studies from 6 databases. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Web of Science Social Sciences Citation Index, and PEDro were searched using an exploratory search strategy. The search, which was last updated in February 2024, included peer-reviewed studies on immersive VR applications providing respiratory rehabilitation programs for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and long COVID or post-COVID condition. Exclusion criteria were studies in clinical or inpatient settings, telemedicine, nonimmersive VR applications, and gray literature. Nine publications were included in this review. Findings were extracted and summarized from the studies according to the JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) method and thematically categorized. Topics covered were study characteristics, physiotherapeutic concept, clinical parameters, as well as usability and acceptability.

RESULTS: The 9 publications included in the qualitative analysis were published in 2019-2023. Eight empirical studies were included: 4 followed a mixed methods design, 3 were qualitative studies, and 1 followed a quantitative method. One scoping review was included in the data analyses. Four of the included studies were on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 9 studies demonstrated that VR-supported respiratory rehabilitation programs result in positive initial outcomes in terms of physical as well as psychological parameters. Particularly noteworthy was the increased motivation and compliance of patients. However, adverse effects and lack of usability are the barriers to the implementation of this innovative approach.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, VR is a promising technology for the implementation of individualized and flexible respiratory rehabilitation programs for patients with long COVID and post-COVID condition. Nevertheless, corresponding approaches are still under development and need to be more closely adapted to the needs of users. Further, the evidence was limited to pilot studies or a small number of patients, and no randomized controlled trials or long-term studies were part of the study selection. The included studies were performed by 4 groups of researchers: 3 from Europe and 1 from the United States.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Varlamov EV, M Fleseriu (2024)

Acromegaly and COVID-19, lessons, and new opportunities.

Pituitary [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic created challenges in effective management of patients with acromegaly. Specifically, with regards to timely diagnosis, delays in surgeries, and disruption(s) to routine patient care. A transition to telemedicine did help to overcome safety restrictions that were placed on in-person care. Creation of surgical safety protocols in conjunction with widespread testing for COVID-19 has also helped with the resumption of pituitary surgery cases. However, acromegaly related comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea and respiratory disease, vertebral fractures, and hypopituitarism, may increase the risk of a more severe COVID-19 infection course. Of note and to date, no negative trends in COVID-19 related outcomes have been reported in patients with acromegaly. Nevertheless, anxiety and depression rates in patients with acromegaly are higher than those in the general population. More studies are needed to assess the true impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on morbidity, mortality, and neuropsychiatric health of patients with acromegaly.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Zaborska M, Chruszcz M, Sadowski J, et al (2024)

The most common skin symptoms in young adults and adults related to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.

Archives of dermatological research, 316(6):292.

Scientists from various areas of the world indicate in their studies that skin lesions occur in the course of infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This article is a review of the most frequently described cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and the potential pathophysiology of their development, as well as information on abnormalities in histopathological tests. The article describes the impact of some factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic on the exacerbation of chronic dermatological diseases. This work was constructed on the basis of 142 research studies, reviews, and meta-analyses, focusing on the methods and materials used in individual works as well as the results and conclusions resulting from them. Some skin lesions may be a potential prognostic marker of the course of the disease and may also be a prodromal symptom or the only symptom of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate some chronic dermatological diseases. A correlation was observed between the type of skin lesions and the patient's age. The occurrence of skin diseases may also be influenced by drugs used to treat infections caused by SARS-CoV-2. A relationship was observed between the patient's ethnic origin and skin lesions occurring in the course of COVID-19. There is a need to further diagnose the cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to learn the detailed pathomechanism of their occurrence in order to better understand the essence of the disease and find an appropriate treatment method.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Li J, Huang Q, Liang Y, et al (2024)

The Potential Mechanisms of Arrhythmia in Coronavirus disease-2019.

International journal of medical sciences, 21(7):1366-1377.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) which can cause severe cardiovascular complications including myocardial injury, arrhythmias, acute coronary syndrome and others. Among these complications, arrhythmias are considered serious and life-threatening. Although arrhythmias have been associated with factors such as direct virus invasion leading to myocardial injury, myocarditis, immune response disorder, cytokine storms, myocardial ischemia/hypoxia, electrolyte abnormalities, intravascular volume imbalances, drug interactions, side effects of COVID-19 vaccines and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, the exact mechanisms of arrhythmic complications in patients with COVID-19 are complex and not well understood. In the present review, the literature was extensively searched to investigate the potential mechanisms of arrhythmias in patients with COVID-19. The aim of the current review is to provide clinicians with a comprehensive foundation for the prevention and treatment of arrhythmias associated with long COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Karliński MA, Grabowski M, Kempa M, et al (2024)

Expert opinion of the Heart Rhythm Association of the Polish Cardiac Society and the Polish Neurological Society on evidence-driven implementation of implantable loop recorders in Poland.

Kardiologia polska, 82(3):353-359.

Implantable loop recorders (ILR) are considered increasingly helpful in diagnosing cardio-neurological conditions, especially if arrhythmic events are of high clinical importance but are unlikely to be captured by standard methods of electrocardiogram recording due to the low frequency of events and short duration of a single event. The compelling evidence from randomized trials and observational studies strongly supports ILR utilization in patients after cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack and in patients with recurrent transient loss of consciousness of unknown origin. These two groups of patients are expected to gain the most from initiating ILR-driven clinically effective management strategies. Stroke or transient ischemic attack survivors with detected subclinical atrial fibrillation can be switched from antiplatelets to anticoagulants, whilst patients with recurrent syncope may avoid severe injuries and/or substantial impairment of their quality of life. This joint opinion of the Heart Rhythm Association of the Polish Cardiac Society and experts from the Polish Neurological Society summarizes the up-to-date rationale for using ILR in everyday clinical practice and describes the road map for implementing this technology in Poland. Special emphasis is placed on the most recent guidelines issued by both cardiological and neurological scientific societies.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Szanto T, Helin T, Joutsi-Korhonen L, et al (2024)

Development of a Coagulation Disorders Unit.

Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis, 50(5):687-694.

Our Coagulation Disorders Unit in Helsinki, Finland, provides 24/7 services for local and national hospitals and colleagues upon requests regarding bleeding and thrombosis diagnostics and management, including follow-up. The unit has a tight connection between the clinic and laboratory, and its maintenance and sharing knowledge and observations have been priorities, already for over 20 years and will continue to be of major importance. The consultation service is provided by phone during daytime and on-call hours, and in written form sent electronically to the consulting stakeholders. Thrombosis and hemostasis-targeted outpatient clinics are also available for the patients referred to the center. Writing local guidance and official guidelines, Nordic, European and international collaboration, and educational activities including social communication are critical elements for the Coagulation Disorders Unit. Alertness to acute coagulation abnormalities, such as occurred during COVID-19 and vaccine-induced thrombosis and thrombocytopenia, and development of strategies to manage cross-disciplinary problems are topics which call upon broad networking. The Nordic community has an ongoing historical meeting, which has been circulating among coagulation centers for the past 56 years. At the European level, the European Association of Haemophilia and Allied Disorders focuses on bleeding disorders and their management, including safety surveillance. The International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis offers excellent basic and clinical benchmarks for any Coagulation Disorders Unit. We hope that the description of the development and implementation of our Coagulation Disorders Unit in Helsinki achieves international interest and broadens international collaboration. Finally, we congratulate STH on its great contributions around the globe and for providing a vivid forum to foster the discipline of thrombosis and hemostasis.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Hebebrand J, Gradl-Dietsch G, Peters T, et al (2024)

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa in Childhood and Adolescence.

Deutsches Arzteblatt international, 121(5):164-174.

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious disease with a lifetime prevalence of up to 3.6% in women and 0.3% in men. Abnormally low weight and the associated starvation partly account for its somatic and mental manifestations.

METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search concerning AN in childhood and adolescence.

RESULTS: The peak age of onset of AN is 15.5 years. The frequency of inpatient treatment for AN rose by 40% during the COVID pandemic, indicating the importance of environmental factors; the heritability of AN is estimated at 0.5. The ICD-11 sets the threshold for AN-associated underweight at the fifth percentile for age of the body mass index, as long as the remaining diagnostic criteria are met. The main goal of the multiprofessional treatment of AN is the return to normal body weight, which is a central prerequisite for regaining somatic and mental health. The mean duration of AN is 3.4 years, and approximately twothirds of patients recover from the disease over the long term.

CONCLUSION: Marked weight loss in childhood and adolescence can trigger AN in the presence of a predisposition to this disease. Patients and their families should receive psychoeducation regarding the symptoms of starvation and their overlap with those of AN. Important objectives are to shorten the duration of the illness, minimize mortality and the risk of chronic illness, and to identify pharmacological approaches to treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Conteh INM, Braka F, Assefa EZ, et al (2024)

Strengthening and utilizing response groups for emergencies flagship: a narrative review of the roll out process and lessons from the first year of implementation.

Frontiers in public health, 12:1405174.

The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO/AFRO) faces members who encounter annual disease epidemics and natural disasters that necessitate immediate deployment and a trained health workforce to respond. The gaps in this regard, further exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, led to conceptualizing the Strengthening and Utilizing Response Group for Emergencies (SURGE) flagship in 2021. This study aimed to present the experience of the WHO/AFRO in the stepwise roll-out process and the outcome, as well as to elucidate the lessons learned across the pilot countries throughout the first year of implementation. The details of the roll-out process and outcome were obtained through information and data extraction from planning and operational documents, while further anonymized feedback on various thematic areas was received from stakeholders through key informant interviews with 60 core actors using open-ended questionnaires. In total, 15 out of the 47 countries in WHO/AFRO are currently implementing the initiative, with a total of 1,278 trained and validated African Volunteers Health Corps-Strengthening and Utilizing Response Groups for Emergencies (AVoHC-SURGE) members in the first year. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has the highest number (214) of trained AVoHC-SURGE members. The high level of advocacy, the multi-sectoral-disciplinary approach in the selection process, the adoption of the one-health approach, and the uniqueness of the training methodology are among the best practices applauded by the respondents. At the same time, financial constraints were the most reported challenge, with ongoing strategies to resolve them as required. Six countries, namely Botswana, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Togo, have started benefiting from their trained AVoHC-SURGE members locally, while responders from Botswana and Rwanda were deployed internationally to curtail the recent outbreaks of cholera in Malawi and Kenya.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Khatami SS, Revheim ME, Høilund-Carlsen PF, et al (2024)

Central nervous system manifestations following vaccination against COVID-19.

Brain, behavior, & immunity - health, 38:100788.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has become the most effective countermeasure in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. However, vaccination is associated with side effects. This narrative review focuses on central nervous system (CNS) manifestations following COVID-19 vaccination and provides a summary of the potential underlying mechanisms and methods of diagnosis and management of the vaccination-related CNS manifestations. Headache, myalgia, optic neuritis, seizure, multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and encephalitis, delirium, acute transverse myelitis, and stroke have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. Constant headache and myalgia are common manifestations that may necessitate further clinical investigation for stroke. To limit consequences, it is imperative to follow standard treatment protocols for each neurological disorder following COVID-19 vaccination. Immunosuppressive medication can be helpful in the treatment of seizures following vaccination since the immune response is involved in their etiology. Clinicians should be aware of the manifestations after COVID-19 vaccination to respond promptly and effectively. Clinical guidelines for the management of CNS manifestations following COVID-19 vaccination are in high demand and would be useful in each new SARS-CoV-2 variant pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Tabassum S, Hassan Hafeez M, Naeem A, et al (2024)

The challenges and main recommendations to fight measles in India: A mini review.

New microbes and new infections, 60-61:101433.

The measles virus is an RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. It leads to an acute communicable illness that primarily involves the respiratory tract. Vaccination has significantly reduced the overall incidence and mortality worldwide; however, outbreaks still occur globally each year due to several factors. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been a major hurdle since 2020. Despite the World Health Organization's goal to eradicate measles by 2023, there has been an increase in measles incidence in India, with 61,562 cases in 2022. Vaccination is a crucial preventive measure, and coverage needs to be increased through education, advocacy, and outreach to isolated communities.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Lu RXZ, Zhao Y, M Radisic (2024)

The emerging role of heart-on-a-chip systems in delineating mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-induced cardiac dysfunction.

Bioengineering & translational medicine, 9(3):e10581.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a major global health concern since its emergence in 2019, with over 680 million confirmed cases as of April 2023. While COVID-19 has been strongly associated with the development of cardiovascular complications, the specific mechanisms by which viral infection induces myocardial dysfunction remain largely controversial as studies have shown that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 can lead to heart failure both directly, by causing damage to the heart cells, and indirectly, by triggering an inflammatory response throughout the body. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of potential mechanisms that drive heart failure based on in vitro studies. We also discuss the significance of three-dimensional heart-on-a-chip technology in the context of the current and future pandemics.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Byrnes-Enoch H, Afshar N, Singer J, et al (2024)

Lessons for Public Health Excellence from the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Perspective from New York City.

NAM perspectives, 2024:.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Güneş M, Ö Özdemir (2024)

COVID-19 and cardiac complications: Myocarditis and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.

World journal of cardiology, 16(5):260-268.

Coronavirus is an important pathogen causing disease in humans and animals. At the end of 2019, an investigation into an increase in pneumonia cases in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, found that the cause was a new coronavirus. This disease, which spread rapidly across China and caused an outbreak worldwide, resulted in a pandemic. Although this virus has previously been referred to as 2019-nCoV, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), later it was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Children were usually asymptomatic and rarely severely affected. In April 2020, reports from the United Kingdom indicated that children may have Kawasaki disease or a clinical condition similar to toxic shock syndrome. This clinical picture was later defined as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Since then, similarly affected children as well as cases with other cardiac complications have been reported in other parts of the world. In this review, we aimed to evaluate COVID-19 in terms of cardiac involvement by reviewing the literature.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Ogieuhi IJ, Suman F, Kumari N, et al (2024)

A Systematic Review of Perinuclear Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Glomerulonephritis Following Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination: A 2024 Update.

Cureus, 16(4):e59390.

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (GN) is an immune-mediated kidney disease characterized by the inflammation of small blood vessels in the kidney, leading to renal impairment and potentially irreversible damage. Concerns have been raised over the reports of myeloperoxidase/perinuclear (MPO/p) ANCA GN following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Our study provides a comprehensive insight into perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) GN after COVID-19 vaccination. We conducted a comprehensive literature search on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms related to "covid-19 vaccine," "glomerulonephritis," "p-ANCA," and "MPO-ANCA" up to March 5, 2024, to include cases of p-ANCA-associated GN following COVID-19 vaccination. Of the 4,102 articles, we included 29, reporting 35 patients demonstrating COVID-19 vaccine-induced p-ANCA GN, with 23 (65.7%) females and a median age of 69 years (mean ± SD = 63.22 ± 16). Twenty-six (74.28%) patients received the mRNA vaccine (Pfizer = 19, Moderna = 7). Seventeen (48.57%) patients presented with p-ANCA GN after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, with a median gap of 19 days (1-84 days). Constitutional symptoms (54.28%) and acute kidney injury (42.85%) were the most reported initial presentations, and elevated serum creatinine (mean peak serum creatinine = 4.98 ± 5.02 mg/dL), hematuria, and proteinuria were the laboratory findings. MPO/p-ANCA was positive in 31 (88.6%) patients. All patients underwent renal biopsy, and crescentic GN was the most common finding among 27 (77.14%) patients. Management of p-ANCA GN included steroids in 30 (85.71%) patients, followed by rituximab (28.57%), and plasmapheresis (22.86%). Most patients responded well to treatment, with complete remission in 29 (82.86%) and relapse in four (11.42%) patients. Two patients did not achieve remission and became dialysis dependent. ANCA-associated GN is a rare and life-threatening complication of the COVID-19 vaccine, necessitating urgent evaluation and management. COVID-19 vaccine-induced p-ANCA GN should be included in the differential diagnoses of patients presenting with kidney injury after vaccination.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Kaur R, C Leon Guevara (2024)

Addressing Challenges in Standardizing Helicobacter pylori Treatment Protocols: Importance and Review.

Cureus, 16(4):e59394.

Helicobacter pylori, one of the top carcinogens, is associated with most cases of gastric cancer-related deaths worldwide. Over the past two decades, the rising rates of antibiotic resistance in the bacterium have reduced the efficacy of conventional antibiotic-based treatments. This underscores the urgency for continued research and novel treatment approaches. Establishing a worldwide accepted physician guideline for antibiotic prescription is crucial to combat antibiotic resistance and improve H. pylori infection management. Therefore, it is important to address the challenges that complicate the establishment of a universally accepted treatment protocol to prescribe an antibiotic regimen to eradicate H. pylori. The answers to the questions of why conventional standard triple therapy remains a first-line treatment choice despite its low efficacy, and how different factors affect therapy choice, are needed to identify these challenges. Hence, this review addresses concerns related to H. pylori treatment choice, role of antibiotic resistance and patient compliance in treatment outcomes, first-line vs. second-line therapy options, and methods for enhancing existing treatment methods. We also present a chart to aid antibiotic treatment prescription, which may support physician guidelines in this aspect. Eradication of H. pylori and patient adherence is paramount in overcoming antibiotic resistance in the bacterium, and our chart summarizes key considerations and suggests novel approaches to achieve this goal.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Hasseli R, Regierer AC, Strangfeld A, et al (2024)

[The German COVID-19 rheumatism register].

Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie [Epub ahead of print].

At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in December 2019 there was no available evidence regarding the management of immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory treatment and the potential outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). As a result, the Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany, in collaboration with the German Society for Rheumatology, established the German COVID-19 register (www.covid19-rheuma.de). The COVID-19 register enabled for the first time a systematic documentation and evaluation of viral infections in patients with IRD. The data collection started as early as March 2020. Currently, the register is one of the largest global registers in the field of COVID-19 and IRD. As of 18 December 2023 the register has recorded more than 7100 cases. The first scientific findings on SARS-CoV‑2 infections in IRD patients were generated from the register in 2020, showing an association between disease activity of IRD, certain comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and treatment with rituximab, with an unfavorable course. The contents and construction of the database of the register were designed at the conception to allow collaboration and data exchange with other national and international registers (e.g., EULAR COVID-19 register, COVID-19 global rheumatology alliance and the Lean European open survey on SARS-CoV‑2 infected patients). In addition, other registers and surveys were initiated. A vaccination register documents the tolerability and possible adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccination in IRD patients. The data resulted in numerous publications and formed the basis for national and international recommendations for action in the care and vaccination of IRD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. In summary, the German COVID-19 register has made a significant contribution to the understanding of the course of COVID-19 in IRD patients and has facilitated international collaboration for a better understanding of COVID-19 and IRD.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Richards GA, Zamparini J, Kalla I, et al (2024)

Critical illness due to infection in people living with HIV.

The lancet. HIV, 11(6):e406-e418.

People living with HIV comprise a substantial number of the patients admitted to intensive care. This number varies according to geography, but all areas of the world are affected. In lower-income and middle-income countries, the majority of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions relate to infections, whereas in high-income countries, they often involve HIV-associated non-communicable diseases diagnoses. Management of infections potentially resulting in admission to the ICU in people living with HIV include sepsis, respiratory infections, COVID-19, cytomegalovirus infection, and CNS infections, both opportunistic and non-opportunistic. It is crucial to know which antiretroviral therapy (ART) is appropriate, when is the correct time to administer it, and to be aware of any safety concerns and potential drug interactions with ART. Although ART is necessary for controlling HIV infections, it can also cause difficulties relevant to the ICU such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, and issues associated with ART administration in patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction on mechanical ventilation. Managing infection in people with HIV in the ICU is complex, requiring collaboration from a multidisciplinary team knowledgeable in both the management of the specific infection and the use of ART. This team should include intensivists, infectious disease specialists, pharmacists, and microbiologists to ensure optimal outcomes for patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Moghimi E, Godfrey C, Hilton NZ, et al (2024)

Biopsychosocial risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in adolescents and adults reported after the COVID-19 pandemic onset: a scoping review protocol.

JBI evidence synthesis, 22(6):1135-1142 pii:02174543-990000000-00264.

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the biological, psychological, and sociological risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration reported after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

INTRODUCTION: IPV is a significant public health concern, characterized by various forms of violence inflicted by intimate partners. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly increased the global prevalence of IPV. While prior research has identified factors linked to IPV, the risk factors reported in the literature during this period have not been systematically mapped. Additionally, the similarities and differences in risk factors between perpetration and victimization have not been well delineated.

INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will focus on individuals aged 12 years or older involved in dyadic romantic relationships. Primary studies and systematic reviews published from the year 2020 will be included. Full-text papers, preprints, theses, and dissertations published in English will be included. Studies focusing on factors unrelated to IPV risk will be excluded. Non-systematic reviews, opinion pieces, and protocols will also be excluded.

METHODS: Following the JBI methodology for scoping reviews, systematic searches will be conducted for both peer-reviewed and gray literature. Independent reviewers will screen records, select eligible studies, and extract data using a standardized form. Key risk factors will be mapped to explore their interplay.

REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework https://osf.io/c2hkm.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Nguyen H, M Nasir (2024)

Management of Chronic Asthma in Adults.

The Medical clinics of North America, 108(4):629-640.

Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation and respiratory symptoms such as wheezing and coughing. In the United States, it affects 25 million people annually. Chronic smokers, poor adherence to medications, incorrect use of inhalers, and overall poor asthma control are known risk factors that lead to poorly controlled chronic asthmatics. Although asthma is traditionally categorized by severity, treatment by primary care providers is guided by the Global Initiative for Asthma or the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. As more research is available, shared decision-making between health care providers and patients will lead to improved outcomes in managing chronic asthma.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Simpson S, Hershman M, Nachiappan AC, et al (2024)

The Short and Long of COVID-19: A Review of Acute and Chronic Radiologic Pulmonary Manifestations of SARS-2-CoV and Their Clinical Significance.

Clinics in chest medicine, 45(2):383-403.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia has had catastrophic effects worldwide. Radiology, in particular computed tomography (CT) imaging, has proven to be valuable in the diagnosis, prognostication, and longitudinal assessment of those diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. This article will review acute and chronic pulmonary radiologic manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia with an emphasis on CT and also highlighting histopathology, relevant clinical details, and some notable challenges when interpreting the literature.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Kligerman S (2024)

Imaging of the Spectrum of Acute Lung Injury.

Clinics in chest medicine, 45(2):357-371.

Organizing pneumonia, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia, and diffuse alveolar damage, represent multi-compartment patterns of lung injury. The initial region of injury in all remains the same and is centered on the fused basement membrane (BM) between the capillary endothelium and type I pneumocyte. Injury leads to cellular death, BM denudation, increased cellular permeability, and BM structural damage, which leads to exudation, organization, and attempts at repair. When acute lung injury does lead to fibrosis, in some instances it can lead to histologic and/or radiologic usual interstitial pneumonia or nonspecific interstital pneumonia patterns suggesting that lung injury is the primary mechanism for the development of fibrosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Alrumi N (2024)

The impact of COVID-19 on medical education and training.

British journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005), 85(5):1-7.

The COVID-19 pandemic social isolation policies have accelerated the shift to online teaching for medical students and doctors in training worldwide. Online learning is cost-effective, available, and flexible. However, it can be challenging due to the technical system errors, which results in the disruption of the learning process and social isolation yielding to less satisfaction among students and teachers. The above can have negative consequences on the mental health of medical students and trainees, which is an under-researched area. United Kingdom based medical students and doctors in speciality training encountered disruptions to medical education and training due to the pandemic. Medical school and deaneries had to endorse adjustments to teaching and training delivery methods, examination, and assessments to ensure the continued progression of learning and training. A successful e-learning model depends on motivated and well-prepared medical students and teachers and structured educational materials in supported learning environment and institutions. A blended model is likely to be utilised by medical institutions for medical training in the future, which will need to be researched.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Hiremath A, Viswanathan VS, Bera K, et al (2024)

Deep learning reveals lung shape differences on baseline chest CT between mild and severe COVID-19: A multi-site retrospective study.

Computers in biology and medicine, 177:108643 pii:S0010-4825(24)00728-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Severe COVID-19 can lead to extensive lung disease causing lung architectural distortion. In this study we employed machine learning and statistical atlas-based approaches to explore possible changes in lung shape among COVID-19 patients and evaluated whether the extent of these changes was associated with COVID-19 severity. On a large multi-institutional dataset (N = 3443), three different populations were defined; a) healthy (no COVID-19), b) mild COVID-19 (no ventilator required), c) severe COVID-19 (ventilator required), and the presence of lung shape differences between them were explored using baseline chest CT. Significant lung shape differences were observed along mediastinal surfaces of the lungs across all severity of COVID-19 disease. Additionally, differences were seen on basal surfaces of the lung when compared between healthy and severe COVID-19 patients. Finally, an AI model (a 3D residual convolutional network) characterizing these shape differences coupled with lung infiltrates (ground-glass opacities and consolidation regions) was found to be associated with COVID-19 severity.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Lipsitch M, Y Grad (2024)

Diagnostics for Public Health - Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control.

NEJM evidence, 3(5):EVIDra2300271.

AbstractAccurate diagnostics are critical in public health to ensure successful disease tracking, prevention, and control. Many of the same characteristics are desirable for diagnostic procedures in both medicine and public health: for example, low cost, high speed, low invasiveness, ease of use and interpretation, day-to-day consistency, and high accuracy. This review lays out five principles that are salient when the goal of diagnosis is to improve the overall health of a population rather than that of a particular patient, and it applies them in two important use cases: pandemic infectious disease and antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Cruciani M, Pati I, Masiello F, et al (2024)

SARS-CoV-2 infection rebound among patients receiving antiviral agents, convalescent plasma, or no treatment: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue pii:BloodTransfus.764 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence showing rebound of COVID-19 infections in patients treated with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir between 2 and 8 days following cessation of the antiviral treatment. COVID-19 rebound is not unique to patients treated with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir, but is also observed in molnupiravir recipients, in patients who did not receive any antiviral treatment and in patients who received convalescent plasma (CP).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a systematic review with meta-analysis of clinical trials evaluating rates of virologic and clinical rebound in COVID-19 patients receiving antiviral agents, CP or no treatment. Both randomized clinical trials and controlled cohort studies were considered. The methodological quality of trials was assessed using ROB-2 and ROBIN-1 checklists, and the GRADE approach.

RESULTS: Data were available from 16 trials. The occurrence of virologic rebound was more commonly observed among nirmatrelvir recipients than among untreated patients (relative risk [RR]=2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.28; p=0.0007). No differences were observed in the occurrence of virologic rebound between nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and molnupiravir recipients (RR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.71-1.43). Similar rates of virologic rebounds were observed in molnupiravir recipients and untreated patients (RR=1.14; 95% CI: 0.81-1.6). One study in the pre-omicron period compared rates of virologic rebound between patients receiving standard of care with or without CP: no differences were observed between groups (RR=1.04; 95% CI: 0.55-1.99). Rates of clinical rebound were reported in seven trials, five evaluating nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and untreated patients, and two evaluating nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and molnupiravir recipients. No statistically significant differences between groups were observed. For all these comparisons, the certainty of the available evidence was graded as low or moderate.

DISCUSSION: Virologic rebound of COVID-19 infections appears to be mild and self-limited, and was observed more commonly in nirmatrelvir-ritonavir recipients than in untreated patients, but was also observed in patients treated with molnupiravir or CP.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Murr M, T Mettenleiter (2024)

Negative-Strand RNA Virus-Vectored Vaccines.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2786:51-87.

Vectored RNA vaccines offer a variety of possibilities to engineer targeted vaccines. They are cost-effective and safe, but replication competent, activating the humoral as well as the cellular immune system.This chapter focuses on RNA vaccines derived from negative-strand RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales with special attention to Newcastle disease virus-based vaccines and their generation. It shall provide an overview on the advantages and disadvantages of certain vector platforms as well as their scopes of application, including an additional section on experimental COVID-19 vaccines.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Kramps T (2024)

Introduction to RNA Vaccines Post COVID-19.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2786:1-22.

Available prophylactic vaccines help prevent many infectious diseases that burden humanity. Future vaccinology will likely extend these benefits by more effectively countering newly emerging pathogens, fighting currently intractable infections, or even generating novel treatment modalities for non-infectious diseases. Instead of applying protein antigen directly, RNA vaccines contain short-lived genetic information that guides the expression of protein antigen in the vaccinee, like infection with a recombinant viral vector. Upon decades of research, messenger RNA-lipid nanoparticle (mRNA-LNP) vaccines have proven clinical value in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic as they combine benefits of killed subunit vaccines and live-attenuated vectors, including flexible production, self-adjuvanting effects, and stimulation of humoral and cellular immunity. RNA vaccines remain subject to continued development raising high hopes for broader future application. Their mechanistic versatility promises to make them a key tool of vaccinology and immunotherapy going forward. Here, I briefly review key developments in RNA vaccines and outline the contents of this volume of Methods in Molecular Biology.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Makhijani S, Elossaily GM, Rojekar S, et al (2024)

mRNA-based vaccines - global approach, challenges, and could be a promising wayout for future pandemics.

Pharmaceutical development and technology [Epub ahead of print].

mRNA-based vaccines are assured to significantly boost biopharmaceuticals since outbreak of coronavirus disease- 2019. Respiratory infections, such as influenza, SARS, MERS, COVID-19, and respiratory syncytial virus, often have high transmission rates due to their airborne spread. Respiratory infections can lead to severe illness and death. These outbreaks can cause substantial economic and social disruption, as seen with the COVID-19 pandemic. In our interconnected world, respiratory diseases can spread rapidly across borders. mRNA-based vaccines (e.g. mRNA-1283) can reduce the transmission by creating immunity in the population, thus lowering the incidence and spread of these diseases. Vaccines are crucial for global health security, helping to prevent local outbreaks from becoming global pandemics. Nevertheless, various concerns remain such as intracellular delivery, susceptibility to degradation by catalytic hydrolysis, and instability due to several physiological conditions. Therefore, an hour needed to address these challenges and opportunities for attaining high-quality and stable mRNA-based vaccines with novel drug delivery systems. The authors contributed an extensive review of the mRNA-based clinical development, progress in stability, and delivery challenges to mitigate market needs. In addition, the authors discuss crucial advances in the growth of mRNA-based vaccines to date; which dominate an extensive scope of therapeutic implementation. Finally, recent mRNA-based vaccines in clinical trials, adjuvant benefits, and prospects are discussed.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Armstrong GW, Liebman DL, H Ashourizadeh (2024)

Implementation of anterior segment ophthalmic telemedicine.

Current opinion in ophthalmology, 35(4):343-350.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing push to integrate telemedicine into ophthalmic practices requires physicians to have a thorough understanding of ophthalmic telemedicine's applications, limitations, and recent advances in order to provide well tolerated and appropriate clinical care. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advancements in the use of ophthalmic telemedicine for anterior segment eye examinations.

RECENT FINDINGS: Virtual care for anterior segment evaluation relies on appropriate technology, novel workflows, and appropriate clinical case selection. Recent advances, particularly in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, have highlighted the utility of home-based assessments for visual acuity, external evaluation, tonometry, and refraction. Additionally, innovative workflows incorporating office-based testing into virtual care, termed 'hybrid telemedicine', enable high-quality ophthalmic testing to inform clinical decision-making.

SUMMARY: Novel digital tools and workflows enable high-quality anterior segment evaluation and management for select ophthalmic concerns. This review highlights the clinical tools and workflows necessary to enable anterior segment telehealth.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Jack S, Andritsch E, Joaquim A, et al (2024)

Current landscape and support for practical initiation of oncological prehabilitation translatable to thyroid cancer: A position paper.

Heliyon, 10(10):e30723.

Despite a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of prehabilitation, the uptake of prehabilitation in Europe remains low. Contributing factors range from limited awareness and understanding of prehabilitation to a lack of supporting infrastructure and reimbursement challenges. In this position paper, the authors propose a new comprehensive definition of prehabilitation and identify differentiated thyroid cancer as a type of cancer particularly well-suited for prehabilitation. To support clinicians with the implementation of prehabilitation programs in their clinics, the authors discuss the following practical solutions: a) find the most appropriate prehabilitation program for each patient; b) raise awareness among peers; c) develop evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of prehabilitation; d) expand the interdisciplinary team; e) expand your network and make use of existing assets; f) utilize learnings from the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Guzek A, Rybicki Z, Tomaszewski D, et al (2024)

Outcomes of 23 patients diagnosed with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection treated with ceftazidime/avibactam and aztreonam at a single center in Poland.

European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Amongst all etiologic hospital-acquired infection factors, K. pneumoniae strains producing New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (KP-NDM) belong to pathogens with the most effective antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Clinical guidelines recommend using ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam (CZA + AT) as the preferred option for NDM-producing Enterobacterales. However, the number of observations on such treatment regimen is limited. This retrospective study reports the clinical and microbiological outcomes of 23 patients with KP-NDM hospital-acquired infection treated with CZA + AT at a single center in Poland.

METHODS: The isolates were derived from the urine, lungs, blood, peritoneal cavity, wounds, and peritonsillar abscess. In microbiological analysis, mass spectrometry for pathogen identification, polymerase chain reaction, or an immunochromatographic assay for detection of carbapenemase, as well as VITEK-2 system, broth microdilution, and microdilution in agar method for antimicrobial susceptibility tests were used, depending of the pathogens' nature. CZA was administered intravenously (IV) at 2.5 g every eight hours in patients with normal kidney function, and aztreonam was administered at 2 g every eight hours IV. Such dosage was modified when renal function was reduced.

RESULTS: KP-NDM was eradicated in all cases. Four patients (17.4%) died: three of them had a neoplastic disease, and one - a COVID-19 infection.

CONCLUSION: The combination of CZA + AT is a safe and effective therapy for infections caused by KP-NDM, both at the clinical and microbiological levels. The synergistic action of all compounds resulted in a good agreement between the clinical efficacy of CZA + AT and the results of in vitro susceptibility testing.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

De Leeuw E, H Hammad (2024)

The role of dendritic cells in respiratory viral infection.

European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society, 33(172):.

Respiratory viral infections represent one of the major causes of death worldwide. The recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic alone claimed the lives of over 6 million people around the globe. It is therefore crucial to understand how the immune system responds to these threats and how respiratory infection can be controlled and constrained. Dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the key players in antiviral immunity because of their ability to detect pathogens. They can orchestrate an immune response that will, in most cases, lead to viral clearance. Different subsets of DCs are present in the lung and each subset can contribute to antiviral responses through various mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the role of the different lung DC subsets in response to common respiratory viruses, with a focus on respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We also review how lung DC-mediated responses to respiratory viruses can lead to the worsening of an existing chronic pulmonary disease such as asthma. Throughout the review, we discuss results obtained from animal studies as well as results generated from infected patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Wang C, F Yuan (2024)

A comprehensive comparison of DNA and RNA vaccines.

Advanced drug delivery reviews, 210:115340.

Nucleic acid technology has revolutionized vaccine development, enabling rapid design and production of RNA and DNA vaccines for prevention and treatment of diseases. The successful deployment of mRNA and plasmid DNA vaccines against COVID-19 has further validated the technology. At present, mRNA platform is prevailing due to its higher efficacy, while DNA platform is undergoing rapid evolution because it possesses unique advantages that can potentially overcome the problems associated with the mRNA platform. To help understand the recent performances of the two vaccine platforms and recognize their clinical potentials in the future, this review compares the advantages and drawbacks of mRNA and DNA vaccines that are currently known in the literature, in terms of development timeline, financial cost, ease of distribution, efficacy, safety, and regulatory approval of products. Additionally, the review discusses the ongoing clinical trials, strategies for improvement, and alternative designs of RNA and DNA platforms for vaccination.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Kinsella PM, Moso MA, Morrissey CO, et al (2024)

Antiviral therapies for the management of persistent coronavirus disease 2019 in immunocompromised hosts: A narrative review.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society [Epub ahead of print].

Antiviral agents with activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have played a critical role in disease management; however, little is known regarding the efficacy of these medications in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly in the management of persistent SARS-CoV-2 positivity. This narrative review discusses the management of persistent coronavirus disease 2019 in immunocompromised hosts, with a focus on antiviral therapies. We identified 84 cases from the literature describing a variety of approaches, including prolonged antiviral therapy (n = 11), combination antivirals (n = 13), and mixed therapy with antiviral and antibody treatments (n = 60). A high proportion had an underlying haematologic malignancy (n = 67, 80%), and were in receipt of anti-CD20 agents (n = 51, 60%). Success was reported in 70 cases (83%) which varied according to the therapy type. Combination therapies with antivirals may be an effective approach for individuals with persistent SARS-CoV-2 positivity, particularly those that incorporate treatments aimed at increasing neutralizing antibody levels. Any novel approaches taken to this difficult management dilemma should be mindful of the emergence of antiviral resistance.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Aleissa M, Sakr H, Abdelhamid R, et al (2024)

Media reporting of violence against children in the Eastern Mediterranean Region during the early days of COVID-19 pandemic.

Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit, 30(4):255-263.

BACKGROUND: Violence against children constitutes a significant public health problem globally.

AIM: To document and compare media reports of violence against children before and during COVID-19, and measures taken by countries to address such violence.

METHODS: This comparative review covered news reports of violence against children from 1 January to 30 June of 2019 and 2020 in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region countries. A total of 823 articles published in Arabic and English, covering incidents, initiatives, opinions and views on all types of violence among children under 18 years of age were sourced using search engines and platforms and reviewed. News on incidents was analysed quantitatively while news on initiatives and opinions was analysed qualitatively.

RESULTS: Some 40.3% of the news reports was on incidents, followed by interviews or opinions (31.5%) and initiatives (28.2%). There were 1129 reports of violence against children from 1 January to 30 June of 2019 and 1880 for the same period in 2020. Reports of physical violence increased from 34% in 2019 to 40% in 2020, while reports of sexual violence decreased from 45% in 2019 to 37% in 2020. Views and opinion reports showed 0.4-1.1% alignment with the 7 INSPIRE strategies.

CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the incidence and reporting of violence against children across the region. It is essential to provide accurate and sensitive media coverage for incidences of violence against children so that survivors and at-risk children can receive adequate support and ensure that communities can tackle it appropriately.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Benavides FG, Utzet M, Serra C, et al (2024)

[Health and well-being of healthcare workers: employment and working conditions beyond the pandemic].

Gaceta sanitaria, 38 Suppl 1:102378.

Healthcare workers are people who work in health activities, whether or not they have direct contact with citizens. Currently, around 1.3 million people (70% women) work in healthcare activities in Spain. This represents around 10% of the active population, having increased by 33% since 2008, especially the number of women, which has doubled. Healthcare organizations, especially hospitals, are extremely complex workplaces, with precarious working and employment conditions, especially in more hierarchical occupations, exposing healthcare workers to numerous occupational hazards, mainly from ergonomic and psychosocial conditions. These causes frequent musculoskeletal and mental disorders, highlighting burnout, which is estimated at 40% in some services such as intensive care units. This high morbidity is reflected in a high frequency of absences due to illness, around 9% after the pandemic. The pandemic, and its consequences in the last three years, has put extreme pressure on the health system and has clearly shown its deficiencies in relation to working and employment conditions. The hundreds of occupational health professionals, technicians and healthcare workers, who are part of the structures of health organizations, constitute very valuable resources to increase the resilience of the NHS. We recommend the strengthening in resources and institutionally of the occupational health services of health centers and the creation of an Observatory of working, employment and health conditions in the National Health Service, as an instrument for monitoring changes and proposing solutions.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Sato Y, Nakamura T, Yamada Y, et al (2024)

The impact of, and expectations for, lipid nanoparticle technology: From cellular targeting to organelle targeting.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 370:516-527.

The success of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 has enhanced the potential of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) as a system for the delivery of mRNA. In this review, we describe our progress using a lipid library to engineer ionizable lipids and promote LNP technology from the viewpoints of safety, controlled biodistribution, and mRNA vaccines. These advancements in LNP technology are applied to cancer immunology, and a potential nano-DDS is constructed to evaluate immune status that is associated with a cancer-immunity cycle that includes the sub-cycles in tumor microenvironments. We also discuss the importance of the delivery of antigens and adjuvants in enhancing the cancer-immunity cycle. Recent progress in NK cell targeting in cancer immunotherapy is also introduced. Finally, the impact of next-generation DDS technology is explained using the MITO-Porter membrane fusion-based delivery system for the organelle targeting of the mitochondria. We introduce a successful example of the MITO-Porter used in a cell therapeutic strategy to treat cardiomyopathy.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Blanco Moreno A (2024)

An overview of health workforce mobility in the European Union under the current supply challenges. SESPAS Report 2024.

Gaceta sanitaria, 38 Suppl 1:102393.

OBJECTIVE: Providing a general overview of the European Union's health workforce mobility under the challenges facing health systems regarding the supply of health workers.

METHOD: We use a descriptive method, based on the analysis of secondary data, qualitative and quantitative, concerning the European Semester from the European Union, complemented with statistical data from both the Union and some international organisations.

RESULTS: The mobility of health professionals in the Union, associated to strong reliance on recruiting abroad and shortages due to emigration, was identified as a challenge in the European Semester process in a significant number of times during 2017-2023. The pandemic aggravated pre-existing shortages and the need to strike a balance between maintaining the resolution capacity of health systems while abiding by the free movement of health professionals. The information shows that Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Lithuania, Latvia, Portugal, Bulgaria, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, and Slovenia could be flagged with an "issuer profile". Luxembourg, Ireland, Malta, and Sweden could be flagged with a "recipient profile". We benefited from improvements in the information system concerning the Union's health workforce. Further advances regarding the harmonisation of health professions' definition are needed, especially for nurses.

CONCLUSIONS: The European Union faces internal migrations of health professionals. Mobility is used as a solution to shortages. The pandemic aggravated pre-existing shortages bringing to the forefront the need to strike a balance between health objectives and internal market objectives. Member States are immersed in health reforms, some financed with European Funds. Promoting health workforce planning and forecasting would emerge as a necessary action, including improving harmonised information. Drawing in a systematic way on the available information from the European Semester reports may provide some clues to give answers to policymaking concerning health professionals' mobility.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Jiang Z, Xu Y, Du G, et al (2024)

Emerging advances in delivery systems for mRNA cancer vaccines.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 370:287-301.

The success of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in treating COVID-19 promotes further research of mRNA vaccines for cancer vaccination. Aiming at overcoming the constraints of currently available mRNA carriers, various alternative nano-vectors have been developed for delivering tumor antigen encoding mRNA and showed versatility to induce potent anti-tumor immunity. The rationally designed nano-vaccines increase the immune activation capacity of the mRNA vaccines by promoting crucial aspects including mRNA stability, cellular uptake, endosomal escape and targeting of immune cells or organs. Herein, we summarized the research progress of various mRNA based nano-vaccines that have been reported for cancer vaccination, including LNPs, lipid enveloped hybrid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles etc. Several strategies that have been reported for further enhancing the immune stimulation efficacy of mRNA nano-vaccines, including developing nano-vaccines for co-delivering adjuvants, combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and optimizing the injection routes for boosting immune responses, have been reviewed. The progress of mRNA nano-vaccines in clinical trials and the prospect of the mRNA vaccines for cancer vaccination are also discussed.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Namjoshi SS, Mast A, AS Patel (2024)

Review of long COVID in pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, & nutrition.

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 78(6):1210-1212.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Abu-Seida AM, Abdulkarim A, MH Hassan (2024)

Veterinary telemedicine: A new era for animal welfare.

Open veterinary journal, 14(4):952-961.

Telehealth is a rapidly developing field of veterinary medicine, particularly during and after the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The world and animal owners' expectations are changing to the point where veterinary practice will need to adapt due to information technology advancements. This narrative review describes the status, benefits, technology basics, applications, limitations, and legal aspects of veterinary telemedicine over the globe. Veterinary telemedicine is a service alongside other veterinary services that meets client needs, delivers quality medicine, and improves animal welfare. The most frequently utilized veterinary telemedicine applications include teleradiology, telesonography, teledentistry, telecardiology, telerehabilitation, anesthesia teleconsultation, telehospice and telepalliative care, telecytology, tele-endoscpy, teledermatology, tele-ophthalmology, tele-behavior therapy, and veterinary education and training. Veterinary telemedicine has a bright near future and will impact veterinary medicine and animal welfare due to its numerous advantages. These advantages include its low cost, availability, involvement in veterinary health care, online payment, and effectiveness in many clinical situations such as follow-up after an in-person examination, inspection of surgical sites, or mobility. Nevertheless, veterinary telemedicine should receive more attention from veterinary professional regulatory bodies in all countries. Moreover, it is necessary to conduct more studies to evaluate how telehealth is beginning to improve veterinary care, particularly for underserved regions.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Hayashi T, I Konishi (2024)

POST-COVID-19 INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS REMISSION.

Georgian medical news.

People infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at a higher risk of developing autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease. However, clinical studies have shown that, unlike bacterial infections, inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis is rarely triggered by viral infections. Generally, adult females have a higher incidence of rheumatoid arthritis compared to males (a female/male ratio of approximately 3:1). The secretion of female hormones is presumed to be deeply involved in the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, there is a definitive role of genetic factors in rheumatoid arthritis. Typically, rheumatoid arthritis is treated with steroids and antibody drugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antibodies and anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6) antibodies; however, although the symptoms of autoimmune diseases are alleviated by these drugs, the underlying pathology cannot be completely cured. Meanwhile, immunosuppressive treatment with steroids is effective against inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, the pathogenesis, symptoms, and pathological findings of inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis associated with COVID-19 are presumably different from those of autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis. Since COVID-19-related autoimmune-like diseases, such as COVID-19-related inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis, have pathological conditions that are different from inherited autoimmune diseases, it is possible to establish treatments that aim at remission. Further pathological analyses of patients with post-COVID-19 inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis are essential to the development of treatments for this type of arthritis.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Einecke D (2024)

[Not Available].

MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 166(10):18.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Heidar Alizadeh A, Nurchis MC, Garlasco J, et al (2024)

Pediatric post COVID-19 condition: an umbrella review of the most common symptoms and associated factors.

European journal of public health, 34(3):517-523.

BACKGROUND: Although the long-term consequences of the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are yet to be fully comprehended, a syndrome symptomatically akin to the COVID-19 disease has been defined, for children and adolescents, in February 2023 by the World Health Organization (WHO) as 'post COVID-19 condition' (PCC). Potential consequences of COVID-19 that affect developmental milestones in children and adolescents should be comprehended in their magnitude and duration. The aim is to investigate the most common symptoms and predictors or risk factors for pediatric PCC.

METHODS: In this umbrella review, the population of interest was defined as children and adolescents from 0 to 19 years old presenting PCC symptoms as defined by the WHO in the International Classification of Diseases. The intervention considered was general follow-up activity to monitor the patients' recovery status. No comparator was chosen, and the outcomes were symptoms of PCC and predictors or risk factors of developing PCC. Methodological quality, risk of bias and the level of overlap between studies were assessed. A random-effects meta-analytic synthesis of respective estimates with inverse variance study weighting was carried out, for the primary studies included by the reviews retrieved, regarding predictors or risk factors reported.

RESULTS: We identified six eligible systematic reviews, five with meta-analyses, from three databases. The most common symptoms reported were fatigue and respiratory difficulties; female sex and older age were the most reported factors associated with the development of pediatric PCC.

CONCLUSIONS: A deeper understanding of pediatric PCC requires well-designed and clearly defined prospective studies, symptom differentiation, and adequate follow-up.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Francis ER, Vu J, Perez CO, et al (2024)

Vaccinations in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Seminars in hematology, 61(2):131-138.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by immune dysfunction resulting in heightened susceptibility to infections and elevated rates of morbidity and mortality. A key strategy to mitigate infection-related complications has been immunization against common pathogens. However, the immunocompromised status of CLL patients poses challenges in eliciting an adequate humoral and cellular immune response to vaccination. Most CLL-directed therapy disproportionately impairs humoral immunity. Vaccine responsiveness also depends on the phase and type of immune response triggered by immunization. In this review, we discuss the immune dysfunction, vaccine responsiveness, and considerations for optimizing vaccine response in patients with CLL.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Baxter L, Slater R, Hermany L, et al (2024)

Identifying characteristics that enable resilient immunisation programmes: a scoping review.

BMJ open, 14(5):e072794.

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the fragility of immunisation programmes and resulted in a significant reduction in vaccination rates, with increasing vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks consequently reported. These vulnerabilities underscore the importance of resilient immunisation programmes to ensure optimal performance during crises. To date, a framework for assessing immunisation programme resilience does not exist. We conducted a scoping review of immunisation programmes during times of crisis to identify factors that characterise resilient immunisation programmes, which may inform an Immunisation Programme Resilience Tool.

DESIGN: Scoping review design followed the Arksey and O'Malley framework, and manuscript reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews guidelines.

DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, CENTRAL, Embase, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science and databases were searched between 1 January 2011 and 2 September 2023. Citation searching of identified studies was also performed.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included primary empirical peer-reviewed studies that discussed the resilience of immunisation programme to crises, shocks or disruptions.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers screened records and performed data extraction. We extracted data on study location and design, crisis description, and resilience characteristics discussed, and identified evidence gaps in the literature. Findings were synthesised using tabulation and an evidence gap map.

RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies captured research conducted across six continents, with most concentrated in Africa, Asia and Europe. One study had a randomised controlled trial design, while 36 studies had observational designs (15 analytical and 21 descriptive). We identified five characteristics of resilient immunisation programmes drawing on the Health System Resilience Index (Integration, Awareness, Resource Availability and Access, Adaptiveness and Self-regulation) and several evidence gaps in the literature.

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, no immunisation programme resilience tool exists. We identified factors from the Health System Resilience Index coupled with factors identified through primary empirical evidence, which may inform development of an immunisation programme resilience tool.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Begum T, Efstathiou N, Bailey C, et al (2024)

Cultural and social attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination and factors associated with vaccine acceptance in adults across the globe: A systematic review.

Vaccine pii:S0264-410X(24)00600-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To identify and synthesise evidence on cultural and social attitudes towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and factors associated with vaccine acceptance in the adult population.

DESIGN: Systematic review.

DATA SOURCES: Six electronic databases were searched (CINAHL, Coronavirus Research Database, Embase, MEDLINE, Nursing and Allied Health Database, and Web of Science Core Collection). Additional studies were identified through Google Scholar and hand searching the reference lists of all studies included in the review.

METHOD: The searches were conducted to identify all relevant studies published in English, from December 2019 to December 2021. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) and Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS tool) were used to critically appraise the quality of included studies. Data were extracted and synthesised narratively.

RESULTS: 1260 records were identified, of which 38 studies were included in the review. Low COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates were found among young people, females, non-medical students, and even some healthcare workers, which were associated with misinformation obtained through social media platforms, unknown side effects, questionable conspiracy theories, and doubts about efficacy and safety. Higher COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates were due to recommendations from healthcare professionals and government sources, and the perceived increased risk of contracting COVID-19.

CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance varies across the globe. To increase the acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccine, public health education programmes should be promoted effectively and target specifically the groups who are most hesitant to receive the vaccine such as young people, females, and non-medical students. Vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers can affect vaccination rates as the majority of the population views them as a trustworthy source for vaccine-related knowledge. Staff training is important to enhance their confidence and communication skills in providing information about COVID-19 vaccination to combat the misunderstanding of the public and encourage vaccine uptake.

PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021248016.

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ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.

Timelines

ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )