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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jun 2020 at 01:36 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 19008 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Imam Z, Odish F, Gill I, et al (2020)

Older age and comorbidity are independent mortality predictors in a large cohort of 1305 COVID-19 patients in Michigan, United States.

Journal of internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Higher comorbidity and older age have been reported as correlates of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients worldwide, however US data is scarce. We evaluated mortality predictors of COVID-19 in a large cohort of hospitalized patients in the US.

DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter cohort of inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 by RT-PCR from March 1-April 1,2020 was performed, and outcome data evaluated from March 1-April 17, 2020. Measures included demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentation, laboratory values, and imaging on admission. Primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, time to death, and development of acute kidney injury in the first 48-hours.

RESULTS: 1305 patients were hospitalized during the evaluation period. Mean age was 61.0±16.3, 53.8% were male and 66.1% African-American. Mean BMI was 33.2±8.8 kg/m2. Median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 2 (1-4), 72.6% of patients had at least one comorbidity, with hypertension (56.2%) and diabetes mellitus (30.1%) being the most prevalent. ACE-I/ARB use and NSAIDs use were widely prevalent (43.3% and 35.7% respectively). Mortality occurred in 200 (15.3%) of patients with median time of 10 (6-14) days. Age >60 (aOR:1.93,95% CI:1.26-2.94), and CCI>3 (aOR:2.71,95% CI:1.85-3.97) were independently associated with mortality by multivariate analyses. NSAIDs and ACE-I/ARB use had no significant effects on renal failure in the first 48 hours.

CONCLUSION: Advanced age and an increasing number of comorbidities are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 patients. NSAIDs and ACE-I/ARB use prior to admission is not associated with renal failure or increased mortality.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Lumpkin MM, JC Lim (2020)

Pandemic Best Regulatory Practices: An Urgent Need in the Covid-19 Pandemic.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

As large numbers of candidate drugs and vaccines for potential use in the Covid-19 pandemic are investigated, medicines regulators globally must now make urgent, informed, contextually risk-based decisions regarding clinical trials and marketing authorizations. They must do this with the flexibility demanded by the pandemic while maintaining their core risk assessment and public safety functions. We lay out the critical role of regulators in the current crisis and offer eight "pandemic best regulatory practices."

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Chernyshov PV, Tomas-Aragones L, Augustin M, et al (2020)

Position statement of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology Task Force on Quality of Life and Patient Oriented Outcomes on quality of life issues in dermatologic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV [Epub ahead of print].

The pandemic of COVID-19 is a global challenge for health care and dermatologists are not standing apart from trying to meet this challenge. The European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) has collected recommendations from its Task Forces (TFs) related to COVID-19. The Journal of the EADV has established a COVID-19 Special Forum giving free access to related articles. The psychosocial effects of the pandemic, an increase in contact dermatitis and several other skin diseases because of stress, disinfectants and protective equipment use, especially in health care workers, the temporary limited access to dermatologic care, the dilemma whether or not to pause immunosuppressive therapy, and, finally, the occurrence of skin lesions in patients infected by COVID-19 all contribute to significant quality of life (QoL) impairment. Here we present detailed recommendations of the EADV TF on QoL and Patient Oriented Outcomes on how to improve QoL in dermatologic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic for several different groups of patients and for the general population.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Cruickshank M, RZ Shaban (2020)

COVID-19: Lessons to be learnt from a once-in-a-century global pandemic.

The year 2020 will mark a once-in-a-century global event: the outbreak and pandemic of COVID-19. On the 31 December 2019 the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a cluster of pneumonia-like cases of a novel coronavirus zoonosis in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The outbreak was due to a new or novel coronavirus, which would later be called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Beaman A, PM Davidson (2020)

Service learning and COVID-19 - what the future might look like?.

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted travel and caused marked death and disability globally. The economic impact of this change has forced universities to operate differently in how they conduct their operations and deliver education to students (Jackson et al. 2020). Leveraging digital modalities has been crucial in achieving business continuity.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Langer F, Kluge S, Klamroth R, et al (2020)

Coagulopathy in COVID-19 and Its Implication for Safe and Efficacious Thromboprophylaxis.

Hamostaseologie [Epub ahead of print].

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is causing a global pandemic of life-threatening multiorgan disease, called COVID-19. Accumulating evidence indicates that patients with COVID-19 are at significant risk of thromboembolic complications, mainly affecting the venous, but also the arterial vascular system. While the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) appears to be higher in patients requiring intensive care unit support compared to those admitted to general wards, recent autopsy findings and data on the timing of VTE diagnosis relative to hospitalization clearly suggest that thromboembolic events also contribute to morbidity and mortality in the ambulatory setting. In addition to a severe hypercoagulable state caused by systemic inflammation and viral endotheliitis, some patients with advanced COVID-19 may develop a coagulopathy, which meets established laboratory criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation, but is not typically associated with relevant bleeding. Similar to other medical societies, the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Research has issued empirical recommendations on initiation, dosing, and duration of pharmacological VTE prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Terzi F, Cefarelli M, Fattori R, et al (2020)

Intramural Hematoma as Unexpected Complication of COVID-19 Infection.

Aorta (Stamford, Conn.) [Epub ahead of print].

Novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an ominous infectious disease that seems capable to attack any organ system, leading in the most severe cases to patient death. COVID-19 has been associated with multiple cardiovascular complications of inflammatory and immune origin, leading to a wide spectrum of vascular damage, myocardial injury, stroke, and pulmonary obstruction. We report the case of a patient with COVID-19 infection who developed an acute aortic syndrome with the characteristics of aortic intramural hematoma.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Premkumar A, Cassimatis I, Berhie SH, et al (2020)

Home Birth in the Era of COVID-19: Counseling and Preparation for Pregnant Persons Living with HIV.

American journal of perinatology [Epub ahead of print].

With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States, a majority of states have instituted "shelter-in-place" policies effectively quarantining individuals-including pregnant persons-in their homes. Given the concern for COVID-19 acquisition in health care settings, pregnant persons with high-risk pregnancies-such as persons living with HIV (PLHIV)-are increasingly investigating the option of a home birth. Although we strongly recommend hospital birth for PLHIV, we discuss our experience and recommendations for counseling and preparation of pregnant PLHIV who may be considering home birth or at risk for unintentional home birth due to the pandemic. We also discuss issues associated with implementing a risk mitigation strategy involving high-risk births occurring at home during a pandemic. KEY POINTS: · Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has increased interest in home birth.. · Women living with HIV are pursuing home birth.. · Safe planning is paramount for women living with HIV desiring home birth, despite recommending against the practice..

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ashraf S, Ilyas S, MC Alraies (2020)

Acute coronary syndrome in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.

European heart journal pii:5851434 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Korytkowski M, Antinori-Lent K, Drincic A, et al (2020)

A Pragmatic Approach to Inpatient Diabetes Management during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism pii:5851514 [Epub ahead of print].

The pandemic of COVID-19 has presented new challenges to hospital personnel providing care for infected patients with diabetes who represent more than 20% of critically ill patients in intensive care units. Appropriate glycemic management contributes to a reduction in adverse clinical outcomes in acute illness but also requires intensive patient interactions for bedside glucose monitoring, intravenous and subcutaneous insulin administration, as well as rapid intervention for hypoglycemia events. These tasks are required at a time when minimizing patient interactions is recommended as a way of avoiding prolonged exposure to COVID-19 by health care personnel who often practice in settings with limited supplies of personal protective equipment. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide guidance for clinicians for reconciling recommended standards of care for infected hospitalized patients with diabetes while also addressing the daily realities of an overwhelmed health care system in many areas of the country. The use of modified protocols for insulin administration, bedside glucose monitoring, and medications such as glucocorticoids and hydroxychloroquine that may affect glycemic control are discussed. Continuous glucose monitoring systems have been proposed as an option for reducing time spent with patients, but there are important issues that need to be addressed if these are used in hospitalized patients. On site and remote glucose management teams have potential to provide guidance in areas where there are shortages of personnel who have expertise in inpatient glycemic management.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Anker SD, Butler J, Khan MS, et al (2020)

Conducting clinical trials in heart failure during (and after) the COVID-19 pandemic: an Expert Consensus Position Paper from the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

European heart journal pii:5851435 [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has important implications for the safety of participants in clinical trials and the research staff caring for them and, consequently, for the trials themselves. Patients with heart failure may be at greater risk of infection with COVID-19 and the consequences might also be more serious, but they are also at risk of adverse outcomes if their clinical care is compromised. As physicians and clinical trialists, it is our responsibility to ensure safe and effective care is delivered to trial participants without affecting the integrity of the trial. The social contract with our patients demands no less. Many regulatory authorities from different world regions have issued guidance statements regarding the conduct of clinical trials during this COVID-19 crisis. However, international trials may benefit from expert guidance from a global panel of experts to supplement local advice and regulations, thereby enhancing the safety of participants and the integrity of the trial. Accordingly, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology on 21 and 22 March 2020 conducted web-based meetings with expert clinical trialists in Europe, North America, South America, Australia, and Asia. The main objectives of this Expert Position Paper are to highlight the challenges that this pandemic poses for the conduct of clinical trials in heart failure and to offer advice on how they might be overcome, with some practical examples. While this panel of experts are focused on heart failure clinical trials, these discussions and recommendations may apply to clinical trials in other therapeutic areas.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Rimac G, Marzouk M, Dumont É, et al (2020)

When a delayed cardiology consultation leads to a massive left ventricle pseudoaneurysm: collateral effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

European heart journal pii:5851432 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ruilope LM, Tamargo J, G Ruiz-Hurtado (2020)

Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in the COVID-19 pandemic: consequences of antihypertensive drugs.

European heart journal pii:5851433 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Gao C, Cai Y, Zhang K, et al (2020)

Association of hypertension and antihypertensive treatment with COVID-19 mortality: a retrospective observational study.

European heart journal pii:5851436 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: It remains unknown whether the treatment of hypertension influences the mortality of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a retrospective observational study of all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital. The hospital was dedicated solely to the treatment of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Hypertension and the treatments were stratified according to the medical history or medications administrated prior to the infection. Among 2877 hospitalized patients, 29.5% (850/2877) had a history of hypertension. After adjustment for confounders, patients with hypertension had a two-fold increase in the relative risk of mortality as compared with patients without hypertension [4.0% vs. 1.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.82, P = 0.013]. Patients with a history of hypertension but without antihypertensive treatment (n = 140) were associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality compared with those with antihypertensive treatments (n = 730) (7.9% vs. 3.2%, adjusted HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, P = 0.041). The mortality rates were similar between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor (4/183) and non-RAAS inhibitor (19/527) cohorts (2.2% vs. 3.6%, adjusted HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.28-2.58, P = 0.774). However, in a study-level meta-analysis of four studies, the result showed that patients with RAAS inhibitor use tend to have a lower risk of mortality (relative risk 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.94, P = 0.20).

CONCLUSION: While hypertension and the discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment are suspected to be related to increased risk of mortality, in this retrospective observational analysis, we did not detect any harm of RAAS inhibitors in patients infected with COVID-19. However, the results should be considered as exploratory and interpreted cautiously.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Zhai Y (2020)

A Call for Addressing Barriers to Telemedicine: Health Disparities during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Wiebers DO, VL Feigin (2020)

What the COVID-19 Crisis Is Telling Humanity.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

White A, Mukherjee P, Stremming J, et al (2020)

Neonates Hospitalized with Community-Acquired SARS-CoV-2 in a Colorado Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

IMPORTANCE: The novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) has been well described in adults. Further, the impact on older children and during the perinatal time is becoming better studied. As community spread increases, it is important to recognize that neonates are vulnerable to community spread as well. The impact that community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 has in the neonatal time period is unclear, as this population has unique immunity considerations.

OBJECTIVE: To report on a case series of SARS-CoV-2 in neonates through community acquisition in the USA.

DESIGN: This is an early retrospective study of patients admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) identified as having SAR-CoV-2 through positive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs.

FINDINGS: Three patients who required admission to the NICU between the ages of 17 and 33 days old were identified. All 3 had ill contacts in the home or had been to the pediatrician and presented with mild to moderate symptoms including fever, rhinorrhea, and hypoxia, requiring supplemental oxygen during their hospital stay. One patient was admitted with neutropenia, and the other 2 patients became neutropenic during hospitalization. None of the patients had meningitis or multiorgan failure.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Infants with community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 may require hospitalization due to rule-out sepsis guidelines if found to have fever and/or hypoxia. Caregivers of neonates should exercise recommended guidelines before contact with neonates to limit community spread of SARS-CoV-2 to this potentially vulnerable population, including isolation, particularly as asymptomatic cases become prevalent.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Deslée G, Zysman M, Burgel PR, et al (2020)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the COVID-19 pandemic: Reciprocal challenges.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Mvumbi DM (2020)

Mass intake of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine in the present context of the Covid-19 outbreak: Possible consequences in endemic malaria settings.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Unal G, Turan B, YH Balcioglu (2020)

Immunopharmacological management of COVID-19: Potential therapeutic role of valproic acid.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Elbay RY, Kurtulmuş A, Arpacıoğlu S, et al (2020)

Depression, anxiety, stress levels of physicians and associated factors in Covid-19 pandemics.

Psychiatry research, 290:113130 pii:S0165-1781(20)31203-8 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To investigate anxiety, stress, and depression levels of physicians during the Covid-19 outbreak and explored associated factors in both clinical and general site.

METHODS: An online survey is conducted to asses psychological responses of healthcare workers and related factors during Covid-19 outbreak. It is consisted of three subsections covering the following areas: 1) sociodemographic data 2) information on individuals` working condition 3) Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DAS-21).

RESULTS: Of all 442 participants, 286 (64.7%) had symptoms of depression, 224 (51.6%) anxiety, and 182 (41.2%) stress. Being female, young, and single, having less work experience, working in frontline were associated with higher scores, whereas having a child was associated with lower scores in each subscale. Factors found to be associated with higher DAS-21 total scores in frontline workers were as follows: increased weekly working hours, increased number of Covid-19 patients cared for, lower level of support from peers and supervisors, lower logistic support, and lower feelings of competence during Covid-19 related tasks.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the factors which need to be taken into consideration to protect the mental wellbeing of doctors while fighting with a disaster that has major impacts on society worldwide.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Iyengar K, Upadhyaya GK, Vaishya R, et al (2020)

COVID-19 and applications of smartphone technology in the current pandemic.

Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 14(5):733-737 pii:S1871-4021(20)30152-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: With restrictions on face to face clinical consultations in the COVID-19 pandemic and the challenges faced by health care systems in delivering patient care, alternative information technologies like telemedicine and smartphone are playing a key role.

AIMS: We assess the role and applications of smartphone technology as an extension of telemedicine in provide continuity of care to our patients and surveillance during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: We have done a comprehensive review of the literature using suitable keywords on the search engines of PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and Research Gate in the first week of May 2020.

RESULTS: Through the published literature on this topic, we discuss role, common applications and its support in extended role of telemedicine technology in several aspects of current COVID-19 pandemic.

CONCLUSION: Smartphone technology on its own and as extension of telemedicine has significant applications in the current COVID-19 pandemic. As the smartphone technology further evolves with fifth generation cellular network expansion, it is going to play a key role in future of health medicine, patient referral, consultation, ergonomics and many other extended applications of health care.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Abdelaziz HK, Abdelrahman A, Nabi A, et al (2020)

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Insights from a British cardiac center.

The current study aimed to examine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on patient-related delay with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at a tertiary center in the United Kingdom. The study demonstrated a significant delay in symptom-to-first medical contact and a higher cardiac troponin-I level on admission in patients with STEMI during the COVID-19 pandemic versus the pre-COVID era.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Lang JP, Wang X, Moura FA, et al (2020)

A current review of COVID-19 for the cardiovascular specialist.

American heart journal, 226:29-44 pii:S0002-8703(20)30133-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predominantly disrupts the respiratory system, there is accumulating experience that the disease, particularly in its more severe manifestations, also affects the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular risk factors and chronic cardiovascular conditions are prevalent among patients affected by COVID-19 and associated with adverse outcomes. However, whether pre-existing cardiovascular disease is an independent determinant of higher mortality risk with COVID-19 remains uncertain. Acute cardiac injury, manifest by increased blood levels of cardiac troponin, electrocardiographic abnormalities, or myocardial dysfunction, occurs in up to ~60% of hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19. Potential contributors to acute cardiac injury in the setting of COVID-19 include (1) acute changes in myocardial demand and supply due to tachycardia, hypotension, and hypoxemia resulting in type 2 myocardial infarction; (2) acute coronary syndrome due to acute atherothrombosis in a virally induced thrombotic and inflammatory milieu; (3) microvascular dysfunction due to diffuse microthrombi or vascular injury; (4) stress-related cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome); (5) nonischemic myocardial injury due to a hyperinflammatory cytokine storm; or (6) direct viral cardiomyocyte toxicity and myocarditis. Diffuse thrombosis is emerging as an important contributor to adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Practitioners should be vigilant for cardiovascular complications of COVID-19. Monitoring may include serial cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptides, along with fibrinogen, D-dimer, and inflammatory biomarkers. Management decisions should rely on the clinical assessment for the probability of ongoing myocardial ischemia, as well as alternative nonischemic causes of injury, integrating the level of suspicion for COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Franco F, Alessandro Z, Carlo C, et al (2020)

Impact of COVID-19 epidemic on coronary care unit accesses for acute coronary syndrome in Veneto region, Italy.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Oren O, Gersh BJ, RS Blumenthal (2020)

Anticipating and curtailing the cardiometabolic toxicity of social isolation and emotional stress in the time of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Cervera-Gasch Á, González-Chordá VM, D Mena-Tudela (2020)

COVID-19: Are Spanish medicine and nursing students prepared?.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Yoneoka Y, Aizawa N, Nonomura Y, et al (2020)

Traumatic non-missile penetrating transnasal anterior skull-base fracture and brain injury with cerebrospinal fluid leak: intraoperative leak detection and an effective reconstruction procedure for a localized skull base defect especially after COVID-19 outbreak.

BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid leakage in penetrating skull base injury is relatively rare compared to close head injury involving skull base fracture.

CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a 65-year-old beekeeping man who presented with epistaxis and serous rhinorrhea. When he fell down on the ground near his bee boxes, a garden pole poked into his right nostril. He instantly removed the pole from his nostril by himself. Immediately after the removal of the pole, he developed some nasal bleeding and serous rhinorrhea. He then drove to our emergency room. Computed tomography showed pneumocephalus with minor cerebral contusion in the left frontal lobe, and penetrating injury in the left anterior skull base. His cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage did not resolve spontaneously within one week after the injury under a strict bed rest. We repaired the CSF leakage using a fat (adipose tissue)-on-fascia autograft plug and caulked the defect in the anterior skull base with the fat-on-fascia graft (FFG) plug through the left nostril under endoscopic vision. The CSF rhinorrhea was successfully controlled. Intranasal local application of fluorescein aided in the detection of the flow direction of CSF leakage.

CONCLUSIONS: Endonasal endoscopic caulking of a skull base defect using FFG plug is useful for CSF leakage due to localized skull base defect, in particular for the post-COVID-19 era, because it is simple, low-cost, and timesaving: requiring no special skills or no sophisticated instruments, thus reducing infection risks during the surgery. (239 words).

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Mizumoto K, Kagaya K, G Chowell (2020)

Effect of the Wet Market on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmission dynamics in China, 2019-2020.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30398-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) originating from Wuhan rapidly spread throughout China. While its origin remains uncertain, accumulating evidence links a wet market for the early SARS-CoV-2 spread in Wuhan. Similarly, the influence of the marketplace on the early transmission dynamics is yet to be investigated.

METHODS: Using the daily series of COVID-19 incidence stratified according to contact history with the market, we have conducted quantitative modeling analyses to estimate the reproduction numbers (R) for the market-to-human and human-to-human transmission, the reporting probability and the early effects of public health interventions.

RESULTS: We estimated R at 0.24 (95%CrI: 0.01-1.38) for market-to-human transmission, and 2.37 (95%CrI: 2.08-2.71) for human-to-human transmission during the early spread in China (2019-2020). Moreover, we estimated that the reporting rate for cases stemming from market-to-human transmission was 2-34 fold higher than that for cases stemming from human-to-human transmission, suggesting that contact history with the wet market played a key role in identifying COVID-19 cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Our R estimate tied to market-to-human transmission has substantial uncertainty, but it was significantly lower compared to the reproduction number driving human-to-human transmission. Our results also suggest that asymptomatic and subclinical infections constitute a substantial component of the COVID-19 morbidity burden.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Edeas M, Saleh J, C Peyssonnaux (2020)

Iron: Innocent bystander or vicious culprit in COVID-19 pathogenesis?.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30417-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is viciously spreading through the continents with rapidly increasing mortality rates. Current management of COVID-19 is based on that respiratory failure is the leading cause of mortality. However, mounting evidence link accelerated pathogenesis in gravely ill COVID-19 patients to a hyper-inflammatory state involving a cytokine storm. Several components of the heightened inflammatory state were addressed as therapeutic targets. Another key component of the heightened inflammatory state is hyper-ferritinemia which reportedly identifies patients with increased mortality risk. In spite of its strong association with mortality, it is not yet clear if hyper-ferritinemia in COVID-19 patients is merely a systemic marker of disease progression, or a key modulator in disease pathogenesis. Here we address implications of a possible role for hyper-ferritinemia, and altered iron homeostasis in COVID-19 pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets in this regard.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA, Seale H, et al (2020)

HUMAN CORONAVIRUS DATA FROM FOUR CLINICAL TRIALS OF MASKS AND RESPIRATORS.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30399-4 [Epub ahead of print].

There are few published data on the protection of masks or respirators against coronavirus infections. This is an important research question to inform the response to the COVID-19 epidemic. The transmission modes of human coronaviruses are similar, thought to be by droplet, contact and sometimes airborne routes. There are several randomised clinical trials of masks and respirators, but most used clinical endpoints or tested only for influenza. In four trials which we conducted, we tested for human coronaviruses, but only composite viral endpoints were reported in the trials. We reviewed and analysed the coronavirus data from four of our trials. Laboratory-confirmed coronavirus infections were identified in our community household trial (1 case), health worker trials (8 cases) and trial of mask use by sick patients (19 cases). No coronavirus infections were transmitted in households to parents who wore P2 or surgical masks, but one child with coronavirus infection transmitted infection to a parent in the control arm. No transmissions to close contacts occurred when worn by sick patients with coronavirus infections. There was a higher risk of coronavirus infection in HCWs who wore a mask compared to a respirator, but the difference was not statistically significant. These are the only available data on coronavirus infections associated with mask or respirator use. More clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of respiratory protection against coronavirus infections.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Porte L, Legarraga P, Vollrath V, et al (2020)

Evaluation of novel antigen-based rapid detection test for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30405-7 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, the development and validation of rapid and easy-to-perform diagnostic methods are of high priority. We evaluated a novel rapid antigen detection test (RDT) for SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples.

METHODS: The fluorescence immunochromatographic SARS-CoV-2 antigen test (Bioeasy Biotechnology Co., Shenzhen, China) was evaluated using universal transport medium with nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs from suspected Covid-19 cases. Diagnostic accuracy was determined in comparison to SARS-CoV-2 real time (RT)-PCR.

RESULTS: A total of 127 samples were included; 82 were RT-PCR positive. Median patients' age was 38 years, 53.5% were male, and 93.7% were from the first week after symptom onset. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 93.9% (CI95% 86.5-97.4) and 100% (CI95% 92.1-100), respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 96.1% and Kappa coefficient of 0.9. Sensitivity was significantly higher in samples with high viral loads.

CONCLUSIONS: The evaluated RDT showed a high sensitivity and specificity in samples mainly obtained during the first week of symptoms and with high viral loads, despite the use of a non-validated sample material. The assay has the potential to become an important tool for early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, particularly in situations with limited access to molecular methods.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Shah AUM, Safri SNA, Thevadas R, et al (2020)

COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia: Actions Taken by the Malaysian Government.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30400-8 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM AND BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a novel pneumonia disease originated from Wuhan, was confirmed by World Health Organization on 12th January 2020 before becoming an outbreak in all countries.

OUTBREAK SITUATION: A stringent screening process in all airports had been enforced after the first case outside China was reported in Thailand. Up to 14th April 2020, Malaysia reported two waves of COVID-19 cases, which the first wave was successfully ended in less than two months. In early March 2020, the second wave arose with worrying situations.

ACTIONS TAKEN: Malaysia government enforced the Movement Control Order starting from 18th March 2020 to seriously break the chain of COVID-19. Media actively spread the hashtag #stayhome. Non-governmental organizations including prison inmates were the earliest to sew personal protective equipment to frontliners. Various organizations hosted fund raising to provide essentials mainly to hospitals. Provisional hospital was set up, collaborations with healthcare service providers were granted while additional laboratories were assigned in enhancing the proficiency of Ministry of Health.

ECONOMIC DOWNTURN: Initial financial stimulus amount RM 20.0 billion was released in February 2020 before the highlighted PRIHATIN package, amount RM 250 billion was announced. The PRIHATIN package was an all-inclusive support from the government to society in various backgrounds from students, families to business owners.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ming DK, Sorawat S, Chanh HQ, et al (2020)

Continuous physiological monitoring using wearable technology to inform individual management of infectious diseases, public health and outbreak responses.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30393-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Optimal management of infectious diseases is guided by up-to-date information at the individual and public health level. For infections of global importance including emerging pandemics such as COVID-19 or prevalent endemic diseases such like dengue, identifying patients at risk of severe disease and clinical deterioration can be challenging given the majority present with a mild illness. In our article, we describe the use of wearable technology for continuous physiological monitoring in healthcare. Deployment of wearables in hospital settings for the management of infectious diseases, or in the community to support syndromic surveillance during outbreaks could provide significant, cost effective advantages and improve healthcare delivery. We highlight a range of promising technologies employed by wearable devices and discuss the technical and ethical issues relating to implementation in the clinic, with specific focus on low- and middle- income countries. Finally, we propose a set of essential criteria for the roll-out of wearable technology for clinical use.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Kenyon C (2020)

The prominence of asymptomatic superspreaders in transmission mean universal face masking should be part of COVID-19 de-escalation strategies.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Luo S, Guo Y, Zhang X, et al (2020)

A Follow-up Study of Recovered Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Papamichalis P, Papadogoulas A, Katsiafylloudis P, et al (2020)

Combination of thrombolytic and immunosuppressive therapy for coronavirus disease 2019: A case report.

In a proportion of patients Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a multi-systematic syndrome characterized by hyperinflammation, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and hypercoagulability. A 68-year-old man with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) presented in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with respiratory failure, Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) and skin ischemia - microthrombosis. Specific coagulation and inflammatory markers (D-dimer, ferritin and C-reactive protein) along with the clinical picture triggered the trial of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and Tocilizumab. This was followed by resolution of skin ischemia and CRS while respiratory parameters improved. No major complications associated with rt-PA or Tocilizumab occurred. Combination of rt-PA with targeted anti-inflammatory treatment could be a new therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19, ARDS, hyperinflammation and increased blood viscosity.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Buonsenso D, Cinicola B, Raffaelli F, et al (2020)

Social consequences of COVID-19 in a low resource setting in Sierra Leone, West Africa.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30411-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Economical and psychological consequences of the lockdown in low-resource setting in rural Africa are unknown. We drafted a survey in order to address the social impact of COVID-19 lockdown on a rural village in Sierra Leone. The survey developed by the study group and translated in the local language, distributed to the householders of the village on April 13th and responses collected on April 14th, when Sierra Leone was on day 11 of lockdown. The questions aimed to assess in the community the following items: age group, main activities before lockdown, change in income and ability to feed the family during lockdown, anxiety during lockdown. 78 householders (100% of Bureh Town) replied. All, expect one, declared a 51-80% (19.2%) to 81-100% (79.4%) reduction of weekly income compared with the pre-lockdown period, declaring difficulties in providing food for the family members (82%), and anxiety (60%). Our analyses showed that people lost their jobs and have difficulties in providing food for their families.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ray PR, Wangzhou A, Ghneim N, et al (2020)

A pharmacological interactome between COVID-19 patient samples and human sensory neurons reveals potential drivers of neurogenic pulmonary dysfunction.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(20)30670-X [Epub ahead of print].

The SARS-CoV-2 virus infects cells of the airway and lungs in humans causing the disease COVID-19. This disease is characterized by cough, shortness of breath, and in severe cases causes pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which can be fatal. Bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma from mild and severe cases of COVID-19 have been profiled using protein measurements and bulk and single cell RNA sequencing. Onset of pneumonia and ARDS can be rapid in COVID-19, suggesting a potential neuronal involvement in pathology and mortality. We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 infection drives changes in immune cell-derived factors that then interact with receptors expressed by the sensory neuronal innervation of the lung to further promote important aspects of disease severity, including ARDS. We sought to quantify how immune cells might interact with sensory innervation of the lung in COVID-19 using published data from patients, existing RNA sequencing datasets from human dorsal root ganglion neurons and other sources, and a genome-wide ligand-receptor pair database curated for pharmacological interactions relevant for neuro-immune interactions. Our findings reveal a landscape of ligand-receptor interactions in the lung caused by SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and point to potential interventions to reduce the burden of neurogenic inflammation in COVID-19 pulmonary disease. In particular, our work highlights opportunities for clinical trials with existing or under development rheumatoid arthritis and other (e.g. CCL2, CCR5 or EGFR inhibitors) drugs to treat high risk or severe COVID-19 cases.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Lassale C, Gaye B, Hamer M, et al (2020)

Ethnic Disparities in Hospitalisation for COVID-19 in England: The Role of Socioeconomic Factors, Mental Health, and Inflammatory and Pro-inflammatory Factors in a Community-based Cohort Study.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(20)31101-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Differentials in COVID-19 hospitalisations and mortality according to ethnicity have been reported but their origin is uncertain. We examined the role of socioeconomic, mental health, and pro-inflammatory factors in a community-based sample.

METHODS: We used data on 340,966 men and women (mean age 56.2 years) from the UK Biobank study, a prospective cohort study with linkage to hospitalisation for COVID-19. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between ethnicity and hospitalisation for COVID-19.

RESULTS: There were 640 COVID-19 cases (571/324,306 White, 31/4,485 Black, 21/5,732 Asian, 17/5,803 Other). Compared to the White study members and after adjusting for age and sex, Black individuals had over a 4-fold increased risk of COVID-19 infection (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 4.32; 3.00-6.23), and there was a doubling of risk in the Asian group (2.12; 1.37, 3.28) and the 'other' non-white group (1.84; 1.13, 2.99). After controlling for potential explanatory factors which included neighbourhood deprivation, household crowding, smoking, body size, inflammation, glycated haemoglobin, and mental illness, these effect estimates were attenuated by 33% for Blacks, 52% for Asians and 43% for Other, but remained raised for Blacks (2.66; 1.82, 3.91), Asian (1.43; 0.91, 2.26) and other non-white groups (1.41; 0.87, 2.31).

CONCLUSIONS: There were clear ethnic differences in risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation and these do not appear to be fully explained by measured factors. If replicated, our results have implications for health policy, including the targeting of prevention advice and vaccination coverage.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

De Filippis G, Cavazzana L, Errico M, et al (2020)

After the COVID 19 outbreak in Italy: What have we learnt?.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Merry SP, Havyer RD, McCoy RG, et al (2020)

How can physicians advise faith communities during the COVID-19 pandemic?.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Anwar SL, Harahap WA, T Aryandono (2020)

Perspectives on how to navigate cancer surgery in the breast, head and neck, skin, and soft tissue tumor in limited-resource countries during COVID-19 pandemic.

International journal of surgery (London, England) pii:S1743-9191(20)30455-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The rapidly spreading coronavirus infection (COVID-19) worldwide has contracted all aspects of health systems. Developing countries that mostly have a weaker healthcare system and insufficient resources are likely to be the most hardly affected by the pandemic. Cancers are frequently diagnosed in late stages with higher case-fatality rates compared to those in high-income countries. Delayed diagnosis, lack of cancer awareness, low adherence to treatment, and inequal or limited access to treatment are among the challenging factors of cancer management in developing countries. Elective cancer surgeries are often considered to be postponed during COVID-19 pandemic to preserve valuable hospital resources such as personal protection equipment, hospital bed, intensive care unit capacity, and manpower to screen and treat the affected individuals. However, specific considerations to defer cancer surgery in developing countries might need to be carefully adjusted to counterbalance between preventing COVID-19 transmission and preserving patients 'long-term life expectancy and quality of life.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Patelis N, Bisdas T, Tsiachris D, et al (2020)

The role of vascular surgeons in the treatment of COVID-19-associated pulmonary embolism.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Nevzorov I, Tulamo R, Albäck A, et al (2020)

COVID-19 and SIC (!).

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Baccellieri D, Bilman V, Ardita V, et al (2020)

Accidental vertebral artery injury in a COVID-19 patient.

Journal of vascular surgery pii:S0741-5214(20)31307-0 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ohman JW, Annest SJ, Azizzadeh A, et al (2020)

Special Communication: Evaluation and Treatment of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome During the Global Pandemic Due to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.

The global SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has required a reduction in non-emergency treatment for a variety of disorders. This report summarizes conclusions of an international multidisciplinary consensus group assembled to address evaluation and treatment of patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), a group of conditions characterized by extrinsic compression of the neurovascular structures serving the upper extremity. The following recommendations were developed in relation to the 3 defined types of TOS (neurogenic, venous, and arterial) and 3 phases of pandemic response (preparatory, urgent with limited resources, and emergency with complete diversion of resources): (1) In-person evaluation and treatment for neurogenic TOS (interventional or surgical) is generally postponed during all pandemic phases, with telephone/telemedicine visits and at-home physical therapy exercises recommended when feasible. (2) Venous TOS presenting with acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome) is managed primarily with anticoagulation, with percutaneous interventions for venous TOS (thrombolysis) considered in early phases (I and II) and surgical treatment delayed until pandemic conditions resolve. Catheter-based interventions may also be considered for selected patients with central subclavian vein obstruction and threatened hemodialysis access in all pandemic phases, with definitive surgical treatment postponed. (3) Evaluation and surgical treatment for arterial TOS should be reserved for limb-threatening situations, such as acute upper extremity ischemia or acute digital embolization, in all phases of pandemic response. In late pandemic phases surgery should be restricted to thrombolysis or brachial artery thromboembolectomy, with more definitive treatment delayed until pandemic conditions resolve.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Wang J, Kuang M, Chen L, et al (2020)

Strategy for treating vascular emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.

Journal of vascular surgery pii:S0741-5214(20)31305-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus-caused pneumonia (COVID-19) broke out in Dec 2019. The virus soon proved to be extremely contagious and caused an international pandemic. Clinicians treating COVID-19 patients face considerable danger of occupational exposure due to the highly infectious nature of the virus and precautions must be taken to prevent medical staff infections. This article lists important measures that may save the lives of patients and medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic and help to stop the transmission of COVID-19 on hospital grounds. The suggestions include: 1. Establishing detailed Infection Control and Prevention Protocols in the operating room; 2. Expediting testing procedures and patient screening for COVID-19; 3. Utilizing case-specific treatment planning for vascular patients with COVID-19, favoring minimally invasive methods; 4. Establishing and reinforcing protective awareness within medical personnel.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Marco M, Valentina I, Laura G, et al (2020)

Management of diabetic persons with foot ulceration during COVID-19 health care emergency: effectiveness of a new triage pathway.

Diabetes research and clinical practice pii:S0168-8227(20)30495-2 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To define the outcomes of persons with diabetes and foot ulcers (DFUs) managed through a specific triage pathway during the COVID-19 crisis.

METHODS: Patients who had an active DFU during the COVID-19 emergency were included. All participants were managed using a specific triage system driven both by ulcer'severity and concomitant co-diseases. Subjects with severely complicated DFUs were urgently referred to hospital regardless of the concomitant comorbidities. Subjects with complicated DFUs received outpatient evaluation (within 48-72 hours) and were admitted to hospital if required (revascularization, surgical intervention, intravenous antibiotic therapy); after the first outpatient visit or hospitalization, patients were followed according to the number of comorbidities (in the case of 3 or more comorbidities patiente were followed up by telemedicine). Patients with uncomplicated DFUs were managed by telemedicine after outpatient evaluation. Healing, major amputation, death and rate of COVID-19 infection were evaluated. The minimum follow-up was 1 month.

RESULTS: The study group included 151 patients. The mean age was 69.9±14.2 years, 58.9% were male and 91.4% had type 2 diabetes; 58.7% had severely complicated, 21% complicated and 20.3% uncomplicated DFUs. Among those, 78.8% presented with 3 or more comorbidities. One hundred and six patients had regular clinical follow-ups, while 45 were managed through telemedicine. Forty-one (27.1%) patients healed, 3 (1.9%) had major amputations and 3 (1.9%) died. One patient (0.6%) reported COVID-19 positivity due to infection aquired at home.

CONCLUSION: The triage pathway adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic showed adequate management of DFUs and no cases of hospital virus exposure.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Kim RH, Brinster NK, SA Meehan (2020)

Dermatopathology Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Virtual Simulation of the Multi-Headed Microscope.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Fernandez-Nieto D, Jimenez-Cauhe J, Suarez-Valle A, et al (2020)

Comment on: "Characterization of acute acro-ischemic lesions in non-hospitalized patients: a case series of 132 patients during the COVID-19 outbreak".

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Simpson CL, CL Kovarik (2020)

Effectively Engaging Geriatric Patients via Teledermatology.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Zhang Y, Wen J, Chen C, et al (2020)

Challenges and countermeasures in the prevention of nosocomial infections of SARS-CoV-2 before resumption of work: implications for the dermatology department.

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology pii:S0190-9622(20)31007-0 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ruggiero G, Arcangeli F, Lotti T, et al (2020)

Reply to: "Characterization of acute acro-ischemic lesions in non-hospitalized patients: a case series of 132 patients during the COVID-19 outbreak".

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Mufti A, Maliyar K, Sachdeva M, et al (2020)

Modifications to Dermatology Residency Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Wu AG, SR Lipner (2020)

A Potential Hidden Reservoir: The Role of Nail Hygiene in Preventing Transmission of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Oreskovic NM, Kinane TB, Aryee E, et al (2020)

The Unexpected Risks of COVID-19 on Asthma Control in Children.

The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice pii:S2213-2198(20)30523-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Much is being learned about clinical outcomes for adult COVID-19 patients with underlying chronic conditions, however, there is less coverage on how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts the management of chronic medical conditions in children and youth, such as asthma. Asthma is a common chronic medical condition in children that is uniquely susceptible to changes brought upon by COVID-19. Sudden dramatic changes in the environment, medical practice, and medication use have altered the asthma management landscape with potential impacts on asthma outcomes. In this paper, we review how changes in transportation and travel patterns, school attendance, physical activity, and time spent indoors, along with changes in healthcare delivery since the start of the pandemic all play a contributing role in asthma control in children. We review potentially important influences of asthma control in children during the COVID-19 pandemic worthy of further study.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Harding H, Broom A, J Broom (2020)

Aerosol generating procedures and infective risk to healthcare workers: SARS-CoV-2 - the limits of the evidence.

The Journal of hospital infection pii:S0195-6701(20)30277-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The transmission behaviour of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still being defined. It is likely that it is transmitted predominantly by droplets and direct contact and it is possible that there is at least opportunistic airborne transmission. In order to protect healthcare staff adequately is necessary that we establish whether aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) increase the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Where we do not have evidence relating to SARS-CoV-2, guidelines for safely conducting these procedures should consider what risk procedures would have of transmitting related pathogens. Currently there is very little evidence detailing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 associated with any specific procedures. Regarding aerosol generating procedures and respiratory pathogens in general, there is still a large knowledge gap that will leave clinicians unsure what risk they are putting themselves in when offering these procedures. This review aimed to summarise the evidence (and gaps in evidence) around AGPs and SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Fuller S, Vaporciyan A, Dearani JA, et al (2020)

COVID-19 Disruption in Cardiothoracic Surgical Training: An Opportunity to Enhance Education.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ferm S, Fisher C, Pakala T, et al (2020)

Analysis of Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in 892 patients in Queens, NY.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(20)30756-4 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Pandey A, Nikam AN, Shreya AB, et al (2020)

Potential therapeutic targets for combating SARS-CoV-2: Drug repurposing, clinical trials and recent advancements.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(20)30633-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The present pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has been a tough task for the whole world to deal with. With the absence of specific drugs or vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the situation is very difficult to control. Apart from the absence of specific therapies, the lack of knowledge about potential therapeutic targets and individual perception is adding to the complications. The present review describes the novel SARS-CoV-2 structure, surface proteins, asymptomatic and symptomatic transmission in addition to the genotype and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 along with genetic strains and similarity between SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV-2. Therapeutic strategies such as inhibition of the endocytic pathway and suppressing RNA polymerase activity by metal ions, which could be quite beneficial for controlling COVID-19, are outlined. The drug repurposing for SARS-CoV-2 is discussed in detail along with therapeutic classes such as antivirals, antibiotics, and amino quinolones and their probable role in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 with reference to case studies. The ongoing clinical trials both with respect to drug repurposing and vaccines are summarized along with a brief description. The recent advancements and future perspective of ongoing research for therapy and detection of SARS-CoV-2 are provided. The review, in brief, summarizes epidemiology, therapy and the current scenario for combating SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Porres-Aguilar M, Ayala A, Mukherjee D, et al (2020)

Pulmonary embolism response teams in the challenging era of venous thromboembolism associated with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Xue L, Jing S, Miller JC, et al (2020)

A data-driven network model for the emerging COVID-19 epidemics in Wuhan, Toronto and Italy.

Mathematical biosciences pii:S0025-5564(20)30073-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic threatens the health of humans and causes great economic losses. Predictive modelling and forecasting the epidemic trends are essential for developing countermeasures to mitigate this pandemic. We develop a network model, where each node represents an individual and the edges represent contacts between individuals where the infection can spread. The individuals are classified based on the number of contacts they have each day (their node degrees) and their infection status. The transmission network model was respectively fitted to the reported data for the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan (China), Toronto (Canada), and the Italian Republic using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) optimization algorithm. Our model fits all three regions well with narrow confidence intervals and could be adapted to simulate other megacities or regions. The model projections on the role of containment strategies can help inform public health authorities to plan control measures.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Somekh I, Somech R, Pettoello-Mantovani M, et al (2020)

Changes in Routine Pediatric Practice in Light of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Dalamaga M, Karampela I, CS Mantzoros (2020)

Commentary: Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors as potential adjunct treatment targeting the cytokine storm in COVID-19.

Metabolism: clinical and experimental pii:S0026-0495(20)30146-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The most severe presentation of COVID-19 is characterized by a hyperinflammatory state attributed to the massive pro-inflammatory cytokine release, called "cytokine storm". Several specific anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive agents are being evaluated by ongoing clinical trials; however, there is currently insufficient evidence for their efficacy and safety in COVID-19 treatment. Given the role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE) 4 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the inflammatory response, we hypothesize that selective PDE4 inhibition may attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19, through the upstream inhibition of pro-inflammatory molecules, particularly TNF-α, and the regulation of the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. Conversely, other anti-cytokine agents lead to the downstream inhibition of specific targets, such as IL-1, IL-6 or TNF-α, and may not be efficient in blocking the cytokine storm, once it has been triggered. Due to their mechanism of action targeting an early stage of the inflammatory response and ameliorating lung inflammation, we believe that selective PDE4 inhibitors may represent a promising treatment option for the early phase of COVID-19 pneumonia before the cytokine storm and severe multiorgan dysfunction take place. Furthermore, PDE4 inhibitors present several advantages including an excellent safety profile; the oral route of administration; the convenient dosing; and beneficial metabolic properties. Interestingly, obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 have been reported to be risk factors for the severity of COVID-19. Therefore, randomized clinical trials of PDE4 inhibitors are necessary to explore their potential therapeutic effect as an adjunct to supportive measures and other therapeutic regiments.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Subbarao K, S Mahanty (2020)

Respiratory Virus Infections: Understanding COVID-19.

Immunity pii:S1074-7613(20)30212-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Respiratory viruses affect us throughout our lives, from infancy to old age, causing illnesses ranging from a common cold to severe pneumonia. They belong to several virus families, and although many features of infection with these diverse viruses are shared, some have unique characteristics. Here we explain what happens when we are infected by respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Wolfler A, Mannarino S, Giacomet V, et al (2020)

Acute myocardial injury: a novel clinical pattern in children with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

MacIntyre CR, Q Wang (2020)

Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection for prevention of COVID-19.

Lancet (London, England) pii:S0140-6736(20)31183-1 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, et al (2020)

Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet (London, England) pii:S0140-6736(20)31142-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 and is spread person-to-person through close contact. We aimed to investigate the effects of physical distance, face masks, and eye protection on virus transmission in health-care and non-health-care (eg, community) settings.

METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the optimum distance for avoiding person-to-person virus transmission and to assess the use of face masks and eye protection to prevent transmission of viruses. We obtained data for SARS-CoV-2 and the betacoronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Middle East respiratory syndrome from 21 standard WHO-specific and COVID-19-specific sources. We searched these data sources from database inception to May 3, 2020, with no restriction by language, for comparative studies and for contextual factors of acceptability, feasibility, resource use, and equity. We screened records, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in duplicate. We did frequentist and Bayesian meta-analyses and random-effects meta-regressions. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the GRADE approach. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020177047.

FINDINGS: Our search identified 172 observational studies across 16 countries and six continents, with no randomised controlled trials and 44 relevant comparative studies in health-care and non-health-care settings (n=25 697 patients). Transmission of viruses was lower with physical distancing of 1 m or more, compared with a distance of less than 1 m (n=10 736, pooled adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·18, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·38; risk difference [RD] -10·2%, 95% CI -11·5 to -7·5; moderate certainty); protection was increased as distance was lengthened (change in relative risk [RR] 2·02 per m; pinteraction=0·041; moderate certainty). Face mask use could result in a large reduction in risk of infection (n=2647; aOR 0·15, 95% CI 0·07 to 0·34, RD -14·3%, -15·9 to -10·7; low certainty), with stronger associations with N95 or similar respirators compared with disposable surgical masks or similar (eg, reusable 12-16-layer cotton masks; pinteraction=0·090; posterior probability >95%, low certainty). Eye protection also was associated with less infection (n=3713; aOR 0·22, 95% CI 0·12 to 0·39, RD -10·6%, 95% CI -12·5 to -7·7; low certainty). Unadjusted studies and subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed similar findings.

INTERPRETATION: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis support physical distancing of 1 m or more and provide quantitative estimates for models and contact tracing to inform policy. Optimum use of face masks, respirators, and eye protection in public and health-care settings should be informed by these findings and contextual factors. Robust randomised trials are needed to better inform the evidence for these interventions, but this systematic appraisal of currently best available evidence might inform interim guidance.

FUNDING: World Health Organization.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Chan EYY, Gobat N, Kim JH, et al (2020)

Informal home care providers: the forgotten health-care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lancet (London, England) pii:S0140-6736(20)31254-X [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Mossa-Basha M, Linnau KF, DV Sahani (2020)

Radiology Department Preparedness in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID-19 Postshutdown Environment.

Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR pii:S1546-1440(20)30541-X [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Khan M, S Shanks (2020)

Decolonising COVID-19: delaying external debt repayments.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Behrens LL, MD Naylor (2020)

"We are Alone in This Battle": A Framework for a Coordinated Response to COVID-19 in Nursing Homes.

Journal of aging & social policy [Epub ahead of print].

As of May 2020, nursing home residents account for a staggering one-third of the more than 80,000 deaths due to COVID-19 in the U.S. This pandemic has resulted in unprecedented threats to achieving and sustaining care quality even in the best nursing homes, requiring active engagement of nursing home leaders in developing solutions responsive to the unprecedented threats to quality standards of care delivery during the pandemic. This perspective offers a framework, designed with the input of nursing home leaders, to facilitate internal and external decision-making and collective action to address these threats. Policy options focus on assuring a shared understanding among nursing home leaders and government agencies of changes in the operational status of nursing homes throughout the crisis, improving access to additional essential resources needed to mitigate the crisis' impact, and promoting shared accountability for consistently achieving accepted standards in core quality domains.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Comas-Herrera A, Fernandez JL, Hancock R, et al (2020)

COVID-19: Implications for the Support of People with Social Care Needs in England.

Journal of aging & social policy [Epub ahead of print].

This perspective examines the challenge posed by COVID-19 for social care services in England and describes responses to this challenge. People with social care needs experience increased risks of death and deteriorating physical and mental health with COVID-19. Social isolation introduced to reduce COVID-19 transmission may adversely affect well-being. While the need for social care rises, the ability of families and social care staff to provide support is reduced by illness and quarantine, implying reductions in staffing levels. Consequently, COVID-19 could seriously threaten care availability and quality. The government has sought volunteers to work in health and social care to help address the threat posed by staff shortages at a time of rising need, and the call has achieved an excellent response. The government has also removed some barriers to effective coordination between health and social care, while introducing measures to promote the financial viability of care providers. The pandemic presents unprecedented challenges that require well-co-coordinated responses across central and local government, health services, and non-government sectors.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Karnik-Henry MS (2020)

Acidified Sodium Chlorite Solution: A Potential Prophylaxis to Mitigate Impact of Multiple Exposures to COVID-19 in Frontline Healthcare Providers.

Limited availability of personal protective equipment is endangering first-line healthcare providers treating patients with presumed or confirmed COVID-19 infections. This editorial has multiple objectives in regard to this reality: First, to raise awareness of the need for safe and effective prophylaxis to protect health care providers with insufficient personal protective equipment from repeated exposures to COVID-19. Second, to summarize the scientific evidence in support of solutions of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and its daughter compounds, chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide as potential targets for said prophylactic use. Third, to propose a regimented protocol using commercially available solutions of ASC having sufficient concentrations of chlorine dioxide for virucidal activity to support safe and effective prophylactic use. And fourth, to raise awareness of, and compare, other potential prophylactic options currently under investigation.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Zhang Y, Wei L, Li H, et al (2020)

The Psychological Change Process of Frontline Nurses Caring for Patients with COVID-19 during Its Outbreak.

Issues in mental health nursing [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: To identify the psychological change process of the registered nurses who worked in the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak.Background: The pandemic of COVID-19 has continued to pose an unprecedented threat and challenge to people's health around the world. Nurses are at high risk because they work within the closest proximity to patients. Understanding nurses' psychological change process during the care for patients with COVID-19 is imperative for healthcare leaders.Methods: This was a qualitative descriptive study that took place in a hospital in Wuhan, China, the epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic, from February 9th to March 15th, 2020. Using purposive sampling, we interviewed 23 nurses. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of data analysis to find, understand, and describe nurses' experiences.Results: The psychological change process of frontline nurses included three stages, early, middle, and later stages. The psychological characteristics of each period were ambivalence, emotional exhaustion, and energy renewal, respectively. Nurse leaders were anchors in facilitating frontline nurses' psychological adaptation.Conclusions: In the past month, the psychological characteristics of nurses changed over time. The study indicated the necessity for nurse leaders to implement intervention programs based on nurses' psychological characteristics in different periods to promote nurses' health during this critical time period.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Watson C, L Mullen (2020)

Risk-Informed Decision Making: More Critical Today Than Ever Before.

Health security [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Moorhead S, Macieira TGR, Lopez KD, et al (2020)

NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC Linkages to SARS-Cov-2 (Covid-19): Part 1. Community Response.

International journal of nursing knowledge [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: We developed linkages using interoperable standardized nursing terminologies, NANDA International (NANDA-I) nursing diagnoses, Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), to present initial guidance for the development of care plans focused on COVID-19 for nurses practicing in community or public health roles.

METHODS: Seven nurse experts identified the linkages of NANDA-I, NOC and NIC for our work related to the COVID-19 pandemic. A model was developed to guide the project. The first step in creating linkages focused on the identification of nursing diagnoses. Then, for each nursing diagnosis, outcomes aligned with all components of the diagnosis were categorized and a list of nursing interventions was selected. The experts used their clinical judgment to make final decisions on the linkages selected in this study.

FINDINGS: Two community level nursing diagnoses were identified as key problems appropriate for a pandemic related to COVID-19: Deficient Community Health and Ineffective Community Coping. For the nursing diagnosis Deficient Community Health, eight nursing outcomes and 12 nursing interventions were selected. In comparison for the nursing diagnosis, Ineffective Community Coping, nine nursing outcomes and 18 nursing interventions were identified. A total of40 concepts were identified for future development across the three classifications.

CONCLUSIONS: The nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions selected during this linkage process provide knowledge to support the community challenged with responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, provide the opportunity to quantify the impact of nursing care, and enhance nursing practice by promoting the use of three standardized terminologies.

NANDA-I, NOC and NIC linkages identified in this manuscript provide resources to support clinical decisions and care plan development for nurses practicing in the community.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Kwon R, Zhang ML, CJ VandenBussche (2020)

Considerations for remote learning in pathology during COVID-19 social distancing.

Cancer cytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Mariño-Sánchez F, Santamaría A, de Los Santos G, et al (2020)

Psychophysical olfactory testing in COVID-19: is smell function really impaired in nearly all patients?.

International forum of allergy & rhinology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Gulia KK, VM Kumar (2020)

Reverse quarantine: Management of COVID-19 by Kerala with its higher number of aged population.

Psychogeriatrics : the official journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Gaebel W, J Stricker (2020)

e-Mental Health Options in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ng D, Chan F, Barry TJ, et al (2020)

Psychological distress during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic among cancer survivors and healthy controls.

Psycho-oncology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Kache T, R Mrowka (2020)

How Simulations May Help Us to Understand the Dynamics of COVID-19 Spread. - Visualizing Non-Intuitive Behaviors of a Pandemic (pansim.uni-jena.de).

The new coronavirus SARS-COV-2 is currently impacting life around the globe 1 . The rapid spread of this viral disease might be highly challenging for health care systems. This was seen in Northern Italy and in New York City for example2 . Governments reacted with different measures such as shutdown of all schools, universities and up to a general curfew. All of those measures have a huge impact on the economy. The United Nations secretary general has stated recently: "The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most dangerous challenges this world has faced in our lifetime.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Murt A, Eskazan AE, Yılmaz U, et al (2020)

COVID-19 presenting with immune thrombocytopenia: a case report and review of the literature.

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be associated with thrombocytopenia which might have different mechanisms in different patients and in different phases of the disease. Cytokine release, thrombotic consumption or autoimmune destruction are some leading etiologies of thrombocytopenia in COVID-19. This case report presents a 41-year-old male COVID-19 patient who had petechiae and purpura as the referral symptoms. Laboratory tests revealed isolated thrombocytopenia with no other additional pathologic findings. Most probable diagnosis was COVID-19 induced immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment generated a good response. There were four other recent publications with a total of eight cases in the literature. The presented case was discussed in comparison with those similar cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ikeda S, Shih M, Rhee RY, et al (2020)

Acute complicated type B aortic dissection during the New York City COVID-19 surge.

The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in New York City (NYC) is dramatic. COVID-19 cases surged, hospitals expanded to meet capacity, and NYC remains the global epicenter of this pandemic. During this unprecedented time, a young woman with known Marfan syndrome presented with an acute complicated type B aortic dissection to our Aortic Center. Using the provisional extension to induce a complete attachment technique, we treated this patient and quickly discharged her the next day to decrease the risk of COVID-19 infection. Her progress was monitored using frequent phone calls and one office visit at two weeks.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Grajewski RS, Rokohl AC, Becker M, et al (2020)

Letter to the Editor: A Missing Link between SARS-CoV-2 and the Eye?: ACE2 Expression on the Ocular Surface.

We applaud Lange et al.1 for their extensive efforts to analyse entry factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) into conjunctival epithelial cells covering the ocular surface, which is an important albeit controversially discussed issue1,2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Zhuang MW, Cheng Y, Zhang J, et al (2020)

Increasing Host Cellular Receptor-Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Expression by Coronavirus may Facilitate 2019-nCoV (or SARS-CoV-2) Infection.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

The ongoing outbreak of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV, or SARS-CoV-2) has caused an epidemic of the acute respiratory syndrome known as COVID-19 in humans. SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread to multiple regions of China and multiple other countries, posing a serious threat to public health. The spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 may use the same host cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), for entering into host cells. The affinity between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 S protein is much higher than that of ACE2 binding to the SARS-CoV S protein, explaining why SARS-CoV-2 seems to be more readily transmitted from the human to human. Here, we report that ACE2 can be significantly upregulated after infection of various viruses, including SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, or by the stimulation with inflammatory cytokines such as interferons. We propose that SARS-CoV-2 may positively induce its cellular entry receptor, ACE2, to accelerate its replication and spread; high inflammatory cytokine levels increase ACE2 expression and act as high-risk factors for developing COVID-19, and the infection of other viruses may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, drugs targeting ACE2 may be developed for the future emerging infectious diseases caused by this cluster of coronaviruses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Jakubowski DM, Bailey H, Abran J, et al (2020)

Molecular characterization of breast cancer needle core biopsy specimens by the 21-gene Breast Recurrence Score test.

Journal of surgical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recent COVID-19 pandemic guidelines recommend genomic assessment of core biopsies to help guide treatment decisions in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive early-stage breast cancer. Herein we characterize biopsy and excisional breast cancer specimens submitted for 21-gene testing.

METHODS: US samples submitted to Genomic Health for 21-gene testing (01/2004-04/2020) were assessed by pathologists and analyzed by a standardized quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Predefined cutoffs were: ESR1 (positive ≥6.5), PGR (positive ≥5.5), and ERBB2 (negative <10.7). ER status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and lymph node status were determined locally. Median and interquartile range were reported for continuous variables, and total and percent for categorical variables. Distributions were assessed overall, by age, and by nodal involvement.

RESULTS: Of 919 701 samples analyzed, 13% were biopsies and 87% were excisions. Initial assay success rates were 94.5% (biopsies) and 97.3% (excisions). ER IHC concordance with central ESR1 was 96.8% (biopsies) and 97.6% (excisions). Biopsy and excisional medians were: Recurrence Score results 16 (each); ESR1 10.2 (each); PGR 7.7 and 7.6; ERBB2 9.4 and 9.2, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy submissions for 21-gene testing are common and consistently generate results that are very similar to the experience with excisions. The 21-gene test can be performed reliably on core biopsies.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

D'Ovidio V, Lucidi C, Bruno G, et al (2020)

A snapshot of urgent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy care during the Covid-19 outbreak in Italy.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Bruno G, Fabrizio C, Santoro CR, et al (2020)

Pancreatic injury in the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a not-so-rare occurrence.

Despite respiratory symptoms are typically found during the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), gastrointestinal manifestations are increasingly described. However, data regarding COVID-19-associated pancreatic injury are still limited, as well as the mechanisms underlying COVID-19 induced-pancreatic damage have not been completely clarified. Herein, we described pancreatic abnormalities in six (8.5%) out of 70 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in our unit from February 25, 2020 to May 10, 2020. We hypothesized that pancreatic damage may be associated with several factors including direct effect of SARS-CoV-2, inflammatory cascade, dehydration and multiple organ dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Qin L, Li X, Shi J, et al (2020)

Gendered effects on inflammation reaction and outcome of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The rapid outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has turned into a public health emergency of international concern. Epidemiological research showed that gender was associated with the severity of COVID-19, but the underlying mechanism of gender predisposition remains poorly understood. We aim to study the gendered differences in inflammation reaction, and the association with severity and mortality of COVID-19.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 548 COVID-19 inpatients from Tongji Hospital from January 26 to February 5, 2020, and followed up to March 3, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic and clinical features, and inflammatory indexes were collected and compared between males and females. Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to identify gendered effect on mortality of COVID-19 after adjusting age, comorbidity and smoking history. Multiple linear regression method was used to explore the influence of sex on inflammation reaction.

RESULTS: Males had higher mortality than females did (22.2% vs. 10.4%), with the HR of 1.923 (95% CI, 1.181-3.130); elder age and comorbidity were significantly associated with decease of COVID-19 patients. Excess inflammation reaction was related to severity of COVID-19. Male patients had greater inflammation reaction, with higher levels of IL-10, TNF-α, LDH, ferritin and hsCRP, but lower lymphocyte count than females adjusted by age and comorbidity.

CONCLUSIONS: Gender, age, and comorbidity are critical risk factors for mortality of COVID-19. Excess innate immunity and proinflammation activity, and deficiency in adaptive immunity response promote males especially elder males to develop cytokine storm, causing potential ARDS, multiple organ failure and decease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Romero PE (2020)

Comment on "Genetic variants and source of introduction of SARS-CoV-2 in South America".

I read with great interest a recent study by Poterico and Mestanza1 who described mutations in 30 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Bogani G, Signorelli M, Ditto A, et al (2020)

Surgical oncology at the time of COVID-19 outbreak.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Oguz-Akarsu E, Ozpar R, Mirzayev H, et al (2020)

Guillain-Barré Syndrome in a Patient with Minimal Symptoms of COVID-19 Infection.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Marín-Hernández D, Schwartz RE, DF Nixon (2020)

Epidemiological Evidence for Association between Higher Influenza Vaccine Uptake in the Elderly and Lower COVID-19 Deaths in Italy.

The Italian COVID-19 epidemic may finally be slowing, although the virus has spread from the North in Lombardy throughout the rest of the country. While there have been more than 233,000 confirmed cases, and a mortality rate estimated around 14%, Italy will now navigate an exit from lockdown with continued testing, monitoring, and contact tracing of any new infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Finsterer J, Scorza FA, R Ghosh (2020)

COVID-19 polyradiculitis in 24 patients without SARS-CoV-2 in the cerebro-spinal fluid.

OBJECTIVES: to summarise and discuss current knowledge about COVID-19-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS).

METHOD: literature review RESULTS: altogether 18 articles were found, which reported 23 patients with COVID-19-associated GBS. A further patient came to our attention by personal communication. Among these 24 included patients age ranged from 20 to 76y. There was male preponderance. Fourteen patients presented with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), 4 with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), 3 with Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), and 2 with acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN). In one patient the subtype was not specified. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was tested for SARS-CoV-2 in 15 patients but was negative for the virus in all of them. Seven patients required artificial ventilation. Twenty-one patients received intravenous immunoglobulines (IVIG). Thirteen patients recovered, 6 did not, and 2 patients died.

CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can cause GBS. SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS occurs in the absence of the virus in the CSF. Clinical presentation, course, response to treatment, and outcome do not vary between SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS and GBS due to other triggers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Manrique JV, Ghosh K, N Boma (2020)

Anticardiolipin antibodies and COVID-19 - A Case Report from America.

In an effort to unravel the pathological mechanism of COVID-19, several reports and studies have been recently conducted in the frontlines around the world. Some initial clues have been obtained, and among them, the concern for clot formation and the idea of an impaired coagulation has strongly increased. We report a case of pulmonary embolism in a COVID-19 patient who tested positive for anticardiolipin antibodies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ozaras R, Cirpin R, Duran A, et al (2020)

Influenza and COVID-19 Co-infection: Report of 6 cases and review of the Literature.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 pandemic caused infection in a season when influenza is still prevalent. Both viruses have similar transmission characteristics and common clinical manifestations. Influenza has been described to cause respiratory infection with some other respiratory pathogens. However the information of COVID-19 and influenza co-infection is limited. In this study, we reported our co-infected cases and reviewed the literature. We included all COVID-19 diagnosed patients. All patients with a presumed diagnosis of COVID-19 were routinely screened for influenza. Their thorax radiology was reviewed for COVID-19 -influenza differentiation. During the study period, 1103 patients have been diagnosed COVID-19. Among them, 6 patients (0.54%) were diagnosed co-infected with influenza. There have been 28 more co-infected patients reported. Laboratory-based, screening studies reported more patients. Thorax radiology findings were compatible with COVID-19 in 5 and with influenza in 1 one of our patients. Our cases were mild-to-moderate in severity. The reported cases in the literature included patients died (n=2) and those living ventilator dependent or under mechanical ventilation. COVID-19 and influenza co-infection is rare. Screening studies report more cases, suggesting that unless screening COVID-19 patients, the co-infection remains undiagnosed and underestimated. Increasing experience in thoracic radiology may contribute to diagnose the responsible virus(es) from the clinical illness. Influenza vaccine for larger population groups can be recommended to simplify clinicians' work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Colarusso C, Terlizzi M, Pinto A, et al (2020)

A lesson from a saboteur: high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) impact in COVID-19.

British journal of pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified coronavirus which has spread from China to the rest of the world causing the pandemic coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). It has fatality rate that floats from 5 to 15% and the symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia and/or fatigue up to dyspnea, responsible for hospitalization and in most of the cases of artificial oxygenation. In the attempt to understand how the virus spreads and how to pharmacologically abolish it, it was highlighted that SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by means of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). Once bound to its receptor ACE2, the other two proteases, in concert with the receptor-mediated signaling, allow virus replication and spread throughout the body. Our attention has been focused on the role of ACE2 in that its blockade by the virus increases Bradykinin and its metabolites, well known to facilitate inflammation in the lung (responsible for cough and fever), facilitate both the coagulation and complement system, three mechanisms that are typical of angioedema, cardiovascular dysfunction and sepsis, pathologies which symptoms occur in COVID-19 patients. Thus, we propose to pharmacologically block the kallikrein-kinin system upstream bradykinin and the ensuing inflammation, coagulation and complement activation by means of lanadelumab, which is a clinically approved drug for hereditary angioedema.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )