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Bibliography on: Paleontology Meets Genomics — Sequencing Ancient DNA

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 12 Aug 2022 at 01:52 Created: 

Paleontology Meets Genomics — Sequencing Ancient DNA

The ideas behind Jurassic Park have become real, kinda sorta. It is now possible to retrieve and sequence DNA from ancient specimens. Although these sequences are based on poor quality DNA and thus have many inferential steps (i,e, the resulting sequence is not likely to be a perfect replica of the living DNA), the insights to be gained from paleosequentcing are nonetheless great. For example, paleo-sequencing has shown that Neanderthal DNA is sufficiently different from human DNA as to be reasonably considered as coming from a different species.

Created with PubMed® Query: "ancient DNA" OR "ancient genome" OR paleogenetic OR paleogenetics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-08-11

Walton K, Scarsbrook L, Mitchell KJ, et al (2022)

Application of palaeogenetic techniques to historic mollusc shells reveals phylogeographic structure in a New Zealand abalone.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Natural history collections worldwide contain a plethora of mollusc shells. Recent studies have detailed the sequencing of DNA extracted from shells up to thousands of years old and from various taphonomic and preservational contexts. However, previous approaches have largely addressed methodological rather than evolutionary research questions. Here we report the generation of DNA sequence data from mollusc shells using such techniques, applied to Haliotis virginea Gmelin, 1791, a New Zealand abalone, in which morphological variation has led to the recognition of several forms and subspecies. We successfully recovered near-complete mitogenomes from 22 specimens including 12 dry-preserved shells up to 60 years old. We used a combination of palaeogenetic techniques that have not previously been applied to shell, including DNA extraction optimized for ultra-short fragments and hybridization-capture of single-stranded DNA libraries. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three major, well-supported clades comprising samples from: 1) the Three Kings Islands; 2) the Auckland, Chatham and Antipodes Islands; and 3) mainland New Zealand and Campbell Island. This phylogeographic structure does not correspond to the currently recognized forms. Critically, our non-reliance on freshly collected or ethanol-preserved samples enabled inclusion of topotypes of all recognized subspecies as well as additional difficult-to-sample populations. Broader application of these comparatively cost-effective and reliable methods to modern, historical, archaeological and palaeontological shell samples has the potential to revolutionize invertebrate genetic research.

RevDate: 2022-08-09

Wang R, CC Wang (2022)

Human genetics: The dual origin of Three Kingdoms period Koreans.

Current biology : CB, 32(15):R844-R847.

The genetic history of Koreans remains poorly understood due to a lack of ancient DNA. A new paleo-genomic study shows that population stratification in 4th-5th century South Korean populations was linked to a varied proportion of indigenous Jomon-related ancestry, which does not survive in present-day Koreans.

RevDate: 2022-08-09

Scott CB, Cárdenas A, Mah M, et al (2022)

Millennia-old coral holobiont DNA provides insight into future adaptive trajectories.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Ancient DNA (aDNA) has been applied to evolutionary questions across a wide variety of taxa. Here, for the first time, we leverage aDNA from millennia-old fossil coral fragments to gain new insights into a rapidly declining western Atlantic reef ecosystem. We sampled four Acropora palmata fragments (dated 4215 BCE - 1099 CE) obtained from two Florida Keys reef cores. From these samples, we established that it is possible both to sequence ancient DNA from reef cores and place the data in the context of modern-day genetic variation. We recovered varying amounts of nuclear DNA exhibiting the characteristic signatures of aDNA from the A. palmata fragments. To describe the holobiont sensu lato, which plays a crucial role in reef health, we utilized metagenome-assembled genomes as a reference to identify a large additional proportion of ancient microbial DNA from the samples. The samples shared many common microbes with modern-day coral holobionts from the same region, suggesting remarkable holobiont stability over time. Despite efforts, we were unable to recover ancient Symbiodiniaceae reads from the samples. Comparing the ancient A. palmata data to whole-genome sequencing data from living acroporids, we found that while slightly distinct, ancient samples were most closely related to individuals of their own species. Together, these results provide a proof-of-principle showing that it is possible to carry out direct analysis of coral holobiont change over time, which lays a foundation for studying the impacts of environmental stress and evolutionary constraints.

RevDate: 2022-08-09
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Silva NM, Kreutzer S, Souleles A, et al (2022)

Ancient mitochondrial diversity reveals population homogeneity in Neolithic Greece and identifies population dynamics along the Danubian expansion axis.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13474.

The aim of the study is to investigate mitochondrial diversity in Neolithic Greece and its relation to hunter-gatherers and farmers who populated the Danubian Neolithic expansion axis. We sequenced 42 mitochondrial palaeogenomes from Greece and analysed them together with European set of 328 mtDNA sequences dating from the Early to the Final Neolithic and 319 modern sequences. To test for population continuity through time in Greece, we use an original structured population continuity test that simulates DNA from different periods by explicitly considering the spatial and temporal dynamics of populations. We explore specific scenarios of the mode and tempo of the European Neolithic expansion along the Danubian axis applying spatially explicit simulations coupled with Approximate Bayesian Computation. We observe a striking genetic homogeneity for the maternal line throughout the Neolithic in Greece whereas population continuity is rejected between the Neolithic and present-day Greeks. Along the Danubian expansion axis, our best-fitting scenario supports a substantial decrease in mobility and an increasing local hunter-gatherer contribution to the gene-pool of farmers following the initial rapid Neolithic expansion. Οur original simulation approach models key demographic parameters rather than inferring them from fragmentary data leading to a better understanding of this important process in European prehistory.

RevDate: 2022-08-08

Petrou EL, Kopperl R, Lepofsky D, et al (2022)

Ancient DNA reveals phenological diversity of Coast Salish herring harvests over multiple centuries.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13512.

Phenological diversity in food resources prolongs foraging opportunities for consumers and buffers them against environmental disturbances. Such diversity is particularly important in forage fish such as Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), which are foundational to coastal food webs and fisheries. While the importance of phenological diversity is well-known from contemporary studies, the extent to which different populations contribute to fisheries over long time scales is mostly unknown. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of genetically and phenologically distinct herring populations to Indigenous Peoples' food systems over multiple centuries, using ancient DNA extracted from archaeological herring bones. These bones were excavated from two Coast Salish archaeological sites (Burton Acres Shell Midden and Bay Street Shell Midden) in the Puget Sound region, USA. Using genetic stock identification from seven nuclear DNA markers, we showed that catches at the two sites in central Puget Sound were dominated by January-February and March-April spawners, which are the contemporary spawning groups in the vicinity of the sites. However, May spawners were detected in the older Burton Acres assemblage (dated to 910-685 cal BP), and a mixed stock analysis indicated that catches at this site consisted of multiple populations. These results suggest that Coast Salish ancestors used a portfolio of herring populations and benefited from the ecological resource wave created by different spawning groups of herring. This study of ancient DNA allowed us to glimpse into Indigenous traditional food and management systems, and it enabled us to investigate long-term patterns of biodiversity in an ecologically important forage fish species.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Royle TCA, Guiry EJ, Zhang H, et al (2022)

Documenting the short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) clades historically present in British Columbia, Canada, through ancient DNA analysis of archaeological specimens.

Ecology and evolution, 12(8):e9116.

The short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) is a threatened seabird whose present-day range encompasses much of the North Pacific. Within this species, there are two genetic clades (Clades 1 and 2) that have distinctive morphologies and foraging ecologies. Due to a global population collapse in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the frequency of these clades among the short-tailed albatross population that historically foraged off British Columbia, Canada, is unclear. To document the species' historical genetic structure in British Columbia, we applied ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis to 51 archaeological short-tailed albatross specimens from the Yuquot site (Borden site number: DjSp-1) that span the past four millennia. We obtained a 141 bp cytochrome b sequence from 43 of the 51 (84.3%) analyzed specimens. Analyses of these sequences indicate 40 of the specimens belong to Clade 1, while 2 belong to Clade 2. We also identified a single specimen with a novel cytochrome b haplotype. Our results indicate that during the past four millennia most of the short-tailed albatrosses foraging near Yuquot belonged to Clade 1, while individuals from other lineages made more limited use of the area. Comparisons with the results of previous aDNA analyses of archaeological albatrosses from Japanese sites suggest the distribution of Clades 1 and 2 differed. While both albatross clades foraged extensively in the Northwest Pacific, Clade 1 albatrosses appear to have foraged along the west coast of Vancouver Island to a greater extent. Due to their differing distributions, these clades may be exposed to different threats.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Gregory MD, KF Berman (2022)

Echoes of ancient DNA in living modern humans affect risk for neuropsychiatric disease and brain structure and function of networks subserving higher-order cognition.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Zhu S, Chen Z, Hu S, et al (2022)

Ancient DNA traces a Chinese 5400-year-old cat specimen as leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Doniec A, Januła M, Grzmil P, et al (2022)

Assessing the utility of quantitative and qualitative metrics in the DNA quantification process of skeletal remains for autosomal and Y-chromosome STR amplification purposes.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 60:102751 pii:S1872-4973(22)00092-8 [Epub ahead of print].

In historical cases, ancient DNA investigations and missing persons identification, teeth or bone samples are often the only and almost always the best biological material available for DNA typing. On the other hand, DNA obtained from bone material may be characterized by a high degradation index (DI) or its low content, or DNA tests cannot be repeated due to bone piece size limitation. That is often the effect of the environment in which the material was placed and the time during which exposure to unfavorable environmental factors took place. Therefore, it is very important to use appropriate procedures related to STR analysis. For our study, we selected 80 challenging bone samples. The amount of DNA was compared in qPCR using Quantifiler™ Trio DNA Quantification Kit and Investigator® Quantiplex® Pro RGQ. All qPCR results were confirmed by PCR-CE. The results of DNA concentrations and the assigned degradation index (DI) differed significantly within analyzed samples (~10%). Additionally, the Y-chromosome DI also differed from the autosomal DI in the samples. The difference in degradation indexes could explain the lower Y-chromosome amplification success rate compared to autosomal e.g. during human identification process. The results indicate that performing two DNA quantifications with the use of two different kits (primers sets) allows for a much more precise evaluation of the DNA quality and quantity in the isolate. We suggest that at least one of two suggested DNA concentration measurements should be based on an additional determination of the Y chromosome degradation index. Altogether, it allows for rational isolate management, especially when the volume is limited and the sample is unique.

RevDate: 2022-07-30

Pérez-Escobar OA, Tusso S, Przelomska NAS, et al (2022)

Genome sequencing of up to 6,000-yr-old Citrullus seeds reveals use of a bitter-fleshed species prior to watermelon domestication.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6652436 [Epub ahead of print].

Iconographic evidence from Egypt suggests that watermelon pulp was consumed there as a dessert by 4,360 BP. Earlier archaeobotanical evidence comes from seeds from Neolithic settlements in Libya, but whether these were watermelons with sweet pulp or other forms is unknown. We generated genome sequences from 6,000- and 3,300-yr-old seeds from Libya and Sudan, and from worldwide herbarium collections made between 1824 and 2019, and analyzed these data together with resequenced genomes from important germplasm collections for a total of 131. Phylogenomic and population-genomic analyses reveal that (i) much of the nuclear genome of both ancient seeds is traceable to West African seed-use 'egusi-type' watermelon (C. mucosospermus) rather than domesticated pulp-use watermelon (C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris); (ii) the 6,000-yr-old watermelon likely had bitter pulp and greenish-white flesh as today found in C. mucosospermus, given alleles in the bitterness regulators ClBT and in the red color marker LYCB; and (iii) both ancient genomes showed admixture from C. mucosospermus, C. lanatus subsp. cordophanus, C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris, and even South African C. amarus, and evident introgression between the Libyan seed (UMB-6), populations of C. lanatus. An unexpected new insight is that Citrullus appears to have initially been collected or cultivated for its seeds, not its flesh, consistent with seed damage patterns induced by human teeth in the oldest Libyan material.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Erven JAM, Çakirlar C, Bradley DG, et al (2022)

Imputation of Ancient Whole Genome Sus scrofa DNA Introduces Biases Toward Main Population Components in the Reference Panel.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:872486.

Sequencing ancient DNA to high coverage is often limited by sample quality and cost. Imputing missing genotypes can potentially increase information content and quality of ancient data, but requires different computational approaches than modern DNA imputation. Ancient imputation beyond humans has not been investigated. In this study we report results of a systematic evaluation of imputation of three whole genome ancient Sus scrofa samples from the Early and Late Neolithic (∼7,100-4,500 BP), to test the utility of imputation. We show how issues like genetic architecture and, reference panel divergence, composition and size affect imputation accuracy. We evaluate a variety of imputation methods, including Beagle5, GLIMPSE, and Impute5 with varying filters, pipelines, and variant calling methods. We achieved genotype concordance in most cases reaching above 90%; with the highest being 98% with ∼2,000,000 variants recovered using GLIMPSE. Despite this high concordance the sources of diversity present in the genotypes called in the original high coverage genomes were not equally imputed leading to biases in downstream analyses; a trend toward genotypes most common in the reference panel is observed. This demonstrates that the current reference panel does not possess the full diversity needed for accurate imputation of ancient Sus, due to missing variations from Near Eastern and Mesolithic wild boar. Imputation of ancient Sus scrofa holds potential but should be approached with caution due to these biases, and suggests that there is no universal approach for imputation of non-human ancient species.

RevDate: 2022-07-31
CmpDate: 2022-07-29

Krajcarz M, Van Neer W, Krajcarz MT, et al (2022)

Stable isotopes unveil one millennium of domestic cat paleoecology in Europe.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12775.

The domestic cat is the world's most popular pet and one of the most detrimental predators in terrestrial ecosystems. Effective protection of wildlife biodiversity demands detailed tracking of cat trophic ecology, and stable isotopes serve as a powerful proxy in dietary studies. However, a variable diet can make an isotopic pattern unreadable in opportunistic predators. To evaluate the usefulness of the isotopic method in cat ecology, we measured C and N isotope ratios in hundreds of archaeological cat bones. We determined trends in cat trophic paleoecology in northern Europe by exploiting population-scale patterns in animals from diverse locations. Our dataset shows a high variability of isotopic signals related to the socio-economic and/or geomorphological context. This points toward regularities in isotopic patterns across past cat populations. We provide a generalized guide to interpret the isotopic ecology of cats, emphasizing that regional isotopic baselines have a major impact on the isotopic signal.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Neumann GU, Skourtanioti E, Burri M, et al (2022)

Ancient Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica genomes from Bronze Age Crete.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(22)01101-0 [Epub ahead of print].

During the late 3rd millennium BCE, the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East witnessed societal changes in many regions, which are usually explained with a combination of social and climatic factors.1-4 However, recent archaeogenetic research forces us to rethink models regarding the role of infectious diseases in past societal trajectories.5 The plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, which was involved in some of the most destructive historical pandemics,5-8 circulated across Eurasia at least from the onset of the 3rd millennium BCE,9-13 but the challenging preservation of ancient DNA in warmer climates has restricted the identification of Y.pestis from this period to temperate climatic regions. As such, evidence from culturally prominent regions such as the Eastern Mediterranean is currently lacking. Here, we present genetic evidence for the presence of Y. pestis and Salmonella enterica, the causative agent of typhoid/enteric fever, from this period of transformation in Crete, detected at the cave site Hagios Charalambos. We reconstructed one Y. pestis genome that forms part of a now-extinct lineage of Y. pestis strains from the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age that were likely not yet adapted for transmission via fleas. Furthermore, we reconstructed two ancient S. enterica genomes from the Para C lineage, which cluster with contemporary strains that were likely not yet fully host adapted to humans. The occurrence of these two virulent pathogens at the end of the Early Minoan period in Crete emphasizes the necessity to re-introduce infectious diseases as an additional factor possibly contributing to the transformation of early complex societies in the Aegean and beyond.

RevDate: 2022-07-27
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Gibert JM (2022)

[Small scale evolution].

Biologie aujourd'hui, 216(1-2):41-47.

Small-scale evolution or microevolution concerns evolution at the intra-specific level or between closely related species. At the intra-specific level, it allows the analysis of the evolutionary forces at work: mutation, genetic drift, migration and selection. Moreover, because of the short evolutionary time, it is easier to identify the genetic basis of observed phenotypic differences. Most studies focus on current populations but more and more analyses are performed on ancient DNA. This provides important information for tracing the history of populations and also allows the reconstruction of phenotypes of individuals that disappeared several thousand years ago. In this short review, I present studies showing how pre-zygotic or post-zygotic barriers involved in species formation are set up using the example of the geographical barrier due to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama and that of the heterochromatin divergence in Drosophilidae. I also describe the different approaches that have been used to identify the genetic basis of well known phenotypic variations: candidate gene approach (about melanism in felines), QTL mapping (variation in the number of lateral bone plates in sticklebacks), association study (pigmentation in the Asian ladybird). Finally, I illustrate the key impact of natural selection with the iconic example of the evolution of the beak of Galapagos finches, and the role of certain developmental genes in its morphological diversification.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Silvestrini S, Romandini M, Marciani G, et al (2022)

Integrated multidisciplinary ecological analysis from the Uluzzian settlement at the Uluzzo C Rock Shelter, south-eastern Italy.

Journal of quaternary science, 37(2):235-256.

The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition, between 50 000 and 40 000 years ago, is a period of important ecological and cultural changes. In this framework, the Rock Shelter of Uluzzo C (Apulia, southern Italy) represents an important site due to Late Mousterian and Uluzzian evidence preserved in its stratigraphic sequence. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary analysis performed on the materials collected between 2016 and 2018 from the Uluzzian stratigraphic units (SUs) 3, 15 and 17. The analysis involved lithic technology, use-wear, zooarchaeology, ancient DNA of sediments and palaeoproteomics, completed by quartz single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating of the cave sediments. The lithic assemblage is characterized by a volumetric production and a debitage with no or little management of the convexities (by using the bipolar technique), with the objective to produce bladelets and flakelets. The zooarchaeological study found evidence of butchery activity and of the possible exploitation of marine resources, while drawing a picture of a patchy landscape, composed of open forests and dry open environments surrounding the shelter. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from two mammalian taxa were recovered from the sediments. Preliminary zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry results are consistent with ancient DNA and zooarchaeological taxonomic information, while further palaeoproteomics investigations are ongoing. Our new data from the re-discovery of the Uluzzo C Rock Shelter represent an important contribution to better understand the meaning of the Uluzzian in the context of the Middle/Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-eastern Italy.

RevDate: 2022-07-26
CmpDate: 2022-07-26

Liu Y, Bennett EA, Q Fu (2022)

Evolving ancient DNA techniques and the future of human history.

Cell, 185(15):2632-2635.

Ancient DNA (aDNA) techniques applied to human genomics have significantly advanced in the past decade, enabling large-scale aDNA research, sometimes independent of human remains. This commentary reviews the major milestones of aDNA techniques and explores future directions to expand the scope of aDNA research and insights into present-day human health.

RevDate: 2022-07-24

Gòdia M, Brogaard L, Mármol-Sánchez E, et al (2022)

Urinary microRNAome in healthy cats and cats with pyelonephritis or other urological conditions.

PloS one, 17(7):e0270067.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs have been found in urine and have shown diagnostic potential in human nephropathies. Here, we aimed to characterize, for the first time, the feline urinary miRNAome and explore the use of urinary miRNA profiles as non-invasive biomarkers for feline pyelonephritis (PN). Thirty-eight cats were included in a prospective case-control study and classified in five groups: healthy Control cats (n = 11), cats with PN (n = 10), cats with subclinical bacteriuria or cystitis (SB/C, n = 5), cats with ureteral obstruction (n = 7) and cats with chronic kidney disease (n = 5). By small RNA sequencing we identified 212 miRNAs in cat urine, including annotated (n = 137) and putative novel (n = 75) miRNAs. The 15 most highly abundant urinary miRNAs accounted for nearly 71% of all detected miRNAs, most of which were previously identified in feline kidney. Ninety-nine differentially abundant (DA) miRNAs were identified when comparing Control cats to cats with urological conditions and 102 DA miRNAs when comparing PN to other urological conditions. Tissue clustering analysis revealed that the majority of urine samples clustered close to kidney, which confirm the likely cellular origin of the secreted urinary miRNAs. Relevant DA miRNAs were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Eighteen miRNAs discriminated Control cats from cats with a urological condition. Of those, seven miRNAs were DA by both RNAseq and qPCR methods between Control and PN cats (miR-125b-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-21-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-125a-5p, miR-17-5p and miR-23a-3p) or DA between Control and SB/C cats (miR-125b-5p). Six additional miRNAs (miR-30b-5p, miR-30c, miR-30e-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-27b-39 and miR-222) relevant for discriminating PN from other urological conditions were identified by qPCR alone (n = 4) or by both methods (n = 2) (P<0.05). This panel of 13 miRNAs has potential as non-invasive urinary biomarkers for diagnostic of PN and other urological conditions in cats.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Zhang X, Ji X, Li C, et al (2022)

A Late Pleistocene human genome from Southwest China.

Current biology : CB, 32(14):3095-3109.e5.

Southern East Asia is the dispersal center regarding the prehistoric settlement and migrations of modern humans in Asia-Pacific regions. However, the settlement pattern and population structure of paleolithic humans in this region remain elusive, and ancient DNA can provide direct information. Here, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene hominin (MZR), dated ∼14.0 thousand years ago from Red Deer Cave located in Southwest China, which was previously reported possessing mosaic features of modern and archaic hominins. MZR is the first Late Pleistocene genome from southern East Asia. Our results indicate that MZR is a modern human who represents an early diversified lineage in East Asia. The mtDNA of MZR belongs to an extinct basal lineage of the M9 haplogroup, reflecting a rich matrilineal diversity in southern East Asia during the Late Pleistocene. Combined with the published data, we detected clear genetic stratification in ancient southern populations of East/Southeast Asia and some degree of south-versus-north divergency during the Late Pleistocene, and MZR was identified as a southern East Asian who exhibits genetic continuity to present day populations. Markedly, MZR is linked deeply to the East Asian ancestry that contributed to First Americans.

RevDate: 2022-07-18
CmpDate: 2022-07-18

Askari Z, Ruehli F, Bouwman A, et al (2022)

Genomic palaeoparasitology traced the occurrence of Taenia asiatica in ancient Iran (Sassanid Empire, 2th cent. CE-6th cent. CE).

Scientific reports, 12(1):12045.

Palaeoparasitology investigates parasitological infections in animals and humans of past distance by examining biological remains. Palaeofaeces (or coprolites) are biological remains that provide valuable information on the disease, diet, and population movements in ancient times. Today, advances in detecting ancient DNA have cast light on dark corners that microscopy could never reach. The archaeological site of the Chehrabad salt mine of Achaemenid (550-330 BC) and Sassanid (third-seventh century AD) provides remains of various biotic and abiotic samples, including animal coprolites, for multidisciplinary studies. In the present work, we investigated coprolites for helminth eggs and larvae by microscopy and traced their biological agents' DNA by Next Generation Sequencing. Our results revealed various helminths, including Taenia asiatica, the species introduced in the 1990s. Implementing advanced modern molecular techniques like NGS gives a paramount view of pathogenic agents in space and time.

RevDate: 2022-07-13
CmpDate: 2022-07-13

Estrada O, Richards SM, J Breen (2022)

Discovering the Secrets of Ancient Plants: Recovery of DNA from Museum and Archaeological Plant Specimens.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2512:261-267.

Plant DNA preserved in ancient specimens has recently gained importance as a tool in comparative genomics, allowing the investigation of evolutionary processes in plant genomes through time. However, recovering the genomic information contained in such specimens is challenging owing to the presence of secondary substances that limit DNA retrieval. In this chapter, we provide a DNA extraction protocol optimized for the recovery of DNA from degraded plant materials. The protocol is based on a commercially available DNA extraction kit that does not require handling of hazardous reagents.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Psonis N, Vardinoyannis K, N Poulakakis (2022)

High-throughput degraded DNA sequencing of subfossil shells of a critically endangered stenoendemic land snail in the Aegean.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 175:107561.

High-throughput sequencing has enabled the comprehensive genetic exploration of biological diversity, especially by using natural history collections to study hard-to-find, threatened or even extinct-in-the-wild taxa. Mollusk shells are under-exploited as a source for DNA-based approaches, despite their apparent advantages in the field of conservation genetics. More particularly, degraded DNA techniques combined with high-throughput sequencing have never been used to gain insights about the DNA preservation in land snail subfossil or historical shells. Here, we applied degraded DNA analysis on two historical shells of Levantina rechingeri, a stenoendemic Critically Endangered species that has never been found alive, in order to explore the patterns of DNA preservation on land snail shells originating from the eastern Mediterranean, as well as to infer its molecular phylogenetic placement. Our results showed that centuries to decades-old DNA from an empty shell collected in an Aegean island exhibits characteristic post-mortem damage patterns similar to those observed in ancient DNA from eastern Mediterranean terrestrial animals, setting a precedent for future museomics studies on taxa distributed in areas with similar climate. Finally, genome skimming of the empty shell allowed high coverage of multiple nuclear and mitochondrial loci, enabling the phylogenetic placement of the focal taxon, the re-evaluation of its taxonomic classification, and the revealing of a new Aegean land snail lineage, Aristena genus novum. This approach is a non-invasive way to sample DNA from threatened land snail species and suitable to study the evolutionary history of taxa with cryptic ecology, stenoendemics, or extinct-in-the-wild, as well as old museum specimens.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Marinček P, Wagner ND, S Tomasello (2022)

Ancient DNA extraction methods for herbarium specimens: When is it worth the effort?.

Applications in plant sciences, 10(3):e11477.

Premise: Herbaria harbor a tremendous number of plant specimens that are rarely used for molecular systematic studies, largely due to the difficulty in extracting sufficient amounts of high-quality DNA from the preserved plant material.

Methods: We compared the standard Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit and a specific protocol for extracting ancient DNA (aDNA) (the N-phenacylthiazolium bromide and dithiothreitol [PTB-DTT] extraction method) from two different plant genera (Xanthium and Salix). The included herbarium materials covered about two centuries of plant collections. To analyze the success of DNA extraction using each method, a subset of samples was subjected to a standard library preparation as well as target-enrichment approaches.

Results: The PTB-DTT method produced a higher DNA yield of better quality than the Qiagen kit; however, extracts from the Qiagen kit over a certain DNA yield and quality threshold produced comparable sequencing results. The sequencing resulted in high proportions of endogenous reads. We were able to successfully sequence 200-year-old samples.

Discussion: This method comparison revealed that, for younger specimens, DNA extraction using a standard kit might be sufficient. For old and precious herbarium specimens, aDNA extraction methods are better suited to meet the requirements for next-generation sequencing.

RevDate: 2022-07-11
CmpDate: 2022-07-04

Liu YC, Hunter-Anderson R, Cheronet O, et al (2022)

Ancient DNA reveals five streams of migration into Micronesia and matrilocality in early Pacific seafarers.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 377(6601):72-79.

Micronesia began to be peopled earlier than other parts of Remote Oceania, but the origins of its inhabitants remain unclear. We generated genome-wide data from 164 ancient and 112 modern individuals. Analysis reveals five migratory streams into Micronesia. Three are East Asian related, one is Polynesian, and a fifth is a Papuan source related to mainland New Guineans that is different from the New Britain-related Papuan source for southwest Pacific populations but is similarly derived from male migrants ~2500 to 2000 years ago. People of the Mariana Archipelago may derive all of their precolonial ancestry from East Asian sources, making them the only Remote Oceanians without Papuan ancestry. Female-inherited mitochondrial DNA was highly differentiated across early Remote Oceanian communities but homogeneous within, implying matrilocal practices whereby women almost never raised their children in communities different from the ones in which they grew up.

RevDate: 2022-06-30

Liu X, L Orlando (2022)

mapDATAge: a ShinyR package to chart ancient DNA data through space and time.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6623404 [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARY: Ancient DNA datasets are increasingly difficult to visualise for users lacking computational experience. Here, we describe mapDATAge, which aims to provide user-friendly automated modules for the interactive mapping of allele, haplogroup and/or ancestry distributions through space and time. mapDATAge enhances collaborative data sharing while assists the assessment and reporting of spatio-temporal patterns of genetic changes.

AVAILABILITY: mapDATAge is a Shiny R application designed for exploring spatiotemporal patterns in ancient DNA data through a graphical user interface (GUI). It is freely available under GNU Public License in Github: https://github.com/xuefenfei712/mapDATAge.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2022-07-20
CmpDate: 2022-07-15

Bergström A, Stanton DWG, Taron UH, et al (2022)

Grey wolf genomic history reveals a dual ancestry of dogs.

Nature, 607(7918):313-320.

The grey wolf (Canis lupus) was the first species to give rise to a domestic population, and they remained widespread throughout the last Ice Age when many other large mammal species went extinct. Little is known, however, about the history and possible extinction of past wolf populations or when and where the wolf progenitors of the present-day dog lineage (Canis familiaris) lived1-8. Here we analysed 72 ancient wolf genomes spanning the last 100,000 years from Europe, Siberia and North America. We found that wolf populations were highly connected throughout the Late Pleistocene, with levels of differentiation an order of magnitude lower than they are today. This population connectivity allowed us to detect natural selection across the time series, including rapid fixation of mutations in the gene IFT88 40,000-30,000 years ago. We show that dogs are overall more closely related to ancient wolves from eastern Eurasia than to those from western Eurasia, suggesting a domestication process in the east. However, we also found that dogs in the Near East and Africa derive up to half of their ancestry from a distinct population related to modern southwest Eurasian wolves, reflecting either an independent domestication process or admixture from local wolves. None of the analysed ancient wolf genomes is a direct match for either of these dog ancestries, meaning that the exact progenitor populations remain to be located.

RevDate: 2022-08-08

VarGoats Consortium, Nijman IJ, Rosen BD, et al (2022)

Geographical contrasts of Y-chromosomal haplogroups from wild and domestic goats reveal ancient migrations and recent introgressions.

Molecular ecology, 31(16):4364-4380.

By their paternal transmission, Y-chromosomal haplotypes are sensitive markers of population history and male-mediated introgression. Previous studies identified biallelic single-nucleotide variants in the SRY, ZFY and DDX3Y genes, which in domestic goats identified four major Y-chromosomal haplotypes, Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B, with a marked geographical partitioning. Here, we extracted goat Y-chromosomal variants from whole-genome sequences of 386 domestic goats (75 breeds) and seven wild goat species, which were generated by the VarGoats goat genome project. Phylogenetic analyses indicated domestic haplogroups corresponding to Y1B, Y2A and Y2B, respectively, whereas Y1A is split into Y1AA and Y1AB. All five haplogroups were detected in 26 ancient DNA samples from southeast Europe or Asia. Haplotypes from present-day bezoars are not shared with domestic goats and are attached to deep nodes of the trees and networks. Haplogroup distributions for 186 domestic breeds indicate ancient paternal population bottlenecks and expansions during migrations into northern Europe, eastern and southern Asia, and Africa south of the Sahara. In addition, sharing of haplogroups indicates male-mediated introgressions, most notably an early gene flow from Asian goats into Madagascar and the crossbreeding that in the 19th century resulted in the popular Boer and Anglo-Nubian breeds. More recent introgressions are those from European goats into the native Korean goat population and from Boer goat into Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Zimbabwe. This study illustrates the power of the Y-chromosomal variants for reconstructing the history of domestic species with a wide geographical range.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Toncheva D, Marinova M, Borovska P, et al (2022)

Spatio-temporal dynamics of pathogenic variants associated with monogenic disorders reconstructed with ancient DNA.

PloS one, 17(6):e0269628.

Genetic disease burden in ancient communities has barely been evaluated despite an ever expanding body of ancient genomes becoming available. In this study, we inspect 2729 publicly available ancient genomes (100 BP-52000 BP) for the presence of pathogenic variants in 32643 disease-associated loci. We base our subsequent analyses on 19 variants in seven genes-PAH, EDAR, F11, HBB, LRRK2, SLC12A6 and MAOA, associated with monogenic diseases and with well-established pathogenic impact in contemporary populations. We determine 230 homozygote genotypes of these variants in the screened 2729 ancient DNA samples. Eleven of these are in the PAH gene (126 ancient samples in total), a gene associated with the condition phenylketonuria in modern populations. The variants examined seem to show varying dynamics over the last 10000 years, some exhibiting a single upsurge in frequency and subsequently disappearing, while others maintain high frequency levels (compared to contemporary population frequencies) over long time periods. The geographic distribution and age of the ancient DNA samples with established pathogenic variants suggests multiple independent origin of these variants. Comparison of estimates of the geographic prevalence of these variants from ancient and contemporary data show discontinuity in their prevalence and supports their recurrent emergence. The oldest samples in which a variant is established might give an indication of their age and place origin, and an EDAR gene pathogenic variant was established in a sample estimated to be 33210-32480 calBCE. Knowledge about the historical prevalence of variants causing monogenic disorders provides insight on their emergence, dynamics and spread.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Nishimura L, Fujito N, Sugimoto R, et al (2022)

Detection of Ancient Viruses and Long-Term Viral Evolution.

Viruses, 14(6):.

The COVID-19 outbreak has reminded us of the importance of viral evolutionary studies as regards comprehending complex viral evolution and preventing future pandemics. A unique approach to understanding viral evolution is the use of ancient viral genomes. Ancient viruses are detectable in various archaeological remains, including ancient people's skeletons and mummified tissues. Those specimens have preserved ancient viral DNA and RNA, which have been vigorously analyzed in the last few decades thanks to the development of sequencing technologies. Reconstructed ancient pathogenic viral genomes have been utilized to estimate the past pandemics of pathogenic viruses within the ancient human population and long-term evolutionary events. Recent studies revealed the existence of non-pathogenic viral genomes in ancient people's bodies. These ancient non-pathogenic viruses might be informative for inferring their relationships with ancient people's diets and lifestyles. Here, we reviewed the past and ongoing studies on ancient pathogenic and non-pathogenic viruses and the usage of ancient viral genomes to understand their long-term viral evolution.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Bodner M, Amory C, Olivieri A, et al (2022)

Helena's Many Daughters: More Mitogenome Diversity behind the Most Common West Eurasian mtDNA Control Region Haplotype in an Extended Italian Population Sample.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12):.

The high number of matching haplotypes of the most common mitochondrial (mt)DNA lineages are considered to be the greatest limitation for forensic applications. This study investigates the potential to solve this constraint by massively parallel sequencing a large number of mitogenomes that share the most common West Eurasian mtDNA control region (CR) haplotype motif (263G 315.1C 16519C). We augmented a pilot study on 29 to a total of 216 Italian mitogenomes that represents the largest set of the most common CR haplotype compiled from a single country. The extended population sample confirmed and extended the huge coding region diversity behind the most common CR motif. Complete mitogenome sequencing allowed for the detection of 163 distinct haplotypes, raising the power of discrimination from 0 (CR) to 99.6% (mitogenome). The mtDNAs were clustered into 61 named clades of haplogroup H and did not reveal phylogeographic trends within Italy. Rapid individualization approaches for investigative purposes are limited to the most frequent H clades of the dataset, viz. H1, H3, and H7.

RevDate: 2022-07-29
CmpDate: 2022-07-29

Saldías E, Valdebenito G, Zamora L, et al (2022)

Multidisciplinary analysis of a mummy from the War of the Pacific.

Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht uber die biologisch-anthropologische Literatur, 79(4):451-465.

The War of the Pacific (1879-1884) was a big scale war between Chile against the alliance of Peru and Bolivia. One of the most important battles, the "Batalla del Campo de la Alianza" was situated in the desert near Tacna, Peru. The conditions of this environment favored the conservation of the dead soldiers after many years. Decades ago, the Natural History Museum of Concepción in Chile, received a naturally mummified individual of a probably Chilean soldier as a donation; its uncertain context was never studied nor confirmed. Considering this, our investigation analyzed this body under exploratory methods, ballistic analysis, archaeological contrast, 14C radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, and isotopic analysis to reconstruct the biological profile of this mummy. The results indicated that the mummy belongs to an adult man between 33-39 years of age (> 1.50 m) and has a perimortem wound in the left flank of the abdomen. CT scan and X-rays revealed the presence of a bullet (Comblain II or Gras) hosted near the L2 vertebra. It is possible that the individual died of bleeding from a gunshot wound done by a long-distance firearm projectile from an inferior level, whose trajectory was from left to right, with slight inclination towards the top, and without a projectile exit. Other analyses confirmed the historical context and suggests the Chilean origin of the mummy. Despite the passage of time and other factors, it was possible to reconstruct the death of this individual thanks to technology and approaches from different disciplines.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Gelabert P, Blazyte A, Chang Y, et al (2022)

Northeastern Asian and Jomon-related genetic structure in the Three Kingdoms period of Gimhae, Korea.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(22)00916-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The genetic history of prehistoric and protohistoric Korean populations is not well understood because only a small number of ancient genomes are available. Here, we report the first paleogenomic data from the Korean Three Kingdoms period, a crucial point in the cultural and historic formation of Korea. These data comprise eight shotgun-sequenced genomes from ancient Korea (0.7×-6.1× coverage). They were derived from two archeological sites in Gimhae: the Yuha-ri shell mound and the Daesung-dong tumuli, the latter being the most important funerary complex of the Gaya confederacy. All individuals are from between the 4th and 5th century CE and are best modeled as an admixture between a northern China Bronze Age genetic source and a source of Jomon-related ancestry that shares similarities with the present-day genomes from Japan. The observed substructure and proportion of Jomon-related ancestry suggest the presence of two genetic groups within the population and diversity among the Gaya population. We could not correlate the genomic differences between these two groups with either social status or sex. All the ancient individuals' genomic profiles, including phenotypically relevant SNPs associated with hair and eye color, facial morphology, and myopia, imply strong genetic and phenotypic continuity with modern Koreans for the last 1,700 years.

RevDate: 2022-08-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Översti S, JU Palo (2022)

Variation in the Substitution Rates among the Human Mitochondrial Haplogroup U Sublineages.

Genome biology and evolution, 14(7):.

Resolving the absolute timescale of phylogenetic trees stipulates reliable estimates for the rate of DNA sequence evolution. For this end, various calibration methods have been developed and studied intensively. Intraspecific rate variation among distinct genetic lineages, however, has gained less attention. Here, we have assessed lineage-specific molecular rates of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by performing tip-calibrated Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Tip-calibration, as opposed to traditional nodal time stamps from dated fossil evidence or geological events, is based on sample ages and becoming ever more feasible as ancient DNA data from radiocarbon-dated samples accumulate. We focus on subhaplogroups U2, U4, U5a, and U5b, the data including ancient mtDNA genomes from 14C-dated samples (n = 234), contemporary genomes (n = 301), and two outgroup sequences from haplogroup R. The obtained molecular rates depended on the data sets (with or without contemporary sequences), suggesting time-dependency. More notable was the rate variation between haplogroups: U4 and U5a stand out having a substantially higher rate than U5b. This is also reflected in the divergence times obtained (U5a: 17,700 years and U5b: 29,700 years), a disparity not reported previously. After ruling out various alternative causes (e.g., selection, sampling, and sequence quality), we propose that the substitution rates have been influenced by demographic histories, widely different among populations where U4/U5a or U5b are frequent. As with the Y-chromosomal subhaplogroup R1b, the mitochondrial U4 and U5a have been associated with remarkable range extensions of the Yamnaya culture in the Bronze Age.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Zheng ZQ, Fu QM, YC Liu (2022)

Exploration of adaptation, evolution and domestication of fermentation microorganisms by applying ancient DNA technology.

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 44(5):414-423.

Fermentation production is the most primitive application of microorganisms by humans, which is of great significance in human history. However, due to the lack of molecular evidence, the history of human fermentation production and the evolution and domestication of fermentation microorganisms remain to be further investigated. Taking wine and fermented dairy, the two most common types of fermented foods as examples, we introduce the archaeology evidence of fermented foods and the evolution and domestication of fermented microorganisms, introduce the research status of paleomicrobiology and fermented paleomicroorganisms, and explore the feasibility and challenges of the research of ancient fermented microorganisms applying microbial ancient DNA technology, as well as the application potential of ancient DNA capture technology in this field.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Ping WJ, Liu YC, QM Fu (2022)

Exploring the evolution of archaic humans through sedimentary ancient DNA.

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 44(5):362-369.

Recent success in the retrieval of nuclear DNA of ancient humans and animals from cave sediments paves the way for genome-wide studies of past populations directly from sediments. In three studies, nuclear genomes of different species were obtained from the sediments of multiple archeological caves and their genetic histories were revealed, including an unknown population replacement of Neanderthals from Estatuas cave in Spain, which was recovered using a new DNA capture approach. By extending sediments as a source of DNA beyond fossils, this breakthrough is of particular significance to the field of ancient human genomics, which brings about more possibilities for exploring the history of past population migration, evolution and adaptation within larger time-scales and geographical areas where no fossil remains exist. Here, we mainly review the significance of the technical advances in retrieving ancient nuclear DNA from sediments and present new insights into the genetic history of Neanderthals revealed by this technique. By combining ancient genomes retrieved from fossils and additional mitochondrial DNA extracted from sediments of archaeological sites, we may begin investigating diverse archaic populations and examine their genetic relationships, movements and replacements in detail.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Rodrigues Soares AE, Boroffka N, Schröder O, et al (2022)

Ancient DNA from a 2700-year-old goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) supports gazelle hunting in Iron Age Central Asia.

Royal Society open science, 9(6):220104.

Central Asia has been an important region connecting the different parts of Eurasia throughout history and prehistory, with large states developing in this region during the Iron Age. Archaeogenomics is a powerful addition to the zooarchaeological toolkit for understanding the relation of these societies to animals. Here, we present the genetic identification of a goitered gazelle specimen (Gazella subgutturosa) at the site Gazimulla-Tepa, in modern-day Uzbekistan, supporting hunting of the species in the region during the Iron Age. The sample was directly radiocarbon dated to 2724-2439 calBP. A phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome places the individual into the modern variation of G. subgutturosa. Our data do represent both the first ancient DNA and the first nuclear DNA sequences of this species. The lack of genomic resources available for this gazelle and related species prevented us from performing a more in-depth analysis of the nuclear sequences generated. Therefore, we are making our sequence data available to the research community to facilitate other research of this nowadays threatened species which has been subject to human hunting for several millennia across its entire range on the Asian continent.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Graham F (2022)

Daily briefing: Ancient DNA traces origin of Black Death.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Long GS, Klunk J, Duggan AT, et al (2022)

A 16th century Escherichia coli draft genome associated with an opportunistic bile infection.

Communications biology, 5(1):599.

Escherichia coli - one of the most characterized bacteria and a major public health concern - remains invisible across the temporal landscape. Here, we present the meticulous reconstruction of the first ancient E. coli genome from a 16th century gallstone from an Italian mummy with chronic cholecystitis. We isolated ancient DNA and reconstructed the ancient E. coli genome. It consisted of one chromosome of 4446 genes and two putative plasmids with 52 genes. The E. coli strain belonged to the phylogroup A and an exceptionally rare sequence type 4995. The type VI secretion system component genes appears to be horizontally acquired from Klebsiella aerogenes, however we could not identify any pathovar specific genes nor any acquired antibiotic resistances. A sepsis mouse assay showed that a closely related contemporary E. coli strain was avirulent. Our reconstruction of this ancient E. coli helps paint a more complete picture of the burden of opportunistic infections of the past.

RevDate: 2022-06-24
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Gibbons A (2022)

Ancient DNA reveals Black Death source.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 376(6599):1254-1255.

Graves in Kyrgyzstan hold early victims of plague that swept medieval Europe.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Callaway E (2022)

Ancient DNA traces origin of Black Death.

Nature, 606(7915):635-636.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-24

Spyrou MA, Musralina L, Gnecchi Ruscone GA, et al (2022)

The source of the Black Death in fourteenth-century central Eurasia.

Nature, 606(7915):718-724.

The origin of the medieval Black Death pandemic (AD 1346-1353) has been a topic of continuous investigation because of the pandemic's extensive demographic impact and long-lasting consequences1,2. Until now, the most debated archaeological evidence potentially associated with the pandemic's initiation derives from cemeteries located near Lake Issyk-Kul of modern-day Kyrgyzstan1,3-9. These sites are thought to have housed victims of a fourteenth-century epidemic as tombstone inscriptions directly dated to 1338-1339 state 'pestilence' as the cause of death for the buried individuals9. Here we report ancient DNA data from seven individuals exhumed from two of these cemeteries, Kara-Djigach and Burana. Our synthesis of archaeological, historical and ancient genomic data shows a clear involvement of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis in this epidemic event. Two reconstructed ancient Y. pestis genomes represent a single strain and are identified as the most recent common ancestor of a major diversification commonly associated with the pandemic's emergence, here dated to the first half of the fourteenth century. Comparisons with present-day diversity from Y. pestis reservoirs in the extended Tian Shan region support a local emergence of the recovered ancient strain. Through multiple lines of evidence, our data support an early fourteenth-century source of the second plague pandemic in central Eurasia.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Mohit , Sharma I, Sharma V, et al (2022)

Empirical assessment of allele frequencies of genome wide association study variants associated with obstructive sleep apnea.

American journal of translational research, 14(5):3464-3471.

OBJECTIVE: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a heterogeneous disorder with a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Over the years, with advancement in genotyping and sequencing techniques, various loci have shown an association with OSA. It is pertinent to understand the status of these associated variants in different ethnic groups. The aim of the study was to assess the genetic affinity among different population groups by evaluating the risk allele frequencies of variants associated with OSA.

METHOD: The variants associated with OSA were obtained from the GWAS catalog with a significant p value of <5 × 10-7; 95 variants were obtained (www.ebi.ac.uk/gwas). Further, the variants were narrowed down on the basis of risk allele frequencies (>5%). The fst was calculated to assess the genetic affinity between super population groups and among the sub-population groups present in the 1000 genome project.

RESULT: The fst values observed indicated all super populations were genetically related (SAS, AMR, EAS and EUR) except in the African (AFR) population group. Further, the closely related super population i.e., SAS, AMR, EAS and EUR when bifurcated on the basis of sub-population groups shows population stratification and SAS population groups form separate clusters on the MDS plot.

CONCLUSION: The study highlights genetic heterogeneity among different population groups that gets diluted and results are biased when the samples are pooled irrespective of their endogamous groups. Our results provide insight to researchers to target specific endogamous groups for future studies on OSA.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-15

Kutschera VE, Kierczak M, van der Valk T, et al (2022)

GenErode: a bioinformatics pipeline to investigate genome erosion in endangered and extinct species.

BMC bioinformatics, 23(1):228.

BACKGROUND: Many wild species have suffered drastic population size declines over the past centuries, which have led to 'genomic erosion' processes characterized by reduced genetic diversity, increased inbreeding, and accumulation of harmful mutations. Yet, genomic erosion estimates of modern-day populations often lack concordance with dwindling population sizes and conservation status of threatened species. One way to directly quantify the genomic consequences of population declines is to compare genome-wide data from pre-decline museum samples and modern samples. However, doing so requires computational data processing and analysis tools specifically adapted to comparative analyses of degraded, ancient or historical, DNA data with modern DNA data as well as personnel trained to perform such analyses.

RESULTS: Here, we present a highly flexible, scalable, and modular pipeline to compare patterns of genomic erosion using samples from disparate time periods. The GenErode pipeline uses state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools to simultaneously process whole-genome re-sequencing data from ancient/historical and modern samples, and to produce comparable estimates of several genomic erosion indices. No programming knowledge is required to run the pipeline and all bioinformatic steps are well-documented, making the pipeline accessible to users with different backgrounds. GenErode is written in Snakemake and Python3 and uses Conda and Singularity containers to achieve reproducibility on high-performance compute clusters. The source code is freely available on GitHub (https://github.com/NBISweden/GenErode).

CONCLUSIONS: GenErode is a user-friendly and reproducible pipeline that enables the standardization of genomic erosion indices from temporally sampled whole genome re-sequencing data.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Huang Y, H Ringbauer (2022)

hapCon: Estimating Contamination of Ancient Genomes by Copying from Reference Haplotypes.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Human ancient DNA (aDNA) studies have surged in recent years, revolutionizing the study of the human past. Typically, aDNA is preserved poorly, making such data prone to contamination from other human DNA. Therefore, it is important to rule out substantial contamination before proceeding to downstream analysis. As most aDNA samples can only be sequenced to low coverages (<1x average depth), computational methods that can robustly estimate contamination in the low coverage regime are needed. However, the ultra low-coverage regime (0.1x and below) remains a challenging task for existing approaches.

RESULTS: We present a new method to estimate contamination in aDNA for male modern humans. It utilizes a Li&Stephens haplotype copying model for haploid X chromosomes, with mismatches modelled as errors or contamination. We assessed this new approach, hapCon, on simulated and down-sampled empirical aDNA data. Our experiments demonstrate that hapCon outperforms a commonly used tool for estimating male X contamination (ANGSD), with substantially lower variance and narrower confidence intervals, especially in the low coverage regime. We found that hapCon provides useful contamination estimates for coverages as low as 0.1x for SNP capture data (1240k) and 0.02x for whole genome sequencing data (WGS), substantially extending the coverage limit of previous male X chromosome based contamination estimation methods. Our experiments demonstrate that hapCon has little bias for contamination up to 25-30% as long as the contaminating source is specified within continental genetic variation, and that its application range extends to human aDNA as old as ∼45,000 and various global ancestries.

AVAILABILITY: We make hapCon available as part of a python package (hapROH), which is available at the Python Package Index (https://pypi.org/project/hapROH) and can be installed via pip. The documentation provides example use cases as blueprints for custom applications (https://haproh.readthedocs.io/en/latest/hapCon.html). The program can analyze either BAM files or pileup files produced with samtools. An implementation of our software (hapCon) using Python and C is deposited at https://github.com/hyl317/hapROH.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Xue J, Wang W, Shao J, et al (2022)

Ancient Mitogenomes Reveal the Origins and Genetic Structure of the Neolithic Shimao Population in Northern China.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:909267.

Shimao City is considered an important political and religious center during the Late Neolithic Longshan period of the Middle Yellow River basin. The genetic history and population dynamics among the Shimao and other ancient populations, especially the Taosi-related populations, remain unknown. Here, we sequenced 172 complete mitochondrial genomes, ranging from the Yangshao to Longshan period, from individuals related to the Shimao culture in northern Shaanxi Province and Taosi culture in southern Shanxi Province, Middle Yellow River basin. Our results show that the populations inhabiting Shimao City had close genetic connections with an earlier population in the Middle Neolithic Yangshao period of northern Shaanxi Province, revealing a mostly local origin for the Shimao Society. In addition, among the populations in other regions of the Yellow River basin, the Shimao-related populations had the closest maternal affinity with the contemporaneous Taosi populations from the Longshan period. The Shimao-related populations also shared more affinity with present-day northern Han populations than with the minorities and southern Han in China. Our study provides a new perspective on the genetic origins and structure of the Shimao people and the population dynamics in the Middle Yellow River basin during the Neolithic period.

RevDate: 2022-07-18

Poma A, Cesare P, Bonfigli A, et al (2022)

A qPCR-duplex assay for sex determination in ancient DNA.

PloS one, 17(6):e0269913.

Molecular biology techniques are increasingly being used in sex identification of skeletal remains when traditional anthropometric analyzes are not successful in identifying sex of remains that are incomplete, fragmented and /or of immature individuals. In the present work, we investigated the possibility of determining sex by using the qPCR-duplex method for both ancient and modern DNA samples. This method involves the co-amplification of two genes in a single reaction system and the subsequent analysis of the fusion curves; the gene sequences used for the construction of suitable primers are those of steroid sulfatase (STS) and testis specific protein Y-linked 1 (TSPY) genes which turned out to be two sensitive markers as they have a detection limit of 60 pg and 20 pg respectively on modern DNA. The validity of the method was verified on modern DNA in which gender was identified in all the samples with 100% accuracy; thus, allowing for the same results as the classic method with amelogenin, but in a faster and more immediate way, as it allows for sex determination solely by analyzing the denaturation curves without having to perform an electrophoretic run. The proposed molecular technique proves to be sensitive and precise even on degraded DNA, in fact on 9 archaeological finds dating from the VII-XII century in which sex had been identified through anthropometric analysis, it confirmed the sex of 8 out of 9 finds correctly.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-13

Schulte L, Meucci S, Stoof-Leichsenring KR, et al (2022)

Larix species range dynamics in Siberia since the Last Glacial captured from sedimentary ancient DNA.

Communications biology, 5(1):570.

Climate change is expected to cause major shifts in boreal forests which are in vast areas of Siberia dominated by two species of the deciduous needle tree larch (Larix). The species differ markedly in their ecosystem functions, thus shifts in their respective ranges are of global relevance. However, drivers of species distribution are not well understood, in part because paleoecological data at species level are lacking. This study tracks Larix species distribution in time and space using target enrichment on sedimentary ancient DNA extracts from eight lakes across Siberia. We discovered that Larix sibirica, presently dominating in western Siberia, likely migrated to its northern distribution area only in the Holocene at around 10,000 years before present (ka BP), and had a much wider eastern distribution around 33 ka BP. Samples dated to the Last Glacial Maximum (around 21 ka BP), consistently show genotypes of L. gmelinii. Our results suggest climate as a strong determinant of species distribution in Larix and provide temporal and spatial data for species projection in a changing climate.

RevDate: 2022-06-09
CmpDate: 2022-06-09

Choin J, L Quintana-Murci (2022)

Paleogenomics: The demographic past of prehistoric Europeans.

Current biology : CB, 32(11):R535-R538.

Ancient DNA provides answers to long-standing debates about past human history. New work using demographic modeling on ancient genomes documents the nature and timing of the demographic processes - population size changes, divergences and admixture - that took place in prehistoric Europe.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Nagler M, Podmirseg SM, Ascher-Jenull J, et al (2022)

Why eDNA fractions need consideration in biomonitoring.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is revolutionizing the monitoring of biodiversity as it allows to assess organismic diversity at large scale and unprecedented taxonomic detail. However, eDNA consists of an extracellular and intracellular fraction, each characterized by particular properties that determine the retrievable information on when and where organisms live or have been living. Here, we review the fractions of eDNA, describe how to obtain them from environmental samples and present a four-scenario concept that aims at enhancing spatial and temporal resolution of eDNA-based monitoring. Importantly, we highlight how the appropriate choice of eDNA fractions precludes misinterpretation of eDNA-based biodiversity data. Finally, future avenues of research towards eDNA fraction-specific analyses are outlined to unravel the full potential of eDNA-based studies targeting micro- and macro-organisms.

RevDate: 2022-07-20
CmpDate: 2022-07-20

Chintalapati M, Patterson N, P Moorjani (2022)

The spatiotemporal patterns of major human admixture events during the European Holocene.

eLife, 11:.

Recent studies have shown that admixture has been pervasive throughout human history. While several methods exist for dating admixture in contemporary populations, they are not suitable for sparse, low coverage ancient genomic data. Thus, we developed DATES (Distribution of Ancestry Tracts of Evolutionary Signals) that leverages ancestry covariance patterns across the genome of a single individual to infer the timing of admixture. DATES provides reliable estimates under various demographic scenarios and outperforms available methods for ancient DNA applications. Using DATES on~1100 ancient genomes from sixteen regions in Europe and west Asia, we reconstruct the chronology of the formation of the ancestral populations and the fine-scale details of the spread of Neolithic farming and Steppe pastoralist-related ancestry across Europe. By studying the genetic formation of Anatolian farmers, we infer that gene flow related to Iranian Neolithic farmers occurred before 9600 BCE, predating the advent of agriculture in Anatolia. Contrary to the archaeological evidence, we estimate that early Steppe pastoralist groups (Yamnaya and Afanasievo) were genetically formed more than a millennium before the start of Steppe pastoralism. Our analyses provide new insights on the origins and spread of farming and Indo-European languages, highlighting the power of genomic dating methods to elucidate the legacy of human migrations.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Abondio P, Cilli E, D Luiselli (2022)

Inferring Signatures of Positive Selection in Whole-Genome Sequencing Data: An Overview of Haplotype-Based Methods.

Genes, 13(5):.

Signatures of positive selection in the genome are a characteristic mark of adaptation that can reveal an ongoing, recent, or ancient response to environmental change throughout the evolution of a population. New sources of food, climate conditions, and exposure to pathogens are only some of the possible sources of selective pressure, and the rise of advantageous genetic variants is a crucial determinant of survival and reproduction. In this context, the ability to detect these signatures of selection may pinpoint genetic variants that are responsible for a significant change in gene regulation, gene expression, or protein synthesis, structure, and function. This review focuses on statistical methods that take advantage of linkage disequilibrium and haplotype determination to reveal signatures of positive selection in whole-genome sequencing data, showing that they emerge from different descriptions of the same underlying event. Moreover, considerations are provided around the application of these statistics to different species, their suitability for ancient DNA, and the usefulness of discovering variants under selection for biomedicine and public health in an evolutionary medicine framework.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Scorrano G, Viva S, Pinotti T, et al (2022)

Bioarchaeological and palaeogenomic portrait of two Pompeians that died during the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD.

Scientific reports, 12(1):6468.

The archaeological site of Pompeii is one of the 54 UNESCO World Heritage sites in Italy, thanks to its uniqueness: the town was completely destroyed and buried by a Vesuvius' eruption in 79 AD. In this work, we present a multidisciplinary approach with bioarchaeological and palaeogenomic analyses of two Pompeian human remains from the Casa del Fabbro. We have been able to characterize the genetic profile of the first Pompeian' genome, which has strong affinities with the surrounding central Italian population from the Roman Imperial Age. Our findings suggest that, despite the extensive connection between Rome and other Mediterranean populations, a noticeable degree of genetic homogeneity exists in the Italian peninsula at that time. Moreover, palaeopathological analyses identified the presence of spinal tuberculosis and we further investigated the presence of ancient DNA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the power of a combined approach to investigate ancient humans and confirms the possibility to retrieve ancient DNA from Pompeii human remains. Our initial findings provide a foundation to promote an intensive and extensive paleogenetic analysis in order to reconstruct the genetic history of population from Pompeii, a unique archaeological site.

RevDate: 2022-07-14
CmpDate: 2022-07-14

Maróti Z, Neparáczki E, Schütz O, et al (2022)

The genetic origin of Huns, Avars, and conquering Hungarians.

Current biology : CB, 32(13):2858-2870.e7.

Huns, Avars, and conquering Hungarians were migration-period nomadic tribal confederations that arrived in three successive waves in the Carpathian Basin between the 5th and 9th centuries. Based on the historical data, each of these groups are thought to have arrived from Asia, although their exact origin and relation to other ancient and modern populations have been debated. Recently, hundreds of ancient genomes were analyzed from Central Asia, Mongolia, and China, from which we aimed to identify putative source populations for the above-mentioned groups. In this study, we have sequenced 9 Hun, 143 Avar, and 113 Hungarian conquest period samples and identified three core populations, representing immigrants from each period with no recent European ancestry. Our results reveal that this "immigrant core" of both Huns and Avars likely originated in present day Mongolia, and their origin can be traced back to Xiongnus (Asian Huns), as suggested by several historians. On the other hand, the "immigrant core" of the conquering Hungarians derived from an earlier admixture of Mansis, early Sarmatians, and descendants of late Xiongnus. We have also shown that a common "proto-Ugric" gene pool appeared in the Bronze Age from the admixture of Mezhovskaya and Nganasan people, supporting genetic and linguistic data. In addition, we detected shared Hun-related ancestry in numerous Avar and Hungarian conquest period genetic outliers, indicating a genetic link between these successive nomadic groups. Aside from the immigrant core groups, we identified that the majority of the individuals from each period were local residents harboring "native European" ancestry.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Demarchi B, Stiller J, Grealy A, et al (2022)

Ancient proteins resolve controversy over the identity of Genyornis eggshell.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [Epub ahead of print].

SignificanceThe controversy over the taxonomic identity of the eggs exploited by Australia's first people around 50,000 y ago is resolved. The birds that laid these eggs are extinct, and distinguishing between two main candidates, a giant flightless "mihirung" Genyornis and a large megapode Progura, had proven impossible using morphological and geochemical methods. Ancient DNA sequencing remains inconclusive because of the age and burial temperature of the eggshell. In contrast, ancient protein sequences recovered from the eggshell enabled estimation of the evolutionary affinity between the egg and a range of extant taxa. The eggs are those of a Galloanseres (a group that includes extinct Dromornithidae, as well as extant landfowl and waterfowl), Genyornis, and not of the megapode (Megapodiidae, crown Galliformes).

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Ariano B, Mattiangeli V, Breslin EM, et al (2022)

Ancient Maltese genomes and the genetic geography of Neolithic Europe.

Current biology : CB, 32(12):2668-2680.e6.

Archaeological consideration of maritime connectivity has ranged from a biogeographical perspective that considers the sea as a barrier to a view of seaways as ancient highways that facilitate exchange. Our results illustrate the former. We report three Late Neolithic human genomes from the Mediterranean island of Malta that are markedly enriched for runs of homozygosity, indicating inbreeding in their ancestry and an effective population size of only hundreds, a striking illustration of maritime isolation in this agricultural society. In the Late Neolithic, communities across mainland Europe experienced a resurgence of hunter-gatherer ancestry, pointing toward the persistence of different ancestral strands that subsequently admixed. This is absent in the Maltese genomes, giving a further indication of their genomic insularity. Imputation of genome-wide genotypes in our new and 258 published ancient individuals allowed shared identity-by-descent segment analysis, giving a fine-grained genetic geography of Neolithic Europe. This highlights the differentiating effects of seafaring Mediterranean expansion and also island colonization, including that of Ireland, Britain, and Orkney. These maritime effects contrast profoundly with a lack of migratory barriers in the establishment of Central European farming populations from Anatolia and the Balkans.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Slavin P, F Sebbane (2022)

Emergence and spread of ancestral Yersinia pestis in Late-Neolithic and Bronze-Age Eurasia, ca. 5,000 to 1,500 y B.P.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(21):e2204044119.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Childebayeva A, Rohrlach AB, Barquera R, et al (2022)

Population Genetics and Signatures of Selection in Early Neolithic European Farmers.

Molecular biology and evolution, 39(6):.

Human expansion in the course of the Neolithic transition in western Eurasia has been one of the major topics in ancient DNA research in the last 10 years. Multiple studies have shown that the spread of agriculture and animal husbandry from the Near East across Europe was accompanied by large-scale human expansions. Moreover, changes in subsistence and migration associated with the Neolithic transition have been hypothesized to involve genetic adaptation. Here, we present high quality genome-wide data from the Linear Pottery Culture site Derenburg-Meerenstieg II (DER) (N = 32 individuals) in Central Germany. Population genetic analyses show that the DER individuals carried predominantly Anatolian Neolithic-like ancestry and a very limited degree of local hunter-gatherer admixture, similar to other early European farmers. Increasing the Linear Pottery culture cohort size to ∼100 individuals allowed us to perform various frequency- and haplotype-based analyses to investigate signatures of selection associated with changes following the adoption of the Neolithic lifestyle. In addition, we developed a new method called Admixture-informed Maximum-likelihood Estimation for Selection Scans that allowed us test for selection signatures in an admixture-aware fashion. Focusing on the intersection of results from these selection scans, we identified various loci associated with immune function (JAK1, HLA-DQB1) and metabolism (LMF1, LEPR, SORBS1), as well as skin color (SLC24A5, CD82) and folate synthesis (MTHFR, NBPF3). Our findings shed light on the evolutionary pressures, such as infectious disease and changing diet, that were faced by the early farmers of Western Eurasia.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Zhang X, Yang L, Zhao X, et al (2022)

The complete mitochondrial genome of an ancient cattle (Bos taurus) from Taosi site, China, and its phylogenetic assessment.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 7(5):804-806.

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of one 4000-years-old cattle from Taosi site was determined by high throughput sequencing. The mitogenome was 16,336 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The protein-coding genes had two types of start codons (ATG and ATA) and three types of stop codons (TAA, TAG, and AGA). The overall base composition of the genome was 33%-A, 27%-T, 26%-C, 14%-G. The matrilineal genealogical analysis based on mitogenome revealed that the 4000-years-old cattle from Taosi site was domestic taurine cattle. In this study, we not only reported a complete mitogenome for a 4000-years-old bovine remain from the middle Yellow River region but also provided the mitogenomic evidence for the close phylogenetic relationship between the early taurine cattle in Northern China and modern domestic cattle.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Sehrawat JS, Agrawal S, Sankhyan D, et al (2022)

Pinpointing the Geographic Origin of 165-Year-Old Human Skeletal Remains Found in Punjab, India: Evidence From Mitochondrial DNA and Stable Isotope Analysis.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:813934.

In 2014, 157 years after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, several unidentified human skeletons were discovered in an abandoned well at Ajnala, Punjab. The most prevailing hypothesis suggested them as Indian soldiers who mutinied during the Indian uprising of 1857. However, there is an intense debate on their geographic affinity. Therefore, to pinpoint their area of origin, we have successfully isolated DNA from cementum-rich material of 50 good-quality random teeth samples and analyzed mtDNA haplogroups. In addition to that, we analyzed 85 individuals for oxygen isotopes (δ18O values). The mtDNA haplogroup distribution and clustering pattern rejected the local ancestry and indicated their genetic link with the populations living east of Punjab. In addition, the oxygen isotope analysis (δ18O values) from archaeological skeletal remains corroborated the molecular data and suggested the closest possible geographical affinity of these skeletal remains toward the eastern part of India, largely covering the Gangetic plain region. The data generated from this study are expected to expand our understanding of the ancestry and population affinity of martyr soldiers.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Heraclides A, E Fernández-Domínguez (2022)

Mitochondrial DNA Consensus Calling and Quality Filtering for Constructing Ancient Human Mitogenomes: Comparison of Two Widely Applied Methods.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Retrieving high-quality endogenous ancient DNA (aDNA) poses several challenges, including low molecular copy number, high rates of fragmentation, damage at read termini, and potential presence of exogenous contaminant DNA. All these factors complicate a reliable reconstruction of consensus aDNA sequences in reads from high-throughput sequencing platforms. Here, we report findings from a thorough evaluation of two alternative tools (ANGSD and schmutzi) aimed at overcoming these issues and constructing high-quality ancient mitogenomes. Raw genomic data (BAM/FASTQ) from a total of 17 previously published whole ancient human genomes ranging from the 14th to the 7th millennium BCE were retrieved and mitochondrial consensus sequences were reconstructed using different quality filters, with their accuracy measured and compared. Moreover, the influence of different sequence parameters (number of reads, sequenced bases, mean coverage, and rate of deamination and contamination) as predictors of derived sequence quality was evaluated. Complete mitogenomes were successfully reconstructed for all ancient samples, and for the majority of them, filtering substantially improved mtDNA consensus calling and haplogroup prediction. Overall, the schmutzi pipeline, which estimates and takes into consideration exogenous contamination, appeared to have the edge over the much faster and user-friendly alternative method (ANGSD) in moderate to high coverage samples (>1,000,000 reads). ANGSD, however, through its read termini trimming filter, showed better capabilities in calling the consensus sequence from low-quality samples. Among all the predictors of overall sample quality examined, the strongest correlation was found for the available number of sequence reads and bases. In the process, we report a previously unassigned haplogroup (U3b) for an Early Chalcolithic individual from Southern Anatolia/Northern Levant.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Ávila-Arcos MC, de la Fuente Castro C, Nieves-Colón MA, et al (2022)

Recommendations for Sustainable Ancient DNA Research in the Global South: Voices From a New Generation of Paleogenomicists.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:880170.

Paleogenomics - the study of ancient genomes - has made significant contributions, especially to our understanding of the evolutionary history of humans. This knowledge influx has been a direct result of the coupling of next-generation sequencing with improved methods for DNA recovery and analysis of ancient samples. The appeal of ancient DNA studies in the popular media coupled with the trend for such work to be published in "high impact" journals has driven the amassing of ancestral human remains from global collections, often with limited to no engagement or involvement of local researchers and communities. This practice in the paleogenomics literature has led to limited representation of researchers from the Global South at the research design and subsequent stages. Additionally, Indigenous and descendant communities are often alienated from popular and academic narratives that both involve and impact them, sometimes adversely. While some countries have safeguards against 'helicopter science', such as federally regulated measures to protect their biocultural heritage, there is variable oversight in others with regard to sampling and exportation of human remains for destructive research, and differing requirements for accountability or consultation with local researchers and communities. These disparities reveal stark contrasts and gaps in regional policies that lend themselves to persistent colonial practices. While essential critiques and conversations in this sphere are taking place, these are primarily guided through the lens of US-based heritage legislation such as the Native American Graves and Protection Act (NAGPRA). In this article, we aim to expand the scope of ongoing conversations by taking into account diverse regional contexts and challenges drawing from our own research experiences in the field of paleogenomics. We emphasize that true collaborations involve knowledge sharing, capacity building, mutual respect, and equitable participation, all of which take time and the implementation of sustainable research methods; amass-and-publish strategy is simply incompatible with this ethos.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Buisan R, Moriano J, Andirkó A, et al (2022)

A Brain Region-Specific Expression Profile for Genes Within Large Introgression Deserts and Under Positive Selection in Homo sapiens.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:824740.

Analyses of ancient DNA from extinct hominins have provided unique insights into the complex evolutionary history of Homo sapiens, intricately related to that of the Neanderthals and the Denisovans as revealed by several instances of admixture events. These analyses have also allowed the identification of introgression deserts: genomic regions in our species that are depleted of "archaic" haplotypes. The presence of genes like FOXP2 in these deserts has been taken to be suggestive of brain-related functional differences between Homo species. Here, we seek a deeper characterization of these regions and the specific expression trajectories of genes within them, taking into account signals of positive selection in our lineage. Analyzing publicly available transcriptomic data from the human brain at different developmental stages, we found that structures outside the cerebral neocortex, in particular the cerebellum, the striatum and the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus show the most divergent transcriptomic profiles when considering genes within large introgression deserts and under positive selection.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Callaway E (2022)

Ancient DNA maps 'dawn of farming'.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Rath K, Käßner A, Melisch C, et al (2022)

Genetic and isotope analysis of a triple burial from medieval St. Peter's cemetery in Cölln/Berlin.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 59:102718.

The German capital Berlin originates from the two medieval settlements Berlin and Cölln on either side of the river Spree. Whereas Berlin is world famous, there is very little awareness of former Cölln. From 2007-2009, during excavations of the earliest cemetery of this forgotten medieval town; 3,126 graves were discovered containing the remains of 3,717 individuals. Amongst those graves was an unusual triple burial. This grave was exceptional due to the relative postures of the skeletons and their extensive facial injuries. Here we present genetic and isotope data for this grave. Genetic results confirmed all of them as biological male individuals and ruled out their biological kinship. Combining genetic ancestry information with strontium isotope data we furthermore determined that two of the men most likely originated from the Berlin-Brandenburg region, whereas a more distant origin of the third individual can be debated.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Cai D, Zhu S, Gong M, et al (2022)

Radiocarbon and genomic evidence for the survival of Equus Sussemionus until the late Holocene.

eLife, 11:.

The exceptionally rich fossil record available for the equid family has provided textbook examples of macroevolutionary changes. Horses, asses, and zebras represent three extant subgenera of Equus lineage, while the Sussemionus subgenus is another remarkable Equus lineage ranging from North America to Ethiopia in the Pleistocene. We sequenced 26 archaeological specimens from Northern China in the Holocene that could be assigned morphologically and genetically to Equus ovodovi, a species representative of Sussemionus. We present the first high-quality complete genome of the Sussemionus lineage, which was sequenced to 13.4× depth of coverage. Radiocarbon dating demonstrates that this lineage survived until ~3500 years ago, despite continued demographic collapse during the Last Glacial Maximum and the great human expansion in East Asia. We also confirmed the Equus phylogenetic tree and found that Sussemionus diverged from the ancestor of non-caballine equids ~2.3-2.7 million years ago and possibly remained affected by secondary gene flow post-divergence. We found that the small genetic diversity, rather than enhanced inbreeding, limited the species' chances of survival. Our work adds to the growing literature illustrating how ancient DNA can inform on extinction dynamics and the long-term resilience of species surviving in cryptic population pockets.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Verry AJF, Mitchell KJ, NJ Rawlence (2022)

Genetic evidence for post-glacial expansion from a southern refugium in the eastern moa (Emeus crassus).

Biology letters, 18(5):20220013.

Cycles of glacial expansion and contraction throughout the Pleistocene drove increases and decreases, respectively, in the geographical range and population size of many animal species. Genetic data have revealed that during glacial maxima the distribution of many Eurasian animals was restricted to small refugial areas, from which species expanded to reoccupy parts of their former range as the climate warmed. It has been suggested that the extinct eastern moa (Emeus crassus)-a large, flightless bird from New Zealand-behaved analogously during glacial maxima, possibly surviving only in a restricted area of lowland habitat in the southern South Island of New Zealand during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, previous studies have lacked the power and geographical sampling to explicitly test this hypothesis using genetic data. Here we analyse 46 ancient mitochondrial genomes from Late Pleistocene and Holocene bones of the eastern moa from across their post-LGM distribution. Our results are consistent with a post-LGM increase in the population size and genetic diversity of eastern moa. We also demonstrate that genetic diversity was higher in eastern moa from the southern extent of their range, supporting the hypothesis that they expanded from a single glacial refugium following the LGM.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Fleskes RE, Bader AC, Tsosie KS, et al (2022)

Ethical Guidance in Human Paleogenomics: New and Ongoing Perspectives.

Annual review of genomics and human genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past two decades, the study of ancient genomes from Ancestral humans, or human paleogenomic research, has expanded rapidly in both scale and scope. Ethical discourse has subsequently emerged to address issues of social responsibility and scientific robusticity in conducting research. Here, we highlight and contextualize the primary sources of professional ethical guidance aimed at paleogenomic researchers. We describe the tension among existing guidelines, while addressing core issues such as consent, destructive research methods, and data access and management. Currently, there is a dissonance between guidelines that focus on scientific outcomes and those that hold scientists accountable to stakeholder communities, such as descendants. Thus, we provide additional tools to navigate the complexities of ancient DNA research while centering engagement with stakeholder communities in the scientific process. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 23 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2022-06-09
CmpDate: 2022-06-09

Segawa T, Yonezawa T, Mori H, et al (2022)

Paleogenomics reveals independent and hybrid origins of two morphologically distinct wolf lineages endemic to Japan.

Current biology : CB, 32(11):2494-2504.e5.

Little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of gray wolves in the Pleistocene across low-latitude regions of Eurasia. In Japan, a small-bodied endemic subspecies of Japanese wolves existed and went extinct in the early 1900s. The fossil record indicates that a giant wolf, which reached 70 cm in body height, inhabited Japan during the Pleistocene, but its evolutionary relationship, if any, with the Japanese wolf remains uncertain. Here, to reveal the genetic origin of the Japanese wolf, we analyzed ancient DNA from remains (recovered in Japan) of one Pleistocene wolf that lived 35,000 years ago and one Holocene wolf from 5,000 years ago. The analysis of the mitochondrial DNA revealed that the Pleistocene wolf was not part of the Japanese wolf clade but rather an earlier-diverging lineage. The analysis of the nuclear DNA of the Holocene Japanese wolf revealed that it was an admixture of the Japanese Pleistocene wolf and continental wolf lineages. These findings suggest that the Japanese wolf originated via waves of colonization of multiple Pleistocene wolf populations at 57-35 and 37-14 ka, respectively, followed by interpopulation hybridization.

RevDate: 2022-05-12
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Malyarchuk AB, Andreeva TV, Kuznetsova IL, et al (2022)

Genomics of Ancient Pathogens: First Advances and Prospects.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 87(3):242-258.

Paleogenomics is one of the urgent and promising areas of interdisciplinary research in the today's world science. New genomic methods of ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, such as next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, make it possible not only to obtain detailed genetic information about historical and prehistoric human populations, but also to study individual microbial and viral pathogens and microbiomes from different ancient and historical objects. Studies of aDNA of pathogens by reconstructing their genomes have so far yielded complete sequences of the ancient pathogens that played significant role in the history of the world: Yersinia pestis (plague), Variola virus (smallpox), Vibrio cholerae (cholera), HBV (hepatitis B virus), as well as the equally important endemic human infectious agents: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis), Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy), and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). Genomic data from these pathogens complemented the information previously obtained by paleopathologists and allowed not only to identify pathogens from the past pandemics, but also to recognize the pathogen lineages that are now extinct, to refine chronology of the pathogen appearance in human populations, and to reconstruct evolutionary history of the pathogens that are still relevant to public health today. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art genomic research of the origins and evolution of many ancient pathogens and viruses and examine mechanisms of the emergence and spread of the ancient infections in the mankind history.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Gelabert P, Schmidt RW, Fernandes DM, et al (2022)

Genomes from Verteba cave suggest diversity within the Trypillians in Ukraine.

Scientific reports, 12(1):7242.

The transition to agriculture occurred relatively late in Eastern Europe, leading researchers to debate whether it was a gradual, interactive process or a colonisation event. In the forest and forest-steppe regions of Ukraine, farming appeared during the fifth millennium BCE, associated with the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural complex (CTCC, ~ 5000-3000 BCE). Across Europe, the Neolithisation process was highly variable across space and over time. Here, we investigate the population dynamics of early agriculturalists from the eastern forest-steppe region based on the analyses of 20 ancient genomes from the site of Verteba Cave (3935-825 cal BCE). Results reveal that the CTCC individuals' ancestry is related to both western hunter-gatherers and Near Eastern farmers, has no local ancestry associated with Ukrainian Neolithic hunter-gatherers and has steppe ancestry. An Early Bronze Age individual has an ancestry profile related to the Yamnaya expansions but with 20% of ancestry related to the other Trypillian individuals, which suggests admixture between the Trypillians and the incoming populations carrying steppe-related ancestry. A Late Bronze Age individual dated to 980-825 cal BCE has a genetic profile indicating affinity to Beaker-related populations, detected close to 1000 years after the end of the Bell Beaker phenomenon during the third millennium BCE.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Martínez-García L, Ferrari G, Hufthammer AK, et al (2022)

Ancient DNA reveals a southern presence of the Northeast Arctic cod during the Holocene.

Biology letters, 18(5):20220021.

Climate change has been implicated in an increased number of distributional shifts of marine species during the last century. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether earlier climatic fluctuations had similar impacts. We use ancient DNA to investigate the long-term spawning distribution of the Northeast Arctic cod (skrei) which performs yearly migrations from the Barents Sea towards spawning grounds along the Norwegian coast. The distribution of these spawning grounds has shifted northwards during the last century, which is thought to be associated with food availability and warming temperatures. We genetically identify skrei specimens from Ruskeneset in west Norway, an archaeological site located south of their current spawning range. Remarkably, 14C analyses date these specimens to the late Holocene, when temperatures were warmer than present-day conditions. Our results either suggest that temperature is not the only driver influencing the spawning distribution of Atlantic cod, or could be indicative of uncertainty in palaeoclimate reconstructions in this region. Regardless, our findings highlight the utility of aDNA to reconstruct the historical distribution of economically important fish populations and reveal the complexity of long-term ecological interactions in the marine environment.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Yarlagadda K, Zachwieja AJ, de Flamingh A, et al (2022)

Geographically diverse canid sampling provides novel insights into pre-industrial microbiomes.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1974):20220052.

Canine microbiome studies are often limited in the geographic and temporal scope of samples studied. This results in a paucity of data on the canine microbiome around the world, especially in contexts where dogs may not be pets or human associated. Here, we present the shotgun sequences of fecal microbiomes of pet dogs from South Africa, shelter and stray dogs from India, and stray village dogs in Laos. We additionally performed a dietary experiment with dogs housed in a veterinary medical school, attempting to replicate the diet of the sampled dogs from Laos. We analyse the taxonomic diversity in these populations and identify the underlying functional redundancy of these microbiomes. Our results show that diet alone is not sufficient to recapitulate the higher diversity seen in the microbiome of dogs from Laos. Comparisons to previous studies and ancient dog fecal microbiomes highlight the need for greater population diversity in studies of canine microbiomes, as modern analogues can provide better comparisons to ancient microbiomes. We identify trends in microbial diversity and industrialization in dogs that mirror results of human studies, suggesting future research can make use of these companion animals as substitutes for humans in studying the effects of industrialization on the microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Yu H, van de Loosdrecht MS, Mannino MA, et al (2022)

Genomic and dietary discontinuities during the Mesolithic and Neolithic in Sicily.

iScience, 25(5):104244.

Sicily is a key region for understanding the agricultural transition in the Mediterranean because of its central position. Here, we present genomic and stable isotopic data for 19 prehistoric Sicilians covering the Mesolithic to Bronze Age periods (10,700-4,100 yBP). We find that Early Mesolithic hunter-gatherers (HGs) from Sicily are a highly drifted lineage of the Early Holocene western European HGs, whereas Late Mesolithic HGs carry ∼20% ancestry related to northern and (south) eastern European HGs, indicating substantial gene flow. Early Neolithic farmers are genetically most similar to farmers from the Balkans and Greece, with only ∼7% of ancestry from local Mesolithic HGs. The genetic discontinuities during the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic match the changes in material culture and diet. Three outlying individuals dated to ∼8,000 yBP; however, suggest that hunter-gatherers interacted with incoming farmers at Grotta dell'Uzzo, resulting in a mixed economy and diet for a brief interlude at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-02

Ausmees K, Sanchez-Quinto F, Jakobsson M, et al (2022)

An empirical evaluation of genotype imputation of ancient DNA.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.), 12(6):.

With capabilities of sequencing ancient DNA to high coverage often limited by sample quality or cost, imputation of missing genotypes presents a possibility to increase the power of inference as well as cost-effectiveness for the analysis of ancient data. However, the high degree of uncertainty often associated with ancient DNA poses several methodological challenges, and performance of imputation methods in this context has not been fully explored. To gain further insights, we performed a systematic evaluation of imputation of ancient data using Beagle v4.0 and reference data from phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes project, investigating the effects of coverage, phased reference, and study sample size. Making use of five ancient individuals with high-coverage data available, we evaluated imputed data for accuracy, reference bias, and genetic affinities as captured by principal component analysis. We obtained genotype concordance levels of over 99% for data with 1× coverage, and similar levels of accuracy and reference bias at levels as low as 0.75×. Our findings suggest that using imputed data can be a realistic option for various population genetic analyses even for data in coverage ranges below 1×. We also show that a large and varied phased reference panel as well as the inclusion of low- to moderate-coverage ancient individuals in the study sample can increase imputation performance, particularly for rare alleles. In-depth analysis of imputed data with respect to genetic variants and allele frequencies gave further insight into the nature of errors arising during imputation, and can provide practical guidelines for postprocessing and validation prior to downstream analysis.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Kędzior M, Garcia AK, Li M, et al (2022)

Resurrected Rubisco suggests uniform carbon isotope signatures over geologic time.

Cell reports, 39(4):110726.

The earliest geochemical indicators of microbes-and the enzymes that powered them-extend back ∼3.8 Ga on Earth. Paleobiologists often attempt to understand these indicators by assuming that the behaviors of extant microbes and enzymes are uniform with those of their predecessors. This consistency in behavior seems at odds with our understanding of the inherent variability of living systems. Here, we examine whether a uniformitarian assumption for an enzyme thought to generate carbon isotope indicators of biological activity, RuBisCO, can be corroborated by independently studying the history of changes recorded within RuBisCO's genetic sequences. We resurrected a Precambrian-age RuBisCO by engineering its ancient DNA inside a cyanobacterium genome and measured the engineered organism's fitness and carbon-isotope-discrimination profile. Results indicate that Precambrian uniformitarian assumptions may be warranted but with important caveats. Experimental studies illuminating early innovations are crucial to explore the molecular foundations of life's earliest traces.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Dehasque M, Pečnerová P, Kempe Lagerholm V, et al (2022)

Development and Optimization of a Silica Column-Based Extraction Protocol for Ancient DNA.

Genes, 13(4):.

Rapid and cost-effective retrieval of endogenous DNA from ancient specimens remains a limiting factor in palaeogenomic research. Many methods have been developed to increase ancient DNA yield, but modifications to existing protocols are often based on personal experience rather than systematic testing. Here, we present a new silica column-based extraction protocol, where optimizations were tested in controlled experiments. Using relatively well-preserved permafrost samples, we tested the efficiency of pretreatment of bone and tooth powder with a bleach wash and a predigestion step. We also tested the recovery efficiency of MinElute and QIAquick columns, as well as Vivaspin columns with two molecular weight cut-off values. Finally, we tested the effect of uracil-treatment with two different USER enzyme concentrations. We find that neither bleach wash combined with a predigestion step, nor predigestion by itself, significantly increased sequencing efficiency. Initial results, however, suggest that MinElute columns are more efficient for ancient DNA extractions than QIAquick columns, whereas different molecular weight cut-off values in centrifugal concentrator columns did not have an effect. Uracil treatments are effective at removing DNA damage even at concentrations of 0.15 U/µL (as compared to 0.3 U/µL) of ancient DNA extracts.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Gînguță A, Kovács B, Tihanyi B, et al (2022)

Maternal Lineages of Gepids from Transylvania.

Genes, 13(4):.

According to the written historical sources, the Gepids were a Germanic tribe that settled in the Carpathian Basin during the Migration Period. They were allies of the Huns, and an independent Gepid Kingdom arose after the collapse of the Hun Empire. In this period, the Carpathian Basin was characterized by so-called row-grave cemeteries. Due to the scarcity of historical and archaeological data, we have a poor knowledge of the origin and composition of these barbarian populations, and this is still a subject of debate. To better understand the genetic legacy of migration period societies, we obtained 46 full mitogenome sequences from three Gepid cemeteries located in Transylvania, Romania. The studied samples represent the Classical Gepidic period and illustrate the genetic make-up of this group from the late 5th and early 6th centuries AD, which is characterized by cultural markers associated with the Gepid culture in Transylvania. The genetic structure of the Gepid people is explored for the first time, providing new insights into the genetic makeup of this archaic group. The retrieved genetic data showed mainly the presence of Northwestern European mitochondrial ancient lineages in the Gepid group and all population genetic analyses reiterated the same genetic structure, showing that early ancient mitogenomes from Europe were the major contributors to the Gepid maternal genetic pool.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Lopez-Valdivia I, Perkins AC, Schneider HM, et al (2022)

Gradual domestication of root traits in the earliest maize from Tehuacán.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(17):e2110245119.

Efforts to understand the phenotypic transition that gave rise to maize from teosinte have mainly focused on the analysis of aerial organs, with little insights into possible domestication traits affecting the root system. Archeological excavations in San Marcos cave (Tehuacán, Mexico) yielded two well-preserved 5,300 to 4,970 calibrated y B.P. specimens (SM3 and SM11) corresponding to root stalks composed of at least five nodes with multiple nodal roots and, in case, a complete embryonic root system. To characterize in detail their architecture and anatomy, we used laser ablation tomography to reconstruct a three-dimensional segment of their nodal roots and a scutellar node, revealing exquisite preservation of the inner tissue and cell organization and providing reliable morphometric parameters for cellular characteristics of the stele and cortex. Whereas SM3 showed multiple cortical sclerenchyma typical of extant maize, the scutellar node of the SM11 embryonic root system completely lacked seminal roots, an attribute found in extant teosinte and in two specific maize mutants: root with undetectable meristem1 (rum1) and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots (rtcs). Ancient DNA sequences of SM10—a third San Marcos specimen of equivalent age to SM3 and SM11—revealed the presence of mutations in the transcribed sequence of both genes, offering the possibility for some of these mutations to be involved in the lack of seminal roots of the ancient specimens. Our results indicate that the root system of the earliest maize from Tehuacán resembled teosinte in traits important for maize drought adaptation.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Rivollat M, Thomas A, Ghesquière E, et al (2022)

Ancient DNA gives new insights into a Norman Neolithic monumental cemetery dedicated to male elites.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(18):e2120786119.

The Middle Neolithic in western Europe is characterized by monumental funerary structures, known as megaliths, along the Atlantic façade. The first manifestations of this phenomenon occurred in modern-day France with the long mounds of the Cerny culture. Here, we present genome-wide data from the fifth-millennium BCE site of Fleury-sur-Orne in Normandy (France), famous for its impressively long monuments built for selected individuals. The site encompasses 32 monuments of variable sizes, containing the burials of 19 individuals from the Neolithic period. To address who was buried at the site, we generated genome-wide data for 14 individuals, of whom 13 are males, completing previously published data [M. Rivollat et al., Sci. Adv. 6, eaaz5344 (2020)]. Population genetic and Y chromosome analyses show that the Fleury-sur-Orne group fits within western European Neolithic genetic diversity and that the arrival of a new group is detected after 4,000 calibrated BCE. The results of analyzing uniparentally inherited markers and an overall low number of long runs of homozygosity suggest a patrilineal group practicing female exogamy. We find two pairs of individuals to be father and son, buried together in the same monument/grave. No other biological relationship can link monuments together, suggesting that each monument was dedicated to a genetically independent lineage. The combined data and documented father–son line of descent suggest a male-mediated transmission of sociopolitical authority. However, a single female buried with an arrowhead, otherwise considered a symbol of power of the male elite of the Cerny culture, questions a strictly biological sex bias in the burial rites of this otherwise “masculine” monumental cemetery.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Vallini L, Marciani G, Aneli S, et al (2022)

Genetics and Material Culture Support Repeated Expansions into Paleolithic Eurasia from a Population Hub Out of Africa.

Genome biology and evolution, 14(4):.

The population dynamics that followed the Out of Africa (OoA) expansion and the whereabouts of the early migrants before the differentiation that ultimately led to the formation of Oceanian, West and East Eurasian macropopulations have long been debated. Shedding light on these events may, in turn, provide clues to better understand the cultural evolution in Eurasia between 50 and 35 ka. Here, we analyze Eurasian Paleolithic DNA evidence to provide a comprehensive population model and validate it in light of available material culture. Leveraging on our integrated approach we propose the existence of a Eurasian population Hub, where Homo sapiens lived between the OoA and the broader colonization of Eurasia, which was characterized by multiple events of expansion and local extinction. A major population wave out of Hub, of which Ust'Ishim, Bacho Kiro, and Tianyuan are unadmixed representatives, is broadly associated with Initial Upper Paleolithic lithics and populated West and East Eurasia before or around 45 ka, before getting largely extinct in Europe. In this light, we suggest a parsimonious placement of Oase1 as an individual related to Bacho Kiro who experienced additional Neanderthal introgression. Another expansion, started before 38 ka, is broadly associated with Upper Paleolithic industries and repopulated Europe with sporadic admixtures with the previous wave (GoyetQ116-1) and more systematic ones, whereas moving through Siberia (Yana, Mal'ta). Before these events, we also confirm Zlatý Kůň as the most basal human lineage sequenced to date OoA, potentially representing an earlier wave of expansion out of the Hub.

RevDate: 2022-04-20

Brand CM, Colbran LL, JA Capra (2022)

Predicting Archaic Hominin Phenotypes from Genomic Data.

Annual review of genomics and human genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Ancient DNA provides a powerful window into the biology of extant and extinct species, including humans' closest relatives: Denisovans and Neanderthals. Here, we review what is known about archaic hominin phenotypes from genomic data and how those inferences have been made. We contend that understanding the influence of variants on lower-level molecular phenotypes-such as gene expression and protein function-is a promising approach to using ancient DNA to learn about archaic hominin traits. Molecular phenotypes have simpler genetic architectures than organism-level complex phenotypes, and this approach enables moving beyond association studies by proposing hypotheses about the effects of archaic variants that are testable in model systems. The major challenge to understanding archaic hominin phenotypes is broadening our ability to accurately map genotypes to phenotypes, but ongoing advances ensure that there will be much more to learn about archaic hominin phenotypes from their genomes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 23 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Guiry EJ, James M, Cheung C, et al (2022)

Four millennia of long-term individual foraging site fidelity in a highly migratory marine predator.

Communications biology, 5(1):368.

Theory and field studies suggest that long-term individual foraging site fidelity (IFSF) may be an important adaptation to competition from increasing population. However, the driving mechanisms and extent of long-term IFSF in wild populations of long-lived, migratory animals has been logistically difficult to study, with only a few confirmed instances. Temporal isotopic datasets can reveal long-term patterns in geographical foraging behaviour. We investigate the isotopic compositions of endangered short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) over four millennia leading up to their near-extinction. Although not exhibited by short-tailed albatross today, we show past sub-populations displayed a high-degree of long-term IFSF, focusing on the same locations for hundreds of generations. This is the first large-scale evidence for the deep antiquity of long-term IFSF and suggests that it's density-driven. Globally, as populations of species like short-tailed albatross continue to recover from overexploitation, potential for resurgence of geographic specialization may increase exposure to localized hazards, requiring closer conservation monitoring.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Bonsu DOM, Afoakwah CB, Abedi M, et al (2022)

Ethics reporting in forensic science research publications - A review.

Forensic science international, 335:111290.

An essential element of compliance with ethical standards in scientific research is the reporting of a verifiable declaration of ethical approval and, when human subjects are involved - informed consent, in published works. The level of reporting of ethical permission for research published in forensic and investigative sciences journals has not been explored to date. Hence, we examined the reporting of ethical approval and informed consent in original research utilising human or animal subjects published in six forensic science journals from 2010 to 2019. We identified 10,192 articles and retained 3010 that satisfied the inclusion criteria of utilising human (91.2%), or animal (7.0%) or both (1.8%) subjects or tissues in experiments. Just over a third (1079/3010) of all studies declared obtaining ethical approval, with 927 (85.9%) of those indicating the name of the ethical committee, but only 392 (36%) provided an approval code. Furthermore, while consent was said to have been sought in 527 (17.5%) of studies, only 155 of those reported that written informed consent was obtained, eleven stated oral (verbal) consent, while the remaining 357 studies (67.7%) did not report the process used to gain consent. Ethical approval reporting rates differed between different research types, availability of financial support and whether authors were affiliated to academia or industry. The results demonstrate a low level of declaration of ethical approval and informed consent in forensic science research and publication, requiring urgent rectification. We support the adoption of the model proposed by Forensic Science International: Genetics as baseline recommendations to facilitate consistent nomenclature, transparency, and standard of ethical reporting in forensic science.

RevDate: 2022-05-26
CmpDate: 2022-04-14

Schlebusch CM (2022)

Genomics: Testing the limits of de-extinction.

Current biology : CB, 32(7):R324-R327.

Resurrecting extinct species through de-extinction by genome editing requires full and unbiased information from the extinct species' genome. A new study establishes a framework to assess how much of an extinct species genome can be recovered by ancient DNA sequencing and which factors influence recovery.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-04-14

Andrades Valtueña A, Neumann GU, Spyrou MA, et al (2022)

Stone Age Yersinia pestis genomes shed light on the early evolution, diversity, and ecology of plague.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(17):e2116722119.

The bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis gave rise to devastating outbreaks throughout human history, and ancient DNA evidence has shown it afflicted human populations as far back as the Neolithic. Y. pestis genomes recovered from the Eurasian Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age (LNBA) period have uncovered key evolutionary steps that led to its emergence from a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-like progenitor; however, the number of reconstructed LNBA genomes are too few to explore its diversity during this critical period of development. Here, we present 17 Y. pestis genomes dating to 5,000 to 2,500 y BP from a wide geographic expanse across Eurasia. This increased dataset enabled us to explore correlations between temporal, geographical, and genetic distance. Our results suggest a nonflea-adapted and potentially extinct single lineage that persisted over millennia without significant parallel diversification, accompanied by rapid dispersal across continents throughout this period, a trend not observed in other pathogens for which ancient genomes are available. A stepwise pattern of gene loss provides further clues on its early evolution and potential adaptation. We also discover the presence of the flea-adapted form of Y. pestis in Bronze Age Iberia, previously only identified in in the Caucasus and the Volga regions, suggesting a much wider geographic spread of this form of Y. pestis. Together, these data reveal the dynamic nature of plague’s formative years in terms of its early evolution and ecology.

RevDate: 2022-04-13

Fischer CE, Pemonge MH, Ducoussau I, et al (2022)

Origin and mobility of Iron Age Gaulish groups in present-day France revealed through archaeogenomics.

iScience, 25(4):104094.

The Iron Age period occupies an important place in French history because the Gauls are regularly presented as the direct ancestors of the extant French population. We documented here the genomic diversity of Iron Age communities originating from six French regions. The 49 acquired genomes permitted us to highlight an absence of discontinuity between Bronze Age and Iron Age groups in France, lending support to a cultural transition linked to progressive local economic changes rather than to a massive influx of allochthone groups. Genomic analyses revealed strong genetic homogeneity among the regional groups associated with distinct archaeological cultures. This genomic homogenization appears to be linked to individuals' mobility between regions and gene flow with neighbouring groups from England and Spain. Thus, the results globally support a common genomic legacy for the Iron Age population of modern-day France that could be linked to recurrent gene flow between culturally differentiated communities.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-07-06

Suchan T, Chauvey L, Poullet M, et al (2022)

Assessing the impact of USER-treatment on hyRAD capture applied to ancient DNA.

Molecular ecology resources, 22(6):2262-2274.

Ancient DNA preservation in subfossil specimens provides a unique opportunity to retrieve genetic information from the past. As ancient DNA extracts are generally dominated by molecules originating from environmental microbes, capture techniques are often used to economically retrieve orthologous sequence data at the population scale. Post-mortem DNA damage, especially the deamination of cytosine residues into uracils, also considerably inflates sequence error rates unless ancient DNA extracts are treated with the USER enzymatic mix prior to library construction. While both approaches have recently gained popularity in ancient DNA research, the impact of USER-treatment on capture efficacy still remains untested. In this study, we applied hyRAD capture to eight ancient equine subfossil specimens from France (1st-17th century CE), including horses, donkeys and their first-generation mule hybrids. We found that USER-treatment could reduce capture efficacy and introduce significant experimental bias. It differentially affected the size distribution of on-target templates following capture with two distinct hyRAD probe sets in a manner that was not driven by differences in probe sizes and DNA methylation levels. Finally, we recovered unbalanced proportions of donkey-specific and horse-specific alleles in mule capture sequence data, due to the combined effects of USER-treatment, probe sets and reference bias. Our work demonstrates that while USER-treatment can improve the quality of ancient DNA sequence data, it can also significantly affect hyRAD capture outcomes, introducing bias in the sequence data that is difficult to predict based on simple molecular probe features. Such technical batch effects may prove easier to model and correct for using capture with synthetic probes of controlled sizes and diversity content.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-04-15

Marciniak S, Bergey CM, Silva AM, et al (2022)

An integrative skeletal and paleogenomic analysis of stature variation suggests relatively reduced health for early European farmers.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(15):e2106743119.

Human culture, biology, and health were shaped dramatically by the onset of agriculture ∼12,000 y B.P. This shift is hypothesized to have resulted in increased individual fitness and population growth as evidenced by archaeological and population genomic data alongside a decline in physiological health as inferred from skeletal remains. Here, we consider osteological and ancient DNA data from the same prehistoric individuals to study human stature variation as a proxy for health across a transition to agriculture. Specifically, we compared “predicted” genetic contributions to height from paleogenomic data and “achieved” adult osteological height estimated from long bone measurements for 167 individuals across Europe spanning the Upper Paleolithic to Iron Age (∼38,000 to 2,400 B.P.). We found that individuals from the Neolithic were shorter than expected (given their individual polygenic height scores) by an average of −3.82 cm relative to individuals from the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic (P = 0.040) and −2.21 cm shorter relative to post-Neolithic individuals (P = 0.068), with osteological vs. expected stature steadily increasing across the Copper (+1.95 cm relative to the Neolithic), Bronze (+2.70 cm), and Iron (+3.27 cm) Ages. These results were attenuated when we additionally accounted for genome-wide genetic ancestry variation: for example, with Neolithic individuals −2.82 cm shorter than expected on average relative to pre-Neolithic individuals (P = 0.120). We also incorporated observations of paleopathological indicators of nonspecific stress that can persist from childhood to adulthood in skeletal remains into our model. Overall, our work highlights the potential of integrating disparate datasets to explore proxies of health in prehistory.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Di D, Simon Thomas J, Currat M, et al (2022)

Challenging Ancient DNA Results About Putative HLA Protection or Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis.

Molecular biology and evolution, 39(4):.

In a recent article, Immel et al. (Immel A, Key FM, Szolek A, Barquera R, Robinson MK, Harrison GF, Palmer WH, Spyrou MA, Susat J, Krause-Kyora B, et al. 2021. Analysis of genomic DNA from medieval plague victims suggests long-term effect of Yersinia pestis on human immunity genes. Mol Biol Evol. 38:4059-4076) extracted DNA from 36 individuals dead from plague in Ellwangen, Southern Germany, during the 16th century. By comparing their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes with those of 50 present-day Ellwangen inhabitants, the authors reported a significant decrease of HLA-B*51:01 and HLA-C*06:02 and a significant increase of HLA-DRB1*13:01/13:02 frequencies from ancient to modern populations. After comparing these frequencies with a larger sample of 8,862 modern Germans and performing simulations of natural selection, they concluded that these changes had been driven by natural selection. In an attempt to provide more evidence on such stimulating results, we explored the HLA frequency patterns over all of Europe, we predicted binding affinities of HLA-B/C/DRB1 alleles to 106,515 Yersinia pestis-derived peptides, and we performed forward simulations of HLA genetic profiles under neutrality. Our analyses do not sustain the conclusions of HLA protection or susceptibility to plague based on ancient DNA.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Barrett JH, Khamaiko N, Ferrari G, et al (2022)

Walruses on the Dnieper: new evidence for the intercontinental trade of Greenlandic ivory in the Middle Ages.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1972):20212773.

Mediaeval walrus hunting in Iceland and Greenland-driven by Western European demand for ivory and walrus hide ropes-has been identified as an important pre-modern example of ecological globalization. By contrast, the main origin of walrus ivory destined for eastern European markets, and then onward trade to Asia, is assumed to have been Arctic Russia. Here, we investigate the geographical origin of nine twelfth-century CE walrus specimens discovered in Kyiv, Ukraine-combining archaeological typology (based on chaîne opératoire assessment), ancient DNA (aDNA) and stable isotope analysis. We show that five of seven specimens tested using aDNA can be genetically assigned to a western Greenland origin. Moreover, six of the Kyiv rostra had been sculpted in a way typical of Greenlandic imports to Western Europe, and seven are tentatively consistent with a Greenland origin based on stable isotope analysis. Our results suggest that demand for the products of Norse Greenland's walrus hunt stretched not only to Western Europe but included Ukraine and, by implication given linked trade routes, also Russia, Byzantium and Asia. These observations illuminate the surprising scale of mediaeval ecological globalization and help explain the pressure this process exerted on distant wildlife populations and those who harvested them.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Gnecchi-Ruscone GA, Szécsényi-Nagy A, Koncz I, et al (2022)

Ancient genomes reveal origin and rapid trans-Eurasian migration of 7th century Avar elites.

Cell, 185(8):1402-1413.e21.

The Avars settled the Carpathian Basin in 567/68 CE, establishing an empire lasting over 200 years. Who they were and where they came from is highly debated. Contemporaries have disagreed about whether they were, as they claimed, the direct successors of the Mongolian Steppe Rouran empire that was destroyed by the Turks in ∼550 CE. Here, we analyze new genome-wide data from 66 pre-Avar and Avar-period Carpathian Basin individuals, including the 8 richest Avar-period burials and further elite sites from Avar's empire core region. Our results provide support for a rapid long-distance trans-Eurasian migration of Avar-period elites. These individuals carried Northeast Asian ancestry matching the profile of preceding Mongolian Steppe populations, particularly a genome available from the Rouran period. Some of the later elite individuals carried an additional non-local ancestry component broadly matching the steppe, which could point to a later migration or reflect greater genetic diversity within the initial migrant population.

RevDate: 2022-04-02

Molodtseva AS, Makunin AI, Salomashkina VV, et al (2022)

Phylogeography of ancient and modern brown bears from eastern Eurasia.

Biological journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London, 135(4):722-733.

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is an iconic carnivoran species of the Northern Hemisphere. Its population history has been studied extensively using mitochondrial markers, which demonstrated signatures of multiple waves of migration, arguably connected with glaciation periods. Among Eurasian brown bears, Siberian populations remain understudied. We have sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes of four ancient (~4.5-40 kya) bears from South Siberia and 19 modern bears from South Siberia and the Russian Far East. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships between haplotypes and evaluation of modern population structure have demonstrated that all the studied samples belong to the most widespread Eurasian clade 3. One of the ancient haplotypes takes a basal position relative to the whole of clade 3; the second is basal to the haplogroup 3a (the most common subclade), and two others belong to clades 3a1 and 3b. Modern Siberian bears retain at least some of this diversity; apart from the most common haplogroup 3a, we demonstrate the presence of clade 3b, which was previously found mainly in mainland Eurasia and Northern Japan. Our findings highlight the importance of South Siberia as a refugium for northern Eurasian brown bears and further corroborate the hypothesis of several waves of migration in the Pleistocene.

RevDate: 2022-04-01

Arizmendi Cárdenas YO, Neuenschwander S, AS Malaspinas (2022)

Benchmarking metagenomics classifiers on ancient viral DNA: a simulation study.

PeerJ, 10:e12784.

Owing to technological advances in ancient DNA, it is now possible to sequence viruses from the past to track down their origin and evolution. However, ancient DNA data is considerably more degraded and contaminated than modern data making the identification of ancient viral genomes particularly challenging. Several methods to characterise the modern microbiome (and, within this, the virome) have been developed; in particular, tools that assign sequenced reads to specific taxa in order to characterise the organisms present in a sample of interest. While these existing tools are routinely used in modern data, their performance when applied to ancient microbiome data to screen for ancient viruses remains unknown. In this work, we conducted an extensive simulation study using public viral sequences to establish which tool is the most suitable to screen ancient samples for human DNA viruses. We compared the performance of four widely used classifiers, namely Centrifuge, Kraken2, DIAMOND and MetaPhlAn2, in correctly assigning sequencing reads to the corresponding viruses. To do so, we simulated reads by adding noise typical of ancient DNA to a set of publicly available human DNA viral sequences and to the human genome. We fragmented the DNA into different lengths, added sequencing error and C to T and G to A deamination substitutions at the read termini. Then we measured the resulting sensitivity and precision for all classifiers. Across most simulations, more than 228 out of the 233 simulated viruses were recovered by Centrifuge, Kraken2 and DIAMOND, in contrast to MetaPhlAn2 which recovered only around one third. Overall, Centrifuge and Kraken2 had the best performance with the highest values of sensitivity and precision. We found that deamination damage had little impact on the performance of the classifiers, less than the sequencing error and the length of the reads. Since Centrifuge can handle short reads (in contrast to DIAMOND and Kraken2 with default settings) and since it achieve the highest sensitivity and precision at the species level across all the simulations performed, it is our recommended tool. Regardless of the tool used, our simulations indicate that, for ancient human studies, users should use strict filters to remove all reads of potential human origin. Finally, we recommend that users verify which species are present in the database used, as it might happen that default databases lack sequences for viruses of interest.

RevDate: 2022-04-01

Xiong J, Du P, Chen G, et al (2022)

Sex-Biased Population Admixture Mediated Subsistence Strategy Transition of Heishuiguo People in Han Dynasty Hexi Corridor.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:827277.

The Hexi Corridor was an important arena for culture exchange and human migration between ancient China and Central and Western Asia. During the Han Dynasty (202 BCE-220 CE), subsistence strategy along the corridor shifted from pastoralism to a mixed pastoralist-agriculturalist economy. Yet the drivers of this transition remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyze the Y-chromosome and mtDNA of 31 Han Dynasty individuals from the Heishuiguo site, located in the center of the Hexi Corridor. A high-resolution analysis of 485 Y-SNPs and mitogenomes was performed, with the Heishuiguo population classified into Early Han and Late Han groups. It is revealed that (1) when dissecting genetic lineages, the Yellow River Basin origin haplogroups (i.e., Oα-M117, Oβ-F46, Oγ-IMS-JST002611, and O2-P164+, M134-) reached relatively high frequencies for the paternal gene pools, while haplogroups of north East Asian origin (e.g., D4 and D5) dominated on the maternal side; (2) in interpopulation comparison using PCA and Fst heatmap, the Heishuiguo population shifted from Southern-Northern Han cline to Northern-Northwestern Han/Hui cline with time, indicating genetic admixture between Yellow River immigrants and natives. By comparison, in maternal mtDNA views, the Heishuiguo population was closely clustered with certain Mongolic-speaking and Northwestern Han populations and exhibited genetic continuity through the Han Dynasty, which suggests that Heishuiguo females originated from local or neighboring regions. Therefore, a sex-biased admixture pattern is observed in the Heishuiguo population. Additionally, genetic contour maps also reveal the same male-dominated migration from the East to Hexi Corridor during the Han Dynasty. This is also consistent with historical records, especially excavated bamboo slips. Combining historical records, archeological findings, stable isotope analysis, and paleoenvironmental studies, our uniparental genetic investigation on the Heishuiguo population reveals how male-dominated migration accompanied with lifestyle adjustments brought by these eastern groups may be the main factor affecting the subsistence strategy transition along the Han Dynasty Hexi Corridor.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2022-04-08

Kim K, Kim DH, KY Kim (2022)

Mitochondrial Haplogroup Classification of Ancient DNA Samples Using Haplotracker.

BioMed research international, 2022:5344418.

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup classification is used to study maternal lineage of ancient human populations. The haplogrouping of ancient DNA is not easy because the DNA is usually found in small pieces in limited quantities. We have developed Haplotracker, a straightforward and efficient high-resolution haplogroup classification tool optimized specifically for ancient DNA samples. Haplotracker offers a user-friendly input interface for multiple mitochondrial DNA sequence fragments in a sample. It provides accurate haplogroup classification with full-length mitochondrial genome sequences and provides high-resolution haplogroup predictions for some fragmented control region sequences using a novel algorithm built on Phylotree mtDNA Build 17 (Phylotree) and our haplotype database (n = 118,869). Its performance for accuracy was demonstrated to be high through haplogroup classification using 8,216 Phylotree full-length and control region mitochondrial DNA sequences compared with HaploGrep 2, one of the most accurate current haplogroup classifiers. Haplotracker provides a novel haplogroup tracking solution for fragmented sequences to track subhaplogroups or verify the haplogroups efficiently. Using Haplotracker, we classified mitochondrial haplogroups to the final subhaplogroup level in nine ancient DNA samples extracted from human skeletal remains found in 2,000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia. Haplotracker can be freely accessed at https://haplotracker.cau.ac.kr.

RevDate: 2022-03-29

Horsburgh KA, Beckett DB, AL Gosling (2022)

Maternal Relationships among Ancient and Modern Southern African Sheep: Newly Discovered Mitochondrial Haplogroups.

Biology, 11(3):.

We investigated the genetic diversity and historic relationships among southern African sheep as well as the relationships between them and sheep outside the continent by sourcing both archaeological and modern sheep samples. Archaeological sheep samples derived from the site Die Kelders 1, near Cape Town, date to approximately 1500 years ago. The modern samples were taken as ear snips from Damara, Namaqua Afrikaner, and Ronderib Afrikaner sheep on a farm in Prieska in the Northern Cape. Illumina sequencing libraries were constructed for both ancient and modern specimens. Ancient specimens were enriched for the mitochondrial genome using an in-solution hybridization protocol and modern specimens were subjected to shotgun sequencing. Sequences were mapped to the Ovis aries reference genome, assigned to haplogroups and subhaplogroups, and used to calculate a phylogenetic tree using previously published, geographically dispersed mitochondrial genome sheep sequences. Genetic diversity statistics show that southern African sheep have lower diversity than sheep in other regions. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that many modern southern African sheep are likely descended from prehistoric indigenous sheep populations and not from sheep imported from Europe during the historic period.

RevDate: 2022-03-30
CmpDate: 2022-03-30

Gibbons A (2022)

Southern roots for the Maya-and the maize that fed them.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 375(6587):1325.

Migrants from the south may have helped spread early farming in Central America, ancient DNA suggests.

RevDate: 2022-05-12

Kennett DJ, Lipson M, Prufer KM, et al (2022)

South-to-north migration preceded the advent of intensive farming in the Maya region.

Nature communications, 13(1):1530.

The genetic prehistory of human populations in Central America is largely unexplored leaving an important gap in our knowledge of the global expansion of humans. We report genome-wide ancient DNA data for a transect of twenty individuals from two Belize rock-shelters dating between 9,600-3,700 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. BP). The oldest individuals (9,600-7,300 cal. BP) descend from an Early Holocene Native American lineage with only distant relatedness to present-day Mesoamericans, including Mayan-speaking populations. After ~5,600 cal. BP a previously unknown human dispersal from the south made a major demographic impact on the region, contributing more than 50% of the ancestry of all later individuals. This new ancestry derived from a source related to present-day Chibchan speakers living from Costa Rica to Colombia. Its arrival corresponds to the first clear evidence for forest clearing and maize horticulture in what later became the Maya region.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-02

Severson AL, Byrd BF, Mallott EK, et al (2022)

Ancient and modern genomics of the Ohlone Indigenous population of California.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(13):e2111533119.

SignificanceCalifornia supports a high cultural and linguistic diversity of Indigenous peoples. In a partnership of researchers with the Muwekma Ohlone tribe, we studied genomes of eight present-day tribal members and 12 ancient individuals from two archaeological sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, spanning ∼2,000 y. We find that compared to genomes of Indigenous individuals from throughout the Americas, the 12 ancient individuals are most genetically similar to ancient individuals from Southern California, and that despite spanning a large time period, they share distinctive ancestry. This ancestry is also shared with present-day tribal members, providing evidence of genetic continuity between past and present Indigenous individuals in the region, in contrast to some popular reconstructions based on archaeological and linguistic information.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2022-03-22

Fu M, Y Li (2022)

The origin and domestication history of domestic horses and the domestication characteristics of breeds.

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 44(3):216-229.

The horse (Equus caballus) was domesticated thousands of years after dog, cattle, pig, sheep, and goat. Importantly, it represents the domestic animal that mostly impacted the development of human civilization. Its excellent loading and moving ability prompted the changes from fixed farming mode into mobile sharing mode. Accordingly, its domestication history deserves considerable attention. So far, many issues have long been controversial, due to the extinction of the closest wild relatives and the dramatic reduction of genetic diversity. With the continuous development of sequencing technology and the utilization of ancient samples, we got more clues to the origin and domestication process. In this review, we summarize 1) current progresses on the domestication history revealed by nuclear genes, mtDNA, Y chromosome, and ancient DNA, 2) the characteristics of population structure and diversification among modern breeds, 3) the genetic basis of important phenotypes, such as coat color, speed, and body size. The overall aim of the review is to provide in-depth insights into the studies of horse domestication, the preservation and utilization of genetic resources, the direction of breeding improvement, and the development of modern horse industry in future.

RevDate: 2022-05-11

Scarsbrook L, Verry AJF, Walton K, et al (2022)

Ancient mitochondrial genomes recovered from small vertebrate bones through minimally destructive DNA extraction: Phylogeography of the New Zealand gecko genus Hoplodactylus.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Methodological and technological improvements are continually revolutionizing the field of ancient DNA. Most ancient DNA extraction methods require the partial (or complete) destruction of finite museum specimens, which disproportionately impacts small or fragmentary subfossil remains, and future analyses. We present a minimally destructive ancient DNA extraction method optimized for small vertebrate remains. We applied this method to detect lost mainland genetic diversity in the large New Zealand diplodactylid gecko genus Hoplodactylus, which is presently restricted to predator-free island and mainland sanctuaries. We present the first mitochondrial genomes for New Zealand diplodactylid geckos, recovered from 19 modern, six historical/archival (1898-2011) and 16 Holocene Hoplodactylus duvaucelii sensu latu specimens, and one modern Woodworthia sp. specimen. No obvious damage was observed in post-extraction micro-computed tomography reconstructions. All "large gecko" specimens examined from extinct populations were found to be conspecific with extant Hoplodactylus species, suggesting their large relative size evolved only once in the New Zealand diplodactylid radiation. Phylogenetic analyses of Hoplodactylus samples recovered two genetically (and morphologically) distinct North and South Island clades, probably corresponding to distinct species. Finer phylogeographical structuring within Hoplodactylus spp. highlighted the impacts of Late Cenozoic biogeographical barriers, including the opening and closure of Pliocene marine straits, fluctuations in the size and suitability of glacial refugia, and eustatic sea-level change. Recent mainland extinction obscured these signals from the modern tissue-derived data. These results highlight the utility of minimally destructive DNA extraction in genomic analyses of less well studied small vertebrate taxa, and the conservation of natural history collections.

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ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

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Digital Books

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ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

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