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Bibliography on: Paleontology Meets Genomics — Sequencing Ancient DNA

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 06 Aug 2020 at 01:49 Created: 

Paleontology Meets Genomics — Sequencing Ancient DNA

The ideas behind Jurassic Park have become real, kinda sorta. It is now possible to retrieve and sequence DNA from ancient specimens. Although these sequences are based on poor quality DNA and thus have many inferential steps (i,e, the resulting sequence is not likely to be a perfect replica of the living DNA), the insights to be gained from paleosequentcing are nonetheless great. For example, paleo-sequencing has shown that Neanderthal DNA is sufficiently different from human DNA as to be reasonably considered as coming from a different species.

Created with PubMed® Query: "ancient DNA" OR "ancient genome" OR paleogenetic OR paleogenetics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2020-08-04

Nakatsuka N, Luisi P, Motti JMB, et al (2020)

Ancient genomes in South Patagonia reveal population movements associated with technological shifts and geography.

Nature communications, 11(1):3868 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-17656-w.

Archaeological research documents major technological shifts among people who have lived in the southern tip of South America (South Patagonia) during the last thirteen millennia, including the development of marine-based economies and changes in tools and raw materials. It has been proposed that movements of people spreading culture and technology propelled some of these shifts, but these hypotheses have not been tested with ancient DNA. Here we report genome-wide data from 20 ancient individuals, and co-analyze it with previously reported data. We reveal that immigration does not explain the appearance of marine adaptations in South Patagonia. We describe partial genetic continuity since ~6600 BP and two later gene flows correlated with technological changes: one between 4700-2000 BP that affected primarily marine-based groups, and a later one impacting all <2000 BP groups. From ~2200-1200 BP, mixture among neighbors resulted in a cline correlated to geographic ordering along the coast.

RevDate: 2020-06-29
CmpDate: 2020-06-29

Hublin JJ, Sirakov N, Aldeias V, et al (2020)

Initial Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria.

Nature, 581(7808):299-302.

The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Europe witnessed the replacement and partial absorption of local Neanderthal populations by Homo sapiens populations of African origin1. However, this process probably varied across regions and its details remain largely unknown. In particular, the duration of chronological overlap between the two groups is much debated, as are the implications of this overlap for the nature of the biological and cultural interactions between Neanderthals and H. sapiens. Here we report the discovery and direct dating of human remains found in association with Initial Upper Palaeolithic artefacts2, from excavations at Bacho Kiro Cave (Bulgaria). Morphological analysis of a tooth and mitochondrial DNA from several hominin bone fragments, identified through proteomic screening, assign these finds to H. sapiens and link the expansion of Initial Upper Palaeolithic technologies with the spread of H. sapiens into the mid-latitudes of Eurasia before 45 thousand years ago3. The excavations yielded a wealth of bone artefacts, including pendants manufactured from cave bear teeth that are reminiscent of those later produced by the last Neanderthals of western Europe4-6. These finds are consistent with models based on the arrival of multiple waves of H. sapiens into Europe coming into contact with declining Neanderthal populations7,8.

RevDate: 2020-08-03

Mathieson I (2020)

Human adaptation over the past 40,000 years.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 62:97-104 pii:S0959-437X(20)30101-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past few years several methodological and data-driven advances have greatly improved our ability to robustly detect genomic signatures of selection in humans. New methods applied to large samples of present-day genomes provide increased power, while ancient DNA allows precise estimation of timing and tempo. However, despite these advances, we are still limited in our ability to translate these signatures into understanding about which traits were actually under selection, and why. Combining information from different populations and timescales may allow interpretation of selective sweeps. Other modes of selection have proved more difficult to detect. In particular, despite strong evidence of the polygenicity of most human traits, evidence for polygenic selection is weak, and its importance in recent human evolution remains unclear. Balancing selection and archaic introgression seem important for the maintenance of potentially adaptive immune diversity, but perhaps less so for other traits.

RevDate: 2020-08-03

Shillito LM, Whelton HL, Blong JC, et al (2020)

Pre-Clovis occupation of the Americas identified by human fecal biomarkers in coprolites from Paisley Caves, Oregon.

Science advances, 6(29):eaba6404 pii:aba6404.

When and how people first settled in the Americas is an ongoing area of research and debate. The earliest sites typically only contain lithic artifacts that cannot be directly dated. The lack of human skeletal remains in these early contexts means that alternative sources of evidence are needed. Coprolites, and the DNA contained within them, are one such source, but unresolved issues concerning ancient DNA taphonomy and potential for contamination make this approach problematic. Here, we use fecal lipid biomarkers to demonstrate unequivocally that three coprolites dated to pre-Clovis are human, raise questions over the reliance on DNA methods, and present a new radiocarbon date on basketry further supporting pre-Clovis human occupation.

RevDate: 2020-07-29

Del Corvo M, Bongiorni S, Stefanon B, et al (2020)

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Profiles in Cows Subjected to Different Stress Level as Assessed by Cortisol in Milk.

Genes, 11(8): pii:genes11080850.

Dairy cattle health, wellbeing and productivity are deeply affected by stress. Its influence on metabolism and immune response is well known, but the underlying epigenetic mechanisms require further investigation. In this study, we compared DNA methylation and gene expression signatures between two dairy cattle populations falling in the high- and low-variant tails of the distribution of milk cortisol concentration (MC), a neuroendocrine marker of stress in dairy cows. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing was used to obtain a methylation map from blood samples of these animals. The high and low groups exhibited similar amounts of methylated CpGs, while we found differences among non-CpG sites. Significant methylation changes were detected in 248 genes. We also identified significant fold differences in the expression of 324 genes. KEGG and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that genes of both groups act together in several pathways, such as nervous system activity, immune regulatory functions and glucocorticoid metabolism. These preliminary results suggest that, in livestock, cortisol secretion could act as a trigger for epigenetic regulation and that peripheral changes in methylation can provide an insight into central nervous system functions.

RevDate: 2020-07-21

Cao X, Xu X, Bian R, et al (2020)

Sedimentary ancient DNA metabarcoding delineates the contrastingly temporal change of lake cyanobacterial communities.

Water research, 183:116077 pii:S0043-1354(20)30614-X [Epub ahead of print].

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms consisting of toxic taxa can produce a wide variety of toxins to threaten water quality, ecosystem functions and services. Of greater concern was the changing patterns of cyanobacterial assemblage were not well understood due to the lack of long-term monitoring data over the temporal scale. Biodiversity change in cyanobacterial community and paleoenvironmental variables over the past 170 years in Lake Chenghai were investigated based on sedimentary ancient DNA metabarcoding and traditional paleolimnological analysis. The results showed species richness and homogenization of cyanobacterial assemblage increased in the most recent decades, which were synchronized with the growth of artificial fertilization and decline in precipitation. Cyanobacterial co-occurrence network analysis revealed more complex interactions and weak community stability after the change point of ∼1987, while the rare cyanobacterial genera such as Anabaena, Planktothrix, Oscillatoria and Microcystis were identified to be keystone taxa affecting cyanobacterial assemblage. Furthermore, an increase of toxin-producing cyanobacterial taxa was significantly and positively associated with TN and TP, as well as TN/IP and TN/TP, which was verified by quantitative real-time PCR of mcyA and rpoC1 genes. Threshold in total nitrogen (TN) concentration should be targeted no more than 0.60 mg/L to alleviate nuisance cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Chenghai. These findings reinforce the comprehensive understanding for the long-term dynamics of cyanobacterial assemblage responding to environmental change, which could contribute to proactively regulate environmental conditions for avoiding undesirable ecological consequences.

RevDate: 2020-07-20

Zhang M, Q Fu (2020)

Human evolutionary history in Eastern Eurasia using insights from ancient DNA.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 62:78-84 pii:S0959-437X(20)30109-X [Epub ahead of print].

Advances in ancient genomics are providing unprecedented insight into modern human history. Here, we review recent progress uncovering prehistoric populations in Eastern Eurasia based on ancient DNA studies from the Upper Pleistocene to the Holocene. Many ancient populations existed during the Upper Pleistocene of Eastern Eurasia-some with no substantial ancestry related to present-day populations, some with an affinity to East Asians, and some who contributed to Native Americans. By the Holocene, the genetic composition across East Asia greatly shifted, with several substantial migrations. Three are southward: an increase in northern East Asian-related ancestry in southern East Asia; movement of East Asian-related ancestry into Southeast Asia, mixing with Basal Asian ancestry; and movement of southern East Asian ancestry to islands of Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific through the expansion of Austronesians. We anticipate that additional ancient DNA will magnify our understanding of the genetic history in Eastern Eurasia.

RevDate: 2020-07-20

Duggan AT, Klunk J, Porter AF, et al (2020)

The origins and genomic diversity of American Civil War Era smallpox vaccine strains.

Genome biology, 21(1):175 pii:10.1186/s13059-020-02079-z.

Vaccination has transformed public health, most notably including the eradication of smallpox. Despite its profound historical importance, little is known of the origins and diversity of the viruses used in smallpox vaccination. Prior to the twentieth century, the method, source and origin of smallpox vaccinations remained unstandardised and opaque. We reconstruct and analyse viral vaccine genomes associated with smallpox vaccination from historical artefacts. Significantly, we recover viral molecules through non-destructive sampling of historical materials lacking signs of biological residues. We use the authenticated ancient genomes to reveal the evolutionary relationships of smallpox vaccination viruses within the poxviruses as a whole.

RevDate: 2020-07-19

Sheng G, Hu J, Tong H, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA of northern China Hystricidae sub-fossils reveals the evolutionary history of old world porcupines in the Late Pleistocene.

BMC evolutionary biology, 20(1):88 pii:10.1186/s12862-020-01656-x.

BACKGROUND: Old World porcupines (Family: Hystricidae) are the third-largest rodents and inhabit southern Europe, Asia, and most regions of Africa. They are a typical indicator of warm climate and their distribution is restricted to tropical and subtropical zones. In China, porcupines are widely distributed in southern areas of the Yangtze River. However, fossil remains have been identified in a few sites in northern China, among which Tianyuan Cave-near Zhoukoudian site-represents the latest known porcupine fossil record. So far, studies have focused mainly on porcupines' husbandry and domestication but little is known about their intrafamilial phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history.

RESULTS: In this study, we sequence partial mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cyt b genes for seven Late Pleistocene porcupine individuals from Northern, Southern and Central China. Phylogenetic analyses show that the Tianyuan Cave porcupines, which had been morphologically identified as Hystrix subcristata, have a closer relationship to Hystrix brachyura.

CONCLUSION: Together with morphological adaptation characteristics, associated fauna, and climate change evidence, the molecular results reveal that a Late Quaternary extirpation has occurred during the evolutionary history of porcupines.

RevDate: 2020-07-17

Li J, Zarzar TG, White JD, et al (2020)

Robust genome-wide ancestry inference for heterogeneous datasets: illustrated using the 1,000 genome project with 3D facial images.

Scientific reports, 10(1):11850 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-68259-w.

Estimates of individual-level genomic ancestry are routinely used in human genetics, and related fields. The analysis of population structure and genomic ancestry can yield insights in terms of modern and ancient populations, allowing us to address questions regarding admixture, and the numbers and identities of the parental source populations. Unrecognized population structure is also an important confounder to correct for in genome-wide association studies. However, it remains challenging to work with heterogeneous datasets from multiple studies collected by different laboratories with diverse genotyping and imputation protocols. This work presents a new approach and an accompanying open-source toolbox that facilitates a robust integrative analysis for population structure and genomic ancestry estimates for heterogeneous datasets. We show robustness against individual outliers and different protocols for the projection of new samples into a reference ancestry space, and the ability to reveal and adjust for population structure in a simulated case-control admixed population. Given that visually evident and easily recognizable patterns of human facial characteristics co-vary with genomic ancestry, and based on the integration of three different sources of genome data, we generate average 3D faces to illustrate genomic ancestry variations within the 1,000 Genome project and for eight ancient-DNA profiles, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-07-17

Mizuno F, Taniguchi Y, Kondo O, et al (2020)

A study of 8,300-year-old Jomon human remains in Japan using complete mitogenome sequences obtained by next-generation sequencing.

Annals of human biology [Epub ahead of print].

Ancient human remains have been assigned to their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. To obtain efficiently deep and reliable nucleotide sequences of ancient DNA of interest, we achieved target enrichment followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were obtained for three human remains from the Iyai rock-shelter site of the Initial Jomon Period in Japan. All the Jomon mitogenomes belong to haplogroup N9b, but no sequences among them were identical. High genetic diversity was clarified even among the Jomon human remains belonging to haplogroup N9b, which has been described as a haplogroup representing the Jomon people.

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Curry CJ, Davis BW, Bertola LD, et al (2020)

Spatiotemporal Genetic Diversity of Lions Reveals the Influence of Habitat Fragmentation Across Africa.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:5871931 [Epub ahead of print].

Direct comparisons between historical and contemporary populations allow for detecting changes in genetic diversity through time and assessment of the impact of habitat fragmentation. Here, we determined the genetic architecture of both historical and modern lions to document changes in genetic diversity over the last century. We surveyed microsatellite and mitochondrial genome variation from 143 high-quality museum specimens of known provenance, allowing us to directly compare this information with data from several recently published nuclear and mitochondrial studies. Our results provide evidence for male-mediated gene flow and recent isolation of local subpopulations, likely due to habitat fragmentation. Nuclear markers showed a significant decrease in genetic diversity from the historical (HE=0.833) to the modern (HE=0.796) populations, while mitochondrial genetic diversity was maintained (Hd = 0.98 for both). While the historical population appears to have been panmictic based on nDNA data, hierarchical structure analysis identified four tiers of genetic structure in modern populations and was able to detect most sampling locations. Mitogenome analyses identified 4 clusters: Southern, Mixed, Eastern, and Western; and were consistent between modern and historically sampled haplotypes. Within the last century, habitat fragmentation caused lion subpopulations to become more geographically isolated as human expansion changed the African landscape. This resulted in an increase in fine-scale nuclear genetic structure and loss of genetic diversity as lion subpopulations became more differentiated, while mitochondrial structure and diversity were maintained over time.

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Hallast P, Agdzhoyan A, Balanovsky O, et al (2020)

A Southeast Asian origin for present-day non-African human Y chromosomes.

Human genetics pii:10.1007/s00439-020-02204-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The genomes of present-day humans outside Africa originated almost entirely from a single out-migration ~ 50,000-70,000 years ago, followed by mixture with Neanderthals contributing ~ 2% to all non-Africans. However, the details of this initial migration remain poorly understood because no ancient DNA analyses are available from this key time period, and interpretation of present-day autosomal data is complicated due to subsequent population movements/reshaping. One locus, however, does retain male-specific information from this early period: the Y chromosome, where a detailed calibrated phylogeny has been constructed. Three present-day Y lineages were carried by the initial migration: the rare haplogroup D, the moderately rare C, and the very common FT lineage which now dominates most non-African populations. Here, we show that phylogenetic analyses of haplogroup C, D and FT sequences, including very rare deep-rooting lineages, together with phylogeographic analyses of ancient and present-day non-African Y chromosomes, all point to East/Southeast Asia as the origin 50,000-55,000 years ago of all known surviving non-African male lineages (apart from recent migrants). This observation contrasts with the expectation of a West Eurasian origin predicted by a simple model of expansion from a source near Africa, and can be interpreted as resulting from extensive genetic drift in the initial population or replacement of early western Y lineages from the east, thus informing and constraining models of the initial expansion.

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Iwasaki RL, Ishiya K, Kanzawa-Kiriyama H, et al (2020)

Evolutionary History of the Risk of SNPs for Diffuse-Type Gastric Cancer in the Japanese Population.

Genes, 11(7): pii:genes11070775.

A genome wide association study reported that the T allele of rs2294008 in a cancer-related gene, PSCA, is a risk allele for diffuse-type gastric cancer. This allele has the highest frequency (0.63) in Japanese in Tokyo (JPT) among 26 populations in the 1000 Genomes Project database. FST ≈ 0.26 at this single nucleotide polymorphism is one of the highest between JPT and the genetically close Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB). To understand the evolutionary history of the alleles in PSCA, we addressed: (i) whether the C non-risk allele at rs2294008 is under positive selection, and (ii) why the mainland Japanese population has a higher T allele frequency than other populations. We found that haplotypes harboring the C allele are composed of two subhaplotypes. We detected that positive selection on both subhaplotypes has occurred in the East Asian lineage. However, the selection on one of the subhaplotypes in JPT seems to have been relaxed or ceased after divergence from the continental population; this may have caused the elevation of T allele frequency. Based on simulations under the dual structure model (a specific demography for the Japanese) and phylogenetic analysis with ancient DNA, the T allele at rs2294008 might have had high frequency in the Jomon people (one of the ancestral populations of the modern Japanese); this may explain the high T allele frequency in the extant Japanese.

RevDate: 2020-07-14

Bongers JL, Nakatsuka N, O'Shea C, et al (2020)

Integration of ancient DNA with transdisciplinary dataset finds strong support for Inca resettlement in the south Peruvian coast.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:2005965117 [Epub ahead of print].

Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis provides a powerful means of investigating human migration, social organization, and a plethora of other crucial questions about humanity's past. Recently, specialists have suggested that the ideal research design involving aDNA would include multiple independent lines of evidence. In this paper, we adopt a transdisciplinary approach integrating aDNA with archaeological, biogeochemical, and historical data to investigate six individuals found in two cemeteries that date to the Late Horizon (1400 to 1532 CE) and Colonial (1532 to 1825 CE) periods in the Chincha Valley of southern Peru. Genomic analyses indicate that these individuals are genetically most similar to ancient and present-day populations from the north Peruvian coast located several hundred kilometers away. These genomic data are consistent with 16th century written records as well as ceramic, textile, and isotopic data. These results provide some of the strongest evidence yet of state-sponsored resettlement in the pre-Colonial Andes. This study highlights the power of transdisciplinary research designs when using aDNA data and sets a methodological standard for investigating ancient mobility in complex societies.

RevDate: 2020-07-13

Mendes M, Alvim I, Borda V, et al (2020)

The history behind the mosaic of the Americas.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 62:72-77 pii:S0959-437X(20)30107-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Focusing on literature published in 2018-2020, we review inferences about: (i) how ancient DNA is contributing to clarify the peopling of the Americas and the dispersal of its first inhabitants, (ii) how the interplay between environmental diversity and culture has influenced the genetic structure and adaptation of Andean and Amazon populations, (iii) how genetics has contributed to our understanding of the Pre-Columbian Tupi expansion in Eastern South America, (iv) the subcontinental origins and dynamics of Post-Columbian admixture in the Americas, and finally, (v) episodes of adaptive natural selection in the American continent, particularly in the high altitudes of the Andes.

RevDate: 2020-07-12

Bai F, Zhang X, Ji X, et al (2020)

Paleolithic genetic link between Southern China and Mainland Southeast Asia revealed by ancient mitochondrial genomes.

Journal of human genetics pii:10.1038/s10038-020-0796-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The genetic history of Southern East Asians is not well-known, especially prior to the Neolithic period. To address this, we successfully sequenced two complete mitochondrial genomes of 11,000-year-old human individuals from Southern China, thus generating the oldest ancient DNA sequences from this area. Integrating published mitochondrial genomes, we characterized M71d, a new subhaplogroup of haplogroup M71. Our results suggest a possible early migration between Southern China and mainland Southeast Asia by at least 22,000 BP.

RevDate: 2020-07-11

Morrison J, McColl S, Louhelainen J, et al (2020)

Assessing the performance of quantity and quality metrics using the QIAGEN Investigator® Quantiplex® pro RGQ kit.

Science & justice : journal of the Forensic Science Society, 60(4):388-397.

The Quantiplex® Pro RGQ kit quantifies DNA in a sample, supports the detection of mixtures and assesses the extent of DNA degradation based on relative ratios of amplified autosomal and male markers. Data show no significant difference in the accuracy and sensitivity of quantification between this and the Promega PowerQuant® System, both detecting the lowest amount of DNA tested, 4 pg. Laboratory controlled mixed male:female DNA samples together with mock sexual assault samples were quantified across a range of mixture ratios. Analysis software detected mixed DNA samples across all ratios for both quantification kits. Subsequent STR analysis using the Investigator® 24Plex QS Kit was able to corroborate mixture detection down to 1:25 male:female DNA ratios, past which point mixtures appeared identical to single-source female samples. Analysis software also detected laboratory degraded DNA samples, with data showing a positive trend between the Degradation Index (DI) and length of time of sonication. When used on ancient remains the assay was able to triage samples for further analysis, and STR profiles were concordant with DNA quantification results in all instances. STR analyses of laboratory-controlled sensitivity, mixture, and degradation studies supports the quality metric obtained from quantification. These data support the use of the Quantiplex® Pro RGQ kit for sample screening and quantification in forensic casework and ancient DNA studies.

RevDate: 2020-07-10

Peyrégne S, K Prüfer (2020)

Present-Day DNA Contamination in Ancient DNA Datasets.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

Present-day contamination can lead to false conclusions in ancient DNA studies. A number of methods are available to estimate contamination, which use a variety of signals and are appropriate for different types of data. Here an overview of currently available methods highlighting their strengths and weaknesses is provided, and a classification based on the signals used to estimate contamination is proposed. This overview aims at enabling researchers to choose the most appropriate methods for their dataset. Based on this classification, potential avenues for the further development of methods are discussed.

RevDate: 2020-07-10

Giuliani C, Franceschi C, Luiselli D, et al (2020)

Ecological Sensing Through Taste and Chemosensation Mediates Inflammation: A Biological Anthropological Approach.

Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) pii:5869586 [Epub ahead of print].

Ecological sensing and inflammation have evolved to ensure optima between organism survival and reproductive success in different and changing environments. At the molecular level, ecological sensing consists of many types of receptors located in different tissues that orchestrate integrated responses (immune, neuroendocrine systems) to external and internal stimuli. This review describes emerging data on taste and chemosensory receptors, proposing them as broad ecological sensors and providing evidence that taste perception is shaped not only according to sense epitopes from nutrients but also in response to highly diverse external and internal stimuli. We apply a biological anthropological approach to examine how ecological sensing has been shaped by these stimuli through human evolution for complex interkingdom communication between a host and pathological and symbiotic bacteria, focusing on population-specific genetic diversity. We then focus on how these sensory receptors play a major role in inflammatory processes that form the basis of many modern common metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and aging. The impacts of human niche construction and cultural evolution in shaping environments are described with emphasis on consequent biological responsiveness.

RevDate: 2020-07-09

Santiago E, Novo I, Pardiñas AF, et al (2020)

Recent demographic history inferred by high-resolution analysis of linkage disequilibrium.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:5869049 [Epub ahead of print].

Inferring changes in effective population size (Ne) in the recent past is of special interest for conservation of endangered species and for human history research. Current methods for estimating the very recent historical Ne are unable to detect complex demographic trajectories involving multiple episodes of bottlenecks, drops and expansions. We develop a theoretical and computational framework to infer the demographic history of a population within the past 100 generations from the observed spectrum of linkage disequilibrium (LD) of pairs of loci over a wide range of recombination rates in a sample of contemporary individuals. The cumulative contributions of all of the previous generations to the observed LD are included in our model, and a genetic algorithm is used to search for the sequence of historical Ne values that best explains the observed LD spectrum. The method can be applied from large samples to samples of fewer than 10 individuals using a variety of genotyping and DNA sequencing data: haploid, diploid with phased or unphased genotypes and pseudo-haploid data from low-coverage sequencing. The method was tested by computer simulation for sensitivity to genotyping errors, temporal heterogeneity of samples, population admixture and structural division into subpopulations, showing high tolerance to deviations from the assumptions of the model. Computer simulations also show that the proposed method outperforms other leading approaches when the inference concerns recent timeframes. Analysis of data from a variety of human and animal populations gave results in agreement with previous estimations by other methods or with records of historical events.

RevDate: 2020-07-08
CmpDate: 2020-07-08

Curry A (2020)

Incest in ancient Ireland suggests an elite ruled early farmers.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 368(6497):1299.

RevDate: 2020-07-07

Betti L, Beyer RM, Jones ER, et al (2020)

Climate shaped how Neolithic farmers and European hunter-gatherers interacted after a major slowdown from 6,100 BCE to 4,500 BCE.

Nature human behaviour pii:10.1038/s41562-020-0897-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The Neolithic transition in Europe was driven by the rapid dispersal of Near Eastern farmers who, over a period of 3,500 years, brought food production to the furthest corners of the continent. However, this wave of expansion was far from homogeneous, and climatic factors may have driven a marked slowdown observed at higher latitudes. Here, we test this hypothesis by assembling a large database of archaeological dates of first arrival of farming to quantify the expansion dynamics. We identify four axes of expansion and observe a slowdown along three axes when crossing the same climatic threshold. This threshold reflects the quality of the growing season, suggesting that Near Eastern crops might have struggled under more challenging climatic conditions. This same threshold also predicts the mixing of farmers and hunter-gatherers as estimated from ancient DNA, suggesting that unreliable yields in these regions might have favoured the contact between the two groups.

RevDate: 2020-07-04

Navarro-Romero MT, Muñoz ML, Alcala-Castañeda E, et al (2020)

A novel method of male sex identification of human ancient skeletal remains.

Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology pii:10.1007/s10577-020-09634-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Sex identification of ancient individuals is important to understand aspects of the culture, demographic structure, religious practices, disease association, and the history of the ancient civilizations. Sex identification is performed using anthropometric measurements and molecular genetics techniques, including quantification of the X and Y chromosomes. These approaches are not always reliable in subadult, or fragmented, incomplete skeletons or when the DNA is highly degraded. Most of the methods include the identification of the male and female sexes, but the absence of a specific marker for the males does not mean that the sample obtained was from a female. This study aims (1) to identify new male-specific regions that allow male identification; (2) to contrast the effectiveness of these markers against AMELX/AMELY and anthropometric measurement procedures; and (3) to test the efficacy of these markers in archaeological samples. For the first two aims, we used known sex samples, and for the third aim, we used samples from different archaeological sites. A novel molecular technique to identify male-specific regions by amplification of TTTY7, TSPY3, TTTY2, and TTTY22 genes of the human Y chromosome was developed. The results showed amplification of the specific DNA regions of Y chromosome in male individuals, with no amplification being observed in any of the female samples, confirming their specificity for male individuals. This approach complements the current procedures, such as the AMELX/AMELY test and anthropometric principle.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Traversari M, Da Via S, Petrella E, et al (2020)

A case of dwarfism in 6th century Italy: Bioarchaeological assessment of a hereditary disorder.

OBJECTIVE: The skeletal remains of a short-statured individual (T17) are described and a differential diagnosis performed to determine the etiology of the condition.

MATERIALS: An individual considered pathologically short in stature was discovered in the burial site of Piazza XX Settembre, Modena (northern Italy).

METHODS: Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed, and T17 was compared to dwarfs from other localities and periods and to the adult female population from the same site. A paleopathological survey was undertaken to assess the degree of the skeletal elements of T17 were affected.

RESULTS: T17 was a female, 20-30 years of age at death, with a stature of 128 cm and disproportionate dwarfism associated with congenital skeletal dysplasia.

CONCLUSIONS: T17 likely affected by a form of hypochondroplasia.

SIGNIFICANCE: Anatomical consequences of hypochondroplasia are presented, and the timeframe and associated burial goods suggest a 6th-century Lombard short stature belonging to one of the earliest Lombard settlements in Italy.

Future genetic analysis would resolve if the mutation in the type 3 fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR3) is present in the remains of T17; however, it is not exclusivly linked to hypochondroplasia.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Olalde I, C Posth (2020)

Latest trends in archaeogenetic research of west Eurasians.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 62:36-43 pii:S0959-437X(20)30072-1 [Epub ahead of print].

During the past ten years, archaeogenetic research has exponentially grown to study the genetic history of human populations, using genome-wide data from large numbers of ancient individuals. Of the entire globe, Europe and the Near East are the regions where ancient DNA data is by far most abundant with over 2500 genomes published at present. In this review, we focus on archaeological contexts that have received less attention in the literature, specifically those associated with west Eurasian hunter-gatherers as well as populations from the Iron Age and later historical periods. In addition, we emphasize a recent shift from continent-wide to regional and even site-specific studies, which is starting to provide novel insights into sociocultural aspects of past societies.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Barquera R, J Krause (2020)

An ancient view on host pathogen interaction across time and space.

Current opinion in immunology, 65:65-69 pii:S0952-7915(20)30057-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The ancient DNA revolution provided diverse fields with an unprecedented opportunity to look back into the past and shed light on research aspects that were until now subject to speculation and inference from modern data. In particular enrichment methods that allow the targeted retrieval of millions of SNP positions from ancient human genomes, or even complete bacterial and viral genomes have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of host pathogen interactions. Ancient DNA combined with new bioinformatic tools now even allows actual allele calling for immunogenetic systems such as Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) across time and space. The coming years will provide us with frequency data of human immunity genes, such as HLA, as well as genome wide data of ancient pathogens from many time periods of human history, and will therefore provide us with a dynamic view on historical human adaptation to pathogen exposure on a population wide scale.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Arning N, DJ Wilson (2020)

The past, present and future of ancient bacterial DNA.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

Groundbreaking studies conducted in the mid-1980s demonstrated the possibility of sequencing ancient DNA (aDNA), which has allowed us to answer fundamental questions about the human past. Microbiologists were thus given a powerful tool to glimpse directly into inscrutable bacterial history, hitherto inaccessible due to a poor fossil record. Initially plagued by concerns regarding contamination, the field has grown alongside technical progress, with the advent of high-throughput sequencing being a breakthrough in sequence output and authentication. Albeit burdened with challenges unique to the analysis of bacteria, a growing number of viable sources for aDNA has opened multiple avenues of microbial research. Ancient pathogens have been extracted from bones, dental pulp, mummies and historical medical specimens and have answered focal historical questions such as identifying the aetiological agent of the black death as Yersinia pestis. Furthermore, ancient human microbiomes from fossilized faeces, mummies and dental plaque have shown shifts in human commensals through the Neolithic demographic transition and industrial revolution, whereas environmental isolates stemming from permafrost samples have revealed signs of ancient antimicrobial resistance. Culminating in an ever-growing repertoire of ancient genomes, the quickly expanding body of bacterial aDNA studies has also enabled comparisons of ancient genomes to their extant counterparts, illuminating the evolutionary history of bacteria. In this review we summarize the present avenues of research and contextualize them in the past of the field whilst also pointing towards questions still to be answered.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Wang K, Goldstein S, Bleasdale M, et al (2020)

Ancient genomes reveal complex patterns of population movement, interaction, and replacement in sub-Saharan Africa.

Science advances, 6(24):eaaz0183.

Africa hosts the greatest human genetic diversity globally, but legacies of ancient population interactions and dispersals across the continent remain understudied. Here, we report genome-wide data from 20 ancient sub-Saharan African individuals, including the first reported ancient DNA from the DRC, Uganda, and Botswana. These data demonstrate the contraction of diverse, once contiguous hunter-gatherer populations, and suggest the resistance to interaction with incoming pastoralists of delayed-return foragers in aquatic environments. We refine models for the spread of food producers into eastern and southern Africa, demonstrating more complex trajectories of admixture than previously suggested. In Botswana, we show that Bantu ancestry post-dates admixture between pastoralists and foragers, suggesting an earlier spread of pastoralism than farming to southern Africa. Our findings demonstrate how processes of migration and admixture have markedly reshaped the genetic map of sub-Saharan Africa in the past few millennia and highlight the utility of combined archaeological and archaeogenetic approaches.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Weiß CL, Gansauge MT, Aximu-Petri A, et al (2020)

Mining ancient microbiomes using selective enrichment of damaged DNA molecules.

BMC genomics, 21(1):432 pii:10.1186/s12864-020-06820-7.

BACKGROUND: The identification of bona fide microbial taxa in microbiomes derived from ancient and historical samples is complicated by the unavoidable mixture between DNA from ante- and post-mortem microbial colonizers. One possibility to distinguish between these sources of microbial DNA is querying for the presence of age-associated degradation patterns typical of ancient DNA (aDNA). The presence of uracils, resulting from cytosine deamination, has been detected ubiquitously in aDNA retrieved from diverse sources, and used as an authentication criterion. Here, we employ a library preparation method that separates molecules that carry uracils from those that do not for a set of samples that includes Neandertal remains, herbarium specimens and archaeological plant remains.

RESULTS: We show that sequencing DNA libraries enriched in molecules carrying uracils effectively amplifies age associated degradation patterns in microbial mixtures of ancient and historical origin. This facilitates the discovery of authentic ancient microbial taxa in cases where degradation patterns are difficult to detect due to large sequence divergence in microbial mixtures. Additionally, the relative enrichment of taxa in the uracil enriched fraction can help to identify bona fide ancient microbial taxa that could be missed using a more targeted approach.

CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments show, that in addition to its use in enriching authentic endogenous DNA of organisms of interest, the selective enrichment of damaged DNA molecules can be a valuable tool in the discovery of ancient microbial taxa.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Kontopoulos I, Penkman K, Mullin VE, et al (2020)

Screening archaeological bone for palaeogenetic and palaeoproteomic studies.

PloS one, 15(6):e0235146 pii:PONE-D-20-01701.

The recovery and analysis of ancient DNA and protein from archaeological bone is time-consuming and expensive to carry out, while it involves the partial or complete destruction of valuable or rare specimens. The fields of palaeogenetic and palaeoproteomic research would benefit greatly from techniques that can assess the molecular quality prior to sampling. To be relevant, such screening methods should be effective, minimally-destructive, and rapid. This study reports results based on spectroscopic (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance [FTIR-ATR]; n = 266), palaeoproteomic (collagen content; n = 226), and palaeogenetic (endogenous DNA content; n = 88) techniques. We establish thresholds for three different FTIR indices, a) the infrared splitting factor [IRSF] that assesses relative changes in bioapatite crystals' size and homogeneity; b) the carbonate-to-phosphate [C/P] ratio as a relative measure of carbonate content in bioapatite crystals; and c) the amide-to-phosphate ratio [Am/P] for assessing the relative organic content preserved in bone. These thresholds are both extremely reliable and easy to apply for the successful and rapid distinction between well- and poorly-preserved specimens. This is a milestone for choosing appropriate samples prior to genomic and collagen analyses, with important implications for biomolecular archaeology and palaeontology.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Mathov Y, Batyrev D, Meshorer E, et al (2020)

Harnessing epigenetics to study human evolution.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 62:23-29 pii:S0959-437X(20)30074-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent advances in ancient DNA extraction and high-throughput sequencing technologies enabled the high-quality sequencing of archaic genomes, including the Neanderthal and the Denisovan. While comparisons with modern humans revealed both archaic-specific and human-specific sequence changes, in the absence of gene expression information, understanding the functional implications of such genetic variations remains a major challenge. To study gene regulation in archaic humans, epigenetic research comes to our aid. DNA methylation, which is highly correlated with transcription, can be directly measured in modern samples, as well as reconstructed in ancient samples. This puts DNA methylation as a natural basis for comparative epigenetics between modern humans, archaic humans and nonhuman primates.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Adrion JR, Cole CB, Dukler N, et al (2020)

A community-maintained standard library of population genetic models.

eLife, 9: pii:54967 [Epub ahead of print].

The explosion in population genomic data demands ever more complex modes of analysis, and increasingly these analyses depend on sophisticated simulations. Re-cent advances in population genetic simulation have made it possible to simulate large and complex models, but specifying such models for a particular simulation engine remains a difficult and error-prone task. Computational genetics researchers currently re-implement simulation models independently, leading to inconsistency and duplication of effort. This situation presents a major barrier to empirical researchers seeking to use simulations for power analyses of upcoming studies or sanity checks on existing genomic data. Population genetics, as a field, also lacks standard benchmarks by which new tools for inference might be measured. Here we describe a new resource, stdpopsim, that attempts to rectify this situation. Stdpopsim is a community-driven open source project, which provides easy access to a growing catalog of published simulation models from a range of organisms and supports multiple simulation engine backends. This resource is available as a well-documented python library with a simple command-line interface. We share some examples demonstrating how stdpopsim can be used to systematically compare demographic inference methods, and we encourage a broader community of developers to contribute to this growing resource.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Debortoli G, Abbatangelo C, Ceballos F, et al (2020)

Novel insights on demographic history of tribal and caste groups from West Maharashtra (India) using genome-wide data.

Scientific reports, 10(1):10075 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66953-3.

The South Asian subcontinent is characterized by a complex history of human migrations and population interactions. In this study, we used genome-wide data to provide novel insights on the demographic history and population relationships of six Indo-European populations from the Indian State of West Maharashtra. The samples correspond to two castes (Deshastha Brahmins and Kunbi Marathas) and four tribal groups (Kokana, Warli, Bhil and Pawara). We show that tribal groups have had much smaller effective population sizes than castes, and that genetic drift has had a higher impact in tribal populations. We also show clear affinities between the Bhil and Pawara tribes, and to a lesser extent, between the Warli and Kokana tribes. Our comparisons with available modern and ancient DNA datasets from South Asia indicate that the Brahmin caste has higher Ancient Iranian and Steppe pastoralist contributions than the Kunbi Marathas caste. Additionally, in contrast to the two castes, tribal groups have very high Ancient Ancestral South Indian (AASI) contributions. Indo-European tribal groups tend to have higher Steppe contributions than Dravidian tribal groups, providing further support for the hypothesis that Steppe pastoralists were the source of Indo-European languages in South Asia, as well as Europe.

RevDate: 2020-06-21

Vicente M, CM Schlebusch (2020)

African population history: an ancient DNA perspective.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 62:8-15 pii:S0959-437X(20)30059-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The history of human populations in Africa is complex and includes various demographic events that influenced patterns of genetic variation across the continent. Through genetic studies of modern-day, and most recently, ancient African genetic variation, it became evident that deep African history is captured by the relationships among hunter-gatherers. Furthermore, it was shown that agriculture had a large influence on the distribution of current-day Africans. These later population movements changed the demographic face of the continent and descendants of farming groups today form the majority populations across Africa. Ancient DNA methods are continually evolving, and we see evidence of this in how research has advanced in the last decade. With the increased availability of full genomic data from diverse sets of modern-day and prehistoric Africans we now have more power to infer human demography. Future ancient DNA research promises to reveal more detailed stories of human prehistory in Africa.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Goude G, Salazar-García DC, Power RC, et al (2020)

New insights on Neolithic food and mobility patterns in Mediterranean coastal populations.

American journal of physical anthropology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this research are to explore the diet, mobility, social organization, and environmental exploitation patterns of early Mediterranean farmers, particularly the role of marine and plant resources in these foodways. In addition, this work strives to document possible gendered patterns of behavior linked to the neolithization of this ecologically rich area. To achieve this, a set of multiproxy analyses (isotopic analyses, dental calculus, microremains analysis, ancient DNA) were performed on an exceptional deposit (n = 61) of human remains from the Les Bréguières site (France), dating to the transition of the sixth to the fifth millennium BCE.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples used in this study were excavated from the Les Bréguières site (Mougins, Alpes-Maritimes, France), located along the southeastern Mediterranean coastline of France. Stable isotope analyses (C, N) on bone collagen (17 coxal bones, 35 craniofacial elements) were performed as a means to infer protein intake during tissue development. Sulfur isotope ratios were used as indicators of geographical and environmental points of origin. The study of ancient dental calculus helped document the consumption of plants. Strontium isotope analysis on tooth enamel (n = 56) was conducted to infer human provenance and territorial mobility. Finally, ancient DNA analysis was performed to study maternal versus paternal diversity within this Neolithic group (n = 30).

RESULTS: Stable isotope ratios for human bones range from -20.3 to -18.1‰ for C, from 8.9 to 11.1‰ for N and from 6.4 to 15‰ for S. Domestic animal data range from -22.0 to -20.2‰ for C, from 4.1 to 6.9‰ for N, and from 10.2 to 12.5‰ for S. Human enamel 87 Sr/86 Sr range from 0.7081 to 0.7102, slightly wider than the animal range (between 0.7087 and 0.7096). Starch and phytolith microremains were recovered as well as other types of remains (e.g., hairs, diatoms, fungal spores). Starch grains include Triticeae type and phytolith includes dicotyledons and monocot types as panicoid grasses. Mitochondrial DNA characterized eight different maternal lineages: H1, H3, HV (5.26%), J (10.53%), J1, K, T (5.2%), and U5 (10.53%) but no sample yielded reproducible Y chromosome SNPs, preventing paternal lineage characterization.

DISCUSSION: Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios indicate a consumption of protein by humans mainly focused on terrestrial animals and possible exploitation of marine resources for one male and one undetermined adult. Sulfur stable isotope ratios allowed distinguishing groups with different geographical origins, including two females possibly more exposed to the sea spray effect. While strontium isotope data do not indicate different origins for the individuals, mitochondrial lineage diversity from petrous bone DNA suggests the burial includes genetically differentiated groups or a group practicing patrilocality. Moreover, the diversity of plant microremains recorded in dental calculus provide the first evidence that the groups of Les Bréguières consumed a wide breadth of plant foods (as cereals and wild taxa) that required access to diverse environments. This transdisciplinary research paves the way for new perspectives and highlights the relevance for novel research of contexts (whether recently discovered or in museum collections) excavated near shorelines, due to the richness of the biodiversity and the wide range of edible resources available.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Vera-Villalobos H, Pérez V, Contreras F, et al (2020)

Characterization and removal of biofouling from reverse osmosis membranes (ROMs) from a desalination plant in Northern Chile, using Alteromonas sp. Ni1-LEM supernatant.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Biofouling control in reverse osmosis membranes (ROMs) is challenging due to the high cost of treatments, and reduction in the life of ROMs. This study characterizes the biofouling in the ROMs from a desalination plant and reports its effective removal using the supernatant obtained from Alteromonas sp. strain Ni1-LEM. The characterization of the bacterial community revealed that the most abundant taxa in ROMs were the genera Fulvivirga and Pseudoalteromonas, and unclassified species of the families Flavobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae. This bacterial community significantly decreased upon treatment with the supernatant from Alteromonas sp. Ni1-LEM, resulting in the prevalence of the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Furthermore, this bacterial supernatant significantly inhibited cell adhesion of seven benthic microalgae isolated from ROMs as well as promoting cell detachment of the existing microbial biofilms. The study showed that the extracellular supernatant modified the conformation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the biofouling of ROMs without any biocidal effects.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Philips A, Stolarek I, Handschuh L, et al (2020)

Analysis of oral microbiome from fossil human remains revealed the significant differences in virulence factors of modern and ancient Tannerella forsythia.

BMC genomics, 21(1):402.

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) allowed the metagenomic analyses of DNA from many different environments and sources, including thousands of years old skeletal remains. It has been shown that most of the DNA extracted from ancient samples is microbial. There are several reports demonstrating that the considerable fraction of extracted DNA belonged to the bacteria accompanying the studied individuals before their death.

RESULTS: In this study we scanned 344 microbiomes from 1000- and 2000- year-old human teeth. The datasets originated from our previous studies on human ancient DNA (aDNA) and on microbial DNA accompanying human remains. We previously noticed that in many samples infection-related species have been identified, among them Tannerella forsythia, one of the most prevalent oral human pathogens. Samples containing sufficient amount of T. forsythia aDNA for a complete genome assembly were selected for thorough analyses. We confirmed that the T. forsythia-containing samples have higher amounts of the periodontitis-associated species than the control samples. Despites, other pathogens-derived aDNA was found in the tested samples it was too fragmented and damaged to allow any reasonable reconstruction of these bacteria genomes. The anthropological examination of ancient skulls from which the T. forsythia-containing samples were obtained revealed the pathogenic alveolar bone loss in tooth areas characteristic for advanced periodontitis. Finally, we analyzed the genetic material of ancient T. forsythia strains. As a result, we assembled four ancient T. forsythia genomes - one 2000- and three 1000- year-old. Their comparison with contemporary T. forsythia genomes revealed a lower genetic diversity within the four ancient strains than within contemporary strains. We also investigated the genes of T. forsythia virulence factors and found that several of them (KLIKK protease and bspA genes) differ significantly between ancient and modern bacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we showed that NGS screening of the ancient human microbiome is a valid approach for the identification of disease-associated microbes. Following this protocol, we provided a new set of information on the emergence, evolution and virulence factors of T. forsythia, the member of the oral dysbiotic microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Rivollat M, Jeong C, Schiffels S, et al (2020)

Ancient genome-wide DNA from France highlights the complexity of interactions between Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers.

Science advances, 6(22):eaaz5344.

Starting from 12,000 years ago in the Middle East, the Neolithic lifestyle spread across Europe via separate continental and Mediterranean routes. Genomes from early European farmers have shown a clear Near Eastern/Anatolian genetic affinity with limited contribution from hunter-gatherers. However, no genomic data are available from modern-day France, where both routes converged, as evidenced by a mosaic cultural pattern. Here, we present genome-wide data from 101 individuals from 12 sites covering today's France and Germany from the Mesolithic (N = 3) to the Neolithic (N = 98) (7000-3000 BCE). Using the genetic substructure observed in European hunter-gatherers, we characterize diverse patterns of admixture in different regions, consistent with both routes of expansion. Early western European farmers show a higher proportion of distinctly western hunter-gatherer ancestry compared to central/southeastern farmers. Our data highlight the complexity of the biological interactions during the Neolithic expansion by revealing major regional variations.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Segurel L, Guarino-Vignon P, Marchi N, et al (2020)

Why and when was lactase persistence selected for? Insights from Central Asian herders and ancient DNA.

PLoS biology, 18(6):e3000742.

The genetic adaptation of humans to the consumption of milk from dairying animals is one of the most emblematic cases of recent human evolution. While the phenotypic change under selection, lactase persistence (LP), is known, the evolutionary advantage conferred to persistent individuals remains obscure. One informative but underappreciated observation is that not all populations whose ancestors had access to milk genetically adapted to become lactase persistent. Indeed, Central Asian herders are mostly lactase nonpersistent, despite their significant dietary reliance on dairy products. Investigating the temporal dynamic of the -13.910:C>T Eurasian mutation associated with LP, we found that, after its emergence in Ukraine 5,960 before present (BP), the T allele spread between 4,000 BP and 3,500 BP throughout Eurasia, from Spain to Kazakhstan. The timing and geographical progression of the mutation coincides well with the migration of steppe populations across and outside of Europe. After 3,000 BP, the mutation strongly increased in frequency in Europe, but not in Asia. We propose that Central Asian herders have adapted to milk consumption culturally, by fermentation, and/or by colonic adaptation, rather than genetically. Given the possibility of a nongenetic adaptation to avoid intestinal symptoms when consuming dairy products, the puzzle then becomes this: why has LP been selected for at all?

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Díez-Del-Molino D, L Dalén (2020)

Unroll Please: Deciphering the Genetic Code in Scrolls and Other Ancient Materials.

Cell, 181(6):1200-1201.

The unrelenting development of ancient DNA methods now allows researchers to obtain archaeogenetic data from increasingly diverse sources. In a new study in this issue of Cell, researchers apply the latest DNA technologies to unravel the mysteries of the Dead Sea Scrolls, one of the world's most famous and influential sets of ancient parchments.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Coutinho A, Günther T, Munters AR, et al (2020)

The Neolithic Pitted Ware culture foragers were culturally but not genetically influenced by the Battle Axe culture herders.

American journal of physical anthropology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: In order to understand contacts between cultural spheres in the third millennium BC, we investigated the impact of a new herder culture, the Battle Axe culture, arriving to Scandinavia on the people of the sub-Neolithic hunter-gatherer Pitted Ware culture. By investigating the genetic make-up of Pitted Ware culture people from two types of burials (typical Pitted Ware culture burials and Battle Axe culture-influenced burials), we could determine the impact of migration and the impact of cultural influences.

METHODS: We sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 25 individuals from typical Pitted Ware culture burials and from Pitted Ware culture burials with Battle Axe culture influences in order to determine if the different burial types were associated with different gene-pools.

RESULTS: The genomic data show that all individuals belonged to one genetic population-a population associated with the Pitted Ware culture-irrespective of the burial style.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that the Pitted Ware culture communities were not impacted by gene-flow, that is, via migration or exchange of mates. These different cultural expressions in the Pitted Ware culture burials are instead a consequence of cultural exchange.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Buckley M, Harvey VL, Orihuela J, et al (2020)

Collagen sequence analysis reveals evolutionary history of extinct West Indies Nesophontes ('island-shrews').

Molecular biology and evolution pii:5851441 [Epub ahead of print].

Ancient biomolecule analyses are proving increasingly useful in the study of evolutionary patterns, including extinct organisms. Proteomic sequencing techniques complement genomic approaches, having the potential to examine lineages further back in time than achievable using ancient DNA, given the less stringent preservation requirements. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to use collagen sequence analyses via proteomics to provide species delimitation as a foundation for informing evolutionary patterns. We uncover biogeographic information of an enigmatic and recently extinct lineage of Nesophontes across their range on the Caribbean islands. First, evolutionary relationships reconstructed from collagen sequences reaffirm the affinity of Nesophontes and Solenodon as sister taxa within Solenodonota. This relationship helps lay the foundation for testing geographical isolation hypotheses across islands within the Greater Antilles, including movement from Cuba towards Hispaniola. Second, our results are consistent with Cuba having just two species of Nesophontes (N. micrus and N. major) that exhibit intrapopulation morphological variation. Finally, analysis of the recently described species from the Cayman Islands (N. hemicingulus) indicates that it is a closer relative to the Cuban species, N. major rather than N. micrus as previously speculated. Our proteomic sequencing improves our understanding of the origin, evolution, and distribution of this extinct mammal lineage, particularly with respect to approximate timing of speciation. Such knowledge is vital for this biodiversity hotspot, where the magnitude of recent extinctions may obscure true estimates of species richness in the past.

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Anava S, Neuhof M, Gingold H, et al (2020)

Illuminating Genetic Mysteries of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Cell, 181(6):1218-1231.e27.

The discovery of the 2,000-year-old Dead Sea Scrolls had an incomparable impact on the historical understanding of Judaism and Christianity. "Piecing together" scroll fragments is like solving jigsaw puzzles with an unknown number of missing parts. We used the fact that most scrolls are made from animal skins to "fingerprint" pieces based on DNA sequences. Genetic sorting of the scrolls illuminates their textual relationship and historical significance. Disambiguating the contested relationship between Jeremiah fragments supplies evidence that some scrolls were brought to the Qumran caves from elsewhere; significantly, they demonstrate that divergent versions of Jeremiah circulated in parallel throughout Israel (ancient Judea). Similarly, patterns discovered in non-biblical scrolls, particularly the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, suggest that the Qumran scrolls represent the broader cultural milieu of the period. Finally, genetic analysis divorces debated fragments from the Qumran scrolls. Our study demonstrates that interdisciplinary approaches enrich the scholar's toolkit.

RevDate: 2020-06-13

Seersholm FV, Werndly DJ, Grealy A, et al (2020)

Rapid range shifts and megafaunal extinctions associated with late Pleistocene climate change.

Nature communications, 11(1):2770.

Large-scale changes in global climate at the end of the Pleistocene significantly impacted ecosystems across North America. However, the pace and scale of biotic turnover in response to both the Younger Dryas cold period and subsequent Holocene rapid warming have been challenging to assess because of the scarcity of well dated fossil and pollen records that covers this period. Here we present an ancient DNA record from Hall's Cave, Texas, that documents 100 vertebrate and 45 plant taxa from bulk fossils and sediment. We show that local plant and animal diversity dropped markedly during Younger Dryas cooling, but while plant diversity recovered in the early Holocene, animal diversity did not. Instead, five extant and nine extinct large bodied animals disappeared from the region at the end of the Pleistocene. Our findings suggest that climate change affected the local ecosystem in Texas over the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, but climate change on its own may not explain the disappearance of the megafauna at the end of the Pleistocene.

RevDate: 2020-06-06

Lord E, Collins C, deFrance S, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA of Guinea Pigs (Cavia spp.) Indicates a Probable New Center of Domestication and Pathways of Global Distribution.

Scientific reports, 10(1):8901.

Guinea pigs (Cavia spp.) have a long association with humans. From as early as 10,000 years ago they were a wild food source. Later, domesticated Cavia porcellus were dispersed well beyond their native range through pre-Columbian exchange networks and, more recently, widely across the globe. Here we present 46 complete mitogenomes of archaeological guinea pigs from sites in Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, the Caribbean, Belgium and the United States to elucidate their evolutionary history, origins and paths of dispersal. Our results indicate an independent centre of domestication of Cavia in the eastern Colombian Highlands. We identify a Peruvian origin for the initial introduction of domesticated guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) beyond South America into the Caribbean. We also demonstrate that Peru was the probable source of the earliest known guinea pigs transported, as part of the exotic pet trade, to both Europe and the southeastern United States. Finally, we identify a modern reintroduction of guinea pigs to Puerto Rico, where local inhabitants use them for food. This research demonstrates that the natural and cultural history of guinea pigs is more complex than previously known and has implications for other studies regarding regional to global-scale studies of mammal domestication, translocation, and distribution.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Barquera R, Collen E, Di D, et al (2020)

Binding affinities of 438 HLA proteins to complete proteomes of seven pandemic viruses and distributions of strongest and weakest HLA peptide binders in populations worldwide.

HLA [Epub ahead of print].

We report detailed peptide-binding affinities between 438 HLA Class I and Class II proteins and complete proteomes of seven pandemic human viruses, including coronaviruses, influenza viruses and HIV-1. We contrast these affinities with HLA allele frequencies across hundreds of human populations worldwide. Statistical modelling shows that peptide-binding affinities classified into four distinct categories depend on the HLA locus but that the type of virus is only a weak predictor, except in the case of HIV-1. Among the strong HLA binders (IC50 ≤ 50), we uncovered 16 alleles (the top ones being A*02:02, B*15:03 and DRB1*01:02) binding more than 1% of peptides derived from all viruses, 9 (top ones including HLA-A*68:01, B*15:25, C*03:02 and DRB1*07:01) binding all viruses except HIV-1, and 15 (top ones A*02:01 and C*14:02) only binding coronaviruses. The frequencies of strongest and weakest HLA peptide binders differ significantly among populations from different geographic regions. In particular, Indigenous peoples of America show both higher frequencies of strongest and lower frequencies of weakest HLA binders. As many HLA proteins are found to be strong binders of peptides derived from distinct viral families, and are hence promiscuous (or generalist), we discuss this result in relation to possible signatures of natural selection on HLA promiscuous alleles due to past pathogenic infections. Our findings are highly relevant for both evolutionary genetics and the development of vaccine therapies. However they should not lead to forget that individual resistance and vulnerability to diseases go beyond the sole HLA allelic affinity and depend on multiple, complex and often unknown biological, environmental and other variables.

RevDate: 2020-06-01

Skourtanioti E, Erdal YS, Frangipane M, et al (2020)

Genomic History of Neolithic to Bronze Age Anatolia, Northern Levant, and Southern Caucasus.

Cell, 181(5):1158-1175.e28.

Here, we report genome-wide data analyses from 110 ancient Near Eastern individuals spanning the Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age, a period characterized by intense interregional interactions for the Near East. We find that 6th millennium BCE populations of North/Central Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus shared mixed ancestry on a genetic cline that formed during the Neolithic between Western Anatolia and regions in today's Southern Caucasus/Zagros. During the Late Chalcolithic and/or the Early Bronze Age, more than half of the Northern Levantine gene pool was replaced, while in the rest of Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus, we document genetic continuity with only transient gene flow. Additionally, we reveal a genetically distinct individual within the Late Bronze Age Northern Levant. Overall, our study uncovers multiple scales of population dynamics through time, from extensive admixture during the Neolithic period to long-distance mobility within the globalized societies of the Late Bronze Age. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

RevDate: 2020-06-01

Agranat-Tamir L, Waldman S, Martin MAS, et al (2020)

The Genomic History of the Bronze Age Southern Levant.

Cell, 181(5):1146-1157.e11.

We report genome-wide DNA data for 73 individuals from five archaeological sites across the Bronze and Iron Ages Southern Levant. These individuals, who share the "Canaanite" material culture, can be modeled as descending from two sources: (1) earlier local Neolithic populations and (2) populations related to the Chalcolithic Zagros or the Bronze Age Caucasus. The non-local contribution increased over time, as evinced by three outliers who can be modeled as descendants of recent migrants. We show evidence that different "Canaanite" groups genetically resemble each other more than other populations. We find that Levant-related modern populations typically have substantial ancestry coming from populations related to the Chalcolithic Zagros and the Bronze Age Southern Levant. These groups also harbor ancestry from sources we cannot fully model with the available data, highlighting the critical role of post-Bronze-Age migrations into the region over the past 3,000 years.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Gonzalez A, Cannet C, Zvénigorosky V, et al (2020)

The petrous bone: Ideal substrate in legal medicine?.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 47:102305.

Over the last few years, palaeogenomic studies of the petrous bone (the densest part of the temporal bone) have shown that it is a source of DNA in both larger quantities and of better quality than other bones. This dense bone around the otic capsule has therefore been called the choice substrate in palaeogenomics. Because the practice of forensic genetics responds to different imperatives, we implemented a study aimed at (i) understanding how and why the petrous bone is an advantageous substrate in ancient DNA studies and (ii) establishing whether it is advantageous in forensic STR typing. We selected 50 individual skeletal remains and extracted DNA from one tooth and one petrous bone from each. We then amplified 24 STR markers commonly used in forensic identification and compared the quality of that amplification using the RFU intensities of the signal as read on the STR profiles. We also performed histological analyses to compare (i) the microscopic structure of a petrous bone and of a tooth and (ii) the microscopic structure of fresh petrous bone and of an archaeological or forensic sample. We show that the RFU intensities read on STR profiles are systematically higher in experiments using DNA extracted from petrous bones rather than teeth. For this reason, we were more likely to obtain a complete STR profile from petrous bone material, increasing the chance of identification in a forensic setting. Histological analyses revealed peculiar microstructural characteristics (tissue organization), unique to the petrous bone, that might explain the good preservation of DNA in that substrate. Therefore, it appears that despite the necessity of analysing longer fragments in forensic STR typing compared to NGS palaeogenomics, the use of petrous bones in forensic genetics could prove valuable, especially in cases involving infants, toothless individuals or very degraded skeletal remains.

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Gryseels S, Watts TD, Kabongo Mpolesha JM, et al (2020)

A near full-length HIV-1 genome from 1966 recovered from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(22):12222-12229.

With very little direct biological data of HIV-1 from before the 1980s, far-reaching evolutionary and epidemiological inferences regarding the long prediscovery phase of this pandemic are based on extrapolations by phylodynamic models of HIV-1 genomic sequences gathered mostly over recent decades. Here, using a very sensitive multiplex RT-PCR assay, we screened 1,645 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens collected for pathology diagnostics in Central Africa between 1958 and 1966. We report the near-complete viral genome in one HIV-1 positive specimen from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), from 1966 ("DRC66")-a nonrecombinant sister lineage to subtype C that constitutes the oldest HIV-1 near full-length genome recovered to date. Root-to-tip plots showed the DRC66 sequence is not an outlier as would be expected if dating estimates from more recent genomes were systematically biased; and inclusion of the DRC66 sequence in tip-dated BEAST analyses did not significantly alter root and internal node age estimates based on post-1978 HIV-1 sequences. There was larger variation in divergence time estimates among datasets that were subsamples of the available HIV-1 genomes from 1978 to 2014, showing the inherent phylogenetic stochasticity across subsets of the real HIV-1 diversity. Our phylogenetic analyses date the origin of the pandemic lineage of HIV-1 to a time period around the turn of the 20th century (1881 to 1918). In conclusion, this unique archival HIV-1 sequence provides direct genomic insight into HIV-1 in 1960s DRC, and, as an ancient-DNA calibrator, it validates our understanding of HIV-1 evolutionary history.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Aoki K (2020)

A three-population wave-of-advance model for the European early Neolithic.

PloS one, 15(5):e0233184.

Ancient DNA studies have shown that early farming spread through most of Europe by the range expansion of farmers of Anatolian origin rather than by the conversion to farming of the local hunter-gatherers, and have confirmed that these hunter-gatherers continued to coexist with the incoming farmers. In this short report, I extend a previous three-population wave-of-advance model to accommodate these new findings, and derive the conditions supportive of such a scenario in terms of the relative magnitudes of the parameters. The revised model predicts that the conversion rate must, not surprisingly, be low, but also that the hunter-gatherers must compete more strongly with the converted farmers than with the alien farmers. Moreover, competition with the hunter-gatherers diminishes the speed of the wave-of advance of the farmers. In addition, I briefly consider how the wave-of-advance approach may contribute to interpreting the results of archaeological studies using the summed probability distribution of radiocarbon dates.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Peña-Ahumada B, Saldarriaga-Córdoba M, Kardailsky O, et al (2020)

A tale of textiles: Genetic characterization of historical paper mulberry barkcloth from Oceania.

PloS one, 15(5):e0233113.

Humans introduced paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) from Taiwan into the Pacific over 5000 years ago as a fiber source to make barkcloth textiles that were, and still are, important cultural artifacts throughout the Pacific. We have used B. papyrifera, a species closely associated to humans, as a proxy to understand the human settlement of the Pacific Islands. We report the first genetic analysis of paper mulberry textiles from historical and archaeological contexts (200 to 50 years before present) and compare our results with genetic data obtained from contemporary and herbarium paper mulberry samples. Following stringent ancient DNA protocols, we extracted DNA from 13 barkcloth textiles. We confirmed that the fiber source is paper mulberry in nine of the 13 textiles studied using the nuclear ITS-1 marker and by statistical estimates. We detected high genetic diversity in historical Pacific paper mulberry barkcloth with a set of ten microsatellites, showing new alleles and specific genetic patterns. These genetic signatures allow tracing connections to plants from the Asian homeland, Near and Remote Oceania, establishing links not observed previously (using the same genetic tools) in extant plants or herbaria samples. These results show that historic barkcloth textiles are cultural materials amenable to genetic analysis to reveal human history and that these artifacts may harbor evidence of greater genetic diversity in Pacific B. papyrifera in the past.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Amankwaa AO, Nsiah Amoako E, Mensah Bonsu DO, et al (2019)

Forensic science in Ghana: A review.

Forensic Science International (Online), 1:151-160.

The use of forensic science continues to grow across the world. In Ghana, major advancements took off in 2011, including the introduction of modern DNA profiling and the establishment of an automated fingerprint identification system. These developments have led to some positive impacts on the delivery of justice, including the exoneration of a wrongly incarcerated individual. However, a review of the policy-related aspects of forensic science shows gaps in legislation, governance, service provision, quality assurance and accreditation, education and research. An important recommendation to improve forensic science in Ghana is the creation of a "national policy strategy", a blueprint informed by relevant stakeholders, best practice from other countries and the status of the field. Resolutions to the policy issues identified in this review will ensure a more robust application of forensic science in delivering safe justice and enhancing public security.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Yang MA, Fan X, Sun B, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA indicates human population shifts and admixture in northern and southern China.

Science (New York, N.Y.) pii:science.aba0909 [Epub ahead of print].

Human genetic history in East Asia is poorly understood. To clarify population relationships, we obtained genome wide data from 26 ancient individuals from northern and southern East Asia spanning 9,500-300 years ago. Genetic differentiation was higher in the past than the present, reflecting a major episode of admixture involving northern East Asian ancestry spreading across southern East Asia after the Neolithic, transforming the genetic ancestry of southern China. Mainland southern East Asian and Taiwan Strait island samples from the Neolithic show clear connections with modern and ancient samples with Austronesian-related ancestry, supporting a southern China origin for proto-Austronesians. Connections among Neolithic coastal groups from Siberia and Japan to Vietnam indicate that migration and gene flow played an important role in the prehistory of coastal Asia.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Li J, Cai D, Zhang Y, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA reveals two paternal lineages C2a1a1b1a/F3830 and C2b1b/F845 in past nomadic peoples distributed on the Mongolian Plateau.

American journal of physical anthropology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Since the third century CE, a series of nomadic tribes have been active on the eastern part of the Mongolian Plateau. Characterizing the genetic compositions of past nomadic people is significant for research on the nomadic cultures of the Eurasian Steppe region. Ancient DNA analysis facilitates a deeper understanding of the relationship between historical and modern nomadic populations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole-genome shotgun sequencing and capture sequencing of the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome were performed for six ancient Hg C2/M217 individuals. The individuals were interred at six separate sites on the Mongolian Plateau and represent dates spanning the late Neolithic to Yuan Dynasty (~3,500-700 BP).

RESULTS: After NRY capture sequencing, three of the six ancient samples were attributed to C2b1b/F845 and the other three ancient samples belonged to C2a1a1b1a/F3830. Analysis of whole-genome shotgun sequencing data shows that the ancient C2b1b/F845 individuals are closely related to She, Han and other East Asian populations, while the ancient C2a1a1b1a/F3830 individuals are more similar to modern Northeast Asian peoples, such as the Ulchi and Yakut.

DISCUSSION: Hg C2/M217, widely distributed in the eastern part of the Eurasian continent, was discovered in the ancient Central Steppe and Baikal region. This study shows that there were two important subclades of Hg C2/M217 among the ancient nomadic peoples: C2a1a1b1a/F3830, which has made important genetic contributions to modern Mongolic- and Manchu-speaking populations, and C2b1b/F845, which probably originated in the farming populations of southern East Asia and made certain genetic contributions to past nomadic peoples on the Mongolian Plateau.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Samida S (2020)

[About Media Presence and Prominence of DNA-Supported Research of the Past].

NTM, 28(2):181-192.

In recent years molecular genetics has provided a completely new approach/access to the human past. The still new and quite dynamic research field of archaeogenetics (also known as palaeogenetics or genetic history) claims to be able to write history using ancient DNA. Through numerous remarkable publications it has generated and received much interest not only in scientific discourse but also in the media. So far, however, scientists have not paid much attention to this coverage-a research desideratum this paper cannot resolve. But by looking at selected press clippings it seeks to capture first trends according to the following three theses: telling success stories, drawing boundaries, and writing in a conformist manner.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Charlton S, Booth T, I Barnes (2019)

The problem with petrous? A consideration of the potential biases in the utilization of pars petrosa for ancient DNA analysis.

World archaeology, 51(4):574-585.

Advances in NGS sequencing technologies, improved laboratory protocols and new bioinformatic workflows have seen huge increases in ancient DNA (aDNA) research on archaeological materials. A large proportion of aDNA work now utilizes the petrous portion of the temporal bone (pars petrosa), which is recognized as an excellent skeletal element for long-term ancient endogenous (host) DNA survival. This has been significant due to the often low endogenous content of other skeletal elements, meaning that large amounts of sequencing are frequently required to obtain sufficient genetic coverage. However, exclusive sampling of the petrous for aDNA analysis introduces a new set of potential biases into our scientific studies - and these issues are yet to be considered by ancient DNA researchers. This paper aims to outline the possible biases of utilizing petrous bones to undertake aDNA analyses and highlight how these complications may potentially be overcome in future research.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Rees JS, Castellano S, AM Andrés (2020)

The Genomics of Human Local Adaptation.

Trends in genetics : TIG, 36(6):415-428.

Modern humans inhabit a variety of environments and are exposed to a plethora of selective pressures, leading to multiple genetic adaptations to local environmental conditions. These include adaptations to climate, UV exposure, disease, diet, altitude, or cultural practice and have generated important genetic and phenotypic differences amongst populations. In recent years, new methods to identify the genomic signatures of natural selection underlying these adaptations, combined with novel types of genetic data (e.g., ancient DNA), have provided unprecedented insights into the origin of adaptive alleles and the modes of adaptation. As a result, numerous instances of local adaptation have been identified in humans. Here, we review the most exciting recent developments and discuss, in our view, the future of this field.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Fewlass H, Mitchell PJ, Casanova E, et al (2020)

Chemical evidence of dairying by hunter-gatherers in highland Lesotho in the late first millennium AD.

Nature human behaviour pii:10.1038/s41562-020-0859-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The recovery of Early Iron Age artefacts and domestic animal remains from hunter-gatherer contexts at Likoaeng, Lesotho, has been argued to indicate contact between highland hunter-gatherers and Early Iron Age agropastoralist communities settled in lowland areas of southeastern Africa during the second half of the first millennium AD. However, disagreement between archaeozoological studies and ancient DNA means that the possibility that those hunter-gatherers kept livestock themselves remains controversial. Here we report analyses of pottery-absorbed organic residues from two hunter-gatherer sites and one agriculturalist site in highland Lesotho to reconstruct prehistoric subsistence practices. Our results demonstrate the exploitation of secondary products from domestic livestock by hunter-gatherers in Lesotho, directly dated to the seventh century AD at Likoaeng and the tenth century AD at the nearby site of Sehonghong. The data provide compelling evidence for the keeping of livestock by hunter-gatherer groups and their probable incorporation as ancillary resources into their subsistence strategies.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Ahmed AE, Mpangase PT, Panji S, et al (2018)

Organizing and running bioinformatics hackathons within Africa: The H3ABioNet cloud computing experience.

AAS open research, 1:9.

The need for portable and reproducible genomics analysis pipelines is growing globally as well as in Africa, especially with the growth of collaborative projects like the Human Health and Heredity in Africa Consortium (H3Africa). The Pan-African H3Africa Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet) recognized the need for portable, reproducible pipelines adapted to heterogeneous computing environments, and for the nurturing of technical expertise in workflow languages and containerization technologies. Building on the network's Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for common genomic analyses, H3ABioNet arranged its first Cloud Computing and Reproducible Workflows Hackathon in 2016, with the purpose of translating those SOPs into analysis pipelines able to run on heterogeneous computing environments and meeting the needs of H3Africa research projects. This paper describes the preparations for this hackathon and reflects upon the lessons learned about its impact on building the technical and scientific expertise of African researchers. The workflows developed were made publicly available in GitHub repositories and deposited as container images on Quay.io.

RevDate: 2020-06-21

Nakatsuka N, Lazaridis I, Barbieri C, et al (2020)

A Paleogenomic Reconstruction of the Deep Population History of the Andes.

Cell, 181(5):1131-1145.e21.

There are many unanswered questions about the population history of the Central and South Central Andes, particularly regarding the impact of large-scale societies, such as the Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inca. We assembled genome-wide data on 89 individuals dating from ∼9,000-500 years ago (BP), with a particular focus on the period of the rise and fall of state societies. Today's genetic structure began to develop by 5,800 BP, followed by bi-directional gene flow between the North and South Highlands, and between the Highlands and Coast. We detect minimal admixture among neighboring groups between ∼2,000-500 BP, although we do detect cosmopolitanism (people of diverse ancestries living side-by-side) in the heartlands of the Tiwanaku and Inca polities. We also highlight cases of long-range mobility connecting the Andes to Argentina and the Northwest Andes to the Amazon Basin. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

RevDate: 2020-05-08

Bonsu DOM, Higgins D, JJ Austin (2020)

Forensic touch DNA recovery from metal surfaces - A review.

Science & justice : journal of the Forensic Science Society, 60(3):206-215.

Trace evidence such as touch (also known as contact) DNA has probative value as a vital forensic investigative tool that can lead to the identification and apprehension of a criminal. While the volume of touch DNA evidence items submitted to forensic laboratories has significantly increased, recovery and amplification of DNA from these items, especially from metal surfaces, remains challenging. Currently little is understood with regards to the underlying mechanisms of metal-DNA interactions in the context of forensic science and how this may impact on DNA recovery. An increased understanding of these mechanisms would allow optimisation of methods to improve outcomes when sampling these materials. This paper reviews the basis of DNA binding to metal substrates, the merits and limitations of current methods and future perspectives of improving recovery and amplification of touch DNA from metal surfaces of forensic interest.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Rifkin RF, Vikram S, Ramond JB, et al (2020)

Multi-proxy analyses of a mid-15th century Middle Iron Age Bantu-speaker palaeo-faecal specimen elucidates the configuration of the 'ancestral' sub-Saharan African intestinal microbiome.

Microbiome, 8(1):62.

BACKGROUND: The archaeological incidence of ancient human faecal material provides a rare opportunity to explore the taxonomic composition and metabolic capacity of the ancestral human intestinal microbiome (IM). Here, we report the results of the shotgun metagenomic analyses of an ancient South African palaeo-faecal specimen.

METHODS: Following the recovery of a single desiccated palaeo-faecal specimen from Bushman Rock Shelter in Limpopo Province, South Africa, we applied a multi-proxy analytical protocol to the sample. The extraction of ancient DNA from the specimen and its subsequent shotgun metagenomic sequencing facilitated the taxonomic and metabolic characterisation of this ancient human IM.

RESULTS: Our results indicate that the distal IM of the Neolithic 'Middle Iron Age' (c. AD 1460) Bantu-speaking individual exhibits features indicative of a largely mixed forager-agro-pastoralist diet. Subsequent comparison with the IMs of the Tyrolean Iceman (Ötzi) and contemporary Hadza hunter-gatherers, Malawian agro-pastoralists and Italians reveals that this IM precedes recent adaptation to 'Western' diets, including the consumption of coffee, tea, chocolate, citrus and soy, and the use of antibiotics, analgesics and also exposure to various toxic environmental pollutants.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses reveal some of the causes and means by which current human IMs are likely to have responded to recent dietary changes, prescription medications and environmental pollutants, providing rare insight into human IM evolution following the advent of the Neolithic c. 12,000 years ago. Video Abtract.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Liu X (2020)

Human prehistoric demography revealed by the polymorphic pattern of CpG transitions.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:5830537 [Epub ahead of print].

The prehistoric demography of human populations is an essential piece of information for illustrating our evolution. Despite its importance and the advancement of ancient DNA studies, our knowledge of human evolution is still limited, which is also the case for relatively recent population dynamics during and around the Holocene. Here, we inferred detailed demographic histories from 1 to 40 thousand years ago (kya) for 24 population samples using an improved model-flexible method with 36 million genome-wide non-coding CpG sites. Our results showed many population growth events that were likely due to the Neolithic Revolution (i.e., the shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement). Our results help to provide a clearer picture of human prehistoric demography, confirming the significant impact of agriculture on population expansion, and provide new hypotheses and directions for future research.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Barquera R, Lamnidis TC, Lankapalli AK, et al (2020)

Origin and Health Status of First-Generation Africans from Early Colonial Mexico.

Current biology : CB, 30(11):2078-2091.e11.

The forced relocation of several thousand Africans during Mexico's historic period has so far been documented mostly through archival sources, which provide only sparse detail on their origins and lived experience. Here, we employ a bioarchaeological approach to explore the life history of three 16th century Africans from a mass burial at the San José de los Naturales Royal Hospital in Mexico City. Our approach draws together ancient genomic data, osteological analysis, strontium isotope data from tooth enamel, δ13C and δ15N isotope data from dentine, and ethnohistorical information to reveal unprecedented detail on their origins and health. Analyses of skeletal features, radiogenic isotopes, and genetic data from uniparental, genome-wide, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers are consistent with a Sub-Saharan African origin for all three individuals. Complete genomes of Treponema pallidum sub. pertenue (causative agent of yaws) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) recovered from these individuals provide insight into their health as related to infectious disease. Phylogenetic analysis of both pathogens reveals their close relationship to strains circulating in current West African populations, lending support to their origins in this region. The further relationship between the treponemal genome retrieved and a treponemal genome previously typed in an individual from Colonial Mexico highlights the role of the transatlantic slave trade in the introduction and dissemination of pathogens into the New World. Putting together all lines of evidence, we were able to create a biological portrait of three individuals whose life stories have long been silenced by disreputable historical events.

RevDate: 2020-05-09

Pierini F, Nutsua M, Böhme L, et al (2020)

Targeted analysis of polymorphic loci from low-coverage shotgun sequence data allows accurate genotyping of HLA genes in historical human populations.

Scientific reports, 10(1):7339.

The highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) plays a crucial role in adaptive immunity and is associated with various complex diseases. Accurate analysis of HLA genes using ancient DNA (aDNA) data is crucial for understanding their role in human adaptation to pathogens. Here, we describe the TARGT pipeline for targeted analysis of polymorphic loci from low-coverage shotgun sequence data. The pipeline was successfully applied to medieval aDNA samples and validated using both simulated aDNA and modern empirical sequence data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Thus the TARGT pipeline enables accurate analysis of HLA polymorphisms in historical (and modern) human populations.

RevDate: 2020-05-07

Guiry E, Royle TCA, Matson RG, et al (2020)

Differentiating salmonid migratory ecotypes through stable isotope analysis of collagen: Archaeological and ecological applications.

PloS one, 15(4):e0232180.

The ability to distinguish between different migratory behaviours (e.g., anadromy and potamodromy) in fish can provide important insights into the ecology, evolution, and conservation of many aquatic species. We present a simple stable carbon isotope (δ13C) approach for distinguishing between sockeye (anadromous ocean migrants) and kokanee (potamodromous freshwater residents), two migratory ecotypes of Oncorhynchus nerka (Salmonidae) that is applicable throughout most of their range across coastal regions of the North Pacific Ocean. Analyses of kokanee (n = 239) and sockeye (n = 417) from 87 sites spanning the North Pacific (Russia to California) show that anadromous and potamodromous ecotypes are broadly distinguishable on the basis of the δ13C values of their scale and bone collagen. We present three case studies demonstrating how this approach can address questions in archaeology, archival, and conservation research. Relative to conventional methods for determining migratory status, which typically apply chemical analyses to otoliths or involve genetic analyses of tissues, the δ13C approach outlined here has the benefit of being non-lethal (when applied to scales), cost-effective, widely available commercially, and should be much more broadly accessible for addressing archaeological questions since the recovery of otoliths at archaeological sites is rare.

RevDate: 2020-04-23

Cai Y, Fu W, Cai D, et al (2020)

Ancient genomes reveal the evolutionary history and origin of cashmere producing goats in China.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:5824306 [Epub ahead of print].

Goats are one of the most widespread farmed animals across the world; however, their migration route to East Asia and local evolutionary history remain poorly understood. Here, we sequenced 27 ancient Chinese goat genomes dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Iron Age. We found close genetic affinities between ancient and modern Chinese goats, demonstrating their genetic continuity. We found that Chinese goats originated from the eastern regions around the Fertile Crescent, and we estimated that the ancestors of Chinese goats diverged from this population in the Chalcolithic period. Modern Chinese goats were divided into a northern and a southern group, coinciding with the most prominent climatic division in China, and two genes related to hair follicle development, FGF5 and EDA2R, were highly divergent between these populations. We identified a likely causal de novo deletion near FGF5 in northern Chinese goats that increased to high frequency over time, whereas EDA2R harbored standing variation dating to the Neolithic. Our findings add to our understanding of the genetic composition and local evolutionary process of Chinese goats.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Ferrando-Bernal M, Morcillo-Suarez C, de-Dios T, et al (2020)

Mapping co-ancestry connections between the genome of a Medieval individual and modern Europeans.

Scientific reports, 10(1):6843.

Historical genetic links among similar populations can be difficult to establish. Identity by descent (IBD) analyses find genomic blocks that represent direct genealogical relationships among individuals. However, this method has rarely been applied to ancient genomes because IBD stretches are progressively fragmented by recombination and thus not recognizable after few tens of generations. To explore such genealogical relationships, we estimated long IBD blocks among modern Europeans, generating networks to uncover the genetic structures. We found that Basques, Sardinians, Icelanders and Orcadians form, each of them, highly intraconnected sub-clusters in a European network, indicating dense genealogical links within small, isolated populations. We also exposed individual genealogical links -such as the connection between one Basque and one Icelandic individual- that cannot be uncovered with other, widely used population genetics methods such as PCA or ADMIXTURE. Moreover, using ancient DNA technology we sequenced a Late Medieval individual (Barcelona, Spain) to high genomic coverage and identified IBD blocks shared between her and modern Europeans. The Medieval IBD blocks are statistically overrepresented only in modern Spaniards, which is the geographically closest population. This approach can be used to produce a fine-scale reflection of shared ancestry across different populations of the world, offering a direct genetic link from the past to the present.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Zvénigorosky V, Sabbagh A, Gonzalez A, et al (2020)

The limitations of kinship determinations using STR data in ill-defined populations.

International journal of legal medicine pii:10.1007/s00414-020-02298-w [Epub ahead of print].

The likelihood ratio (LR) method is commonly used to determine kinship in civil, criminal, or forensic cases. For the past 15 years, our research group has also applied LR to ancient STR data and obtained kinship results for collections of graves or necropolises. Although we were able to reconstruct large genealogies, some pairs of individuals showed ambiguous results. Second-degree relationships, half-sibling pairs for example, were often inconsistent with detected first-degree relationships, such as parent/child or brother/sister pairs. We therefore set about providing empirical estimations of the error rates for the LR method in living populations with STR allelic diversities comparable to that of the ancient populations we had previously studied. We collected biological samples in the field in North-Eastern Siberia and West Africa and studied more than 800 pairs of STR profiles from individuals with known relationships. Because commercial STR panels were constructed for specific regions (namely Europe and North America), their allelic makeup showed a significant deficit in diversity when compared to European populations, replicating a situation often faced in ancient DNA studies. We assessed the capacity of the LR method to confirm known relationships (effectiveness) and its capacity to detect those relationships (reliability). Concerns over the effectiveness of LR determinations are mostly an issue in forensic studies, while the reliability of the detection of kinship is an issue for the study of necropolises or other large gatherings of unidentified individuals, such as disaster victims or mass graves. We show that the application of LR to both test populations highlights specific issues (both false positives and false negatives) that prevent the confirmation of second-degree kinship or even full siblingship in small populations. Up to 29% of detected full sibling relationships were either overestimated half-sibling relationships or underestimated parent-offspring relationships. The error rate for detected half-sibling relationships was even higher, reaching 41%. Only parent-offspring pairs were reliably detected or confirmed. This implies that, in populations that are small, ill-defined, or for which the STR loci analyzed are inappropriate, an examiner might not be able to distinguish a pair of full siblings from a pair of half-siblings. Furthermore, half-sibling pairs might be overlooked altogether, an issue that is exacerbated by the common confusion, in many languages and cultures, between half-siblings and full siblings. Consequently, in the study of ancient populations, human remains of unknown origins, or poorly surveyed modern populations, we recommend a conservative approach to kinship determined by LR. Next-generation sequencing data should be used when possible, but the costs and technology involved might be prohibitive. Therefore, in potentially contentious situations or cases lacking sufficient external information, uniparental markers should be analyzed: ideally, complete mitochondrial genomes and Y-chromosome haplotypes (STR, SNP, and/or sequencing).

RevDate: 2020-04-23

Dehasque M, Ávila-Arcos MC, Díez-Del-Molino D, et al (2020)

Inference of natural selection from ancient DNA.

Evolution letters, 4(2):94-108.

Evolutionary processes, including selection, can be indirectly inferred based on patterns of genomic variation among contemporary populations or species. However, this often requires unrealistic assumptions of ancestral demography and selective regimes. Sequencing ancient DNA from temporally spaced samples can inform about past selection processes, as time series data allow direct quantification of population parameters collected before, during, and after genetic changes driven by selection. In this Comment and Opinion, we advocate for the inclusion of temporal sampling and the generation of paleogenomic datasets in evolutionary biology, and highlight some of the recent advances that have yet to be broadly applied by evolutionary biologists. In doing so, we consider the expected signatures of balancing, purifying, and positive selection in time series data, and detail how this can advance our understanding of the chronology and tempo of genomic change driven by selection. However, we also recognize the limitations of such data, which can suffer from postmortem damage, fragmentation, low coverage, and typically low sample size. We therefore highlight the many assumptions and considerations associated with analyzing paleogenomic data and the assumptions associated with analytical methods.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Lang PLM, Weiß CL, Kersten S, et al (2020)

Hybridization ddRAD-sequencing for population genomics of nonmodel plants using highly degraded historical specimen DNA.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Species' responses at the genetic level are key to understanding the long-term consequences of anthropogenic global change. Herbaria document such responses, and, with contemporary sampling, provide high-resolution time-series of plant evolutionary change. Characterizing genetic diversity is straightforward for model species with small genomes and a reference sequence. For nonmodel species-with small or large genomes-diversity is traditionally assessed using restriction-enzyme-based sequencing. However, age-related DNA damage and fragmentation preclude the use of this approach for ancient herbarium DNA. Here, we combine reduced-representation sequencing and hybridization-capture to overcome this challenge and efficiently compare contemporary and historical specimens. Specifically, we describe how homemade DNA baits can be produced from reduced-representation libraries of fresh samples, and used to efficiently enrich historical libraries for the same fraction of the genome to produce compatible sets of sequence data from both types of material. Applying this approach to both Arabidopsis thaliana and the nonmodel plant Cardamine bulbifera, we discovered polymorphisms de novo in an unbiased, reference-free manner. We show that the recovered genetic variation recapitulates known genetic diversity in A. thaliana, and recovers geographical origin in both species and over time, independent of bait diversity. Hence, our method enables fast, cost-efficient, large-scale integration of contemporary and historical specimens for assessment of genome-wide genetic trends over time, independent of genome size and presence of a reference genome.

RevDate: 2020-04-27

Zhang X, Li C, Zhou Y, et al (2020)

A Matrilineal Genetic Perspective of Hanging Coffin Custom in Southern China and Northern Thailand.

iScience, 23(4):101032 pii:S2589-0042(20)30216-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Hanging Coffin is a unique and ancient burial custom that has been practiced in southern China, Southeast Asia, and near Oceania regions for more than 3,000 years. Here, we conducted mitochondrial whole-genome analyses of 41 human remains sampled from 13 Hanging Coffin sites in southern China and northern Thailand, which were dated between ∼2,500 and 660 years before present. We found that there were genetic connections between the Hanging Coffin people living in different geographic regions. Notably, the matrilineal genetic diversity of the Hanging Coffin people from southern China is much higher than those from northern Thailand, consistent with the hypothesized single origin of the Hanging Coffin custom in southern China about 3,600 years ago, followed by its dispersal in southern China through demic diffusion, whereas the major dispersal pattern in Southeast Asia is cultural assimilation in the past 2,000 years.

RevDate: 2020-04-17

Sanchez-Mazas A (2020)

A review of HLA allele and SNP associations with highly prevalent infectious diseases in human populations.

Swiss medical weekly, 150:w20214 pii:Swiss Med Wkly. 2020;150:w20214.

Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lying in the HLA region are known to be associated with several infectious diseases among which acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, tuberculosis, leprosy and malaria are highly prevalent in many human populations worldwide. Distinct approaches such as case-control comparisons, immunogenetic analyses, bioinformatic peptide-binding predictions, ancient DNA and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have contributed to improving this knowledge during the last decade, although many results still need stronger statistical and/or functional support. The present review updates the information regarding the main HLA allele and SNP associations observed to date for six of the most widespread and some other infectious diseases, and provides a synthetic illustration of these findings on a schematic HLA genomic map. It then discusses these results by stressing the importance of integrating information on HLA population diversity in disease-association studies.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Juras A, Makarowicz P, Chyleński M, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial genomes from Bronze Age Poland reveal genetic continuity from the Late Neolithic and additional genetic affinities with the steppe populations.

American journal of physical anthropology, 172(2):176-188.

OBJECTIVE: In this work we aim to investigate the origins and genetic affinities of Bronze Age populations (2,400-1,100 BC) from the region of southern Poland and to trace maternal kinship patterns present in the burials of those populations by the use of complete mitochondrial genomes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed ancient DNA analyses for Bronze Age individuals from present-day Poland associated with the Strzyżow culture, the Mierzanowice culture, and the Trzciniec Cultural circle. To obtain complete mitochondrial genomes, we sequenced genomic libraries using Illumina platform. Additionally, hybridization capture was used to enrich some of the samples for mitochondrial DNA. AMS 14 C-dating was conducted for 51 individuals to verify chronological and cultural attribution of the analyzed samples.

RESULTS: Complete ancient mitochondrial genomes were generated for 80 of the Bronze Age individuals from present-day Poland. The results of the population genetic analyses indicate close maternal genetic affinity between Mierzanowice, Trzciniec, and Corded Ware culture-associated populations. This is in contrast to the genetically more distant Strzyżów people that displayed closer maternal genetic relation to steppe populations associated with the preceding Yamnaya culture and Catacomb culture, and with later Scythians. Potential maternal kinship relations were identified in burials of Mierzanowice and Trzciniec populations analyzed in this study.

DISCUSSION: Results revealed genetic continuity from the Late Neolithic Corded Ware groups to Bronze Age Mierzanowice and Trzciniec-associated populations, and possible additional genetic contribution from the steppe to the formation of the Strzyżów-associated group at the end of 3rd millennium BC. Mitochondrial patterns indicated several pairs of potentially maternally related individuals mostly in Trzciniec-associated group.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Schweizer RM, RK Wayne (2020)

Illuminating the mysteries of wolf history.

Molecular ecology, 29(9):1589-1591.

One of the most enduring surprises about the genetic history of Late Pleistocene populations is that continuity is often disturbed by upheaval. In fact, studies that support population continuity are increasingly rare in humans, a variety of vertebrate taxa, and vascular plants (Hofreiter & Stewart 2009; Burbrink et al. 2016). Perhaps such continuity should not be expected as the Pleistocene is marked by episodes of climate change, glaciation and the invasions of humans into previously isolated areas. Although fossils are one of the primary sources for inferring population continuity, a problem with fossil material is that, even if similar morphological forms might exist in a place over time, they may not be from the same genetic lineage. There are now readily available methods to assess genetic continuity solely from DNA found in fossil material, provided the record is fairly continuous. In a From the Cover article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Loog et al. (2020) apply some of these readily available methods to analyse mitochondrial genomes and model the demography of wolves over the last 50,000 years.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Carr SM (2020)

Evidence for the persistence of ancient Beothuk and Maritime Archaic mitochondrial DNA genome lineages among modern Native American peoples.

Genome [Epub ahead of print].

The Beothuk were a Native American people who formerly occupied the island of Newfoundland, and who are generally accepted to have become culturally extinct in 1829. The Beothuk succeeded the Maritime Archaic people on the island after a hiatus of ca. 1.4 ka, and were themselves succeeded by the extant Mi'kmaq within historic times. Genetic continuity between ancient and modern Native Americans remains of interest. Complete aDNA mitogenomes from ancient Beothuk and Maritime Archaic were compared with the most closely related modern mitogenomes as obtained by BLAST search of GenBank. Beothuk mitogenomes in five clades are in one case identical to and otherwise differ by minima of three to eight SNPs from the most closely related modern mitogenomes. Maritime Archaic mitogenomes in 12 clades are in one case identical to and otherwise differ by minima of one to nine SNPs from the most similar modern mitogenomes. The single available modern Mi'kmaq mitogenome differs from the most similar Beothuk and Maritime Archaic mitogenomes by 12 and 22 SNPs, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarities imply lineage extinction of most ancient clades, as well as continuity of two Beothuk and at least one Maritime Archaic lineages in modern Native Americans and their descendants.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Armbrecht L, Herrando-Pérez S, Eisenhofer R, et al (2020)

An optimized method for the extraction of ancient eukaryote DNA from marine sediments.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Marine sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) provides a powerful means to reconstruct marine palaeo-communities across the food web. However, currently there are few optimized sedaDNA extraction protocols available to maximize the yield of small DNA fragments typical of ancient DNA (aDNA) across a broad diversity of eukaryotes. We compared seven combinations of sedaDNA extraction treatments and sequencing library preparations using marine sediments collected at a water depth of 104 m off Maria Island, Tasmania, in 2018. These seven methods contrasted frozen versus refrigerated sediment, bead-beating induced cell lysis versus ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) incubation, DNA binding in silica spin columns versus in silica-solution, diluted versus undiluted DNA in shotgun library preparations to test potential inhibition issues during amplification steps, and size-selection of low molecular-weight (LMW) DNA to increase the extraction efficiency of sedaDNA. Maximum efficiency was obtained from frozen sediments subjected to a combination of EDTA incubation and bead-beating, DNA binding in silica-solution, and undiluted DNA in shotgun libraries, across 45 marine eukaryotic taxa. We present an optimized extraction protocol integrating these steps, with an optional post-library LMW size-selection step to retain DNA fragments of ≤500 base pairs. We also describe a stringent bioinformatic filtering approach for metagenomic data and provide a comprehensive list of contaminants as a reference for future sedaDNA studies. The new extraction and data-processing protocol should improve quantitative paleo-monitoring of eukaryotes from marine sediments, as well as other studies relying on the detection of highly fragmented and degraded eukaryote DNA in sediments.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Barbato M, Reichel MP, Passamonti M, et al (2020)

A genetically unique Chinese cattle population shows evidence of common ancestry with wild species when analysed with a reduced ascertainment bias SNP panel.

PloS one, 15(4):e0231162.

In Hong Kong, there is a cattle population of ~1,200 individuals of uncertain origin and genetic diversity. This population shows heterogeneous morphology, both in body type and pigmentation. Once used as draught animals by the local farmers, they were abandoned around the 1970s due to changes in the economy, and since then have lived as feral populations. To explore the origins of these cattle, we analysed ~50k genotype data of 21 Hong Kong feral cattle, along with data from 703 individuals of 36 cattle populations of European, African taurine, and Asian origin, the wild x domestic hybrid gayal, plus two wild bovine species, gaur and banteng. To reduce the effect of ascertainment bias ~4k loci that are polymorphic in the two wild species were selected for further analysis. The stringent SNP selection we applied resulted in increased heterozygosity across all populations studies, compared with the full panel of SNP, thus reducing the impact of ascertainment bias and facilitating the comparison of divergent breeds of cattle. Our results showed that Hong Kong feral cattle have relatively high levels of genetic distinctiveness, possibly due to the low level of artificial selection, and a likely common ancestry with wild species. We found signs of a putative taurine introgression, probably dating to the import of north European breeds during the British colonialism of Hong Kong. We showed that Hong Kong feral cattle, are distinct from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. Our results highlight the distinctiveness of Hong Kong feral cattle and stress the conservation value of this indigenous breed that is likely to harbour adaptive genetic variation, which is a fundamental livestock resource in the face of climate change and diversifying market demands.

RevDate: 2020-06-03
CmpDate: 2020-06-03

Welker F, Ramos-Madrigal J, Gutenbrunner P, et al (2020)

The dental proteome of Homo antecessor.

Nature, 580(7802):235-238.

The phylogenetic relationships between hominins of the Early Pleistocene epoch in Eurasia, such as Homo antecessor, and hominins that appear later in the fossil record during the Middle Pleistocene epoch, such as Homo sapiens, are highly debated1-5. For the oldest remains, the molecular study of these relationships is hindered by the degradation of ancient DNA. However, recent research has demonstrated that the analysis of ancient proteins can address this challenge6-8. Here we present the dental enamel proteomes of H. antecessor from Atapuerca (Spain)9,10 and Homo erectus from Dmanisi (Georgia)1, two key fossil assemblages that have a central role in models of Pleistocene hominin morphology, dispersal and divergence. We provide evidence that H. antecessor is a close sister lineage to subsequent Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins, including modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans. This placement implies that the modern-like face of H. antecessor-that is, similar to that of modern humans-may have a considerably deep ancestry in the genus Homo, and that the cranial morphology of Neanderthals represents a derived form. By recovering AMELY-specific peptide sequences, we also conclude that the H. antecessor molar fragment from Atapuerca that we analysed belonged to a male individual. Finally, these H. antecessor and H. erectus fossils preserve evidence of enamel proteome phosphorylation and proteolytic digestion that occurred in vivo during tooth formation. Our results provide important insights into the evolutionary relationships between H. antecessor and other hominin groups, and pave the way for future studies using enamel proteomes to investigate hominin biology across the existence of the genus Homo.

RevDate: 2020-04-08

Frantz LAF, Bradley DG, Larson G, et al (2020)

Animal domestication in the era of ancient genomics.

Nature reviews. Genetics pii:10.1038/s41576-020-0225-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The domestication of animals led to a major shift in human subsistence patterns, from a hunter-gatherer to a sedentary agricultural lifestyle, which ultimately resulted in the development of complex societies. Over the past 15,000 years, the phenotype and genotype of multiple animal species, such as dogs, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle and horses, have been substantially altered during their adaptation to the human niche. Recent methodological innovations, such as improved ancient DNA extraction methods and next-generation sequencing, have enabled the sequencing of whole ancient genomes. These genomes have helped reconstruct the process by which animals entered into domestic relationships with humans and were subjected to novel selection pressures. Here, we discuss and update key concepts in animal domestication in light of recent contributions from ancient genomics.

RevDate: 2020-04-09

Herrera MB, Kraitsek S, Alcalde JA, et al (2020)

European and Asian contribution to the genetic diversity of mainland South American chickens.

Royal Society open science, 7(2):191558.

Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from the Americas have long been recognized as descendants of European chickens, transported by early Europeans since the fifteenth century. However, in recent years, a possible pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to South America by Polynesian seafarers has also been suggested. Here, we characterize the mitochondrial control region genetic diversity of modern chicken populations from South America and compare this to a worldwide dataset in order to investigate the potential maternal genetic origin of modern-day chicken populations in South America. The genetic analysis of newly generated chicken mitochondrial control region sequences from South America showed that the majority of chickens from the continent belong to mitochondrial haplogroup E. The rest belongs to haplogroups A, B and C, albeit at very low levels. Haplogroup D, a ubiquitous mitochondrial lineage in Island Southeast Asia and on Pacific Islands is not observed in continental South America. Modern-day mainland South American chickens are, therefore, closely allied with European and Asian chickens. Furthermore, we find high levels of genetic contributions from South Asian chickens to those in Europe and South America. Our findings demonstrate that modern-day genetic diversity of mainland South American chickens appear to have clear European and Asian contributions, and less so from Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. Furthermore, there is also some indication that South Asia has more genetic contribution to European chickens than any other Asian chicken populations.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Racimo F, Woodbridge J, Fyfe RM, et al (2020)

The spatiotemporal spread of human migrations during the European Holocene.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(16):8989-9000.

The European continent was subject to two major migrations of peoples during the Holocene: the northwestward movement of Anatolian farmer populations during the Neolithic and the westward movement of Yamnaya steppe peoples during the Bronze Age. These movements changed the genetic composition of the continent's inhabitants. The Holocene was also characterized by major changes in vegetation composition, which altered the environment occupied by the original hunter-gatherer populations. We aim to test to what extent vegetation change through time is associated with changes in population composition as a consequence of these migrations, or with changes in climate. Using ancient DNA in combination with geostatistical techniques, we produce detailed maps of ancient population movements, which allow us to visualize how these migrations unfolded through time and space. We find that the spread of Neolithic farmer ancestry had a two-pronged wavefront, in agreement with similar findings on the cultural spread of farming from radiocarbon-dated archaeological sites. This movement, however, did not have a strong association with changes in the vegetational landscape. In contrast, the Yamnaya migration speed was at least twice as fast and coincided with a reduction in the amount of broad-leaf forest and an increase in the amount of pasture and natural grasslands in the continent. We demonstrate the utility of integrating ancient genomes with archaeometric datasets in a spatiotemporal statistical framework, which we foresee will enable future studies of ancient populations' movements, and their putative effects on local fauna and flora.

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Mai BHA, Drancourt M, G Aboudharam (2020)

Ancient dental pulp: Masterpiece tissue for paleomicrobiology.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 8(6):e1202.

INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp with special structure has become a good reference sample in paleomicrobiology-related blood-borne diseases, many pathogens were detected by different methods based on the diagnosis of nucleic acids and proteins.

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to propose the preparation process from ancient teeth collection to organic molecule extraction of dental pulp and summary, analyze the methods that have been applied to detect septicemic pathogens through ancient dental pulps during the past 20 years following the first detection of an ancient microbe.

METHODS: The papers used in this review with two main objectives were obtained from PubMed and Google scholar with combining keywords: "ancient," "dental pulp," "teeth," "anatomy," "structure," "collection," "preservation," "selection," "photography," "radiography," "contamination," "decontamination," "DNA," "protein," "extraction," "bone," "paleomicrobiology," "bacteria," "virus," "pathogen," "molecular biology," "proteomics," "PCR," "MALDI-TOF," "LC/MS," "ELISA," "immunology," "immunochromatography," "genome," "microbiome," "metagenomics."

RESULTS: The analysis of ancient dental pulp should have a careful preparation process with many different steps to give highly accurate results, each step complies with the rules in archaeology and paleomicrobiology. After the collection of organic molecules from dental pulp, they were investigated for pathogen identification based on the analysis of DNA and protein. Actually, DNA approach takes a principal role in diagnosis while the protein approach is more and more used. A total of seven techniques was used and ten bacteria (Yersinia pestis, Bartonella quintana, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi C, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia prowazeki, Staphylococcus aureus, Borrelia recurrentis, Bartonella henselae) and one virus (Anelloviridae) were identified. Y. pestis had the most published in quantity and all methods were investigated for this pathogen, S. aureus and B. recurrentis were identified by three different methods and others only by one. The combining methods interestingly increase the positive rate with ELISA, PCR and iPCR in Yersinia pestis diagnosis. Twenty-seven ancient genomes of Y. pestis and one ancient genome of B. recurrentis were reconstructed. Comparing to the ancient bone, ancient teeth showed more advantage in septicemic diagnosis. Beside pathogen identification, ancient pulp help to distinguish species.

CONCLUSIONS: Dental pulp with specific tissue is a suitable sample for detection of the blood infection in the past through DNA and protein identification with the correct preparation process, furthermore, it helps to more understand the pathogens of historic diseases and epidemics.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Cortázar-Chinarro M, Meyer-Lucht Y, Van der Valk T, et al (2020)

Antimicrobial peptide and sequence variation along a latitudinal gradient in two anurans.

BMC genetics, 21(1):38.

BACKGROUND: While there is evidence of both purifying and balancing selection in immune defense genes, large-scale genetic diversity in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), an important part of the innate immune system released from dermal glands in the skin, has remained uninvestigated. Here we describe genetic diversity at three AMP loci (Temporin, Brevinin and Palustrin) in two ranid frogs (Rana arvalis and R. temporaria) along a 2000 km latitudinal gradient. We amplified and sequenced part of the Acidic Propiece domain and the hypervariable Mature Peptide domain (~ 150-200 bp) in the three genes using Illumina Miseq and expected to find decreased AMP genetic variation towards the northern distribution limit of the species similarly to studies on MHC genetic patterns.

RESULTS: We found multiple loci for each AMP and relatively high gene diversity, but no clear pattern of geographic genetic structure along the latitudinal gradient. We found evidence of trans-specific polymorphism in the two species, indicating a common evolutionary origin of the alleles. Temporin and Brevinin did not form monophyletic clades suggesting that they belong to the same gene family. By implementing codon evolution models we found evidence of strong positive selection acting on the Mature Peptide. We also found evidence of diversifying selection as indicated by divergent allele frequencies among populations and high Theta k values.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that AMPs are an important source of adaptive diversity, minimizing the chance of microorganisms developing resistance to individual peptides.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Zhang L, Liu M, Long H, et al (2019)

Tung Tree (Vernicia fordii) Genome Provides A Resource for Understanding Genome Evolution and Improved Oil Production.

Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics, 17(6):558-575.

Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is an economically important woody oil plant that produces tung oil rich in eleostearic acid. Here, we report a high-quality chromosome-scale genome sequence of tung tree. The genome sequence was assembled by combining Illumina short reads, Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time long reads, and Hi-C sequencing data. The size of tung tree genome is 1.12 Gb, with 28,422 predicted genes and over 73% repeat sequences. The V. fordii underwent an ancient genome triplication event shared by core eudicots but no further whole-genome duplication in the subsequent ca. 34.55 million years of evolutionary history of the tung tree lineage. Insertion time analysis revealed that repeat-driven genome expansion might have arisen as a result of long-standing long terminal repeat retrotransposon bursts and lack of efficient DNA deletion mechanisms. The genome harbors 88 resistance genes encoding nucleotide-binding sites; 17 of these genes may be involved in early-infection stage of Fusarium wilt resistance. Further, 651 oil-related genes were identified, 88 of which are predicted to be directly involved in tung oil biosynthesis. Relatively few phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes, and synergistic effects between transcription factors and oil biosynthesis-related genes might contribute to the high oil content of tung seed. The tung tree genome constitutes a valuable resource for understanding genome evolution, as well as for molecular breeding and genetic improvements for oil production.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Utge J, Sévêque N, Lartigot-Campin AS, et al (2020)

A mobile laboratory for ancient DNA analysis.

PloS one, 15(3):e0230496.

Mobile devices for on-field DNA analysis have been used for medical diagnostics at the point-of-care, forensic investigations and environmental surveys, but still have to be validated for ancient DNA studies. We report here on a mobile laboratory that we setup using commercially available devices, including a compact real-time PCR machine, and describe procedures to perform DNA extraction and analysis from a variety of archeological samples within 4 hours. The process is carried out on 50 mg samples that are identified at the species level using custom TaqMan real-time PCR assays for mitochondrial DNA fragments. We evaluated the potential of this approach in museums lacking facilities for DNA studies by analyzing samples from the Enlène (MIS 2 layer) and the Portel-Ouest cave (MIS 3 deposits), and also performed experiments during an excavation campaign at the Roc-en-Pail (MIS 5) open-air site. Enlène Bovinae bone samples only yielded DNA for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), whereas Portel-Ouest cave coprolites contained cave hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea) DNA together, for some of them, with DNA for the European bison sister species/subspecies (Bison schoetensacki/Bb1-X), thus highlighting the cave hyena diet. Roc-en-Pail Bovinae bone and tooth samples also contained DNA for the Bison schoetensacki/Bb1-X clade, and Cervidae bone samples only yielded reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) DNA. Subsequent DNA sequencing analyses confirmed that correct species identification had been achieved using our TaqMan assays, hence validating these assays for future studies. We conclude that our approach enables the rapid genetic characterization of tens of millennia-old archeological samples and is expected to be useful for the on-site screening of museums and freshly excavated samples for DNA content. Because our mobile laboratory is made up of commercially available instruments, this approach is easily accessible to other investigators.

RevDate: 2020-03-20

Moore G, Tessler M, Cunningham SW, et al (2020)

Paleo-metagenomics of North American fossil packrat middens: Past biodiversity revealed by ancient DNA.

Ecology and evolution, 10(5):2530-2544.

Fossil rodent middens are powerful tools in paleoecology. In arid parts of western North America, packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens preserve plant and animal remains for tens of thousands of years. Midden contents are so well preserved that fragments of endogenous ancient DNA (aDNA) can be extracted and analyzed across millennia. Here, we explore the use of shotgun metagenomics to study the aDNA obtained from packrat middens up to 32,000 C14 years old. Eleven Illumina HiSeq 2500 libraries were successfully sequenced, and between 0.11% and 6.7% of reads were classified using Centrifuge against the NCBI "nt" database. Eukaryotic taxa identified belonged primarily to vascular plants with smaller proportions mapping to ascomycete fungi, arthropods, chordates, and nematodes. Plant taxonomic diversity in the middens is shown to change through time and tracks changes in assemblages determined by morphological examination of the plant remains. Amplicon sequencing of ITS2 and rbcL provided minimal data for some middens, but failed at amplifying the highly fragmented DNA present in others. With repeated sampling and deep sequencing, analysis of packrat midden aDNA from well-preserved midden material can provide highly detailed characterizations of past communities of plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi present as trace DNA fossils. The prospects for gaining more paleoecological insights from aDNA for rodent middens will continue to improve with optimization of laboratory methods, decreasing sequencing costs, and increasing computational power.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

Ding M, Wang T, Ko AM, et al (2020)

Ancient mitogenomes show plateau populations from last 5200 years partially contributed to present-day Tibetans.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1923):20192968.

The clarification of the genetic origins of present-day Tibetans requires an understanding of their past relationships with the ancient populations of the Tibetan Plateau. Here we successfully sequenced 67 complete mitochondrial DNA genomes of 5200 to 300-year-old humans from the plateau. Apart from identifying two ancient plateau lineages (haplogroups D4j1b and M9a1a1c1b1a) that suggest some ancestors of Tibetans came from low-altitude areas 4750 to 2775 years ago and that some were involved in an expansion of people moving between high-altitude areas 2125 to 1100 years ago, we found limited evidence of recent matrilineal continuity on the plateau. Furthermore, deep learning of the ancient data incorporated into simulation models with an accuracy of 97% supports that present-day Tibetan matrilineal ancestry received partial contribution rather than complete continuity from the plateau populations of the last 5200 years.

RevDate: 2020-04-01

Emery MV, Bolhofner K, Winingear S, et al (2020)

Reconstructing full and partial STR profiles from severely burned human remains using comparative ancient and forensic DNA extraction techniques.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 46:102272.

Thermal degeneration of the DNA molecule presents a special challenge to medico-legal investigations since low DNA yields, fragmented DNA molecules, and damaged nucleotide bases hinder accurate STR genotyping. As a consequence, fragments of severely burned human remains are often not amenable to standard DNA recovery. However, current ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction methods have proven highly effective at obtaining ultrashort DNA fragments (∼50 bp) from degraded palaeontological and archaeological specimens. In this study, we compare DNA yields and STR results obtained from two established aDNA and forensic DNA extraction protocols by sampling multiple skeletal elements recovered from victims (n = 23) involved in fire-related incidents. DNA yields and STR results suggest an inverse correlation between DNA yield and STR quality and increasing temperature. Despite the rapid thermal destruction of DNA at high temperatures, we generated higher quality full and partial STR profiles using the aDNA extraction protocol across all burn categories than the forensic total bone demineralization extraction method. Our analysis suggests adopting aDNA extraction methods as an alternative to current forensic practices to improve DNA yields from challenging human remains.

RevDate: 2020-04-29

Rahmat RA, Humphries MA, Austin JJ, et al (2020)

Integrating spectrophotometric and XRD analyses in the investigation of burned dental remains.

Forensic science international, 310:110236.

Heat alters colour and crystallinity of teeth by destruction of the organic content and inducing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. The colour and crystallite changes can be quantified using spectrophotometric and x-ray diffraction analyses, however these analyses are not commonly used in combination to evaluate burned dental remains. In this study, thirty-nine teeth were incinerated at 300-1000 °C for 15 and 30 min and then measured using a spectrophotometer and an x-ray diffractometer. Response variables used were lightness, L*, and chromaticity a* and b* and luminance (whiteness and yellowness) for colour, and crystal size for crystallinity. Statistical analysis to determine the attribution of these variables revealed yellowness and crystal size were significantly affected by temperature (p < 0.05), whilst duration of heat-exposure showed no significant effect. This study suggests the inclusion of both spectrophotometric and x-ray diffraction in investigating thermal-heated teeth is useful to accurately estimate the temperature teeth are exposed to.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Li L, Zou X, Zhang G, et al (2020)

Population genetic analysis of Shaanxi male Han Chinese population reveals genetic differentiation and homogenization of East Asians.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 8(5):e1209.

BACKGROUND: Shaanxi province, located in the upper Yellow River, has been evidenced as the geographic origin of Chinese civilization, Sino-Tibetan-speaking language, and foxtail or broomcorn millet farmers via the linguistic phylogenetic spectrum, archeological documents, and genetic evidence. Nowadays, Han Chinese is the dominant population in this area. The formation process of modern Shaanxi Han population reconstructed via the ancient DNA is on the way, however, the patterns of genetic relationships of modern Shaanxi Han, allele frequency distributions of high mutated short tandem repeats (STRs) and corresponding forensic parameters are remained to be explored.

METHODS: Here, we successfully genotyped 23 autosomal STRs in 630 unrelated Shaanxi male Han individuals using the recently updated Huaxia Platinum PCR amplification system. Forensic allele frequency and parameters of all autosomal STRs were assessed. And comprehensive population genetic structure was explored via various typical statistical technologies.

RESULTS: Population genetic analysis based on the raw-genotype dataset among 15,803 Eurasian individuals and frequency datasets among 56 populations generally illustrated that linguistic stratification is significantly associated with the genetic substructure of the East Asian population. Principal component analysis, multidimensional scaling plots and phylogenetic tree further demonstrated that Shaanxi Han has a close genetic relationship with geographically close Shanxi Han, and showed that Han Chinese is a homogeneous population during the historic and recent admixture from the STR variations. Except for Sinitic-speaking populations, Shaanxi Han harbored more alleles sharing with Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations than with other reference populations. Focused on the allele frequency correlation and forensic parameters, all loci are in accordance with the minimum requirements of HWE and LD. The observed combined probability of discrimination of 8.2201E-28 and the cumulative power of exclusion of 0.9999999995 in Shaanxi Han demonstrated that the studied STR loci are informative and polymorphic, and this system can be used as a powerful routine forensic tool in personal identification and parentage testing.

CONCLUSION: Both the geographical and linguistic divisions have shaped the genetic structure of modern East Asian. And more forensic reference data should be obtained for ethnically, culturally, geographically and linguistically different populations for better routine forensic practice and population genetic studies.

RevDate: 2020-04-06

Thang TN, Vázquez-Prieto S, Vilas R, et al (2020)

Genetic diversity of Fasciola hepatica in Spain and Peru.

Parasitology international, 76:102100.

In the present study, molecular characterization of Fasciola flukes from Spain was performed to reveal the relation with the previously reported Peruvian F. hepatica population. The nuclear DNA markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold), were used for species identification of Fasciola flukes. A total of 196 Fasciola flukes were identified as F. hepatica by pepck and pold, and 26 haplotypes were detected in mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). Only one of them was previously found in Spanish samples; which indicates the existence of high genetic diversity and population structure in F. hepatica from Spain. Three haplotypes were identical to those from Peruvian F. hepatica. The pairwise fixation index value confirmed a relatively close relationship between the Spanish and Peruvian F. hepatica samples. The Spanish samples showed clearly higher genetic variability than the Peruvian population. These results are discussed in relation with the hypothesis of the introduction of the parasite in America from Europe and recent evidence of pre-Hispanic F. hepatica from Argentina revealed by ancient DNA.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Mathieson I (2020)

Limited evidence for selection at the FADS locus in Native American populations.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:5799087 [Epub ahead of print].

The FADS locus contains the genes FADS1 and FADS2 that encode enzymes involved in the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). This locus appears to have been a repeated target of selection in human evolution, likely because dietary input of LC-PUFA varied over time depending on environment and subsistence strategy. Several recent studies have identified selection at the FADS locus in Native American populations, interpreted as evidence for adaptation during or subsequent to the passage through Beringia. Here, we show that these signals are confounded by independent selection-postdating the split from Native Americans-in the European and, possibly, the East Asian populations used in the population branch statistic (PBS) test. This is supported by direct evidence from ancient DNA that one of the putatively selected haplotypes was already common in Northern Eurasia at the time of the separation of Native American ancestors. An explanation for the present-day distribution of the haplotype that is more consistent with the data is that Native Americans retain the ancestral state of Paleolithic Eurasians. Another haplotype at the locus may reflect a secondary selection signal, although its functional impact is unknown.

RevDate: 2020-05-02

Popitsch N, Huber CD, Buchumenski I, et al (2020)

A-to-I RNA Editing Uncovers Hidden Signals of Adaptive Genome Evolution in Animals.

Genome biology and evolution, 12(4):345-357.

In animals, the most common type of RNA editing is the deamination of adenosines (A) into inosines (I). Because inosines basepair with cytosines (C), they are interpreted as guanosines (G) by the cellular machinery and genomically encoded G alleles at edited sites mimic the function of edited RNAs. The contribution of this hardwiring effect on genome evolution remains obscure. We looked for population genomics signatures of adaptive evolution associated with A-to-I RNA edited sites in humans and Drosophila melanogaster. We found that single nucleotide polymorphisms at edited sites occur 3 (humans) to 15 times (Drosophila) more often than at unedited sites, the nucleotide G is virtually the unique alternative allele at edited sites and G alleles segregate at higher frequency at edited sites than at unedited sites. Our study reveals that a significant fraction of coding synonymous and nonsynonymous as well as silent and intergenic A-to-I RNA editing sites are likely adaptive in the distantly related human and Drosophila lineages.

RevDate: 2020-03-31

Zhang J, Lees DC, Shen J, et al (2020)

The mitogenome of a Malagasy butterfly Malaza fastuosus (Mabille, 1884) recovered from the holotype collected over 140 years ago adds support for a new subfamily of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera).

Genome, 63(4):195-202.

Malaza fastuosus is a lavishly patterned skipper butterfly from a genus that has three described species, all endemic to the mainland of Madagascar. To our knowledge, M. fastuosus has not been collected for nearly 50 years. To evaluate the power of our techniques to recover DNA, we used a single foreleg of an at least 140-year-old holotype specimen from the collection of the Natural History Museum London with no destruction of external morphology to extract DNA and assemble a complete mitogenome from next generation sequencing reads. The resulting 15 540 bp mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T rich region, similarly to other Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Here we provide the first mitogenome also for Trapezitinae (Rachelia extrusus). Phylogenetic analysis of available skipper mitogenomes places Malaza outside of Trapezitinae and Barcinae + Hesperiinae, with a possible sister relationship to Heteropterinae. Of these, at least Heteropterinae, Trapezitinae, and almost all Hesperiinae have monocot-feeding caterpillars. Malaza appears to be an evolutionarily highly distinct ancient lineage, morphologically with several unusual hesperiid features. The monotypic subfamily Malazinae Lees & Grishin subfam. nov. (type genus Malaza) is proposed to reflect this morphological and molecular evidence.

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Gokhman D, Nissim-Rafinia M, Agranat-Tamir L, et al (2020)

Differential DNA methylation of vocal and facial anatomy genes in modern humans.

Nature communications, 11(1):1189.

Changes in potential regulatory elements are thought to be key drivers of phenotypic divergence. However, identifying changes to regulatory elements that underlie human-specific traits has proven very challenging. Here, we use 63 reconstructed and experimentally measured DNA methylation maps of ancient and present-day humans, as well as of six chimpanzees, to detect differentially methylated regions that likely emerged in modern humans after the split from Neanderthals and Denisovans. We show that genes associated with face and vocal tract anatomy went through particularly extensive methylation changes. Specifically, we identify widespread hypermethylation in a network of face- and voice-associated genes (SOX9, ACAN, COL2A1, NFIX and XYLT1). We propose that these repression patterns appeared after the split from Neanderthals and Denisovans, and that they might have played a key role in shaping the modern human face and vocal tract.

RevDate: 2020-05-27
CmpDate: 2020-05-27

Sawafuji R, Saso A, Suda W, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA analysis of food remains in human dental calculus from the Edo period, Japan.

PloS one, 15(3):e0226654.

Although there are many methods for reconstructing diets of the past, detailed taxon identification is still challenging, and most plants hardly remain at a site. In this study, we applied DNA metabarcoding to dental calculus of premodern Japan for the taxonomic identification of food items. DNA was extracted from 13 human dental calculi from the Unko-in site (18th-19th century) of the Edo period, Japan. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were performed using a primer set specific to the genus Oryza because rice (Oryza sativa) was a staple food and this was the only member of this genus present in Japan at that time. DNA metabarcoding targeting plants, animals (meat and fish), and fungi were also carried out to investigate dietary diversity. We detected amplified products of the genus Oryza from more than half of the samples using PCR and Sanger sequencing. DNA metabarcoding enabled us to identify taxa of plants and fungi, although taxa of animals were not detected, except human. Most of the plant taxonomic groups (family/genus level) are present in Japan and include candidate species consumed as food at that time, as confirmed by historical literature. The other groups featured in the lifestyle of Edo people, such as for medicinal purposes and tobacco. The results indicate that plant DNA analysis from calculus provides information about food diversity and lifestyle habits from the past and can complement other analytical methods such as microparticle analysis and stable isotope analysis.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Racimo F, Sikora M, Vander Linden M, et al (2020)

Beyond broad strokes: sociocultural insights from the study of ancient genomes.

Nature reviews. Genetics, 21(6):355-366.

In the field of human history, ancient DNA has provided answers to long-standing debates about major movements of people and has begun to inform on other important facets of the human experience. The field is now moving from mostly large-scale supraregional studies to a more local perspective, shedding light on socioeconomic processes, inheritance rules, marriage practices and technological diffusion. In this Review, we summarize recent studies showcasing these types of insights, focusing on methods used to infer sociocultural aspects of human behaviour. This approach often involves working across disciplines - such as anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and genetics - that have until recently evolved in separation. Multidisciplinary dialogue is important for an integrated reconstruction of human history, which can yield extraordinary insights about past societies, reproductive behaviours and even lifestyle habits that would not be possible to obtain otherwise.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )