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Bibliography on: Paleontology Meets Genomics — Sequencing Ancient DNA

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 21 Jan 2021 at 01:48 Created: 

Paleontology Meets Genomics — Sequencing Ancient DNA

The ideas behind Jurassic Park have become real, kinda sorta. It is now possible to retrieve and sequence DNA from ancient specimens. Although these sequences are based on poor quality DNA and thus have many inferential steps (i,e, the resulting sequence is not likely to be a perfect replica of the living DNA), the insights to be gained from paleosequentcing are nonetheless great. For example, paleo-sequencing has shown that Neanderthal DNA is sufficiently different from human DNA as to be reasonably considered as coming from a different species.

Created with PubMed® Query: "ancient DNA" OR "ancient genome" OR paleogenetic OR paleogenetics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-01-19

Keighley X, Bro-Jørgensen MH, Ahlgren H, et al (2021)

Predicting sample success for large-scale ancient DNA studies on marine mammals.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, non-human ancient DNA studies have begun to focus on larger sample sizes and whole genomes, offering the potential to reveal exciting and hitherto unknown answers to ongoing biological and archaeological questions. However, one major limitation to the feasibility of such studies is the substantial financial and time investments still required during sample screening, due to uncertainty regarding successful sample selection. This study investigates the effect of a wide range of sample properties including latitude, sample age, skeletal element, collagen preservation, and context on endogenous content and DNA damage profiles for 317 ancient and historic pinniped samples collected from across the North Atlantic. Using generalised linear and mixed-effect models, we found that a range of factors affected DNA preservation within each of the species under consideration. The most important findings were that endogenous content varied significantly according to context, the type of skeletal element, the collagen content and collection year. There also appears to be an effect of the sample's geographic origin, with samples from the Arctic generally showing higher endogenous content and lower damage rates. Both latitude and sample age were found to have significant relationships with damage levels, but only for walrus samples. Sex, ontogenetic age and extraction material preparation were not found to have any significant relationship with DNA preservation. Overall, the skeletal element and sample context were found to be the most influential factors and should therefore be considered when selecting samples for large-scale ancient genome studies.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Mitchell KJ, NJ Rawlence (2020)

Examining Natural History through the Lens of Palaeogenomics.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(20)30282-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The many high-resolution tools that are uniquely applicable to specimens from the Quaternary period (the past ~2.5 Ma) provide an opportunity to cross-validate data and test hypotheses based on the morphology and distribution of fossils. Among these tools is palaeogenomics - the genome-scale sequencing of genetic material from ancient specimens - that can provide direct insight into ecology and evolution, potentially improving the accuracy of inferences about past ecological communities over longer timescales. Palaeogenomics has revealed instances of over- and underestimation of extinct diversity, detected cryptic faunal migration and turnover, allowed quantification of widespread sex biases and sexual dimorphism in the fossil record, revealed past hybridisation events and hybrid individuals, and has highlighted previously unrecognised routes of zoonotic disease transfer.

RevDate: 2021-01-18
CmpDate: 2021-01-18

Cheng JY, T Mailund (2020)

Ancestral Population Genomics with Jocx, a Coalescent Hidden Markov Model.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2090:167-189.

Coalescence theory lets us probe the past demographics of present-day genetic samples and much information about the past can be gleaned from variation in rates of coalescence event as we trace genetic lineages back in time. Fewer and fewer lineages will remain, however, so there is a limit to how far back we can explore. Without recombination, we would not be able to explore ancient speciation events because of this-any meaningful species concept would require that individuals of one species are closer related than they are to individuals of another species, once speciation is complete. Recombination, however, opens a window to the deeper past. By scanning along a genomic alignment, we get a sequential variant of the coalescence process as it looked at the time of the speciation. This pattern of coalescence times is fixed at speciation time and does not erode with time; although accumulated mutations and genomic rearrangements will eventually hide the signal, it enables us to glance at events in the past that would not be observable without recombination. So-called coalescence hidden Markov models allow us to exploit this, and in this chapter, we present the tool Jocx that uses a framework of these models to infer demographic parameters in ancient speciation events.

RevDate: 2021-01-16

Ramirez DA, Saka HA, R Nores (2021)

Detection of Vibrio cholerae aDNA in human burials from the fifth cholera pandemic in Argentina (1886-1887 AD).

International journal of paleopathology, 32:74-79 pii:S1879-9817(20)30071-1 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Detecting traces of ancient DNA of Vibrio cholerae to provide genetic information associated with the fifth cholera pandemic.

MATERIALS: Sediment samples from the sacral foramina of four individuals were analyzed, recovered from a mass grave near an institution dedicated exclusively to the isolation and treatment of citizens infected with cholera in the late 19th century in the city of Cordoba, Argentina.

METHODS: Paleogenetic techniques (ancient DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and Sanger sequencing) were applied. Specific primers for Vibrio cholerae (VCR, ctxA, ctxB, and tcpA) were designed.

RESULTS: By amplifying and sequencing the Vibrio cholerae repeats fragment, the infection in at least one individual was confirmed.

CONCLUSIONS: The synthesis of the paleogenetic results with the archaeological and historical evidence strongly supports that at least one individual from the mass grave in Cordoba, Argentina, was a victim of the fifth cholera pandemic.

SIGNIFICANCE: Confirming the presence of the disease through multiple lines of evidence, including genetic, archaeological, and historical analyses, strengthens and affirms our understanding of the presence, effects, and potential evolutionary paths of the disease in the past.

LIMITATIONS: Vibrio cholerae repeats were sequenced in one individual, while the remaining genes could not be amplified, which is likely related to gene copy number.

Paleogenetic examination of ancient samples from different locations will broaden our understanding of the origin, evolution, and past dissemination of Vibrio cholerae epidemic strains.

RevDate: 2021-01-14

Ju D, I Mathieson (2021)

The evolution of skin pigmentation-associated variation in West Eurasia.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(1):.

Skin pigmentation is a classic example of a polygenic trait that has experienced directional selection in humans. Genome-wide association studies have identified well over a hundred pigmentation-associated loci, and genomic scans in present-day and ancient populations have identified selective sweeps for a small number of light pigmentation-associated alleles in Europeans. It is unclear whether selection has operated on all of the genetic variation associated with skin pigmentation as opposed to just a small number of large-effect variants. Here, we address this question using ancient DNA from 1,158 individuals from West Eurasia covering a period of 40,000 y combined with genome-wide association summary statistics from the UK Biobank. We find a robust signal of directional selection in ancient West Eurasians on 170 skin pigmentation-associated variants ascertained in the UK Biobank. However, we also show that this signal is driven by a limited number of large-effect variants. Consistent with this observation, we find that a polygenic selection test in present-day populations fails to detect selection with the full set of variants. Our data allow us to disentangle the effects of admixture and selection. Most notably, a large-effect variant at SLC24A5 was introduced to Western Europe by migrations of Neolithic farming populations but continued to be under selection post-admixture. This study shows that the response to selection for light skin pigmentation in West Eurasia was driven by a relatively small proportion of the variants that are associated with present-day phenotypic variation.

RevDate: 2021-01-14

Pugach I, Hübner A, Hung HC, et al (2021)

Ancient DNA from Guam and the peopling of the Pacific.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(1):.

Humans reached the Mariana Islands in the western Pacific by ∼3,500 y ago, contemporaneous with or even earlier than the initial peopling of Polynesia. They crossed more than 2,000 km of open ocean to get there, whereas voyages of similar length did not occur anywhere else until more than 2,000 y later. Yet, the settlement of Polynesia has received far more attention than the settlement of the Marianas. There is uncertainty over both the origin of the first colonizers of the Marianas (with different lines of evidence suggesting variously the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, or the Bismarck Archipelago) as well as what, if any, relationship they might have had with the first colonizers of Polynesia. To address these questions, we obtained ancient DNA data from two skeletons from the Ritidian Beach Cave Site in northern Guam, dating to ∼2,200 y ago. Analyses of complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequences and genome-wide SNP data strongly support ancestry from the Philippines, in agreement with some interpretations of the linguistic and archaeological evidence, but in contradiction to results based on computer simulations of sea voyaging. We also find a close link between the ancient Guam skeletons and early Lapita individuals from Vanuatu and Tonga, suggesting that the Marianas and Polynesia were colonized from the same source population, and raising the possibility that the Marianas played a role in the eventual settlement of Polynesia.

RevDate: 2021-01-14

Perri AR, Mitchell KJ, Mouton A, et al (2021)

Dire wolves were the last of an ancient New World canid lineage.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

Dire wolves are considered to be one of the most common and widespread large carnivores in Pleistocene America1, yet relatively little is known about their evolution or extinction. Here, to reconstruct the evolutionary history of dire wolves, we sequenced five genomes from sub-fossil remains dating from 13,000 to more than 50,000 years ago. Our results indicate that although they were similar morphologically to the extant grey wolf, dire wolves were a highly divergent lineage that split from living canids around 5.7 million years ago. In contrast to numerous examples of hybridization across Canidae2,3, there is no evidence for gene flow between dire wolves and either North American grey wolves or coyotes. This suggests that dire wolves evolved in isolation from the Pleistocene ancestors of these species. Our results also support an early New World origin of dire wolves, while the ancestors of grey wolves, coyotes and dholes evolved in Eurasia and colonized North America only relatively recently.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Xu W, Lin Y, Zhao K, et al (2021)

An efficient pipeline for ancient DNA mapping and recovery of endogenous ancient DNA from whole-genome sequencing data.

Ecology and evolution, 11(1):390-401 pii:ECE37056.

Ancient DNA research has developed rapidly over the past few decades due to improvements in PCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, but challenges still exist. One major challenge in relation to ancient DNA research is to recover genuine endogenous ancient DNA sequences from raw sequencing data. This is often difficult due to degradation of ancient DNA and high levels of contamination, especially homologous contamination that has extremely similar genetic background with that of the real ancient DNA. In this study, we collected whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from 6 ancient samples to compare different mapping algorithms. To further explore more effective methods to separate endogenous DNA from homologous contaminations, we attempted to recover reads based on ancient DNA specific characteristics of deamination, depurination, and DNA fragmentation with different parameters. We propose a quick and improved pipeline for separating endogenous ancient DNA while simultaneously decreasing homologous contaminations to very low proportions. Our goal in this research was to develop useful recommendations for ancient DNA mapping and for separation of endogenous DNA to facilitate future studies of ancient DNA.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Seguin-Orlando A, Donat R, Der Sarkissian C, et al (2021)

Heterogeneous Hunter-Gatherer and Steppe-Related Ancestries in Late Neolithic and Bell Beaker Genomes from Present-Day France.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(20)31835-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The transition from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age has witnessed important population and societal changes in western Europe.1 These include massive genomic contributions of pastoralist herders originating from the Pontic-Caspian steppes2,3 into local populations, resulting from complex interactions between collapsing hunter-gatherers and expanding farmers of Anatolian ancestry.4-8 This transition is documented through extensive ancient genomic data from present-day Britain,9,10 Ireland,11,12 Iberia,13 Mediterranean islands,14,15 and Germany.8 It remains, however, largely overlooked in France, where most focus has been on the Middle Neolithic (n = 63),8,9,16 with the exception of one Late Neolithic genome sequenced at 0.05× coverage.16 This leaves the key transitional period covering ∼3,400-2,700 cal. years (calibrated years) BCE genetically unsampled and thus the exact time frame of hunter-gatherer persistence and arrival of steppe migrations unknown. To remediate this, we sequenced 24 ancient human genomes from France spanning ∼3,400-1,600 cal. years BCE. This reveals Late Neolithic populations that are genetically diverse and include individuals with dark skin, hair, and eyes. We detect heterogeneous hunter-gatherer ancestries within Late Neolithic communities, reaching up to ∼63.3% in some individuals, and variable genetic contributions of steppe herders in Bell Beaker populations. We provide an estimate as late as ∼3,800 years BCE for the admixture between Neolithic and Mesolithic populations and as early as ∼2,650 years BCE for the arrival of steppe-related ancestry. The genomic heterogeneity characterized underlines the complex history of human interactions even at the local scale.

RevDate: 2021-01-12
CmpDate: 2021-01-12

Sazzini M, Abondio P, Sarno S, et al (2020)

Genomic history of the Italian population recapitulates key evolutionary dynamics of both Continental and Southern Europeans.

BMC biology, 18(1):51.

BACKGROUND: The cline of human genetic diversity observable across Europe is recapitulated at a micro-geographic scale by variation within the Italian population. Besides resulting from extensive gene flow, this might be ascribable also to local adaptations to diverse ecological contexts evolved by people who anciently spread along the Italian Peninsula. Dissecting the evolutionary history of the ancestors of present-day Italians may thus improve the understanding of demographic and biological processes that contributed to shape the gene pool of European populations. However, previous SNP array-based studies failed to investigate the full spectrum of Italian variation, generally neglecting low-frequency genetic variants and examining a limited set of small effect size alleles, which may represent important determinants of population structure and complex adaptive traits. To overcome these issues, we analyzed 38 high-coverage whole-genome sequences representative of population clusters at the opposite ends of the cline of Italian variation, along with a large panel of modern and ancient Euro-Mediterranean genomes.

RESULTS: We provided evidence for the early divergence of Italian groups dating back to the Late Glacial and for Neolithic and distinct Bronze Age migrations having further differentiated their gene pools. We inferred adaptive evolution at insulin-related loci in people from Italian regions with a temperate climate, while possible adaptations to pathogens and ultraviolet radiation were observed in Mediterranean Italians. Some of these adaptive events may also have secondarily modulated population disease or longevity predisposition.

CONCLUSIONS: We disentangled the contribution of multiple migratory and adaptive events in shaping the heterogeneous Italian genomic background, which exemplify population dynamics and gene-environment interactions that played significant roles also in the formation of the Continental and Southern European genomic landscapes.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Kévin R, Nicolas C, Elsa P, et al (2021)

Gastrointestinal parasite burden in 4th-5th c. AD Florence highlighted by microscopy and paleogenetics.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases pii:S1567-1348(21)00010-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The study of ancient parasites, named paleoparasitology, traditionally focused on microscopic eggs disseminated in past environments and archaeological structures by humans and other animals infested by gastrointestinal parasites. Since the development of paleogenetics in the early 1980s, few paleoparasitological studies have been based on the ancient DNA (aDNA) of parasites, although such studies have clearly proven their utility and reliability. In this paper, we describe our integrative approach for the paleoparasitological study of an ancient population from Florence in Italy, dated to the 4th-5th c. CE. The first stage consisted in the study of sediment samples from the pelvic area of 18 individuals under light microscopy. This allowed us to detect Ascarid-type eggs belonging very probably to the human-infesting roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Ten subsamples were selected corresponding to five individuals, and we extracted their whole DNA following sediment aDNA protocols. A targeted approach allowed us to detect two nematodes and one trematode aDNA fragments, namely Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Among the five individuals tested for microscopic eggs and aDNA, three of them showed the remains of eggs (only Ascarid-type), but all of them tested positive to the presence of at least one parasite aDNA. Microscopic diagnosis first guided our research for the selection of promising samples while the targeted aDNA approach significantly improved our knowledge in terms of parasitic diversity and frequency in this population subgroup. These results enabled us to discuss the possible impact of latent parasitism in this past population at the time of an epidemic, as suggested in Florence. In particular, the singular case of D. dendriticum detection is discussed in light of the present-day scarcity of genuine human infections. Nevertheless, actual infections are known in the paleoparasitological record, and food habits may have led to false parasitism in this historical context. aDNA leaching from overlying strata may also explain this detection. This study strongly pleads for a systematic integrative approach combining microscopy and aDNA in paleoparasitology.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Nowaczewska W, Binkowski M, Benazzi S, et al (2021)

New hominin teeth from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

Journal of human evolution, 151:102929 pii:S0047-2484(20)30190-1 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Greer C, Bhakta H, Ghanem L, et al (2021)

Deleterious variants in genes regulating mammalian reproduction in Neanderthals, Denisovans and extant humans.

Human reproduction (Oxford, England) pii:6071469 [Epub ahead of print].

STUDY QUESTION: Were Neanderthals and Denisovans (referred here also as extinct hominidae) carrying deleterious variants in genes regulating reproduction?

SUMMARY ANSWER: The majority of extinct hominidae analyzed here, presented a considerable number of deleterious variants per individual in proteins regulating different aspects of reproduction, including gonad and uterine function, and gametogenesis.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Neanderthals, Denisovans and extant humans were interfertile and hybridized while occupying geographically overlapping areas in Europe and Asia. This is evidenced by the small archaic genome component (average ∼2%) present in non-African extant humans.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The genome of eight extinct hominidae, together with five human genome databases, plus 44 mothers and 48 fathers (fertile controls), were screened to look for deleterious variants in 1734 protein-coding genes regulating reproduction.

Ancient DNA from six Neanderthals and two Denisovans dated between ∼82 000 and 43 000 calibrated years was retrieved from the public European Nucleotide Archive. The hominins analyzed include Altai, Vindija 33.15, 33.19, 33.25 and 33.26, El Sidron 1253, Denisova 3 and 11. Their DNA was analyzed using the CLC Genomics Workbench 12, by mapping overlapping paired-end reads (Illumina, FASTQ files) to the human genome assembly GRCh37 (hg19) (Vindija 33.19, 33.25, 33.26, Denisova 3 and Denisova 11) or by analyzing BAM files (Altai, El Sidron 1253 and Vindija 33.15) (human genome reference, GRCh37 (hg19)). Non-synonymous reproductive variants were classified as deleterious or tolerated (PolyPhen-2 and SIFT analyses) and were compared to deleterious variants obtained from extant human genome databases (Genome Aggregation Database (GnomAD), 1000 Genomes, the Haplotype Map (HapMap), Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNPs)) across different populations. A genetic intersection between extant or extinct DNA variants and other genetic disorders was evaluated by annotating the obtained variants with the Clinical Variant (ClinVar) database.

Among the eight extinct hominidae analyzed, a total of 9650 non-synonymous variants (only coverage ≥20 reads included; frameshift mutations were excluded) in 1734 reproductive protein-coding genes were found, 24% of which were classified as deleterious. The majority (73%) of the deleterious alleles present in extant humans that are shared between extant humans and extinct hominidae were found to be rare (<1%) in extant human populations. A set of 8044 variants were found uniquely in extinct hominidae. At the single-gene level, no extinct individual was found to be homozygous for deleterious variants in genes necessary for gamete recognition and fusion, and no higher chance of embryo-lethality (calculated by Mendelian Genetics) was found upon simulated mating between extant human and extinct hominidae compared to extant human-extant human. However, three of the eight extinct hominidae were found to be homozygous for 48-69 deleterious variants in 55 genes controlling ovarian and uterine functions, or oogenesis (AKAP1, BUB1B, CCDC141, CDC73, DUSP6, ESR1, ESR2, PATL2, PSMC3IP, SEMA3A, WT1 and WNT4). Moreover, we report the distribution of nine Neanderthal variants in genes associated with a human fertility phenotype found in extant human populations, one of which has been associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary congenital glaucoma.

While analyzing archaic DNA, stringent filtering criteria were adopted to screen for deleterious variants in Neanderthals and Denisovans, which could result in missing a number of variants. Such restraints preserve the potential for detection of additional deleterious variants in reproductive proteins in extinct hominidae.

This study provides a comprehensive overview of putatively deleterious variants in extant human populations and extinct individuals occurring in 1734 protein-coding genes controlling reproduction and provides the fundaments for future functional studies of extinct variants in human reproduction.

This study was supported by the Department of Biological Science and by the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at the University of Tulsa (Faculty Research Grant and Faculty Research Summer Fellowship) to M.A. and the University of Tulsa, Tulsa Undergraduate Research Challenge (TURC) program to E.L.; no conflict of interest to declare.


RevDate: 2021-01-08
CmpDate: 2021-01-08

Vorobieva NV, Makunin AI, Druzhkova AS, et al (2020)

High genetic diversity of ancient horses from the Ukok Plateau.

PloS one, 15(11):e0241997.

A growing number of researchers studying horse domestication come to a conclusion that this process happened in multiple locations and involved multiple wild maternal lines. The most promising approach to address this problem involves mitochondrial haplotype comparison of wild and domestic horses from various locations coupled with studies of possible migration routes of the ancient shepherds. Here, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes of six horses from burials of the Ukok plateau (Russia, Altai Mountains) dated from 2.7 to 1.4 thousand years before present and a single late Pleistocene wild horse from the neighboring region (Denisova cave). Sequencing data indicates that the wild horse belongs to an extinct pre-domestication lineage. Integration of the domestic horse data with known Eurasian haplotypes of a similar age revealed two distinct groups: the first one widely distributed in Europe and presumably imported to Altai, and the second one specific for Altai Mountains and surrounding area.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Mckinnon M, D Higgins (2020)

Comparison of bone demineralisation procedures for DNA recovery from burned remains.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 51:102448 pii:S1872-4973(20)30220-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Recovering DNA from modern incinerated bones can be challenging and may require alteration of routine DNA extraction protocols. It has been postulated that incinerated bones share some similarities with ancient bones, including fragmented DNA, surface contamination and highly mineralised structure, all of which can inhibit the successful recovery of genetic material. For this reason, ancient DNA extraction protocols are often used for incinerated modern samples; however, their effectiveness is still somewhat unclear. Much of this uncertainty exists around the demineralisation step of extraction, specifically the length of incubation and retention or removal of supernatant. As obtaining human samples for forensic research can be challenging, porcine models (Sus scrofa domesticus) are often used as substitutes. This study developed real time PCR assays for porcine nuclear DNA in order to investigate the effects of modified demineralisation protocols on DNA yield from femurs exposed to either short (60 min) or prolonged (120 min) burning. Gradient PCR results indicated 56 °C was the ideal amplification temperature for targeted amplicons, with melt curve analysis showing short and long amplicons corresponded to 80.3 °C and 83 °C peaks respectively. Results of altered extraction protocol showed a trend towards higher DNA yields from longer demineralisation periods however this was not significant. By comparison, retaining supernatant post-demineralisation resulted in significantly greater DNA yields compared to discarding it (P < 0.009). Although DNA content yield decreased with burn duration, the demineralisation treatment variations appeared to have the same effect for all burn lengths. These results suggest that for incinerated modern bone retaining the supernatant following demineralisation can dramatically increase DNA yield.

RevDate: 2020-12-31

Nedoluzhko AV, Sharko FS, Boulygina ES, et al (2019)

The complete mitochondrial genome of the extinct Pleistocene horse (Equus cf. lenensis) from Kotelny Island (New Siberian Islands, Russia) and its phylogenetic assessment.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(1):243-245.

The complete mitochondrial genome from the Pleistocene stallion horse (Equus cf. lenensis) which complete skull was found in 1901 on Kotelny Island (New Siberian Archipelago, Sakha Republic, Russia) is published in this paper. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is 16,584 base pairs (bp) in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes. The overall base composition of the genome in descending order was 32.3% - A, 28.5% - C, 13.4% - G, 25.8% - T without a significant AT bias of 58.2%.

RevDate: 2020-12-31

Grond J, Płecha M, Hahn C, et al (2019)

Mitochondrial genomes of ancient bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from Svalbard.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 4(2):4152-4154.

The endangered Spitsbergen stock of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) has once been large with up to estimated 100,000 individuals. Genetic diversity of the extant Spitsbergen stock is unknown. We present 10 complete mitochondrial genomes of heterochronous ancient bowhead whale samples from Svalbard (14C age estimate range: 215-8885 years) obtained via NGS of total genomic DNA extracts. The ten mitogenomes differed by nucleotide substitutions and/or indels, and there was a total of 160 variable positions. The average nucleotide diversity was π = 0.0029. There was no statistically significant correlation between genetic divergence and time.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Friedlaender JS, S Tucci (2020)

Human Migrations: Tales of the Pacific.

Current biology : CB, 30(24):R1478-R1481.

The mode and tempo of human dispersal to the far-flung Pacific Islands has been a source of fascination for centuries. New ancient DNA data from the archipelago of Vanuatu shed light on the ancient migrations that shaped the history of human settlement in the Pacific.

RevDate: 2021-01-03

Hong JH, Seo M, Oh CS, et al (2020)

Metagonimus yokogawai Ancient DNA Recovered from 16th- to 17th-Century Korean Mummy Feces of the Joseon Dynasty.

The Journal of parasitology, 106(6):802-808.

Metagonimiasis is foodborne intestinal parasitism occurring by the definitive hosts' ingestion of raw or undercooked fish, mostly commonly sweetfish. Most Metagonimus infection is caused by Metagonimus yokogawai but also rarely by Metagonimus takahashii as well as Metagonimus miyatai. Despite recent molecular work on Metagonimus spp., there are still insufficient data to reveal the genetic characteristics of ancient M. yokogawai in a wide geo-historical scope. In this study, we were successful in the analysis of M. yokogawai ancient DNA (aDNA) using coprolite samples retrieved from 16th- to 17th-century Korean mummies. In BLAST and phylogenetic analyses, M. yokogawai 28S rDNA of Korean mummies were clustered along with the 28S rDNA taxa of M. takahashii and M. miyatai in GenBank. Conversely, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of M. yokogawai aDNA from Korean mummies was distinctly clustered apart from M. takahashii and M. miyatai sequences. This study is the first report of its kind to identify M. yokogawai aDNA retrieved from the archaeological specimens and confirms the usefulness of COI in molecular diagnosis of M. yokogawai. Considering the rarity of reports on the genetics of genus Metagonimus spp., our study will be fundamental for the future study of M. yokogawai paleogenetics.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Senovska A, Drozdova E, Vaculik O, et al (2020)

Cost-effective straightforward method for captured whole mitogenome sequencing of ancient DNA.

Forensic science international, 319:110638 pii:S0379-0738(20)30500-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Working with mitochondrial DNA from highly degraded samples is challenging. We present a whole mitogenome Illumina-based sequencing method suitable for highly degraded samples. The method makes use of double-stranded library preparation with hybridization-based target enrichment. The aim of the study was to implement a new user-friendly method for analysing many ancient DNA samples at low cost. The method combines the Swift 2S™ Turbo library preparation kit and xGen® panel for mitogenome enrichment. Swift allows to use low input of aDNA and own adapters and primers, handles inhibitors well, and has only two purification steps. xGen is straightforward to use and is able to leverage already pooled libraries. Given the ancient DNA is more challenging to work with, the protocol was developed with several improvements, especially multiplying DNA input in case of low concentration DNA extractions followed by AMPure® beads size selection and real-time pre-capture PCR monitoring in order to avoid cycle-optimization step. Nine out of eleven analysed samples successfully retrieved mitogenomes. Hence, our method provides an effective analysis of whole mtDNA, and has proven to be fast, cost-effective, straightforward, with utilisation in population-wide research of burial sites.

RevDate: 2020-12-19

Lewis D (2019)

Head of ancient-DNA lab sacked for 'serious misconduct'.

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Schulte L, Bernhardt N, Stoof-Leichsenring K, et al (2020)

Hybridization capture of larch (Larix Mill) chloroplast genomes from sedimentary ancient DNA reveals past changes of Siberian forest.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Siberian larch (Larix Mill.) forests dominate vast areas of northern Russia and contribute important ecosystem services to the world. It is important to understand the past dynamics of larches in order to predict their likely response to a changing climate in the future. Sedimentary ancient DNA extracted from lake sediment cores can serve as archives to study past vegetation. However, the traditional method of studying sedimentary ancient DNA - metabarcoding - focuses on small fragments which cannot resolve Larix to species level nor allow a detailed study of population dynamics. Here we use shotgun sequencing and hybridization capture with long-range PCR-generated baits covering the complete Larix chloroplast genome to study Larix populations from a sediment core reaching back to 6700 years from the Taymyr region in northern Siberia. In comparison to shotgun sequencing, hybridization capture results in an increase of taxonomically classified reads by several orders of magnitude and the recovery of complete chloroplast genomes of Larix. Variation in the chloroplast reads corroborate an invasion of Larix gmelinii into the range of Larix sibirica before 6700 years ago. Since then, both species have been present at the site, although larch populations have decreased with only a few trees remaining in what was once a forested area. This study demonstrates for the first time that hybridization capture applied directly to ancient DNA of plants extracted from lake sediments can provide genome-scale information and is a viable tool for studying past genomic changes in populations of single species, irrespective of a preservation as macrofossil.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Kistler L, Thakar HB, VanDerwarker AM, et al (2020)

Archaeological Central American maize genomes suggest ancient gene flow from South America.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(52):33124-33129.

Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) domestication began in southwestern Mexico ∼9,000 calendar years before present (cal. BP) and humans dispersed this important grain to South America by at least 7,000 cal. BP as a partial domesticate. South America served as a secondary improvement center where the domestication syndrome became fixed and new lineages emerged in parallel with similar processes in Mesoamerica. Later, Indigenous cultivators carried a second major wave of maize southward from Mesoamerica, but it has been unclear until now whether the deeply divergent maize lineages underwent any subsequent gene flow between these regions. Here we report ancient maize genomes (2,300-1,900 cal. BP) from El Gigante rock shelter, Honduras, that are closely related to ancient and modern maize from South America. Our findings suggest that the second wave of maize brought into South America hybridized with long-established landraces from the first wave, and that some of the resulting newly admixed lineages were then reintroduced to Central America. Direct radiocarbon dates and cob morphological data from the rock shelter suggest that more productive maize varieties developed between 4,300 and 2,500 cal. BP. We hypothesize that the influx of maize from South America into Central America may have been an important source of genetic diversity as maize was becoming a staple grain in Central and Mesoamerica.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Padró J, Lambertucci SA, Perrig PL, et al (2020)

Andean and California condors possess dissimilar genetic composition but exhibit similar demographic histories.

Ecology and evolution, 10(23):13011-13021.

While genetic diversity of threatened species is a major concern of conservation biologists, historic patterns of genetic variation are often unknown. A powerful approach to assess patterns and processes of genetic erosion is via ancient DNA techniques. Herein, we analyzed mtDNA from historical samples (1800s to present) of Andean Condors (Vultur gryphus) to investigate whether contemporary low genetic variability is the result of recent human expansion and persecution, and compared this genetic history to that of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus).We then explored historic demographies for both species via coalescent simulations. We found that Andean condors have lost at least 17% of their genetic variation in the early 20th century. Unlike California condors, however, low mtDNA diversity in the Andean condor was mostly ancient, before European arrival. However, we found that both condor species shared similar demographies in that population bottlenecks were recent and co-occurred with the introduction of livestock to the Americas and the global collapse of marine mammals. Given the combined information on genetic and demographic processes, we suggest that the protection of key habitats should be targeted for conserving extant genetic diversity and facilitate the natural recolonization of lost territories, while nuclear genomic data should be used to inform translocation plans.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Garrett Vieira F, Samaniego Castruita JA, MTP Gilbert (2020)

Using in silico predicted ancestral genomes to improve the efficiency of paleogenome reconstruction.

Ecology and evolution, 10(23):12700-12709.

Paleogenomics is the nascent discipline concerned with sequencing and analysis of genome-scale information from historic, ancient, and even extinct samples. While once inconceivable due to the challenges of DNA damage, contamination, and the technical limitations of PCR-based Sanger sequencing, following the dawn of the second-generation sequencing revolution, it has rapidly become a reality. However, a significant challenge facing ancient DNA studies on extinct species is the lack of closely related reference genomes against which to map the sequencing reads from ancient samples. Although bioinformatic efforts to improve the assemblies have focused mainly in mapping algorithms, in this article we explore the potential of an alternative approach, namely using reconstructed ancestral genome as reference for mapping DNA sequences of ancient samples. Specifically, we present a preliminary proof of concept for a general framework and demonstrate how under certain evolutionary divergence thresholds, considerable mapping improvements can be easily obtained.

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Balzeau A, Turq A, Talamo S, et al (2020)

Pluridisciplinary evidence for burial for the La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child.

Scientific reports, 10(1):21230.

The origin of funerary practices has important implications for the emergence of so-called modern cognitive capacities and behaviour. We provide new multidisciplinary information on the archaeological context of the La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal skeleton (grand abri of La Ferrassie, Dordogne, France), including geochronological data -14C and OSL-, ZooMS and ancient DNA data, geological and stratigraphic information from the surrounding context, complete taphonomic study of the skeleton and associated remains, spatial information from the 1968-1973 excavations, and new (2014) fieldwork data. Our results show that a pit was dug in a sterile sediment layer and the corpse of a two-year-old child was laid there. A hominin bone from this context, identified through Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS) and associated with Neandertal based on its mitochondrial DNA, yielded a direct 14C age of 41.7-40.8 ka cal BP (95%), younger than the 14C dates of the overlying archaeopaleontological layers and the OSL age of the surrounding sediment. This age makes the bone one of the most recent directly dated Neandertals. It is consistent with the age range for the Châtelperronian in the site and in this region and represents the third association of Neandertal taxa to Initial Upper Palaeolithic lithic technocomplex in Western Europe. A detailed multidisciplinary approach, as presented here, is essential to advance understanding of Neandertal behavior, including funerary practices.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Verma S, Sharma I, Sharma V, et al (2020)

MassArray analysis of genomic susceptibility variants in ovarian cancer.

Scientific reports, 10(1):21101.

Ovarian cancer (OC), a multifaceted and genetically heterogeneous malignancy is one of the most common cancers among women. The aim of the study is to unravel the genetic factors associated with OC and the extent of genetic heterogeneity in the populations of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K).Using the high throughput Agena MassARRAY platform, present case control study was designed which comprises 200 histopathological confirmed OC patients and 400 age and ethnicity matched healthy controls to ascertain the association of previously reported eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spread over ten genes (DNMT3A, PIK3CA, FGFR2, GSTP1, ERCC5, AKT1, CASC16, CYP19A1, BCL2 and ERCC1) within the OC population of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The association of each variant was estimated using logistic regression analyses. Out of the 11 SNPs the odds ratio observed for three SNPs; rs2699887 was (1.72 at 95% CI: 1.19-2.48, p = 0.004), rs1695 was (1.87 at 95% CI: 1.28-2.71, p = 0.001), and rs2298881 was (0.66 at 95% CI: 0.46-0.96, p = 0.03) were found significantly associated with the OC after correction with confounding factors i.e. age & BMI. Furthermore, the estimation of interactive analyses was performed and odds ratio observed was 2.44 (1.72-3.47), p value < 0. 001 suggests that there was a strong existence of interplay between the selected genetic variants in OC, which demonstrate that interactive analysis highlights the role of gene-gene interaction that provides an insight among multiple little effects of various polymorphisms in OC.

RevDate: 2020-12-11

Duggan AT, Holmes EC, HN Poinar (2020)

Response to Brinkmann et al. "Re-assembly of 19th century smallpox vaccine genomes reveals the contemporaneous use of horsepox and horsepox-related viruses in the United States".

Genome biology, 21(1):287.

We thank Brinkmann and colleagues for their correspondence and their further investigation into these American Civil War Era vaccination strains. Here, we summarize the difficulties and caveats of work with ancient DNA.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Dussex N, Alberti F, Heino MT, et al (2020)

Moose genomes reveal past glacial demography and the origin of modern lineages.

BMC genomics, 21(1):854.

BACKGROUND: Numerous megafauna species from northern latitudes went extinct during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition as a result of climate-induced habitat changes. However, several ungulate species managed to successfully track their habitats during this period to eventually flourish and recolonise the holarctic regions. So far, the genomic impacts of these climate fluctuations on ungulates from high latitudes have been little explored. Here, we assemble a de-novo genome for the European moose (Alces alces) and analyse it together with re-sequenced nuclear genomes and ancient and modern mitogenomes from across the moose range in Eurasia and North America.

RESULTS: We found that moose demographic history was greatly influenced by glacial cycles, with demographic responses to the Pleistocene/Holocene transition similar to other temperate ungulates. Our results further support that modern moose lineages trace their origin back to populations that inhabited distinct glacial refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Finally, we found that present day moose in Europe and North America show low to moderate inbreeding levels resulting from post-glacial bottlenecks and founder effects, but no evidence for recent inbreeding resulting from human-induced population declines.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results highlight the dynamic recent evolutionary history of the moose and provide an important resource for further genomic studies.

RevDate: 2021-01-01

Wellman HP, Austin RM, Dagtas ND, et al (2020)

Archaeological mitogenomes illuminate the historical ecology of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and the viability of reintroduction.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1940):20202343.

Genetic analyses are an important contribution to wildlife reintroductions, particularly in the modern context of extirpations and ecological destruction. To address the complex historical ecology of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) and its failed 1970s reintroduction to coastal Oregon, we compared mitochondrial genomes of pre-extirpation Oregon sea otters to extant and historical populations across the range. We sequenced, to our knowledge, the first complete ancient mitogenomes from archaeological Oregon sea otter dentine and historical sea otter dental calculus. Archaeological Oregon sea otters (n = 20) represent 10 haplotypes, which cluster with haplotypes from Alaska, Washington and British Columbia, and exhibit a clear division from California haplotypes. Our results suggest that extant northern populations are appropriate for future reintroduction efforts. This project demonstrates the feasibility of mitogenome capture and sequencing from non-human dental calculus and the diverse applications of ancient DNA analyses to pressing ecological and conservation topics and the management of at-risk/extirpated species.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Feuerborn TR, Palkopoulou E, van der Valk T, et al (2020)

Competitive mapping allows for the identification and exclusion of human DNA contamination in ancient faunal genomic datasets.

BMC genomics, 21(1):844.

BACKGROUND: After over a decade of developments in field collection, laboratory methods and advances in high-throughput sequencing, contamination remains a key issue in ancient DNA research. Currently, human and microbial contaminant DNA still impose challenges on cost-effective sequencing and accurate interpretation of ancient DNA data.

RESULTS: Here we investigate whether human contaminating DNA can be found in ancient faunal sequencing datasets. We identify variable levels of human contamination, which persists even after the sequence reads have been mapped to the faunal reference genomes. This contamination has the potential to affect a range of downstream analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose a fast and simple method, based on competitive mapping, which allows identifying and removing human contamination from ancient faunal DNA datasets with limited losses of true ancient data. This method could represent an important tool for the ancient DNA field.

RevDate: 2020-12-26

Koupadi K, Fontani F, Ciucani MM, et al (2020)

Population Dynamics in Italian Canids between the Late Pleistocene and Bronze Age.

Genes, 11(12):.

Dog domestication is still largely unresolved due to time-gaps in the sampling of regions. Ancient Italian canids are particularly understudied, currently represented by only a few specimens. In the present study, we sampled 27 canid remains from Northern Italy dated between the Late Pleistocene and Bronze Age to assess their genetic variability, and thus add context to dog domestication dynamics. They were targeted at four DNA fragments of the hypervariable region 1 of mitochondrial DNA. A total of 11 samples had good DNA preservation and were used for phylogenetic analyses. The dog samples were assigned to dog haplogroups A, C and D, and a Late Pleistocene wolf was set into wolf haplogroup 2. We present our data in the landscape of ancient and modern dog genetic variability, with a particular focus on the ancient Italian samples published thus far. Our results suggest there is high genetic variability within ancient Italian canids, where close relationships were evident between both a ~24,700 years old Italian canid, and Iberian and Bulgarian ancient dogs. These findings emphasize that disentangling dog domestication dynamics benefits from the analysis of specimens from Southern European regions.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

García-Rodríguez F, Piccini C, Carrizo D, et al (2021)

Centennial glacier retreat increases sedimentation and eutrophication in Subantarctic periglacial lakes: A study case of Lake Uruguay.

The Science of the total environment, 754:142066.

High resolution XRF scanning documented inter-annual paleolimnological changes of a Subantarctic periglacial lake, during a process of centennial glacier retreat in King George Island, Antarctica. Two major paleoenvironmental stages were inferred from the combined analysis of elemental, molecular and isotopic biomarkers, with a boundary or transition set at about 3200 yr BP. The first stage was characterized by a relatively low allochthonous organic content, reduced productivity and nitrogen levels. Such paleoenvironmental conditions are interpreted as a terrestrial system under periglacial influence, where material influx was related to erosion process from the melt water discharge, because of the proximity to the Collins Glacier ice cap. After the major Holocene glacier advance dated at about 3500 yr BP, the ice cap retreat led to the formation of Lake Uruguay, which involved in filling processes leading to moraine deposits, proglacial meltwater channels, and lakes next to the land glacier. During the second stage, with the onset of the Current Warm Period, prior to 1900 CE the stabilization of the Zr/Rb ratio within the laminated sediments documented the origin of the lacustrine sedimentation system, with subsequent increases in the sedimentation rate and biomass content (total nitrogen and organic carbon). Time series analyses revealed that the lake displayed variability cycles related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as reflected by high resolution sedimentological proxies for grain size, weathering, allochthonous inputs from the watershed, increase of biomass and productivity, and changes in redox conditions, all of which displayed similar oscillation cycles from 2 to 6 yr. During this periglacial recession and associated eutrophication process, we detected a striking loss in both bacterial specific richness and diversity as inferred from preliminary selected ancient DNA analyses. Thus, the Antarctic warming scenario leading to glacier depletion appears to exert deterioration consequences on the Subantarctic microbial web.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Loog L (2021)

Sometimes hidden but always there: the assumptions underlying genetic inference of demographic histories.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 376(1816):20190719.

Demographic processes directly affect patterns of genetic variation within contemporary populations as well as future generations, allowing for demographic inference from patterns of both present-day and past genetic variation. Advances in laboratory procedures, sequencing and genotyping technologies in the past decades have resulted in massive increases in high-quality genome-wide genetic data from present-day populations and allowed retrieval of genetic data from archaeological material, also known as ancient DNA. This has resulted in an explosion of work exploring past changes in population size, structure, continuity and movement. However, as genetic processes are highly stochastic, patterns of genetic variation only indirectly reflect demographic histories. As a result, past demographic processes need to be reconstructed using an inferential approach. This usually involves comparing observed patterns of variation with model expectations from theoretical population genetics. A large number of approaches have been developed based on different population genetic models that each come with assumptions about the data and underlying demography. In this article I review some of the key models and assumptions underlying the most commonly used approaches for past demographic inference and their consequences for our ability to link the inferred demographic processes to the archaeological and climate records. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cross-disciplinary approaches to prehistoric demography'.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Wester JVWC, Vilchez VJS, Torre CEW, et al (2020)

Molecular characterization of mitochondrial Amerindian haplogroups and the amelogenin gene in human ancient DNA from three archaeological sites in Lambayeque - Peru.

Genetics and molecular biology, 43(4):e20190265.

Important pre-Inca civilizations, known by their great political and religious structures, inhabited the northern coast of Peru. Archeological and anthropological studies have shown that people from these villages have hierarchical strata, but the genetic structure has been poorly studied. Here, we aimed to perform a molecular characterization of the Amerindian maternal lineages and the amelogenin gene in skeletons collected from three archeological sites in Lambayeque. Ancient DNA (aDNA) samples were analyzed with conventional PCR to assess the nine-base pair (9 bp) deletion corresponding to mitochondrial haplogroup B and the identification of haplogroups A, C, and D were obtained with PCR-RFLP experiments. The sex was characterized via amplification of the AMEL(X/Y) locus. Haplogroup frequencies were compared with available data from other ancient and modern civilizations from the Peruvian coast and highlands using statistical methods. Our results showed that haplogroup C had the highest frequency, while haplogroup B showed variable diversity in the analyzed populations. The meta-analysis revealed a positive correlation among some coastal villages. We concluded that ancient populations analyzed in our study showed the presence of four Amerindian mitochondrial haplogroups, which is consistent with previous studies.

RevDate: 2020-11-26

Sun J, Ma PC, Cheng HZ, et al (2020)

Post-last glacial maximum expansion of Y-chromosome haplogroup C2a-L1373 in northern Asia and its implications for the origin of Native Americans.

American journal of physical anthropology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Subbranches of Y-chromosome haplogroup C2a-L1373 are founding paternal lineages in northern Asia and Native American populations. Our objective was to investigate C2a-L1373 differentiation in northern Asia and its implications for Native American origins.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sequences of rare subbranches (n = 43) and ancient individuals (n = 37) of C2a-L1373 (including P39 and MPB373), were used to construct phylogenetic trees with age estimation by BEAST software.

RESULTS: C2a-L1373 expanded rapidly approximately 17.7,000-14.3,000 years ago (kya) after the last glacial maximum (LGM), generating numerous sublineages which became founding paternal lineages of modern northern Asian and Native American populations (C2a-P39 and C2a-MPB373). The divergence pattern supports possible initiation of differentiation in low latitude regions of northern Asia and northward diffusion after the LGM. There is a substantial gap between the divergence times of C2a-MPB373 (approximately 22.4 or 17.7 kya) and C2a-P39 (approximately 14.3 kya), indicating two possible migration waves.

DISCUSSION: We discussed the decreasing time interval of "Beringian standstill" (2.5 ky or smaller) and its reduced significance. We also discussed the multiple possibilities for the peopling of the Americas: the "Long-term Beringian standstill model," the "Short-term Beringian standstill model," and the "Multiple waves of migration model." Our results support the argument from ancient DNA analyses that the direct ancestor group of Native Americans is an admixture of "Ancient Northern Siberians" and Paleolithic communities from the Amur region, which appeared during the post-LGM era, rather than ancient populations in greater Beringia, or an adjacent region, before the LGM.

RevDate: 2020-12-04

Weyrich LS (2021)

The evolutionary history of the human oral microbiota and its implications for modern health.

Periodontology 2000, 85(1):90-100.

Numerous biological and cultural factors influence the microbial communities (microbiota) that inhabit the human mouth, including diet, environment, hygiene, physiology, health status, genetics, and lifestyle. As oral microbiota can underpin oral and systemic diseases, tracing the evolutionary history of oral microbiota and the factors that shape its origins will unlock information to mitigate disease today. Despite this, the origins of many oral microbes remain unknown, and the key factors in the past that shaped our oral microbiota are only now emerging. High throughput DNA sequencing of oral microbiota using ancient DNA and comparative anthropological methodologies has been employed to investigate oral microbiota origins, revealing a complex, rich history. Here, I review the current literature on the factors that shaped and guided oral microbiota evolution, both in Europe and globally. In Europe, oral microbiota evolution was shaped by interactions with Neandertals, the adaptation of farming, widespread integration of industrialization, and postindustrial lifestyles that emerged after World War II. Globally, evidence for a multitude of different oral microbiota histories is emerging, likely supporting dissimilarities in modern oral health across discrete human populations. I highlight how these evolutionary changes are linked to the development of modern oral diseases and discuss the remaining factors that need to be addressed to improve this embryonic field of research. I argue that understanding the evolutionary history of our oral microbiota is necessary to identify new treatment and prevention options to improve oral and systemic health in the future.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Gregory MD, Kippenhan JS, Kohn P, et al (2020)

Neanderthal-Derived Genetic Variation Is Associated with Functional Connectivity in the Brains of Living Humans.

Brain connectivity [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: To determine whether Neanderthal-derived genetic variation relates to functional connectivity patterns in the brains of living modern humans. Introduction: Nearly 50,000 years ago, Neanderthals interbred with ancestors of modern humans, imparting a genetic legacy that lives on today. The vestiges of this Neanderthal-derived genetic variation have been previously shown to be enriched in genes coding for neurogenesis and myelination and to alter skull shape and brain structure in living people. Materials and Methods: Using two independent cohorts totaling 553 healthy individuals, we employed multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) to determine whether any brain areas exhibited whole-brain functional connectivity patterns that significantly related to the degree of Neanderthal introgression. Identified clusters were then used as regions of interest in follow-up seed-based functional connectivity analyses to determine the connectivity patterns driving the relationships. Results: The MDMR analysis revealed that the percentage of Neanderthal-originating polymorphisms was significantly associated with the functional connectivity patterns of an area of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) that was nearly identical in both cohorts. Using these IPS clusters as regions of interest in seed-based connectivity analyses, we found, again in both cohorts, that individuals with a higher proportion of Neanderthal-derived genetic variation showed increased IPS functional connectivity with visual processing regions, but decreased IPS connectivity with regions underlying social cognition. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the remnants of Neanderthal admixture continue to influence human brain function today, in ways that are consistent with anthropological conceptualizations of Neanderthal phenotypes, including the possibility that Neanderthals may have depended upon visual processing capabilities at the expense of social cognition, and this may have contributed to the extinction of this species through reduced cultural maintenance and inability to cope with fluctuating resources. This and other studies capitalizing on the emerging science surrounding ancient DNA provide a window through which to view an ancient lineage long past.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-14

Latorre SM, Lang PLM, Burbano HA, et al (2020)

Isolation, Library Preparation, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Historical and Ancient Plant DNA.

Current protocols in plant biology, 5(4):e20121.

The ability to sequence DNA retrieved from ancient and historical material plays a crucial role in reinforcing evolutionary and anthropological inference. While the focus of the field is largely on analyzing DNA from ancient hominids and other animals, we have also learned from plant ancient DNA (aDNA), in particular, about human farming practices, crop domestication, environment management, species invasion, and adaptation to various environmental conditions. In the following protocols, we outline best practices for plant aDNA isolation, preparation for sequencing, bioinformatic processing, and authentication. We describe the process all the way from processing of archaeological or historical plant material to characterizing and authenticating sequencing reads. In alternative protocols, we include modifications to this process that are tailored to strongly degraded DNA. Throughout, we stress the importance of precautionary measures to successfully analyze aDNA. Finally, we discuss the evolution of the archaeogenomics field and the development of new methods, which both shaped this protocol. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Isolation of aDNA Alternate Protocol 1: Isolation of ultra-short DNA (Dabney modification) Support Protocol 1: Preparation of PTB-based mix Support Protocol 2: Preparation of binding buffer Basic Protocol 2: Preparation of genomic libraries Alternate Protocol 2: Preparation of genomic libraries with uracil removal Basic Protocol 3: Bioinformatic processing and authentication of aDNA.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Roca-Rada X, Souilmi Y, Teixeira JC, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA Studies in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.

Genes, 11(11):.

Mesoamerica is a historically and culturally defined geographic area comprising current central and south Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, and border regions of Honduras, western Nicaragua, and northwestern Costa Rica. The permanent settling of Mesoamerica was accompanied by the development of agriculture and pottery manufacturing (2500 BCE-150 CE), which led to the rise of several cultures connected by commerce and farming. Hence, Mesoamericans probably carried an invaluable genetic diversity partly lost during the Spanish conquest and the subsequent colonial period. Mesoamerican ancient DNA (aDNA) research has mainly focused on the study of mitochondrial DNA in the Basin of Mexico and the Yucatán Peninsula and its nearby territories, particularly during the Postclassic period (900-1519 CE). Despite limitations associated with the poor preservation of samples in tropical areas, recent methodological improvements pave the way for a deeper analysis of Mesoamerica. Here, we review how aDNA research has helped discern population dynamics patterns in the pre-Columbian Mesoamerican context, how it supports archaeological, linguistic, and anthropological conclusions, and finally, how it offers new working hypotheses.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Wang T, Dong Q, Wang W, et al (2020)

Evolution of AITR family genes in cotton and their functions in abiotic stress tolerance.

Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors inhibiting plant growth and development. AITRs (ABA-induced transcription repressors) are a novel family of transcription factors regulating ABA (abscisic acid) signaling and plant responses to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. However, the composition and evolution history of AITRs and their roles in cotton genus are largely unknown. Here, a total of 12 putative AITR genes were identified in cultivated tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic analysis of GhAITRs in these cottons and their closely related species implicate the ancient genome-wide duplication occurring after speciation of Gossypium and Theobroma could generate the duplicates of GhAITRs. Duplicated GhAITRs were stably inherited in following diploid speciation and further allotetraploidy in Gossypium. Homologous GhAITRs shared common expression patterns in response to ABA, drought and salinity treatments, and drought tolerance could be affected in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GhAITR-A1. Together, our findings reveal that duplicates in GhAITR gene family were achieved by whole genome duplication rather than three individual duplication events, and GhAITRs function as transcription repressors and are involved in the regulation of plant responses to ABA and drought stress. These results may provide insights towards the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in cotton by using GhAITRs.

RevDate: 2020-12-23
CmpDate: 2020-12-23

Sjögren KG, Olalde I, Carver S, et al (2020)

Kinship and social organization in Copper Age Europe. A cross-disciplinary analysis of archaeology, DNA, isotopes, and anthropology from two Bell Beaker cemeteries.

PloS one, 15(11):e0241278.

We present a high-resolution cross-disciplinary analysis of kinship structure and social institutions in two Late Copper Age Bell Beaker culture cemeteries of South Germany containing 24 and 18 burials, of which 34 provided genetic information. By combining archaeological, anthropological, genetic and isotopic evidence we are able to document the internal kinship and residency structure of the cemeteries and the socially organizing principles of these local communities. The buried individuals represent four to six generations of two family groups, one nuclear family at the Alburg cemetery, and one seemingly more extended at Irlbach. While likely monogamous, they practiced exogamy, as six out of eight non-locals are women. Maternal genetic diversity is high with 23 different mitochondrial haplotypes from 34 individuals, whereas all males belong to one single Y-chromosome haplogroup without any detectable contribution from Y-chromosomes typical of the farmers who had been the sole inhabitants of the region hundreds of years before. This provides evidence for the society being patrilocal, perhaps as a way of protecting property among the male line, while in-marriage from many different places secured social and political networks and prevented inbreeding. We also find evidence that the communities practiced selection for which of their children (aged 0-14 years) received a proper burial, as buried juveniles were in all but one case boys, suggesting the priority of young males in the cemeteries. This is plausibly linked to the exchange of foster children as part of an expansionist kinship system which is well attested from later Indo-European-speaking cultural groups.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Froment C, Zanolli C, Hourset M, et al (2021)

Protein sequence comparison of human and non-human primate tooth proteomes.

Journal of proteomics, 231:104045.

In the context of human evolution, the study of proteins may overcome the limitation of the high degradation of ancient DNA over time to provide biomolecular information useful for the phylogenetic reconstruction of hominid taxa. In this study, we used a shotgun proteomics approach to compare the tooth proteomes of extant human and non-human primates (gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan and baboon) in order to search for a panel of peptides able to discriminate between taxa and further help reconstructing the evolutionary relationships of fossil primates. Among the 25 proteins shared by the five genera datasets, we found a combination of peptides with sequence variations allowing to differentiate the hominid taxa in the proteins AHSG, AMBN, APOA1, BGN, C9, COL11A2, COL22A1, COL3A1, DSPP, F2, LUM, OMD, PCOLCE and SERPINA1. The phylogenetic tree confirms the placement of the samples in the appropriate genus branches. Altogether, the results provide experimental evidence that a shotgun proteomics approach on dental tissue has the potential to detect taxonomic variation, which is promising for future investigations of uncharacterized and/or fossil hominid/hominin specimens. SIGNIFICANCE: A shotgun proteomics approach on human and non-human primate teeth allowed to identify peptides with taxonomic interest, highlighting the potential for future studies on hominid fossils.

RevDate: 2020-11-12

Bonsu DOM, Higgins D, Henry J, et al (2020)

Evaluation of the efficiency of Isohelix™ and Rayon swabs for recovery of DNA from metal surfaces.

Forensic science, medicine, and pathology pii:10.1007/s12024-020-00329-x [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: We investigated the recovery and extraction efficiency of DNA from three metal surfaces (brass, copper, steel) relevant to forensic casework, and plastic (control) using two different swabbing systems; Rayon and Isohelix™ swabs, with sterile water and isopropyl alcohol respectively, as the wetting solutions.

METHODS: Twenty nanograms of human genomic DNA were applied directly to Isohelix™ and Rayon swabs; and to the metal and plastic substrates. All substrates were left to dry for 24 h, followed by single wet swabbing and extraction with the DNA IQ™ System. DNA extracts were quantified using real time quantitative PCR assays with SYBR green chemistry.

RESULTS: DNA was extracted from directly seeded Isohelix™ swabs with a high efficiency of 98%, indicating effective DNA-release from the swab into the extraction buffer. In contrast, only 58% of input DNA was recovered from seeded Rayon swabs, indicating higher DNA retention by these swabs. Isohelix™ swabs recovered 32 - 53% of DNA from metal surfaces, whilst the Rayon swabs recovered 11-29%. DNA recovery was lowest from copper and highest from brass. Interestingly, Rayon swabs appeared to collect more DNA from the plastic surface than Isohelix™ swabs, however, due to the lower release of DNA from Rayon swabs they returned less DNA overall following extraction than Isohelix™ swabs.

CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that DNA samples deposited on metal surfaces can be more efficiently recovered using Isohelix™ swabs wetted with isopropyl alcohol than Rayon swabs wetted with sterile water, although recovery is affected by the substrate type.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Silva M, Pratas D, AJ Pinho (2020)

Efficient DNA sequence compression with neural networks.

GigaScience, 9(11):.

BACKGROUND: The increasing production of genomic data has led to an intensified need for models that can cope efficiently with the lossless compression of DNA sequences. Important applications include long-term storage and compression-based data analysis. In the literature, only a few recent articles propose the use of neural networks for DNA sequence compression. However, they fall short when compared with specific DNA compression tools, such as GeCo2. This limitation is due to the absence of models specifically designed for DNA sequences. In this work, we combine the power of neural networks with specific DNA models. For this purpose, we created GeCo3, a new genomic sequence compressor that uses neural networks for mixing multiple context and substitution-tolerant context models.

FINDINGS: We benchmark GeCo3 as a reference-free DNA compressor in 5 datasets, including a balanced and comprehensive dataset of DNA sequences, the Y-chromosome and human mitogenome, 2 compilations of archaeal and virus genomes, 4 whole genomes, and 2 collections of FASTQ data of a human virome and ancient DNA. GeCo3 achieves a solid improvement in compression over the previous version (GeCo2) of $2.4\%$, $7.1\%$, $6.1\%$, $5.8\%$, and $6.0\%$, respectively. To test its performance as a reference-based DNA compressor, we benchmark GeCo3 in 4 datasets constituted by the pairwise compression of the chromosomes of the genomes of several primates. GeCo3 improves the compression in $12.4\%$, $11.7\%$, $10.8\%$, and $10.1\%$ over the state of the art. The cost of this compression improvement is some additional computational time (1.7-3 times slower than GeCo2). The RAM use is constant, and the tool scales efficiently, independently of the sequence size. Overall, these values outperform the state of the art.

CONCLUSIONS: GeCo3 is a genomic sequence compressor with a neural network mixing approach that provides additional gains over top specific genomic compressors. The proposed mixing method is portable, requiring only the probabilities of the models as inputs, providing easy adaptation to other data compressors or compression-based data analysis tools. GeCo3 is released under GPLv3 and is available for free download at

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Thomas C, Francke A, Vogel H, et al (2020)

Weak Influence of Paleoenvironmental Conditions on the Subsurface Biosphere of Lake Ohrid over the Last 515 ka.

Microorganisms, 8(11):.

Lacustrine sediments are widely used to investigate the impact of climatic change on biogeochemical cycling. In these sediments, subsurface microbial communities are major actors of this cycling but can also affect the sedimentary record and overprint the original paleoenvironmental signal. We therefore investigated the subsurface microbial communities of the oldest lake in Europe, Lake Ohrid (North Macedonia, Albania), to assess the potential connection between microbial diversity and past environmental change using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Along the upper ca. 200 m of the DEEP site sediment record spanning ca. 515 thousand years (ka), our results show that Atribacteria, Bathyarchaeia and Gammaproteobacteria structured the community independently from each other. Except for the latter, these taxa are common in deep lacustrine and marine sediments due to their metabolic versatility adapted to low energy environments. Gammaproteobacteria were often co-occurring with cyanobacterial sequences or soil-related OTUs suggesting preservation of ancient DNA from the water column or catchment back to at least 340 ka, particularly in dry glacial intervals. We found significant environmental parameters influencing the overall microbial community distribution, but no strong relationship with given phylotypes and paleoclimatic signals or sediment age. Our results support a weak recording of early diagenetic processes and their actors by bulk prokaryotic sedimentary DNA in Lake Ohrid, replaced by specialized low-energy clades of the deep biosphere and a marked imprint of erosional processes on the subsurface DNA pool of Lake Ohrid.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Psonis N, de Carvalho CN, Figueiredo S, et al (2020)

Molecular identification and geographic origin of a post-Medieval elephant finding from southwestern Portugal using high-throughput sequencing.

Scientific reports, 10(1):19252.

Molecular species identification plays a crucial role in archaeology and palaeontology, especially when diagnostic morphological characters are unavailable. Molecular markers have been used in forensic science to trace the geographic origin of wildlife products, such as ivory. So far, only a few studies have applied genetic methods to both identify the species and circumscribe the provenance of historic wildlife trade material. Here, by combining ancient DNA methods and genome skimming on a historical elephantid tooth found in southwestern Portugal, we aimed to identify its species, infer its placement in the elephantid phylogenetic tree, and triangulate its geographic origin. According to our results the specimen dates back to the eighteenth century CE and belongs to a female African forest elephant (non-hybrid Loxodonta cyclotis individual) geographically originated from west-west-central Africa, from areas where one of the four major mitochondrial clades of L. cyclotis is distributed. Historical evidence supports our inference, pointing out that the tooth should be considered as post-Medieval raw ivory trade material between West Africa and Portugal. Our study provides a comprehensive approach to study historical products and artefacts using archaeogenetics and contributes towards enlightening cultural and biological historical aspects of ivory trade in western Europe.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Teschler-Nicola M, Fernandes D, Händel M, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA reveals monozygotic newborn twins from the Upper Palaeolithic.

Communications biology, 3(1):650.

The Upper Palaeolithic double burial of newborns and the single burial of a ca. 3-month-old infant uncovered at the Gravettian site of Krems-Wachtberg, Austria, are of paramount importance given the rarity of immature human remains from this time. Genome-wide ancient DNA shows that the male infants of the double grave are the earliest reported case of monozygotic twins, while the single grave´s individual was their 3rd-degree male relative. We assessed the individuals´ age at death by applying histological and µCT inspection of the maxillary second incisors (i2) in conjunction with C- and N-isotope ratios and Barium (Ba) intake as biomarker for breastfeeding. The results show that the twins were full-term newborns, and that while individual 2 died at birth, individual 1 survived for about 50 days. The findings show that Gravettian mortuary behaviour also included re-opening of a grave and manipulation of its layout and content.

RevDate: 2020-12-11

Jeong C, Wang K, Wilkin S, et al (2020)

A Dynamic 6,000-Year Genetic History of Eurasia's Eastern Steppe.

Cell, 183(4):890-904.e29.

The Eastern Eurasian Steppe was home to historic empires of nomadic pastoralists, including the Xiongnu and the Mongols. However, little is known about the region's population history. Here, we reveal its dynamic genetic history by analyzing new genome-wide data for 214 ancient individuals spanning 6,000 years. We identify a pastoralist expansion into Mongolia ca. 3000 BCE, and by the Late Bronze Age, Mongolian populations were biogeographically structured into three distinct groups, all practicing dairy pastoralism regardless of ancestry. The Xiongnu emerged from the mixing of these populations and those from surrounding regions. By comparison, the Mongols exhibit much higher eastern Eurasian ancestry, resembling present-day Mongolic-speaking populations. Our results illuminate the complex interplay between genetic, sociopolitical, and cultural changes on the Eastern Steppe.

RevDate: 2020-12-24
CmpDate: 2020-12-24

Abbona CC, Adolfo GN, Johnson J, et al (2020)

Were domestic camelids present on the prehispanic South American agricultural frontier? An ancient DNA study.

PloS one, 15(11):e0240474.

The southern boundary of prehispanic farming in South America occurs in central Mendoza Province, Argentina at approximately 34 degrees south latitude. Archaeological evidence of farming includes the recovery of macrobotanical remains of cultigens and isotopic chemistry of human bone. Since the 1990s, archaeologists have also hypothesized that the llama (Lama glama), a domesticated South American camelid, was also herded near the southern boundary of prehispanic farming. The remains of a wild congeneric camelid, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), however, are common in archaeological sites throughout Mendoza Province. It is difficult to distinguish bones of the domestic llama from wild guanaco in terms of osteological morphology, and therefore, claims that llama were in geographic areas where guanaco were also present based on osteometric analysis alone remain equivocal. A recent study, for example, claimed that twenty-five percent of the camelid remains from the high elevation Andes site of Laguna del Diamante S4 were identified based on osteometric evidence as domestic llama, but guanaco are also a likely candidate since the two species overlap in size. We test the hypothesis that domesticated camelids occurred in prehispanic, southern Mendoza through analysis of ancient DNA. We generated whole mitochondrial genome datasets from 41 samples from southern Mendoza late Holocene archaeological sites, located between 450 and 3400 meters above sea level (masl). All camelid samples from those sites were identified as guanaco; thus, we have no evidence to support the hypothesis that the domestic llama occurred in prehispanic southern Mendoza.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Skelly E, Johnson NW, Kapellas K, et al (2020)

Response of Salivary Microbiota to Caries Preventive Treatment in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children.

Journal of oral microbiology, 12(1):1830623.

A once-annual caries preventive (Intervention) treatment was offered to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander schoolchildren-a population with disproportionately poorer oral health than non-Indigenous Australian children-in the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA) of Far North Queensland (FNQ), which significantly improved their oral health. Here, we examine the salivary microbiota of these children (mean age = 10 ± 2.96 years; n = 103), reconstructing the bacterial community composition with high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Microbial communities of children who received the Intervention had lower taxonomic diversity than those who did not receive treatment (Shannon, p < 0.05). Moreover, the Intervention resulted in further decreased microbial diversity in children with active carious lesions existing at the time of saliva collection. Microbial species associated with caries were detected; Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus gasseri, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Parascardovia denticolens, and Mitsuokella HMT 131 were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in children with severe caries, especially in children who did not receive the Intervention. These insights into microbial associations and community differences prompt future considerations to the mechanisms behind caries-preventive therapy induced change; important for understanding the long-term implications of like treatment to improve oral health disparities within Australia. Trial registration: ANZCTR, ACTRN12615000693527. Registered 3 July 2015,

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Saag L (2020)

Human Genetics: Lactase Persistence in a Battlefield.

Current biology : CB, 30(21):R1311-R1313.

Lactase persistence is a common genetic trait in Europeans and other pastoralists. New ancient DNA evidence from a Bronze Age battlefield indicates that selection for lactase persistence was strong and on-going in the last 3,000 years.

RevDate: 2020-11-04

Lall GM, Larmuseau MHD, Wetton JH, et al (2020)

Subdividing Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1 reveals Norse Viking dispersal lineages in Britain.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG pii:10.1038/s41431-020-00747-z [Epub ahead of print].

The influence of Viking-Age migrants to the British Isles is obvious in archaeological and place-names evidence, but their demographic impact has been unclear. Autosomal genetic analyses support Norse Viking contributions to parts of Britain, but show no signal corresponding to the Danelaw, the region under Scandinavian administrative control from the ninth to eleventh centuries. Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1 has been considered as a possible marker for Viking migrations because of its high frequency in peninsular Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden). Here we select ten Y-SNPs to discriminate informatively among hg R1a1 sub-haplogroups in Europe, analyse these in 619 hg R1a1 Y chromosomes including 163 from the British Isles, and also type 23 short-tandem repeats (Y-STRs) to assess internal diversity. We find three specifically Western-European sub-haplogroups, two of which predominate in Norway and Sweden, and are also found in Britain; star-like features in the STR networks of these lineages indicate histories of expansion. We ask whether geographical distributions of hg R1a1 overall, and of the two sub-lineages in particular, correlate with regions of Scandinavian influence within Britain. Neither shows any frequency difference between regions that have higher (≥10%) or lower autosomal contributions from Norway and Sweden, but both are significantly overrepresented in the region corresponding to the Danelaw. These differences between autosomal and Y-chromosomal histories suggest either male-specific contribution, or the influence of patrilocality. Comparison of modern DNA with recently available ancient DNA data supports the interpretation that two sub-lineages of hg R1a1 spread with the Vikings from peninsular Scandinavia.

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Furtwängler A, Neukamm J, Böhme L, et al (2020)

Comparison of target enrichment strategies for ancient pathogen DNA.

BioTechniques, 69(6):455-459.

In ancient DNA research, the degraded nature of the samples generally results in poor yields of highly fragmented DNA; targeted DNA enrichment is thus required to maximize research outcomes. The three commonly used methods - array-based hybridization capture and in-solution capture using either RNA or DNA baits - have different characteristics that may influence the capture efficiency, specificity and reproducibility. Here we compare their performance in enriching pathogen DNA of Mycobacterium leprae and Treponema pallidum from 11 ancient and 19 modern samples. We find that in-solution approaches are the most effective method in ancient and modern samples of both pathogens and that RNA baits usually perform better than DNA baits.

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Hao S, Han K, Meng L, et al (2020)

African Arowana Genome Provides Insights on Ancient Teleost Evolution.

iScience, 23(11):101662.

Osteoglossiformes is a basal clade of teleost, evolving since the Jurassic period. The genomes of Osteoglossiformes species would shed light on the evolution and adaptation of teleost. Here, we established a chromosome-level genome of African arowana. Together with the genomes of pirarucu and Asian arowana, we found that they diverged at ∼106.1 million years ago (MYA) and ∼59.2 MYA, respectively, which are coincident with continental separation. Interestingly, we identified a dynamic genome evolution characterized by a fast evolutionary rate and a high pseudogenization rate in African arowana and pirarucu. Additionally, more transposable elements were found in Asian arowana which confer more gene duplications. Moreover, we found the contraction of olfactory receptor and the expansion of UGT in African arowana might be related to its transformation from carnivore to be omnivore. Taken together, we provided valuable genomic resource of Osteoglossidae and revealed the correlation of biogeography and teleost evolution.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Ramos-Madrigal J, Sinding MS, Carøe C, et al (2020)

Genomes of Pleistocene Siberian Wolves Uncover Multiple Extinct Wolf Lineages.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(20)31506-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Extant Canis lupus genetic diversity can be grouped into three phylogenetically distinct clades: Eurasian and American wolves and domestic dogs.1 Genetic studies have suggested these groups trace their origins to a wolf population that expanded during the last glacial maximum (LGM)1-3 and replaced local wolf populations.4 Moreover, ancient genomes from the Yana basin and the Taimyr peninsula provided evidence of at least one extinct wolf lineage that dwelled in Siberia during the Pleistocene.35 Previous studies have suggested that Pleistocene Siberian canids can be classified into two groups based on cranial morphology. Wolves in the first group are most similar to present-day populations, although those in the second group possess intermediate features between dogs and wolves.67 However, whether this morphological classification represents distinct genetic groups remains unknown. To investigate this question and the relationships between Pleistocene canids, present-day wolves, and dogs, we resequenced the genomes of four Pleistocene canids from Northeast Siberia dated between >50 and 14 ka old, including samples from the two morphological categories. We found these specimens cluster with the two previously sequenced Pleistocene wolves, which are genetically more similar to Eurasian wolves. Our results show that, though the four specimens represent extinct wolf lineages, they do not form a monophyletic group. Instead, each Pleistocene Siberian canid branched off the lineage that gave rise to present-day wolves and dogs. Finally, our results suggest the two previously described morphological groups could represent independent lineages similarly related to present-day wolves and dogs.

RevDate: 2020-11-06
CmpDate: 2020-11-06

Callaway E (2020)

Ancient dog DNA reveals 11,000 years of canine evolution.

Nature, 587(7832):20.

RevDate: 2020-11-12

Hui R, D'Atanasio E, Cassidy LM, et al (2020)

Evaluating genotype imputation pipeline for ultra-low coverage ancient genomes.

Scientific reports, 10(1):18542.

Although ancient DNA data have become increasingly more important in studies about past populations, it is often not feasible or practical to obtain high coverage genomes from poorly preserved samples. While methods of accurate genotype imputation from > 1 × coverage data have recently become a routine, a large proportion of ancient samples remain unusable for downstream analyses due to their low coverage. Here, we evaluate a two-step pipeline for the imputation of common variants in ancient genomes at 0.05-1 × coverage. We use the genotype likelihood input mode in Beagle and filter for confident genotypes as the input to impute missing genotypes. This procedure, when tested on ancient genomes, outperforms a single-step imputation from genotype likelihoods, suggesting that current genotype callers do not fully account for errors in ancient sequences and additional quality controls can be beneficial. We compared the effect of various genotype likelihood calling methods, post-calling, pre-imputation and post-imputation filters, different reference panels, as well as different imputation tools. In a Neolithic Hungarian genome, we obtain ~ 90% imputation accuracy for heterozygous common variants at coverage 0.05 × and > 97% accuracy at coverage 0.5 ×. We show that imputation can mitigate, though not eliminate reference bias in ultra-low coverage ancient genomes.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Zhang D, Xia H, Chen F, et al (2020)

Denisovan DNA in Late Pleistocene sediments from Baishiya Karst Cave on the Tibetan Plateau.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 370(6516):584-587.

A late Middle Pleistocene mandible from Baishiya Karst Cave (BKC) on the Tibetan Plateau has been inferred to be from a Denisovan, an Asian hominin related to Neanderthals, on the basis of an amino acid substitution in its collagen. Here we describe the stratigraphy, chronology, and mitochondrial DNA extracted from the sediments in BKC. We recover Denisovan mitochondrial DNA from sediments deposited ~100 thousand and ~60 thousand years ago (ka) and possibly as recently as ~45 ka. The long-term occupation of BKC by Denisovans suggests that they may have adapted to life at high altitudes and may have contributed such adaptations to modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Massilani D, Skov L, Hajdinjak M, et al (2020)

Denisovan ancestry and population history of early East Asians.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 370(6516):579-583.

We present analyses of the genome of a ~34,000-year-old hominin skull cap discovered in the Salkhit Valley in northeastern Mongolia. We show that this individual was a female member of a modern human population that, following the split between East and West Eurasians, experienced substantial gene flow from West Eurasians. Both she and a 40,000-year-old individual from Tianyuan outside Beijing carried genomic segments of Denisovan ancestry. These segments derive from the same Denisovan admixture event(s) that contributed to present-day mainland Asians but are distinct from the Denisovan DNA segments in present-day Papuans and Aboriginal Australians.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Gibbons A (2020)

Denisovan DNA found in cave on Tibetan Plateau.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 370(6516):512-513.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Parker C, Rohrlach AB, Friederich S, et al (2020)

A systematic investigation of human DNA preservation in medieval skeletons.

Scientific reports, 10(1):18225.

Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses necessitate the destructive sampling of archaeological material. Currently, the cochlea, part of the osseous inner ear located inside the petrous pyramid, is the most sought after skeletal element for molecular analyses of ancient humans as it has been shown to yield high amounts of endogenous DNA. However, destructive sampling of the petrous pyramid may not always be possible, particularly in cases where preservation of skeletal morphology is of top priority. To investigate alternatives, we present a survey of human aDNA preservation for each of ten skeletal elements in a skeletal collection from Medieval Germany. Through comparison of human DNA content and quality we confirm best performance of the petrous pyramid and identify seven additional sampling locations across four skeletal elements that yield adequate aDNA for most applications in human palaeogenetics. Our study provides a better perspective on DNA preservation across the human skeleton and takes a further step toward the more responsible use of ancient materials in human aDNA studies.

RevDate: 2021-01-04
CmpDate: 2021-01-04

Guellil M, Kersten O, Namouchi A, et al (2020)

A genomic and historical synthesis of plague in 18th century Eurasia.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(45):28328-28335.

Plague continued to afflict Europe for more than five centuries after the Black Death. Yet, by the 17th century, the dynamics of plague had changed, leading to its slow decline in Western Europe over the subsequent 200 y, a period for which only one genome was previously available. Using a multidisciplinary approach, combining genomic and historical data, we assembled Y. pestis genomes from nine individuals covering four Eurasian sites and placed them into an historical context within the established phylogeny. CHE1 (Chechnya, Russia, 18th century) is now the latest Second Plague Pandemic genome and the first non-European sample in the post-Black Death lineage. Its placement in the phylogeny and our synthesis point toward the existence of an extra-European reservoir feeding plague into Western Europe in multiple waves. By considering socioeconomic, ecological, and climatic factors we highlight the importance of a noneurocentric approach for the discussion on Second Plague Pandemic dynamics in Europe.

RevDate: 2020-11-11
CmpDate: 2020-11-11

Earn DJD, Ma J, Poinar H, et al (2020)

Acceleration of plague outbreaks in the second pandemic.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(44):27703-27711.

Historical records reveal the temporal patterns of a sequence of plague epidemics in London, United Kingdom, from the 14th to 17th centuries. Analysis of these records shows that later epidemics spread significantly faster ("accelerated"). Between the Black Death of 1348 and the later epidemics that culminated with the Great Plague of 1665, we estimate that the epidemic growth rate increased fourfold. Currently available data do not provide enough information to infer the mode of plague transmission in any given epidemic; nevertheless, order-of-magnitude estimates of epidemic parameters suggest that the observed slow growth rates in the 14th century are inconsistent with direct (pneumonic) transmission. We discuss the potential roles of demographic and ecological factors, such as climate change or human or rat population density, in driving the observed acceleration.

RevDate: 2021-01-04
CmpDate: 2021-01-04

Chen N, Ren L, Du L, et al (2020)

Ancient genomes reveal tropical bovid species in the Tibetan Plateau contributed to the prevalence of hunting game until the late Neolithic.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(45):28150-28159.

Local wild bovids have been determined to be important prey on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP), where hunting game was a major subsistence strategy until the late Neolithic, when farming lifestyles dominated in the neighboring Loess Plateau. However, the species affiliation and population ecology of these prehistoric wild bovids in the prehistoric NETP remain unknown. Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis is highly informative in decoding this puzzle. Here, we applied aDNA analysis to fragmented bovid and rhinoceros specimens dating ∼5,200 y B.P. from the Neolithic site of Shannashuzha located in the marginal area of the NETP. Utilizing both whole genomes and mitochondrial DNA, our results demonstrate that the range of the present-day tropical gaur (Bos gaurus) extended as far north as the margins of the NETP during the late Neolithic from ∼29°N to ∼34°N. Furthermore, comparative analysis with zooarchaeological and paleoclimatic evidence indicated that a high summer temperature in the late Neolithic might have facilitated the northward expansion of tropical animals (at least gaur and Sumatran-like rhinoceros) to the NETP. This enriched the diversity of wildlife, thus providing abundant hunting resources for humans and facilitating the exploration of the Tibetan Plateau as one of the last habitats for hunting game in East Asia.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Barnett R, Westbury MV, Sandoval-Velasco M, et al (2020)

Genomic Adaptations and Evolutionary History of the Extinct Scimitar-Toothed Cat, Homotherium latidens.

Current biology : CB, 30(24):5018-5025.e5.

Homotherium was a genus of large-bodied scimitar-toothed cats, morphologically distinct from any extant felid species, that went extinct at the end of the Pleistocene [1-4]. They possessed large, saber-form serrated canine teeth, powerful forelimbs, a sloping back, and an enlarged optic bulb, all of which were key characteristics for predation on Pleistocene megafauna [5]. Previous mitochondrial DNA phylogenies suggested that it was a highly divergent sister lineage to all extant cat species [6-8]. However, mitochondrial phylogenies can be misled by hybridization [9], incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), or sex-biased dispersal patterns [10], which might be especially relevant for Homotherium since widespread mito-nuclear discrepancies have been uncovered in modern cats [10]. To examine the evolutionary history of Homotherium, we generated a ∼7x nuclear genome and a ∼38x exome from H. latidens using shotgun and target-capture sequencing approaches. Phylogenetic analyses reveal Homotherium as highly divergent (∼22.5 Ma) from living cat species, with no detectable signs of gene flow. Comparative genomic analyses found signatures of positive selection in several genes, including those involved in vision, cognitive function, and energy consumption, putatively consistent with diurnal activity, well-developed social behavior, and cursorial hunting [5]. Finally, we uncover relatively high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting that Homotherium may have been more abundant than the limited fossil record suggests [3, 4, 11-14]. Our findings complement and extend previous inferences from both the fossil record and initial molecular studies, enhancing our understanding of the evolution and ecology of this remarkable lineage.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Lipson M, Spriggs M, Valentin F, et al (2020)

Three Phases of Ancient Migration Shaped the Ancestry of Human Populations in Vanuatu.

Current biology : CB, 30(24):4846-4856.e6.

The archipelago of Vanuatu has been at the crossroads of human population movements in the Pacific for the past three millennia. To help address several open questions regarding the history of these movements, we generated genome-wide data for 11 ancient individuals from the island of Efate dating from its earliest settlement to the recent past, including five associated with the Chief Roi Mata's Domain World Heritage Area, and analyzed them in conjunction with 34 published ancient individuals from Vanuatu and elsewhere in Oceania, as well as present-day populations. Our results outline three distinct periods of population transformations. First, the four earliest individuals, from the Lapita-period site of Teouma, are concordant with eight previously described Lapita-associated individuals from Vanuatu and Tonga in having almost all of their ancestry from a "First Remote Oceanian" source related to East and Southeast Asians. Second, both the Papuan ancestry predominating in Vanuatu for the past 2,500 years and the smaller component of Papuan ancestry found in Polynesians can be modeled as deriving from a single source most likely originating in New Britain, suggesting that the movement of people carrying this ancestry to Remote Oceania closely followed that of the First Remote Oceanians in time and space. Third, the Chief Roi Mata's Domain individuals descend from a mixture of Vanuatu- and Polynesian-derived ancestry and are related to Polynesian-influenced communities today in central, but not southern, Vanuatu, demonstrating Polynesian genetic input in multiple groups with independent histories.

RevDate: 2020-10-15

Gad YZ, Hassan NA, Mousa DM, et al (2020)

Insights from ancient DNA analysis of Egyptian human mummies: clues to disease and kinship.

Human molecular genetics pii:5924364 [Epub ahead of print].

The molecular Egyptology field started in the mid-eighties with the first publication on the ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of an Egyptian mummy. Egypt has been a major interest for historians, archaeologists, laymen as well as scientists. The aDNA research on Egyptian biological remains has been fueled by their abundance and relatively well-preserved states through artificial mummification and by the advanced analytical techniques. Early doubts of aDNA integrity within the Egyptian mummies and data authenticity were later abated with studies proving successfully authenticated aDNA retrieval. The current review tries to recapitulate the published studies presenting paleogenomic evidence of disease diagnosis and kinship establishment for the Egyptian human remains. Regarding disease diagnosis, the prevailing literature was on paleogenomic evidence of infectious diseases in the human remains. A series of reports presented evidence for the presence of tuberculosis and/or malaria. In addition, there were solitary reports of the presence of leprosy, diphtheria, bacteremia, toxoplasmosis, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. On the contrary, paleogenomic evidence of the presence of rare diseases was quite scarce and mentioned only in two articles. On the other hand, kinship analysis of Egyptian human remains, including that of Tutankhamen, was done using both mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear DNA markers, to establish family relationships in four studies. It is clear that the field of molecular Egyptology is still a largely unexplored territory. Nevertheless, the paleogenomic investigation of Egyptian remains could make significant contributions to biomedical sciences [e.g. elucidation of co-evolution of human host-microbe interrelationship] as well as to evidence-based archeology.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Lasa-Fernandez H, Mosqueira-Martín L, Alzualde A, et al (2020)

A genotyping method combining primer competition PCR with HRM analysis to identify point mutations in Duchenne animal models.

Scientific reports, 10(1):17224.

Dystrophin-null sapje zebrafish is an excellent model for better understanding the pathological mechanisms underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and it has recently arisen as a powerful tool for high-throughput screening of therapeutic candidates for this disease. While dystrophic phenotype in sapje larvae can be easily detected by birefringence, zebrafish genotyping is necessary for drug screening experiments, where the potential rescue of larvae phenotype is the primary outcome. Genotyping is also desirable during colony husbandry since heterozygous progenitors need to be selected. Currently, sapje zebrafish are genotyped through techniques involving sequencing or multi-step PCR, which are often costly, tedious, or require special equipment. Here we report a simple, precise, cost-effective, and versatile PCR genotyping method based on primer competition. Genotypes can be resolved by standard agarose gel electrophoresis and high-resolution melt assay, the latter being especially useful for genotyping a large number of samples. Our approach has shown high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility in detecting the A/T point mutation in sapje zebrafish and the C/T mutation in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne. Hence, this method can be applied to other single nucleotide substitutions and may be further optimized to detect small insertions and deletions. Given its robust performance with crude DNA extracts, our strategy may be particularly well-suited for detecting single nucleotide variants in poor-quality samples such as ancient DNA or DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material.

RevDate: 2020-12-24
CmpDate: 2020-12-24

Drosou K, Collin TC, Freeman PJ, et al (2020)

The first reported case of the rare mitochondrial haplotype H4a1 in ancient Egypt.

Scientific reports, 10(1):17037.

Takabuti, was a female who lived in ancient Egypt during the 25th Dynasty, c.660 BCE. Her mummified remains were brought to Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1834 and are currently displayed in the Ulster Museum. To gain insight into Takabuti's ancestry, we used deep sampling of vertebral bone, under X-ray control, to obtain non-contaminated bone tissue from which we extracted ancient DNA (aDNA) using established protocols. We targeted the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), known to be highly informative for human ancestry, and identified 38 single nucleotide variants using next generation sequencing. The specific combination of these SNVs suggests that Takabuti belonged to mitochondrial haplogroup H4a1. Neither H4 nor H4a1 have been reported in ancient Egyptian samples, prior to this study. The modern distribution of H4a1 is rare and sporadic and has been identified in areas including the Canary Islands, southern Iberia and the Lebanon. H4a1 has also been reported in ancient samples from Bell Beaker and Unetice contexts in Germany, as well as Bronze Age Bulgaria. We believe that this is an important finding because first, it adds to the depth of knowledge about the distribution of the H4a1 haplogroup in existing mtDNA, thus creating a baseline for future occurrences of this haplogroup in ancient Egyptian remains. Second, it is of great importance for archaeological sciences, since a predominantly European haplogroup has been identified in an Egyptian individual in Southern Egypt, prior to the Roman and Greek influx (332BCE).

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Woods R, Barnes I, Brace S, et al (2021)

Ancient DNA Suggests Single Colonization and Within-Archipelago Diversification of Caribbean Caviomorph Rodents.

Molecular biology and evolution, 38(1):84-95.

Reconstructing the evolutionary history of island biotas is complicated by unusual morphological evolution in insular environments. However, past human-caused extinctions limit the use of molecular analyses to determine origins and affinities of enigmatic island taxa. The Caribbean formerly contained a morphologically diverse assemblage of caviomorph rodents (33 species in 19 genera), ranging from ∼0.1 to 200 kg and traditionally classified into three higher-order taxa (Capromyidae/Capromyinae, Heteropsomyinae, and Heptaxodontidae). Few species survive today, and the evolutionary affinities of living and extinct Caribbean caviomorphs to each other and to mainland taxa are unclear: Are they monophyletic, polyphyletic, or paraphyletic? We use ancient DNA techniques to present the first genetic data for extinct heteropsomyines and heptaxodontids, as well as for several extinct capromyids, and demonstrate through analysis of mitogenomic and nuclear data sets that all sampled Caribbean caviomorphs represent a well-supported monophyletic group. The remarkable morphological and ecological variation observed across living and extinct caviomorphs from Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and other islands was generated through within-archipelago evolutionary radiation following a single Early Miocene overwater colonization. This evolutionary pattern contrasts with the origination of diversity in many other Caribbean groups. All living and extinct Caribbean caviomorphs comprise a single biologically remarkable subfamily (Capromyinae) within the morphologically conservative living Neotropical family Echimyidae. Caribbean caviomorphs represent an important new example of insular mammalian adaptive radiation, where taxa retaining "ancestral-type" characteristics coexisted alongside taxa occupying novel island niches. Diversification was associated with the greatest insular body mass increase recorded in rodents and possibly the greatest for any mammal lineage.

RevDate: 2021-01-01
CmpDate: 2021-01-01

Rao H, Yang Y, Liu J, et al (2020)

Palaeoproteomic analysis of Pleistocene cave hyenas from east Asia.

Scientific reports, 10(1):16674.

The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) is the only extant species of the genus Crocuta, which once occupied a much wider range during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. However, its origin and evolutionary history is somewhat contentious due to discordances between morphological, nuclear, and mitochondrial data. Due to the limited molecular data from east Asian Crocuta, also known as cave hyena, and the difficulty of extracting ancient DNA from this area, here we present proteomic analysis of cave hyenas from three locations in northern China. This marks the first proteomic data generated from cave hyenas, adding new molecular data to the east Asian populations. Phylogenetic analysis based on these protein sequences reveals two different groups of cave hyenas in east Asia, one of which could not be distinguished from modern spotted hyenas from northern Africa, tentatively the result of previously suggested gene flow between these lineages. With developments of instrumentation and analytical methods, proteomics holds promising potential for molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of ancient fauna previously thought to be unreachable using ancient DNA.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Duchêne S, Ho SYW, Carmichael AG, et al (2020)

The Recovery, Interpretation and Use of Ancient Pathogen Genomes.

Current biology : CB, 30(19):R1215-R1231.

The ability to sequence genomes from ancient biological material has provided a rich source of information for evolutionary biology and engaged considerable public interest. Although most studies of ancient genomes have focused on vertebrates, particularly archaic humans, newer technologies allow the capture of microbial pathogens and microbiomes from ancient and historical human and non-human remains. This coming of age has been made possible by techniques that allow the preferential capture and amplification of discrete genomes from a background of predominantly host and environmental DNA. There are now near-complete ancient genome sequences for three pathogens of considerable historical interest - pre-modern bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis), smallpox (Variola virus) and cholera (Vibrio cholerae) - and for three equally important endemic human disease agents - Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis), Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy) and Treponema pallidum pallidum (syphilis). Genomic data from these pathogens have extended earlier work by paleopathologists. There have been efforts to sequence the genomes of additional ancient pathogens, with the potential to broaden our understanding of the infectious disease burden common to past populations from the Bronze Age to the early 20th century. In this review we describe the state-of-the-art of this rapidly developing field, highlight the contributions of ancient pathogen genomics to multidisciplinary endeavors and describe some of the limitations in resolving questions about the emergence and long-term evolution of pathogens.

RevDate: 2020-10-21

Fleskes RE, Ofunniyin AA, Gilmore JK, et al (2020)

Ancestry, health, and lived experiences of enslaved Africans in 18th century Charleston: An osteobiographical analysis.

American journal of physical anthropology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the burials of 36 individuals of putative African ancestry were discovered during renovation of the Gaillard Center in downtown Charleston, South Carolina. The Charleston community facilitated a bioarchaeological and mitogenomic study to gain insights into the lives of these unknown persons, referred to as the Anson Street Ancestors, including their ancestry, health, and lived experiences in the 18th century.

METHODS: Metric and morphological assessments of skeletal and dental characteristics were recorded, and enamel and cortical bone strontium stable isotope values generated. Whole mitochondrial genomes were sequenced and analyzed.

RESULTS: Osteological analysis identified adults, both females and males, and subadults at the site, and estimated African ancestry for most individuals. Skeletal trauma and pathology were infrequent, but many individuals exhibited dental decay and abscesses. Strontium isotope data suggested these individuals mostly originated in Charleston or sub-Saharan Africa, with many being long-term residents of Charleston. Nearly all had mitochondrial lineages belonging to African haplogroups (L0-L3, H1cb1a), with two individuals sharing the same L3e2a haplotype, while one had a Native American A2 mtDNA.

DISCUSSION: This study generated detailed osteobiographies of the Anson Street Ancestors, who were likely of enslaved status. Our results indicate that the Ancestors have diverse maternal African ancestries and are largely unrelated, with most being born locally. These details reveal the demographic impact of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Our analysis further illuminates the lived experiences of individuals buried at Anson Street, and expands our understanding of 18th century African history in Charleston.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Ferrari G, Neukamm J, Baalsrud HT, et al (2020)

Variola virus genome sequenced from an eighteenth-century museum specimen supports the recent origin of smallpox.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1812):20190572.

Smallpox, caused by the variola virus (VARV), was a highly virulent disease with high mortality rates causing a major threat for global human health until its successful eradication in 1980. Despite previously published historic and modern VARV genomes, its past dissemination and diversity remain debated. To understand the evolutionary history of VARV with respect to historic and modern VARV genetic variation in Europe, we sequenced a VARV genome from a well-described eighteenth-century case from England (specimen P328). In our phylogenetic analysis, the new genome falls between the modern strains and another historic strain from Lithuania, supporting previous claims of larger diversity in early modern Europe compared to the twentieth century. Our analyses also resolve a previous controversy regarding the common ancestor between modern and historic strains by confirming a later date around the seventeenth century. Overall, our results point to the benefit of historic genomes for better resolution of past VARV diversity and highlight the value of such historic genomes from around the world to further understand the evolutionary history of smallpox as well as related diseases. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Flammer PG, AL Smith (2020)

Intestinal helminths as a biomolecular complex in archaeological research.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1812):20190570.

Enteric helminths are common parasites in many parts of the world and in the past were much more widespread both geographically and socially. Many enteric helminths are relatively long-lived in the human host, often benign or of low pathogenicity while producing large numbers of environmentally resistant eggs voided in the faeces or found associated with individual remains (skeletons and mummies). The combination of helminth characters offers opportunities to the field of historical pathogen research that are quite different to that of some of the more intensively studied high impact pathogens. Historically, a wealth of studies has employed microscopic techniques to diagnose infection using the morphology of the helminth eggs. More recently, various ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches have been applied in the archaeoparasitological context and these are revolutionizing the field, allowing much more specific diagnosis as well as interrogating the epidemiology of helminths. These advances have enhanced the potential for the field to provide unique information on past populations including using diseases to consider many aspects of life (e.g. sanitation, hygiene, diet, culinary practices and other aspects of society). Here, we consider the impact of helminth archaeoparasitology and more specifically the impact and potential for application of aDNA technologies as a part of the archaeologists' toolkit. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Achtman M, Z Zhou (2020)

Metagenomics of the modern and historical human oral microbiome with phylogenetic studies on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1812):20190573.

We have recently developed bioinformatic tools to accurately assign metagenomic sequence reads to microbial taxa: SPARSE for probabilistic, taxonomic classification of sequence reads; EToKi for assembling and polishing genomes from short-read sequences; and GrapeTree, a graphic visualizer of genetic distances between large numbers of genomes. Together, these methods support comparative analyses of genomes from ancient skeletons and modern humans. Here, we illustrate these capabilities with 784 samples from historical dental calculus, modern saliva and modern dental plaque. The analyses revealed 1591 microbial species within the oral microbiome. We anticipated that the oral complexes of Socransky et al., which were defined in 1998, would predominate among taxa whose frequencies differed by source. However, although some species discriminated between sources, we could not confirm the existence of the complexes. The results also illustrate further functionality of our pipelines with two species that are associated with dental caries, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. They were rare in historical dental calculus but common in modern plaque, and even more common in saliva. Reconstructed draft genomes of these two species from metagenomic samples in which they were abundant were combined with modern public genomes to provide a detailed overview of their core genomic diversity. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Fotakis AK, Denham SD, Mackie M, et al (2020)

Multi-omic detection of Mycobacterium leprae in archaeological human dental calculus.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1812):20190584.

Mineralized dental plaque (calculus) has proven to be an excellent source of ancient biomolecules. Here we present a Mycobacterium leprae genome (6.6-fold), the causative agent of leprosy, recovered via shotgun sequencing of sixteenth-century human dental calculus from an individual from Trondheim, Norway. When phylogenetically placed, this genome falls in branch 3I among the diversity of other contemporary ancient strains from Northern Europe. Moreover, ancient mycobacterial peptides were retrieved via mass spectrometry-based proteomics, further validating the presence of the pathogen. Mycobacterium leprae can readily be detected in the oral cavity and associated mucosal membranes, which likely contributed to it being incorporated into this individual's dental calculus. This individual showed some possible, but not definitive, evidence of skeletal lesions associated with early-stage leprosy. This study is the first known example of successful multi-omics retrieval of M. leprae from archaeological dental calculus. Furthermore, we offer new insights into dental calculus as an alternative sample source to bones or teeth for detecting and molecularly characterizing M. leprae in individuals from the archaeological record. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Morozova I, Kasianov A, Bruskin S, et al (2020)

New ancient Eastern European Yersinia pestis genomes illuminate the dispersal of plague in Europe.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1812):20190569.

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has been prevalent among humans for at least 5000 years, being accountable for several devastating epidemics in history, including the Black Death. Analyses of the genetic diversity of ancient strains of Y. pestis have shed light on the mechanisms of evolution and the spread of plague in Europe. However, many questions regarding the origins of the pathogen and its long persistence in Europe are still unresolved, especially during the late medieval time period. To address this, we present four newly assembled Y. pestis genomes from Eastern Europe (Poland and Southern Russia), dating from the fifteenth to eighteenth century AD. The analysis of polymorphisms in these genomes and their phylogenetic relationships with other ancient and modern Y. pestis strains may suggest several independent introductions of plague into Eastern Europe or its persistence in different reservoirs. Furthermore, with the reconstruction of a partial Y. pestis genome from rat skeletal remains found in a Polish ossuary, we were able to identify a potential animal reservoir in late medieval Europe. Overall, our results add new information concerning Y. pestis transmission and its evolutionary history in Eastern Europe. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Eisenhofer R, Kanzawa-Kiriyama H, Shinoda KI, et al (2020)

Investigating the demographic history of Japan using ancient oral microbiota.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1812):20190578.

While microbial communities in the human body (microbiota) are now commonly associated with health and disease in industrialised populations, we know very little about how these communities co-evolved and changed with humans throughout history and deep prehistory. We can now examine these communities by sequencing ancient DNA preserved within calcified dental plaque (calculus), providing insights into the origins of disease and their links to human history. Here, we examine ancient DNA preserved within dental calculus samples and their associations with two major cultural periods in Japan: the Jomon period hunter-gatherers approximately 3000 years before present (BP) and the Edo period agriculturalists 400-150 BP. We investigate how human oral microbiomes have changed in Japan through time and explore the presence of microorganisms associated with oral diseases (e.g. periodontal disease, dental caries) in ancient Japanese populations. Finally, we explore oral microbial strain diversity and its potential links to ancient demography in ancient Japan by performing phylogenomic analysis of a widely conserved oral species-Anaerolineaceae oral taxon 439. This research represents, to our knowledge, the first study of ancient oral microbiomes from Japan and demonstrates that the analysis of ancient dental calculus can provide key information about the origin of non-infectious disease and its deep roots with human demography. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Horsburgh KA, AL Gosling (2020)

Systematic Ancient DNA Species Identification Fails to Find Late Holocene Domesticated Cattle in Southern Africa.

Biology, 9(10):.

Establishing robust temporal control of the arrival of domesticated stock and the associated husbandry skills and lifeways in Southern Africa remains frustrated by the osteological similarities between domestic stock and wild endemic fauna. We report the results of a systematic ancient DNA survey of appropriately sized bovid remains from Later Stone Age deposits in four South African archaeological sites. We show that none of the tested remains originated in domesticated cattle. The precise date of arrival of domestic cattle in the region awaits further study, although we also report new radiocarbon determinations which further refine the local chronology.

RevDate: 2020-10-04

Robène I, Maillot-Lebon V, Chabirand A, et al (2020)

Development and comparative validation of genomic-driven PCR-based assays to detect Xanthomonas citri pv. citri in citrus plants.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):296.

BACKGROUND: Asiatic Citrus Canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, severely impacts citrus production worldwide and hampers international trade. Considerable regulatory procedures have been implemented to prevent the introduction and establishment of X. citri pv. citri into areas where it is not present. The effectiveness of this surveillance largely relies on the availability of specific and sensitive detection protocols. Although several PCR- or real-time PCR-based methods are available, most of them showed analytical specificity issues. Therefore, we developed new conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays, which target a region identified by comparative genomic analyses, and compared them to existing protocols.

RESULTS: Our assays target the X. citri pv. citri XAC1051 gene that encodes for a putative transmembrane protein. The real-time PCR assay includes an internal plant control (5.8S rDNA) for validating the assay in the absence of target amplification. A receiver-operating characteristic approach was used in order to determine a reliable cycle cut-off for providing accurate qualitative results. Repeatability, reproducibility and transferability between real-time devices were demonstrated for this duplex qPCR assay (XAC1051-2qPCR). When challenged with an extensive collection of target and non-target strains, both assays displayed a high analytical sensitivity and specificity performance: LOD95% = 754 CFU ml- 1 (15 cells per reaction), 100% inclusivity, 97.2% exclusivity for XAC1051-2qPCR; LOD95% = 5234 CFU ml- 1 (105 cells per reaction), 100% exclusivity and inclusivity for the conventional PCR. Both assays can detect the target from naturally infected citrus fruit. Interestingly, XAC1051-2qPCR detected X. citri pv. citri from herbarium citrus samples. The new PCR-based assays displayed enhanced analytical sensitivity and specificity when compared with previously published PCR and real-time qPCR assays.

CONCLUSIONS: We developed new valuable detection assays useful for routine diagnostics and surveillance of X. citri pv. citri in citrus material. Their reliability was evidenced through numerous trials on a wide range of bacterial strains and plant samples. Successful detection of the pathogen was achieved from both artificially and naturally infected plants, as well as from citrus herbarium samples, suggesting that these assays will have positive impact both for future applied and academic research on this bacterium.

RevDate: 2020-12-21

Boukhdoud L, Saliba C, Parker LD, et al (2020)

First DNA sequence reference library for mammals and plants of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

Genome [Epub ahead of print].

The Mediterranean region is identified as one of the world's 36 biodiversity hotspots, with the Earth's most biologically rich yet threatened areas. Lebanon is a hub for Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) biodiversity with 9116 characterized plant and animal species (4486 fauna and 4630 flora). Using DNA barcoding as a tool has become crucial in the accurate identification of species in multiple contexts. It can also complement species morphological descriptions, which will add to our understanding of the biodiversity and richness of ecosystems and benefit conservation projects for endangered and endemic species. In this study, we create the first reference library of standard DNA markers for mammals and plants in the EMR, with a focus on endemic and endangered species. Plant leaves were collected from different nature reserves in Mount Lebanon, and mammal samples were obtained from taxidermized museum specimens or road kills. We generated the 12S rRNA sequences of 18 mammal species from 6 orders and 13 different families. We also obtained the trnL and rbcL barcode sequences of 52 plant species from 24 different families. Twenty-five plant species and two mammal species included in this study were sequenced for the first time using these markers.

RevDate: 2020-10-15

Vinueza-Espinosa DC, Santos C, Martínez-Labarga C, et al (2020)

Human DNA extraction from highly degraded skeletal remains: How to find a suitable method?.

Electrophoresis [Epub ahead of print].

Retrieving DNA from highly degraded human skeletal remains is still a challenge due to low concentration and fragmentation, which makes it difficult to extract and purify. Recent works showed that silica-based methods allow better DNA recovery and this fact may be attributed to the type of bones and the quality of the preserved tissue. However, more systematic studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of the different silica-based extraction methods considering the type of bones. The main goal of the present study is to establish the best extraction method and the type of bone that can maximize the recovery of PCR-amplifiable DNA and the subsequent retrieval of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic information. Five individuals were selected from an archaeological site located in Catalonia-Spain dating from 5th to 11th centuries AD. For each individual, five samples from different skeletal regions were collected: petrous bone, pulp cavity and cementum of tooth, and rib and limb bones. Four extraction methods were tested, three silica-based (silica in-suspension, HE column and XS plasma column) and the classical method based on phenol-chloroform. Silica in-suspension method from petrous bone and pulp cavity showed the best results. However, the remains preservation will ultimately be the key to the molecular result success.

RevDate: 2020-09-30

Nishimura L, Sugimoto R, Inoue J, et al (2020)

Identification of ancient viruses from metagenomic data of the Jomon people.

Journal of human genetics pii:10.1038/s10038-020-00841-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Ancient DNA studies provide genomic information about the origins, population structures, and physical characteristics of ancient humans that cannot be solely examined by archeological studies. The DNAs extracted from ancient human bones, teeth, or tissues are often contaminated with coexisting bacterial and viral genomes that contain DNA from ancient microbes infecting those of ancient humans. Information on ancient viral genomes is useful in making inferences about the viral evolution. Here, we have utilized metagenomic sequencing data from the dental pulp of five Jomon individuals, who lived on the Japanese archipelago more than 3000 years ago; this is to detect ancient viral genomes. We conducted de novo assembly of the non-human reads where we have obtained 277,387 contigs that were longer than 1000 bp. These contigs were subjected to homology searches against a collection of modern viral genome sequences. We were able to detect eleven putative ancient viral genomes. Among them, we reconstructed the complete sequence of the Siphovirus contig89 (CT89) viral genome. The Jomon CT89-like sequence was determined to contain 59 open reading frames, among which five genes known to encode phage proteins were under strong purifying selection. The host of CT89 was predicted to be Schaalia meyeri, a bacterium residing in the human oral cavity. Finally, the CT89 phylogenetic tree showed two clusters, from both of which the Jomon sequence was separated. Our results suggest that metagenomic information from the dental pulp of the Jomon people is essential in retrieving ancient viral genomes used to examine their evolution.

RevDate: 2020-11-09
CmpDate: 2020-11-09

Peris D, Janssen K, Barthel HJ, et al (2020)

DNA from resin-embedded organisms: Past, present and future.

PloS one, 15(9):e0239521.

Past claims have been made for fossil DNA recovery from various organisms (bacteria, plants, insects and mammals, including humans) dating back in time from thousands to several million years BP. However, many of these recoveries, especially those described from million-year-old amber (fossil resin), have faced criticism as being the result of modern environmental contamination and for lack of reproducibility. Using modern genomic techniques, DNA can be obtained with confidence from a variety of substrates (e.g. bones, teeth, gum, museum specimens and fossil insects) of different ages, albeit always less than one million years BP, and results can also be obtained from much older materials using palaeoproteomics. Nevertheless, new attempts to determine if ancient DNA (aDNA) is present in insects preserved in 40 000-year old sub-fossilised resin, the precursor of amber, have been unsuccessful or not well documented. Resin-embedded specimens are therefore regarded as unsuitable for genetic studies. However, we demonstrate here, for the first time, that although a labile molecule, DNA is still present in platypodine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) embedded in six-year-old and two-year-old resin pieces from Hymenaea verrucosa (Angiospermae: Fabaceae) collected in Madagascar. We describe an optimised method which meets all the requirements and precautions for aDNA experiments for our purpose: to explore the DNA preservation limits in resin. Our objective is far from starting an uncontrolled search for aDNA in amber as it was in the past, but to start resolving basic aspects from the DNA preservation in resin and search from the most modern samples to the ancient ones, step by step. We conclude that it is therefore possible to study genomics from resin-embedded organisms, although the time limits remain to be determined.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Petr M, Hajdinjak M, Fu Q, et al (2020)

The evolutionary history of Neanderthal and Denisovan Y chromosomes.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 369(6511):1653-1656.

Ancient DNA has provided new insights into many aspects of human history. However, we lack comprehensive studies of the Y chromosomes of Denisovans and Neanderthals because the majority of specimens that have been sequenced to sufficient coverage are female. Sequencing Y chromosomes from two Denisovans and three Neanderthals shows that the Y chromosomes of Denisovans split around 700 thousand years ago from a lineage shared by Neanderthals and modern human Y chromosomes, which diverged from each other around 370 thousand years ago. The phylogenetic relationships of archaic and modern human Y chromosomes differ from the population relationships inferred from the autosomal genomes and mirror mitochondrial DNA phylogenies, indicating replacement of both the mitochondrial and Y chromosomal gene pools in late Neanderthals. This replacement is plausible if the low effective population size of Neanderthals resulted in an increased genetic load in Neanderthals relative to modern humans.

RevDate: 2020-10-27
CmpDate: 2020-10-27

Toncheva D, Serbezov D, Karachanak-Yankova S, et al (2020)

Ancient mitochondrial DNA pathogenic variants putatively associated with mitochondrial disease.

PloS one, 15(9):e0233666.

Mitochondrial DNA variants associated with diseases are widely studied in contemporary populations, but their prevalence has not yet been investigated in ancient populations. The publicly available AmtDB database contains 1443 ancient mtDNA Eurasian genomes from different periods. The objective of this study was to use this data to establish the presence of pathogenic mtDNA variants putatively associated with mitochondrial diseases in ancient populations. The clinical significance, pathogenicity prediction and contemporary frequency of mtDNA variants were determined using online platforms. The analyzed ancient mtDNAs contain six variants designated as being "confirmed pathogenic" in modern patients. The oldest of these, m.7510T>C in the MT-TS1 gene, was found in a sample from the Neolithic period, dated 5800-5400 BCE. All six have well established clinical association, and their pathogenic effect is corroborated by very low population frequencies in contemporary populations. Analysis of the geographic location of the ancient samples, contemporary epidemiological trends and probable haplogroup association indicate diverse spatiotemporal dynamics of these variants. The dynamics in the prevalence and distribution is conceivably result of de novo mutations or human migrations and subsequent evolutionary processes. In addition, ten variants designated as possibly or likely pathogenic were found, but the clinical effect of these is not yet well established and further research is warranted. All detected mutations putatively associated with mitochondrial disease in ancient mtDNA samples are in tRNA coding genes. Most of these mutations are in a mt-tRNA type (Model 2) that is characterized by loss of D-loop/T-loop interaction. Exposing pathogenic variants in ancient human populations expands our understanding of their origin and prevalence dynamics.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Bokelmann L, Glocke I, M Meyer (2020)

Reconstructing double-stranded DNA fragments on a single-molecule level reveals patterns of degradation in ancient samples.

Genome research, 30(10):1449-1457.

Extensive manipulations involved in the preparation of DNA samples for sequencing have hitherto made it impossible to determine the precise structure of double-stranded DNA fragments being sequenced, such as the presence of blunt ends, single-stranded overhangs, or single-strand breaks. We here describe MatchSeq, a method that combines single-stranded DNA library preparation from diluted DNA samples with computational sequence matching, allowing the reconstruction of double-stranded DNA fragments on a single-molecule level. The application of MatchSeq to Neanderthal DNA, a particularly complex source of degraded DNA, reveals that 1- or 2-nt overhangs and blunt ends dominate the ends of ancient DNA molecules and that short gaps exist, which are predominantly caused by the loss of individual purines. We further show that deamination of cytosine to uracil occurs in both single- and double-stranded contexts close to the ends of molecules, and that single-stranded parts of DNA fragments are enriched in pyrimidines. MatchSeq provides unprecedented resolution for interrogating the structures of fragmented double-stranded DNA and can be applied to fragmented double-stranded DNA isolated from any biological source. The method relies on well-established laboratory techniques and can easily be integrated into routine data generation. This possibility is shown by the successful reconstruction of double-stranded DNA fragments from previously published single-stranded sequence data, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the biochemical properties not only of ancient DNA but also of cell-free DNA from human blood plasma, a clinically relevant marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Orlando L (2020)

The Evolutionary and Historical Foundation of the Modern Horse: Lessons from Ancient Genomics.

Annual review of genetics, 54:563-581.

The domestication of the horse some 5,500 years ago followed those of dogs, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs by ∼2,500-10,000 years. By providing fast transportation and transforming warfare, the horse had an impact on human history with no equivalent in the animal kingdom. Even though the equine sport industry has considerable economic value today, the evolutionary history underlying the emergence of the modern domestic horse remains contentious. In the last decade, novel sequencing technologies have revolutionized our capacity to sequence the complete genome of organisms, including from archaeological remains. Applied to horses, these technologies have provided unprecedented levels of information and have considerably changed models of horse domestication. This review illustrates how ancient DNA, especially ancient genomes, has inspired researchers to rethink the process by which horses were first domesticated and then diversified into a variety of breeds showing a range of traits that are useful to humans.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Ermakova GV, Kucheryavyy AV, Zaraisky AG, et al (2020)

Publisher Correction: Discovery of four Noggin genes in lampreys suggests two rounds of ancient genome duplication.

Communications biology, 3(1):532 pii:10.1038/s42003-020-01272-x.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Recht J, Schuenemann VJ, MR Sánchez-Villagra (2020)

Host Diversity and Origin of Zoonoses: The Ancient and the New.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 10(9):.

Bacterial, viral, and parasitic zoonotic diseases are transmitted to humans from a wide variety of animal species that act as reservoir hosts for the causative organisms. Zoonoses contribute an estimated 75% of new or reemerging infectious diseases in humans. All groups of mammals have been shown to act as hosts for transmission of different organisms that cause zoonoses, followed in importance by birds; with both wild and domestic species identified as hosts in specific cases. There has been considerable research progress leading to a better understanding of the host range, animal origin, evolution, and transmission of important zoonoses, including those caused by the ingestion of food and products derived from animals. Paleopathology studies of ancient human bone lesions, in combination with ancient DNA analysis of the causative pathogen, have contributed to our understanding of the origin of zoonotic diseases, including brucellosis and mycobacterial zoonoses. However, there are still knowledge gaps and new confirmed and potential hosts are reported locally with some frequency. Both the economic cost and burden of disease of zoonoses are substantial at local and global levels, as reflected by recent coronavirus pandemics that spread rapidly around the world. Evidence-based prevention strategies are currently a global priority increasingly recognized, especially in zoonoses-affected regions.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Røed KH, Kvie KS, Losey RJ, et al (2020)

Temporal and structural genetic variation in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) associated with the pastoral transition in Northwestern Siberia.

Ecology and evolution, 10(17):9060-9072.

Just as the domestication of livestock is often cited as a key element in the Neolithic transition to settled, the emergence of large-scaled reindeer husbandry was a fundamental social transformation for the indigenous peoples of Arctic Eurasia. To better understand the history of reindeer domestication, and the genetic processes associated with the pastoral transition in the Eurasian Arctic, we analyzed archaeological and contemporary reindeer samples from Northwestern Siberia. The material represents Rangifer genealogies spanning from 15,000 years ago to the 18th century, as well as modern samples from the wild Taĭmyr population and from domestic herds managed by Nenetses. The wild and the domestic population are the largest populations of their kind in Northern Eurasia, and some Nenetses hold their domestic reindeer beside their wild cousins. Our analyses of 197 modern and 223 ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed two genetic clusters, which are interpreted as representing the gene pools of contemporary domestic and past wild reindeer. Among a total of 137 different mitochondrial haplotypes identified in both the modern and archaeological samples, only 21 were detected in the modern domestic gene pool, while 11 of these were absent from the wild gene pool. The significant temporal genetic shift that we associate with the pastoral transition suggests that the emergence and spread of reindeer pastoralism in Northwestern Siberia originated with the translocation and subsequent selective breeding of a special type of animal from outside the region. The distinct and persistent domestic characteristics of the haplotype structure since the 18th century suggests little genetic exchange since then. The absence of the typical domestic clade in modern nearby wild populations suggests that the contemporary Nenets domestic breed feature an ancestry from outside its present main distribution, possibly from further South.

RevDate: 2020-12-01
CmpDate: 2020-12-01

Curry A (2020)

Ancient DNA tracks Vikings across Europe.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 369(6510):1416-1417.

RevDate: 2020-10-23

Martiniano R, Garrison E, Jones ER, et al (2020)

Removing reference bias and improving indel calling in ancient DNA data analysis by mapping to a sequence variation graph.

Genome biology, 21(1):250.

BACKGROUND: During the last decade, the analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) sequence has become a powerful tool for the study of past human populations. However, the degraded nature of aDNA means that aDNA molecules are short and frequently mutated by post-mortem chemical modifications. These features decrease read mapping accuracy and increase reference bias, in which reads containing non-reference alleles are less likely to be mapped than those containing reference alleles. Alternative approaches have been developed to replace the linear reference with a variation graph which includes known alternative variants at each genetic locus. Here, we evaluate the use of variation graph software vg to avoid reference bias for aDNA and compare with existing methods.

RESULTS: We use vg to align simulated and real aDNA samples to a variation graph containing 1000 Genome Project variants and compare with the same data aligned with bwa to the human linear reference genome. Using vg leads to a balanced allelic representation at polymorphic sites, effectively removing reference bias, and more sensitive variant detection in comparison with bwa, especially for insertions and deletions (indels). Alternative approaches that use relaxed bwa parameter settings or filter bwa alignments can also reduce bias but can have lower sensitivity than vg, particularly for indels.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that aligning aDNA sequences to variation graphs effectively mitigates the impact of reference bias when analyzing aDNA, while retaining mapping sensitivity and allowing detection of variation, in particular indel variation, that was previously missed.

RevDate: 2020-10-14

Gibbon VE (2020)

African ancient DNA research requires robust ethics and permission protocols.

Nature reviews. Genetics, 21(11):645-647.

RevDate: 2020-12-28
CmpDate: 2020-10-29

Margaryan A, Lawson DJ, Sikora M, et al (2020)

Population genomics of the Viking world.

Nature, 585(7825):390-396.

The maritime expansion of Scandinavian populations during the Viking Age (about AD 750-1050) was a far-flung transformation in world history1,2. Here we sequenced the genomes of 442 humans from archaeological sites across Europe and Greenland (to a median depth of about 1×) to understand the global influence of this expansion. We find the Viking period involved gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east. We observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, with diversity hotspots in the south and restricted gene flow within Scandinavia. We find evidence for a major influx of Danish ancestry into England; a Swedish influx into the Baltic; and Norwegian influx into Ireland, Iceland and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial ancestry from elsewhere in Europe entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. Our ancient DNA analysis also revealed that a Viking expedition included close family members. By comparing with modern populations, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the past millennium, and trace positively selected loci-including the lactase-persistence allele of LCT and alleles of ANKA that are associated with the immune response-in detail. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial transregional engagement: distinct populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, and Scandinavia experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.

RevDate: 2020-10-02
CmpDate: 2020-10-02

François O, F Jay (2020)

Factor analysis of ancient population genomic samples.

Nature communications, 11(1):4661.

The recent years have seen a growing number of studies investigating evolutionary questions using ancient DNA. To address these questions, one of the most frequently-used method is principal component analysis (PCA). When PCA is applied to temporal samples, the sample dates are, however, ignored during analysis, leading to imperfect representations of samples in PC plots. Here, we present a factor analysis (FA) method in which individual scores are corrected for the effect of allele frequency drift over time. We obtained exact solutions for the estimates of corrected factors, and we provided a fast algorithm for their computation. Using computer simulations and ancient European samples, we compared geometric representations obtained from FA with PCA and with ancestry estimation programs. In admixture analyses, FA estimates agreed with tree-based statistics, and they were more accurate than those obtained from PCA projections and from ancestry estimation programs. A great advantage of FA over existing approaches is to improve descriptive analyses of ancient DNA samples without requiring inclusion of outgroup or present-day samples.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Guimaraes S, Arbuckle BS, Peters J, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA shows domestic horses were introduced in the southern Caucasus and Anatolia during the Bronze Age.

Science advances, 6(38):.

Despite the important roles that horses have played in human history, particularly in the spread of languages and cultures, and correspondingly intensive research on this topic, the origin of domestic horses remains elusive. Several domestication centers have been hypothesized, but most of these have been invalidated through recent paleogenetic studies. Anatolia is a region with an extended history of horse exploitation that has been considered a candidate for the origins of domestic horses but has never been subject to detailed investigation. Our paleogenetic study of pre- and protohistoric horses in Anatolia and the Caucasus, based on a diachronic sample from the early Neolithic to the Iron Age (~8000 to ~1000 BCE) that encompasses the presumed transition from wild to domestic horses (4000 to 3000 BCE), shows the rapid and large-scale introduction of domestic horses at the end of the third millennium BCE. Thus, our results argue strongly against autochthonous independent domestication of horses in Anatolia.

RevDate: 2020-12-15
CmpDate: 2020-12-15

Pawłowska J, Wollenburg JE, Zajączkowski M, et al (2020)

Planktonic foraminifera genomic variations reflect paleoceanographic changes in the Arctic: evidence from sedimentary ancient DNA.

Scientific reports, 10(1):15102.

Deciphering the evolution of marine plankton is typically based on the study of microfossil groups. Cryptic speciation is common in these groups, and large intragenomic variations occur in ribosomal RNA genes of many morphospecies. In this study, we correlated the distribution of ribosomal amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) with paleoceanographic changes by analyzing the high-throughput sequence data assigned to Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in a 140,000-year-old sediment core from the Arctic Ocean. The sedimentary ancient DNA demonstrated the occurrence of various N. pachyderma ASVs whose occurrence and dominance varied through time. Most remarkable was the striking appearance of ASV18, which was nearly absent in older sediments but became dominant during the last glacial maximum and continues to persist today. Although the molecular ecology of planktonic foraminifera is still poorly known, the analysis of their intragenomic variations through time has the potential to provide new insight into the evolution of marine biodiversity and may lead to the development of new and important paleoceanographic proxies.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )