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Bibliography on: Microbial Ecology

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Aug 2022 at 01:40 Created: 

Microbial Ecology

Wikipedia: Microbial Ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life — Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria — as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. As a consequence of the quantitative magnitude of microbial life (Whitman and coworkers calculated 5.0×1030 cells, eight orders of magnitude greater than the number of stars in the observable universe) microbes, by virtue of their biomass alone, constitute a significant carbon sink. Aside from carbon fixation, microorganisms' key collective metabolic processes (including nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulfur metabolism) control global biogeochemical cycling. The immensity of microorganisms' production is such that, even in the total absence of eukaryotic life, these processes would likely continue unchanged.

Created with PubMed® Query: "microbial ecology" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-08-06

Ray AE, Zaugg J, Benaud N, et al (2022)

Atmospheric chemosynthesis is phylogenetically and geographically widespread and contributes significantly to carbon fixation throughout cold deserts.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Cold desert soil microbiomes thrive despite severe moisture and nutrient limitations. In Eastern Antarctic soils, bacterial primary production is supported by trace gas oxidation and the light-independent RuBisCO form IE. This study aims to determine if atmospheric chemosynthesis is widespread within Antarctic, Arctic and Tibetan cold deserts, to identify the breadth of trace gas chemosynthetic taxa and to further characterize the genetic determinants of this process. H2 oxidation was ubiquitous, far exceeding rates reported to fulfill the maintenance needs of similarly structured edaphic microbiomes. Atmospheric chemosynthesis occurred globally, contributing significantly (p < 0.05) to carbon fixation in Antarctica and the high Arctic. Taxonomic and functional analyses were performed upon 18 cold desert metagenomes, 230 dereplicated medium-to-high-quality derived metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) and an additional 24,080 publicly available genomes. Hydrogenotrophic and carboxydotrophic growth markers were widespread. RuBisCO IE was discovered to co-occur alongside trace gas oxidation enzymes in representative Chloroflexota, Firmicutes, Deinococcota and Verrucomicrobiota genomes. We identify a novel group of high-affinity [NiFe]-hydrogenases, group 1m, through phylogenetics, gene structure analysis and homology modeling, and reveal substantial genetic diversity within RuBisCO form IE (rbcL1E), and high-affinity 1h and 1l [NiFe]-hydrogenase groups. We conclude that atmospheric chemosynthesis is a globally-distributed phenomenon, extending throughout cold deserts, with significant implications for the global carbon cycle and bacterial survival within environmental reservoirs.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Zhang H, Wang M, Wang H, et al (2022)

Metagenome sequencing and 768 microbial genomes from cold seep in South China Sea.

Scientific data, 9(1):480.

Cold seep microbial communities are fascinating ecosystems on Earth which provide unique models for understanding the living strategies in deep-sea distinct environments. In this study, 23 metagenomes were generated from samples collected in the Site-F cold seep field in South China Sea, including the sea water closely above the invertebrate communities, the cold seep fluids, the fluids under the invertebrate communities and the sediment column around the seep vent. By binning tools, we retrieved a total of 768 metagenome assembled genome (MAGs) that were estimated to be >60% complete. Of the MAGs, 61 were estimated to be >90% complete, while an additional 105 were >80% complete. Phylogenomic analysis revealed 597 bacterial and 171 archaeal MAGs, of which nearly all were distantly related to known cultivated isolates. In the 768 MAGs, the abundant Bacteria in phylum level included Proteobacteria, Desulfobacterota, Bacteroidota, Patescibacteria and Chloroflexota, while the abundant Archaea included Asgardarchaeota, Thermoplasmatota, and Thermoproteota. These results provide a dataset available for further interrogation of deep-sea microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Kumar S, Kumar V, Ambika AAA, et al (2022)

Microbial pigments: Learning from Himalayan perspective to industrial applications.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology pii:6657808 [Epub ahead of print].

Pigments are an essential part of life on earth, ranging from microbes to plants and humans. The physiological and environmental cues induce microbes to produce a broad spectrum of pigments, giving them adaptation and survival advantages. Microbial pigments are of great interest due to their natural origin, diverse biological activities, and wide applications in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and textile industries. Despite noticeable research on pigment-producing microbes, commercial successes are scarce, primarily from higher, remote, and inaccessible Himalayan niches. Therefore, substantial bioprospection integrated with advanced biotechnological strategies is required to commercialize microbial pigments successfully. The current review elaborates on pigment-producing microbes from a Himalayan perspective, offering tremendous opportunities for industrial applications. Additionally, it illustrates the ecological significance of microbial pigments and emphasizes the current status and prospects of microbial pigments production above the test tube scale.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Pedrolo AM, Matteoli FP, Soares CRFS, et al (2022)

Comparative Genomics Reveal the High Conservation and Scarce Distribution of Nitrogen Fixation nif Genes in the Plant-Associated Genus Herbaspirillum.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Herbaspirillum gained the spotlight due to the several reports of diazotrophic strains and promising results in plant-growth field assays. However, as diversity exploration of Herbaspirillum species gained momentum, it became clearer that the plant beneficial lifestyle was not the only form of ecological interaction in this genus, due to reports of phytopathogenesis and nosocomial infections. Here we performed a deep search across all publicly available Herbaspirillum genomes. Using a robust core genome phylogeny, we have found that all described species are well delineated, being the only exception H. aquaticum and H. huttiense clade. We also uncovered that the nif genes are only highly prevalent in H. rubrisubalbicans; however, irrespective to the species, all nif genes share the same gene arrangement with high protein identity, and are present in only two main types, in inverted strands. By means of a NifHDKENB phylogenetic tree, we have further revealed that the Herbaspirillum nif sequences may have been acquired from the same last common ancestor belonging to the Nitrosomonadales order.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Gómez-Molina E, Sánchez S, Puig-Pey M, et al (2022)

Intraspecific Competition Results in Reduced Evenness of Tuber melanosporum Mating-Type Abundance from the Nursery Stage.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The highly prized black truffle is a fungus mostly harvested in orchards planted with mycorrhizal seedlings. It is an obligatory outcrossing fungus with a single MAT locus containing two alternative mating-type idiomorphs. In the orchards, at the mycorrhizal level, these mating types are frequently spatially segregated. Some studies found that this segregation was pronounced from the nursery stage, whereas others did not find such a marked segregation. Besides, information on the host tree species and nursery conditions used in Spain, one of the main truffle-producing countries, are very scarce. In this study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of mating types in nursery seedlings of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea, as well as the influence of cultural conditions in the nursery. Our results indicated that at the plant level, there was a trend for one of the mating types to dominate over the other from the first to the second year in the nursery, in both host species and both nursery conditions tested. However, this segregation process was not so sharp as previously reported. Our results support the hypothesis that intraspecific competition results in reduced evenness of mating-type abundance from the nursery stage, although almost all seedlings maintained both mating types and, at the seedling batch scale, the occurrence of both mating types was roughly balanced.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Morales-Poole JR, de Vega C, Tsuji K, et al (2022)

Sugar Concentration, Nitrogen Availability, and Phylogenetic Factors Determine the Ability of Acinetobacter spp. and Rosenbergiella spp. to Grow in Floral Nectar.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The floral nectar of angiosperms harbors a variety of microorganisms that depend predominantly on animal visitors for their dispersal. Although some members of the genus Acinetobacter and all currently known species of Rosenbergiella are thought to be adapted to thrive in nectar, there is limited information about the response of these bacteria to variation in the chemical characteristics of floral nectar. We investigated the growth performance of a diverse collection of Acinetobacter (n = 43) and Rosenbergiella (n = 45) isolates obtained from floral nectar and the digestive tract of flower-visiting bees in a set of 12 artificial nectars differing in sugar content (15% w/v or 50% w/v), nitrogen content (3.48/1.67 ppm or 348/167 ppm of total nitrogen/amino nitrogen), and sugar composition (only sucrose, 1/3 sucrose + 1/3 glucose + 1/3 fructose, or 1/2 glucose + 1/2 fructose). Growth was only observed in four of the 12 artificial nectars. Those containing elevated sugar concentration (50% w/v) and low nitrogen content (3.48/1.67 ppm) were limiting for bacterial growth. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ability of the bacteria to grow in different types of nectar is highly conserved between closely related isolates and genotypes, but this conservatism rapidly vanishes deeper in phylogeny. Overall, these results demonstrate that the ability of Acinetobacter spp. and Rosenbergiella spp. to grow in floral nectar largely depends on nectar chemistry and bacterial phylogeny.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Mandal S, Kundu S, Uddin MR, et al (2022)

Identification of a novel quinoline-based UV-protective pigment from a psychrotrophic Arctic bacterium.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Psychrotrophs are extremophilic microorganisms that grow optimally in low temperature having many unique bioactive molecules of biotechnological applications. In this study we characterized a pigment from an arctic bacterium with protective activity towards UV exposure.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The present research reports isolation and characterization of a psychrotrophic bacteria, RSAP2, from the soil sample of NyAlesund (78°56"N, 11°54"E), Svalbard, Norway. The strain showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.9%) with Kocuria indica NIO-1021. RSAP2 is a Gram-positive, coccoid aerobe which produces a yellow pigment. The optimal parameters for pigment production while grown in LB medium were 3% (w/v) NaCl and 4 days of incubation of the culture at 20°C and pH 9 with shaking (180 rpm). The pigment was extracted in methanol and acetone (2:1) and further purified through column chromatography. It was characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-Visible, fluorescence, IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR spectroscopy and CHNS/O -analysis. The pigment has a molecular weight of about 258 daltons and the molecular formula was determined as C15 H18 N2 O2 and is a quinoline derivative. We show that the pigment can protect E. coli against UV-mediated mutagenesis. We further demonstrate that the pigment displays a significant antimicrobial effect and in sublethal concentrations it impairs biofilm formation ability of the model organism Staphylococcus aureus.

CONCLUSIONS: The pigment of a psychrotrophic Arctic bacterium, most likely a strain of K. indica, was purified and its chemical structure was determined. The quinoline-based pigment has the ability to protect live cells from UV induced damage.

Analysis and characterization of this newly isolated quinoline-based pigment is a potential candidate for future application in skin care products.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Zhu W, Zhu M, Liu X, et al (2022)

Different Responses of Bacteria and Microeukaryote to Assembly Processes and Co-occurrence Pattern in the Coastal Upwelling.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Upwelling may generate unique hydrological and environmental heterogeneity, leading to enhanced diffusion to reshape microbial communities. However, it remains largely unknown how different microbial taxa respond to highly complex and dynamic upwelling systems. In the present study, geographic patterns and co-occurrence network of different microbial communities in response to upwelling were examined. Our results showed that coastal upwelling shaped prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial community and decreased their diversity. In addition, bacteria and microeukaryote had similar biogeographical patterns with distinct assembly mechanisms. The impact of stochastic processes on bacteria was significantly stronger compared with microeukaryote in upwelling. Lower network complexity but more frequent interaction was found in upwelling microbial co-occurrence. However, the upwelling environment increased the robustness and modularity of bacterial network, while eukaryotic network was just the opposite. Co-occurrence networks of bacteria and microeukaryote showed significant distance-decay patterns, while the bacterial network had a stronger spatial variation. Temperature and salinity were the strongest environmental factors affecting microbial coexistence, whereas the topological characteristics of bacterial and eukaryotic networks had different responses to the upwelling environment. These findings expanded our understanding of biogeographic patterns of microbial community and ecological network and the underlying mechanisms of different microbial taxa in upwelling.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

He D, Guo Z, Shen W, et al (2022)

Fungal Communities Are More Sensitive to the Simulated Environmental Changes than Bacterial Communities in a Subtropical Forest: the Single and Interactive Effects of Nitrogen Addition and Precipitation Seasonality Change.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Increased nitrogen deposition (N factor) and changes in precipitation patterns (W factor) can greatly impact soil microbial communities in tropical/subtropical forests. Although knowledge about the effects of a single factor on soil microbial communities is growing rapidly, little is understood about the interactive effects of these two environmental change factors. In this study, we investigated the responses of soil bacterial and fungal communities to the short-term simulated environmental changes (nitrogen addition, precipitation seasonality change, and their combination) in a subtropical forest in South China. The interaction between N and W factors was detected significant for affecting some soil physicochemical properties (such as pH, soil water, and NO3- contents). Fungi were more susceptible to treatment than bacteria in a variety of community traits (alpha, beta diversity, and network topological features). The N and W factors act antagonistically to affect fungal alpha diversity, and the interaction effect was detected significant for the dry season. The topological features of the meta-community (containing both bacteria and fungi) network overrode the alpha and beta diversity of bacterial or fungal communities in explaining the variation of soil enzyme activities. The associations between Ascomycota fungi and Gammaproteobacteria or Alphaproteobacteria might be important in mediating the inter-kingdom interactions. In summary, our results suggested that fungal communities were more sensitive to N and W factors (and their interaction) than bacterial communities, and the treatments' effects were more prominent in the dry season, which may have great consequences in soil processes and ecosystem functions in subtropical forests.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Chinta YD, H Araki (2022)

Cover Crop Amendments and Lettuce Plant Growth Stages Alter Rhizobacterial Properties and Roles in Plant Performance.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Lettuce plants respond differently to cover crop amendments by altering their biomass and nitrogen uptake (Nup) at different plant growth stages. Nonetheless, plant-microbe interactions involved in the alterations are scarcely studied. This study elucidated how the properties of the soil microbial community inhabiting the rhizosphere associated with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa "Red fire") change during plant growth stages. Lettuce plants were cultivated in control soil and soil with rye, hairy vetch (HV), and rye plus HV (rye + HV) cover crop amendments. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected at the mid-growth and mature stages of plant development. DNA was extracted from the soil, and the 16S rRNA region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction to analyze bacterial genes and community structures and functions. Cover crop amendments and plant growth stages increased or decreased the relative abundances of bacterial taxa at the genus level. Plant maturity decreased 16S rRNA gene expression and the number of bacterial operational taxonomic units in all treatments. The unique, core, and shared taxa with low relative abundances may be associated with improved lettuce Nup and lettuce shoot and root biomass at each plant growth stage under different cover crop amendments based on multivariate analysis between plant indicators and bacterial genera groups. This study revealed the importance of bacterial groups with low relative abundance in plant-microbe interactions; such bacteria may promote the cover crop application for high lettuce productivity.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Cheng X, Wang H, Zeng Z, et al (2022)

Niche differentiation of atmospheric methane-oxidizing bacteria and their community assembly in subsurface karst caves.

Environmental microbiology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Karst caves are recently proposed as atmospheric methane sinks in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite of the detection of atmospheric methane-oxidizing bacteria (atmMOB) in caves, we still know little about their ecology and potential ability of methane oxidation in this ecosystem. To understand atmMOB ecology and their potential in methane consumption, we collected weathered rocks and sediments from three different caves in southwestern China. We determined the potential methane oxidization rates in the range of 1.25 ± 0.08 to 1.87 ± 0.41 ng CH4 g-1 DW h-1 , which are comparable to those reported in forest and grassland soils. Results showed that alkaline oligotrophic caves harbour high numbers of atmMOB, particularly upland soil cluster (USC), which significantly correlated with temperature, CH4 and CO2 concentrations. The absolute abundance of USCγ was higher than that of USCα. USCγ-OPS (open patch soil) and USCγ-SS (subsurface soil) dominated in most samples, whereas USCα-BFS (boreal forest soil) only predominated in the sediments near cave entrances, indicating niche differentiation of atmMOB in caves. Overwhelming dominance of homogenous selection in community assembly resulted in convergence of atmMOB communities. Collectively, our results demonstrated the niche differentiation of USC in subsurface alkaline caves and their non-negligible methane-oxidizing potential, providing brand-new knowledge about atmMOB ecology in subsurface biosphere.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Gude S, Pherribo GJ, ME Taga (2022)

A Salvaging Strategy Enables Stable Metabolite Provisioning among Free-Living Bacteria.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

All organisms rely on complex metabolites such as amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors for essential metabolic processes. Some microbes synthesize these fundamental ingredients of life de novo, while others rely on uptake to fulfill their metabolic needs. Although certain metabolic processes are inherently "leaky," the mechanisms enabling stable metabolite provisioning among microbes in the absence of a host remain largely unclear. In particular, how can metabolite provisioning among free-living bacteria be maintained under the evolutionary pressure to economize resources? Salvaging, the process of "recycling and reusing," can be a metabolically efficient route to obtain access to required resources. Here, we show experimentally how precursor salvaging in engineered Escherichia coli populations can lead to stable, long-term metabolite provisioning. We find that salvaged cobamides (vitamin B12 and related enzyme cofactors) are readily made available to nonproducing population members, yet salvagers are strongly protected from overexploitation. We also describe a previously unnoted benefit of precursor salvaging, namely, the removal of the nonfunctional, proliferation-inhibiting precursor. As long as compatible precursors are present, any microbe possessing the terminal steps of a biosynthetic process can, in principle, forgo de novo biosynthesis in favor of salvaging. Consequently, precursor salvaging likely represents a potent, yet overlooked, alternative to de novo biosynthesis for the acquisition and provisioning of metabolites in free-living bacterial populations. IMPORTANCE Recycling gives new life to old things. Bacteria have the ability to recycle and reuse complex molecules they encounter in their environment to fulfill their basic metabolic needs in a resource-efficient way. By studying the salvaging (recycling and reusing) of vitamin B12 precursors, we found that metabolite salvaging can benefit others and provide stability to a bacterial community at the same time. Salvagers of vitamin B12 precursors freely share the result of their labor yet cannot be outcompeted by freeloaders, likely because salvagers retain preferential access to the salvaging products. Thus, salvaging may represent an effective, yet overlooked, mechanism of acquiring and provisioning nutrients in microbial populations.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Heinz J, Doellinger J, Maus D, et al (2022)

Perchlorate-Specific Proteomic Stress Responses of Debaryomyces hansenii Could Enable Microbial Survival in Martian Brines.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

If life exists on Mars, it would face several challenges including the presence of perchlorates, which destabilize biomacromolecules by inducing chaotropic stress. However, little is known about perchlorate toxicity for microorganism on the cellular level. Here we present the first proteomic investigation on the perchlorate-specific stress responses of the halotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and compare these to generally known salt stress adaptations. We found that the responses to NaCl and NaClO4 -induced stresses share many common metabolic features, e.g., signaling pathways, elevated energy metabolism, or osmolyte biosynthesis. Nevertheless, several new perchlorate-specific stress responses could be identified, such as protein glycosylation and cell wall remodulations, presumably in order to stabilize protein structures and the cell envelope. These stress responses would also be relevant for life on Mars, which - given the environmental conditions - likely developed chaotropic defense strategies such as stabilized confirmations of biomacromolecules and the formation of cell clusters. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Legin AA, Schintlmeister A, Jakupec MA, et al (2014)

NanoSIMS combined with fluorescence microscopy as a tool for subcellular imaging of isotopically labeled platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Chemical science, 5(8):3135-3143 pii:c3sc53426j.

Multi-elemental, isotope selective nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used to characterize the subcellular distribution of 15N-labeled cisplatin in human colon cancer cells. These analyses indicated predominant cisplatin colocalisation with sulfur-rich structures in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Furthermore, colocalisation of platinum with phosphorus-rich chromatin regions was observed, which is consistent with its binding affinity to DNA as the generally accepted crucial target of the drug. Application of 15N-labeled cisplatin and subsequent measurement of the nitrogen isotopic composition and determination of the relative intensities of platinum and nitrogen associated secondary ion signals in different cellular compartments with NanoSIMS suggested partial dissociation of Pt-N bonds during the accumulation process, in particular within nucleoli at elevated cisplatin concentrations. This finding raises the question as to whether the observed intracellular dissociation of the drug has implications for the mechanism of action of cisplatin. Within the cytoplasm, platinum mainly accumulated in acidic organelles, as demonstrated by a direct combination of specific fluorescent staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy and NanoSIMS. Different processing of platinum drugs in acidic organelles might be relevant for their detoxification, as well as for their mode of action.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Wu Q, Ji M, Yu S, et al (2022)

Distinct Denitrifying Phenotypes of Predominant Bacteria Modulate Nitrous Oxide Metabolism in Two Typical Cropland Soils.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Denitrifying nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in agroecosystems result from variations in microbial composition and soil properties. However, the microbial mechanisms of differential N2O emissions in agricultural soils are less understood. In this study, microcosm experiments using two main types of Chinese cropland soil were conducted with different supplements of nitrate and glucose to simulate the varying nitrogen and carbon conditions. The results show that N2O accumulation in black soil (BF) was significantly higher than that in fluvo-aquic soil (FF) independent of nitrogen and carbon. The abundance of most denitrifying genes was significantly higher in FF, but the ratios of genes responsible for N2O production (nirS and nirK) to the gene responsible for N2O reduction (nosZ) did not significantly differ between the two soils. However, the soils showed obvious discrepancies in denitrifying bacterial communities, with a higher abundance of N2O-generating bacteria in BF and a higher abundance of N2O-reducing bacteria in FF. High accumulation of N2O was verified by the bacterial isolates of Rhodanobacter predominated in BF due to a lack of N2O reduction capacity. The dominance of Castellaniella and others in FF led to a rapid reduction in N2O and thus less N2O accumulation, as demonstrated when the corresponding isolate was inoculated into the studied soils. Therefore, the different phenotypes of N2O metabolism of the distinct denitrifiers predominantly colonized the two soils, causing differing N2O accumulation. This knowledge would help to develop a strategy for mitigating N2O emissions in agricultural soils by regulating the phenotypes of N2O metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Santos Correa S, Schultz J, Lauersen KJ, et al (2022)

Natural carbon fixation and advances in synthetic engineering for redesigning and creating new fixation pathways.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(22)00165-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Autotrophic carbon fixation is the primary route through which organic carbon enters the biosphere, and it is a key step in the biogeochemical carbon cycle. The Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway, which is predominantly found in plants, algae, and some bacteria (mainly cyanobacteria), was previously considered to be the sole carbon-fixation pathway. However, the discovery of a new carbon-fixation pathway in sulfurous green bacteria almost two decades ago encouraged further research on previously overlooked ancient carbon-fixation pathways in taxonomically and phylogenetically distinct microorganisms.

AIM OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize the six known natural carbon-fixation pathways and outline the newly proposed additions to this list. We also discuss the recent achievements in synthetic carbon fixation and the importance of the metabolism of thermophilic microorganisms in this field.

Currently, at least six carbon-fixation routes have been confirmed in Bacteria and Archaea. Other possible candidate routes have also been suggested on the basis of emerging "omics" data analyses, expanding our knowledge and stimulating discussions on the importance of these pathways in the way organisms acquire carbon. Notably, the currently known natural fixation routes cannot balance the excessive anthropogenic carbon emissions in a highly unbalanced global carbon cycle. Therefore, significant efforts have also been made to improve the existing carbon-fixation pathways and/or design new efficient in vitro and in vivo synthetic pathways.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Tang Y, Wang S, Jin X, et al (2022)

Extensive Carbon Contribution of Inundated Terrestrial Plants to Zooplankton Biomass in a Eutrophic Lake.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Organic carbon derived from terrestrial plants contributes to aquatic consumers, e.g., zooplankton in lakes. The degree of the contribution depends on the availability of terrestrial organic carbon in lake organic pool and the transfer efficiency of the carbon. Terrestrial organic carbon is poor-quality food for zooplankton with a mismatch of nutrition content and was incorporated to zooplankton with much lower efficiency than phytoplankton. Contributions of terrestrial carbon to zooplankton generally decrease with an increase in phytoplankton production, indicating a preferential incorporation of phytoplankton in previous investigations. However, in eutrophic lakes, the dominating cyanobacteria were of poor quality and incorporated to consumers inefficiently too. In that case, zooplankton in eutrophic wetlands, where cyanobacteria dominate the phytoplankton production and massive terrestrial plants are inundated, may not preferentially incorporate poor food-quality phytoplankton resource to their biomass. Therefore, we hypothesize that carbon contributions of terrestrial vegetation to zooplankton and to lake particulate organic pool should be similar in such aquatic ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by sampling zooplankton and carbon sources in Ming Lake (Jinan University Campus, southern China) which was overgrown by terrestrial plants after drying and re-flooded. After 60 days of observations at weekly (or biweekly) intervals, applying stable carbon (13C), nitrogen (15 N), and hydrogen (2H) isotopic analysis and a stable isotope mixing model, we estimated the occurrence of extensive carbon contribution (≥ 50%) of flooded terrestrial plants to cladocerans and copepods. Contribution of inundated terrestrial plants to cladocerans was similar to that to lake particulate organic pool. Thus, our study quantified the role of terrestrial carbon in eutrophic wetlands, enhancing our understanding of cross-ecosystem interactions in food webs with an emphasis on the resource quality.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Pellegrinetti TA, Cotta SR, Sarmento H, et al (2022)

Bacterial Communities Along Environmental Gradients in Tropical Soda Lakes.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Soda lake environments are known to be variable and can have distinct differences according to geographical location. In this study, we investigated the effects of different environmental conditions of six adjacent soda lakes in the Pantanal biome (Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil) on bacterial communities and their functioning using a metagenomic approach combined with flow cytometry and chemical analyses. Ordination analysis using flow cytometry and water chemistry data from two sampling periods (wet and dry) clustered soda lakes into three different profiles: eutrophic turbid (ET), oligotrophic turbid (OT), and clear vegetated oligotrophic (CVO). Analysis of bacterial community composition and functioning corroborated this ordination; the exception was one ET lake, which was similar to one OT lake during the wet season, indicating drastic shifts between seasons. Microbial abundance and diversity increased during the dry period, along with a considerable number of limnological variables, all indicative of a strong effect of the precipitation-evaporation balance in these systems. Cyanobacteria were associated with high electric conductivity, pH, and nutrient availability, whereas Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria were correlated with landscape morphology variability (surface water, surface perimeter, and lake volume) and with lower salinity and pH levels. Stress response metabolism was enhanced in OT and ET lakes and underrepresented in CVO lakes. The microbiome dataset of this study can serve as a baseline for restoring impacted soda lakes. Altogether, the results of this study demonstrate the sensitivity of tropical soda lakes to climate change, as slight changes in hydrological regimes might produce drastic shifts in community diversity.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Mitiku G, Rybka D, Klein-Gunnewiek P, et al (2022)

Molecular detection and quantification of the Striga seedbank in agricultural soils.

Weed research, 62(3):181-191.

Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth is a devastating parasitic weed in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its soil seedbank is the major factor contributing to its prevalence and persistence. To date, there is a little information on the Striga seedbank density in agricultural fields in SSA due to the lack of reliable detection and quantification methods. We developed a high-throughput method that combines density- and size-based separation techniques with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based detection of Striga seeds in soil. The method was optimised and validated by introducing increasing numbers of Striga seeds in two physicochemically different Striga-free agricultural soils. The results showed that as little as one seed of S. hermonthica per 150 g of soil could be detected. This technique was subsequently tested on soil samples of 48 sorghum fields from different agro-ecological zones in Ethiopia to map the geospatial distribution of the Striga seedbank along a trajectory of more than 1500 km. Considerable variation in Striga seed densities was observed. Striga seeds were detectable in 75% of the field soils with densities up to 86 seeds per 150 g of soil. The Striga seed density in soil and the number of emerged Striga plants in the field showed a non-linear relationship. In conclusion, the method developed allows for accurate mapping of the Striga seedbank in physicochemically diverse SSA field soils and can be used to assess the impact of management strategies on Striga seedbank dynamics.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Gwak JH, Awala SI, Nguyen NL, et al (2022)

Sulfur and methane oxidation by a single microorganism.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(32):e2114799119.

Natural and anthropogenic wetlands are major sources of the atmospheric greenhouse gas methane. Methane emissions from wetlands are mitigated by methanotrophic bacteria at the oxic-anoxic interface, a zone of intense redox cycling of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Here, we report on the isolation of an aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, 'Methylovirgula thiovorans' strain HY1, which possesses metabolic capabilities never before found in any methanotroph. Most notably, strain HY1 is the first bacterium shown to aerobically oxidize both methane and reduced sulfur compounds for growth. Genomic and proteomic analyses showed that soluble methane monooxygenase and XoxF-type alcohol dehydrogenases are responsible for methane and methanol oxidation, respectively. Various pathways for respiratory sulfur oxidation were present, including the Sox-rDsr pathway and the S4I system. Strain HY1 employed the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for CO2 fixation during chemolithoautotrophic growth on reduced sulfur compounds. Proteomic and microrespirometry analyses showed that the metabolic pathways for methane and thiosulfate oxidation were induced in the presence of the respective substrates. Methane and thiosulfate could therefore be independently or simultaneously oxidized. The discovery of this versatile bacterium demonstrates that methanotrophy and thiotrophy are compatible in a single microorganism and underpins the intimate interactions of methane and sulfur cycles in oxic-anoxic interface environments.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Cusumano A, Bella P, Peri E, et al (2022)

Nectar-Inhabiting Bacteria Affect Olfactory Responses of an Insect Parasitoid by Altering Nectar Odors.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Floral nectar is ubiquitously colonized by a variety of microorganisms among which yeasts and bacteria are the most common. Microorganisms inhabiting floral nectar can alter several nectar traits, including nectar odor by producing microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs). Evidence showing that mVOCs can affect the foraging behavior of insect pollinators is increasing in the literature, whereas the role of mVOCs in altering the foraging behavior of third-trophic level organisms such as insect parasitoids is largely overlooked. Parasitoids are frequent visitors of flowers and are well known to feed on nectar. In this study, we isolated bacteria inhabiting floral nectar of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonales: Polygonaceae), to test the hypothesis that nectar bacteria affect the foraging behavior of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) via changes in odors of nectar. In behavioral assays, we found that T. basalis wasps are attracted toward nectar fermented by 4 out of the 14 bacterial strains isolated, which belong to Staphylococcus epidermidis, Terrabacillus saccharophilus (both Firmicutes), Pantoea sp. (Proteobacteria), and Curtobacterium sp. (Actinobacteria). Results of chemical investigations revealed significant differences in the volatile blend composition of nectars fermented by the bacterial isolates. Our results indicate that nectar-inhabiting bacteria play an important role in the interactions between flowering plants and foraging parasitoids. These results are also relevant from an applied perspective as flowering resources, such as buckwheat, are largely used in agriculture to promote conservation biological control of insect pests.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Lesniak NA, Tomkovich S, Henry A, et al (2022)

Diluted Fecal Community Transplant Restores Clostridioides difficile Colonization Resistance to Antibiotic-Perturbed Murine Communities.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal communities transplanted into individuals can eliminate recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) with high efficacy. However, this treatment is only used once CDI becomes resistant to antibiotics or has recurred multiple times. We sought to investigate whether a fecal community transplant (FCT) pretreatment could be used to prevent CDI altogether. We treated male C57BL/6 mice with either clindamycin, cefoperazone, or streptomycin and then inoculated them with the microbial community from untreated mice before challenge with C. difficile. We measured colonization and sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to understand the dynamics of the murine fecal community in response to the FCT and C. difficile challenge. Clindamycin-treated mice became colonized with C. difficile but cleared it naturally and did not benefit from the FCT. Cefoperazone-treated mice became colonized by C. difficile, but the FCT enabled clearance of C. difficile. In streptomycin-treated mice, the FCT was able to prevent C. difficile from colonizing. We then diluted the FCT and repeated the experiments. Cefoperazone-treated mice no longer cleared C. difficile. However, streptomycin-treated mice colonized with 1:102 dilutions resisted C. difficile colonization. Streptomycin-treated mice that received an FCT diluted 1:103 became colonized with C. difficile but later cleared the infection. In streptomycin-treated mice, inhibition of C. difficile was associated with increased relative abundance of a group of bacteria related to Porphyromonadaceae and Lachnospiraceae. These data demonstrate that C. difficile colonization resistance can be restored to a susceptible community with an FCT as long as it complements the missing populations. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic use, ubiquitous with the health care environment, is a major risk factor for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), the most common nosocomial infection. When C. difficile becomes resistant to antibiotics, a fecal microbiota transplant from a healthy individual can effectively restore the gut bacterial community and eliminate the infection. While this relationship between the gut bacteria and CDI is well established, there are no therapies to treat a perturbed gut community to prevent CDI. This study explored the potential of restoring colonization resistance to antibiotic-induced susceptible gut communities. We described the effect that gut bacterial community variation has on the effectiveness of a fecal community transplant for inhibiting CDI. These data demonstrated that communities susceptible to CDI can be supplemented with fecal communities but that the effectiveness depended on the structure of the community following the perturbation. Thus, a reduced bacterial community may be able to recover colonization resistance in patients treated with antibiotics.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Jepsen T, Jensen B, NOG Jørgensen (2022)

Volatiles produced by Streptomyces spp. delay rot in apples caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

Current research in microbial sciences, 3:100121 pii:S2666-5174(22)00018-9.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microorganisms may prevent postharvest rot in fruits. Here, it was examined if VOCs from different species of Streptomyces can control infection in apples caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum. Incubation of C. acutatum-infected apples in semi-closed boxes with actively growing strains of three Streptomyces (S. coelicolor, S. diastatochromogenes and Streptomyces strain 2R) showed that VOCs reduced rot areas of the apples by 45-66% after 8 days and 39-57% after 10 days, relative to infected apples incubated without Streptomyces. No differences in inhibition among the three strains were seen. In contrast, a mutant strain of Streptomyces that lacks major genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, did not reduce development of rot in the apples. Furthermore, Streptomyces VOCs reduced radial hyphal growth of C. acutatum on agar. Several of the VOCs produced by three Streptomyces strains have previously shown fungicidal properties. Although the specific VOCs being active in inhibition of C. acutatum remain to be determined, VOCs may have a great potential as biofumigants to minimize postharvest diseases in fruits.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Olmo R, Wetzels SU, Armanhi JSL, et al (2022)

Microbiome Research as an Effective Driver of Success Stories in Agrifood Systems - A Selection of Case Studies.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:834622.

Increasing knowledge of the microbiome has led to significant advancements in the agrifood system. Case studies based on microbiome applications have been reported worldwide and, in this review, we have selected 14 success stories that showcase the importance of microbiome research in advancing the agrifood system. The selected case studies describe products, methodologies, applications, tools, and processes that created an economic and societal impact. Additionally, they cover a broad range of fields within the agrifood chain: the management of diseases and putative pathogens; the use of microorganism as soil fertilizers and plant strengtheners; the investigation of the microbial dynamics occurring during food fermentation; the presence of microorganisms and/or genes associated with hazards for animal and human health (e.g., mycotoxins, spoilage agents, or pathogens) in feeds, foods, and their processing environments; applications to improve HACCP systems; and the identification of novel probiotics and prebiotics to improve the animal gut microbiome or to prevent chronic non-communicable diseases in humans (e.g., obesity complications). The microbiomes of soil, plants, and animals are pivotal for ensuring human and environmental health and this review highlights the impact that microbiome applications have with this regard.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Ma X, Wang T, Shi Z, et al (2022)

Long-term nitrogen deposition enhances microbial capacities in soil carbon stabilization but reduces network complexity.

Microbiome, 10(1):112.

BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic activities have increased the inputs of atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) into terrestrial ecosystems, affecting soil carbon stability and microbial communities. Previous studies have primarily examined the effects of nitrogen deposition on microbial taxonomy, enzymatic activities, and functional processes. Here, we examined various functional traits of soil microbial communities and how these traits are interrelated in a Mediterranean-type grassland administrated with 14 years of 7 g m-2 year-1 of N amendment, based on estimated atmospheric N deposition in areas within California, USA, by the end of the twenty-first century.

RESULTS: Soil microbial communities were significantly altered by N deposition. Consistent with higher aboveground plant biomass and litter, fast-growing bacteria, assessed by abundance-weighted average rRNA operon copy number, were favored in N deposited soils. The relative abundances of genes associated with labile carbon (C) degradation (e.g., amyA and cda) were also increased. In contrast, the relative abundances of functional genes associated with the degradation of more recalcitrant C (e.g., mannanase and chitinase) were either unchanged or decreased. Compared with the ambient control, N deposition significantly reduced network complexity, such as average degree and connectedness. The network for N deposited samples contained only genes associated with C degradation, suggesting that C degradation genes became more intensely connected under N deposition.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose a conceptual model to summarize the mechanisms of how changes in above- and belowground ecosystems by long-term N deposition collectively lead to more soil C accumulation. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Lin C, Peñaranda JSD, Dendooven J, et al (2022)

UV photonic integrated circuits for far-field structured illumination autofluorescence microscopy.

Nature communications, 13(1):4360.

Ultra-violet (UV) light has still a limited scope in optical microscopy despite its potential advantages over visible light in terms of optical resolution and of interaction with a wide variety of biological molecules. The main challenge is to control in a robust, compact and cost-effective way UV light beams at the level of a single optical spatial mode and concomitantly to minimize the light propagation loss. To tackle this challenge, we present here photonic integrated circuits made of aluminum oxide thin layers that are compatible with both UV light and high-volume manufacturing. These photonic circuits designed at a wavelength of 360 nm enable super-resolved structured illumination microscopy with conventional wide-field microscopes and without modifying the usual protocol for handling the object to be imaged. As a biological application, we show that our UV photonic chips enable to image the autofluorescence of yeast cells and reveal features unresolved with standard wide-field microscopy.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Mugani R, Khalloufi FE, Redouane EM, et al (2022)

Bacterioplankton Associated with Toxic Cyanobacteria Promote Pisum sativum (Pea) Growth and Nutritional Value through Positive Interactions.

Microorganisms, 10(8): pii:microorganisms10081511.

Research on Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) has focused much more on rhizospheric bacteria. However, PGPB associated with toxic cyanobacterial bloom (TCB) could enter the rhizosphere through irrigation water, helping plants such as Pisum sativum L. (pea) overcome oxidative stress induced by microcystin (MC) and improve plant growth and nutritional value. This study aimed to isolate bacteria associated with toxic cyanobacteria, test PGPB properties, and inoculate them as a consortium to pea seedlings irrigated with MC to investigate their role in plant protection as well as in improving growth and nutritional value. Two bacterioplankton isolates and one rhizosphere isolate were isolated and purified on a mineral salt medium supplemented with 1000 μg/L MC and identified via their 16S rRNA gene. The mixed strains were inoculated to pea seedlings in pots irrigated with 0, 50, and 100 μg/L MC. We measured the morphological and physiological parameters of pea plants at maturity and evaluated the efficiency of the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses to assess the role and contribution of PGPB. Both bacterioplankton isolates were identified as Starkeya sp., and the rhizobacterium was identified as Brevundimonas&nbsp;aurantiaca. MC addition significantly (p < 0.05) reduced all the growth parameters of the pea, i.e., total chlorophyll content, leaf quantum yield, stomatal conductance, carotenoids, and polyphenol contents, in an MC concentration-dependent manner, while bacterial presence positively affected all the measured parameters. In the MC treatment, the levels of the pea's antioxidant traits, including SOD, CAT, POD, PPO, GST, and ascorbic acid, were increased in the sterile pots. In contrast, these levels were reduced with double and triple PGPB addition. Additionally, nutritional values such as sugars, proteins, and minerals (Ca and K) in pea fruits were reduced under MC exposure but increased with PGPB addition. Overall, in the presence of MC, PGPB seem to positively interact with pea plants and thus may constitute a natural alternative for soil fertilization when irrigated with cyanotoxin-contaminated water, increasing the yield and nutritional value of crops.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

von Gastrow L, Michel E, Legrand J, et al (2022)

Microbial community dispersal from wheat grains to sourdoughs : a contribution of participatory research.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding microbial dispersal is critical to understand the dynamics and evolution of microbial communities. However, microbial dispersal is difficult to study because of uncertainty about their vectors of migration. This applies to both microbial communities in natural and human-associated environments. Here, we studied microbial dispersal along the sourdoughs bread making chain using a participatory research approach. Sourdough is a naturally fermented mixture of flour and water. It hosts a community of bacteria and yeasts whose origins are only partially known. We analysed the potential of wheat grains and flour to serve as an inoculum for sourdough microbial communities using 16S rDNA and ITS1 metabarcoding. First, in an experiment involving farmers, a miller and bakers, we followed the microbiota from grains to newly initiated and propagated sourdoughs. Second, we compared the microbiota of 46 sourdough samples collected everywhere in France, and of the flour used for their backslopping. The core microbiota detected on the seeds, in the flour and in the sourdough was composed mainly of microbes known to be associated with plants and not living in sourdoughs. No sourdough yeast species were detected on grains and flours. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were rarely found in flour. When they were, they did not have the same amplicon sequence variant (ASV) as found in the corresponding sourdough. However, the low sequencing depth for bacteria in flour did not allow us to draw definitive conclusion. Thus, our results showed that sourdough yeasts did not come from flour, and suggest that neither do sourdough LAB.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Orsini M, Petrin S, Corrò M, et al (2022)

Anthroponotic-Based Transfer of Staphylococcus to Dog: A Case Study.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:pathogens11070802.

Although usually harmless, Staphylococcus spp. can cause nosocomial and community-onset skin and soft tissue infections in both humans and animals; thus, it is considered a significant burden for healthcare systems worldwide. Companion animals have been identified as potential reservoirs of pathogenic Staphylococcus with specific reference to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we investigated the circulation and the genetic relationships of a collection of Staphylococcus spp. isolates in a family composed of four adults (a mother, father, grandmother, and grandfather), one child, and a dog, which were sampled over three years. The routes of transmission among humans and between humans and the dog werelyzed. The results displayed the circulation of many Staphylococcus lineages, belonging to different species and sequence types (ST) and being related to both human and pet origins. However, among the observed host-switch events, one of them clearly underpinnthroponotic route from a human to a dog. This suggests that companion animals can potentially have a role as a carrier of Staphylococcus, thus posing a serious concern about MRSA spreading within human and animal microbial communities.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Melo-Bolívar JF, Ruiz Pardo RY, Junca H, et al (2022)

Competitive Exclusion Bacterial Culture Derived from the Gut Microbiome of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as a Resource to Efficiently Recover Probiotic Strains: Taxonomic, Genomic, and Functional Proof of Concept.

Microorganisms, 10(7): pii:microorganisms10071376.

This study aims to mine a previously developed continuous-flow competitive exclusion culture (CFCEC) originating from the Tilapia gut microbiome as a rational and efficient autochthonous probiotic strain recovery source. Three isolated strains were tested on their adaptability to host gastrointestinal conditions, their antibacterial activities against aquaculture bacterial pathogens, and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Their genomes were fully sequenced, assembled, annotated, and relevant functions inferred, such as those related to pinpointed probiotic activities and phylogenomic comparative analyses to the closer reported strains/species relatives. The strains are possible candidates of novel genus/species taxa inside Lactococcus spp. and Priestia spp. (previously known as Bacillus spp.) These results were consistent with reports on strains inside these phyla exhibiting probiotic features, and the strains we found are expanding their known diversity. Furthermore, their pangenomes showed that these bacteria have indeed a set of so far uncharacterized genes that may play a role in the antagonism to competing strains or specific symbiotic adaptations to the fish host. In conclusion, CFCEC proved to effectively allow the enrichment and further pure culture isolation of strains with probiotic potential.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Shen W, Long Y, Qiu Z, et al (2022)

Investigation of Rice Yields and Critical N Losses from Paddy Soil under Different N Fertilization Rates with Iron Application.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(14): pii:ijerph19148707.

The application of iron powder stimulated the growth of iron-reducing bacteria as a respiratory substrate and enhanced their nitrogen (N)-fixing activity in flooded paddy soils. High N fertilization (urea) in the flooded paddy soils has caused adverse environmental impacts such as ammonia (NH3) volatilization, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and nitrate (NO3-) leaching. This study aims to investigate the effects of N fertilization rates in combination with an iron amendment on rice yields and N losses from flooded paddy fields. We performed a 2-year field plot experiment with traditional rice-wheat rotation in China's Yangtze River Delta. The investigation consisted of seven treatments, including 100%, 80%, 60%, and 0% of the conventional N (urea and commercial organic manure) fertilization rate, and 80%, 60%, and 0% of the conventional N with the iron powder (≥99% purity) amendment. The rice yields decreased with a reduction in the conventional N fertilization rate, whereas they were comparable after the iron application under the 80% and 60% conventional N rate. The critical N losses, including NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and NO3- and NH4+ leaching, generally decreased with a reduction in the conventional N fertilization rate. These N losses were significantly greater after the iron amendment compared with the non-amended treatments under the 80% and 60% conventional N fertilization rate in the first rice-growing season. However, it was comparable between the iron-amended and the non-amended treatments in the second season. Furthermore, NO3- leaching was the most significant N loss throughout the two rice seasons, followed by NH3 volatilization. The iron amendment significantly increased soil Fe2+ content compared with the non-amended treatments irrespective of N fertilization, suggesting the reduction of amended iron by iron-reducing bacteria and their simultaneous N fixation. A combination of the iron application with 60-80% of the conventional N fertilization rate could maintain rice yields similar to the conventional N fertilization rate while reducing the critical N losses in the flooded paddy field tested in this study. Our study leads to the establishment of novel and practical rice cultivation, which is a step towards the development of green agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Duysburgh C, Van den Abbeele P, Franckenstein D, et al (2022)

Co-Administration of Lactulose Crystals with Amoxicillin Followed by Prolonged Lactulose Treatment Promotes Recovery of the Human Gut Microbiome In Vitro.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070962.

The validated SHIME model was used to assess the effect of repeated administration of two different lactulose dosages (5 g/d and 10 g/d) on the human gut microbiome during and following amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment. First, antibiotic treatment strongly decreased Bifidobacteriaceae levels from 54.4% to 0.6% and from 23.8% to 2.3% in the simulated proximal and distal colon, respectively, coinciding with a marked reduction in butyrate concentrations. Treatment with lactulose enhanced acetate and lactate levels during antibiotic treatment, likely through lactulose fermentation by Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillaceae. One week after cessation of antibiotic treatment, Bifidobacteriaceae levels re-increased to 20.4% and 7.6% in the proximal and distal colon of the 5 g lactulose/d co-administered unit, as compared with 1.0% and 2.2% in the antibiotic-treated unit, and were even further stimulated upon extension of lactulose administration. Marked butyrogenic effects were observed upon prolonged lactulose supplementation, suggesting the establishment of cross-feeding interactions between Bifidobacteriaceae and butyrate producers. Furthermore, a limited Enterobacteriaceae outgrowth following antibiotic treatment was observed upon dosing with 10 g lactulose/d, indicating inhibition of pathogenic colonization by lactulose following antibiotic therapy. Overall, lactulose seems to be an interesting candidate for limiting the detrimental effects of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid on the human gut microbiome, though further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Romo Bechara N, Wasserberg G, K Raymann (2022)

Microbial ecology of sand fly breeding sites: aging and larval conditioning alter the bacterial community composition of rearing substrates.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):265.

BACKGROUND: Sand flies vector several human pathogens, including Leishmania species, which cause leishmaniases. A leishmaniasis vaccine does not yet exist, so the most common prevention strategies involve personal protection and insecticide spraying. However, insecticides can impact non-target organisms and are becoming less effective because of the evolution of resistance. An alternative control strategy is the attract-and-kill approach, where the vector is lured to a lethal trap, ideally located in oviposition sites that will attract gravid females. Oviposition traps containing attractive microbes have proven successful for the control of some mosquito populations but have not been developed for sand flies. Gravid female sand flies lay their eggs in decomposing organic matter on which the larvae feed and develop. Studies have demonstrated that gravid females are particularly attracted to larval conditioned (containing eggs and larvae) and aged rearing substrates. An isolate-based study has provided some evidence that bacteria play a role in the attraction of sand flies to conditioned substrates. However, the overall bacterial community structure of conditioned and aged substrates and how they change over time has not been investigated.

METHODS: The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial communities of rearing and oviposition substrates that have been shown to vary in attractiveness to gravid sand flies in previous behavioral studies. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing we determined the bacterial composition in fresh, aged, and larval-conditioned substrates at four time points representing the main life-cycle stages of developing sand flies. We compared the diversity, presence, and abundance of taxa across substrate types and time points in order to identify how aging and larval-conditioning impact bacterial community structure.

RESULTS: We found that the bacterial communities significantly change within and between substrates over time. We also identified bacteria that might be responsible for attraction to conditioned and aged substrates, which could be potential candidates for the development of attract-and-kill strategies for sand flies.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both aging and larval conditioning induce shifts in the bacterial communities of sand fly oviposition and rearing substrates, which may explain the previously observed preference of gravid female sand flies to substrates containing second/third-instar larvae (conditioned) and substrates aged the same amount of time without larvae (aged).

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Aziz A, Rameez H, Sengar A, et al (2022)

Biogas production and nutrients removal from slaughterhouse wastewater using integrated anaerobic and aerobic granular intermittent SBRs - Bioreactors stability and microbial dynamics.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04673-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) was effectively treated in sequential anaerobic and aerobic granular intermittent sequencing batch reactors (ASBR+ISBR) for 665 days at different HRTs (48 h, 32 h, 24 h, and 12 h). The ASBR was stable at each HRT but performed relatively well at 12 h (OLR - 7.8-9.8 kg COD/m3-d) in terms of pollutants removal and biogas production than previously conducted research. The average biogas production was about 17.3 L/day having 70-76 % of CH4 which could subsidize around 52 % of electricity demand while saving 103 US dollars/day if installed at full scale. In the case of post aerobic granular ISBR, carbon and nutrients removal (N&P) was achieved by enriching granules (1.7-2.2 mm) at low DO (0.5-0.8 mg/L) via the nitrite pathway. The ISBR was also well stable at 12 h HRT (average OLR of 2.1 kg COD/m3-d) and met the effluent discharge guidelines recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board of India. During steady-state conditions (12 h HRT), the average removal efficiencies for COD, TSS, O&G, TN, and PO4-P were 98.8 %, 96.4 %, 98.7 %, 93.4 %, and 86.6 % respectively from combined ASBR and ISBR. The microbial analysis confirmed Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Synergistetes as the dominant phyla in ASBR. Methanosaeta (21.56 %) and Methanosarcina (6.48 %) were the prevailing methanogens for CH4 production. The leading phyla observed in ISBR were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Armatimonadetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes. Heterotrophic AOB (Thauera, Xanthomonadaceae, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonadaceae, and Rhodococcus) were mainly detected in the system for ammonia oxidation besides common autotrophic AOB. Similarly, a known PAO (Accumulibacter) was not identified but other PAO (Rhodocyclaceae, Dechloromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacteriaceae, and Sphingobacteriaceae) were prevalent inside aerobic granular ISBR that contributed to both carbon and nutrients removal. The results obtained would help implement the investigated reactor configurations at the pilot and full scale for SWW treatment.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Lyng M, ÁT Kovács (2022)

Microbial ecology: Metabolic heterogeneity and the division of labor in multicellular structures.

Current biology : CB, 32(14):R771-R774.

Many bacterial species are capable of differentiating to create phenotypic heterogeneity. Using the aggregate-forming marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus, a new study reveals how this organism differentiates to form spherical structures with a motile, carbon-storing core and a non-motile shell.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

King NG, Smale DA, Thorpe JM, et al (2022)

Core Community Persistence Despite Dynamic Spatiotemporal Responses in the Associated Bacterial Communities of Farmed Pacific Oysters.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

A breakdown in host-bacteria relationships has been associated with the progression of a number of marine diseases and subsequent mortality events. For the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, summer mortality syndrome (SMS) is one of the biggest constraints to the growth of the sector and is set to expand into temperate systems as ocean temperatures rise. Currently, a lack of understanding of natural spatiotemporal dynamics of the host-bacteria relationship limits our ability to develop microbially based monitoring approaches. Here, we characterised the associated bacterial community of C. gigas, at two Irish oyster farms, unaffected by SMS, over the course of a year. We found C. gigas harboured spatiotemporally variable bacterial communities that were distinct from bacterioplankton in surrounding seawater. Whilst the majority of bacteria-oyster associations were transient and highly variable, we observed clear patterns of stability in the form of a small core consisting of six persistent amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). This core made up a disproportionately large contribution to sample abundance (34 ± 0.14%), despite representing only 0.034% of species richness across the study, and has been associated with healthy oysters in other systems. Overall, our study demonstrates the consistent features of oyster bacterial communities across spatial and temporal scales and provides an ecologically meaningful baseline to track environmental change.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Sun Y, Shi J, Wang X, et al (2022)

Deciphering the Mechanisms Shaping the Plastisphere Microbiota in Soil.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The gradual accumulation of microplastics has aroused increasing concern for the unique niche, termed "plastisphere." As research so far has focused on their characteristics in aquatic ecosystems, our understanding of the colonization and assembly of the attached bacterial communities on microplastics in soil ecosystems remains poor. Here, we aimed to characterize the plastisphere microbiomes of two types of microplastics (polylactic acid [PLA] and polyethylene [PE]) differing in their biodegradability in two different soils. After incubation for 60 days, considerably lower alpha diversity of bacterial community was observed on the microplastic surfaces, and prominent divergences occurred in the microbial community compositions between the plastisphere and the bulk soil. The temperature, rather than polymer type, significantly induced the differences between the plastisphere communities. The rRNA gene operon (rrn) copy numbers were significantly higher in the PLA plastisphere, suggesting potential degradation. The co-occurrence network analysis showed that the PE plastisphere exhibited greater network complexity and stronger stability than those in the PLA plastisphere. The stochasticity ratio indicated the remarkable importance of stochastic process on community assembly in PE and PLA plastispheres, while the null model analysis showed the nonnegligible roles of deterministic processes in shaping the plastisphere communities. Higher contributions of homogenous selection in the PLA plastisphere were observed in comparison with the PE plastisphere, which could probably be attributed to the selective pressure induced by microplastic degradation. Our findings enhance our mechanistic understanding of the diversity patterns and assembly processes of plastisphere in soil environments and have important implications for microbial ecology and microplastic risk assessment. IMPORTANCE The increasing pervasive microplastic pollution is creating a new environmental compartment, termed plastisphere. Even though there was conclusive information characterizing the plastisphere, the underlying mechanisms shaping the bacterial communities in the plastisphere in the soil remain unclear. Therefore, we incubated two types of microplastics (PE and PLA) in two different soils and explored the differences between plastisphere and bulk soil communities. Additionally, the co-occurrence network and the assembly processes of plastisphere were subjected to further analysis. Our results highlight the importance of selective recruitment of microplastics and contribute to the understanding of the diversity patterns and assembly processes of plastisphere in soil environments.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Strik DPBTB, Ganigué R, LT Angenent (2022)

Editorial: Microbial Chain Elongation- Close the Carbon Loop by Connecting-Communities.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 10:894490 pii:894490.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Camacho-Sanchez M, Camacho M, Redondo-Gómez S, et al (2022)

Bacterial assemblage in Mediterranean salt marshes: Disentangling the relative importance of seasonality, zonation and halophytes.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04612-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Salt marshes gather a high diversity of prokaryotes across their environmental gradients. Most of this diversity and the factors determining their community assemblage are unknown. We massively sequenced a portion of the 16S gene to characterize the diversity of prokaryotes in soils from a salt marsh in Río Piedras, Southern Spain. We sampled in the four seasons, and in five plots dominated by a different halophyte (Spartina maritima, S. densiflora, Salicornia ramosissima, Arthrocaulon macrostachyum and Atriplex portulacoides) growing under different environmental conditions and representing different stages in the marsh ecological succession. Soil was sampled in their rhizosphere and adjacent bulk soil. We report the effects of different factors explaining prokaryotic beta diversity in the marsh: zonation (50 %), seasonality (14 %), and halophyte rhizosphere (7 %). Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota were the most abundant phyla. Firmicutes had a peak in winter and Desulfobacterota with other bacteria involved in sulfur cycling were abundant in the low marsh plots from S. maritima. Alpha diversity was highest in spring and decreased in winter. We detected a marked phylogenetic turnover between seasons and in rhizospheric soil respect to adjacent bulk soil for most pairwise comparisons. The effect of halophyte on its rhizosphere was species-specific, being S. maritima the species with more differentiated taxa between rhizosphere versus surrounding bulk soil. Our work highlights how the complex interaction between marsh zonation, seasonality and rhizosphere, onsets processes structuring bacterial community assemblage in salt marsh soils.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Perliński P, Mudryk ZJ, Zdanowicz M, et al (2022)

Abundance of Live and Dead Bacteriopsammon Inhabiting Sandy Ecosystems of Recreational Marine Beaches of the Southern Baltic Sea.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The study was carried out on four non-tidal sandy marine beaches located on the Polish part of the southern Baltic Sea coast. We applied a LIVE/DEAD™ BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit (Invitrogen™) method to determine the abundance of live and dead bacteriopsammon. Live psammon bacteria cells constituted 31-53% of the total number of bacteria inhabiting sand of the studied beaches. Abundance of live and dead psammon bacteria generally differed along the horizontal profile in all beaches. The maximum density of bacteria was noted in the dune and the middle part of the beach (dry zones) and the minimum in wet zones, i.e., under seawater surface and at the swash zone. Generally along the vertical profile, the highest numbers of two studied bacterial groups were noted in the surface sand layer, while with increasing sediment depth their numbers significantly decreased. The abundance of live and dead bacteria showed a distinct seasonal variation.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Gouka L, Vogels C, Hansen LH, et al (2022)

Genetic, Phenotypic and Metabolic Diversity of Yeasts From Wheat Flag Leaves.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:908628.

The phyllosphere, the aboveground part of a plant, is a harsh environment with diverse abiotic and biotic stresses, including oscillating nutrient availability and temperature as well as exposure to UV radiation. Microbial colonization of this dynamic environment requires specific adaptive traits, including tolerance to fluctuating temperatures, the production of secondary metabolites and pigments to successfully compete with other microorganisms and to withstand abiotic stresses. Here, we isolated 175 yeasts, comprising 15 different genera, from the wheat flag leaf and characterized a selection of these for various adaptive traits such as substrate utilization, tolerance to different temperatures, biofilm formation, and antagonism toward the fungal leaf pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Collectively our results revealed that the wheat flag leaf is a rich resource of taxonomically and phenotypically diverse yeast genera that exhibit various traits that can contribute to survival in the harsh phyllosphere environment.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Macêdo WV, Poulsen JS, Zaiat M, et al (2022)

Proteogenomics identification of TBBPA degraders in anaerobic bioreactor.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(22)01000-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most used flame retardant worldwide and has become a threat to aquatic ecosystems. Previous research into the degradation of this micropollutant in anaerobic bioreactors has suggested several identities of putative TBBPA degraders. However, the organisms actively degrading TBBPA under in situ conditions have so far not been identified. Protein-stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) has become a cutting-edge technique in microbial ecology for enabling the link between identity and function under in situ conditions. Therefore, it was hypothesized that combining protein-based stable isotope probing with metagenomics could be used to identify and provide genomic insight into the TBBPA-degrading organisms. The identified 13C-labelled peptides were found to belong to organisms affiliated to Phytobacter, Clostridium, Sporolactobacillus, and Klebsilla genera. The functional classification of identified labelled peptides revealed that TBBPA is not only transformed by cometabolic reactions, but also assimilated into the biomass. By application of the proteogenomics with labelled micropollutants (protein-SIP) and metagenome-assembled genomes, it was possible to extend the current perspective of the diversity of TBBPA degraders in wastewater and predict putative TBBPA degradation pathways. The study provides a link to the active TBBPA degraders and which organisms to favor for optimized biodegradation.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Palomo A, Azevedo D, Touceda-Suárez M, et al (2022)

Efficient management of the nitritation-anammox microbiome through intermittent aeration: absence of the NOB guild and expansion and diversity of the NOx reducing guild suggests a highly reticulated nitrogen cycle.

Environmental microbiome, 17(1):39.

Obtaining efficient autotrophic ammonia removal (aka partial nitritation-anammox, or PNA) requires a balanced microbiome with abundant aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and scarce nitrite oxidizing bacteria. Here, we analyzed the microbiome of an efficient PNA process that was obtained by sequential feeding and periodic aeration. The genomes of the dominant community members were inferred from metagenomes obtained over a 6 month period. Three Brocadia spp. genomes and three Nitrosomonas spp. genomes dominated the autotrophic community; no NOB genomes were retrieved. Two of the Brocadia spp. genomes lacked the genomic potential for nitrite reduction. A diverse set of heterotrophic genomes was retrieved, each with genomic potential for only a fraction of the denitrification pathway. A mutual dependency in amino acid and vitamin synthesis was noted between autotrophic and heterotrophic community members. Our analysis suggests a highly-reticulated nitrogen cycle in the examined PNA microbiome with nitric oxide exchange between the heterotrophs and the anammox guild.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Collinge DB, Jensen B, HJ Jørgensen (2022)

Fungal endophytes in plants and their relationship to plant disease.

Current opinion in microbiology, 69:102177 pii:S1369-5274(22)00061-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The enigmatic endophytic fungi are beginning to reveal their secrets. Like pathogens, they can manipulate the host for their own benefit to create their own optimal habitat. Some endophytic manipulations induce resistance or otherwise outcompete pathogens and can thus be exploited for biological control. Like pathogens and other symbionts, endophytes produce effector proteins and other molecules, ranging from specialised metabolites, phytohormones and microRNAs, to manipulate their hosts and other microorganisms they meet. There is a continuum from endophyte to pathogen: some organisms can infest or cause disease in some hosts, but not in others. Molecular genetics approaches coupled with functional characterisation have demonstrated their worth for understanding the biological phenomena underlying endophytic fungal interactions.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Pant A, Maiti TK, Mahajan D, et al (2022)

Human Gut Microbiota and Drug Metabolism.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The efficacy of drugs widely varies in individuals, and the gut microbiota plays an important role in this variability. The commensal microbiota living in the human gut encodes several enzymes that chemically modify systemic and orally administered drugs, and such modifications can lead to activation, inactivation, toxification, altered stability, poor bioavailability, and rapid excretion. Our knowledge of the role of the human gut microbiome in therapeutic outcomes continues to evolve. Recent studies suggest the existence of complex interactions between microbial functions and therapeutic drugs across the human body. Therapeutic drugs or xenobiotics can influence the composition of the gut microbiome and the microbial encoded functions. Both these deviations can alter the chemical transformations of the drugs and hence treatment outcomes. In this review, we provide an overview of (i) the genetic ecology of microbially encoded functions linked with xenobiotic degradation; (ii) the effect of drugs on the composition and function of the gut microbiome; and (iii) the importance of the gut microbiota in drug metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

López-Hernández J, García-Cárdenas E, López-Bucio JS, et al (2022)

Screening of Phosphate Solubilization Identifies Six Pseudomonas Species with Contrasting Phytostimulation Properties in Arabidopsis Seedlings.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The interaction of plants with bacteria and the long-term success of their adaptation to challenging environments depend upon critical traits that include nutrient solubilization, remodeling of root architecture, and modulation of host hormonal status. To examine whether bacterial promotion of phosphate solubilization, root branching and the host auxin response may account for plant growth, we isolated and characterized ten bacterial strains based on their high capability to solubilize calcium phosphate. All strains could be grouped into six Pseudomonas species, namely P. brassicae, P. baetica, P. laurylsulfatiphila, P. chlororaphis, P. lurida, and P. extremorientalis via 16S rRNA molecular analyses. A Solibacillus isronensis strain was also identified, which remained neutral when interacting with Arabidopsis roots, and thus could be used as inoculation control. The interaction of Arabidopsis seedlings with bacterial streaks from pure cultures in vitro indicated that their phytostimulation properties largely differ, since P. brassicae and P. laurylsulfatiphila strongly increased shoot and root biomass, whereas the other species did not. Most bacterial isolates, except P. chlororaphis promoted lateral root formation, and P. lurida and P. chlororaphis strongly enhanced expression of the auxin-inducible gene construct DR5:GUS in roots, but the most bioactive probiotic bacterium P. brassicae could not enhance the auxin response. Inoculation with P. brassicae and P. lurida improved shoot and root growth in medium supplemented with calcium phosphate as the sole Pi source. Collectively, our data indicate the differential responses of Arabidopsis seedlings to inoculation with several Pseudomonas species and highlight the potential of P. brassicae to manage phosphate nutrition and plant growth in a more eco-friendly manner.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Birnbaum C, Wood J, Lilleskov E, et al (2022)

Degradation Reduces Microbial Richness and Alters Microbial Functions in an Australian Peatland.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Peatland ecosystems cover only 3% of the world's land area; however, they store one-third of the global soil carbon (C). Microbial communities are the main drivers of C decomposition in peatlands, yet we have limited knowledge of their structure and function. While the microbial communities in the Northern Hemisphere peatlands are well documented, we have limited understanding of microbial community composition and function in the Southern Hemisphere peatlands, especially in Australia. We investigated the vertical stratification of prokaryote and fungal communities from Wellington Plains peatland in the Australian Alps. Within the peatland complex, bog peat was sampled from the intact peatland and dried peat from the degraded peatland along a vertical soil depth gradient (i.e., acrotelm, mesotelm, and catotelm). We analyzed the prokaryote and fungal community structure, predicted functional profiles of prokaryotes using PICRUSt, and assigned soil fungal guilds using FUNGuild. We found that the structure and function of prokaryotes were vertically stratified in the intact bog. Soil carbon, manganese, nitrogen, lead, and sodium content best explained the prokaryote composition. Prokaryote richness was significantly higher in the intact bog acrotelm compared to degraded bog acrotelm. Fungal composition remained similar across the soil depth gradient; however, there was a considerable increase in saprotroph abundance and decrease in endophyte abundance along the vertical soil depth gradient. The abundance of saprotrophs and plant pathogens was two-fold higher in the degraded bog acrotelm. Soil manganese and nitrogen content, electrical conductivity, and water table level (cm) best explained the fungal composition. Our results demonstrate that both fungal and prokaryote communities are shaped by soil abiotic factors and that peatland degradation reduces microbial richness and alters microbial functions. Thus, current and future changes to the environmental conditions in these peatlands may lead to altered microbial community structures and associated functions which may have implications for broader ecosystem function changes in peatlands.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Mathur V, D Ulanova (2022)

Microbial Metabolites Beneficial to Plant Hosts Across Ecosystems.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Plants are intimately connected with their associated microorganisms. Chemical interactions via natural products between plants and their microbial symbionts form an important aspect in host health and development, both in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These interactions range from negative to beneficial for microbial symbionts as well as their hosts. Symbiotic microbes synchronize their metabolism with their hosts, thus suggesting a possible coevolution among them. Metabolites, synthesized from plants and microbes due to their association and coaction, supplement the already present metabolites, thus promoting plant growth, maintaining physiological status, and countering various biotic and abiotic stress factors. However, environmental changes, such as pollution and temperature variations, as well as anthropogenic-induced monoculture settings, have a significant influence on plant-associated microbial community and its interaction with the host. In this review, we put the prominent microbial metabolites participating in plant-microbe interactions in the natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in a single perspective and have discussed commonalities and differences in these interactions for adaptation to surrounding environment and how environmental changes can alter the same. We also present the status and further possibilities of employing chemical interactions for environment remediation. Our review thus underlines the importance of ecosystem-driven functional adaptations of plant-microbe interactions in natural and anthropogenically influenced ecosystems and their possible applications.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Mahmud MR, Akter S, Tamanna SK, et al (2022)

Impact of gut microbiome on skin health: gut-skin axis observed through the lenses of therapeutics and skin diseases.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2096995.

The human intestine hosts diverse microbial communities that play a significant role in maintaining gut-skin homeostasis. When the relationship between gut microbiome and the immune system is impaired, subsequent effects can be triggered on the skin, potentially promoting the development of skin diseases. The mechanisms through which the gut microbiome affects skin health are still unclear. Enhancing our understanding on the connection between skin and gut microbiome is needed to find novel ways to treat human skin disorders. In this review, we systematically evaluate current data regarding microbial ecology of healthy skin and gut, diet, pre- and probiotics, and antibiotics, on gut microbiome and their effects on skin health. We discuss potential mechanisms of the gut-skin axis and the link between the gut and skin-associated diseases, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, alopecia areata, and hidradenitis suppurativa. This review will increase our understanding of the impacts of gut microbiome on skin conditions to aid in finding new medications for skin-associated diseases.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Tian C, Pang J, Bu C, et al (2022)

The Microbiomes in Lichen and Moss Biocrust Contribute Differently to Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in Arid Ecosystems.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are distributed in arid and semiarid regions across the globe. Microorganisms are an essential component in biocrusts. They add and accelerate critical biochemical processes. However, little is known about the functional genes and metabolic processes of microbiomes in lichen and moss biocrust. This study used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to compare the microbiomes of lichen-dominated and moss-dominated biocrust and reveal the microbial genes and metabolic pathways involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling. The results showed that Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were more abundant in moss biocrust than lichen biocrust, while Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were more abundant in lichen biocrust than moss biocrust. The relative abundance of carbohydrate-active enzymes and enzymes associated with carbon and nitrogen metabolism differed significantly between microbiomes of the two biocrust types. However, in the microbial communities of both biocrust types, respiration pathways dominated over carbon fixation pathways. The genes encoding carbon monoxide dehydrogenase were more abundant than those encoding ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) involved in carbon fixation. Similarly, metabolic N-pathway diversity was dominated by nitrogen reduction, followed by denitrification, with nitrogen fixation the lowest proportion. Gene diversity involved in N cycling differed between the microbiomes of the two biocrust types. Assimilatory nitrate reduction genes had higher relative abundance in lichen biocrust, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction genes had higher relative abundance in moss biocrust. As dissolved organic carbon and soil organic carbon are considered the main drivers of the community structure in the microbiome of biocrust, these results indicate that biocrust type has a pivotal role in microbial diversity and related biogeochemical cycling.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Ouamba AJK, Gagnon M, LaPointe G, et al (2022)

Graduate Student Literature Review: Farm management practices: Potential microbial sources that determine the microbiota of raw bovine milk.

Journal of dairy science pii:S0022-0302(22)00396-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental and herd-associated factors such as geographical location, climatic conditions, forage types, bedding, soil, animal genetics, herd size, housing, lactation stage, and udder health are exploited by farmers to dictate specific management strategies that ensure dairy operation profitability and enhance the sustainability of milk production. Along with milking routines, milking systems, and storage conditions, these farming practices greatly influence the microbiota of raw milk, as evidenced by several recent studies. During the past few years, the increased interest in high-throughput sequencing technologies combined with culture-dependent methods to investigate dairy microbial ecology has improved our understanding of raw milk community dynamics throughout storage and processing. However, knowledge is still lacking on the niche-specific communities in the farm environment, and on the factors that determine bacteria transfer to the raw milk. This review summarizes findings from the past 2 decades regarding the effects of farm management practices on the diversity of bacterial species that determine the microbiological quality of raw cow milk.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Zhang Q, Zou X, Wu S, et al (2022)

Effects of Pyroligneous Acid on Diversity and Dynamics of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Alfalfa Silage.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are recognized as contaminants due to their potential risk for human and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of pyroligneous acid (PA), a waste of biochar production, on fermentation characteristics, diversity, and dynamics of ARGs during ensiling of alfalfa using metagenomic analysis. The results indicated that PA decreased (P < 0.05) dry matter loss, pH value, gas production, coliform bacteria count, protease activity, and nonprotein-N, ammonia-N, and butyric acid contents and increased (P < 0.05) lactic acid content during ensiling. During fermentation, Bacteria, Firmicutes, and Lactobacillus were the most abundant at kingdom, phylum, and genus levels, respectively. Pyroligneous acid reduced the relative abundance of Bacteria and Firmicutes and increased that of Lactobacillus. The detected ARGs belonged to 36 drug classes, including mainly macrolides, tetracycline, lincosamides, and phenicol. These types of ARGs decreased during fermentation and were further reduced by PA. These types of ARGs were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with fermentation parameters like pH value and ammonia-N content and with bacterial communities. At the genus level, the top several drug classes, including macrolide, tetracycline, lincosamide, phenicol, oxazolidinone, streptogramin, pleuromutilin, and glycopeptide, were positively correlated with Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Clostridium, and Enterobacter, the potential hosts of ARGs. Overall, ARGs in alfalfa silage were abundant and were influenced by the fermentation parameters and microbial community composition. Ensiling could be a feasible way to mitigate ARGs in forages. The addition of PA could not only improve fermentation quality but also reduce ARG pollution of alfalfa silage. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are considered environmental pollutants posing a potential human health risk. Silage is an important and traditional feed, mainly for ruminants. ARGs in silages might influence the diversity and distribution of ARGs in animal intestinal and feces and then the manure and the manured soil. However, the diversity and dynamics of ARGs in silage during fermentation are still unknown. We ensiled alfalfa, one of the most widely used forages, with or without pyroligneous acid (PA), which was proved to have the ability to reduce ARGs in soils. The results showed that ARGs in alfalfa silage were abundant and were influenced by the fermentation parameters and microbial community. The majority of ARGs in alfalfa silage reduced during fermentation. The addition of PA could improve silage quality and reduce ARG pollution in alfalfa silage. This study can provide useful information for understanding and controlling ARG pollution in animal production.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Molina-Santiago C, Pearson JR, Berlanga-Clavero MV, et al (2022)

A Noninvasive Method for Time-Lapse Imaging of Microbial Interactions and Colony Dynamics.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Complex interactions between microbial populations can greatly affect the overall properties of a microbial community, sometimes leading to cooperation and mutually beneficial coexistence, or competition and the death or displacement of organisms or subpopulations. Interactions between different biofilm populations are highly relevant in diverse scientific areas, from antimicrobial resistance to microbial ecology. The utilization of modern microscopic techniques has provided a new and interesting insight into how bacteria interact at the cellular level to form and maintain microbial biofilms. However, our ability to follow complex intraspecies and interspecies interactions in vivo at the microscopic level has remained somewhat limited. Here, we detailed BacLive, a novel noninvasive method for tracking bacterial growth and biofilm dynamics using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and an associated ImageJ processing macro (https://github.com/BacLive) for easier data handling and image analysis. Finally, we provided examples of how BacLive can be used in the analysis of complex bacterial communities. IMPORTANCE Communication and interactions between single cells are continuously defining the structure and composition of microbial communities temporally and spatially. Methods routinely used to study these communities at the cellular level rely on sample manipulation which makes microscopic time-lapse experiments impossible. BacLive was conceived as a method for the noninvasive study of the formation and development of bacterial communities, such as biofilms, and the formation dynamics of specialized subpopulations in time-lapse experiments at a colony level. In addition, we developed a tool to simplify the processing and analysis of the data generated by this method.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Schultz J, Modolon F, Rosado AS, et al (2022)

Methods and Strategies to Uncover Coral-Associated Microbial Dark Matter.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The vast majority of environmental microbes have not yet been cultured, and most of the knowledge on coral-associated microbes (CAMs) has been generated from amplicon sequencing and metagenomes. However, exploring cultured CAMs is key for a detailed and comprehensive characterization of the roles of these microbes in shaping coral health and, ultimately, for their biotechnological use as, for example, coral probiotics and other natural products. Here, the strategies and technologies that have been used to access cultured CAMs are presented, while advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these strategies are discussed. We highlight the existing gaps and potential improvements in culture-dependent methodologies, indicating several possible alternatives (including culturomics and in situ diffusion devices) that could be applied to retrieve the CAM "dark matter" (i.e., the currently undescribed CAMs). This study provides the most comprehensive synthesis of the methodologies used to recover the cultured coral microbiome to date and draws suggestions for the development of the next generation of CAM culturomics.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Dove NC, Carrell AA, Engle NL, et al (2022)

Relationships between Sphaerulina musiva Infection and the Populus Microbiome and Metabolome.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Pathogenic fungal infections in plants may, in some cases, lead to downstream systematic impacts on the plant metabolome and microbiome that may either alleviate or exacerbate the effects of the fungal pathogen. While Sphaerulina musiva is a well-characterized fungal pathogen which infects Populus tree species, an important wood fiber and biofuel feedstock, little is known about its systematic effects on the metabolome and microbiome of Populus. Here, we investigated the metabolome of Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides leaves and roots and the microbiome of the leaf and root endospheres, phylloplane, and rhizosphere to understand the systematic impacts of S. musiva abundance and infection on Populus species in a common garden field setting. We found that S. musiva is indeed present in both P. deltoides and P. trichocarpa, but S. musiva abundance was not statistically related to stem canker onset. We also found that the leaf and root metabolomes significantly differ between the two Populus species and that certain leaf metabolites, particularly the phenolic glycosides salirepin and salireposide, are diminished in canker-infected P. trichocarpa trees compared to their uninfected counterparts. Furthermore, we found significant associations between the metabolome, S. musiva abundance, and microbiome composition and α-diversity, particularly in P. trichocarpa leaves. Our results show that S. musiva colonizes both resistant and susceptible hosts and that the effects of S. musiva on susceptible trees are not confined to the site of canker infection. IMPORTANCE Poplar (Populus spp.) trees are ecologically and economically important trees throughout North America. However, many western North American poplar plantations are at risk due to the introduction of the nonnative fungal pathogen Sphaerulina musiva, which causes leaf spot and cankers, limiting their production. To better understand the interactions among the pathogen S. musiva, the poplar metabolome, and the poplar microbiome, we collected leaf, root, and rhizosphere samples from poplar trees consisting of 10 genotypes and two species with differential resistance to S. musiva in a common garden experiment. Here, we outline the nuanced relationships between the poplar metabolome, microbiome, and S. musiva, showing that S. musiva may affect poplar trees in tissues distal to the site of infection (i.e., stem). Our research contributes to improving the fundamental understanding of S. musiva and Populus sp. ecology and the utility of a holobiont approach in understanding plant disease.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Green EA, JL Klassen (2022)

Trachymyrmex septentrionalis Ant Microbiome Assembly Is Unique to Individual Colonies and Castes.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Within social insect colonies, microbiomes often differ between castes due to their different functional roles and between colony locations. Trachymyrmex septentrionalis fungus-growing ants form colonies throughout the eastern United States and northern Mexico that include workers, female and male alates (unmated reproductive castes), larvae, and pupae. How T. septentrionalis microbiomes vary across this geographic range and between castes is unknown. Our sampling of individual ants from colonies across the eastern United States revealed a conserved T. septentrionalis worker ant microbiome and revealed that worker ant microbiomes are more conserved within colonies than between them. A deeper sampling of individual ants from two colonies that included all available castes (pupae, larvae, workers, and female and male alates), from both before and after adaptation to controlled laboratory conditions, revealed that ant microbiomes from each colony, caste, and rearing condition were typically conserved within but not between each sampling category. Tenericute bacterial symbionts were especially abundant in these ant microbiomes and varied widely in abundance between sampling categories. This study demonstrates how individual insect colonies primarily drive the composition of their microbiomes and shows that these microbiomes are further modified by developmental differences between insect castes and the different environmental conditions experienced by each colony. IMPORTANCE This study investigates microbiome assembly in the fungus-growing ant Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, showing how colony, caste, and lab adaptation influence the microbiome and revealing unique patterns of mollicute symbiont abundance. We find that ant microbiomes differ strongly between colonies but less so within colonies. Microbiomes of different castes and following lab adaptation also differ in a colony-specific manner. This study advances our understanding of the nature of individuality in social insect microbiomes and cautions against the common practice of only sampling a limited number of populations to understand microbiome diversity and function.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Wale N (2022)

mSphere of Influence: There's More to (a Pathogen's) Life than Growing Fast.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Nina Wale works in the field of infectious disease evolution and ecology. In this mSphere of Influence article, she reflects on how the paper by Roller and Schmidt, "The physiology and ecological implications of efficient growth" (B. R. Roller and T. M. Schmidt, ISME J 9:1481-1487, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2014.235) broadened her thinking about how microbes acquire and allocate resources and, in so doing, set her research on pathogen virulence evolution in a new direction.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Smith DJ, Kharbush JJ, Kersten RD, et al (2022)

Uptake of Phytoplankton-Derived Carbon and Cobalamins by Novel Acidobacteria Genera in Microcystis Blooms Inferred from Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Evidence.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Interactions between bacteria and phytoplankton can influence primary production, community composition, and algal bloom development. However, these interactions are poorly described for many consortia, particularly for freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Here, we assessed the gene content and expression of two uncultivated Acidobacteria from Lake Erie Microcystis blooms. These organisms were targeted because they were previously identified as important catalase producers in Microcystis blooms, suggesting that they protect Microcystis from H2O2. Metatranscriptomics revealed that both Acidobacteria transcribed genes for uptake of organic compounds that are known cyanobacterial products and exudates, including lactate, glycolate, amino acids, peptides, and cobalamins. Expressed genes for amino acid metabolism and peptide transport and degradation suggest that use of amino acids and peptides by Acidobacteria may regenerate nitrogen for cyanobacteria and other organisms. The Acidobacteria genomes lacked genes for biosynthesis of cobalamins but expressed genes for its transport and remodeling. This indicates that the Acidobacteria obtained cobalamins externally, potentially from Microcystis, which has a complete gene repertoire for pseudocobalamin biosynthesis; expressed them in field samples; and produced pseudocobalamin in axenic culture. Both Acidobacteria were detected in Microcystis blooms worldwide. Together, the data support the hypotheses that uncultured and previously unidentified Acidobacteria taxa exchange metabolites with phytoplankton during harmful cyanobacterial blooms and influence nitrogen available to phytoplankton. Thus, novel Acidobacteria may play a role in cyanobacterial physiology and bloom development. IMPORTANCE Interactions between heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton influence competition and successions between phytoplankton taxa, thereby influencing ecosystem-wide processes such as carbon cycling and algal bloom development. The cyanobacterium Microcystis forms harmful blooms in freshwaters worldwide and grows in buoyant colonies that harbor other bacteria in their phycospheres. Bacteria in the phycosphere and in the surrounding community likely influence Microcystis physiology and ecology and thus the development of freshwater harmful cyanobacterial blooms. However, the impacts and mechanisms of interaction between bacteria and Microcystis are not fully understood. This study explores the mechanisms of interaction between Microcystis and uncultured members of its phycosphere in situ with population genome resolution to investigate the cooccurrence of Microcystis and freshwater Acidobacteria in blooms worldwide.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-07-21

Kankonkar HT, RS Khandeparker (2022)

Microplastics a Novel Substratum for Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-Producing Bacteria in Aquatic Environments.

Current microbiology, 79(9):258.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) being biological polymers have attracted great attention. PHA have similar properties to that of synthetic plastic and are biodegradable. To discourage plastic pollution in the environment alternative solutions to the plastic pollution has to be readily available. High cost in production of PHA limits the production of these polymers at industrial scale. Bacteria are screened for PHA from diverse niches to meet the current requirements of cheap PHA production at industrial level. The microbial biofilm formed on the surface of microplastic could be a potential source in providing bacteria of economic importance. This paper is an attempt to search microplastic niche for potential PHA producers. PHA production variation was observed with different parameters such as type of carbon source, nitrogen source concentration and also time of incubation. Bacillus sp. CM27 showed maximum PHA yield up to 32.1% among other isolates at 48 h with 2% glucose as carbon source. Optimization of media leads to increase in PHA yield (37.69%) of CDW in Bacillus sp. CM27. Amino acid sequence of Bacillus sp.CM27 showed the presence of PhaC box with sequence, G-Y-C-M-G-G having cysteine in the middle of the box. The extracted polymer was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Ienes-Lima J, Prichula J, Abadie M, et al (2022)

First Report of Culturable Skin Bacteria in Melanophryniscus admirabilis (Admirable Redbelly Toad).

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Melanophryniscus admirabilis is a small toad, critically endangered with a microendemic distribution in the Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. The amphibian skin microbiome is considered one of the first lines of defense against pathogenic infections, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The knowledge of skin amphibian microbiomes is important to numerous fields, including species conservation, detection, and quantification of environmental changes and stressors. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, cultivable bacteria in the skin of wild M. admirabilis, and detected Bd fungus by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Skin swab samples were collected from 15 wild M. admirabilis, and the isolation of bacteria was performed by means of different culture strategies. A total of 62 bacterial isolates being Bacillus (n = 22; 34.48%), Citrobacter (n = 10; 16.13%), and Serratia (n = 12; 19.35%) were more frequently isolated genera. Interestingly, all skin samples tested were Bd negative. Some bacterial genera identified in our study might be acting in a synergic relationship and protecting them against the Bd fungus. In addition, these bacteria may play an essential role in maintaining this species in an environment modulated by anthropic actions. This first report of skin cultivable bacteria from M. admirabilis natural population improves our knowledge of skin amphibian microbiomes, contributing to a better understanding of their ecology and how this species has survived in an environment modulated by anthropic action.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Alvarenga DO, Elmdam IV, Timm AB, et al (2022)

Chemical Stimulation of Heterocyte Differentiation by the Feather Moss Hylocomium splendens: a Potential New Step in Plant-Cyanobacteria Symbioses.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Cyanobacteria associated with mosses play a key role in the nitrogen (N) cycle in unpolluted ecosystems. Mosses have been found to release molecules that induce morphophysiological changes in epiphytic cyanobionts. Nevertheless, the extent of moss influence on these microorganisms remains unknown. To evaluate how mosses or their metabolites influence N2 fixation rates by cyanobacteria, we assessed the nitrogenase activity, heterocyte frequency and biomass of a cyanobacterial strain isolated from the feather moss Hylocomium splendens and a non-symbiotic strain when they were either growing by themselves, together with H. splendens or exposed to H. splendens water, acetone, ethanol, or isopropanol extracts. The same cyanobacterial strains were added to another moss (Taxiphyllum barbieri) and a liverwort (Monosolenium tenerum) to assess if these bryophytes affect N2 fixation differently. Although no significant increases in nitrogenase activity by the cyanobacteria were observed when in contact with H. splendens shoots, both the symbiotic and non-symbiotic cyanobacteria increased nitrogenase activity as well as heterocyte frequency significantly upon exposure to H. splendens ethanol extracts. Contact with T. barbieri shoots, on the other hand, did lead to increases in nitrogenase activity, indicating low host-specificity to cyanobacterial activity. These findings suggest that H. splendens produces heterocyte-differentiating factors (HDFs) that are capable of stimulating cyanobacterial N2 fixation regardless of symbiotic competency. Based on previous knowledge about the chemical ecology and dynamics of moss-cyanobacteria interactions, we speculate that HDF expression by the host takes place in a hypothetical new step occurring after plant colonization and the repression of hormogonia.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Miller SD (2022)

Boat encounter with the 2019 Java bioluminescent milky sea: Views from on-deck confirm satellite detection.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(29):e2207612119.

"Milky seas" are massive swaths of uniformly and steadily glowing ocean seen at night. The phenomenon is thought to be caused by luminous bacteria, but details of milky sea composition, structure, cause, and implications in nature remain largely uncertain. Between late July and early September 2019, specialized low-light satellite sensors detected a possible bioluminescent milky sea south of Java, Indonesia, spanning >100,000 km2. Upon learning of these findings, crew members of the yacht Ganesha reached out to confirm and share details of their personal encounter with this same event. Here, we document Ganesha's experience as recalled by the crew, compare their course to satellite data, and assess their photography of this milky sea.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Matsumura E, Morinaga K, K Fukuda (2022)

Host Specificity and Seasonal Variation in the Colonization of Tubakia sensu lato Associated with Evergreen Oak Species in Eastern Japan.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Foliar fungal endophytes are ubiquitous and hyperdiverse, and tend to be host-specific among dominant forest tree species. The fungal genus Tubakia sensu lato is comprised of foliar pathogens and endophytes that exhibit host preference for Quercus and other Fagaceae species. To clarify interspecific differences in ecological characteristics among Tubakia species, we examined the endophyte communities of seven evergreen Quercus spp. at three sites in eastern Japan during summer and winter. Host tree species was the most significant factor affecting endophyte community composition. Tubakia species found at the study sites were divided into five specialists and three generalists according to their relative abundance in each host species and their host ranges. Specialists were dominant on their own host in summer, and their abundance declined in winter. To test the hypothesis that generalists are more widely adapted to their environment than specialists, we compared their spore germination rates at different temperatures. Spores of generalist Tubakia species were more tolerant of colder temperatures than were spores of specialist Tubakia species, supporting our hypothesis. Seasonal and site variations among Tubakia species were also consistent with our hypothesis. Host identity and ecology were significantly associated with endophyte community structure.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Forchielli E, Sher D, D Segrè (2022)

Metabolic Phenotyping of Marine Heterotrophs on Refactored Media Reveals Diverse Metabolic Adaptations and Lifestyle Strategies.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities, through their metabolism, drive carbon cycling in marine environments. These complex communities are composed of many different microorganisms including heterotrophic bacteria, each with its own nutritional needs and metabolic capabilities. Yet, models of ecosystem processes typically treat heterotrophic bacteria as a "black box," which does not resolve metabolic heterogeneity nor address ecologically important processes such as the successive modification of different types of organic matter. Here we directly address the heterogeneity of metabolism by characterizing the carbon source utilization preferences of 63 heterotrophic bacteria representative of several major marine clades. By systematically growing these bacteria on 10 media containing specific subsets of carbon sources found in marine biomass, we obtained a phenotypic fingerprint that we used to explore the relationship between metabolic preferences and phylogenetic or genomic features. At the class level, these bacteria display broadly conserved patterns of preference for different carbon sources. Despite these broad taxonomic trends, growth profiles correlate poorly with phylogenetic distance or genome-wide gene content. However, metabolic preferences are strongly predicted by a handful of key enzymes that preferentially belong to a few enriched metabolic pathways, such as those involved in glyoxylate metabolism and biofilm formation. We find that enriched pathways point to enzymes directly involved in the metabolism of the corresponding carbon source and suggest potential associations between metabolic preferences and other ecologically relevant traits. The availability of systematic phenotypes across multiple synthetic media constitutes a valuable resource for future quantitative modeling efforts and systematic studies of interspecies interactions. IMPORTANCE Half of the Earth's annual primary production is carried out by phytoplankton in the surface ocean. However, this metabolic activity is heavily impacted by heterotrophic bacteria, which dominate the transformation of organic matter released from phytoplankton. Here, we characterize the diversity of metabolic preferences across many representative heterotrophs by systematically growing them on different fractions of dissolved organic carbon. Our analysis suggests that different clades of bacteria have substantially distinct preferences for specific carbon sources, in a way that cannot be simply mapped onto phylogeny. These preferences are associated with the presence of specific genes and pathways, reflecting an association between metabolic capabilities and ecological lifestyles. In addition to helping understand the importance of heterotrophs under different conditions, the phenotypic fingerprint we obtained can help build higher resolution quantitative models of global microbial activity and biogeochemical cycles in the oceans.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Lesniak NA, Schubert AM, Flynn KJ, et al (2022)

The Gut Bacterial Community Potentiates Clostridioides difficile Infection Severity.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

The severity of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) has increased over the last few decades. Patient age, white blood cell count, and creatinine levels as well as C. difficile ribotype and toxin genes have been associated with disease severity. However, it is unclear whether specific members of the gut microbiota are associated with variations in disease severity. The gut microbiota is known to interact with C. difficile during infection. Perturbations to the gut microbiota are necessary for C. difficile to colonize the gut. The gut microbiota can inhibit C. difficile colonization through bile acid metabolism, nutrient consumption, and bacteriocin production. Here, we sought to demonstrate that members of the gut bacterial communities can also contribute to disease severity. We derived diverse gut communities by colonizing germfree mice with different human fecal communities. The mice were then infected with a single C. difficile ribotype 027 clinical isolate, which resulted in moribundity and histopathologic differences. The variation in severity was associated with the human fecal community that the mice received. Generally, bacterial populations with pathogenic potential, such as Enterococcus, Helicobacter, and Klebsiella, were associated with more-severe outcomes. Bacterial groups associated with fiber degradation and bile acid metabolism, such as Anaerotignum, Blautia, Lactonifactor, and Monoglobus, were associated with less-severe outcomes. These data indicate that, in addition to the host and C. difficile subtype, populations of gut bacteria can influence CDI disease severity. IMPORTANCE Clostridioides difficile colonization can be asymptomatic or develop into an infection ranging in severity from mild diarrhea to toxic megacolon, sepsis, and death. Models that predict severity and guide treatment decisions are based on clinical factors and C. difficile characteristics. Although the gut microbiome plays a role in protecting against CDI, its effect on CDI disease severity is unclear and has not been incorporated into disease severity models. We demonstrated that variation in the microbiome of mice colonized with human feces yielded a range of disease outcomes. These results revealed groups of bacteria associated with both severe and mild C. difficile infection outcomes. Gut bacterial community data from patients with CDI could improve our ability to identify patients at risk of developing more severe disease and improve interventions that target C. difficile and the gut bacteria to reduce host damage.

RevDate: 2022-07-18

Vaezzadeh V, Thomes MW, Kunisue T, et al (2022)

Corrigendum to "Examination of barnacles' potential to be used as bioindicators of persistent organic pollutants in coastal ecosystem: A Malaysia case study" [Chemosphere 263 (2021) 128272].

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Ludwig H, Hausmann B, Schreder M, et al (2021)

Reduced alpha diversity of the oral microbiome correlates with short progression-free survival in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma treated with ixazomib-based therapy (AGMT MM 1, phase II trial).

EJHaem, 2(1):99-103.

Alterations in the human microbiome have been linked to several malignant diseases. Here, we investigated the oral microbiome of 79 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) treated with ixazomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone. Increased alpha diversity (Shannon index) at the phylum level was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS) (10.2 vs 8.5 months, P = .04), particularly in patients with very long (>75% quartile) PFS . Additionally, alpha diversity was lower in patients with progressive disease (P < .05). These findings suggest an interrelationship between the oral microbiome and outcome in patients with MM and encourage a novel direction for diagnostic and/or therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Hessler T, Harrison STL, RJ Huddy (2022)

Integrated Kinetic Modelling and Microbial Profiling Provide Insights Into Biological Sulfate-Reducing Reactor Design and Operation.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 10:897094.

Biological sulfate reduction (BSR) is an attractive approach for the bioremediation of sulfate-rich wastewater streams. Many sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM), which facilitate this process, have been well-studied in pure culture. However, the role of individual members of microbial communities within BSR bioreactors remains understudied. In this study we investigated the performance of two up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactors (UAPBRs) supplemented primarily with acetate and with lactate, respectively, during a hydraulic retention time (HRT) study set up to remediate sulfate-rich synthetic wastewater over the course of 1,000 + days. Plug-flow hydrodynamics led to a continuum of changing volumetric sulfate reduction rates (VSRRs), available electron donors, degrees of biomass retention and compositions of microbial communities throughout these reactors. Microbial communities throughout the successive zones of the reactors were resolved using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing which allowed the association of features of performance with discrete microorganisms. The acetate UAPBR achieved a maximum VSRR of 23.2 mg.L-1. h-1 at a one-day HRT and a maximum sulfate conversion of the 1 g/L sulfate of 96% at a four-day HRT. The sulfate reduction reactions in this reactor could be described with a reaction order of 2.9, an important observation for optimisation and future scale-up. The lactate UAPBR achieved a 96% sulfate conversion at one-day HRT, corresponding with a VSRR of 40.1 mg.L-1. h-1. Lactate was supplied in this reactor at relatively low concentrations necessitating the subsequent use of propionate and acetate, by-products of lactate fermentation with acetate also a by-product of incomplete lactate oxidation, to achieve competitive performance. The consumption of these electron donors could be associated with specific SRM localised within biofilms of discrete zones. The sulfate reduction rates in the lactate UAPBR could be modelled as first-order reactions, indicating effective rates were conferred by these propionate- and acetate-oxidising SRM. Our results demonstrate how acetate, a low-cost substrate, can be used effectively despite low associated SRM growth rates, and that lactate, a more expensive substrate, can be used sparingly to achieve high VSRR and sulfate conversions. We further identified the preferred environment of additional microorganisms to inform how these microorganisms could be enriched or diminished in BSR reactors.

RevDate: 2022-07-19
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Zhang Q, Chen Q, Yan C, et al (2022)

The Absence of STING Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Reforms Gut Bacterial Community.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:931176.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the primary causes of cirrhosis and a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. It has been correlated with changes in the gut microbiota, which promote its development by regulating insulin resistance, bile acid and choline metabolism, and inflammation. Recent studies suggested a controversial role of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) in the development of NAFLD. Here, we showed that as an immune regulator, STING aggravates the progression of NAFLD in diet-induced mice and correlated it with the changes in hepatic lipid metabolism and gut microbiota diversity. After feeding wild-type (WT) and STING deletion mice with a normal control diet (NCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD), the STING deletion mice showed decreased lipid accumulation and liver inflammation compared with WT mice fed the same diet. In addition, STING specifically produced this hepatoprotective effect by inhibiting the activation of CD8+ T cells. The gut microbiota analysis revealed significant differences in intestinal bacteria between STING deletion mice and WT mice under the same diet and environmental conditions; moreover, differential bacterial genera were associated with altered metabolic phenotypes and involved in related metabolic pathways. Overall, our findings reveal the important regulatory role that STING plays in the progression of NAFLD. In addition, the change in intestinal microbiota diversity may be the contributing factor.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Kou Y, Li C, Tu B, et al (2022)

The Responses of Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms to Different Environmental Factors Determine Their Elevational Distribution and Assembly Patterns.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The assembly mechanisms shaping the elevational patterns of diversity and community structure in ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are not well understood. We investigated the diversities, co-occurrence network patterns, key drivers, and potential activities of AOA and AOB communities along a large altitudinal gradient. The α-diversity of the AOA communities exhibited a monotonically decreasing pattern with increasing elevation, whereas a sinusoidal pattern was observed for the AOB communities. The mean annual temperature was the single factor that most strongly influenced the α-diversity of the AOA communities; however, the interactions of plant richness, soil conductivity, and total nitrogen made comparable contributions to the α-diversity of the AOB communities. Moreover, the β-diversities of the AOA and AOB communities were divided into two distinct clusters by elevation, i.e., low- (1800-2600 m) and high-altitude (2800-4100 m) sections. These patterns were attributed mainly to the soil pH, followed by variations in plant richness along the altitudinal gradient. In addition, the AOB communities were more important to the soil nitrification potential in the low-altitude section, whereas the AOA communities contributed more to the soil nitrification potential in the high-altitude section. Overall, this study revealed the key factors shaping the elevational patterns of ammonia-oxidizing communities and might predict the consequences of changes in ammonia-oxidizing communities.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Gouka L, Raaijmakers JM, V Cordovez (2022)

Ecology and functional potential of phyllosphere yeasts.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(22)00159-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The phyllosphere (i.e., the aerial parts of plants) harbors a rich microbial life, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and yeasts. Current knowledge of yeasts stems primarily from industrial and medical research on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, both of which can be found on plant tissues. For most other yeasts found in the phyllosphere, little is known about their ecology and functions. Here, we explore the diversity, dynamics, interactions, and genomics of yeasts associated with plant leaves and how tools and approaches developed for model yeasts can be adopted to disentangle the ecology and natural functions of phyllosphere yeasts. A first genomic survey exemplifies that we have only scratched the surface of the largely unexplored functional potential of phyllosphere yeasts.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Hubert J, Nesvorna M, Bostlova M, et al (2022)

The Effect of Residual Pesticide Application on Microbiomes of the Storage Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Arthropods can host well-developed microbial communities, and such microbes can degrade pesticides and confer tolerance to most types of pests. Two cultures of the stored-product mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, one with a symbiotic microbiome containing Wolbachia and the other without Wolbachia, were compared on pesticide residue (organophosphate: pirimiphos-methyl and pyrethroid: deltamethrin, deltamethrin + piperonyl butoxide)-containing diets. The microbiomes from mite bodies, mite feces and debris from the spent mite diet were analyzed using barcode sequencing. Pesticide tolerance was different among mite cultures and organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides. The pesticide residues influenced the microbiome composition in both cultures but without any remarkable trend for mite cultures with and without Wolbachia. The most influenced bacterial taxa were Bartonella-like and Bacillus for both cultures and Wolbachia for the culture containing this symbiont. However, there was no direct evidence of any effect of Wolbachia on pesticide tolerance. The high pesticide concentration residues in diets reduced Wolbachia, Bartonella-like and Bacillus in mites of the symbiotic culture. This effect was low for Bartonella-like and Bacillus in the asymbiotic microbiome culture. The results showed that the microbiomes of mites are affected by pesticide residues in the diets, but the effect is not systemic. No actual detoxification effect by the microbiome was observed for the tested pesticides.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Williams A, Birt HWG, Raghavendra A, et al (2022)

Cropping System Diversification Influences Soil Microbial Diversity in Subtropical Dryland Farming Systems.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Conventional dryland cropping systems are characterised by low crop diversity and frequent fallows. This has significant impacts on soil microbes that underpin soil function. Diversifying crop rotations can potentially counter these effects; however, limited data exists on the impacts of diversified crop rotations on soil microbes in drylands. Using phylogenetic marker gene sequencing, we characterised soil microbial diversity in conventional and diversified dryland crop rotations in subtropical Australia. This included winter and summer dominant rotations. Conventional systems were cereal-dominant with a crop-fallow rotation. Diversified systems included greater crop diversity, double crops, cover crops, and a multi-year ley pasture. In summer rotations with increased crop diversity and cover crops, bacterial and fungal richness increased, and distinct communities were formed compared to fallow land. Often, these community shifts were associated with greater soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen. All winter rotations had distinct fungal communities and ley pasture resulted in greater fungal diversity compared to other rotations. No effects of the winter rotations were evident on bacterial communities. Our results show that diversification of dryland crop rotations leads to significant shifts in soil microbial communities in both winter and summer cropping systems. Both summer and winter rotations incorporating cover crops and ley pasture had greater soil respiration and nitrogen, indicating increases in soil fertility. These rotations may offer an alternative to conventional crop-fallow rotations to counter ongoing declines in soil health.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Babaahmadifooladia M, da Silva Junior EC, Van de Wiele T, et al (2022)

Probabilistic chronic dietary exposure assessment adjusted for bioaccessible fraction to metals by consumption of seaweed and derived foods.

Food chemistry, 395:133588 pii:S0308-8146(22)01550-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The chronic exposure to heavy elements, i.e. Ni, As, Cd, Hg and Pb the evaluation of toxicological risk through intake of raw or seaweed based foods for Belgian consumers is presented in this study. The bioaccessible fraction, obtained for different metals, were used to refine the exposure values to avoid overestimation in the reported exposures. The decrease in the exposure values was higher for As with average bioaccessible fraction of 56.8% followed by Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg. The pure seaweeds show more approximation or exceeding of toxicological limits compared to the composite foodstuffs. For all elements (except Hg), toxicological limits are approached at the maximum exposure situation due to consumption of certain seaweed-based foods. Further, the study demonstrates that the introduction of innovative foods on an emerging market may result in potential health issues due to the shift in consumption patterns as the increased consumption of seaweed and their derivatives in Europe.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Rijkers R, Rousk J, Aerts R, et al (2022)

Optimal growth temperature of Arctic soil bacterial communities increases under experimental warming.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Future climate warming in the Arctic will likely increase the vulnerability of soil carbon stocks to microbial decomposition. However, it remains uncertain to what extent decomposition rates will change in a warmer Arctic, because extended soil warming could induce temperature adaptation of bacterial communities. Here we show that experimental warming induces shifts in the temperature-growth relationships of bacterial communities, which is driven by community turnover and is common across a diverse set of 8 (sub) arctic soils. The optimal growth temperature (Topt) of the soil bacterial communities increased 0.27 ± 0.039 (s.e.) and 0.07 ± 0.028 °C per °C of warming over a 0-30 °C gradient, depending on the sampling moment. We identify a potential role for substrate depletion and time-lag effects as drivers of temperature adaption in soil bacterial communities, which possibly explain discrepancies between earlier incubation and field studies. The changes in Topt were accompanied by species-level shifts in bacterial community composition, which were mostly soil-specific. Despite the clear physiological responses to warming, there was no evidence for a common set of temperature-responsive bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). This implies that community composition data without accompanying physiological measurements may have limited utility for the identification of (potential) temperature adaption of soil bacterial communities in the Arctic. Since bacterial communities in arctic soils are likely to adapt to increasing soil temperature under future climate change, this adaptation to higher temperature should be implemented in soil organic carbon modeling for accurate predictions of the dynamics of arctic soil carbon stocks.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Muster C, Leiva D, Morales C, et al (2022)

Peltigera frigida Lichens and Their Substrates Reduce the Influence of Forest Cover Change on Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:843490.

Phosphorus (P) is one of the most critical macronutrients in forest ecosystems. More than 70 years ago, some Chilean Patagonian temperate forests suffered wildfires and the subsequent afforestation with foreign tree species such as pines. Since soil P turnover is interlinked with the tree cover, this could influence soil P content and bioavailability. Next to soil microorganisms, which are key players in P transformation processes, a vital component of Patagonian temperate forest are lichens, which represent microbial hotspots for bacterial diversity. In the present study, we explored the impact of forest cover on the abundance of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from three microenvironments of the forest floor: Peltigera frigida lichen thallus, their underlying substrates, and the forest soil without lichen cover. We expected that the abundance of PSB in the forest soil would be strongly affected by the tree cover composition since the aboveground vegetation influences the edaphic properties; but, as P. frigida has a specific bacterial community, lichens would mitigate this impact. Our study includes five sites representing a gradient in tree cover types, from a mature forest dominated by the native species Nothofagus pumilio, to native second-growth forests with a gradual increase in the presence of Pinus contorta in the last sites. In each site, we measured edaphic parameters, P fractions, and the bacterial potential to solubilize phosphate by quantifying five specific marker genes by qPCR. The results show higher soluble P, labile mineral P, and organic matter in the soils of the sites with a higher abundance of P. contorta, while most of the molecular markers were less abundant in the soils of these sites. Contrarily, the abundance of the molecular markers in lichens and substrates was less affected by the tree cover type. Therefore, the bacterial potential to solubilize phosphate is more affected by the edaphic factors and tree cover type in soils than in substrates and thalli of P. frigida lichens. Altogether, these results indicate that the microenvironments of lichens and their substrates could act as an environmental buffer reducing the influence of forest cover composition on bacteria involved in P turnover.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Larsen S, Albanese D, Stegen J, et al (2022)

Distinct and Temporally Stable Assembly Mechanisms Shape Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Vineyard Soils.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities in agricultural soils are fundamental for plant growth and in vineyard ecosystems contribute to defining regional wine quality. Managing soil microbes towards beneficial outcomes requires knowledge of how community assembly processes vary across taxonomic groups, spatial scales, and through time. However, our understanding of microbial assembly remains limited. To quantify the contributions of stochastic and deterministic processes to bacterial and fungal assembly across spatial scales and through time, we used 16 s rRNA gene and ITS sequencing in the soil of an emblematic wine-growing region of Italy.Combining null- and neutral-modelling, we found that assembly processes were consistent through time, but bacteria and fungi were governed by different processes. At the within-vineyard scale, deterministic selection and homogenising dispersal dominated bacterial assembly, while neither selection nor dispersal had clear influence over fungal assembly. At the among-vineyard scale, the influence of dispersal limitation increased for both taxonomic groups, but its contribution was much larger for fungal communities. These null-model-based inferences were supported by neutral modelling, which estimated a dispersal rate almost two orders-of-magnitude lower for fungi than bacteria.This indicates that while stochastic processes are important for fungal assembly, bacteria were more influenced by deterministic selection imposed by the biotic and/or abiotic environment. Managing microbes in vineyard soils could thus benefit from strategies that account for dispersal limitation of fungi and the importance of environmental conditions for bacteria. Our results are consistent with theoretical expectations whereby larger individual size and smaller populations can lead to higher levels of stochasticity.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Mańkowska K, Marchelek-Myśliwiec M, Kochan P, et al (2022)

Microbiota in sports.

Archives of microbiology, 204(8):485.

The influence of microbiota on the human body is currently the subject of many studies. The composition of bacteria colonizing the gastrointestinal tract varies depending on genetic make-up, lifestyle, use of antibiotics or the presence of diseases. The diet is also important in the species diversity of the microbiota. This study is an analysis of the relationships between physical activity, diet, and the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract in athletes. This review shows the differences in the microbial composition in various sports disciplines, the influence of probiotics on the microbiome, the consequence of which may be achieved even better sports results. Physical activity increases the number of bacteria, mainly of the Clostridiales order and the genus: Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Veillonella, and their number varies depending on the sports discipline. These bacteria are present in athletes in sports that require a high VO2 max. The players' diet also influences the composition of the microbiota. A diet rich in dietary fiber increases the amount of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium bacteria, probiotic microorganisms, which indicates the need to supplement the diet with probiotic preparations. It is impossible to suggest an unambiguous answer to how the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract changes in athletes and requires further analyzes.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Kluting K, Strid Y, Six D, et al (2022)

Forest Fire Influence on Tomicus piniperda-Associated Fungal Communities and Phloem Nutrient Availability of Colonized Pinus sylvestris.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Forest fire is known to positively affect bark beetle populations by providing fire-damaged trees with impaired defenses for infestation. Tomicus piniperda, the common pine shoot beetle, breeds and lays eggs under the bark of stressed pine trees and is considered a serious forest pest within its native range. Wood-colonizing fungi have been hypothesized to improve substrate quality and detoxify tree defensive chemistry to indirectly facilitate tree colonization by beetles. While some bark beetle species form symbiotic associations with fungi and actively vector their partners when colonizing new trees, T. piniperda does not have mycangia or body hairs for specific vectoring of fungi. To explore the T. piniperda-associated fungal community for signs of specific association, we used ITS metabarcoding to separately characterize fungal communities associated with surface and gut of male and female beetles. We also characterized the temporal changes in fungal community and nutrient status of pine phloem with and without beetle galleries. Sampling was performed 2 years after a natural forest fire and included both burnt and unburnt sites. In our study system, we find that forest fire significantly impacts the fungal community composition associated with T. piniperda and that fire may also indirectly change nutrient availability in phloem to beetle galleries. We conclude that T. piniperda can vector fungi to newly colonized trees but the absence of positive effects on substrate quality and minimal effects of sex indicate that vectoring of associated fungal communities is not a strategy associated with the T. piniperda life cycle.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Senn S, Pangell K, AL Bowerman (2022)

Metagenomic Insights into the Composition and Function of Microbes Associated with the Rootzone of Datura inoxia.

Biotech (Basel (Switzerland)), 11(1): pii:biotech11010001.

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the roles that microbes may be playing in the rootzone of the medicinal plant Daturainoxia. We hypothesized that the microbes associated with the Datura rootzone would be significantly different than the similar surrounding fields in composition and function. We also hypothesized that rhizospheric and endophytic microbes would be associated with similar metabolic functions to the plant rootzone they inhabited. The methods employed were microbial barcoding, tests of essential oils against antibiotic resistant bacteria and other soil bacterial isolates, 16S Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) metabarcoding, and Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) taxonomic and functional analyses. A few of the main bacterial genera of interest that were differentially abundant in the Datura root microbiome were Flavobacterium (p = 0.007), Chitinophaga (p = 0.0007), Pedobacter (p = 6 × 10-5), Bradyhizobium (p = 1 × 10-8), and Paenibacillus (p = 1.46 × 10-6). There was significant evidence that the microbes associated with the Datura rootzone had elevated function related to bacterial chalcone synthase (p = 1.49 × 10-3) and permease genes (p < 0.003). There was some evidence that microbial functions in the Datura rootzone provided precursors to important plant bioactive molecules or were beneficial to plant growth. This is important because these compounds are phyto-protective antioxidants and are precursors to many aromatic bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. In the context of known interactions, and current results, plants and microbes influence the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways of one other, in terms of the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. This is the first study to focus on the microbial ecology of the Datura rootzone. There are possible biopharmaceutical and agricultural applications of the natural interplay that was discovered during this study of the Datura inoxia rhizosphere.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Khoo C, Duysburgh C, Marzorati M, et al (2022)

A Freeze-Dried Cranberry Powder Consistently Enhances SCFA Production and Lowers Abundance of Opportunistic Pathogens In Vitro.

Biotech (Basel (Switzerland)), 11(2): pii:biotech11020014.

The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, contains fibers and (poly)phenols that could exert health-promoting effects through modulation of gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate how a freeze-dried whole cranberry powder (FCP) modulated metabolite production and microbial composition using both a 48-h incubation strategy and a long-term human gut simulator study with the M-SHIME (Mucosal Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem). FCP was repeatedly administered over three weeks. The studies included five and three study subjects, respectively. In both models, FCP significantly increased levels of health-related short-chain fatty acids (SCFA: acetate, propionate and butyrate), while decreased levels of branched-chain fatty acids (markers of proteolytic fermentation). Interestingly, FCP consistently increased luminal Bacteroidetes abundances in the proximal colon of the M-SHIME (+17.5 ± 9.3%) at the expense of Proteobacteria (-10.2 ± 1.5%). At family level, this was due to the stimulation of Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae and a decrease of Pseudomonodaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. Despite of interpersonal differences, FCP also increased the abundance of families of known butyrate producers. Overall, FCP displayed an interesting prebiotic potential in vitro given its selective utilization by host microorganisms and potential health-related effects on inhibition of pathogens and selective stimulation of beneficial metabolites.

RevDate: 2022-07-13
CmpDate: 2022-07-13

Mesa V (2022)

Rhizosphere and Endosphere Bacterial Communities Survey by Metagenomics Approach.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2512:181-197.

The diversity of microbes associated with plant roots is in the order of tens of thousands of species. It is estimated that only 0.1-1.0% of the living bacteria present in soils can be cultured under standard conditions. The microbial marker-gene sequence data and the next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled systemic studies of root-associated microbiomes. Molecular techniques can be used to generate comprehensive taxonomic profiles of the microorganisms present in roots. The aim of this chapter is to provide a standard method for the obtention of rhizosphere and endosphere fractions, and a generic workflow of the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology version 2 (QIIME2) software to analysis of 16S rRNA marker-gene.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Roy J, Reichel R, Brüggemann N, et al (2022)

Functional, not Taxonomic, Composition of Soil Fungi Reestablishes to Pre-mining Initial State After 52 Years of Recultivation.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Open-cast mining leads to the loss of naturally developed soils and their ecosystem functions and services. Soil restoration after mining aims to restore the agricultural productivity in which the functions of the fungal community play a crucial role. Whether fungi reach a comparable functional state as in the soil before mining within half a century of recultivation is still unanswered. Here, we characterised the soil fungal community using ITS amplicon Illumina sequencing across a 52-year chronosequence of agricultural recultivation after open-cast mining in northern Europe. Both taxonomic and functional community composition showed profound shifts over time, which could be attributed to the changes in nutrient status, especially phosphorus availability. However, taxonomic composition did not reach the pre-mining state, whereas functional composition did. Importantly, we identified a positive development of arbuscular mycorrhizal root fungal symbionts after the initial three years of alfalfa cultivation, followed by a decline after conversion to conventional farming, with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi being replaced by soil saprobes. We conclude that appropriate agricultural management can steer the fungal community to its functional pre-mining state despite stochasticity in the reestablishment of soil fungal communities. Nonetheless, conventional agricultural management results in the loss of plant symbionts, favouring non-symbiotic fungi.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Alberoni D, Gioia DD, L Baffoni (2022)

Alterations in the Microbiota of Caged Honeybees in the Presence of Nosema ceranae Infection and Related Changes in Functionality.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Several studies have outlined that changes in the honeybee gut microbial composition may impair important metabolic functions supporting the honeybees' life. Gut dysbiosis may be caused by diseases like Nosema ceranae or by other anthropic, environmental or experimental stressors. The present work contributes to increasing knowledge on the dynamics of the gut microbiome acquisition in caged honeybees, an experimental condition frequently adopted by researchers, with or without infection with N. ceranae, and fed with a bacterial mixture to control N. ceranae development. Changes of the gut microbiota were elucidated comparing microbial profile of caged and open-field reared honeybees. The absolute abundance of the major gut microbial taxa was studied with both NGS and qPCR approaches, whereas changes in the functionality were based on RAST annotations and manually curated. In general, all caged honeybees showed important changes in the gut microbiota, with [Formula: see text]-proteobacteria (Frischella, Gilliamella and Snodgrassella) lacking in all caged experimental groups. Caged honeybees infected with N. ceranae showed also a strong colonization of environmental taxa like Citrobacter, Cosenzaea and Morganella, as well as possibly pathogenic bacteria such as Serratia. The colonization of Serratia did not occur in presence of the bacterial mixture. The functionality prediction revealed that environmental bacteria or the supplemented bacterial mixture increased the metabolic potential of the honeybee gut microbiome compared to field and caged controls.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Sánchez-Suárez J, Díaz L, Junca H, et al (2022)

Microbiome composition of the marine sponge Cliona varians at the Neotropical Southern Caribbean Sea displays a predominant core of Rhizobiales and Nitrosopumilaceae.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: This work aims to characterize the microbial diversity of the encrusting sponge Cliona varians, a pore-forming and coral reef bioeroding marine sponge of emerging spread related to ocean acidification.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the microbiome composition by 16S V4 amplicon next-generation sequencing in a community of the bioeroding coral-reef encrusting/excavating marine sponge Cliona varians thriving at the Southern Caribbean Sea. 87.21% and 6.76% of the sequences retrieved were assigned to the domain Bacteria and Archaea. The most predominant operational taxonomic units were classified as members of the order Rhizobiales and family Nitrosopumilaceae, representing members of not yet characterized genera. Features found strictly conserved in the strain/genomic representatives reported in those microbial taxa are nitrogen fixation and transformation.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest, in accordance with recent results, that these microbiome members and associated functions could be contributing to the biological fitness of the sponge to be able to colonize and bioerode in environments with low access and scarce availability of nitrogen source.

Coral reefs bioresources such as sponge holobionts are intriguing and complex ecosystems units. This study contributes to the knowledge of how C. varians microbiota is composed or shaped, which is crucial to understand its ecological functions.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Liu Y, Xi Y, Xie T, et al (2022)

Enhanced removal of diclofenac via coupling Pd catalytic and microbial processes in a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor: Performance, mechanism and biofilm microbial ecology.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(22)02090-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Diclofenac (DCF) is a most widely used anti-inflammatory drug, which has attracted worldwide attention given its low biodegradability and ecological damage, especially toxic effects on mammals including humans. In this study, a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR) was constructed with well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles generated in situ. The Pd-MBfR was applied for catalytic reductive dechlorination of DCF. In batch tests, DCF concentration had significantly effect on the rate and extent DCF removal, and NO3- had negative impact on DCF reductive dechlorination. Over 67% removal of 0.5 mg/L DCF and 99% removal of 10 mg/L NO3--N were achieved in 90 min, and the highest removal of 97% was obtained at 0.5 mg/L DCF in the absence of NO3-. Over 78 days of continuous operation, the highest steady-state removal flux of DCF was 0.0097 g/m2/d. LC-MS analysis indicated that the major product was 2-anilinephenylacetic acid (APA). Dechlorination was the main removal process of DCF mainly owing to the catalytic reduction by PdNPs, microbial reduction, and the synergistic reduction of microbial and PdNPs catalysis using direct delivery of H2. Moreover, DCF reductive Dechlorination shifted the microbial community in the biofilms and Sporomusa was responsible for DCF degradation. In summary, this work expands a remarkable feasibility of sustainable catalytic removal of DCF.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Khan MA, Singh D, Arif A, et al (2022)

Protective effect of green synthesized Selenium Nanoparticles against Doxorubicin induced multiple adverse effects in Swiss albino mice.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(22)00492-1 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used drug against multiple cancers. However, its clinical Use is often restricted due to multiple adverse effects. Recently, Selenium Nanoparticles (SeNPs) are gaining attention due to their low toxicity and higher biocompatibility, making them attractive nanoparticles (NPs) in medical and pharmaceutical sciences. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess if our biosynthesized SeNP from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum conjugated with DOX could alleviate the DOX-induced adverse effects.

MAIN METHODS: For this purpose, we investigated various genotoxic, biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters and finally analyzed the metabolite profile by LC-MS/MS.

KEY FINDINGS: We observed that DOX causes an increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), 8-OHdG, and malondialdehyde (MDA), decreases antioxidant defense systems and reduces BCL-2 expression in cardiac tissue. In addition, a significant increase in DNA damage and alteration in the cytoarchitecture of the liver, kidney, and heart tissues was observed by Comet Tail Length and histopathological studies, respectively. Interestingly, the DOX-SeNP conjugate reduced ROS/RNS, 8-OHdG, and MDA levels in the liver, kidney, and heart tissues. It also restored the antioxidant enzymes and cytoarchitectures of the examined tissues, reduced genotoxicity, and increased the BCL-2 levels. Finally, metabolic profiling showed that DOX reduced the number of cardioprotective metabolites, which DOX-SeNP restored.

SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the present results describe the protective effect of DOX-conjugated SeNP against DOX-induced toxicities. In conclusion, DOX-SeNP conjugate might be better for treating patients receiving DOX alone. However, it warrants further thorough investigation.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Li Y, Liu B, Chen J, et al (2022)

Carbon-Nitrogen-Sulfur-Related Microbial Taxa and Genes Maintained the Stability of Microbial Communities in Coals.

ACS omega, 7(26):22671-22681.

Coal microbes are the predominant form of life in the subsurface ecosystem, which play a vital role in biogeochemical cycles. However, the systematic information about carbon-nitrogen-sulfur (C-N-S)-related microbial communities in coal seams is limited. In this study, 16S rRNA gene data from a total of 93 microbial communities in coals were collected for meta-analysis. The results showed that 718 functional genera were related to the C-N-S cycle, wherein N2 fixation, denitrification, and C degradation groups dominated in relative abundance, Chao1 richness, Shannon diversity, and niche width. Genus Pseudomonas having the most C-N-S-related functions showed the highest relative abundance, and genus Herbaspirillum with a higher abundance participated in C degradation, CH4 oxidation, N2 fixation, ammoxidation, and denitrification. Such Herbaspirillum was a core genus in the co-occurrence network of microbial prokaryotes and showed higher levels in weight degree, betweenness centrality, and eigenvector centrality. In addition, most of the methanogens could fix N2 and dominated in the N2 fixation groups. Among them, genera Methanoculleus and Methanosaeta showed higher levels in the betweenness centrality index. In addition, the genus Clostridium was linked to the methanogenesis co-occurrence network module. In parallel, the S reduction gene was present in the highest total relative abundance of genes, followed by the C degradation and the denitrification genes, and S genes (especially cys genes) were the main genes linked to the co-occurrence network of the C-N-S-related genes. In summary, this study strengthened our knowledge regarding the C-N-S-related coal microbial communities, which is of great significance in understanding the microbial ecology and geochemical cycle of coals.

RevDate: 2022-07-09

Carvalho MJ, S Oliveira AL, Santos Pedrosa S, et al (2022)

Skin Microbiota and the Cosmetic Industry.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Skin harbors an important microbial ecosystem - the skin microbiota that is in homeostasis with its host and is beneficial for human health. Cosmetic products have the potential to interfere with this microbial community; therefore their impact should be assessed. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of skin microbiota in the cosmetic industry. Several studies determined that cosmetic ingredients have the potential to disrupt the skin microbiota equilibrium leading to the development of skin diseases and dysregulation of immune response. These studies led their investigation by using different methodologies and models, concluding that methods must be chosen according to the aim of the study, the skin site to be evaluated, and the target population of the cosmetics. Overall, it is crucial to test the impact of cosmetics in the skin microbiota and to stablish standard procedures, as well as specific criteria that allow to classify a cosmetic product as skin microbiota friendly.

RevDate: 2022-07-09

Clodoveo ML, Muraglia M, Crupi P, et al (2022)

The Tower of Babel of Pharma-Food Study on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 11(13): pii:foods11131915.

Much research has been conducted to reveal the functional properties of extra virgin olive oil polyphenols on human health once EVOO is consumed regularly as part of a balanced diet, as in the Mediterranean lifestyle. Despite the huge variety of research conducted, only one effect of EVOO polyphenols has been formally approved by EFSA as a health claim. This is probably because EFSA's scientific opinion is entrusted to scientific expertise about food and medical sciences, which adopt very different investigative methods and experimental languages, generating a gap in the scientific communication that is essential for the enhancement of the potentially useful effects of EVOO polyphenols on health. Through the model of the Tower of Babel, we propose a challenge for science communication, capable of disrupting the barriers between different scientific areas and building bridges through transparent data analysis from the different investigative methodologies at each stage of health benefits assessment. The goal of this work is the strategic, distinctive, and cost-effective integration of interdisciplinary experiences and technologies into a highly harmonious workflow, organized to build a factual understanding that translates, because of trade, into health benefits for buyers, promoting EVOOs as having certified health benefits, not just as condiments.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Edwards A, Soares A, Debbonaire A, et al (2022)

Before you go: a packing list for portable DNA sequencing of microbiomes and metagenomes.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 168(7):.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Rocha FP, Ronque MUV, Lyra ML, et al (2022)

Habitat and Host Species Drive the Structure of Bacterial Communities of Two Neotropical Trap-Jaw Odontomachus Ants : Habitat and Host Species Drive the Structure of Bacterial Communities of Two Neotropical Trap-Jaw Odontomachus Ants.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Ants have long been known for their associations with other taxa, including macroscopic fungi and symbiotic bacteria. Recently, many ant species have had the composition and function of their bacterial communities investigated. Due to its behavioral and ecological diversity, the subfamily Ponerinae deserves more attention regarding its associated microbiota. Here, we used the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities of Odontomachus chelifer (ground-nesting) and Odontomachus hastatus (arboreal), two ponerine trap-jaw species commonly found in the Brazilian savanna ("Cerrado") and Atlantic rainforest. We investigated habitat effects (O. chelifer in the Cerrado and the Atlantic rainforest) and species-specific effects (both species in the Atlantic rainforest) on the bacterial communities' structure (composition and abundance) in two different body parts: cuticle and gaster. Bacterial communities differed in all populations studied. Cuticular communities were more diverse, while gaster communities presented variants common to other ants, including Wolbachia and Candidatus Tokpelaia hoelldoblerii. Odontomachus chelifer populations presented different communities in both body parts, highlighting the influence of habitat type. In the Atlantic rainforest, the outcome depended on the body part targeted. Cuticular communities were similar between species, reinforcing the habitat effect on bacterial communities, which are mainly composed of environmentally acquired taxa. Gaster communities, however, differed between the two Odontomachus species, suggesting species-specific effects and selective filters. Unclassified Firmicutes and uncultured Rhizobiales variants are the main components accounting for the observed differences. Our study indicates that both host species and habitat act synergistically, but to different degrees, to shape the bacterial communities in these Odontomachus species.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Mejia MP, Rojas CA, Curd E, et al (2022)

Soil Microbial Community Composition and Tolerance to Contaminants in an Urban Brownfield Site.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Brownfields are unused sites that contain hazardous substances due to previous commercial or industrial use. The sites are inhospitable for many organisms, but some fungi and microbes can tolerate and thrive in the nutrient-depleted and contaminated soils. However, few studies have characterized the impacts of long-term contamination on soil microbiome composition and diversity at brownfields. This study focuses on an urban brownfield-a former rail yard in Los Angeles that is contaminated with heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum-derived pollutants. We anticipate that heavy metals and organic pollutants will shape soil microbiome diversity and that several candidate fungi and bacteria will be tolerant to the contaminants. We sequence three gene markers (16S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (FITS)) in 55 soil samples collected at five depths to (1) profile the composition of the soil microbiome across depths; (2) determine the extent to which hazardous chemicals predict microbiome variation; and (3) identify microbial taxonomic groups that may metabolize these contaminants. Detected contaminants in the samples included heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Bacterial, eukaryotic, and fungal communities all varied with depth and with concentrations of arsenic, chromium, cobalt, and lead. 18S rRNA microbiome richness and fungal richness were positively correlated with lead and cobalt levels, respectively. Furthermore, bacterial Paenibacillus and Iamia, eukaryotic Actinochloris, and fungal Alternaria were enriched in contaminated soils compared to uncontaminated soils and represent taxa of interest for future bioremediation research. Based on our results, we recommend incorporating DNA-based multi-marker microbial community profiling at multiple sites and depths in brownfield site assessment standard methods and restoration.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Zhu M, Duan X, Cai P, et al (2022)

First report of Podosphaera fusca Causing Powdery Mildew on Coreopsis lanceolata in China.

Plant disease [Epub ahead of print].

Coreopsis lanceolata, known as lance-leaf coreopsis, is a perennial plant with high ornamental value. It is widely grown in many public parks and home gardens in China due to its showy flowers. From May to June 2020, typical powdery mildew-signs and symptoms were seen on leaves of C. lanceolata cultivated in the east campus of Henan Normal University, Henan Province, China. Abundant white powder-like masses in spot- or coalesced-lesions were on ad- and abaxial surfaces of plant leaves and covered up to 50 % of the leaf area. The infected leaves were deformed and eventually prematurely senescent. Approximately 80 % of observed C. lanceolata plants showed these signs and symptoms. Unbranched conidiophores (n = 25) were 90 to 200 × 12 to 20 μm and showed a foot cell, followed by 1 to 3 short cells and conidia. Ellipsoid-ovoid shaped conidia (n = 30) were 22 to 36 × 15 to 23 μm, with a length/width ratio of 1.4 to 2.4. No chasmothecia were detected. The powdery mildew fungus was initially identified as Podosphaera fusca based on the morphological characteristics. Total genomic DNA of the pathogen was extracted and the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified and sequenced using the primers ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990; Zhu et al. 2019). The obtained sequence was deposited into GenBank under Accession No. MT899186 and was 100 % identical to P. fusca (JX546297) from Herba eupatorii (Ding et al. 2013). To perform pathogenicity assays, leaf surface of three healthy plants was inoculated with fungal conidia according to a previously described method (Zhu et al. 2021). As a control, three non-inoculated plants were used. The control and inoculated plants were placed separately in two growth chambers (light/dark, 16 h/8 h; humidity, 65 %; temperature, 20 ℃). Fourteen- to sixteen-days post inoculation, powdery mildew signs were noticed on inoculated plants, whereas control remained asymptomatic. Similar results were found by performing two repeated pathogenicity assays. Therefore, based on the morphological and molecular analysis, the pathogen was identified and confirmed as P. fusca. This fungus has been reported on C. lanceolata in Korea (Park et al. 2010) and Italy (Garibaldi et al. 2007). This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of P. fusca on C. lanceolata in China. The sudden occurrence of this powdery mildew disease on C. lanceolata may adversely affect the health of valuable ornamentals in China. The precise identification of the causal agent of this powdery mildew of C. lanceolata is a preliminary step in developing effective disease management strategies.

RevDate: 2022-07-07

Salerno B, Cornaggia M, Sabatino R, et al (2022)

Calves as Main Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Farms.

Frontiers in public health, 10:918658.

A side effect of antibiotic usage is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) within microbial communities. The spread of ARGs among pathogens has emerged as a public health concern. While the distribution of ARGs is documented on a global level, their routes of transmission have not been clarified yet; for example, it is not clear whether and to what extent the emergence of ARGs originates in farms, following the selective pressure exerted by antibiotic usage in animal husbandry, and if they can spread into the environment. Here we address this cutting edge issue by combining data regarding antimicrobial usage and quantitative data from selected ARGs (bla TEM, bla CTXM , ermB, vanA, qnrS, tetA, sul2, and mcr-1) encoding for resistance to penicillins, macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramins, glycopeptides, quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and colistin at the farm level. Results suggest that dairy farms could be considered a hotspot of ARGs, comprising those classified as the highest risk for human health and that a correlation existed between the usage of penicillins and bla TEM abundances, meaning that, although the antibiotic administration is not exclusive, it remains a certain cause of the ARGs' selection and spread in farms. Furthermore, this study identified the role of calves as the main source of ARGs spread in dairy farms, claiming the need for targeted actions in this productive category to decrease the load of ARGs along the production chain.

RevDate: 2022-07-05

Kim SB, Lyou ES, Kim MS, et al (2022)

Bacterial Resuscitation from Starvation-Induced Dormancy Results in Phenotypic Diversity Coupled with Translational Activity Depending on Carbon Substrate Availability.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Dormancy is a survival strategy of stressed bacteria inhabiting a various environment. Frequent dormant-active transitions owing to environmental changes play an important role in functional redundancy. However, a proper understanding of the phenotypic changes in bacteria during these transitions remains to be clarified. In this study, orthogonal approaches, such as electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and Raman spectroscopy, which can evaluate phenotypic heterogeneity at the single-cell level, were used to observe morphological and molecular phenotypic changes in resuscitated cells, and RNA sequencing (RNASeq) was used to determine the genetic characteristics associated with phenotypes. Within 12 h of the resuscitation process, morphological (cell size and shape) and physiological (growth and viability) characteristics as well as molecular phenotypes (cellular components) were found to be recovered to the extent that they were similar to those in active cells. The recovery rate and detailed phenotypic properties of the resuscitated cells differed significantly depending on the type or concentration of carbon sources. RNASeq analysis revealed that genes related to translation were significantly upregulated under all resuscitation conditions. The simpler the carbon source (e.g., glucose), the higher the expression of genes involved in cellular repair, and the more complex the carbon source (e.g., beef extract), the higher the expression of genes associated with increased energy production associated with cellular aerobic respiration. This study of phenotypic plasticity of resuscitated cells provides fundamental insight into understanding the adaptive fine-tuning of the microbiome in response to environmental changes and the functional redundancy resulting from phenotype heterogeneity.

RevDate: 2022-07-05

Baubin C, Ran N, Siebner H, et al (2022)

Divergence of Biocrust Active Bacterial Communities in the Negev Desert During a Hydration-Desiccation Cycle.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Rain events in arid environments are highly unpredictable and intersperse extended periods of drought. Therefore, tracking changes in desert soil bacterial communities during rain events, in the field, was seldom attempted. Here, we assessed rain-mediated dynamics of active bacterial communities in the Negev Desert biological soil crust (biocrust). Biocrust samples were collected during, and after a medium rainfall and dry soil was used as a control; we evaluated the changes in active bacterial composition, potential function, potential photosynthetic activity, and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. We hypothesized that rain would activate the biocrust phototrophs (mainly Cyanobacteria), while desiccation would inhibit their activity. In contrast, the biocrust Actinobacteria would decline during rewetting and revive with desiccation. Our results showed that hydration increased chlorophyll content and EPS production. As expected, biocrust rewetting activated Cyanobacteria, which replaced the former dominant Actinobacteria, boosting potential autotrophic functions. However, desiccation of the biocrust did not immediately change the bacterial composition or potential function and was followed by a delayed decrease in chlorophyll and EPS levels. This dramatic shift in the community upon rewetting led to modifications in ecosystem services. We propose that following a rain event, the response of the active bacterial community lagged behind the biocrust water content due to the production of EPS which delayed desiccation and temporarily sustained the biocrust community activity.

RevDate: 2022-07-05

Jiang X, L Wang (2022)

Grassland-based ruminant farming systems in China: Potential, challenges and a way forward.

Animal nutrition (Zhongguo xu mu shou yi xue hui), 10:243-248 pii:S2405-6545(22)00049-X.

With an increasing demand for high-quality, eco-friendly food products and growing concerns over ecological conservation, the development of ecology-based alternatives for ruminant production in China is urgently needed. This review discusses the capabilities for integrating grassland grazing into existing livestock farming systems to meet the contemporary human needs for high-quality foods and ecologically stable environments. Additionally, this review provides a critical analysis of the challenges and future directions associated with grassland-based ruminant farming systems. Integrating nutritional manipulation with grazing manipulation is critical for improving the productivity of grassland-based ecosystems and natural ecological functions. Biodiversity is the primary determinant of grassland ecosystem functions, while the composition and function of rumen microbiomes determine ruminant production performance. Future studies should focus on the following aspects: 1) how livestock grazing regulates grassland biodiversity and the mechanisms of grassland biodiversity maintenance, offering an important scientific basis for guiding grazing manipulation practices, including grazing intensity, livestock types, and grazing management practices; to 2) characterize the microbial ecology within the rumen of grazing ruminants to offer clarified instruction for the nutritional manipulation of grazing ruminants. Our recommendation includes creating a transdisciplinary system that integrates ecology, animal nutrition, and animal behavior to develop grassland-based ruminant farming systems sustainably, thereby achieving high-quality animal production and environmentally sustainable goals.

RevDate: 2022-07-05

O'Brien J, McParland EL, Bramucci AR, et al (2022)

The Microbiological Drivers of Temporally Dynamic Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Cycling Processes in Australian Coastal Shelf Waters.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:894026.

The organic sulfur compounds dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) play major roles in the marine microbial food web and have substantial climatic importance as sources and sinks of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Seasonal shifts in the abundance and diversity of the phytoplankton and bacteria that cycle DMSP are likely to impact marine DMS (O) (P) concentrations, but the dynamic nature of these microbial interactions is still poorly resolved. Here, we examined the relationships between microbial community dynamics with DMS (O) (P) concentrations during a 2-year oceanographic time series conducted on the east Australian coast. Heterogenous temporal patterns were apparent in chlorophyll a (chl a) and DMSP concentrations, but the relationship between these parameters varied over time, suggesting the phytoplankton and bacterial community composition were affecting the net DMSP concentrations through differential DMSP production and degradation. Significant increases in DMSP were regularly measured in spring blooms dominated by predicted high DMSP-producing lineages of phytoplankton (Heterocapsa, Prorocentrum, Alexandrium, and Micromonas), while spring blooms that were dominated by predicted low DMSP-producing phytoplankton (Thalassiosira) demonstrated negligible increases in DMSP concentrations. During elevated DMSP concentrations, a significant increase in the relative abundance of the key copiotrophic bacterial lineage Rhodobacterales was accompanied by a three-fold increase in the gene, encoding the first step of DMSP demethylation (dmdA). Significant temporal shifts in DMS concentrations were measured and were significantly correlated with both fractions (0.2-2 μm and >2 μm) of microbial DMSP lyase activity. Seasonal increases of the bacterial DMSP biosynthesis gene (dsyB) and the bacterial DMS oxidation gene (tmm) occurred during the spring-summer and coincided with peaks in DMSP and DMSO concentration, respectively. These findings, along with significant positive relationships between dsyB gene abundance and DMSP, and tmm gene abundance with DMSO, reinforce the significant role planktonic bacteria play in producing DMSP and DMSO in ocean surface waters. Our results highlight the highly dynamic nature and myriad of microbial interactions that govern sulfur cycling in coastal shelf waters and further underpin the importance of microbial ecology in mediating important marine biogeochemical processes.

RevDate: 2022-07-05

Sanchez-Cid C, Keuschnig C, Torzewski K, et al (2022)

Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors Shape the Snow Microbiome and Antibiotic Resistome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:918622.

Winter tourism can generate environmental pollution and affect microbial ecology in mountain ecosystems. This could stimulate the development of antibiotic resistance in snow and its dissemination through the atmosphere and through snow melting. Despite these potential impacts, the effect of winter tourism on the snow antibiotic resistome remains to be elucidated. In this study, snow samples subjected to different levels of anthropogenic activities and surrounding forest were obtained from the Sudety Mountains in Poland to evaluate the impact of winter tourism on snow bacteria using a metagenomic approach. Bacterial community composition was determined by the sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and the composition of the antibiotic resistome was explored by metagenomic sequencing. Whereas environmental factors were the main drivers of bacterial community and antibiotic resistome composition in snow, winter tourism affected resistome composition in sites with similar environmental conditions. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) showed a higher abundance in sites subjected to human activities. This is the first study to show that anthropogenic activities may influence the antibiotic resistome in alpine snow. Our results highlight the need to survey antibiotic resistance development in anthropogenically polluted sites.

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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