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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Jun 2024 at 01:50 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Trevenen EJ, Veneklaas EJ, Teste FP, et al (2024)

Plant interactions can lead to emergent relationships between plant community diversity, productivity and vulnerability to invasion.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13932.

Understanding what makes a community vulnerable to invasion is integral to the successful management of invasive species. Our understanding of how characteristics of resident plant interactions, such as the network architecture of interactions, can affect the invasibility of plant communities is limited. Using a simulation model, we tested how successfully a new plant invader established in communities with different network architectures of species interactions. We also investigated whether species interaction networks lead to relationships between invasibility and other community properties also affected by species interaction networks, such as diversity, species dominance, compositional stability and the productivity of the resident community. We found that higher invasibility strongly related with a lower productivity of the resident community. Plant interaction networks influenced diversity and invasibility in ways that led to complex but clear relationships between the two. Heterospecific interactions that increased diversity tended to decrease invasibility. Negative conspecific interactions always increased diversity and invasibility, but increased invasibility more when they increased diversity less. This study provides new theoretical insights into the effects of plant interaction networks on community invasibility and relationships between diversity and invasibility. Combined with increasing empirical evidence, these insights could have useful implications for the management of invasive plant species.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Camus L, Gautier M, S Boitard (2024)

Predicting species invasiveness with genomic data: Is genomic offset related to establishment probability?.

Evolutionary applications, 17(6):e13709.

Predicting the risk of establishment and spread of populations outside their native range represents a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Various methods have recently been developed to estimate population (mal)adaptation to a new environment with genomic data via so-called Genomic Offset (GO) statistics. These approaches are particularly promising for studying invasive species but have still rarely been used in this context. Here, we evaluated the relationship between GO and the establishment probability of a population in a new environment using both in silico and empirical data. First, we designed invasion simulations to evaluate the ability to predict establishment probability of two GO computation methods (Geometric GO and Gradient Forest) under several conditions. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the interpretability of absolute Geometric GO values, which theoretically represent the adaptive genetic distance between populations from distinct environments. Second, utilizing public empirical data from the crop pest species Bactrocera tryoni, a fruit fly native from Northern Australia, we computed GO between "source" populations and a diverse range of locations within invaded areas. This practical application of GO within the context of a biological invasion underscores its potential in providing insights and guiding recommendations for future invasion risk assessment. Overall, our results suggest that GO statistics represent good predictors of the establishment probability and may thus inform invasion risk, although the influence of several factors on prediction performance (e.g., propagule pressure or admixture) will need further investigation.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Pernat N, Memedemin D, August T, et al (2024)

Extracting secondary data from citizen science images reveals host flower preferences of the Mexican grass-carrying wasp Isodontia mexicana in its native and introduced ranges.

Ecology and evolution, 14(6):e11537.

We investigated the plant-pollinator interactions of the Mexican grass-carrying wasp Isodontia mexicana-native to North America and introduced in Europe in the 1960s-through the use of secondary data from citizen science observations. We applied a novel data exchange workflow from two global citizen science platforms, iNaturalist and Pl@ntNet. Images from iNaturalist of the wasp were used to query the Pl@ntNet application to identify possible plant species present in the pictures. Simultaneously, botanists manually identified the plants at family, genus and species levels and additionally documented flower color and biotic interactions. The goals were to calibrate Pl@ntNet's accuracy in relation to this workflow, update the list of plant species that I. mexicana visits as well as its flower color preferences in its native and introduced ranges. In addition, we investigated the types and corresponding frequencies of other biotic interactions incidentally captured on the citizen scientists' images. Although the list of known host plants could be expanded, identifying the flora from images that predominantly show an insect proved difficult for both experts and the Pl@ntNet app. The workflow performs with a 75% probability of correct identification of the plant at the species level from a score of 0.8, and with over 90% chance of correct family and genus identification from a score of 0.5. Although the number of images above these scores may be limited due to the flower parts present on the pictures, our approach can help to get an overview into species interactions and generate more specific research questions. It could be used as a triaging method to select images for further investigation. Additionally, the manual analysis of the images has shown that the information they contain offers great potential for learning more about the ecology of an introduced species in its new range.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Allen ML, ATL Allan (2024)

Temporal activity and detection rates of chilla (Lycalopex griseus) in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

Ecology and evolution, 14(6):e11586.

Designing mitigation strategies for invasive species requires a clear understanding of their ecology and behaviour. Chilla (or grey fox; Lycalopex griseus) were introduced to Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Tierra del Fuego Island) in 1951 to control European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Although this management strategy was unsuccessful, the chilla spread across the island and are now considered invasive. Despite this, there is a lack of research concerning their ecology and behavioural patterns, particularly on the Argentinian side of the island. We assessed the detection rates and temporal activity patterns of chillas using camera traps in the Argentinian region of Tierra del Fuego Island. Chilla had average detection rates of 61.7 (SD ± 33.3, range = 13.5-105.7) per 100 trap nights. Although analysis by clock time suggested cathemeral activity patterns, when analysed by sun time the chillas exhibited distinct nocturnal activity patterns. These findings offer the first information on the detection rates of chilla on the Argentinian side of Tierra del Fuego Island and reveal new insights into their temporal activity patterns, providing an important basis for future research that may aid the development of more effective management and conservation strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-16
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

de Almeida Alves-Júnior F, Martins DEG, Monteiro BS, et al (2024)

Occurrence of parasitism promoted by Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851 (Annelida: Piscicolidae) in Callinectes bocourti (Crustacea: Portunidae): A report of invasive leech in Brazilian Amazon province.

Veterinary parasitology, regional studies and reports, 52:101045.

This study reports the presence of high parasitic load by Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851 in the swimming crab Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 from Amazon mangrove. We sampled the swimming crabs using a baited trap, between January and June 2023, in Santa Maria River, located in the municipality of Curuçá, state of Pará, Brazil (geographical coordinates 0°40'3.705"S, 047°54'43.405"W). After sampling, each swimming crab was individually placed in plastic containers for the count of leeches per individual. In the laboratory, the specimens were sexed, measured (parasite and host) and fixed in 70% alcohol. For the leech species identification, macroscopic techniques were combined with light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We examined 86 specimens of C. bocourti (75 males and 11 females) in a ratio of 1 M:0.14 F, all infested with leeches. In total, 186 leech specimens were collected, ranging from 1 to 21 leeches per host. Leeches oviposited the cocoons in greater quantities in ventral area of swimming crab carapace (32%), followed by dorsal area of carapace (29.09%), chelipeds (24.34%) and ambulatory legs (14.57%). The presence of M. lugubris is a risk to the health of the host, once it may transmit a range of diseases to aquatic organisms, and subsequently risk to human health.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Balogh C, Jermacz Ł, Serfőző Z, et al (2024)

When two evils are not equal: Differential biofouling of unionid bivalves by two invasive dreissenid species.

The Science of the total environment, 942:173700.

Byssate bivalves are ecosystem engineers with world-wide impact on aquatic communities through habitat forming and biofouling of hard-shelled organisms. In fresh waters, they are represented by invasive Ponto-Caspian dreissenid mussels spreading throughout Europe and North America. They negatively affect globally threatened unionid mussels by fouling, which deteriorates their condition and survival. The appearance of quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis, QM) in areas occupied by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, ZM) usually has led to the replacement of ZM by QM. We combined long-term field survey (Lake Balaton, Hungary) and experimental data to check differences in fouling of unionid mussels (Unio tumidus and Sinanodonta woodiana) by the two dreissenids, determine their mechanisms and predict environmental consequences of the species replacement. ZM fouled unionids evenly throughout the year, whereas QM exhibited high fluctuations, being common on unionid shells during their recruitment peak (summer), decreasing towards autumn and almost completely absent in spring. Such fluctuations did not occur on stony substrata. This pattern suggests that interspecific differences in fouling did not result from recruitment preferences, but from greater detachment of QM from unionid substratum, whereas ZM more often remained attached to their initial recruitment sites. This was supported by the results of the laboratory experiments, in which dreissenid mussels did not show any consistent preference or avoidance of unionid mussels. Whereas, QM attached less often than ZM to hard objects and showed a higher detachment rate. Furthermore, dreissenids increased detachment after substratum immersion into soft sediments, indicating their capability of coping with suffocation after the burrowing of the living substratum or its siltation. The observed pattern indicates that the replacement of ZM by QM in the dreissenid assemblage may reduce fouling pressure on unionids. On the other hand, unionids may become a refuge for ZM in habitats invaded by competitively superior QM.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Lente V, Staszny Á, Hegedűs A, et al (2024)

Growth of two invasive cichlids (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in a natural thermal water habitat of temperate Central Europe (Lake Hévíz, Hungary).

Biologia futura, 75(2):235-242.

The outflow of the natural thermal Lake of Hévíz is habitat of several fish species, with conservation relevance. In the past few years, numerous thermophile (tropically originated) fishes were reported in this waterbody, from which two species Parachromis managuensis (Günther, 1867), Vieja melanurus (Günther, 1862) characterized with strong, self-sustaining population. The aim of our research was to provide basic population data and to study their individual growth. The standard length of jaguar cichlid ranged from 37 to 283 mm (mean SL = 110.21 ± 65.4 mm), the redhead cichlid standard length varied between 30 and 203 mm (mean SL = 93.91 ± 40.0 mm). Slightly positive allometry (b > 3) was found in the case of both species. The von Bertalanffy Growth Function can be described as the following Lt = 343.6[1 - e[-0.196(t+0.973)]] in jaguar cichlid and Lt = 298.9[1 - e[-0.113(t+0.997)]] in the case of redhead cichlid. The Bertalanffy growth equations show slow growth for both species. Fulton's condition factor (K) values varied between 1.376 and 2.11 (mean K = 1.701 ± 0.17) in the case of jaguar cichlid, and between 1.391 and 3.033 (mean K = 2.237 ± 0.24) for redhead cichlid. These baseline population biology data from the first known self-sustaining, temperate-zone populations of two tropical cichlids provide information e.g., for future ecological risk assessments or comparative growth analyzes.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Sneha M, Barak H, Gil R, et al (2024)

A dynamic subtropical coastal hotspot of benthic foraminifera in the Southeastern Mediterranean indicates early-stage tropicalization.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04065-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to ongoing ocean warming, subtropical environments are becoming accessible to tropical species. Among these environments are the vermetid reefs of the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM). In the last decades, these valuable coastal habitats witnessed the proliferation of numerous alien species of tropical origin. Among the meiofauna thriving on these reefs are benthic foraminifera, single cell marine organisms that make a significant contribution to global carbonate production. It has been widely recognized that benthic foraminifera among are invasive species thrive in the macroalgal cover, and it has been suggested that their populations are becoming a significant new source of sediment substrate. Here, we report on the first systematic assessment of the population size of the benthic foraminifera, allowing a comparison with data from the native tropical habitat of these species. Our study is based on a seasonal sampling of benthic foraminifera from confined sampling areas at four sites along the vermetid reef platforms of the Israeli SEM coast. Our survey reveals a patchy distribution of each species with peak population densities exceeding 100,000 specimens per m[2], making the SEM a hotspot of benthic foraminifera, with population densities comparable to tropical coral reef environments. The assemblages of the SEM hotspot are dominated by cosmopolitan foraminiferal taxa and tropical invaders from the Indo-Pacific (e.g., Amphistegina lobifera, Pararotalia calcariformata, soritids, and Hauerina diversa). In contrast to foraminiferal hotspots in the tropics, which are completely dominated by larger symbiont-bearing taxa, the SEM hotspot stands out due to high abundances of non-symbiont-bearing species Textularia agglutinans and small miliolids. An intriguing observation is the significant heterogeneity in composition and density of foraminiferal assemblages between the vermetid reefs' southern and northern areas (Israel), indicating that the productivity of the dominant species are also modulated by local yet unknown environmental factors.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Obellianne C, Norman PD, Esteves E, et al (2024)

Interspecies co-feeding transmission of Powassan virus between a native tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the invasive East Asian tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis.

Parasites & vectors, 17(1):259.

BACKGROUND: Powassan virus, a North American tick-borne flavivirus, can cause severe neuroinvasive disease in humans. While Ixodes scapularis are the primary vectors of Powassan virus lineage II (POWV II), also known as deer tick virus, recent laboratory vector competence studies showed that other genera of ticks can horizontally and vertically transmit POWV II. One such tick is the Haemaphysalis longicornis, an invasive species from East Asia that recently established populations in the eastern USA and already shares overlapping geographic range with native vector species such as I. scapularis. Reports of invasive H. longicornis feeding concurrently with native I. scapularis on multiple sampled hosts highlight the potential for interspecies co-feeding transmission of POWV II. Given the absence of a clearly defined vertebrate reservoir host for POWV II, it is possible that this virus is sustained in transmission foci via nonviremic transmission between ticks co-feeding on the same vertebrate host. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether uninfected H. longicornis co-feeding in close proximity to POWV II-infected I. scapularis can acquire POWV independent of host viremia.

METHODS: Using an in vivo tick transmission model, I. scapularis females infected with POWV II ("donors") were co-fed on mice with uninfected H. longicornis larvae and nymphs ("recipients"). The donor and recipient ticks were infested on mice in various sequences, and mouse infection status was monitored by temporal screening of blood for POWV II RNA via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR).

RESULTS: The prevalence of POWV II RNA was highest in recipient H. longicornis that fed on viremic mice. However, nonviremic mice were also able to support co-feeding transmission of POWV, as demonstrated by the detection of viral RNA in multiple H. longicornis dispersed across different mice. Detection of viral RNA at the skin site of tick feeding but not at distal skin sites indicates that a localized skin infection facilitates transmission of POWV between donor and recipient ticks co-feeding in close proximity.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report examining transmission of POWV between co-feeding ticks. Against the backdrop of multiple unknowns related to POWV ecology, findings from this study provide insight on possible mechanisms by which POWV could be maintained in nature.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Luo Z, Wu S, Shi W, et al (2024)

Combined effects of cadmium and simulated acid rain on soil microbial communities in the early cultivation of Populus beijingensis seedlings.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 280:116583 pii:S0147-6513(24)00659-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The combined cadmium (Cd) and acid rain pollution poses a significant threat to the global ecological environment. Previous studies on the combined adverse effects have predominantly focused on the aboveground plant physiological responses, with limited reports on the microbial response in the rhizosphere soil. This study employed Populus beijingensis seedlings and potting experiments to simulate the impacts of combined mild acid rain (pH=4.5, MA) or highly strong acid rain (pH=3.0, HA), and soil Cd pollution on the composition and diversity of microbial communities, as well as the physiochemical properties in the rhizosphere soil. The results showed that Cd decreased the content of inorganic nitrogen, resulting in an overall decrease of 49.10 % and 46.67 % in ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, respectively. Conversely, acid rain was found to elevate the content of total potassium and soil organic carbon by 4.68 %-6.18 % and 8.64-19.16 %, respectively. Additionally, simulated acid rain was observed to decrease the pH level by 0.29-0.35, while Cd increased the pH level by 0.11. Moreover, Cd alone reduced the rhizosphere bacterial diversity, however, when combined with acid rain, regardless of its intensity, Cd was observed to increase the diversity. Fungal diversity was not influenced by the acid rain, but Cd increased fungal diversity to some extend under HA as observed in bacterial diversity. In addition, composition of the rhizosphere bacterial community was primarily influenced by the inorganic nitrogen components, while the fungal community was driven mainly by soil pH. Furthermore, "Metabolism" was emerged as the most significant bacterial function, which was markedly affected by the combined pollution, while Cd pollution led to a shift from symbiotroph to other trophic types for fungi. These findings suggest that simulated acid rain has a mitigating effect on the diversity of rhizosphere bacteria affected by Cd pollution, and also alters the trophic type of these microorganisms. This can be attributed to the acid rain-induced direct acidic environment, as well as the indirect changes in the availability or sources of carbon, nitrogen, or potassium.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Ardura A, Fernandez S, Planes S, et al (2024)

Environmental DNA for the surveillance of biosecurity threats in Mediterranean lagoons.

Marine environmental research, 199:106601 pii:S0141-1136(24)00262-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species that outcompete endemic ones and toxic harmful algae that cause algal blooms threaten marine resources like fisheries, aquaculture, and even tourism. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding can help as a method for early alert. In this study, we have analyzed communities inhabiting six lagoons within the Gulf of Lion (northwest Mediterranean Sea) with spatial protection as RAMSAR and Natura 2000 sites. Employing the COI gene as the only metabarcode, we found 15 genera that have caused recognized algal bloom outbreaks in the studied lagoons since 2000. In addition, seven alien invasive species that can pose risks to the rich marine resources of the zone and lagoons were also found. The results found from eDNA are consistent with events of toxic algae blooms before and after the sampling moment and with reported occurrences of the invasive species in nearby Mediterranean areas. Multivariate multiple analysis showed the importance of anthropic pressure in the abundance of these nuisance species. Mitigation actions and routine eDNA metabarcoding in zones of special interest like these fragile French Mediterranean lagoons are recommended for early alert of nuisance species in order to plan timely management actions.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Barry PJ, Silburn B, Bakir A, et al (2024)

Seafloor macrolitter as a settling platform for non-native species: A case study from UK waters.

Marine pollution bulletin, 204:116499.

Marine litter is increasingly recognised as a vector for the spread of non-native species (NNS). However, our understanding of its role in the propagation of NNS in UK waters remains limited. As part of the Clean Seas Environmental Monitoring Programme, we opportunistically analysed seafloor macrolitter items trawled from various locations around the coast of England and Wales and examined each for the presence of NNS. Of the 41 litter items analysed, we identified a total of 133 taxa, including two non-native and four cryptogenic species. This confirms that NNS are settling on seafloor macrolitter in UK waters and that these can be detected using morphological taxonomic analysis. Furthermore, we propose a methodology to classify litter based on size, rugosity and polymer/material type to explore whether there were detectable patterns governing community composition and litter characteristics. This exploratory investigation provides evidence to inform future risk assessments of NNS vectors and pathways.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Carcauzon V, Herrera JP, Kaufman K, et al (2024)

Astroviruses in terrestrial Malagasy mammals.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 18(6):e0012263 pii:PNTD-D-23-00551 [Epub ahead of print].

Small terrestrial mammals are major hosts of infectious agents responsible for zoonotic diseases. Astroviruses (AstVs)-the cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis mainly affecting young children-have been detected in a wide array of mammalian and avian host species. However, understanding the factors that influence AstV infection within and across hosts is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of land use changes on AstVs in terrestrial small mammals in rural northeastern Madagascar. We sampled 515 small mammals, representing seven endemic and four introduced species. Twenty-two positive samples were identified, all but one of which were found in the introduced species Mus musculus and Rattus rattus (family Muridae), with a positivity rate of 7.7% (6/78) and 5.6% (15/266), respectively. The non-introduced rodent case was from an endemic shrew-tenrec (family Tenrecidae). We found the highest positivity rate of AstVs infection in brushy regrowth (17.5%, 7/40) as compared to flooded rice fields (4.60%, 8/174), secondary forest (4.1%, 3/74), agroforest (3.6%, 1/28), village (2.61%, 3/115), and semi-intact forest (0%, 0/84). A phylogenetic analysis revealed an association between AstVs and their rodent host species. None of the viruses were phylogenetically related to AstVs previously described in Malagasy bats. This study supports AstV circulation in synanthropic animals in agricultural habitats of Madagascar and highlights the need to assess the spillover risk to human populations in rural areas.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Heinz J, M Wenninger (2024)

EVALUATION OF IMMERSION IN EMULSIFIED ISOFLURANE OR PROPOFOL AS PART OF A TWO-STEP EUTHANASIA PROTOCOL IN MARBLED CRAYFISH (PROCAMBARUS VIRGINALIS).

Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 55(2):424-429.

The marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) is a parthenogenetic invasive species across much of the world, and when found, euthanasia is often recommended to reduce spread to naïve ecosystems. Euthanasia recommendations in crustaceans includes a two-step method: first to produce nonresponsiveness and then to destroy central nervous tissue. Minimal data exist on adequate anesthetic or immobilization methods for crayfish. A population of 90 marbled crayfish was scheduled for euthanasia due to invasive species concerns. The population was divided into six treatment groups to evaluate whether immersion in emulsified isoflurane or propofol solutions could produce nonresponsiveness. Each group was exposed to one of six treatments for 1 h: isoflurane emulsified at 0.1%, 0.5%, 2%, 5%, and 15% or propofol at 10 mg/L and then increased to 100 mg/L. Crayfish from all treatment groups were moved to nonmedicated water after completion of 1 h and observed for an additional 4 h. All crayfish treated with isoflurane showed lack of a righting reflex at 5 min and loss of movement after 30 min. By 240 min (4 h), none of the crayfish from the isoflurane treatment groups regained movement. None of the crayfish in the propofol treatment achieved loss of reflexes or responsiveness, and all remained normal upon return to nonmedicated water. Isoflurane emulsified in water produces nonresponsiveness that is appropriate for the first step of euthanasia, while propofol was insufficient at these treatment doses.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Avdeev M, Tal S, Fishman R, et al (2024)

THE EFFECT OF 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXENE DIEPOXIDE ON FEMALE NUTRIA (MYOCASTOR COYPUS) FERTILITY IN CAPTIVITY-A PILOT STUDY.

Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 55(2):412-423.

The nutria (Myocastor coypus) is a globally widespread invasive species. Attempts to eradicate nutria by shooting, poisoning, and trapping have been mostly unsuccessful, leading to calls for the development of new control methods. The compound 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is known to cause follicular atresia in mammals and may control conception when administered orally. It was hypothesized that VCD administered PO will cause follicular destruction in female nutria. VCD (250 mg/kg PO) was administered or coconut oil, as a control, to five nutria females each for 12 d. Sixty days following VCD exposure, males were introduced to the females. Over the following 7 mon, the effect of VCD on nutria fertility was assessed by conducting ultrasound monitoring to determine pregnancy status and measuring blood serum progesterone and estradiol levels. Finally, after performing ovariectomies, viable follicles were counted on histologic ovarian cortical sections. It was found that the female estrous cycles became synchronized, suggesting a Whitten effect in this species. Also, an increase in the females' serum progesterone levels following the introduction of males occurred, suggesting a male presence effect. Orally administered doses of 250 mg/kg VCD for 12 d had no significant effect on nutria pregnancy rates or on the number of follicles in the ovaries examined. Further studies, using a higher dose or longer administration period, are necessary to conclude whether orally administered VCD can be used as a contraceptive agent for nutria.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Alvanou MV, Loukovitis D, Kyritsi S, et al (2024)

Genetic prospective of a local invader: the strange pattern of Pontastacus leptodactylus population structure in Greece and Turkey based on microsatellite DNA.

Molecular biology reports, 51(1):765.

BACKGROUND: The combination of the increasing demand of freshwater crayfish exports, the reduced population sizes due to overfishing, the crayfish plague epidemics and the habitat degradation, have led to unrecorded translocations of Pontastacus leptodactylus in Greek lakes.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, the genetics of five narrow clawed crayfish (P. leptodactylus) populations were studied, namely three translocated populations inhabiting in Northern Greece, one native Greek population from Evros river and one potential progeny source population from Turkey. Nine microsatellite loci previously designed for the specific species were investigated, in order to assess the levels of genetic diversity and further to confirm the origin of these translocated populations some decades after the translocation events. Our results confirmed that the source population for the translocated Greek population is the Turkish lake Eğirdir. Further, despite the low values of the number of alleles, heterozygosity, and FST the populations were generally diverse, providing evidence for local adaptation.

CONCLUSIONS: The low values of FIS for the translocated populations in combination with the high values of gene flow, possibly indicate the existence of re-introducing events. Apart from the translocated populations, high levels of genetic diversity and heterozygosity were observed in Evros population, suggesting it as a possible unit for future conservation purposes both as a donor population for reintroduction purposes as well as a unique gene pool protection source. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study dealing with the genetic composition of Greek P. leptodactylus populations from Nothern Greece, operating as a first step towards the development of proper management practices for restocking events and monitoring of translocated populations.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Huang R, Oduor AMO, Yan Y, et al (2024)

Nutrient enrichment, propagule pressure, and herbivory interactively influence the competitive ability of an invasive alien macrophyte Myriophyllum aquaticum.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1411767.

INTRODUCTION: Freshwater ecosystems are susceptible to invasion by alien macrophytes due to their connectivity and various plant dispersal vectors. These ecosystems often experience anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, favouring invasive species that efficiently exploit these resources. Propagule pressure (reflecting the quantity of introduced individuals) and habitat invasibility are key determinants of invasion success. Moreover, the enemy release hypothesis predicts that escape from natural enemies, such as herbivores, allows alien species to invest more resources to growth and reproduction rather than defense, enhancing their invasive potential. Yet, the combined impact of propagule pressure, herbivory, and nutrient enrichment on the competitive dynamics between invasive alien macrophytes and native macrophyte communities is not well understood due to a paucity of studies.

METHODS: We conducted a full factorial mesocosm experiment to explore the individual and combined effects of herbivory, nutrient levels, propagule pressure, and competition on the invasion success of the alien macrophyte Myriophyllum aquaticum into a native macrophyte community comprising Vallisneria natans, Hydrilla verticillata, and Myriophyllum spicatum. This setup included varying M. aquaticum densities (low vs. high, simulating low and high propagule pressures), two levels of herbivory by the native snail Lymnaea stagnalis (herbivory vs no-herbivory), and two nutrient conditions (low vs. high). Myriophyllum aquaticum was also grown separately at both densities without competition from native macrophytes.

RESULTS: The invasive alien macrophyte M. aquaticum produced the highest shoot and total biomass when simultaneously subjected to conditions of high-density intraspecific competition, no herbivory, and low-nutrient availability treatments. Moreover, a high propagule pressure of M. aquaticum significantly reduced the growth of the native macrophyte community in nutrient-rich conditions, but this effect was not observed in nutrient-poor conditions.

DISCUSSION: These findings indicate that M. aquaticum has adaptive traits enabling it to flourish in the absence of herbivory (supporting the enemy release hypothesis) and in challenging environments such as intense intraspecific competition and low nutrient availability. Additionally, the findings demonstrate that when present in large numbers, M. aquaticum can significantly inhibit the growth of native macrophyte communities, particularly in nutrient-rich environments. Consequently, reducing the propagule pressure of M. aquaticum could help control its spread and mitigate its ecological impact. Overall, these findings emphasize that the growth and impacts of invasive alien plants can vary across different habitat conditions and is shaped by the interplay of biotic and abiotic factors.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Jin L, Jiang Y, Han L, et al (2024)

Big-brained alien birds tend to occur climatic niche shifts through enhanced behavioral innovation.

Integrative zoology [Epub ahead of print].

Identifying climatic niche shift and its influencing factors is of great significance in predicting the risk of alien species invasions accurately. Previous studies have attempted to identify the factors related to the niche shift of alien species in their invaded ranges, including changes in introduction history, selection of exact climate predictors, and anthropogenic factors. However, the effect of species-level traits on niche shift remains largely unexplored, especially those reflecting the species' adaptation ability to new environments. Based on the occurrence data of 117 successful alien bird invaders at a global scale, their native and invaded climatic niches were compared, and the potential influencing factors were identified. Our results show the niche overlap was low, with more than 75% of the non-native birds representing climatic niche shift (i.e. >10% niche expansion). In addition, 85% of the species showed a large proportion (mean ± SD, 39% ± 21%) of niche unfilling. Relative brain size (RBS) after accounting for body size had no direct effect on niche shift, but path analysis showed that RBS had an indirect effect on niche shift by acting on behavioral innovation primarily on technical innovation rather than consumer innovation. These findings suggested the incorporation of species' important behavioral adaptation traits may be promising to develop future prediction frameworks of biological invasion risk in response to the continued global change.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Raffalli MC, Bojórquez-Sánchez AM, Lignot JH, et al (2024)

Population-specific responses to pollution exposure suggest local adaptation of invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii along the Mediterranean French coastline.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic stressors can have an impact in a broad range of physiological processes and can be a major selective force leading to rapid evolution and local population adaptation. In this study, three populations of the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii were investigated. They are geographically separated for at least 20 years, and live in different abiotic environments: a freshwater inland lake (Salagou lake) with no major anthropogenic influence and two other coastal wetlands regularly polluted by pesticides along the Mediterranean coast (Camargue region and Bages-Sigean lagoon). Collected adults were genetically characterized using the mitochondrial COI gene and haplotype frequencies were analyzed for genetic variability within and between populations. Results revealed a higher genetic diversity for these invasive populations than any previous report in France, with more than seven different haplotypes in a single population. The contrasting genetic diversity between the Camargue and the other two populations suggest different times and sources of introduction. To identify differences in key physiological responses between these populations, individuals from each population were maintained in controlled conditions. Data on oxygen consumption rates indicate that the Salagou and Bages-Sigean populations possess a high inter-individual variability compared to the Camargue population. The low individual variability of oxygen consumption and low genetic diversity suggest a specific local adaptation for the Camargue population. Population-specific responses were identified when individuals were exposed to a pesticide cocktail containing azoxystrobin and oxadiazon at sublethal concentrations. The Salagou population was the only one with altered hydro-osmotic balance due to pollutant exposure and a change in protease activity in the hepatopancreas. These results revealed different phenotypic responses suggesting local adaptations at the population level.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Zhang Y, Wan Y, Wang C, et al (2024)

Potential distribution of three invasive agricultural pests in China under climate change.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13672.

Invasive pests reduce biodiversity and ecosystem service functions, thereby leading to economic and also agricultural losses. Banana skipper (Erionota torus Evans), red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), and coconut caterpillar (Opisina arenosella Walker) are invasive insect pests in the palm-growing regions and they have had serious consequences for the planting of bananas (Musa nana), palms (Trachycarpus fortune) and coconut (Cocos nucifera). Based on screened occurrence data, the present research utilized Maximum Entropy model (Maxent) to simulate the distribution dynamics of these three invasive insects in China, under current and future climate (2050s, 2070s, 2090s) in two shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs: 126 and 585) of the newly released coupled model intercomparison project phase6 (CMIP6). The results show that: (1) Under current and future climate conditions, all model groups exhibited an AUC value exceeding 0.92, which shows that the model prediction results are very good;(2) The suitable habitat area of E. torus Evans remains relatively stable with some expansion in the SSP126 of 2090s and some contraction in the SSP585 of 2090s. The suitable habitat area of R. ferrugineus showed an overall contraction, with substantial contraction in the SSP585 of 2090s.The suitable habitat area of O. arenosella has an overall expansion, with the most pronounced expansion in the SSP585 of 2070s; (3) The current centroid of suitable habitats for R. ferrugineus and E. torus Evans is located in Guangxi Province and wholely shift toward the south direction under future climate. The centroid of suitable habitats for O. arenosella is currently located in the northeastern maritime area of Hainan Province and will shift toward the north direction under future climate; (4) Temperature, precipitation and Human disturbance factors (Population density and Human influence index) were crucial variables for describing the distribution of the three species. For E. torus Evans in particular, percentage contributions of Population density was up to 31.4, which is only 0.1 different from ranked first Bio19 (Precipitation of the coldest quarter). The dynamics of habitats of these three species and the correlating driver factors proposed in this work provide essential insights into future spatial management of the three invasive insects in China. Our work is necessary and timely in identifying newly areas at high risk of expansion of the three invasive insects in the future, then suggesting strategic control measures to prevent their spread, and finally providing scientific evidence for the early prevention and rapid response to the three invasive insects.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Augusthy S, Nizam A, A Kumar (2024)

The diversity, drivers, consequences and management of plant invasions in the mangrove ecosystems.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03998-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Mangrove ecosystems, which occupy intertidal environments across tropical and subtropical regions, provide crucial ecosystem services, such as protecting the coastal areas by reducing the impact of cyclones, storms, and tidal waves. Anthropogenic activities such as human settlements, deforestation, pollution, and climate change have increased the risk of biological invasions in mangrove habitats. Plant species can be introduced to mangrove habitats via anthropogenic means, such as trade and transportation, urbanisation, and agriculture, as well as through natural processes like wind, floods, cyclones, and animal-assisted seed dispersal. Additionally, some native plants can become invasive due to the changes in the mangrove ecosystem. Invasive species can significantly affect coastal ecosystems by out-competing native flora for resources, thereby altering fundamental properties, functions, and ecosystem services of the mangrove forests. The successful establishment of invasive species depends on a complex interplay of factors involving the biological attributes of the invading species and the ecological dynamics of the invaded habitat. This review focuses on exploring the mechanisms of invasion, strategies used by invasive plants, the effects of invasive plants in mangrove habitats and their possible management strategies. Based on the literature, managing invasive species is possible by biological, chemical, or physical treatments. Some non-native mangrove species introduced through restoration activities can often become more intrusive than native species. Therefore, restoration activities should prioritise avoiding the use of non-native plant species.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Nordgulen M, Lewandowski K, Burkett-Cadena N, et al (2024)

LA CROSSE VIRUS VECTOR RESTING BEHAVIORS - FIELD STUDIES WITH PROKOPAK AND RESTING SHELTER COLLECTIONS PROVIDE LOW YIELD.

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association pii:501365 [Epub ahead of print].

Resting adult mosquito collections provide opportunities to sample broad physiological conditions (e.g., blood-engorged, gravid, nectar-engorged, and/or parous) that yield important biological information necessary to understand vector and pathogen transmission ecology. In this study, we evaluated Prokopak aspirations of Rhododendron spp. and human-powered pop-up resting shelter collections at 4 residences with historical evidence of proximal La Crosse virus (LACV) transmission from May through September 2022. The goal of this study was to investigate these sampling methods in the context of LACV vector biology-focused principally on Aedes triseriatus (primary LACV vector) and 2 invasive species (Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus) that likely serve as secondary LACV vectors. Overall, 304 resting shelters and 80 Prokopak collections yielded a grand total of 33 mosquitoes, of which a third were LACV vectors (Ae. triseriatus [n = 1, 3.0%], Ae. albopictus [n = 4, 12.1%], and Ae. japonicus [n = 6, 18.2%]). Anopheles punctipennis (n = 9, 27.2%) was the most frequently collected species followed by Culex erraticus (n = 7, 21.2%), whereas the least frequently collected species were Ae. triseriatus and Cx. pipiens (n = 1, 3.0%). Despite substantial collection efforts, and concurrent gravid-trap evidence of LACV vectors at the collection sites, Prokopak aspiration of Rhododendron spp. and human-powered pop-up resting shelters did not yield a meaningful number of LACV vectors and thus, as described within, may not be useful adjuncts for the evaluation of LACV ecology and disease risk. Additional approaches to evaluate the resting behavior of these vectors in LACV endemic areas are needed.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Francesconi C, Boštjančić LL, Bonassin L, et al (2024)

High variation of virulence in Aphanomyces astaci strains lacks association with pathogenic traits and mtDNA haplogroups.

Journal of invertebrate pathology pii:S0022-2011(24)00096-X [Epub ahead of print].

Introduced into Europe from North America 150 years ago alongside its native crayfish hosts, the invasive pathogen Aphanomyces astaci is considered one of the main causes of European crayfish population decline. For the past two centuries, this oomycetes pathogen has been extensively studied, with the more recent efforts focused on containing and monitoring its spread across the continent. However, after the recent introduction of new strains, the newly-discovered diversity of A. astaci in North America and several years of coevolution with its European host, a new assessment of the traits linked to the pathogen's virulence is much needed. To fill this gap, we investigated the presence of phenotypic patterns (i.e., in vitro growth and sporulation rates) possibly associated with the pathogen's virulence (i.e., induced mortality in crayfish) in a collection of 14 A. astaci strains isolated both in North America and in Europe. The results highlighted a high variability in virulence, growth rate and motile spore production among the different strains, while the total-sporulation rate was more similar across strains. Surprisingly, growth and sporulation rates were not significantly correlated with virulence. Furthermore, none of the analysed parameters, including virulence, was significantly different among the major A. astaci haplogroups. These results indicate that each strain is defined by a characteristic combination of pathogenic features, specifically assembled for the environment and host faced by each strain. Thus, canonical mitochondrial markers, often used to infer the pathogen's virulence, are not accurate tools to deduce the phenotype of A. astaci strains. As the diversity of A. astaci strains in Europe is bound to increase due to translocations of new carrier crayfish species from North America, there is an urgent need to deepen our understanding of A. astaci's virulence variability and its ability to adapt to new hosts and environments.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Laffitte M, Mojžišová M, Delaunay C, et al (2024)

Prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen in red swamp crayfish populations in western France: How serious is the risk for the native white-clawed crayfish?.

Journal of invertebrate pathology, 205:108128.

The crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci has been implicated in a number of mass mortalities and irreversible population declines of native crayfish across Europe. At present, the reservoirs of the pathogen in Europe are mainly populations of invasive North American crayfish species. In southwestern Europe, including France, a particularly widespread invader is the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Recent distribution data confirm that P. clarkii is present in at least 75 French departments, i.e. more than 78% of those in metropolitan France. We analysed the prevalence and pathogen load of A. astaci in 42 populations of this species in western France (Nouvelle Aquitaine region), where the species is most densely distributed, particularly in a wide range of environments around the Gironde estuary. The pathogen was detected by two different quantitative PCR assays in more than three quarters of the populations studied (34 out of 42); 163 out of 480 analysed crayfish individuals tested positive for the presence of A. astaci. In most cases, individual infection levels were very low, detectable with quantitative PCR but not sufficient for pathogen genotyping. In seven P. clarkii individuals from four populations, however, we were able to assess A. astaci variation by microsatellite markers and sequencing of mitochondrial markers. All these host specimens carried A. astaci genotype group D, haplotype d1, which has caused the majority of crayfish plague outbreaks in neighbouring Spain. In contrast, the French outbreaks genotyped to date (including eight newly analysed in this study) were mostly caused by strains of genotype group B, specific to the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Haplotype d1 found in P. clarkii was involved in one of the newly characterised outbreaks. Our study confirms that P. clarkii is a potentially important reservoir of the crayfish plague pathogen in France, but not the main source of the pathogen in mass mortalities of A. pallipes, probably due to different ecological requirements of the different invasive host crayfish. However, as P. clarkii continues to spread, the threat posed by this species to native crayfish is likely to increase.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Ciezarek AG, Mehta TK, Man A, et al (2024)

Ancient and recent hybridization in the Oreochromis cichlid fishes.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:7691846 [Epub ahead of print].

Cichlid fishes of the genus Oreochromis (tilapia) are among the most important fish for inland capture fisheries and global aquaculture. Deliberate introductions of non-native species for fisheries improvement and accidental escapees from farms have resulted in admixture with indigenous species. Such hybridization may be detrimental to native biodiversity, potentially leading to genomic homogenization of populations and the loss of important genetic material associated with local adaptation. By contrast, introgression may fuel diversification when combined with ecological opportunity, by supplying novel genetic combinations. To date, the role of introgression in the evolutionary history of tilapia has not been explored. Here we studied both ancient and recent hybridization in tilapia, using whole genome resequencing of 575 individuals from 23 species. We focused on Tanzania, a natural hotspot of tilapia diversity, and a country where hybridization between exotic and native species in the natural environment has been previously reported. We reconstruct the first genome-scale phylogeny of the genus and reveal prevalent ancient gene flow across the Oreochromis phylogeny. This has likely resulted in hybrid speciation of one species, O. chungruruensis. We identify multiple cases of recent hybridization between native and introduced species in the wild, linked to the use of non-native species in both capture fisheries improvement and aquaculture. This has potential implications for both conservation of wild populations and the development of the global tilapia aquaculture industry.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Liu BQ, Bao XY, Yan JY, et al (2024)

Rickettsia symbionts spread via mixed mode transmission, increasing female fecundity and sex ratio shift by host hormone modulating.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(25):e2406788121.

Heritable symbionts are common among animals in nature, but the molecular mechanisms underpinning symbiont invasions of host populations have been elusive. In this study, we demonstrate the spread of Rickettsia in an invasive agricultural pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (MED), across northeastern China from 2018 to 2023. Here, we show that the beneficial symbiont Rickettsia spreads by manipulating host hormone signals. Our analyses suggest that Rickettsia have been horizontally acquired by B. tabaci MED from another invasive whitefly B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 during periods of coexistence. Rickettsia is transmitted maternally and horizontally from female B. tabaci MED individuals. Rickettsia infection enhances fecundity and results in female bias among whiteflies. Our findings reveal that Rickettsia infection stimulates juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis, in turn enhancing fecundity, copulation events, and the female ratio of the offspring. Consequently, Rickettsia infection results in increased whitefly fecundity and female bias by modulating the JH pathway. More female progeny facilitates the transmission of Rickettsia. This study illustrates that the spread of Rickettsia among invasive whiteflies in northeastern China is propelled by host hormone regulation. Such symbiont invasions lead to rapid physiological and molecular evolution in the host, influencing the biology and ecology of an invasive species.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Zhao L, Guo X, Li L, et al (2024)

Phylodynamics unveils invading and diffusing patterns of dengue virus serotype-1 in Guangdong, China from 1990 to 2019 under a global genotyping framework.

Infectious diseases of poverty, 13(1):43.

BACKGROUND: The strong invasiveness and rapid expansion of dengue virus (DENV) pose a great challenge to global public health. However, dengue epidemic patterns and mechanisms at a genetic scale, particularly in term of cross-border transmissions, remain poorly understood. Importation is considered as the primary driver of dengue outbreaks in China, and since 1990 a frequent occurrence of large outbreaks has been triggered by the imported cases and subsequently spread to the western and northern parts of China. Therefore, this study aims to systematically reveal the invasion and diffusion patterns of DENV-1 in Guangdong, China from 1990 to 2019.

METHODS: These analyses were performed on 179 newly assembled genomes from indigenous dengue cases in Guangdong, China and 5152 E gene complete sequences recorded in Chinese mainland. The genetic population structure and epidemic patterns of DENV-1 circulating in Chinese mainland were characterized by phylogenetics, phylogeography, phylodynamics based on DENV-1 E-gene-based globally unified genotyping framework.

RESULTS: Multiple serotypes of DENV were co-circulating in Chinese mainland, particularly in Guangdong and Yunnan provinces. A total of 189 transmission clusters in 38 clades belonging to 22 subgenotypes of genotype I, IV and V of DENV-1 were identified, with 7 Clades of Concern (COCs) responsible for the large outbreaks since 1990. The epidemic periodicity was inferred from the data to be approximately 3 years. Dengue transmission events mainly occurred from Great Mekong Subregion-China (GMS-China), Southeast Asia (SEA), South Asia Subcontinent (SASC), and Oceania (OCE) to coastal and land border cities respectively in southeastern and southwestern China. Specially, Guangzhou was found to be the most dominant receipting hub, where DENV-1 diffused to other cities within the province and even other parts of the country. Genome phylogeny combined with epidemiological investigation demonstrated a clear local consecutive transmission process of a 5C1 transmission cluster (5C1-CN4) of DENV-1 in Guangzhou from 2013 to 2015, while the two provinces of Guangdong and Yunnan played key roles in ongoing transition of dengue epidemic patterns. In contextualizing within Invasion Biology theories, we have proposed a derived three-stage model encompassing the stages of invasion, colonization, and dissemination, which is supposed to enhance our understanding of dengue spreading patterns.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the invasion and diffusion process of DENV-1 in Chinese mainland within a global genotyping framework, characterizing the genetic diversities of viral populations, multiple sources of importation, and periodic dynamics of the epidemic. These findings highlight the potential ongoing transition trends from epidemic to endemic status offering a valuable insight into early warning, prevention and control of rapid spreading of dengue both in China and worldwide.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Song H, Y Zhang (2024)

Estimation of spreading speeds and travelling waves for the lattice pioneer-climax competition system.

Journal of biological dynamics, 18(1):2365792.

This paper concerns the invasion dynamics of the lattice pioneer-climax competition model with parameter regions in which the system is non-monotone. We estimate the spreading speeds and establish appropriate conditions under which the spreading speeds are linearly selected. Moreover, the existence of travelling waves is determined by constructing suitable upper and lower solutions. It shows that the spreading speed coincides with the minimum wave speed of travelling waves if the diffusion rate of the invasive species is larger or equal to that of the native species. Our results are new to estimate the spreading speed of non-monotone lattice pioneer-climax systems, and the techniques developed in this work can be used to study the invasion dynamics of the pioneer-climax system with interaction delays, which could extend the results in the literature. The analysis replies on the construction of auxiliary systems, upper and lower solutions, and the monotone dynamical system approach.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Chen Y, Chen Y, Li Y, et al (2024)

Comparative study of the gut microbial community structure of Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera literal (Lepidoptera).

PeerJ, 12:e17450.

BACKGROUND: Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm is a destructive invasive pest, and S. litura the tobacco cutworm, is a native species closely related to S. frugiperda. The gut microbiota plays a vital role in insect growth, development, metabolism and immune system. Research on the competition between invasive species and closely related native species has focused on differences in the adaptability of insects to the environment. Little is known about gut symbiotic microbe composition and its role in influencing competitive differences between these two insects.

METHODS: We used a culture-independent approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene of gut bacteria of 5th instar larvae of S. frugiperda and S. litura. Larvae were reared continuously on maize leaves for five generations. We analyzed the composition, abundance, diversity, and metabolic function of gut microbiomes of S. frugiperda and S. litura larvae.

RESULTS: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla in both species. Enterococcus, ZOR0006, Escherichia, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus were the genera with the highest abundance in S. frugiperda. Enterococcus, Erysipelatoclostridium, ZOR0006, Enterobacter, and Bacteroides had the highest abundance in S. litura. According to α-diversity analysis, the gut bacterial diversity of S. frugiperda was significantly higher than that of S. litura. KEGG analysis showed 15 significant differences in metabolic pathways between S. frugiperda and S. litura gut bacteria, including transcription, cell growth and death, excretory system and circulatory system pathways.

CONCLUSION: In the same habitat, the larvae of S. frugiperda and S. litura showed significant differences in gut bacterial diversity and community composition. Regarding the composition and function of gut bacteria, the invasive species S. frugiperda may have a competitive advantage over S. litura. This study provides a foundation for developing control strategies for S. frugiperda and S. litura.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Baqir HA, Li WJ, Wang JG, et al (2023)

Public Awareness, Perception, and Knowledge of Bed Bug Infestation Prevalence in Iraq.

Journal of arthropod-borne diseases, 17(3):241-256.

BACKGROUND: Bed bugs are blood-feeding insects and are an important urban pest. Bed bugs are nocturnal insects and hide in cracks in walls and beds during the day. The study aims to: (1) determine the bed bugs species that infest Iraq, their infestation source, and their distribution; (2) determine the level of awareness and concern regarding bed bugs among the Iraqi community.

METHODS: Between 2020 and 2021, a survey of bed bug infestation dynamics was conducted in 18 infested sites located in major cities across eight governorates. The 23-item online survey was distributed over social media to Iraqi citizens between June and July 2022 to survey on their familiarity with bed bug habitat, medical significance, transmission, prevention, control measures, and concerns.

RESULTS: There were a total of 1104 bed bugs collected. Based on the morphological characteristics, bed bugs collected from eight Iraqi governorates are identified as Cimex hemipterus. Besides, a high rate of bed bug infestation was observed in workers' dormitories. The online questionnaire was answered by 1843 respondents and based on the feedback, most respondents (55.3%) have no awareness of bed bug infestations, while around 43.8% are somewhat concerned about bed bug infestations in Iraq.

CONCLUSION: Only tropical bed bugs, C. hemipterus were found in all sampled sites. Bed bug infestations are mainly caused by migrant workers and the reuse of second-hand furniture and clothing. The results suggest that the Iraqi government should organize more proper demonstrations on bed bug awareness for the public.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Sun C, Lü Z, Fang J, et al (2024)

Population structure of Taenioides sp. (Gobiiformes, Gobiidae) reveals their invasion history to inland waters of China based on mitochondrial DNA control region.

ZooKeys, 1203:239-251.

Taenioides sp. is a small temperate fish originally known to inhabit muddy bottoms of brackish waters in coastal areas of China. However, it began to invade multiple inland freshwaters and caused severe damage to Chinese aquatic ecosystems in recent years. To investigate the sources and invasive history of this species, we examined the population structure of 141 individuals collected from seven locations based on partial mitochondrial D-loop regions. The results revealed that the genetic diversity gradually decreased from south to north, with the Yangtze River Estuary and Taihu Lake populations possessing the highest haplotype diversity (Hd), average number of differences (k), and nucleotide diversity (π) values, suggesting that they may be the sources of Taenioides sp. invasions. Isolation-by-distance analysis revealed a non-significant correlation (p = 0.166) between genetic and geographic distances among seven populations, indicating that dispersal mediated through the regional hydraulic projects may have played an essential role in Taenioides sp. invasions. The population genetic structure analysis revealed two diverged clades among seven populations, with clade 2 only detected in source populations, suggesting a possible difference in the invasion ability of the two clades. Our results provide insights into how native estuary fish become invasive through hydraulic projects and may provide critical information for the future control of this invasive species.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Zuo K, Fan L, Guo Z, et al (2024)

High nutrient utilization and resorption efficiency promote bamboo expansion and invasion.

Journal of environmental management, 362:121370.

Bamboos are fast-growing, aggressively-spreading, and invasive woody clonal species that often encroach upon adjacent tree plantations, forming bamboo-tree mixed plantations. However, the effects of bamboo invasion on leaf carbon (C) assimilation, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) utilization characteristics remains unclear. We selected four different stands of Pleioblastus amarus invading Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations to investigate the concentrations, stoichiometry, and allometric growth relationships of mature and withered leaves of young and old bamboos, analyzing N and P utilization and resorption patterns. The stand type, bamboo age, and their interaction affected the concentrations, stoichiometry and allometric growth patterns of leaf C, N, and P in both old and young bamboos, as well as the N and P resorption efficiency. Bamboo invasion into Chinese fir plantations decreased leaf C, N, and P concentrations, C:N and C:P ratios, N and P resorption efficiency, and allometric growth exponents among leaf C, N, and P, while it only slightly altered N:P ratios. PLS-PM analysis revealed that bamboo invasion negatively impacted leaf C, N, and P concentrations, as well as N and P utilization and resorption. The results indicate that high N and P utilization and resorption efficiency, along with the mutual sharing of C, N, and P among bamboos in interface zones, promote continuous bamboo expansion and invasion. Collectively, these findings highlight the significance of N and P utilization and resorption in bamboo expansion and invasion and provide valuable guidance for the establishment of mixed stands and the ecological management of bamboo forests.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Nartey R, Chamorro L, Buffington M, et al (2024)

Invasion and spread of the neotropical leafhopper Curtara insularis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Africa and North America and the role of high-altitude windborne migration in invasive insects.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.24.595796.

Invasive insects threaten ecosystem stability, public health, and food security. Documenting newly invasive species and understanding how they reach into new territories, establish populations, and interact with other species remain vitally important. Here, we report on the invasion of the South American leafhopper, Curtara insularis into Africa, where it has established populations in Ghana, encroaching inland at least 350 km off the coast. Importantly, 80% of the specimens collected were intercepted between 160 and 190 m above ground. Further, the fraction of this species among all insects collected was also higher at altitude, demonstrating its propensity to engage in high-altitude windborne dispersal. Its aerial densities at altitude translate into millions of migrants/km over a year, representing massive propagule pressure. Given the predominant south-westerly winds, these sightings suggest an introduction of C. insularis into at least one of the Gulf of Guinea ports. To assess the contribution of windborne dispersal to its spread in a new territory, we examine records of C. insularis range-expansion in the USA. Reported first in 2004 from central Florida, it reached north Florida (Panhandle) by 2008-2011 and subsequently spread across the southeastern and south-central US. Its expansion fits a "diffusion-like" process with 200-300 km long "annual displacement steps"-a pattern consistent with autonomous dispersal rather than vehicular transport. Most "steps" are consistent with common wind trajectories from the nearest documented population, assuming 2-8 hours of wind-assisted flight at altitude. Curtara insularis has been intercepted at US ports and on trucks. Thus, it uses multiple dispersal modalities, yet its rapid overland spread is better explained by its massive propagule pressure linked with its high-altitude windborne dispersal. We propose that high-altitude windborne dispersal is common yet under-appreciated in invasive insect species.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Zicola J, Dasari P, Hahn KK, et al (2024)

De novo transcriptome assembly of the oak processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea.

BMC genomic data, 25(1):55.

OBJECTIVES: The oak processionary moth (OPM) (Thaumetopoea processionea) is a species of moth (order: Lepidoptera) native to parts of central Europe. However, in recent years, it has become an invasive species in various countries, particularly in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The larvae of the OPM are covered with urticating barbed hairs (setae) causing irritating and allergic reactions at the three last larval stages (L3-L5). The aim of our study was to generate a de novo transcriptomic assembly for OPM larvae by including one non-allergenic stage (L2) and two allergenic stages (L4 and L5). A transcriptomic assembly will help identify potential allergenic peptides produced by OPM larvae, providing valuable information for developing novel therapeutic strategies and allergic immunodiagnostic assays.

DATA: Transcriptomes of three larval stages of the OPM were de novo assembled and annotated using Trinity and Trinotate, respectively. A total of 145,251 transcripts from 99,868 genes were identified. Bench-marking universal single-copy orthologues analysis indicated high completeness of the assembly. About 19,600 genes are differentially expressed between the non-allergenic and allergenic larval stages. The data provided here contribute to the characterization of OPM, which is both an invasive species and a health hazard.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Toutain M, Belouard N, Renault D, et al (2024)

Assessing the role of non-native species and artificial water bodies on the trophic and functional niche of Mediterranean freshwater fish communities.

The Science of the total environment, 938:173520.

Habitat alterations and the introduction of non-native species have many ecological impacts, including the loss of biodiversity and a deterioration of ecosystem functioning. The effects of these combined stressors on the community trophic web and functional niche are, however, not completely clear. Here, we investigated how artificial ecosystems (i.e. reservoirs) and non-native species may influence the trophic and functional niche space of freshwater fish communities. To do so, we used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope and abundance data to compute a set of isotopic, trait, and functional metrics for 13 fish communities sampled from 12 distinct ecosystems in Türkiye. We show that in reservoirs, fish were more similar in their trophic niche compared to lakes, where the trophic niche was more variable, due to higher habitat complexity. However, there were no differences in the trait and functional metrics between the two ecosystem types, suggesting a higher prey diversity than assumed in reservoirs. We also found that the number of non-native species did not affect the trophic niche space, nor the trait or functional space occupied by the fish community. This indicates that non-native species tended to overlap their trophic niche with native species, while occupying empty functional niches in the recipient community functional space. Similarly, the proportion of non-native species did not affect any trophic, trait, or functional metric, suggesting that changes in community composition were not reflected in changes in the community niche space. Moreover, we found that trait richness, but not functional richness, was positively related to the isotopic niche width and diversity, indicating that a wider occupied trait niche space corresponded with a wider occupied trophic niche and lesser interspecific similarity. Our findings underscore the complexity of ecological relationships within freshwater ecosystems and highlight the need for comprehensive management strategies to mitigate the impacts of human activities and biological invasions.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Paul TG, Catchot AL, Towles TB, et al (2024)

Cold temperatures drive the latitudinal range limits and inhibit overwintering survival of the redbanded stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

Journal of economic entomology, 117(3):887-898.

For non-native insects that are economically damaging, understanding the drivers of range expansions and contractions is important for forecasting pest pressure. The invasion of the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), reached Louisiana, United States, in 2000, after which the northern range limits of this species have fluctuated annually. Low winter temperatures have been implicated as a major driver of this pattern, but the importance of cold temperatures-or other abiotic factors-for the persistence of this pest over large geographic scales are incompletely understood. We coupled occurrence data of P. guildinii with climatic data to investigate trends in P. guildinii presence in relation to winter temperatures and develop species distribution models, forecasting habitat suitability based on current and future climatic scenarios. Our results show that (i) some P. guildinii persisted in locations where ambient temperatures reached -12°C, (ii) overwintering temperatures drive P. guildinii range dynamics, and (iii) with intermediate projections of climatic warming, northward expansion by P. guildinii in North America is likely to be minimal. While the northern extent of P. guildinii's range may now be largely realized in North America, our results suggest that increased frequency of mild winters could reduce interannual fluctuations of P. guildinii and enable it to become a more consistent economic concern for soybean growers throughout the Midsouth region of the United States.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Dietschler NJ, Bittner TD, Lefebvre MB, et al (2024)

Observation of key phenological stages of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae): using citizen science as a tool to inform research and management.

Journal of economic entomology, 117(3):1185-1191.

Increasing efficiency of data gathering at the landscape scale on the growing number of pests and pathogens threatening forests worldwide has potential to improve management outcomes. Citizen science is expanding, with growing support and utility in environmental and conservation fields. We present a case study showing how citizen science observations can be used to inform research and management of a devastating forest pest. Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), was introduced to eastern North America, leading to decline and mortality of eastern [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] (Pinales: Pinaceae) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann) trees. Management activities, most notably biological control, rely on observations of A. tsugae phenology to inform the timing of releases and monitoring surveys of their highly synchronized specialist predators. In this article, we outline a citizen science program and report phenological observations on A. tsugae. Additionally, we report data comparing A. tsugae estivation break in Virginia (VA) and New York (NY) State, revealing that estivation break is synchronized between NY and VA. This observation is supported by 6 years of citizen scientist observations, showing similar patterns throughout NY, with egg laying shown to be much more variable than estivation break.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Ahmed M, Javeed A, Sikandar A, et al (2024)

Antioxidant, insecticidal activity and chemical profiling of flower's extract of Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.).

PloS one, 19(6):e0296321.

Parthenium hysterophorus L., an invasive alien species and notorious weed, offers various benefits to the medical and agrochemical industries. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and insecticidal activities of P. hysterophorus flower extract and conduct chemical profiling to identify the phytoconstituents responsible for these biological effects. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, while gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis was employed for chemical configuration evaluation. Our findings demonstrate that the dichloromethane (DCM) extract of P. hysterophorus exhibits potent radical scavenging activity (95.03%). Additionally, phytochemical analysis revealed significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids in the distilled water and ethyl acetate extracts (103.30 GAEg-1 and 138.67 QEg-1, respectively). In terms of insecticidal activity, the flower extract displayed maximum mortality rates of 63.33% and 46.67% after 96 hours of exposure at concentrations of 1000 μgmL-1 and 800 μgmL-1, respectively, with similar trends observed at 72 hours. Furthermore, the P. hysterophorus extracts exhibited LC50 values of 1446 μgmL-1 at 72 hours and 750 μgmL-1 at 96 hours. Imidacloprid, the positive control, demonstrated higher mortality rates at 96 hours (97.67%) and 72 hours (91.82%). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of P. hysterophorus extracts exhibited a strong correlation with phenols, flavonoids, and extract yield. GCMS analysis identified 13 chemical compounds, accounting for 99.99% of the whole extract. Ethanol extraction yielded the highest percentage of extract (4.34%), followed by distilled water (3.22%), ethyl acetate (3.17%), and dichloromethane (2.39%). The flower extract of P. hysterophorus demonstrated significant antioxidant and insecticidal activities, accompanied by the presence of valuable chemical compounds responsible for these biological effects, making it a promising alternative to synthetic agents. These findings provide a novel and fundamental basis for further exploration in purifying the chemical compounds for their biological activities.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Schaefer N, Bishop MJ, Bugnot AB, et al (2024)

Influence of habitat features on the colonisation of native and non-indigenous species.

Marine environmental research, 198:106498.

Marine artificial structures provide substrates on which organisms can settle and grow. These structures facilitate establishment and spread of non-indigenous species, in part due to their distinct physical features (substrate material, movement, orientation) compared to natural habitat analogues such as rocky shores, and because following construction, they have abundant resources (space) for species to colonise. Despite the perceived importance of these habitat features, few studies have directly compared distributions of native and non-indigenous species or considered how functional identity and associated environmental preferences drive associations. We undertook a meta-analysis to investigate whether colonisation of native and non-indigenous species varies between artificial structures with features most closely resembling natural habitats (natural substrates, fixed structures, surfaces oriented upwards) and those least resembling natural habitats (artificial materials, floating structures, downfacing or vertical surfaces), or whether functional identity is the primary driver of differences. Analyses were done at global and more local (SE Australia) scales to investigate if patterns held regardless of scale. Our results suggest that functional group (i.e., algae, ascidians. barnacles, bryozoans, polychaetes) rather than species classification (i.e., native or non-indigenous) are the main drivers of differences in communities between different types of artificial structures. Specifically, there were differences in the abundance of ascidians, barnacles, and polychaetes between (1) upfacing and downfacing/vertical surfaces, and (2) floating and fixed substrates. When differences were detected, taxa were most abundant on features least resembling natural habitats. Results varied between global and SE Australian analyses, potentially due to reduced variability across studies in the SE Australian dataset. Thus, the functional group and associated preferences of the highest threat NIS in the area should be considered in design strategies (e.g., ecological engineering) to limit their establishment on newly built infrastructure.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Chen L, Cai M, Zhang Q, et al (2024)

Why can Mikania micrantha cover trees quickly during invasion?.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):511.

The invasion of Mikania micrantha by climbing and covering trees has rapidly caused the death of many shrubs and trees, seriously endangering forest biodiversity. In this study, M. micrantha seedlings were planted together with local tree species (Cryptocarya concinna) to simulate the process of M. micrantha climbing under the forest. We found that the upper part of the M. micrantha stem lost its support after climbing to the top of the tree, grew in a turning and creeping manner, and then grew branches rapidly to cover the tree canopy. Then, we simulated the branching process through turning treatment. We found that a large number of branches had been formed near the turning part of the M. micrantha stem (TP). Compared with the upper part of the main stem (UP), the contents of plant hormones (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin), soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) were significantly accumulated at TP. Further combining the transcriptome data of different parts of the main stem under erect or turning treatment, a hypothetical regulation model to illustrate how M. micrantha can quickly cover trees was proposed based on the regulation of sugars and hormones on plant branching; that is, the lack of support after ascending the top of the tree led to turning growth of the main stem, and the enhancement of sugars and T6P levels in the TP may first drive the release of nearby dormant buds. Plant hormone accumulation may regulate the entrance of buds into sustained growth and maintain the elongation of branches together with sugars to successfully covering trees.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Dessart M, Aguiar JMRBV, Tabacchi E, et al (2024)

Color-advertising strategies of invasive plants through the bee eye.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1393204.

Invasive plants represent a significant global challenge as they compete with native plants for limited resources such as space, nutrients and pollinators. Here, we focused on four invasive species that are widely spread in the French Pyrenees, Buddleja davidii, Reynoutria japonica, Spiraea japonica and Impatiens glandulifera, and analyzed their visual advertisement signals with respect to those displayed by their surrounding native species using a perceptual approach based on the neural mechanisms of bee vision given that bees are regular pollinators of these plants. We collected 543 spectral reflections from the 4 invasive species, and 66 native species and estimated achromatic and chromatic similarities to the bee eye. R. japonica, S. japonica and B. davidii were inconspicuous against the foliage background and could be hardly discriminated in terms of color from their surrounding native plants. These characteristics promote generalization, potentially attracting pollinators foraging on similar native species. Two morphs of I. glandulifera were both highly salient in chromatic and achromatic terms and different from their surrounding native species. This distinctive identity facilitates detection and learning in association with rich nectar. While visual signals are not the only sensory cue accounting for invasive-plant success, our study reveals new elements for understanding biological invasion processes from the perspective of pollinator perceptual processes.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Anastasiu P, Miu IV, Gavrilidis AA, et al (2024)

Alien plant species distribution in Romania: a nationwide survey following the implementation of the EU Regulation on Invasive Alien Species.

Biodiversity data journal, 12:e119539.

BACKGROUND: Biological invasions pose an increasing risk to nature, social security and the economy, being ranked amongst the top five threats to biodiversity. Managing alien and invasive species is a priority for the European Union, as outlined in the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 and the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. Alien plant species are acknowledged to impact the economy and biodiversity; thus, analysing the distribution of such species provides valuable inputs for the management and decision-making processes. The database presented in the current study is the first consolidated checklist of alien plant species that are present in Romania, both of European Union concern and of national interest. This database complements a prior published distribution, based only on records from literature, bringing new information regarding the occurrence of alien plants in Romania, as revealed by a nationwide field survey. We consider this database a valuable instrument for managing biological invasions at both national and regional levels, as it can be utilised in further research studies and in drafting management and action plans, assisting stakeholders in making informed decisions and implementing management actions.

NEW INFORMATION: We present the results of the first nationwide survey of alien plant species in Romania, conducted between 2019 and 2022, in the framework of a national project coordinated by the Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests and the University of Bucharest. The present database complements and updates the database published by Sirbu et. al (2022), which included occurrence records published until 2019. The new database includes 98323 occurrence records for 396 alien plant species in 77 families, with most species belonging to the Asteraceae family. One alien plant species in our database, the black locust Robiniapseudoacacia L., had more than 10,000 occurrence records. The distribution database also includes information on newly-reported invasive alien plant species of European Union concern in Romania (i.e. the floating primrose-willow Ludwigiapeploides (Kunth) P.H.Raven) and documents the presence of plants in 44 additional families compared to Sirbu et al. (2022). Each entry includes information on species taxonomy, location, year, person who recorded and identified the alien plant, geographical coordinates and taxon rank.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Senior RA, Bagwyn R, Leng D, et al (2024)

Global shortfalls in documented actions to conserve biodiversity.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

Threatened species are by definition species that are in need of assistance. In the absence of suitable conservation interventions, they are likely to disappear soon[1]. There is limited understanding of how and where conservation interventions are applied globally, or how well they work[2,3]. Here, using information from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List and other global databases, we find that for species at risk from three of the biggest drivers of biodiversity loss-habitat loss, overexploitation for international trade and invasive species[4]-many appear to lack the appropriate types of conservation interventions. Indeed, although there has been substantial recent expansion of the protected area network, we still find that 91% of threatened species have insufficient representation of their habitats within protected areas. Conservation interventions are not implemented uniformly across different taxa and regions and, even when present, have infrequently led to substantial improvements in the status of species. For 58% of the world's threatened terrestrial species, we find conservation interventions to be notably insufficient or absent. We cannot determine whether such species are truly neglected, or whether efforts to recover them are not included in major conservation databases. If they are indeed neglected, the outlook for many of the world's threatened species is grim without more and better targeted action.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Incorvaia D (2024)

How the German cockroach conquered the world.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 384(6698):838.

DNA study implicates medieval warfare and colonial trade.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Waymire E, Samake JN, Gunarathna I, et al (2024)

A decade of invasive Anopheles stephensi sequence-based identification: toward a global standard.

Trends in parasitology, 40(6):477-486.

Anopheles stephensi is an invasive malaria vector in Africa that has been implicated in malaria outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. In 10 years, it has been detected as far east as Djibouti and as far west as Ghana. Early detections were mostly incidental, but now active surveillance in Africa has been updated to include An. stephensi. Morphological identification of An. stephensi from native vectors can be challenging, thus, sequence-based assays have been used to confirm identification during initial detections. Methods of sequence-based identification of An. stephensi have varied across initial detections to date. Here, we summarize initial detections, make suggestions that could provide a standardized approach, and discuss how sequences can inform additional genomic studies beyond species identification.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Barmentlo NWG, Meirmans PG, Stiver WH, et al (2024)

Natural selection on feralization genes contributed to the invasive spread of wild pigs throughout the United States.

Molecular ecology, 33(12):e17383.

Despite a long presence in the contiguous United States (US), the distribution of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa × domesticus) has expanded rapidly since the 1980s, suggesting a more recent evolutionary shift towards greater invasiveness. Contemporary populations of wild pigs represent exoferal hybrid descendants of domestic pigs and European wild boar, with such hybridization expected to enrich genetic diversity and increase the adaptive potential of populations. Our objective was to characterize how genetic enrichment through hybridization increases the invasiveness of populations by identifying signals of selection and the ancestral origins of selected loci. Our study focused on invasive wild pigs within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which represents a hybrid population descendent from the admixture of established populations of feral pigs and an introduction of European wild boar to North America. Accordingly, we genotyped 881 wild pigs with multiple high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. We found 233 markers under putative selection spread over 79 regions across 16 out of 18 autosomes, which contained genes involved in traits affecting feralization. Among these, genes were found to be related to skull formation and neurogenesis, with two genes, TYRP1 and TYR, also encoding for crucial melanogenesis enzymes. The most common haplotypes associated with regions under selection for the Great Smoky Mountains population were also common among other populations throughout the region, indicating a key role of putatively selective variants in the fitness of invasive populations. Interestingly, many of these haplotypes were absent among European wild boar reference genotypes, indicating feralization through genetic adaptation.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Chiba M, S Chiba (2024)

Hidden invasiveness of non-native Schlegel's Japanese gecko (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) and three-way competition among natives and non-natives in Japan.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we investigated the invasiveness of Gekko japonicus, a prevalent gecko species in Japan and an ancient non-native species, focusing on its competition with both the undescribed endemic Gekko species (referred to as Nishiyamori in Japanese) and G. hokouensis. These species are co-distributed with G. japonicus, leading us to hypothesize that G. japonicus was invasive upon its initial introduction. We employed niche analysis and population genetics through ddRAD-seq to assess the historical invasiveness of G. japonicus by comparing regions with and without interspecies competition. Our niche analysis across the Goto Islands, Hiradojima Island (colonized by G. japonicus) and the Koshikishima Islands (not colonized by G. japonicus) indicated that endemic Gekko sp. alter their microhabitat usage in response to invasions by other gecko species, despite having similar suitable habitats and microhabitat preferences. Population genetic analysis revealed significant population declines in Gekko sp. within areas of introduced competition, in contrast to stable populations in areas without such competition. These findings suggest a tripartite competitive relationship among the gecko species, with G. japonicus and G. hokouensis invasions restricting the distribution of the endemic Gekko sp. Consequently, G. japonicus may have historically acted as an invasive species. Acknowledging the historical dynamics of current biodiversity is crucial for addressing complex ecological issues and making informed conservation decisions.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Kutsokon Y, Bielikova O, Pekárik L, et al (2024)

The expansion of invasive species to the East: new sites of the bullheads (genus Ameiurus Rafinesque 1820) in Ukraine with morphological and genetic identification.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

This study confirms the extended distribution of two invasive species of the genus Ameiurus in Ukraine. Specifically, A. melas is recorded for the first time in the Southern Buh basin and A. nebulosus has expanded further eastward within the Dnipro basin. Material collected in 2019 and 2022 was identified by morphological features and confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. The most reliable morphological characters for distinguishing these two species include anal-fin membrane pigmentation (light or black), gill raker count (fewer or more than 16), and serrations on the pectoral-fin spine (well-developed along the full length or small, absent near the tip). The analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcoding marker identified all samples from the Dnipro Basin (Tnia and Velykyi Luh localities) as A. nebulosus, while all specimens from the Vinnytsia region within the Southern Buh basin (Sotskoho and Vyshenske lakes) were attributed to A. melas. The maximum-likelihood analysis revealed clearly separated clades with high bootstrap support (>75%), strongly supporting the presence of the two separate species. This study suggests the potential for further eastward expansion of both species within Ukraine: A. nebulosus in the northern direction and A. melas in the southern direction.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Gjoni V, Marchessaux G, Glazier DS, et al (2024)

Metabolic scaling of an invasive mussel depends on temperature and chemical cues from an invasive predator.

Biology letters, 20(6):20240066.

Metabolism drives various biological processes, potentially influencing the ecological success and evolutionary fitness of species. Understanding diverse metabolic rates is fundamental in biology. Mechanisms underlying adaptation to factors like temperature and predation pressure remain unclear. Our study explored the role of temperature and predation pressure in shaping the metabolic scaling of an invasive mussel species (Brachidontes pharaonis). Specifically, we performed laboratory-based experiments to assess the effects of phenotypic plasticity on the metabolic scaling by exposing the mussels to water conditions with and without predator cues from another invasive species (the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus) across various temperature regimes. We found that temperature effects on metabolic scaling of the invasive mussels are mediated by the presence of chemical cues of an invasive predator, the blue crab. Investigating temperature-predator interactions underscores the importance of studying the ecological effects of global warming. Our research advances our understanding of how environmental factors jointly impact physiological processes.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Matos A, Gomes-Dos-Santos A, Teixeira A, et al (2024)

The complete mitochondrial genome of Potomida acarnanica (Kobelt, 1879).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 9(6):696-700.

Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) play essential roles in the well-functioning of ecosystems, even providing essential services to humans. However, these bivalves face numerous threats (e.g. habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change) which have already led to the extinction of many populations. This underscores the need to fully characterize the biology of these species, particularly those, such as Potomida acarnanica, that are still poorly studied. This study presents the first mitogenome of P. acarnanica (Kobelt, 1879), an endemic species of Greece with a distribution limited to only two river basins. The mitochondrial genome of a P. acarnanica specimen, collected at Pamisos River (Peloponnese, Greece), was sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. This mitogenome (16,101 bp) is characterized by 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The size of this mitogenome is within the range of another Potomida mitogenome already published for the species Potomida littoralis. In the phylogenetic inference, P. acarnanica was recovered as monophyletic with P. littoralis mitogenome in the Lamprotulini tribe, as expected. This genomic resource will assist in genetically characterizing the species, potentially benefiting future evolutionary studies and conservation efforts.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Song W, Cao LJ, Chen JC, et al (2024)

Chromosome-level genome assembly of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

Scientific data, 11(1):582.

The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a global invasive species that causes increasing damage by direct feeding on crops and transmission of plant viruses. Here, we assemble a previously published scaffold-level genome into a chromosomal level using Hi-C sequencing technology. The assembled genome has a size of 302.58 Mb, with a contig N50 of 1533 bp, scaffold N50 of 19.071 Mb, and BUSCO completeness of 97.8%. All contigs are anchored on 15 chromosomes. A total of 16,312 protein-coding genes are annotated in the genome with a BUSCO completeness of 95.2%. The genome contains 492 non-coding RNA, and 0.41% of interspersed repeats. In conclusion, this high-quality genome provides a convenient and high-quality resource for understanding the ecology, genetics, and evolution of thrips.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Zhou Y, Guo S, Wang T, et al (2024)

Modeling the pest-pathogen threats in a warming world for the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) and its symbiotic fungus (Leptographium procerum).

Pest management science, 80(7):3423-3435.

BACKGROUND: Dendroctonus valens along with its symbiotic fungi have caused unprecedented damage to pines in China. Leptographium procerum, its primary symbiotic fungus, facilitates the invasion and colonization of the pest, thereby aggravating ecological threats. Assessing shifts in the niches and ranges of D. valens and its symbiotic fungus could provide a valuable basis for pest control. Here, we conducted niche comparisons between native and invasive populations of D. valens. Then, we employed standard ecological niche models and ensembles of small models to predict the potential distributions of D. valens and L. procerum under climate change conditions and to estimate areas of overlap.

RESULTS: The niche of invasive population of D. valens in Chinese mainland only occupied a limited portion of the niche of native population in North America, leaving a substantial native niche unfilled and without any niche expansion. The suitable regions for D. valens are predicted in central and southern North America and central and northeastern Chinese mainland. The overlap with the suitable regions of L. procerum included eastern North America and the central and northeastern Chinese mainland under historical climatic scenarios. The regions susceptible to their symbiotic damage will shift northward in response to future climate change.

CONCLUSIONS: Projected distributions of D. valens and its symbiotic fungus, along with areas vulnerable to their symbiotic damage, provide essential insights for devising strategies against this association. Additionally, our study contributes to comprehending how biogeographic approaches aid in estimating potential risks of pest-pathogen interactions in forests within a warming world. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Neta D, Abu-Nassar J, Cafri D, et al (2024)

Ambrosia grayi as a new alien causal species in Israel: plant biology and chemical management.

Pest management science, 80(7):3436-3444.

BACKGROUND: Ambrosia grayi is a perennial weed native to northern Mexico, which can also be found in the Great Plains of the US. Outside the Americas, A. grayi has only been documented in Israel, where it is currently categorized as a casual species at advanced eradication stages. Here, we studied the plant biology and chemical weed management options of A. grayi.

RESULTS: Only large achenes of A. grayi (~5% of all achenes) contain seeds; moreover, the viability of seeds extracted from large achenes was ~25%. Examination of plant anatomy revealed that underground vegetative segments show an anatomical structure of stems (rhizomes) with anomalous secondary growth. The optimal (night/day) temperature for the emergence of A. grayi rhizomes was 20/30 °C, and the emergence rate increased under elevated temperatures. Emergence may occur at different soil moisture content (25-60%); rhizomes were able to emerge even after 1 month of drought conditions (20%, 25% and 30%). Herbicide combinations, such as fluroxypyr + glufosinate, fluroxypyr + glyphosate, and glyphosate + saflufenacil + surfactant, were tested under quarantine conditions and showed high efficacy for the control of A. grayi. However, the efficiency of these treatments was highly correlated with plant growth stage.

CONCLUSION: In Israel, the spread of A. grayi occurs mainly via rhizomes that can emerge under a wide range of temperatures and soil moisture conditions. Data regarding herbicide efficacy will aid in improving the eradication efforts taken by Israel's Plant Protection and Inspection Services. © 2024 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Snow NP, Glow MP, Foster JA, et al (2024)

Seasonal efficacy and risks from a sodium nitrite toxic bait for wild pigs.

Pest management science, 80(7):3227-3237.

BACKGROUND: Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive and destructive species throughout many regions of the world. A sodium nitrite (SN) toxic bait is currently used in Australia and being developed for use in the US and other countries to combat the increasing populations of wild pigs. In the US, efforts to modify the Australian SN-toxic bait and baiting strategy have focused on reducing issues with non-target animals accessing the SN-toxic bait spilled outside of bait stations by wild pigs. We tested and compared modifications for efficacy (with wild pigs) and hazards (with non-targets) in north-central Texas, US during summer (July 2021) and winter (March 2023) seasons.

RESULTS: During both seasons we found that visitation to the bait sites declined 94-99% after deploying the SN-toxic bait, and we found a total of 106 dead wild pigs, indicating considerable lethality for the local population. Prior to deploying the SN-toxic bait, Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared wild pigs were more likely to cease visiting bait sites during summer when foraging resources were abundant. Farrowing decreased visitation to bait sites during the winter. We observed no dead non-targets during summer; winter results showed an average of 5.2 dead migrating birds per bait site (primarily Dark-eye juncos [Junco hyemalis]) from consuming SN-toxic bait spilled by wild pigs. The presence and winter-foraging behaviors of migrating birds appeared to increase hazards for those species.

CONCLUSION: The current formulation of SN-toxic bait was effective at removing wild pigs during both seasons, however it is clear that different baiting strategies may be required in winter when migrating birds are present. Baiting wild pigs prior to farrowing during the winter, and during drier summers, may further improve efficacy of the bait. Reducing hazards to non-targets could be achieved by refining the SN-toxic bait or modifying bait stations to decrease the potential for spillage, decreasing environmental persistence if spilled, or decreasing attractiveness to migrating birds. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Yang Y, Liu Y, Chen F, et al (2024)

Gap-free chromosome-level genomes of male and female spotted longbarbel catfish Hemibagrus guttatus.

Scientific data, 11(1):572.

Hemibagrus guttatus, also named as spotted longbarbel catfish, is an economical fish in China. However, their gender cannot be easily distinguished from their appearance, which largely impedes their artificial breeding. Therefore, we provided two gap-free chromosome-level genomes of male and female spotted longbarbel catfish by combining wtdbg2, LR_Gapcloser and TGS-GapCloser assembly approaches with Hi-C data and accurate Pacbio HiFi long-reads. We assembled 30 chromosomes without any gap. Their genome sizes are approximately 749.1 Mb and 747.8 Mb of male and female individuals. The completeness results of BUSCO evaluation show about 94.2% and 95.0%, representing a high-level of completeness of both genomes. We also obtained 35,277 and 34,571 protein-coding gene sets from male and female individuals. Both available gap-free chromosome-level genomes of H. guttatus will provide excellent references for resequencing of male and female individuals to identify accurate markers for distinguishing gender of this fish.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Beall MC, Barney JN, Welbaum GE, et al (2024)

Implications of germination tolerances on invasion potential of Arthraxon hispidus.

PloS one, 19(6):e0303638 pii:PONE-D-23-04671.

Arthraxon hispidus is an introduced, rapidly spreading, and newly invasive grass in the eastern United States, yet little is known about the foundational biology of this aggressive invader. Germination responses to environmental factors including salinity, pH, osmotic potential, temperature, and burial depth were investigated to better understand its germination niche. Seeds from six populations in the Mid-Atlantic US germinated 95% with an average mean time to germination of 3.42 days of imbibition in the dark at 23°C. Germination occurred across a temperature range of 8-37°C and a pH range of 5-10 (≥83%), suggesting that neither pH nor temperature will limit germination in many environments. Arthraxon hispidus germination occurred in high salinity (342 mM NaCl) and osmotic potentials as low as -0.83MPa. The NaCl concentration required to reduce germination by 50% exceeded salinity concentrations found in soil and some brackish water saltmarsh systems. While drought adversely affects A. hispidus, 50% germination occurred at osmotic potentials ranging from -0.25 to -0.67 MPa. Given the climatic conditions of North America, drought stress is unlikely to restrict germination in large regions. Finally, emergence greatly decreased with burial depth. Emergence was reduced to 45% at 1-2 cm burial depths, and 0% at 8 cm. Emergence depths in concert with adequate moisture, germination across a range of temperatures, and rapid germination suggests A. hispidus' seed bank may be short-lived in moist environments, but further investigation is warranted. Given the broad abiotic tolerances of A. hispidus and a widespread native range, A. hispidus has the potential to germinate in novel territories beyond its currently observed invaded range.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Albano PG, Hong Y, Steger J, et al (2024)

New records of non-indigenous species from the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Crustacea, Mollusca), with a revision of genus Isognomon (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

PeerJ, 12:e17425.

We report new data on non-indigenous invertebrates from the Mediterranean Sea (four ostracods and 20 molluscs), including five new records for the basin: the ostracods Neomonoceratina iniqua, Neomonoceratina aff. mediterranea, Neomonoceratina cf. entomon, Loxoconcha cf. gisellae (Arthropoda: Crustacea)-the first records of non-indigenous ostracods in the Mediterranean-and the bivalve Striarca aff. symmetrica (Mollusca). Additionally, we report for the first time Electroma vexillum from Israel, and Euthymella colzumensis, Joculator problematicus, Hemiliostraca clandestina, Pyrgulina nana, Pyrgulina microtuber, Turbonilla cangeyrani, Musculus aff. viridulus and Isognomon bicolor from Cyprus. We also report the second record of Fossarus sp. and of Cerithiopsis sp. cf. pulvis in the Mediterranean Sea, the first live collected specimens of Oscilla galilae from Cyprus and the northernmost record of Gari pallida in Israel (and the Mediterranean). Moreover, we report the earliest records of Rugalucina angela, Ervilia scaliola and Alveinus miliaceus in the Mediterranean Sea, backdating their first occurrence in the basin by 3, 5 and 7 years, respectively. We provide new data on the presence of Spondylus nicobaricus and Nudiscintilla aff. glabra in Israel. Finally, yet importantly, we use both morphological and molecular approaches to revise the systematics of the non-indigenous genus Isognomon in the Mediterranean Sea, showing that two species currently co-occur in the basin: the Caribbean I. bicolor, distributed in the central and eastern Mediterranean, and the Indo-Pacific I. aff. legumen, at present reported only from the eastern Mediterranean and whose identity requires a more in-depth taxonomic study. Our work shows the need of taxonomic expertise and investigation, the necessity to avoid the unfounded sense of confidence given by names in closed nomenclature when the NIS belong to taxa that have not enjoyed ample taxonomic work, and the necessity to continue collecting samples-rather than relying on visual censuses and bio-blitzes-to enable accurate detection of non-indigenous species.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Sikazwe G, Yocgo REE, Landi P, et al (2024)

Current and future scenarios of suitability and expansion of cassava brown streak disease, Bemisia tabaci species complex, and cassava planting in Africa.

PeerJ, 12:e17386.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is among the most important staple crops globally, with an imperative role in supporting the Sustainable Development Goal of 'Zero hunger'. In sub-Saharan Africa, it is cultivated mainly by millions of subsistence farmers who depend directly on it for their socio-economic welfare. However, its yield in some regions has been threatened by several diseases, especially the cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). Changes in climatic conditions enhance the risk of the disease spreading to other planting regions. Here, we characterise the current and future distribution of cassava, CBSD and whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex in Africa, using an ensemble of four species distribution models (SDMs): boosted regression trees, maximum entropy, generalised additive model, and multivariate adaptive regression splines, together with 28 environmental covariates. We collected 1,422 and 1,169 occurrence records for cassava and Bemisia tabaci species complex from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and 750 CBSD occurrence records from published literature and systematic surveys in East Africa. Our results identified isothermality as having the highest contribution to the current distribution of cassava, while elevation was the top predictor of the current distribution of Bemisia tabaci species complex. Cassava harvested area and precipitation of the driest month contributed the most to explain the current distribution of CBSD outbreaks. The geographic distributions of these target species are also expected to shift under climate projection scenarios for two mid-century periods (2041-2060 and 2061-2080). Our results indicate that major cassava producers, like Cameron, Ivory Coast, Ghana, and Nigeria, are at greater risk of invasion of CBSD. These results highlight the need for firmer agricultural management and climate-change mitigation actions in Africa to combat new outbreaks and to contain the spread of CBSD.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Carter S, Mills C, Hao Z, et al (2024)

Spatial prioritization for widespread invasive species control: Trade-offs between current impact and future spread.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Spatially explicit prioritization of invasive species control is a complex issue, requiring consideration of trade-offs between immediate and future benefits. This study aimed to prioritize management efforts to account for current and future threats from widespread invasions and examine the strength of the trade-off between these different management goals. As a case study, we identified spatially explicit management priorities for the widespread invasion of introduced willow into riparian and wetland habitats across a 102,145-km[2] region in eastern Australia. In addition to targeting places where willow threatens biodiversity now, a second set of management goals was to limit reinfestation and further spread that could occur via two different mechanisms (downstream and by wind). A model of likely willow distribution across the region was combined with spatial data for biodiversity (native vegetation, threatened species and communities), ecological conditions, management costs, and two potential dispersal layers. We used systematic conservation planning software (Zonation) to prioritize where willow management should be focussed across more than 100,000 catchments for a range of different scenarios that reflected different weights between management goals. For willow invasion, we found that we could prioritize willow management to reduce the future threat of dispersal downstream with little reduction in the protection of biodiversity. However, accounting for future threats from wind dispersal resulted in a stronger trade-off with protection of threatened biodiversity. The strongest trade-off was observed when both dispersal mechanisms were considered together. This study shows that considering current and future goals together offers the potential to substantially improve conservation outcomes for invasive species management. Our approach also informs land managers about the relative trade-offs among different management goals under different control scenarios, helping to make management decisions more transparent. This approach can be used for other widespread invasive species to help improve invasive species management decisions.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Shen S, Zheng F, Zhang W, et al (2024)

Potential distribution and ecological impacts of Acmella radicans (Jacquin) R.K. Jansen (a new Yunnan invasive species record) in China.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):494.

BACKGROUND ACMELLA RADICANS: (Jacquin) R.K. Jansen is a new invasive species record for Yunnan Province, China. Native to Central America, it has also been recently recorded invading other parts of Asia. To prevent this weed from becoming a serious issue, an assessment of its ecological impacts and potential distribution is needed. We predicted the potential distribution of A. radicans in China using the MaxEnt model and its ecological impacts on local plant communities and soil nutrients were explored. RESULTS: Simulated training using model parameters produced an area under curve value of 0.974, providing a high degree of confidence in model predictions. Environmental variables with the greatest predictive power were precipitation of wettest month, isothermality, topsoil TEB (total exchangeable bases), and precipitation seasonality, with a cumulative contribution of more than 72.70% and a cumulative permutation importance of more than 69.20%. The predicted potential suitable area of A. radicans in China is concentrated in the southern region. Projected areas of A. radicans ranked as high and moderately suitable comprised 5425 and 26,338 km[2], accounting for 0.06 and 0.27% of the Chinese mainland area, respectively. Over the 5 years of monitoring, the population density of A. radicans increased while at the same time the population density and importance values of most other plant species declined markedly. Community species richness, diversity, and evenness values significantly declined. Soil organic matter, total N, total P, available N, and available P concentrations decreased significantly with increasing plant cover of A. radicans, whereas pH, total K and available K increased. CONCLUSION: Our study was the first to show that A. radicans is predicted to expand its range in China and may profoundly affect plant communities, species diversity, and the soil environment. Early warning and monitoring of A. radicans must be pursued with greater vigilance in southern China to prevent its further spread.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Roy HE, Pauchard A, Stoett PJ, et al (2024)

Curbing the major and growing threats from invasive alien species is urgent and achievable.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Although invasive alien species have long been recognized as a major threat to nature and people, until now there has been no comprehensive global review of the status, trends, drivers, impacts, management and governance challenges of biological invasions. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Thematic Assessment Report on Invasive Alien Species and Their Control (hereafter 'IPBES invasive alien species assessment') drew on more than 13,000 scientific publications and reports in 15 languages as well as Indigenous and local knowledge on all taxa, ecosystems and regions across the globe. Therefore, it provides unequivocal evidence of the major and growing threat of invasive alien species alongside ambitious but realistic approaches to manage biological invasions. The extent of the threat and impacts has been recognized by the 143 member states of IPBES who approved the summary for policymakers of this assessment. Here, the authors of the IPBES assessment outline the main findings of the IPBES invasive alien species assessment and highlight the urgency to act now.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Yasui H, Fujiwara-Tsujii N, Kugimiya S, et al (2024)

Anoplophora glabripennis, an invasive longhorned beetle, has the potential to damage fruit trees in Japan.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12708.

Invasive Anoplophora glabripennis recently became established in Japan and has caused heavy damage to several street-tree species. Overseas, A. glabripennis infests trees of the genera Acer and Populus as common host plants, and Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus (Rosaceae), including apple, pear, and plum trees; it therefore poses a potential risk to the production of economically valuable fruits in Japan. Fruit farms in areas already invaded by A. glabripennis are now threatened with tree infestation. We aimed to determine the potential damage to major fruit species in Japan. In the laboratory, we determined if the adult beetle is attracted to the odor of each of these tree species' branches; two confirmed host plant species and five Rosaceae fruit species, as well as its feeding preferences among branches of one host plant and the five fruit trees and its oviposition preferences among them. Among the fruit species, cherry branch had the highest rate of odor orientation by males. The feeding-preference assay showed that, besides the host plant, Japanese pear was the most consumed among the fruit trees. The potential risk of A. glabripennis laying eggs on fruit-tree branches was high for Japanese pear and above zero for plum, apple, and cherry branches.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Shang L, Hu Z, Deng Y, et al (2024)

Transoceanic ships as a source of alien dinoflagellate invasions of inland freshwater ecosystems.

Harmful algae, 135:102630.

Ships' ballast water and sediments have long been linked to the global transport and expansion of invasive species and thus have become a hot research topic and administrative challenge in the past decades. The relevant concerns, however, have been mainly about the ocean-to-ocean invasion and sampling practices have been almost exclusively conducted onboard. We examined and compared the dinoflagellate cysts assemblages in 49 sediment samples collected from ballast tanks of international and domestic routes ships, washing basins associated with a ship-repair yard, Jiangyin Port (PS), and the nearby area of Yangtze River (YR) during 2017-2018. A total of 43 dinoflagellates were fully identified to species level by metabarcoding, single-cyst PCR-based sequencing, cyst germination and phylogenetic analyses, including 12 species never reported from waters of China, 14 HABs-causing, 9 toxic, and 10 not strictly marine species. Our metabarcoding and single-cyst sequencing also detected many OTUs and cysts of dinoflagellates that could not be fully identified, indicating ballast tank sediments being a risky repository of currently unrecognizable invasive species. Particularly important, 10 brackish and fresh water species of dinoflagellate cysts (such as Tyrannodinium edax) were detected from the transoceanic ships, indicating these species may function as alien species potentially invading the inland rivers and adjacent lakes if these ships conduct deballast and other practices in fresh waterbodies. Significantly higher numbers of reads and OTUs of dinoflagellates in the ballast tanks and washing basins than that in PS and YR indicate a risk of releasing cysts by ships and the associated ship-repair yards to the surrounding waters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high intra-species genetic diversity for multiple cyst species from different ballast tanks. Our work provides novel insights into the risk of bio-invasion to fresh waters conveyed in ship's ballast tank sediments and washing basins of shipyards.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Johnson NS, Lewandoski SA, Jubar AK, et al (2024)

A decade-long study demonstrates that a population of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) can be controlled by introducing sterilized males.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12689.

The release of sterilized insects to control pest populations has been used successfully during the past 6 decades, but application of the method in vertebrates has largely been overlooked or met with failure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in fish, that a small population of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus; Class Agnatha), arguably one of the most impactful invasive fish in the world, can be controlled by the release of sterilized males. Specifically, the release of high numbers of sterile males (~ 1000's) into a geographically isolated population of adult sea lamprey resulted in the first multiyear delay in pesticide treatment since treatments began during 1966. Estimates of percent reduction in recruitment of age-1 sea lamprey due to sterile male release ranged from 7 to 99.9% with the precision of the estimate being low because of substantial year-to-year variability in larval density and distribution. Additional monitoring that accounts for recruitment variability in time and space would reduce uncertainty in the degree to which sterile male release reduces recruitment rates. The results are relevant to vertebrate pest control programs worldwide, especially as technical opportunities to sterilize vertebrates and manipulate sex ratios expand.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Li H, Huang X, A Zhan (2024)

Context-dependent antioxidant defense system (ADS)-based stress memory in response to recurrent environmental challenges in congeneric invasive species.

Marine life science & technology, 6(2):315-330.

UNLABELLED: Marine ecosystems are facing escalating environmental fluctuations owing to climate change and human activities, imposing pressures on marine species. To withstand recurring environmental challenges, marine organisms, especially benthic species lacking behavioral choices to select optimal habitats, have to utilize well-established strategies such as the antioxidant defense system (ADS) to ensure their survival. Therefore, understanding of the mechanisms governing the ADS-based response is essential for gaining insights into adaptive strategies for managing environmental challenges. Here we conducted a comparative analysis of the physiological and transcriptional responses based on the ADS during two rounds of 'hypersalinity-recovery' challenges in two model congeneric invasive ascidians, Ciona robusta and C. savignyi. Our results demonstrated that C. savignyi exhibited higher tolerance and resistance to salinity stresses at the physiological level, while C. robusta demonstrated heightened responses at the transcriptional level. We observed distinct transcriptional responses, particularly in the utilization of two superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms. Both Ciona species developed physiological stress memory with elevated total SOD (T-SOD) and glutathione (GSH) responses, while only C. robusta demonstrated transcriptional stress memory. The regulatory distinctions within the Nrf2-Keap1 signalling pathway likely explain the formation disparity of transcriptional stress memory between both Ciona species. These findings support the 'context-dependent stress memory hypothesis', emphasizing the emergence of species-specific stress memory at diverse regulatory levels in response to recurrent environmental challenges. Our results enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of environmental challenge management in marine species, particularly those related to the ADS.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42995-024-00228-y.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Cao Y, Yang Y, Wang C, et al (2024)

Development and reproduction of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on six host plant species.

Journal of economic entomology pii:7686498 [Epub ahead of print].

Host plants can strongly influence the population performance of insects. Here, we investigated the development, survival, and oviposition of Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood on 6 host plants-Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Ericales: Theaceae), Rosa chinensis Jacq. (Rosales: Rosaceae), Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), Eustoma grandiflorum (Hook.) G.Don (Gentianales: Gentianaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), and constructed life tables for S. dorsalis on each plant. Significant differences in S. dorsalis development on the host species were observed. The mean developmental period from egg to adult was 11.45 ± 0.12 days, 11.24 ± 0.13 days, 12.08 ± 0.15 days, 12.28 ± 0.12 days, 12.67 ± 0.10 days, and 13.03 ± 0.11 days on C. sinensis, R. chinensis, C. annuum, E. grandiflorum, G. max, and C. sativus, respectively. Significant differences in survival of S. dorsalis were observed, namely, C. sinensis ≈ R. chinensis > E. grandiflorum ≈ C. annuum > G. max > C. sativus. The highest and lowest fecundities of S. dorsalis were recorded on R. chinensis (60.44 ± 1.53) and C. sativus (28.64 ± 1.02), respectively. Both of the net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of S. dorsalis were the highest on R. chinensis, with the values of 27.63 ± 0.58 and 0.142 ± 0.002, respectively; while the lowest on C. sativus, with the values of 8.81 ± 0.12 and 0.092 ± 0.003, respectively. Thus, R. chinensis was found to be the most suitable host, but C. sativus was the least suitable, for population development of S. dorsalis. Our results provide important information for the key control of S. dorsalis among different host plants.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Case MF, Davies KW, Boyd CS, et al (2024)

Cross-scale analysis reveals interacting predictors of annual and perennial cover in Northern Great Basin rangelands.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 34(4):e2953.

Exotic annual grass invasion is a widespread threat to the integrity of sagebrush ecosystems in Western North America. Although many predictors of annual grass prevalence and native perennial vegetation have been identified, there remains substantial uncertainty about how regional-scale and local-scale predictors interact to determine vegetation heterogeneity, and how associations between vegetation and cattle grazing vary with environmental context. Here, we conducted a regionally extensive, one-season field survey across burned and unburned, grazed, public lands in Oregon and Idaho, with plots stratified by aspect and distance to water within pastures to capture variation in environmental context and grazing intensity. We analyzed regional-scale and local-scale patterns of annual grass, perennial grass, and shrub cover, and examined to what extent plot-level variation was contingent on pasture-level predictions of site favorability. Annual grasses were widespread at burned and unburned sites alike, contrary to assumptions of annual grasses depending on fire, and more common at lower elevations and higher temperatures regionally, as well as on warmer slopes locally. Pasture-level grazing pressure interacted with temperature such that annual grass cover was associated positively with grazing pressure at higher temperatures but associated negatively with grazing pressure at lower temperatures. This suggests that pasture-level temperature and grazing relationships with annual grass abundance are complex and context dependent, although the causality of this relationship deserves further examination. At the plot-level within pastures, annual grass cover did not vary with grazing metrics, but perennial cover did; perennial grasses, for example, had lower cover closer to water sources, but higher cover at higher dung counts within a pasture, suggesting contrasting interpretations of these two grazing proxies. Importantly for predictions of ecosystem response to temperature change, we found that pasture-level and plot-level favorability interacted: perennial grasses had a higher plot-level cover on cooler slopes, and this difference across topography was starkest in pastures that were less favorable for perennial grasses regionally. Understanding the mechanisms behind cross-scale interactions and contingent responses of vegetation to grazing in these increasingly invaded ecosystems will be critical to land management in a changing world.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Rohal CB, Duncan B, Follstad Shah J, et al (2024)

Targeted grazing reduces a widespread wetland plant invader with minimal nutrient impacts, yet native community recovery is limited.

Journal of environmental management, 362:121168 pii:S0301-4797(24)01154-X [Epub ahead of print].

Targeted grazing to control undesirable plant species is increasingly of interest across a diversity of ecosystems, particularly as an alternative or complement to widely used herbicides. However, there are limited comprehensive evaluations of targeted grazing that evaluate both invasive species management effectiveness and potential negative effects on the ecosystem. Phragmites australis, a tall-statured, dense perennial invasive grass from Eurasia, is a pervasive problem in wetlands across the North American continent. As with many invasive species where management has historically relied on herbicides and resistance is a growing concern, land managers seek viable alternatives that have minimal negative ecosystem impacts. Grazing has been used for millennia to manage native Phragmites in Europe. Similarly, in its invasive range within North America, small-scale studies suggest Phragmites may be suppressed by grazers. Yet, the effectiveness of grazing at large scales and its effects on broader ecosystem properties remain largely unknown. We evaluated the influence of targeted grazing on vegetation, soil nutrients, and water nutrients over two years in large plots (∼300x the size of previous studies). We also tested the effects of mowing, a treatment that can be used to facilitate grazer access to large, dense Phragmites stands. In line with our predictions, we found that cattle grazing effectively suppressed invasive Phragmites over two years. Mowing reduced litter, and moderately reduced standing dead Phragmites, both of which suppress native plant germination in this system. However, these reductions in Phragmites were not accompanied by indications of native plant community recovery, as we had optimistically predicted. Despite the potential for grazing to reduce nutrient sequestration by plants and fertilize soils, we were surprised to find no clear negative effects of grazing on nutrient mobilization to groundwater or floodwater. Taken together, our findings indicate that targeted grazing, when implemented at broad scales over short time frames, is effective at achieving invasive plant management goals without sizable nutrient impacts. However, additional steps will be needed to achieve the restoration of diverse, robust native plant communities.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Nota A, Bertolino S, Tiralongo F, et al (2024)

Adaptation to bioinvasions: When does it occur?.

Global change biology, 30(6):e17362.

The presence of alien species represents a major cause of habitat degradation and biodiversity loss worldwide, constituting a critical environmental challenge of our time. Despite sometimes experiencing reduced propagule pressure, leading to a reduced genetic diversity and an increased chance of inbreeding depression, alien invaders are often able to thrive in the habitats of introduction, giving rise to the so-called "genetic paradox" of biological invasions. The adaptation of alien species to the new habitats is therefore a complex aspect of biological invasions, encompassing genetic, epigenetic, and ecological processes. Albeit numerous studies and reviews investigated the mechanistic foundation of the invaders' success, and aimed to solve the genetic paradox, still remains a crucial oversight regarding the temporal context in which adaptation takes place. Given the profound knowledge and management implications, this neglected aspect of invasion biology should receive more attention when examining invaders' ability to thrive in the habitats of introduction. Here, we discuss the adaptation mechanisms exhibited by alien species with the purpose of highlighting the timing of their occurrence during the invasion process. We analyze each stage of the invasion separately, providing evidence that adaptation mechanisms play a role in all of them. However, these mechanisms vary across the different stages of invasion, and are also influenced by other factors, such as the transport speed, the reproduction type of the invader, and the presence of human interventions. Finally, we provide insights into the implications for management, and identify knowledge gaps, suggesting avenues for future research that can shed light on species adaptability. This, in turn, will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of biological invasions.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Blackburn GS, Keeling CI, Prunier J, et al (2024)

Genetics of flight in spongy moths (Lymantria dispar ssp.): functionally integrated profiling of a complex invasive trait.

BMC genomics, 25(1):541.

BACKGROUND: Flight can drastically enhance dispersal capacity and is a key trait defining the potential of exotic insect species to spread and invade new habitats. The phytophagous European spongy moths (ESM, Lymantria dispar dispar) and Asian spongy moths (ASM; a multi-species group represented here by L. d. asiatica and L. d. japonica), are globally invasive species that vary in adult female flight capability-female ASM are typically flight capable, whereas female ESM are typically flightless. Genetic markers of flight capability would supply a powerful tool for flight profiling of these species at any intercepted life stage. To assess the functional complexity of spongy moth flight and to identify potential markers of flight capability, we used multiple genetic approaches aimed at capturing complementary signals of putative flight-relevant genetic divergence between ESM and ASM: reduced representation genome-wide association studies, whole genome sequence comparisons, and developmental transcriptomics. We then judged the candidacy of flight-associated genes through functional analyses aimed at addressing the proximate demands of flight and salient features of the ecological context of spongy moth flight evolution.

RESULTS: Candidate gene sets were typically non-overlapping across different genetic approaches, with only nine gene annotations shared between any pair of approaches. We detected an array of flight-relevant functional themes across gene sets that collectively suggest divergence in flight capability between European and Asian spongy moth lineages has coincided with evolutionary differentiation in multiple aspects of flight development, execution, and surrounding life history. Overall, our results indicate that spongy moth flight evolution has shaped or been influenced by a large and functionally broad network of traits.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a suite of flight-associated genes in spongy moths suited to exploration of the genetic architecture and evolution of flight, or validation for flight profiling purposes. This work illustrates how complementary genetic approaches combined with phenotypically targeted functional analyses can help to characterize genetically complex traits.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Karlson AML, Kautsky N, Granberg M, et al (2024)

Resource partitioning of a Mexican clam in species-poor Baltic Sea sediments indicates the existence of a vacant trophic niche.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12527.

Invasive species are often generalists that can take advantage of formerly unexploited resources. The existence of such vacant niches is more likely in species-poor systems like the Baltic Sea. The suspension feeding wedge clam, Rangia cuneata, native to estuarine environments in the Gulf of Mexico, was sighted for the first time in the southeastern Baltic in 2010 and a few years later in the northern Baltic along the Swedish coast. To explore possible competition for food resources between R. cuneata and the three native clams inhabiting Baltic shallow soft bottoms, stable isotope and fatty acid analyses were conducted. There was no overlap between R. cuneata and any of the native species in either stable isotope or fatty acid niches. This suggests efficient partitioning of resources; multivariate analyses indicate that separation was driven mainly by δ[13]C and by fatty acids reflecting diatoms and cyanobacteria, respectively (e.g. 16:1ω7 and 18:3ω3). R. cuneata reflected seasonal variation in phytoplankton more than other clams reflecting higher trophic plasticity. In conclusion, the addition of R. cuneata to the Baltic shallow soft bottoms suggests the existence of a vacant trophic niche in these sediment habitats, however the long-term effects on other species and nutrient cycling requires further studies focusing on the population dynamics of R. cuneata and its impact on the Baltic Sea ecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Fisher MC, Grason EW, Stote A, et al (2024)

Invasive European green crab (Carcinus maenas) predation in a Washington State estuary revealed with DNA metabarcoding.

PloS one, 19(5):e0302518.

Predation by invasive species can threaten local ecosystems and economies. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas), one of the most widespread marine invasive species, is an effective predator associated with clam and crab population declines outside of its native range. In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, green crab has recently increased in abundance and expanded its distribution, generating concern for estuarine ecosystems and associated aquaculture production. However, regionally-specific information on the trophic impacts of invasive green crab is very limited. We compared the stomach contents of green crabs collected on clam aquaculture beds versus intertidal sloughs in Willapa Bay, Washington, to provide the first in-depth description of European green crab diet at a particularly crucial time for regional management. We first identified putative prey items using DNA metabarcoding of stomach content samples. We compared diet composition across sites using prey presence/absence and an index of species-specific relative abundance. For eight prey species, we also calibrated metabarcoding data to quantitatively compare DNA abundance between prey taxa, and to describe an 'average' green crab diet at an intertidal slough versus a clam aquaculture bed. From the stomach contents of 61 green crabs, we identified 54 unique taxa belonging to nine phyla. The stomach contents of crabs collected from clam aquaculture beds were significantly different from the stomach contents of crabs collected at intertidal sloughs. Across all sites, arthropods were the most frequently detected prey, with the native hairy shore crab (Hemigrapsus oregonensis) the single most common prey item. Of the eight species calibrated with a quantitative model, two ecologically-important native species-the sand shrimp (Crangon franciscorum) and the Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus)-had the highest average DNA abundance when detected in a stomach content sample. In addition to providing timely information on green crab diet, our research demonstrates the novel application of a recently developed model for more quantitative DNA metabarcoding. This represents another step in the ongoing evolution of DNA-based diet analysis towards producing the quantitative data necessary for modeling invasive species impacts.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Mostow RS, Barreto FS, SD Hacker (2024)

A hybrid beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria × A. breviligulata) is more productive and outcompetes its non-native parent species.

Oecologia, 205(1):81-94.

The ability of non-native species to successfully invade new ecosystems sometimes involves evolutionary processes such as hybridization. Hybridization can produce individuals with superior traits that give them a competitive advantage over their parent species, allowing for rapid spread. Here we assess growth, functional morphology, and species interactions between two non-native beachgrass species (Ammophila arenaria and A. breviligulata) and their recently discovered hybrid (A. arenaria × A. breviligulata) on the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast. We asked whether the hybrid beachgrass differs from its parent species in morphology and growth, whether it competes with its parent species, and, if so, what are the potential mechanisms of competition. Plant taxa were grown in low- and high-density monocultures and in two-way interactions in a common garden environment. We show that the hybrid grew taller and more densely, with greater total biomass, than either parent species. The hybrid was also the better competitor, resulting in the model prediction of competitive exclusion against A. breviligulata and, depending on its relative abundance, A. arenaria. The hybrid displays a mixed 'guerilla-phalanx' growth form that allows it to spread laterally and achieve high shoot densities, giving it a competitive advantage. Given the current dominance of A. breviligulata compared to A. arenaria in most of the region where these taxa co-occur, we suggest that the hybrid will grow, compete, and spread quickly with potentially widespread consequences for the two non-native Ammophila congeners and the dunes they build.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Bai Y, Hu R, Wang L, et al (2024)

Analysis on the control of the black tiger shrimp in the America from the perspective of international cooperation.

PloS one, 19(5):e0300833 pii:PONE-D-23-38997.

The invasive black tiger shrimp has caused serious ecological problems in the America. However, since it can be directly eaten or made into feed, it may be beneficial to other countries. In order to ensure ecological security, it is necessary to control the invasion of the black tiger shrimp through international cooperation. Common control modes of the black tiger shrimp include the introducing natural enemy mode, making feed mode and the "bringing to the table" mode. In order to derive the applicable scope of various control modes of the black tiger shrimp and provide suggestions for the security and sustainability of the ecological supply chain of the America and cooperative country, this article constructs three differential game models and compares and analyzes the equilibrium results obtained by the models. Finally, the study shows that the higher the price of feed and the price of black tiger shrimp, the greater the degree of control of the black tiger shrimp. If the price of the black tiger shrimp and the reputation of the America for controlling the black tiger shrimp are lower, the America can gain more benefits under the feed production mode. Otherwise, the America prefers to sell the black tiger shrimp directly, thus directly "bringing to the table". Compared with the feed production or "bringing to the table" mode, cooperative country prefer to control the black tiger shrimp flooding through the natural enemy introduction mode.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Liu H, Ye B, Zhao Z, et al (2024)

Alien species water hyacinth realizes waste into treasure: The preparation of biomass sorbent to determine benzoylurea insecticides in tea products.

Journal of separation science, 47(11):e2300730.

A fast and effective analytical method with biomass solid-phase microextraction sorbent combined with a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector was proposed for the determination of benzoylurea (BU) insecticides in tea products. The novel sorbent was prepared by activating and then carbonizing water hyacinth with a fast growth rate and low application value as raw material and showed a high specific surface area and multiple interactions with analytes, such as electrostatic action, hydrogen bonding, and π-π conjugation. After optimizing the three most important extraction parameters (pH [X1], sample loading rate [X2], and solution volume [X3]) by Box-Behnken design, the as-established analytical method showed good extraction performance: excellent recovery (80.13%-106.66%) and wide linear range (1-400 µg/L) with a determination coefficient of 0.9992-0.9999, a low limit of detection of 0.02-0.1 µg/L and the satisfactory practical application results in tea products. All these indicate that the water hyacinth-derived material has the potential as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the detection and removal of BU insecticides from tea products, and at the same time, it can also achieve the effect of rational use of biological resources, maintaining ecological balance, turning waste into treasure, and achieving industrial production.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Yu X, Tu Q, Liu J, et al (2023)

Environmental selection and evolutionary process jointly shape genomic and functional profiles of mangrove rhizosphere microbiomes.

mLife, 2(3):253-266.

Mangrove reforestation with introduced species has been an important strategy to restore mangrove ecosystem functioning. However, how such activities affect microbially driven methane (CH4), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) cycling of rhizosphere microbiomes remains unclear. To understand the effect of environmental selection and the evolutionary process on microbially driven biogeochemical cycles in native and introduced mangrove rhizospheres, we analyzed key genomic and functional profiles of rhizosphere microbiomes from native and introduced mangrove species by metagenome sequencing technologies. Compared with the native mangrove (Kandelia obovata, KO), the introduced mangrove (Sonneratia apetala, SA) rhizosphere microbiome had significantly (p < 0.05) higher average genome size (AGS) (5.8 vs. 5.5 Mb), average 16S ribosomal RNA gene copy number (3.5 vs. 3.1), relative abundances of mobile genetic elements, and functional diversity in terms of the Shannon index (7.88 vs. 7.84) but lower functional potentials involved in CH4 cycling (e.g., mcrABCDG and pmoABC), N2 fixation (nifHDK), and inorganic S cycling (dsrAB, dsrC, dsrMKJOP, soxB, sqr, and fccAB). Similar results were also observed from the recovered Proteobacterial metagenome-assembled genomes with a higher AGS and distinct functions in the introduced mangrove rhizosphere. Additionally, salinity and ammonium were identified as the main environmental drivers of functional profiles of mangrove rhizosphere microbiomes through deterministic processes. This study advances our understanding of microbially mediated biogeochemical cycling of CH4, N, and S in the mangrove rhizosphere and provides novel insights into the influence of environmental selection and evolutionary processes on ecosystem functions, which has important implications for future mangrove reforestation.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Karuppannasamy A, Azrag AGA, Vellingiri G, et al (2024)

Forecasting the future of Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India using ecological niche model.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

The Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda is the most notorious invasive pest species on maize, recently reported in India. The continuous spread of Fall armyworms to new ecological niches raises global concern. The current study is the first in India to forecast the suitability of a habitat for S. frugiperda using a maximum entropy algorithm. Predictions were made based on an analysis of the relationship between 109 occurrence records of S. frugiperda and pertinent historical, current, and predicted climatic data for the study area. The model indicated that S. frugiperda could thrive in different habitats under the current environmental circumstances, particularly in the west and south Indian states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. The model predicted that areas with higher latitudes, particularly in Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, and some portions of Telangana, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, and Madhya Pradesh, as well as some tracts of northeastern states like Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, would have highly climate-suitable conditions for S. frugiperda to occur in the future. The average AUC value was 0.852, which indicates excellent accuracy of the prediction. A Jackknife test of variables indicated that isothermality with the highest gain value was determining the potential geographic distribution of S. frugiperda. Our results will be useful for serving as an early warning tool to guide decision-making and prevent further spread toward new areas in India.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Zhang YS, Meiners SJ, Meng Y, et al (2024)

Temporal dynamics of Grime's CSR strategies in plant communities during 60 years of succession.

Ecology letters, 27(6):e14446.

Grime's competitive, stress-tolerant, ruderal (CSR) theory predicts a shift in plant communities from ruderal to stress-tolerant strategies during secondary succession. However, this fundamental tenet lacks empirical validation using long-term continuous successional data. Utilizing a 60-year longitudinal data of old-field succession, we investigated the community-level dynamics of plant strategies over time. Our findings reveal that while plant communities generally transitioned from ruderal to stress-tolerant strategies during succession, initial abandonment conditions crucially shaped early successional strategies, leading to varied strategy trajectories across different fields. Furthermore, we found a notable divergence in the CSR strategies of alien and native species over succession. Initially, alien and native species exhibited similar ruderal strategies, but in later stages, alien species exhibited higher ruderal and lower stress tolerance compared to native species. Overall, our findings underscore the applicability of Grime's predictions regarding temporal shifts in CSR strategies depending on both initial community conditions and species origin.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Schifani E, Grunicke D, Montechiarini A, et al (2024)

Alien ants spreading through Europe: Brachyponerachinensis and Nylanderiavividula in Italy.

Biodiversity data journal, 12:e123502.

The number of known alien ant species throughout Europe has been steadily increasing during the last few decades and Italy has been no exception, with four new taxa reported in the last five years. Here, we document new data on the Asian needle ant Brachyponerachinensis (Emery, 1895), an invasive alien species whose first establishment in Europe was detected in the southern Italian city of Naples in 2022 and which has now been found near Lake Como in northern Italy, representing the second European record, about 730 km distant from the first. Furthermore, we report for the first time the presence of Nylanderiavividula (Nylander, 1846) in the country, based on specimens collected both in Rome and near Lake Como. This is at least the second Nylanderia species established in the country after N.jaegerskioeldi, first reported in 2018. Unlike B.chinensis, N.vividula is not considered an ecological and health threat in the invaded range and is already known to occur in several other European countries. While only a few introduced ants in Europe are considered serious ecological, economic or health threats, the increasing circulation of several alien species and the poor ability to swiftly track their movements and detect their establishment can render management very difficult.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Eliette AS, Elodie B, Arnaud M, et al (2024)

Idiosyncratic invasion trajectories of human bacterial pathogens facing temperature disturbances in soil microbial communities.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12375.

Current knowledge about effects of disturbance on the fate of invaders in complex microbial ecosystems is still in its infancy. In order to investigate this issue, we compared the fate of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) and Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in soil microcosms. We then used environmental disturbances (freeze-thaw or heat cycles) to compare the fate of both invaders and manipulate soil microbial diversity. Population dynamics of the two pathogens was assessed over 50 days of invasion while microbial diversity was measured at times 0, 20 and 40 days. The outcome of invasion was strain-dependent and the response of the two invaders to disturbance differed. Resistance to Kp invasion was higher under the conditions where resident microbial diversity was the highest while a significant drop of diversity was linked to a higher persistence. In contrast, Lm faced stronger resistance to invasion in heat-treated microcosms where diversity was the lowest. Our results show that diversity is not a universal proxy of resistance to microbial invasion, indicating the need to properly assess other intrinsic properties of the invader, such as its metabolic repertoire, or the array of interactions between the invader and resident communities.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Rui L, Wen TY, Qiu YJ, et al (2024)

A pioneer nematode effector suppresses plant reactive oxygen species burst by interacting with the class III peroxidase.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the pathogen of pine wilt disease, which can devastate the pine forest ecosystem. Usually, plant cells generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a defensive substance or signalling molecules to resist the infection of nematodes. However, little is known about how B. xylophilus effectors mediate the plant ROS metabolism. Here, we identified a pioneer B. xylophilus Prx3-interacting effector 1 (BxPIE1) expressed in the dorsal gland cells and the intestine. Silencing of the BxPIE1 gene resulted in reduced nematode reproduction and a delay in disease progression during parasitic stages, with the upregulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PtPR-3 (class Ⅳ chitinase) and PtPR-9 (peroxidase). The protein-protein interaction assays further demonstrated that BxPIE1 interacts with a Pinus thunbergii class III peroxidase (PtPrx3), which produces H2O2 under biotic stress. The expression of BxPIE1 and PtPrx3 was upregulated during the infection stage. Furthermore, BxPIE1 effectively inhibited H2O2 generating from class III peroxidase and ascorbate can recover the virulence of siBxPIE1-treated B. xylophilus by scavenging H2O2. Taken together, BxPIE1 is an important virulence factor, revealing a novel mechanism utilized by nematodes to suppress plant immunity.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Kholik K, Sukri A, Riwu KHP, et al (2024)

Detection of the chuA gene encoding the invasive enterohemorrhagic species Escherichia coli 0157:H7 using qPCR in horse feces samples on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia.

Open veterinary journal, 14(4):1051-1058.

BACKGROUND: Bacterial identification can be done using various testing techniques. Molecular techniques are often used to research dangerous diseases, an approach using genetic information on the pathogenic agent. The enterohemorrhagic invasive species Escherichia coli 0157:H7 was identified from the feces of working horses on the island of Sumbawa. Another advance in molecular technology is genome amplification with qPCR which is the gold standard for detecting E. coli.

AIM: This study aims to detect and identify the invasive species E. coli 0157:H7 using the gene encoding chuA with the qPCR method sourced from horse feces.

METHODS: Fresh fecal samples from horses on Sumbawa Island were isolated and identified, then continued with molecular examination using the gene encoding chuA using the qPCR method.

RESULTS: qPCR testing in this study showed that six sample isolates that were positive for E. coli 0157:H7 were detected for the presence of the chuA gene, which is a gene coding for an invasive species of E. coli bacteria. The highest to lowest Cq values and Tm from the qPCR results of the sample isolates were 15.98 (4KJ), 14.90 (19KG), 14.6 (3KJ), 13.77 (20KG), 12.56 (5KGB), and 12.20 (6KJ). Tm values are 86.7 (4KJ), 86.69 (3KJ), 86.56 (5KGB), 85.88 (20KGB), 85.81 (19KG), and 85.74 (6KJ).

CONCLUSION: Validation, standardization of the development, and modification of qPCR technology must be carried out to harmonize testing throughout to avoid wrong interpretation of the test results so that the determination of actions to eradicate and control diseases originating from animals in the field does not occur.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Garofalo L, Cappai N, Mencucci M, et al (2024)

A forensic genetic investigation reveals a captive origin for a wild alien population of raccoons in Italy.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12246.

Invasive alien species have extensively impacted the ecosystems, where they may affect the native biodiversity. The North American raccoon Procyon lotor is one of the most successful invaders in Europe since its introduction in the early twentieth century. In Italy, a wild population was first established in the North at the beginning of the 2000s following a local introduction event. A further self-sustaining population was reported ten years later in Central Italy. To support an official investigation by the authorities, who suspected a captive origin of the free-ranging raccoons in Central Italy, we used nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, combined with different statistical approaches, to characterise their gene pool and trace the source of the founders. Results revealed that founders came from a private zoo-park from which they had inadvertently escaped, soon establishing a reproductive population in the wild. Additionally, our mitochondrial DNA data were used to supplement the haplotype variability known to date in captive and wild raccoons from Europe, Asia and their native range. The comparisons allowed us to update previous networks based on the control region with a new mitochondrial lineage, which had not been detected so far.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Kemppainen P, Schembri R, P Momigliano (2024)

Boundary Effects Cause False Signals of Range Expansions in Population Genomic Data.

Molecular biology and evolution, 41(5):.

Studying range expansions is central for understanding genetic variation through space and time as well as for identifying refugia and biological invasions. Range expansions are characterized by serial founder events causing clines of decreasing genetic diversity away from the center of origin and asymmetries in the two-dimensional allele frequency spectra. These asymmetries, summarized by the directionality index (ψ), are sensitive to range expansions and persist for longer than clines in genetic diversity. In continuous and finite meta-populations, genetic drift tends to be stronger at the edges of the species distribution in equilibrium populations and populations undergoing range expansions alike. Such boundary effects are expected to affect geographic patterns in genetic diversity and ψ. Here we demonstrate that boundary effects cause high false positive rates in equilibrium meta-populations when testing for range expansions. In the simulations, the absolute value of ψ (|ψ|) in equilibrium data sets was proportional to the fixation index (FST). By fitting signatures of range expansions as a function of ɛ |ψ|/FST and geographic clines in ψ, strong evidence for range expansions could be detected in data from a recent rapid invasion of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, in Australia, but not in 28 previously published empirical data sets from Australian scincid lizards that were significant for the standard range expansion tests. Thus, while clinal variation in ψ is still the most sensitive statistic to range expansions, to detect true signatures of range expansions in natural populations, its magnitude needs to be considered in relation to the overall levels of genetic structuring in the data.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Roiz D, Pontifes PA, Jourdain F, et al (2024)

The rising global economic costs of invasive Aedes mosquitoes and Aedes-borne diseases.

The Science of the total environment, 933:173054.

Invasive Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes transmit viruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika, posing a huge public health burden as well as having a less well understood economic impact. We present a comprehensive, global-scale synthesis of studies reporting these economic costs, spanning 166 countries and territories over 45 years. The minimum cumulative reported cost estimate expressed in 2022 US$ was 94.7 billion, although this figure reflects considerable underreporting and underestimation. The analysis suggests a 14-fold increase in costs, with an average annual expenditure of US$ 3.1 billion, and a maximum of US$ 20.3 billion in 2013. Damage and losses were an order of magnitude higher than investment in management, with only a modest portion allocated to prevention. Effective control measures are urgently needed to safeguard global health and well-being, and to reduce the economic burden on human societies. This study fills a critical gap by addressing the increasing economic costs of Aedes and Aedes-borne diseases and offers insights to inform evidence-based policy.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Galindo-González J (2024)

Avoiding novel, unwanted interactions among species to decrease risk of zoonoses.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, 38(3):e14232.

Circumstances that precipitate interactions among species that have never interacted during their evolutionary histories create ideal conditions for the generation of zoonoses. Zoonotic diseases have caused some of the most devastating epidemics in human history. Contact among species that come from different ecosystems or regions creates the risk of zoonoses. In certain situations, humans are generating and promoting conditions that contribute to the creation of infectious diseases and zoonoses. These conditions lead to interactions between wildlife species that have hitherto not interacted under normal circumstances. I call for recognition of the zoonotic potential that novel and unwanted interactions have; identification of these new interactions that are occurring among wild animals, domestic animals, and humans; and efforts to stop these kinds of interactions because they can give rise to zoonotic outbreaks. Live animal markets, the exotic pet trade, illegal wildlife trade, human use and consumption of wild animals, invasive non-native species, releasing of exotic pets, and human encroachment in natural areas are among the activities that cause the most interactions among wild species, domestic species, and humans. These activities should not occur and must be controlled efficiently to prevent future epidemic zoonoses. Society must develop a keen ability to identify these unnatural interactions and prevent them. Controlling these interactions and efficiently addressing their causal factors will benefit human health and, in some cases, lead to positive environmental, ethical, and socioeconomic outcomes. Until these actions are taken, humanity will face future zoonoses and zoonotic pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Li J, Zhang SB, YP Li (2024)

Photosynthetic response dynamics in the invasive species Tithonia diversifolia and two co-occurring native shrub species under fluctuating light conditions.

Plant diversity, 46(2):265-273.

To determine the invasiveness of invasive plants, many studies have compared photosynthetic traits or strategies between invasive and native species. However, few studies have compared the photosynthetic dynamics between invasive and native species during light fluctuations. We compared photosynthetic induction, relaxation dynamics and leaf traits between the invasive species, Tithonia diversifolia and two native species, Clerodendrum bungei and Blumea balsamifera, in full-sun and shady habitats. The photosynthetic dynamics and leaf traits differed among species. T. diversifolia showed a slower induction speed and stomatal opening response but had higher average intrinsic water-use efficiency than the two native species in full-sun habitats. Thus, the slow induction response may be attributed to the longer stomatal length in T. diversifolia. Habitat had a significant effect on photosynthetic dynamics in T. diversifolia and B. balsamifera but not in C. bungei. In shady habitat, T. diversifolia had a faster photosynthetic induction response than in full-sun habitat, leading to a higher average stomatal conductance during photosynthetic induction in T. diversifolia than in the two native species. In contrast, B. balsamifera had a larger stomatal length and slower photosynthetic induction and relaxation response in shady habitat than in full-sun habitat, resulting in higher carbon gain during photosynthetic relaxation. Nevertheless, in both habitats, T. diversifolia had an overall higher carbon gain during light fluctuations than the two native species. Our results indicated that T. diversifolia can adopt more effective response strategies under fluctuating light environments to maximize carbon gain, which may contribute to its successful invasion.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Teng D, Liu D, Khashaveh A, et al (2024)

Engineering DMNT emission in cotton enhances direct and indirect defense against mirid bugs.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(24)00212-1 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: As an important herbivore-induced plant volatile, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) is known for its defensive role against multiple insect pests, including attracting natural enemies. A terpene synthase (GhTPS14) and two cytochrome P450 (GhCYP82L1, GhCYP82L2) enzymes are involved in the de novo synthesis of DMNT in cotton. We conducted a study to test the potential of manipulating DMNT-synthesizing enzymes to enhance plant resistance to insects.

OBJECTIVES: To manipulate DMNT emissions in cotton and generate cotton lines with increased resistance to mirid bug Apolygus lucorum.

METHODS: Biosynthesis and emission of DMNT by cotton plants were altered using CRISPR/Cas9 and overexpression approaches. Dynamic headspace sampling and GC-MS analysis were used to collect, identify and quantify volatiles. The attractiveness and suitability of cotton lines against mirid bug and its parasitoid Peristenus spretus were evaluated through various assays.

RESULTS: No DMNT emission was detected in knockout CAS-L1L2 line, where both GhCYP82L1 and GhCYP82L2 were knocked out. In contrast, gene-overexpressed lines released higher amounts of DMNT when infested by A. lucorum. At the flowering stage, L114 (co-overexpressing GhCYP82L1 and GhTPS14) emitted 10-15-fold higher amounts than controls. DMNT emission in overexpressed transgenic lines could be triggered by methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). A. lucorum and its parasitoid were far less attracted to the double edited CAS-L1L2 plants, however, co-overexpressed line L114 significantly attracted bugs and female wasps. A high dose of DMNT, comparable to the emission of L114, significantly inhibited the growth of A. lucorum, and further resulted in higher mortalities.

CONCLUSION: Turning down DMNT emission attenuated the behavioral preferences of A. lucorum to cotton. Genetically modified cotton plants with elevated DMNT emission not only recruited parasitoids to enhance indirect defense, but also formed an ecological trap to kill the bugs. Therefore, engineering manipulation of DMNT biosynthesis and emission in plants presents a promising strategy for controlling mirid bugs.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Kharouba HM (2024)

Shifting the paradigm: The role of introduced plants in the resiliency of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change.

Global change biology, 30(5):e17319.

Current ecological communities are in a constant state of flux from climate change and from species introductions. Recent discussion has focused on the positive roles introduced species can play in ecological communities and on the importance of conserving resilient ecosystems, but not how these two ideas intersect. There has been insufficient work to define the attributes needed to support ecosystem resilience to climate change in modern communities. Here, I argue that non-invasive, introduced plant species could play an important role in supporting the resilience of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Using examples from multiple taxonomic groups and ecosystems, I discuss how introduced plants can contribute to ecosystem resilience via their roles in plant and insect communities, as well as their associated ecosystem functions. I highlight the current and potential contributions of introduced plants and where there are critical knowledge gaps. Determining when and how introduced plants are contributing to the resilience of ecosystems to climate change will contribute to effective conservation strategies.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Wang Y, Yang Y, Liu Y, et al (2024)

CoSFISH: a comprehensive reference database of COI and 18S rRNA barcodes for fish.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2024:.

Fish, being a crucial component of aquatic ecosystems, holds significant importance from both economic and ecological perspectives. However, the identification of fish at the species level remains challenging, and there is a lack of a taxonomically complete and comprehensive reference sequence database for fish. Therefore, we developed CoSFISH, an online fish database. Currently, the database contains 21 535 cytochrome oxidase I sequences and 1074 18S rRNA sequences of 21 589 species, belonging to 8 classes and 90 orders. We additionally incorporate online analysis tools to aid users in comparing, aligning and analyzing sequences, as well as designing primers. Users can upload their own data for analysis, in addition to using the data stored in the database directly. CoSFISH offers an extensive fish database and incorporates online analysis tools, making it a valuable resource for the study of fish diversity, phylogenetics and biological evolution. Database URL: http://210.22.121.250:8888/CoSFISH/home/indexPage.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-27

Wei R, Chang YW, Xie HF, et al (2024)

Population genetic structure of Pomacea canaliculata in China based on the COI and ITS1 genes.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12045.

Comprehending the phylogeography of invasive organisms enhances our insight into their distribution dynamics, which is instrumental for the development of effective prevention and management strategies. In China, Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata are the two most widespread and damaging species of the non-native Pomacea spp.. Given this species' rapid spread throughout country, it is urgent to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of its different geographic populations, a task undertaken in the current study using the COI and ITS1 mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA genes, respectively. The result of this study, based on a nationwide systematic survey, a collection of Pomacea spp., and the identification of cryptic species, showed that there is a degree of genetic diversity and differentiation in P. canaliculata, and that all of its variations are mainly due to differences between individuals within different geographical populations. Indeed, this species contains multiple haplotypes, but none of them form a systematic geographical population structure. Furthermore, the COI gene exhibits higher genetic diversity than the ITS1 gene. Our study further clarifies the invasive pathways and dispersal patterns of P. canaliculata in China to provide a theoretical basis.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Xie A, Wang Y, Xiao L, et al (2024)

Plasticity in resource allocation of the invasive Phytolacca americana: Balancing growth, reproduction, and defense along urban-rural gradients.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03679-9 [Epub ahead of print].

In response to varying environments along urban and rural gradients, invasive plants may strategically allocate resources to enhance their invasiveness. However, how invasive plants balance their resources for growth, reproduction, and defense as responses to biotic and abiotic factors across these gradients remain unclear. We conducted field surveys on the growth, reproduction, and herbivory of the invasive species Phytolacca americana across diverse urban and rural habitats. Leaf samples were collected to analyze the nutritional content, primary and secondary metabolites. We found that plant growth rates, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen content, and concentrations of flavonoids and saponins were higher in urban habitats, while reproduction, herbivory, and carbon-to‑nitrogen ratios were lower than those in rural habitats. We also found a trade-off between growth rate and herbivory, as well as trade-offs among defense traits associated with herbivory (e.g., leaf mass per area, the inverse of leaf nitrogen content, and carbon‑nitrogen ratio) and the production of metabolites associated with abiotic stress tolerance (e.g., soluble sugars, flavonoids, and saponins). As earlier studies showed low levels of genetic diversity within and between populations, our findings suggest that the urban-rural gradient patterns of resource allocation are primarily phenotypic plasticity in response to herbivory in rural areas and abiotic factors in urban areas. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms by which urbanization affects plant invasions and offers insights for the implementation of their management strategies.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Soose LJ, Rex T, Oehlmann J, et al (2024)

One like all? Behavioral response range of native and invasive amphipods to neonicotinoid exposure.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(24)00949-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Native and invasive species often occupy similar ecological niches and environments where they face comparable risks from chemical exposure. Sometimes, invasive species are phylogenetically related to native species, e.g. they may come from the same family and have potentially similar sensitivities to environmental stressors due to phylogenetic conservatism and ecological similarity. However, empirical studies that aim to understand the nuanced impacts of chemicals on the full range of closely related species are rare, yet they would help to comprehend patterns of current biodiversity loss and species turnover. Behavioral sublethal endpoints are of increasing ecotoxicological interest. Therefore, we investigated behavioral responses (i.e., change in movement behavior) of the four dominant amphipod species in the Rhine-Main area (central Germany) when exposed to the neonicotinoid thiacloprid. Moreover, beyond species-specific behavioral responses, ecological interactions (e.g. parasitation with acanthocephala) play a crucial role in shaping behavior, and we have considered these infections in our analysis. Our findings revealed distinct baseline behaviors and species-specific responses to thiacloprid exposure. Notably, Gammarus fossarum exhibited biphasic behavioral changes with hyperactivity at low concentrations that decreased at higher concentrations. Whereas Gammarus pulex, Gammarus roeselii and the invasive species Dikerogammarus villosus, showed no or weaker behavioral responses. This may partly explain why G. fossarum disappears in chemically polluted regions while the other species persist there to a certain degree. But it also shows that potential pre-exposure in the habitat may influence behavioral responses of the other amphipod species, because habituation occurs, and potential hyperactivity would be harmful to individuals in the habitat. The observed responses were further influenced by acanthocephalan parasites, which altered baseline behavior in G. roeselii and enhanced the behavioral response to thiacloprid exposure. Our results underscore the intricate and diverse nature of responses among closely related amphipod species, highlighting their unique vulnerabilities in anthropogenically impacted freshwater ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-27

Cheng C, Liu Z, Song W, et al (2024)

Biodiversity increases resistance of grasslands against plant invasions under multiple environmental changes.

Nature communications, 15(1):4506.

Biodiversity often helps communities resist invasion. However, it is unclear whether this diversity-invasion relationship holds true under environmental changes. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis of 1010 observations from 25 grassland studies in which plant species richness is manipulated together with one or more environmental change factors to test invasibility (measured by biomass or cover of invaders). We find that biodiversity increases resistance to invaders across various environmental conditions. However, the positive biodiversity effect on invasion resistance is strengthened under experimental warming, whereas it is weakened under experimentally imposed drought. When multiple factors are imposed simultaneously, the positive biodiversity effect is strengthened. Overall, we show that biodiversity helps grassland communities resist plant invasions under multiple environmental changes. Therefore, investment in the protection and restoration of native biodiversity is not only important for prevention of invasions under current conditions but also under continued global environmental change.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-27

Arias-Pacheco C, Perin PP, de Oliveira Andrade L, et al (2024)

Toxoplasma gondii infection in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Brazil.

Parasitology research, 123(5):222.

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis that affects warm-blooded animals, including humans. Wild animals can act as intermediate hosts of this pathogen; thus, this study aims to detect Toxoplasma gondii infection in invasive European brown hares in Brazil. For this, 72 wild European brown hares were captured from July 2020 to June 2022 in three Brazilian states: São Paulo, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul. The diagnostic of Toxoplasma gondii infection was performed by bioassay in mouse, histopathology in Hematoxylin-Eosin-stained tissue sections (brain, liver, lungs, kidneys, and small intestine), serology by IFAT, and molecular techniques by conventional PCR and qPCR. The combined prevalence of the different diagnostic methods was 51.4% (37/72, CI= 40.1 - 62.6 %), and there was no statistical difference between sexes, age range, or geographical region of the hosts. Mouse bioassay was the technique that detected more positive hares. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of Toxoplasma gondii infection in invasive European brown hares in Brazil. These animals act as reservoirs and potential infection source for carnivores and other wild and domestic animals, including humans, thus contributing to perpetuate the disease cycle in São Paulo, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul States. Research such as the present study is necessary to raise awareness about the role of animals in the disease cycle.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-27

Wang AB, Baskin CC, Baskin JM, et al (2024)

Environmental and seed-position effects on viability and germination of buried seeds of an invasive diaspore-heteromorphic annual grass.

Physiologia plantarum, 176(3):e14353.

Environmental factors, such as temperature and moisture, and plant factors, such as seed position on the mother plant, can affect seed viability and germination. However, little is known about the viability and germination of seeds in different positions on the mother plant after burial in soil under natural environmental conditions. Here, diaspores from three positions on a compound spike and seeds from two/three positions in a diaspore of the invasive diaspore-heteromorphic annual grass Aegilops tauschii were buried at four depths for more than 2 years (1-26 months) under natural conditions and viability and germination monitored monthly. Viability of seeds in each diaspore/seed position decreased as burial depth and duration increased and was associated with changes in soil temperature and moisture. Germination was highest at 2 cm and lowest at 10 cm soil depths, with peaks and valleys in autumn/spring and winter/summer, respectively. Overall, seeds in distal diaspore and distal seed positions had higher germination percentages than those in basal diaspore and basal seed positions, but basal ones lived longer than distal ones. Chemical content of fresh diaspores/seeds was related to diaspore/seed position effects on seed germination and viability during burial. We conclude that seeds in distal diaspores/seed positions have a 'high risk' strategy and those in basal positions a 'low risk' strategy. The two risk strategies may act as a bet-hedging strategy that spreads risks of germination failure in the soil seed bank over time, thereby facilitating the survival and invasiveness of A. tauschii.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Lykins K, Ossiboff RJ, Chase E, et al (2024)

Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) whartoni (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) encysted larvae in invasive Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) from Florida, United States.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 11:1353975.

Species of Pterygodermatites are spirurid nematodes that have expanded their geographic distribution worldwide. They infect a variety of mammalian definitive hosts with few reports of potential paratenic infections in amphibian and reptile hosts. In this study, we report Pterygodermatites sp. larvae identified in free-ranging, invasive Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis), from central Florida, United States. Encysted larvae were recovered from the skeletal muscle and/or the coelomic cavity of three frogs; molecular characterization of the small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase I genes of the parasites matched reported sequences of Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) whartoni (Tubangui, 1931). This is a parasite native to Southeastern Asia and to the best of the authors' knowledge, it is the first report of the species in the New World. The recovery of invasive Pterygodermatites from invasive Cuban treefrogs in North America highlights the growing concern regarding the potential impact non-native parasites and invasive species may have on native wildlife populations.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Wang T, Li H, Yang X, et al (2024)

Exotic plantations differ in "nursing" an understory invader: A probe into invasional meltdown.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11398.

Forest plantations most likely promote exotic plant invasion. Using an in situ monitoring method, this study investigated the traits correlated with growth and reproduction of an understory invader, Phytolacca americana L., and ecological factors including understory irradiance, soil stoichiometry and microbial patterns associated with these traits in different exotic plantations of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus thunbergii Parl. at Mount Lao, Qingdao, China. We found that the traits of P. americana underneath the R. pseudoacacia stand might be situated at the fast side of the trait economic spectrum. The R. pseudoacacia stand appeared to "nurse" P. americana. Furthermore, we intended to explain the nurse effects of R. pseudoacacia stands by examining their ecological factors. First, the R. pseudoacacia stand created understory light attenuation, which matched the sciophilous feature of P. americana. Second, the soil beneath the R. pseudoacacia stand might benefit P. americana more since the soil has greater resource availability. Third, a higher microbial diversity was found in the soil derived from P. americana underneath the R. pseudoacacia stand. A greater abundance of plant pathogens was detected in the soil derived from P. americana in the R. pseudoacacia stand, while more abundant mycorrhizal fungi were detected in the P. thunbergii stand. We speculate that plant pathogens can defend P. americana from aggression from other understory competitors. The mycorrhizal fungi in the P. thunbergii stand might benefit P. americana while simultaneously benefiting other understory plants. Intensive competition from other plants might interfere with P. americana. The potential relationships between plant performance and ecological factors may explain the invasion mechanism of P. americana. The present study provides a novel insight on the facilitative effects of exotic tree plantation on an exotic herb through the modification of soil biota, with implications for the biocontrol of invasive species and forest management and conservation.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Coster SS (2024)

Field validation of an eDNA assay for nutria illuminates a role in invasive species management.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11416.

Nutria, or coypu (Myocastor coypus), are invasive semi-aquatic rodents present across the United States, Europe, and Asia. Despite successful eradication efforts in certain areas, nutria have resurged in the mid-Atlantic USA, underscoring the need for advanced monitoring tools. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has emerged as a promising technique for species detection and monitoring. Here, an eDNA assay for nutria using qPCR was field-validated in Virginia, USA, showcasing its potential as a tool for post-eradication monitoring. The findings reveal an association between water levels and detection of nutria eDNA, highlighting the importance of water levels in nutria behavior. A painted turtle assay was introduced to confirm nutria absence and demonstrate the potential of passive sampling. The study showcases the sensitivity and efficiency of eDNA assays, emphasizing their value for monitoring and verifying invasive species eradication.

RevDate: 2024-05-26

Castro N, Félix PM, Gestoso I, et al (2024)

Management of non-indigenous species in Macaronesia: Misconceptions and alerts to decision-makers.

Marine pollution bulletin, 204:116506 pii:S0025-326X(24)00483-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Human-induced pressures have led to substantial changes in marine ecosystems worldwide, with the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) emerging as a significant threat to ecological, economic, and social aspects. The Macaronesian islands, comprising the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, and Cabo Verde archipelagos, are regions where the regional economy is dependent on marine resources (e.g., marine traffic, ecotourism and fisheries). Despite their importance, concerted efforts to manage marine biological invasions in Macaronesia have been scarce. In this context, the current study aims to contribute to the much-needed debate on biosecurity measures in this unique insular ecosystem to prevent and mitigate the impact of NIS. By adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria, this work validated and analyzed 260 documents providing insights into the management of NIS in Macaronesia until 2022. These documents revealed the presence of 29 Invasive Alien Species (IAS), most of which are misconceptions regarding this terminology. Most studies focused on the stages of early detection, rapid response, and eradication across the archipelagos. Cabo Verde had comparatively fewer studies. The most common techniques include monitoring/sampling, literature reviews, and taxonomic reviews. NIS introduction pathways were mainly attributed to transport (stowaway) and unaided migration, with ship fouling, ballast water, rafting, ocean currents, and tropicalization being also identified as significant contributors. This systematic review highlights the current efforts to establish robust biosecurity protocols in Macaronesia and emphasizes the urgent need to safeguard the region's ecological, economic, and social well-being.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.

Timelines

ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )