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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 21 Sep 2023 at 01:49 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Duniway MC, Finger-Higgens R, Geiger EL, et al (2023)

Ecosystem resilience to invasion and drought: Insights after 24 years in a rare never-grazed grassland.

Global change biology, 29(20):5866-5880.

Understanding the resilience of ecosystems globally is hampered by the complex and interacting drivers of change characteristic of the Anthropocene. This is true for drylands of the western US, where widespread alteration of disturbance regimes and spread of invasive non-native species occurred with westward expansion during the 1800s, including the introduction of domestic livestock and spread of Bromus tectorum, an invasive non-native annual grass. In addition, this region has experienced a multi-decadal drought not seen for at least 1200 years with potentially large and interacting impacts on native plant communities. Here, we present 24 years of twice-annual plant cover monitoring (1997-2021) from a semiarid grassland never grazed by domestic livestock but subject to a patchy invasion of B. tectorum beginning in ~1994, compare our findings to surveys done in 1967, and examine potential climate drivers of plant community changes. We found a significant warming trend in the study area, with more than 75% of study year temperatures being warmer than average (1966-2021). We observed a native perennial grass community with high resilience to climate forcings with cover values like those in 1967. In invaded patches, B. tectorum cover was greatest in the early years of this study (1997-2001; ~20%-40%) but was subsequently constrained by climate and subtle variation in soils, with limited evidence of long-term impacts to native vegetation, contradicting earlier studies. Our ability to predict year-to-year variation in functional group and species cover with climate metrics varied, with a 12-month integrated index and fall and winter patterns appearing most important. However, declines to near zero live cover in recent years in response to regional drought intensification leave questions regarding the resiliency of intact grasslands to ongoing aridification and whether the vegetation observations reported here may be a leading indicator of impending change in this protected ecosystem.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Menchaca A (2023)

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and genome editing to support a sustainable livestock.

Animal reproduction, 20(2):e20230074.

This article provides an overview of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and genome engineering to improve livestock production systems for the contribution of global sustainability. Most ruminant production systems are conducted on grassland conditions, as is the case of South American countries that are leaders in meat and milk production worldwide with a well-established grass-feed livestock. These systems have many strengths from an environmental perspective and consumer preferences but requires certain improvements to enhance resource efficiency. Reproductive performance is one of the main challenges particularly in cow-calf operations that usually are conducted under adverse conditions and thus ART can make a great contribution. Fixed-time artificial insemination is applied in South America in large scale programs as 20 to 30% of cows receive this technology every year in each country, with greater calving rate and significant herd genetic gain occurred in this region. Sexed semen has also been increasingly implemented, enhancing resource efficiency by a) obtaining desired female replacement and improving animal welfare by avoiding newborn male sacrifice in dairy industry, or b) alternatively producing male calves for beef industry. In vitro embryo production has been massively applied, with this region showing the greatest number of embryos produced worldwide leading to significant improvement in herd genetics and productivity. Although the contribution of these technologies is considerable, further improvements will be required for a significant livestock transformation and novel biotechnologies such as genome editing are already available. Through the CRISPR/Cas-based system it is possible to enhance food yield and quality, avoid animal welfare concerns, overcome animal health threats, and control pests and invasive species harming food production. In summary, a significant enhancement in livestock productivity and resource efficiency can be made through reproductive technologies and genome editing, improving at the same time profitability for farmers, and global food security and sustainability.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Sfara E, CN El-Hani (2023)

Ecosystem health and malfunctions: an organisational perspective.

Biology & philosophy, 38(5):37.

A recent idea of "ecosystem health" was introduced in the 1970s and 1980s to draws attention to the fact that ecosystems can become ill because of a reduction of properties such as primary productivity, functions and diversity of interactions among system components. Starting from the 1990s, this idea has been deeply criticized by authors who argued that, insofar as ecosystems show many differences with respect to organismic features, these two kinds of systems cannot share a typical organismic property such as health. In recent years, an organisational approach in philosophy of biology and ecology argued that both organisms and ecosystems may share a fundamental characteristic despite their differences, namely, organisational closure. Based on this kind of closure, scholars have also discussed health and malfunctional states in organisms. In this paper, we examine the possibility of expanding such an organisational approach to health and malfunctions to the ecological domain. Firstly, we will see that a malfunction is related to a lower effectiveness in the functional behaviour of some biotic components with respect to other systemic components. We will then show how some introduced species do not satisfactorily interact in an organisational closure with other ecosystem components, thus posing a threat to the self-maintenance of the ecosystem in which they are found. Accordingly, we will argue that an ecosystem can be said to be healthy when it is a vital environment organisationally grounded on its intrinsic capacity to ensure, under favourable conditions, appropriate functional behaviours for ecosystem components and ecosystem self-maintenance.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Sentís M, Pacioni C, De Cuyper A, et al (2023)

Biophysical models accurately characterize the thermal energetics of a small invasive passerine bird.

iScience, 26(10):107743 pii:S2589-0042(23)01820-5.

Effective management of invasive species requires accurate predictions of their invasion potential in different environments. By considering species' physiological tolerances and requirements, biophysical mechanistic models can potentially deliver accurate predictions of where introduced species are likely to establish. Here, we evaluate biophysical model predictions of energy use by comparing them to experimentally obtained energy expenditure (EE) and thermoneutral zones (TNZs) for the common waxbill Estrilda astrild, a small-bodied avian invader. We show that biophysical models accurately predict TNZ and EE and that they perform better than traditional time-energy budget methods. Sensitivity analyses indicate that body temperature, metabolic rate, and feather characteristics were the most influential traits affecting model accuracy. This evaluation of common waxbill energetics represents a crucial step toward improved parameterization of biophysical models, eventually enabling accurate predictions of invasion risk for small (sub)tropical passerines.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Yoshida K, Hata K, Kawakami K, et al (2023)

Predicting ecosystem changes by a new model of ecosystem evolution.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15353.

In recent years, computer simulation has been increasingly used to predict changes in actual ecosystems. In these studies, snapshots of ecosystems at certain points in time were instantly constructed without considering their evolutionary histories. However, it may not be possible to correctly predict future events unless their evolutionary processes are considered. In this study, we developed a new ecosystem model for reproducing the evolutionary process on an oceanic island, targeting Nakoudojima Island of the Ogasawara Islands. This model successfully reproduced the primitive ecosystem (the entire island covered with forest) prior to the invasion of alien species. Also, by adding multiple alien species to this ecosystem, we were able to reproduce temporal changes in the ecosystem of Nakoudojima Island after invasion of alien species. Then, we performed simulations in which feral goats were eradicated, as had actually been done on the island; these suggested that after the eradication of feral goats, forests were unlikely to be restored. In the ecosystems in which forests were not restored, arboreous plants with a high growth rate colonized during the early stage of evolution. As arboreous plants with a high growth rate consume a large amount of nutrient in soil, creating an oligotrophic state. As a result, plants cannot grow, and animal species that rely on plants cannot maintain their biomass. Consequently, many animals and plants become extinct as they cannot endure disturbances by alien species, and the ecosystem loses its resilience. Therefore, even if feral goats are eradicated, forests are not restored. Thus, the founder effect from the distant past influences future ecosystem changes. Our findings show that it is useful to consider the evolutionary process of an ecosystem in predicting its future events.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

McCabe EA, Unfried LN, NM Teets (2023)

Survival and nutritional requirements for overwintering Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Kentucky.

Environmental entomology pii:7275226 [Epub ahead of print].

The ability to cope with novel climates is a key determinant of an invasive species' success. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is an invasive fruit pest, and its seasonality varies across its range. Current evidence suggests that D. suzukii occurs year-round in warmer climates but has low overwintering survival in colder climates and relies on refuges or reinvades each spring. Here, we assessed the capacity of D. suzukii ability to overwinter in Kentucky, a temperate mid-latitude state with relatively mild but variable winters. We tracked year-round population changes for 3 yr and observed the highest populations in early winter months. Following an annual population crash in winter, small numbers of flies remained through the late winter and spring. We also conducted outdoor cage studies to determine the extent to which food resources and microhabitat impact survival and postwinter fecundity under natural conditions. Flies with no food had poor survival during the warmest periods of winter, and flies in all treatments had lower survival in the coldest month. Provisioning flies with either artificial diet or wild berries improved survival. As a follow-up, we determined whether D. suzukii could survive and reproduce after long-term exposure to a typical winter temperature on various wild berries. Drosophila suzukii had the highest survival on privet (Ligustrum sp.), but all berry types yielded higher survival than flies without food. Our results suggest that noncrop berries play an important role for overwintering D. suzukii, and as winters warm the availability of wild berries could influence early-season populations.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Haro D, Pauly GB, HEM Liwanag (2023)

Rapid Physiological Plasticity in Response to Cold Acclimation for Nonnative Italian Wall Lizards (Podarcis siculus) from New York.

Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ, 96(5):356-368.

AbstractThermal physiology helps us understand how ectotherms respond to novel environments and how they persist when introduced to new locations. Researchers generally measure thermal physiology traits immediately after animal collection or after a short acclimation period. Because many of these traits are plastic, the conclusions drawn from such research can vary depending on the duration of the acclimation period. In this study, we measured the rate of change and extent to which cold tolerance (critical thermal minimum [CTmin]) of nonnative Italian wall lizards (Podarcis siculus) from Hempstead, New York, changed during a cold acclimation treatment. We also examined how cold acclimation affected heat tolerance (critical thermal maximum [CTmax]), thermal preference (Tpref), evaporative water loss (EWL), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). We predicted that CTmin, CTmax, and Tpref would decrease with cold acclimation but that EWL and RMR would increase with cold acclimation. We found that CTmin decreased within 2 wk and that it remained low during the cold acclimation treatment; we suspect that this cold tolerance plasticity reduces risk of exposure to lethal temperatures during winter for lizards that have not yet found suitable refugia. CTmax and Tpref also decreased after cold acclimation, while EWL, RMR, and RER increased after cold acclimation, suggesting trade-offs with cold acclimation in the form of decreased heat tolerance and increased energy demands. Taken together, our findings suggest that cold tolerance plasticity aids the persistence of an established population of invasive lizards. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of accounting for the plasticity of physiological traits when investigating how invasive species respond to novel environments.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Cao Y, Li J, Yin W, et al (2023)

Two negatives make an affirmative: can extreme flooding reduce the expansion of invasive submerged macrophyte in a large river?.

Journal of environmental management, 346:118964 pii:S0301-4797(23)01752-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Plant invasion and extreme climate event are both important ecological issues under the background of global climate change. However, how these two incidents interact with each other is still debatable in different ecosystems. In this study we investigated the interaction between the extreme flooding event during the autumn of 2021 in the Han River and the invasion of Elodea nuttallii based on a long-term field survey from 2020 to 2023 and two indoor controlled experiments (propagule bank experiment and decomposition experiment). We hypothesized that two negatives (extreme flooding event and invasive submerged macrophytes) can make an affirmative (macrophyte community consisting of native species). The field survey found that the extreme flooding caused a critical change of transparency until seven months later the water quality turned into the initial condition, and the maximum biomass of E. nuttallii decreased significantly in 2022 after the flooding. Abundant propagule bank of native macrophytes in the sediment contributed to the strong resilience of macrophyte community responding to the extreme flooding; the maximum total biomass of macrophyte community in 2022 did not differ from that in the two years prior to the flooding. Additionally, more species of native macrophyte was found in the field survey after the extreme flooding. Decomposition rates of E. nuttallii fragments was large as 0.69 d[-1], and long-time high turbidity lead to a very fast run-out of the only reproduction tissue (fragments) of this alien species in the river, which resulted in the slowing of its recovery. Inspired by this study, we further proposed a cost-effective methodology to control the invasive species E. nuttallii, i.e., the combination of propagule bank of native macrophytes in the sediment and artificially manipulated pulse flooding.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

Perry WB (2023)

The cold sting of climate change and its effect on the march of invasive fishes.

Journal of fish biology, 103(3):459.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Huaman JL, Pacioni C, Doyle M, et al (2023)

Evidence of Australian wild deer exposure to N. caninum infection and potential implications for the maintenance of N. caninum sylvatic cycle.

BMC veterinary research, 19(1):153.

Infections with the coccidian parasite Neospora caninum affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. In Australia, N. caninum infections cause considerable losses to the cattle industry with seroprevalence of 8.7% in beef and 10.9% in dairy cattle. Conversely, the role of wild animals, in maintaining the parasite cycle is also unclear. It is possible that native or introduced herbivorous species could be reservoir hosts of N. caninum in Australia, but to date, this has not been investigated. We report here the first large-scale screening of N. caninum antibodies in Australian wild deer, spanning three species (fallow, red and sambar deer). Consequently, we also assessed two commercial cELISA tests validated for detecting N. caninum in cattle for their ability to detect N. caninum antibodies in serum samples of wild deer. N. caninum antibodies were detected in 3.7% (7/189, 95% CI 1.8 - 7.45) of the wild deer serum samples collected in south-eastern Australia (n = 189), including 97 fallow deer (Dama dama), 14 red deer (Cervus elaphus), and 78 sambar deer (Rusa unicolor). Overall, our study provides the first detection of N. caninum antibodies in wild deer and quantifies deer's potential role in the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Kannan G, Mghili B, Di Martino E, et al (2023)

Increasing risk of invasions by organisms on marine debris in the Southeast coast of India.

Marine pollution bulletin, 195:115469 pii:S0025-326X(23)00903-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing amount of anthropogenic litter in the marine environment has provided an enormous number of substrates for a wide range of marine organisms, thus serving as a potential vector for the transport of fouling organisms. Here, we examined the fouling organisms on different types of stranded litter (plastic, glass, rubber, foam sponge, cloth, metal and wood) on eight beaches along the southeast coast of India. In total, 17 encrusting species belonging to seven phyla (Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Annelida, Cnidaria, Chlorophyta and Foraminifera) were identified on 367 items, with one invasive species, the mussel Mytella strigata, detected. The most common species associated with marine litter were the cosmopolitan bryozoans Jellyella tuberculata (%O = 31.64 %) and J. eburnea (28.61 %), the barnacle species Lepas anserifera (29.97 %), Amphibalanus amphitrite (22.34 %) and Amphibalanus sp. (14.16 %), and the oyster species Saccostrea cucullata (13.62 %) and Magallana bilineata (5.44 %). We also reported the first records on stranded litter of four species: the gastropod species Pirenella cingulata and Umbonium vestiarium, the foraminiferan Ammonia beccarii, and the oyster M. bilineata. This study is thus the first documentation of marine litter as a vector for species dispersal in India, where the production and consumption of plastic rank among the highest in the world. We also highlight the increasing risk of invasions by non-indigenous organisms attached to debris along the southeast coast of India. Comprehensive monitoring efforts are thus needed to elucidate the type of vectors responsible for the arrival of invasive species in this region. Raising awareness and promoting education are vital components in fostering sustainable solutions to combat plastic pollution in the country and globally.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Flores-Rojas AI, Medellín-Castillo NA, Cisneros-Ontiveros HG, et al (2023)

Detection and mapping of the seasonal distribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and valorization as a biosorbent of Pb(II) in water.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

In the present research, the presence of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the surface of the San Jose Dam located in the city of San Luis Potosi, S.L.P, Mexico, was monitored and mapped. The monitoring was conducted for 2 years (2018-2020) with remote sensing data from OLI Landsat 8 sensors, based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The results demonstrated the capability and accuracy of this method, where it was observed that the aboveground cover area, proliferation, and distribution of water hyacinth are influenced by climatic and anthropogenic factors during the four seasons of the year. As part of a sustainable environmental control of this invasive species, the use of water hyacinth (WH) root (RO), stem (ST), and leaf (LE) components as adsorbent material for Pb(II) present in aqueous solution was proposed. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 5 and 25 °C and was 107.3, 136.8, and 120.8 mg g[-1] for RO, ST, and LE, respectively. The physicochemical characterization of WH consisted of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 physisorption, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), charge distribution, and zero charge point (pHPZC). Due to the chemical nature of WH, several Pb(II) adsorption mechanisms were proposed such as electrostatic attractions, ion exchange, microprecipitation, and π-cation.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Faiad SM, Williams MA, Goodman M, et al (2023)

Temperature affects predation of schistosome-competent snails by a novel invader, the marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis.

PloS one, 18(9):e0290615 pii:PONE-D-22-25610.

The human burden of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases can depend strongly on ecological factors, including the presence or absence of natural enemies. The marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) is a novel invasive species that can tolerate a wide range of ecological conditions and colonize diverse habitats. Marbled crayfish first appeared in Madagascar in 2005 and quickly spread across the country, overlapping with the distribution of freshwater snails that serve as the intermediate host of schistosomiasis-a parasitic disease of poverty with human prevalence ranging up to 94% in Madagascar. It has been hypothesized that the marbled crayfish may serve as a predator of schistosome-competent snails in areas where native predators cannot and yet no systematic study to date has been conducted to estimate its predation rate on snails. Here, we experimentally assessed marbled crayfish consumption of uninfected and infected schistosome-competent snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Bulinus truncatus) across a range of temperatures, reflective of the habitat range of the marbled crayfish in Madagascar. We found that the relationship between crayfish consumption and temperature is unimodal with a peak at ~27.5°C. Per-capita consumption increased with body size and was not affected either by snail species or their infectious status. We detected a possible satiation effect, i.e., a small but significant reduction in per-capita consumption rate over the 72-hour duration of the predation experiment. Our results suggest that ecological parameters, such as temperature and crayfish weight, influence rates of consumption and, in turn, the potential impact of the marbled crayfish invasion on snail host populations.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Faria FS, Areal M, BC Bitner-Mathé (2023)

Thermal Stress and Adult Fitness in a Drosophila suzukii Neotropical Propagule.

Neotropical entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura 1931) is a cosmopolitan horticultural pest originally from temperate East Asia; yet, its recent introduction in southeast and central Brazil raises the possibility it might expand into warmer climatic zones. In theoretical terms, the adaptive potential of invasive species can be impaired by the lack of genetic variation, but, on the other hand, phenotypic plasticity might play an important role in the adaptation to the new environment. In this context, we investigated the effects of temperature variation (18°C, 22°C, and 28°C) on fitness traits and size of male reproductive organs (accessory glands and testis) in a natural D. suzukii population recently introduced in the neotropical region. Development time decreased significantly with increasing temperature, but egg-to-adult survival was not affected, attaining rates around 50% for the three temperatures. Development at 28°C affected differentially adult male and female biological performance: males displayed higher mortality and severe and permanent reduction in offspring production, whereas females showed the same mortality as controls and a temporary decrease in offspring production, followed of a clear recovery. Finally, reproductive organs size in immature and mature males was affected by developmental temperature variation in the following ways. Testis length decreased with body size (i.e., at higher temperatures) and increased with maturation time after adult hatching, whereas for accessory glands there was no significant difference between different temperatures, resulting in proportionally larger glands for smaller body sizes. These results show differences in developmental dynamics of reproductive tract structures due to temperature variation.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Tichit P, Roy HE, Convey P, et al (2023)

First record of the introduced ladybird beetle, Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus (1758), on South Georgia (sub-Antarctic).

Ecology and evolution, 13(9):e10513 pii:ECE310513.

Biological invasions represent a growing threat to islands and their biodiversity across the world. The isolated sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia in the South Atlantic Ocean is a highly protected area that relies on effective biosecurity including prevention, surveillance and eradication to limit the risk of biological invasions. Based on an opportunistic field discovery, we provide the first report of an introduced ladybird beetle on South Georgia. All specimens discovered belong to the Eurasian species Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus (1758) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Tens of individuals of both sexes were discovered at a single location, indicating that the species may already be established on South Georgia. Transport connectivity with this site suggests that the species most likely arrived recently from the Falkland Islands as a stowaway on a ship. We discuss the implications of our discovery for the continued development of South Atlantic biosecurity.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Willot Q, du Toit A, de Wet S, et al (2023)

Exploring the connection between autophagy and heat-stress tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(2006):20231305.

Mechanisms aimed at recovering from heat-induced damages are closely associated with the ability of ectotherms to survive exposure to stressful temperatures. Autophagy, a ubiquitous stress-responsive catabolic process, has recently gained renewed attention as one of these mechanisms. By increasing the turnover of cellular structures as well as the clearance of long-lived protein and protein aggregates, the induction of autophagy has been linked to increased tolerance to a range of abiotic stressors in diverse ectothermic organisms. However, whether a link between autophagy and heat-tolerance exists in insect models remains unclear despite broad ecophysiological implications thereof. Here, we explored the putative association between autophagy and heat-tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster as a model. We hypothesized that (i) heat-stress would cause an increase of autophagy in flies' tissues, and (ii) rapamycin exposure would trigger a detectable autophagic response in adults and increase their heat-tolerance. In line with our hypothesis, we report that flies exposed to heat-stress present signs of protein aggregation and appear to trigger an autophagy-related homoeostatic response as a result. We further show that rapamycin feeding causes the systemic effect associated with target of rapamycin (TOR) inhibition, induces autophagy locally in the fly gut, and increases the heat-stress tolerance of individuals. These results argue in favour of a substantial contribution of autophagy to the heat-stress tolerance mechanisms of insects.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Nathan P, Economo EP, Guénard B, et al (2023)

Generalized mutualisms promote range expansion in both plant and ant partners.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(2006):20231083.

Mutualism improves organismal fitness, but strong dependence on another species can also limit a species' ability to thrive in a new range if its partner is absent. We assembled a large, global dataset on mutualistic traits and species ranges to investigate how multiple plant-animal and plant-microbe mutualisms affect the spread of legumes and ants to novel ranges. We found that generalized mutualisms increase the likelihood that a species establishes and thrives beyond its native range, whereas specialized mutualisms either do not affect or reduce non-native spread. This pattern held in both legumes and ants, indicating that specificity between mutualistic partners is a key determinant of ecological success in a new habitat. Our global analysis shows that mutualism plays an important, if often overlooked, role in plant and insect invasions.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Menchetti M, Schifani E, Alicata A, et al (2023)

The invasive ant Solenopsis invicta is established in Europe.

Current biology : CB, 33(17):R896-R897.

The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) is classified as one of the worst invasive alien species[1] and as the fifth costliest worldwide[2], impacting ecosystems, agriculture and human health[3]. We report the establishment of S. invicta in Europe for the first time, documenting a mature population in Sicily. We use genetic analyses to assess its putative origin, as well as wind tracking and species distribution modelling to predict its potential range on the continent. We show that half of the urban areas in Europe are already suitable and that climate warming expected under current trends will favor the expansion of this invasive ant.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Abe JNA, Dhungana I, NH Nguyen (2023)

Legume-nodulating rhizobia are widespread in soils and plants across the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i.

PloS one, 18(9):e0291250.

Legumes and their interaction with rhizobia represent one of the most well-characterized symbioses that are widespread across both natural and agricultural environments. However, larger distribution patterns and host associations on isolated Pacific islands with many native and introduced hosts have not been well-documented. Here, we used molecular and culturing techniques to characterize rhizobia from soils and 24 native and introduced legume species on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i. We chose two of these isolates to inoculate an endemic legume tree, Erythina sandwicensis to measure nodulation potentials and host benefits. We found that all rhizobia genera can be found in the soil, where only Cupriavidus was found at all sites, although at lower abundance relative to other more common genera such as Rhizobium (and close relatives), Bradyzhizobium, and Devosia. Bradyrhizobium was the most common nodulator of legumes, where the strain Bradyrhizobium sp. strain JA1 is a generalist capable of forming nodules on nine different host species, including two native species. In greenhouse nursery inoculations, the two different Bradyrhizobium strains successfully nodulate the endemic E. sandwicensis; both strains equally and significantly increased seedling biomass in nursery inoculations. Overall, this work provides a molecular-based framework in which to study potential native and introduced rhizobia on one of the most isolated archipelagos on the planet.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Zeng Z, Yang Z, Yang A, et al (2023)

Genetic Evidence for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Transmission Between the Invasive Plant Ageratina adenophora and Co-occurring Neighbor Plants.

Microbial ecology, 86(3):2192-2201.

To understand the disease-mediated invasion of exotic plants and the potential risk of disease transmission in local ecosystems, it is necessary to characterize population genetic structure and spatio-temporal dynamics of fungal community associated with both invasive and co-occurring plants. In this study, multiple genes were used to characterize the genetic diversity of 165 strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex (CGSC) isolated from healthy leaves and symptomatic leaves of invasive plant Ageratina adenophora, as well as symptomatic leaves of its neighbor plants from eleven geographic sites in China. The data showed that these CGSC strains had a high genetic diversity in each geographic site (all Hd > 0.67 and Pi > 0.01). Haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity varied greatly in individual gene locus: gs had the highest haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.8972), gapdh had the highest nucleotide diversity (Pi = 0.0705), and ITS had the lowest nucleotide diversity (Pi = 0.0074). Haplotypes were not clustered by geographic site, invasive age, or isolation source. AMOVA revealed that the genetic variation was mainly from within-populations, regardless of geographic or isolation origin. Both AMOVA and neutrality tests indicated these CGSC strains occurred gene exchange among geographic populations but did not experience population expansion along with A. adenophora invasion progress. Our data indicated that A. adenophora primarily accumulated these CGSC fungi in the introduced range, suggesting a high frequency of CGSC transmission between A. adenophora and co-occurring neighbor plants. This study is valuable for understanding the disease-mediated plant invasion and the potential risk of disease transmission driven by exotic plants in local ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Pita-Aquino JN, Bock DG, Baeckens S, et al (2023)

Stronger evidence for genetic ancestry than environmental conditions in shaping the evolution of a complex signalling trait during biological invasion.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Introductions of invasive species to new environments often result in rapid rates of trait evolution. While in some cases these evolutionary transitions are adaptive and driven by natural selection, they can also result from patterns of genetic and phenotypic variation associated with the invasion history. Here, we examined the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), a widespread invasive lizard for which genetic data have helped trace the sources of non-native populations. We focused on the dewlap, a complex signalling trait known to be subject to multiple selective pressures. We measured dewlap reflectance, pattern and size in 30 non-native populations across the southeastern United States. As well, we quantified environmental variables known to influence dewlap signal effectiveness, such as canopy openness. Further, we used genome-wide data to estimate genetic ancestry, perform association mapping and test for signatures of selection. We found that among-population variation in dewlap characteristics was best explained by genetic ancestry. This result was supported by genome-wide association mapping, which identified several ancestry-specific loci associated with dewlap traits. Despite the strong imprint of this aspect of the invasion history on dewlap variation, we also detected significant relationships between dewlap traits and local environmental conditions. However, we found limited evidence that dewlap-associated genetic variants have been subject to selection. Our study emphasizes the importance of genetic ancestry and admixture in shaping phenotypes during biological invasion, while leaving the role of selection unresolved, likely due to the polygenic genetic architecture of dewlaps and selection acting on many genes of small effect.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Bahamonde PA, Chiang G, Mancilla G, et al (2023)

Ecological variation in invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta) within a remote coastal river catchment in Northern Patagonia complicates estimates of invasion impact.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

Salmonids were first introduced to Chilean freshwaters in the 1880s and approximately 140 years later, they are ubiquitous across Chilean rivers, especially in southern pristine freshwaters. This study examines the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native taxa ecology in two adjacent, but contrasting rivers Chilean Patagonia. During Spring of 2016 and Spring-Fall 2017 we examined variation in benthic macroinvertebrate and fish community composition, characterised fish size structure, stomach contents, and stable isotopes (δ[13] C and δ[15] N) to understand population structure, fish diet and trophic interactions between S. trutta and native taxa. The native Galaxias maculatus (puye) dominated the fish community (74% of abundance). The S. trutta was less abundant (16% of survey catch), but dominated the fish community (over 53%) in terms of biomass. S. trutta showed distinct diets (stomach content analysis) in the two rivers, and individuals from the larger river were notably more piscivorous, consuming native fish from a relatively small body size (< 100 mm total length). Native fishes were isotopically distinct from S. trutta, which showed a wider isotopic niche in the smaller river, indicating that their trophic role was more variable than in the larger river (piscivorous). This study provides data from unstudied pristine coastal rivers in Patagonia, and reveals that interactions between native and introduced species can vary at very local spatial scales. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-09-12
CmpDate: 2023-09-12

Chen Y, Xue J, Feng W, et al (2023)

Bloom forming species transported by ballast water under the management of D-1 and D-2 standards-Implications for current ballast water regulations.

Marine pollution bulletin, 194(Pt B):115391.

Ballast water (BW) is a well-known transporter for introducing non-indigenous aquatic organisms. To reduce such risks associated with BW discharge, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). We examined the abundance and diversity of bloom forming species in BW under the management of Regulation D-1 Ballast Water Exchange Standard and D-2 Ballast Water Performance Standard. The abundance and richness of bloom forming species were also examined in relation to ballast water age. Our findings indicate the abundance and diversity of bloom forming species were significantly lower in BW under the management of D-2 standard than that under D-1 standard. The abundance and richness represent no statistically significant correlation with BW age (p = 0.76 and p = 0.43, respectively). Some resistant species persist in ballast water. Thereby, we further provide some advice to overcome the existing challenges for the implementation of the Regulation D-2.

RevDate: 2023-09-12
CmpDate: 2023-09-12

Feng W, Chen Y, Zhang T, et al (2023)

Evaluate the compliance of ballast water management system on various types of operational vessels based on the D-2 standard.

Marine pollution bulletin, 194(Pt B):115381.

The transfer of ship ballast water poses significant risks to the aquatic ecosystem and human health. To mitigate the influences of non-native species, ballast water management systems (BWMS) have been installed on international ships to ensure proper treatment of ballast water before discharge. This study investigates whether ballast water discharges managed by BWMS meet the requirements of the D-2 standard for organisms in different size classes. Representative ballast water samples were collected from 28 ships (a total of 20 different BWMS) arriving in Shanghai during the period 2020-2022. Results have shown that two samples (7.1 %) exceeded the D-2 Standard. The compliance rates varied among different vessel types, with cargo vessels achieving a compliance rate of 81.8 %, while LNG vessels and container vessels achieved 100 % compliance. The potential to achieve higher levels of ballast water management will increase as crews improve their skills in operating BWMS and BWMS is further developed.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Guo G, Barabás G, Takimoto G, et al (2023)

Towards a mechanistic understanding of variation in aquatic food chain length.

Ecologists have long sought to understand variation in food chain length (FCL) among natural ecosystems. Various drivers of FCL, including ecosystem size, resource productivity and disturbance, have been hypothesised. However, when results are aggregated across existing empirical studies from aquatic ecosystems, we observe mixed FCL responses to these drivers. To understand this variability, we develop a unified competition-colonisation framework for complex food webs incorporating all of these drivers. With competition-colonisation tradeoffs among basal species, our model predicts that increasing ecosystem size generally results in a monotonic increase in FCL, while FCL displays non-linear, oscillatory responses to resource productivity or disturbance in large ecosystems featuring little disturbance or high productivity. Interestingly, such complex responses mirror patterns in empirical data. Therefore, this study offers a novel mechanistic explanation for observed variations in aquatic FCL driven by multiple environmental factors.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

da Silva IB, AM Costa-Leonardo (2023)

On the reproductive strategies post-colony foundation: major termite pest species with distinct ecological habits differ in their oviposition dynamics.

Bulletin of entomological research pii:S0007485323000421 [Epub ahead of print].

Termite colony foundation precedes the incipient stage, when the first oviposition cycle takes place, followed by months of reproductive inactivity. The royal couple is supposed to cease oviposition during this period, investing energy to care for the first brood. When a suitable number of alloparents differentiate, egg-laying resumes. Here we followed oviposition dynamics, embryo development and queen/king body changes in laboratory colonies of the major pest species Coptotermes gestroi (Rhinotermitidae) and Cryptotermes brevis (Kalotermitidae) during 9 months. We show that they differ in these oviposition dynamics, as C. gestroi queens displayed an uninterrupted oviposition whereas C. brevis laid a cohort of eggs and ceased oviposition during a 3-month period (lag phase). C. gestroi oviposition dynamic was remarkable and suggests that occurrence of progeny was not a limiting factor, thus queens and kings were able to concomitantly invest energy in reproduction and parental care. These findings contrast those reported for rhinotermitids from temperate areas, and we discuss the likely reasons for such a condition, including endogenous rhythms, avoidance of a high mortality rate of the first progeny and adaptation to the weather conditions of the Neotropical region. Oviposition dynamic in C. brevis resembled those of several termite species, in which the royal couple cease reproduction to care for the first brood. Rearing conditions did not influence oviposition dynamics (egg-laying cycle followed by a lag phase), thus our results on the oviposition of C. gestroi and C. brevis correspond to different reproductive strategies post-foundation adopted by these pest species.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Iqbal U, Hameed M, F Ahmad (2023)

Structural and functional traits underlying the capacity of Calotropis procera to face different stress conditions.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 203:107992 pii:S0981-9428(23)00503-X [Epub ahead of print].

Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton, originally native to tropical and sub-tropical regions of northwestern Africa to southwest Asia through the Arabian Peninsula. The present study was engaged to uncover the underlying mechanism (structural and functional) of C. procera sampled from six different ecological regions. The population of normal irrigated agriculture field (IAF) had better growth, high K[+] ion content, photosynthetic pigments (chl a chl b, Tchl and caro) and stomatal density. The population of dust and pollution stressed habitat (IWD) exhibited enlarged epidermal cells in stem and leaf, enhanced cortical proportion with largest cells in stem and phloem area in leaf. The population of drought and aridity stressed habitat (ARS) showed increased root cellular area, cortical region thickness and its cell area, and phloem region. The population from salt-affected habitat (SLF) possessed high root and shoot ionic contents (Na[+] and Ca[2+]), total soluble sugars, total antioxidant activity, chlorophyll a/b, widened metaxylem vessels and phloem area in the stem, while intensive sclerification observed in both stem and leaf. The population native to waterlogged and salinity stressed habitat (APC) represented vigorous root growth, total free amino acids, well-developed metaxylem vessels and stomatal area in leaf. The population from drought and salinity-prone habitat (UBL) indicate increased storage of parenchymatous tissue (pith region and its cells area) and epidermal cell area in leaf. It is concluded that C. procera showed much outmost behavior in view of growth, structural and functional attributes in response to prevailing environmental condition.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Huang L, Ratkowsky DA, Hui C, et al (2023)

Inequality Measure of Leaf Area Distribution for a Drought-Tolerant Landscape Plant.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(17): pii:plants12173143.

Measuring the inequality of leaf area distribution per plant (ILAD) can provide a useful tool for quantifying the influences of intra- and interspecific competition, foraging behavior of herbivores, and environmental stress on plants' above-ground architectural structures and survival strategies. Despite its importance, there has been limited research on this issue. This paper aims to fill this gap by comparing four inequality indices to measure ILAD, using indices for quantifying household income that are commonly used in economics, including the Gini index (which is based on the Lorenz curve), the coefficient of variation, the Theil index, and the mean log deviation index. We measured the area of all leaves for 240 individual plants of the species Shibataea chinensis Nakai, a drought-tolerant landscape plant found in southern China. A three-parameter performance equation was fitted to observations of the cumulative proportion of leaf area vs. the cumulative proportion of leaves per plant to calculate the Gini index for each individual specimen of S. chinensis. The performance equation was demonstrated to be valid in describing the rotated and right shifted Lorenz curve, given that >96% of root-mean-square error values were smaller than 0.004 for 240 individual plants. By examining the correlation between any of the six possible pairs of indices among the Gini index, the coefficient of variation, the Theil index, and the mean log deviation index, the data show that these indices are closely related and can be used interchangeably to quantify ILAD.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Turner NJ (2023)

New Plants, New Resources, New Knowledge: Early Introductions of Exotic Plants to Indigenous Territories in Northwestern North America.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(17): pii:plants12173087.

Plants have always been important for the Indigenous Peoples of Northwestern North America. Collectively, these peoples named and used hundreds of different native plant species, along with diverse animal species. When traders and settlers from Europe and other parts of the world arrived in the region, they brought many new species of plants with them. Some (e.g., turnips (Brassica rapa) and onions (Allium cepa)), were from Europe, and some (e.g., potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)) were from South America or elsewhere. Other plants, like dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, probably arrived unintentionally, as weeds. Examining the ways in which the Indigenous Peoples have incorporated these new species into their lexicons and lifestyles provides insight into processes of acquiring and embracing new products and expanding the cultural knowledge base for human societies in general.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Rodríguez-Merino A (2023)

Identifying and Managing Areas under Threat in the Iberian Peninsula: An Invasion Risk Atlas for Non-Native Aquatic Plant Species as a Potential Tool.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(17): pii:plants12173069.

Predicting the likelihood that non-native species will be introduced into new areas remains one of conservation's greatest challenges and, consequently, it is necessary to adopt adequate management measures to mitigate the effects of future biological invasions. At present, not much information is available on the areas in which non-native aquatic plant species could establish themselves in the Iberian Peninsula. Species distribution models were used to predict the potential invasion risk of (1) non-native aquatic plant species already established in the peninsula (32 species) and (2) those with the potential to invade the peninsula (40 species). The results revealed that the Iberian Peninsula contains a number of areas capable of hosting non-native aquatic plant species. Areas under anthropogenic pressure are at the greatest risk of invasion, and the variable most related to invasion risk is temperature. The results of this work were used to create the Invasion Risk Atlas for Alien Aquatic Plants in the Iberian Peninsula, a novel online resource that provides information about the potential distribution of non-native aquatic plant species. The atlas and this article are intended to serve as reference tools for the development of public policies, management regimes, and control strategies aimed at the prevention, mitigation, and eradication of non-native aquatic plant species.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Kato-Noguchi H (2023)

The Impact and Invasive Mechanisms of Pueraria montana var. lobata, One of the World's Worst Alien Species.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(17): pii:plants12173066.

Pueraria montana var. lobata is native to East Asia, and was introduced to many countries due to its potential for multiple uses. This species escaped under the management conditions soon after its introduction, and became a harmful weed species. This species has been listed in the top 100 of the world's worst invasive alien species. P. montana stands expand quickly and threaten the native flora and fauna including microbiota. This species affects the concentration of carbon and nitrogen in soil and aquatic environments, and increases the amount of pollutants in the local atmosphere. Its infestation also causes serious economic losses on forestry and agriculture. Its characteristics of fast growth, thick canopy structure, enormous vegetative reproduction, and adaptative ability to the various environmental conditions may contribute to the invasiveness and naturalization of this species. The characteristics of P. montana regarding their defense functions against their natural enemies and pathogens, and allelopathy may also contribute to the invasiveness of this species. Potential allelochemicals such as xanthoxins, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, methyl caffeate and daidzein, and two isoflavones with anti-virus activity were identified in this species. In addition, fewer herbivore insects were found in the introduced ranges. These characteristics of P. montana may be involved in the invasive mechanisms of the species. This is the first review article focusing on the invasive mechanisms of this species.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Mthethwa K, S Ruwanza (2023)

Topsoil and Vegetation Dynamics 14 Years after Eucalyptus grandis Removal in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(17): pii:plants12173047.

A great deal of effort has been made to clear invasive alien plants in South Africa, yet it remains unclear if the clearing efforts are yielding positive soil and vegetation recovery trajectories. A few short-term studies have been conducted to monitor soil and vegetation recovery after alien plant removal in South Africa, but convincing, long-term monitoring studies are scarce yet needed. We investigated topsoil and vegetation recovery following Eucalyptus grandis removal 14 years ago by Working for Water in Makhanda, Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The detailed topsoil and vegetation surveys were conducted on forty 10 m × 10 m plots that were in paired cleared and natural sites. The results show no significant differences for the measured soil pH, total N, total C, K, Ca, and Na between the cleared and natural sites, an indication that the two sites are becoming similar. Similarly, the gravimetric soil moisture content shows no significant differences between the two sites, although monthly variations are observed. The topsoils in the cleared sites are hydrophobic as compared to those in the natural sites, which are wettable. We observed no significant vegetation diversity differences between the two sites, with native woody species, such as Crassula pellucida and Helichrysum petiolare, frequently occurring in the cleared sites. We recorded low reinvasion by E. grandis and other secondary invaders like Acacia mearnsii and Rubus cuneifolius in the cleared sites. Based on these results, we conclude that 14 years after E. grandis clearing, both topsoil and vegetation recovery are following a positive trajectory towards the natural sites. However, both reinvasion and secondary invasion have the potential to slow down soil and native vegetation recovery. Recommendations such as timeous follow-up clearing and incorporating restoration monitoring in the WfW clearing programme are discussed.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Zhang M, Saimi A, Liu Q, et al (2023)

The Detection of Yr Genes in Xinjiang Wheat Cultivars Using Different Molecular Markers.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(17): pii:ijms241713372.

Wheat stripe rust is a fungal disease caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. Tritici (Pst). It significantly impacts wheat yields in Xinjiang, China. Breeding and promoting disease-resistant cultivars carrying disease-resistance genes remains the most cost-effective strategy with which to control the disease. In this study, 17 molecular markers were used to identify Yr5, Yr9, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, Yr26, Yr41, Yr44, and Yr50 in 82 wheat cultivars from Xinjiang. According to the differences in SNP loci, the KASP markers for Yr30, Yr52, Yr78, Yr80, and Yr81 were designed and detected in the same set of 82 wheat cultivars. The results showed that there was a diverse distribution of Yr genes across all wheat cultivars in Xinjiang, and the detection rates of Yr5, Yr15, Yr17, Yr26, Yr41, and Yr50 were the highest, ranging from 74.39% to 98.78%. In addition, Yr5 and Yr15 were prevalent in spring wheat cultivars, with detection rates of 100% and 97.56%, respectively. A substantial 85.37% of wheat cultivars carried at least six or more different combinations of Yr genes. The cultivar Xindong No.15 exhibited the remarkable presence of 11 targeted Yr genes. The pedigree analysis results showed that 33.33% of Xinjiang wheat cultivars shared similar parentage, potentially leading to a loss of resistance against Pst. The results clarified the Yr gene distribution of the Xinjiang wheat cultivars and screened out varieties with a high resistance against Pst.

RevDate: 2023-09-08

Shelly T, Oehlschlager C, R Kurashima (2023)

Natural Oil Lure Outperforms Trimedlure in Capturing Males of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

Neotropical entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Females of certain tephritid fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose an enormous agricultural threat, as they oviposit in commercially important fruits and vegetables. Trapping networks are often operated in fruit fly-free areas to detect incipient infestations. Trapping relies largely on male attractants, so-called male lures, with trimedlure (TML) being used to detect invasive Ceratitis spp. Operating large-scale surveillance programs incurs substantial costs for both supplies and labor, and the problem is exacerbated by the fact that trimedlure (as well as other male lures) is effective for relatively short intervals in the field (6-8 weeks). Because frequent servicing increases costs, there is considerable interest in modifying existing lures or developing new formulations to extend their effective field longevity. Here, we present results of a field study in Hawaii on a wild population of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), that compared male captures in traps baited with (i) fresh liquid TML, (ii) TML plugs, (iii) a novel controlled-release TML sachet, and (iv) a novel natural oil blend dispensed from a sachet. Catch was recorded weekly for 12 weeks and then at 16 and 20 weeks, with 12 traps deployed per treatment. The natural oil formulation, which contains the natural plant product α-copaene, was as effective as the fresh liquid TML even after weathering for 20 weeks. Future work will focus on developing a dispenser for this formulation that is compatible with standard trap design and deployment.

RevDate: 2023-09-08

Matthee CA, Bierman A, Krasnov BR, et al (2023)

Documenting the microbiome diversity and distribution in selected Ctenocephalides fleas from southern Africa.

Parasitology pii:S0031182023000835 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-09-08

Ahmed DA, Haubrock PJ, Cuthbert RN, et al (2023)

Recent advances in availability and synthesis of the economic costs of biological invasions.

Bioscience, 73(8):560-574 pii:biad060.

Biological invasions are a global challenge that has received insufficient attention. Recently available cost syntheses have provided policy- and decision makers with reliable and up-to-date information on the economic impacts of biological invasions, aiming to motivate effective management. The resultant InvaCost database is now publicly and freely accessible and enables rapid extraction of monetary cost information. This has facilitated knowledge sharing, developed a more integrated and multidisciplinary network of researchers, and forged multidisciplinary collaborations among diverse organizations and stakeholders. Over 50 scientific publications so far have used the database and have provided detailed assessments of invasion costs across geographic, taxonomic, and spatiotemporal scales. These studies have provided important information that can guide future policy and legislative decisions on the management of biological invasions while simultaneously attracting public and media attention. We provide an overview of the improved availability, reliability, standardization, and defragmentation of monetary costs; discuss how this has enhanced invasion science as a discipline; and outline directions for future development.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Graham F (2023)

Daily briefing: Invasive species contribute to most extinctions.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Mineau A, Tian N, Gan J, et al (2023)

Private Landowners' Perspectives on Feral Swine and Regulation-Evidence from Arkansas, Louisiana, and East Texas.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

Feral swine (FS) (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that has spread widely across the southern United States, including the West Gulf region. With their rapidly increasing population, they have caused severe damage to landowners. To better understand private landowners' knowledge and attitudes toward FS, we conducted a mail survey in the West Gulf region including Arkansas, Louisiana, and East Texas in 2021. The results indicated that the majority of landowners are familiar with, have overall negative opinions of, and are concerned about the presence and future population growth of FS in this region. Nearly 70% of the private landowners surveyed supported stricter FS control regulations. Logistic regression results further revealed that landowners' supportiveness for FS control regulations is associated with their perceived FS-induced economic damage and ownership characteristics (i.e., age and tenure). These findings shed new light on private landowners' perspectives on FS invasions and control regulations, aiding in developing and implementing FS control/management policies and programs in the West Gulf region and beyond.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Davidson JL, LG Shoemaker (2023)

Resistance and resilience to invasion is stronger in synchronous than compensatory communities.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

While community synchrony is a key framework for predicting ecological constancy, the interplay between community synchrony and ecological invasions remains unclear. Yet the degree of synchrony in a resident community may influence its resistance and resilience to the introduction of an invasive species. Here we used a generalizable mathematical framework, constructed with a modified Lotka-Volterra competition model, to first simulate resident communities across a range of competitive strengths and species' responses to environmental fluctuations, which yielded communities that ranged from strongly synchronous to compensatory. We then invaded these communities at different timesteps with invaders of varying demographic traits, after which we quantified the resident community's susceptibility to initial invasion attempts (resistance) and the degree to which community synchrony was altered after invasion (resiliency of synchrony). We found that synchronous communities were not only more resistant but also more resilient to invasion than compensatory communities, likely due to stronger competition between resident species and thus lower cumulative abundances in compensatory communities, providing greater opportunities for invasion. The growth rate of the invader was most influenced by the resident and invader competition coefficients and the growth rate of the invader species. Our findings support prioritizing the conservation of compensatory and weakly synchronous communities which may be at increased risk of invasion.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Skóra ME, Guðbergsson G, Copp GH, et al (2023)

Evidence of successful recruitment of non-native pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in Iceland.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

In mid-May 2022, pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha smolts were caught in the rivers Botnsá, Grímsá, and Langá in Iceland. This observation provides the first evidence of successful spawning and the completion of the freshwater phase of the life cycle in Icelandic rivers. It is the most western record of O. gorbuscha smolts in Europe, further west than Russia, Norway, and the UK. Smolts originating from Iceland potentially support the recruitment of this species in the North Atlantic and may lead to the establishment of a self-sustaining populations in Iceland. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Polo-Cavia N, Arribas R, Caballero-Díaz C, et al (2023)

Widespread learned predator recognition to an alien predator across populations in an amphibian species.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14599.

Alien predators are a major cause of decline and extinction of species worldwide, since native organisms are rarely equipped with specific antipredatory strategies to cope with them. However, phenotypic plasticity and learned predator recognition may help prey populations to survive novel predators. Here we examine geographical variation in the learning ability of larval spadefoot toads (Pelobates cultripes) to recognize invasive predatory crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). We compare the learning-mediated behavioural responses of tadpoles from six populations across two regions in Spain (central and southern), with different histories of exposure to the presence of the invasive species. Two of the populations showed innate recognition of chemical cues from the invasive crayfish, whereas three of them learned to recognize such cues as a threat after conditioning with conspecific alarm cues. Learning abilities did not differ among southern populations, but they did among central populations. We assessed patterns of genetic variation within and among these two regions through microsatellite markers and found low genetic divergence among the southern populations but greater differentiation among the central ones. We hypothesize that similar responses to the invasive crayfish in southern populations may have arisen from a combination of extended historical exposure to this introduced predator (~ 50 y) and higher levels of gene flow, as they inhabit a highly interconnected pond network. In contrast, populations from central Spain show lower connectivity, have been exposed to the invasive crayfish for a shorter period of time, and are more divergent in their plastic responses.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Andres KJ, Lodge DM, J Andrés (2023)

Environmental DNA reveals the genetic diversity and population structure of an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(37):e2307345120.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been established as a noninvasive and efficient approach to sample genetic material from aquatic environments. Although most commonly used to determine species presence and measure biodiversity, eDNA approaches also hold great potential to obtain population-level genetic information from water samples. In this study, we sequenced a panel of multiallelic microsatellite markers from filtered water and fish tissue samples to uncover patterns of intraspecific diversity in the freshwater Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) across their invaded range in the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Although we found that the concentration of nuclear eDNA is lower than mitochondrial eDNA, we nonetheless detected over two-thirds of all nuclear alleles identified from genotyped tissues in our eDNA samples, with the greatest recovery of common alleles in the population. Estimates of allele frequencies and genetic variability within and between populations were detected from eDNA in patterns that were consistent with individual tissue-based estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation. The strongest genetic differentiation in both eDNA and tissues exists in an isolation by distance pattern. Our study demonstrates the potential for eDNA-based approaches to characterize key population parameters required to effectively monitor, manage, or sustain aquatic species.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Vetrovec M, CJ Payne (2023)

Evaluating spotted lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) infestation in the Northern Ohio Valley.

Journal of economic entomology pii:7260552 [Epub ahead of print].

Lycorma delicatula White (spotted lanternfly; SLF) is an invasive pest insect threatening increased agricultural costs as it spreads rapidly westward across the United States. As such, surveying was conducted adjacent to the insect's westernmost quarantine area in 2021-2022 to support multi-state monitoring. Specifically, 2,077 visual and sticky-trap surveys were performed in 13 repeatedly surveyed plots strategically located near high-traffic roadways and rail-lines along the Ohio-West Virginia border. Sites were located in Jefferson (Ohio), Brooke (West Virginia), and Hancock (West Virginia) counties. Only one SLF was detected in 2021 (the third documented Ohio site containing SLF) in close proximity to a railway, consistent with rail-mediated dispersal trends recorded throughout the United States. Thirty-one SLF were captured in 2 Ohio sites in 2022, 30 of which were captured at the same railway site as in 2021. However, 1 of the 31 SLF was found in a plot on a university campus 1.25 km from the nearest railway, along with 10 additional specimens found in a follow-up visual survey of a neighboring woodlot. Failure to detect SLF at nearby survey plots nearer to the closest rail line and commuter parking lots suggests local unaided dispersal in a state with primarily train-mediated dispersal-mirroring trends in affected states with more established SLF populations. Data from this survey are valuable for establishing baselines and early-invasion patterns of SLF dispersal into Ohio, anticipating SLF expansion patterns in Ohio, and eventually contributing to improved SLF dispersal modeling in Ohio, the Midwest, and the United States.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Sparks MM, Schraidt CE, Yin X, et al (2023)

Rapid genetic adaptation to a novel ecosystem despite a large founder event.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Introduced and invasive species make excellent natural experiments for investigating rapid evolution. Here, we describe the effects of genetic drift and rapid genetic adaptation in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) that were accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes via a single introduction event 31 generations ago. Using whole-genome resequencing for 134 fish spanning five sample groups across the native and introduced range, we estimate that the source population's effective population size was 146,886 at the time of introduction, whereas the founding population's effective population size was just 72-a 2040-fold decrease. As expected with a severe founder event, we show reductions in genome-wide measures of genetic diversity, specifically a 37.7% reduction in the number of SNPs and an 8.2% reduction in observed heterozygosity. Despite this decline in genetic diversity, we provide evidence for putative selection at 47 loci across multiple chromosomes in the introduced populations, including missense variants in genes associated with circadian rhythm, immunological response and maturation, which match expected or known phenotypic changes in the Great Lakes. For one of these genes, we use a species-specific agent-based model to rule out genetic drift and conclude our results support a strong response to selection occurring in a period gene (per2) that plays a predominant role in determining an organism's daily clock, matching large day length differences experienced by introduced salmon during important phenological periods. Together, these results inform how populations might evolve rapidly to new environments, even with a small pool of standing genetic variation.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Baker CM, Blonda P, Casella F, et al (2023)

Using remote sensing data within an optimal spatiotemporal model for invasive plant management: the case of Ailanthus altissima in the Alta Murgia National Park.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14587.

We tackle the problem of coupling a spatiotemporal model for simulating the spread and control of an invasive alien species with data coming from image processing and expert knowledge. In this study, we implement a spatially explicit optimal control model based on a reaction-diffusion equation which includes an Holling II type functional response term for modeling the density control rate. The model takes into account the budget constraint related to the control program and searches for the optimal effort allocation for the minimization of the invasive alien species density. Remote sensing and expert knowledge have been assimilated in the model to estimate the initial species distribution and its habitat suitability, empirically extracted by a land cover map of the study area. The approach has been applied to the plant species Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle within the Alta Murgia National Park. This area is one of the Natura 2000 sites under the study of the ongoing National Biodiversity Future Center (NBFC) funded by the Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP), and pilot site of the finished H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL, which aimed at the integration of modeling tools and Earth Observations for a sustainable management of protected areas. Both the initial density map and the land cover map have been generated by using very high resolution satellite images and validated by means of ground truth data provided by the EU Life Alta Murgia Project (LIFE12 BIO/IT/000213), a project aimed at the eradication of A. altissima in the Alta Murgia National Park.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Zhou Z, Wu H, Wu Z, et al (2023)

Identification of sex pheromone of red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii and exploration of the chemosensory mechanism of their antennae.

Pesticide biochemistry and physiology, 195:105580.

Red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is a globally invasive species, which has caused great damage to biodiversity, agriculture, and fishing. Therefore, the development of effective management methods, such as pheromone control, is necessary for biological control and biodiversity protection. However, the components of P. clarkii sex pheromones have not yet been explored, and the chemosensory mechanism of the P. clarkii antennae after stimulation by sex pheromone also remains unknown. In this study, we isolated and identified the candidate bioactive component of the female P. clarkii sex pheromone using ultrafiltration centrifugation, semi-preparative liquid phase separation and omics technologies and conducted bioassays to determine its attraction ability. Meanwhile, RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the potential chemosensory mechanism of antennae. Our results indicated that the male P. clarkii were uniaxially attracted to the female crude conditioned water (FCW), medium fraction (MF, isolated by ultrafiltration centrifugation), and preparative fragment 6 of females (PFF6, isolated by semi-preparative liquid phase separation). Metabolomic analysis revealed the presence of 18 differential metabolites between the PFF6 and PFM6 samples, among which 15 were significantly upregulated in the PFF6 sample. Bioassay test also showed that mestranol, especially at concentrations of 10[-5]-10[-2] mol∙l[-1], could significantly attract P. clarkii males; therefore, mestranol was identified as the candidate sex pheromone component of P. clarkii females. Furthermore, RNA-Seq results showed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) enriched in lipid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were up-regulated in P. clarkii males. In addition, high expressions of Ca[2+]-binding protein and ion transporting ATPases may enhance the sensitivity of the antennae of P. clarkii males towards sex pheromones. Our study provides data on P. clarkii sex pheromone composition and reveals the molecular mechanism of sex pheromone response in P. clarkii. Moreover, our study provides a referable method for the isolation of candidate bioactive molecules from the P. clarkii sex pheromone.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Brendel MR, Schurr FM, CS Sheppard (2023)

Alien plant fitness is limited by functional trade-offs rather than a long-term increase in competitive effects of native communities.

Ecology and evolution, 13(9):e10468.

Alien plants experience novel abiotic conditions and interactions with native communities in the introduced area. Intra- and interspecific selection on functional traits in the new environment may lead to increased population growth with time since introduction (residence time). However, selection regimes might differ depending on the invaded habitat. Additionally, in high-competition habitats, a build-up of biotic resistance of native species due to accumulation of eco-evolutionary experience to aliens over time may limit invasion success. We tested if the effect of functional traits and the population dynamics of aliens depends on interspecific competition with native plant communities. We conducted a multi-species experiment with 40 annual Asteraceae that differ in residence time in Germany. We followed their population growth in monocultures and in interspecific competition with an experienced native community (varying co-existence times between focals and community). To more robustly test our findings, we used a naïve community that never co-existed with the focals. We found that high seed mass decreased population growth in monocultures but tended to increase population growth under high interspecific competition. We found no evidence for a build-up of competition-mediated biotic resistance by the experienced community over time. Instead, population growth of the focal species was similarly inhibited by the experienced and naïve community. By comparing the effect of experienced and naïve communities on population dynamics over 2 years across a large set of species with a high variation in functional traits and residence time, this study advances the understanding of the long-term dynamics of plant invasions. In our study system, population growth of alien species was not limited by an increase of competitive effects by native communities (one aspect of biotic resistance) over time. Instead, invasion success of alien plants may be limited because initial spread in low-competition habitats requires different traits than establishment in high-competition habitats.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Géron C, Cuthbert RN, Hotte H, et al (2023)

Density-dependent predatory impacts of an invasive beetle across a subantarctic archipelago.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14456.

Biological invasions represent a major threat to biodiversity, especially in cold insular environments characterized by high levels of endemism and low species diversity which are heavily impacted by global warming. Terrestrial invertebrates are very responsive to environmental changes, and native terrestrial invertebrates from cold islands tend to be naive to novel predators. Therefore, understanding the relationships between predators and prey in the context of global changes is essential for the management of these areas, particularly in the case of non-native predators. Merizodus soledadinus (Guérin-Méneville, 1830) is an invasive non-native insect species present on two subantarctic archipelagos, where it has extensive distribution and increasing impacts. While the biology of M. soledadinus has recently received attention, its trophic interactions have been less examined. We investigated how characteristics of M. soledadinus, its density, as well as prey density influence its predation rate on the Kerguelen Islands where the temporal evolution of its geographic distribution is precisely known. Our results show that M. soledadinus can have high ecological impacts on insect communities when present in high densities regardless of its residence time, consistent with the observed decline of the native fauna of the Kerguelen Islands in other studies. Special attention should be paid to limiting factors enhancing its dispersal and improving biosecurity for invasive insect species.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Casabella-Herrero G, Higuera-Gamindez M, Alcaide Azcona V, et al (2023)

Austropotamobius pallipes can be infected by two haplotypes of Aphanomyces astaci: a key example from an outbreak at an ex-situ conservation facility.

Journal of invertebrate pathology pii:S0022-2011(23)00106-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The crayfish plague, caused by the pathogen Aphanomyces astaci, is a pandemic disease endemic to North America that has been devastating susceptible crayfish populations in Europe since the 19[th] century. In Spain, this disease has decimated populations of the native crayfish species Austropotamobius pallipes due to introductions of North American crayfish, which act as vectors of the pathogen. To combat against these losses, several regional governments have established ex-situ breeding programs to restock wild populations of the species. In this study, we report on an outbreak of A. astaci that occurred in one of the most important A. pallipes aquaculture centers in Spain. Using a variety of detection methods, we analyzed affected crayfish and environmental samples from the facilities over a period of six months and determined that the outbreak was caused by two haplotypes of A. astaci, d1 and d2, which are both associated with the North American crayfish species Procambarus clarkii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a two-haplotype coinfection of A. astaci outside the native range of this pathogen.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Garcia F, Alves DA Silva A, Heleno R, et al (2023)

Red deer as a disperser of native, but not invasive plants' seeds.

Integrative zoology, 18(5):859-866.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Yang R, Yu X, Nie P, et al (2023)

Climatic niche and range shifts of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin) in Europe: An invasive pest displacing native squirrels.

Pest management science, 79(10):3731-3739.

BACKGROUND: As an invasive pest from North America, grey squirrels (GSs; Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin) are displacing native squirrels in Europe. However, the climatic niche and range dynamics of GSs in Europe remain largely unknown. Through niche and range dynamic models, we investigated climatic niche and range shifts between introduced GSs in Europe and native GSs in North America.

RESULTS: GSs in North America can survive in more variable climatic conditions and have much wider climatic niche breadth than do GSs in Europe. Based on climate, the potential range of GSs in Europe included primarily Britain, Ireland, and Italy, whereas the potential range of GSs in North America included vast regions of western and southern Europe. If GSs in Europe could occupy the same climatic niche space and potential range as GSs in North America, they would occupy an area ca. 2.45 times the size of their current range. The unfilling ranges of GSs in Europe relative to those of GSs in North America were primarily in France, Italy, Spain, Croatia, and Portugal.

CONCLUSION: Our observations implied that GSs in Europe have significant invasion potential, and that range projections based on their occurrence records in Europe may underestimate their invasion risk. Given that small niche shifts between GSs in Europe and in North America could lead to large range shifts, niche shifts could be a sensitive indicator in invasion risk assessment. The identified unfilling ranges of the GS in Europe should be prioritized in combating GS invasions in the future. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Dye-Braumuller KC, Gual-Gonzalez L, Abiodun T, et al (2023)

Invasive Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) investigation in South Carolina: new records of establishment, pathogen prevalence, and blood meal analyses.

Journal of medical entomology pii:7258904 [Epub ahead of print].

The first established population of the Asian longhorned tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (Neumann, Acari: Ixodidae) was discovered in a northern South Carolina county in June 2022. A coordinated investigation was launched to investigate the invasive tick's pathogen infection prevalence and blood meal preferences. Almost 2,000 Ha. longicornis ticks were collected from one cattle field. A majority of collected ticks had evidence of cattle and dog blood meals, and multiple samples were tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Theileria orientalis-first reports for these pathogens in this tick species in South Carolina. This investigation was the direct result of a collaborative education campaign and tick surveillance program launched earlier in the year with multiple state partners.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Lawrence MJ, Grayson P, Jeffrey JD, et al (2023)

Differences in the transcriptome response in the gills of sea lamprey acutely exposed to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), niclosamide or a TFM:niclosamide mixture.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part D, Genomics & proteomics, 48:101122 pii:S1744-117X(23)00067-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America makes use of two pesticides: 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and niclosamide, which are often co-applied. Sea lamprey appear to be vulnerable to these agents resulting from a lack of detoxification responses with evidence suggesting that lampricide mixtures produce a synergistic effect. However, there is a lack of information pertaining to the physiological responses of sea lamprey to niclosamide and TFM:niclosamide mixtures. Here, we characterized the transcriptomic responses of the sea lamprey to TFM, niclosamide, and a TFM:niclosamide (1.5 %) mixture in the gill. Along with a control, larval sea lamprey were exposed to each treatment for 6 h, after which gill tissues were extracted for measuring whole-transcriptome responses using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression patterns were summarized, which included identifying the broad roles of genes and common expression patterns among the treatments. While niclosamide treatment resulted in no differentially expressed genes, TFM- and mixture-treated fish had several differentially expressed genes that were associated with the cell cycle, DNA damage, metabolism, immune function, and detoxification. However, there was no common differential expression among treatments. For the first time, we characterized the transcriptomic response of sea lamprey to niclosamide and a TFM:niclosamide mixture and identified that these agents impact mRNA transcript abundance of genes associated with the cell cycle and cellular death, and immune function, which are likely mediated through mitochondrial dysregulation. These results may help to inform the production of more targeted and effective lampricides in sea lamprey control efforts.

RevDate: 2023-09-01

Vagge I, G Chiaffarelli (2023)

The Alien Plant Species Impact in Rice Crops in Northwestern Italy.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:plants12102012.

Alien species represent one of the causes of biodiversity loss, both in natural and anthropic environments. This study contributes to the assessment of alien species impact on Western Po Plain rice field cultivations, referring to different agricultural management practices and ecological traits. Flora and vegetation were studied (the latter through the phytosociological method), and α-biodiversity was estimated through Shannon and Simpson Indices. Results highlighted a significant floristic contingent depletion and increase in therophyte and alien components, compared to pre-existing studies (1950s); higher α-biodiversity levels in organic farms, compared to conventional farms, but also a higher invasive alien species percentage. The high deterioration of the territorial-landscape context appears to play a major role in shaping these patterns. Some of these alien species are particularly aggressive (e.g., Murdannia keisak), as confirmed by two experimental rice field plots which were left unharvested, continuously flooded, making it possible to assess the competitiveness between weed species. The detected weed vegetation is attributed to the Oryzo sativae-Echinochloetum cruris-galli association, already described for Southern Europe, with two different ecological and floristic variants. Future studies, by including other sites and framing their territorial-landscape context, may further complement this overview on the alien species distribution and behavior in rice fields, hence facilitating their strategic management.

RevDate: 2023-09-01

Szabó K, Gergely A, Tóth B, et al (2023)

Assessing the Spontaneous Spread of Climate-Adapted Woody Plants in an Extensively Maintained Collection Garden.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:plants12101989.

Climate change may strongly modify the habitat conditions for many woody plant species. Some species could disappear from their natural habitats and become endangered, while others could adapt well to the changed environmental conditions and continue to survive successfully or even proliferate more easily. A similar process can occur within the artificial urban environment as the hitherto popularly planted urban trees may suffer from the extremities of the urban climate. However, among the planted taxa, there are species that spread spontaneously and appear as weeds in extensively managed gardens. In our study, we evaluated the native and non-native species involved in spontaneous spreading in the institutional garden of Buda Arboretum (Budapest) during the COVID-19 period in 2020-2021 when entry was prohibited, and maintenance went on in a restricted, minimal level. We investigated the correlation between spontaneously settling and planted individuals, and then performed multivariate analyses for native and non-native spreading plants for spatial and quantitative data. During our studies, we observed the spontaneous spreading of 114 woody species, of which 38 are native and 76 are non-native. Taking the total number of individuals into account, we found that, in addition to the 2653 woody species planted, a further 7087 spontaneously emerged weeds developed, which creates an additional task in the maintenance.

RevDate: 2023-09-01

Kato-Noguchi H (2023)

Invasive Mechanisms of One of the World's Worst Alien Plant Species Mimosa pigra and Its Management.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:plants12101960.

Mimosa pigra is native to Tropical America, and it has naturalized in many other countries especially in Australia, Eastern and Southern Africa and South Asia. The species is listed in the top 100 of the world's worst invasive alien species and is listed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. M. pigra forms very large monospecific stands in a wet-dry tropical climate with conditions such as floodplains, riverbanks, grasslands, forests and agricultural fields. The stands expand quickly and threaten the native flora and fauna in the invasive ranges. Possible mechanisms of the invasion of the species have been investigated and accumulated in the literature. The characteristics of the life history such as the high reproduction and high growth rate, vigorous mutualism with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, very few natural enemies, and allelopathy, and certain secondary metabolites may contribute to the invasiveness and naturalization of M. pigra. Herbicide application, such as aerial spraying, foliar, cut-stump and soil treatments, is the primary control methods of M. pigra. The investigation of the natural enemies of M. pigra has been conducted in its native ranges since 1979, and biological control agents have been selected based on host specificity, rearing and availability. Mechanical control practices, such as hand weeding, bulldozing, chaining and fire, were also effective. However, the species often regrow from the remaining plant parts. Integration of multiple weed control practices may be more effective than any single practice. This is the first review article focusing on the invasive mechanism of M. pigra.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Seok S, Kim Z, Nguyen VT, et al (2023)

The potential invasion into North America and Europe by non-native mosquito, Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Journal of medical entomology pii:7257378 [Epub ahead of print].

Aedes koreicus (Edward, 1917) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito species native to East Asia, has spread to parts of Europe and Central Asia since 2008. The species shares ecological characteristics with Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae), which has already successfully invaded and established in North America and Europe. Given these similarities, it is plausible that Ae. koreicus may also invade North America in the future. However, the invasion of Ae. koreicus may be masked or have delayed detection due to their similar morphologies with Ae. japonicus. This study highlights the potential risks of invasion of Ae. koreicus into North America, especially in the northeastern United States, and for further expansion in Europe. We used the maximum entropy model to identify areas with a high likelihood of presence in North America and Europe using comprehensive occurrence records from East Asia, Central Asia, and Europe. We have identified 15 additional countries in Europe and 7 states in the United States that will likely have suitable environments for Ae. koreicus. Additionally, we reviewed the morphological characteristics of Ae. koreicus and Ae. japonicus and provided morphological keys to distinguish the 2 species. Morphological results contradicting previous studies suggested that finding the origin by morphological comparison between Ae. koreicus populations may need re-evaluation. The information presented here will be useful for researchers and public health professionals in high-risk areas to be informed about morphological characteristics to distinguish Ae. koreicus from similar-looking Ae. japonicus. These tools will allow more careful monitoring of the potential introduction of this highly invasive species.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Zhao QY, Ma FH, Deng W, et al (2023)

Phytosanitary irradiation treatment of the aerial root mealybug, Pseudococcus baliteus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

Journal of economic entomology pii:7257376 [Epub ahead of print].

The aerial root mealybug, Pseudococcus baliteus Lit (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an important invasive and quarantine pest that poses a potential threat to fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. As a result, phytosanitary treatments are necessary to ensure the commodities of international trade are free from these pests. To determine the minimum absorbed dose required for phytosanitary irradiation (PI) application, irradiation dose-response and large-scale confirmatory tests were conducted. Eggs that were 2, 4, and 6 days old and late gravid females (containing 0-day-old eggs) of P. baliteus were X-ray irradiated with doses of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Gray (Gy). The efficacy of preventing egg-hatching (mortality) was compared using two-way ANOVA, 95% confidence interval overlapping and lethal dose ratio test in probit analysis. The radiotolerance sequence of mealybugs egg was found to be 0 < 2 ≈ 4 < 6-day-old eggs, and their estimated LD99.9968 values with 95% confidence interval were 132.0 (118.9-149.5), 137.6 (125.2-153.7), 145.5 (134.5-159.1), and 157.4 (144.6-173.6) Gy, respectively. Subsequently, target doses of 135 and 145 Gy were used in the confirmatory gamma radiation treatments. No F1 generation neonates developed from a total of 47,316 late females irradiated at the measured dose of 107.7-182.5 Gy, resulting in the treatment efficiency of 99.9937% at the 95% confidence level. Therefore, the highest dose of 183 Gy measured in the confirmatory tests is recommended as the minimum absorbed dose in PI treatment of P. baliteus for establishing national and international standards.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Hogg BN, Grettenberger IM, CJ Borkent (2023)

Parasitism by Gryon aetherium (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) on Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs in northcentral California.

Journal of economic entomology pii:7257377 [Epub ahead of print].

Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest of cruciferous crops. The parasitoid Gryon aetherium Talamas (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is a promising biological control agent for B. hilaris because it can forage in the soil where B. hilaris deposits most of its eggs. In this study, we assessed parasitism by G. aetherium on B. hilaris eggs in situ in northcentral California, including the Salinas Valley where most cruciferous crops in the United States are grown. Parasitism was documented by leaving soil-filled trays under infested plants for 7-14 days, then removing eggs and holding them for emergence of parasitoids. Gryon aetherium accounted for over 99% of emerged parasitoids, and occurred at 11 of the 12 sampled sites. Of the 17,729 and 31,759 B. hilaris eggs collected in 2021 and 2022, 1,518 (8.84%) and 2,654 (8.36%) were parasitized by G. aetherium, respectively. Parasitism rates were generally higher inland and ranged from 3.64% to 44.93% in 2021 and from 1.01% to 23.04% in 2022, and never exceeded 15% on any sample dates at several coastal sites in the Salinas Valley. Discovery efficiency (a measure of the ability of parasitoids to locate egg patches) reached 80% or higher at all but 1 site, but exploitation efficiency (a measure of the ability of parasitoids to exploit the egg patch after it has been discovered) was generally <20%, suggesting that G. aetherium can locate egg patches efficiently but is less efficient at finding eggs within patches.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Zhou Y, Chen C, Xiong Y, et al (2023)

Heavy metal induced resistance to herbivore of invasive plant: implications from inter- and intraspecific comparisons.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1222867.

INTRODUCTION: Heavy metals can affect the content of secondary metabolites in plants, which are one of the important defenses of plants against herbivores. However, studies on the effects of heavy metals on secondary metabolites of invasive plants are scarce. Phytolacca americana is an invasive plant in China, which can hyperaccumulate the heavy metal Mn.

METHODS: This study used two Mn treatments (control and treatment group) and four species from Phytolacca (including the native and introduced populations of P. americana, its native and exotic congeners in China) to investigate the impact of heavy metal Mn on the invasive ability of P. americana.

RESULTS: The results show that heavy metal Mn can enhance the inhibitory effect of the introduced populations of P. americana on the growth of herbivore (the weight of herbivore has decreased by 66%), and altered the feeding preferences of herbivore. We also found that heavy metal Mn can significantly increase the content of quantitative resistance in the leaves of the introduced populations of P. americana and is higher than its native populations, native and exotic congeners. In addition, heavy metal Mn caused the quantitative resistance of the exotic congener significantly higher than that of the native congeners.

DISCUSSION: In summary, the heavy metal Mn can increase the content of secondary metabolites in leaves to enhance the interspecific competitive advantage of P. americana and promote its invasion, and also increase the invasion risk of exotic species.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Pincheira-Ulbrich J (2023)

Exploring the vegetation of the coastal road in Puerto Cisnes, southern Chile: a vascular plant inventory.

Biodiversity data journal, 11:e107217.

BACKGROUND: In areas of low disturbance, such as the Aysén Region of Chile, the presence of roads can inadvertently facilitate the spread of invasive species. To address this issue, it is imperative to maintain up-to-date biological inventories, as they serve as a primary source of information for the conservation of species and ecosystems. However, the maintenance of systematic inventories of vascular plants in Chile is virtually non-existent, especially outside protected wilderness areas. The data we have come from an inventory of vascular plant species along a stretch of coastal road in Puerto Cisnes (Aysén Region), characterised by a cut slope in the rock. The site is located between mountain ranges, in a region known for its protected wilderness areas and low levels of anthropogenic alteration. The study adopted an observational sampling design, using the road as a transect. For each species identified, the growth substrate, habit and dispersal mode were recorded. A total of 70 species (36 herbs, 23 shrubs and 11 trees) belonging to 42 families were found. The most represented families were Hymenophyllaceae (nine species) and Myrtaceae (four species). We recorded nine introduced species belonging to seven botanical families (Cirsiumvulgare (Savi) Ten., Crocosmiacrocosmiiflora (Lemoine ex Burb. & Dean) N.E.Br., Cytisusscoparius (L.) Link, Digitalispurpurea L., Lotuspedunculatus Cav., Plantagolanceolata L., Polygonumcampanulatum Hook. f., Prunellavulgaris L., Rubusconstrictus Lefèvre & P.J.Müll). Of these nine species, seven are invasive, while the remaining two species have not been assessed for invasive potential (i.e. Crocosmiacrocosmiiflora and Polygonumcampanulatum). In particular, Crocosmiacrocosmiiflora and Rubusconstrictus are new regional records. The majority of species were found growing on the ground (44 species), while a significant proportion were found exclusively on rocky slopes (17 species). According to their seed dispersal mechanism, the most common syndromes were anemochory (32 species) and ornithochory (20 species). Other mechanisms such as mammalochory, ballochory or myrmecochory were less common (less than four species).

NEW INFORMATION: This study provides valuable data on the vascular flora of Puerto Cisnes, Chile, a modest human settlement in a minimally altered landscape. The region, dominated by native forests and a burgeoning salmon farming industry, has few inventories, so the database presented here adds significantly to local botanical knowledge. The main novelty of this research is that it is the first inventory carried out on a road in a slightly altered area surrounded by protected wilderness areas (such as Magdalena Island National Park and Queulat National Park). The study systematically categorises species according to substrate, habitat and dispersal mode, dimensions that are rarely combined in a single database.The inventory identifies 70 species (36 herbs, 23 shrubs and 11 trees) in 42 families. The most represented families were Hymenophyllaceae (with nine species) and Myrtaceae (with four species). Additionally, we recorded, two introduced species (Crocosmiacrocosmiiflora and Rubusconstrictus) at least 100 km south of their known distribution.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Charrière E, N Langston (2023)

Dumping military waste into Lake Superior: the historic legacies of secrecy, censorship, and uncertainty.

Water history, 15(2):173-200.

In recent years, the issue of military waste disposal in oceans and seas has gained significant attention; however, the impact of such waste in freshwater deposits has been understudied. The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America contain 20% of the world's fresh surface water and are particularly vulnerable to environmental stressors such as climate change, invasive species, and toxic chemicals, making the examination of military waste management in these waters crucial. This interdisciplinary study aims to investigate the legacy of two military waste disposal sites in Lake Superior, referred to as Site A (containing barrels) and Site B (containing bullets). Both are located within the ceded territories of the Ojibwe. Despite being in close proximity, these sites have had vastly different outcomes in terms of public concern, state and federal regulatory actions, and tribal restoration efforts. Based on this observation, this study aims to answer the following questions: How did these differences develop? How did military secrecy and the loss of memory influence the management of underwater military waste at each site? How do uncertainties and rumors continue to influence citizen concern and agency management of military waste? We argue for the importance of investigating the environmental legacies of underwater military waste in order to protect inland freshwater resources worldwide.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Duarte S, Simões L, FO Costa (2023)

Current status and topical issues on the use of eDNA-based targeted detection of rare animal species.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05300-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Animal detection through DNA present in environmental samples (eDNA) is a valuable tool for detecting rare species, that are difficult to observe and monitor. eDNA-based tools are underpinned by molecular evolutionary principles, key to devising tools to efficiently single out a targeted species from an environmental sample. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the use of eDNA-based methods for the detection of targeted animal species, such as rare, endangered, or invasive species, through the analysis of 549 publications (2008-2022). Aquatic ecosystems have been the most surveyed, in particular, freshwaters (74 %), and to a less extent marine (14 %) and terrestrial systems (10 %). Vertebrates, in particular, fish (38 %), and endangered species, have been the focus of most of these studies, and Cytb and COI are the most employed markers. Among invertebrates, assays have been mainly designed for Mollusca and Crustacea species (21 %), in particular, to target invasive species, and COI the most employed marker. Targeted molecular approaches, in particular qPCR, have been the most adopted (75 %), while eDNA metabarcoding has been rarely used to target single or few species (approx. 6 %). However, less attention has been given in these studies to the effects of environmental factors on the amount of shed DNA, the differential amount of shed DNA among species, or the sensitivity of the markers developed, which may impact the design of the assays, particularly to warrant the required detection level and avoid false negatives and positives. The accuracy of the assays will also depend on the availability of genetic data and vouchered tissue or DNA samples from closely related species to assess both marker and primers' specificity. In addition, eDNA-based assays developed for a particular species may have to be refined for use in a new geographic area taking into account site-specific populations, as well as any intraspecific variation.

RevDate: 2023-08-31
CmpDate: 2023-08-31

Lymbery SJ, Webber BL, RK Didham (2023)

Complex battlefields favor strong soldiers over large armies in social animal warfare.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(37):e2217973120.

In social animals, success can depend on the outcome of group battles. Theoretical models of warfare predict that group fighting ability is proportional to two key factors: the strength of each soldier in the group and group size. The relative importance of these factors is predicted to vary across environments [F. W. Lanchester, Aircraft in Warfare, the Dawn of the Fourth Arm (1916)]. Here, we provide an empirical validation of the theoretical prediction that open environments should favor superior numbers, whereas complex environments should favor stronger soldiers [R. N. Franks, L. W. Partridge, Anim. Behav. 45, 197-199 (1993)]. We first demonstrate this pattern using simulated battles between relatively strong and weak soldiers in a computer-driven algorithm. We then validate this result in real animals using an ant model system: In battles in which the number of strong native meat ant Iridomyrmex purpureus workers is constant while the number of weak non-native invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile workers increases across treatments, fatalities of I. purpureus are lower in complex than in simple arenas. Our results provide controlled experimental evidence that investing in stronger soldiers is more effective in complex environments. This is a significant advance in the empirical study of nonhuman warfare and is important for understanding the competitive balance among native and non-native invasive ant species.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Zhang M, Zou Y, Xiao S, et al (2023)

Environmental DNA metabarcoding serves as a promising method for aquatic species monitoring and management: A review focused on its workflow, applications, challenges and prospects.

Marine pollution bulletin, 194(Pt A):115430 pii:S0025-326X(23)00864-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Marine and freshwater biodiversity is under threat from both natural and manmade causes. Biological monitoring is currently a top priority for biodiversity protection. Given present limitations, traditional biological monitoring methods may not achieve the proposed monitoring aims. Environmental DNA metabarcoding technology reflects species information by capturing and extracting DNA from environmental samples, using molecular biology techniques to sequence and analyze the DNA, and comparing the obtained information with existing reference libraries to obtain species identification. However, its practical application has highlighted several limitations. This paper summarizes the main steps in the environmental application of eDNA metabarcoding technology in aquatic ecosystems, including the discovery of unknown species, the detection of invasive species, and evaluations of biodiversity. At present, with the rapid development of big data and artificial intelligence, certain advanced technologies and devices can be combined with environmental DNA metabarcoding technology to promote further development of aquatic species monitoring and management.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Vaughan AL, Parvizi E, Matheson P, et al (2023)

Current stewardship practices in invasion biology limit the value and secondary use of genomic data.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species threaten native biota, putting fragile ecosystems at risk and having a large-scale impact on primary industries. Growing trade networks and the popularity of personal travel make incursions a more frequent risk, one only compounded by global climate change. With increasing publication of whole-genome sequences lies an opportunity for cross-species assessment of invasive potential. However, the degree to which published sequences are accompanied by satisfactory spatiotemporal data is unclear. We assessed the metadata associated with 199 whole-genome assemblies of 89 invasive terrestrial invertebrate species and found that only 38% of these were derived from field-collected samples. Seventy-six assemblies (38%) reported an 'undescribed' sample origin and, while further examination of associated literature closed this gap to 23.6%, an absence of spatial data remained for 47 of the total assemblies. Of the 76 assemblies that were ultimately determined to be field-collected, associated metadata relevant for invasion studies was predominantly lacking: only 35% (27 assemblies) provided granular location data, and 33% (n = 25) lacked sufficient collection date information. Our results support recent calls for standardized metadata in genome sequencing data submissions, highlighting the impact of missing metadata on current research in invasion biology (and likely other fields). Notably, large-scale consortia tended to provide the most complete metadata submissions in our analysis-such cross-institutional collaborations can foster a culture of increased adherence to improved metadata submission standards and a standard of metadata stewardship that enables reuse of genomes in invasion science.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Shivambu N, Shivambu TC, CT Chimimba (2023)

Zoonotic Pathogens Associated with Pet and Feeder Murid Rodent Species: A Global Systematic Review.

Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Pet and feeder rodents are one of the main sources of emerging infectious diseases. These rodents are purchased from pet shops, breeders, and online. Consequently, some of these rodents may subtly transmit diseases as they may be asymptomatic to certain pathogens. Materials and Methods: We systematically searched four academic databases viz. Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to determine zoonotic pathogens associated with pet and feeder rodents globally. Our searches were performed in R statistical software using the packages "metagear" and "revtool". Results: We found 62 studies reporting on zoonotic pathogens between 1973 and 2022 from 16 countries representing 4 continents, namely Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America. The review identified 30 zoonotic pathogens isolated from pet and feeder rodents, including the African pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), and the house mouse (Mus musculus). The greatest number of pathogens was reported from the United States, followed by Togo and the United Kingdom. Bacterial pathogens were the most prevalent. However, the Seoul virus and rat bite fever (Streptobacillus moniliformis) were the most studied pathogens, found in more than one country, with reported outbreak cases. Most of the zoonotic pathogens were isolated from rodents acquired from pet shops. Conclusion: We recommend that pet and feeder rodents purchased from pet shops should be regularly screened for potential zoonotic pathogens as some of these animals may not show clinical signs of the illness. There is also a critical need to develop strict regulations and policies, especially in underdeveloped and developing regions for an effective surveillance process, which will include early detection, rapid response, and control of zoonotic diseases globally.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Cancela F, Cravino A, Icasuriaga R, et al (2023)

Co-circulation of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Genotype 3 and Moose-HEV-Like Strains in Free-Ranging-Spotted Deer (Axis axis) in Uruguay.

Food and environmental virology [Epub ahead of print].

Hepatitis E caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered an emerging foodborne zoonosis in industrialized, non-endemic countries. Domestic pigs and wild boars are considered the main reservoir of HEV. However, HEV can also infect an ever-expanding host range of animals, but they exact role in transmitting the virus to other species or humans is mostly unknown. In this work, we investigated the spread of HEV in free-living and captive spotted deer (Axis axis) from Uruguay in a 2-year period (2020-2022) and examined the role of this invasive species as a new potential reservoir of the virus. In addition, with the aim to gain new insights into viral ecology in the context of One Health, by using camera trapping, we identified and quantified temporal and spatial coexistence of spotted deer, wild boars, and cattle. In free-living animals, we detected an anti-HEV seropositivity of 11.1% (6/54). HEV infection and viral excretion in feces were assessed by RT-PCR. Thirteen of 19 samples (68.4%) had HEV RNA. Six samples were amplified using a broadly reactive RT-PCR and sequenced. No captive animal showed evidence of HEV infection. Additionally, HEV RNA was detected in a freshwater pond shared by these species. Phylogenetic and p-distance analysis revealed that zoonotic HEV genotype 3 strains circulate together with unclassified variants related to moose HEV whose potential risk of transmission to humans and other domestic and wild animals is unknown. The data presented here suggest that spotted deer (A. axis) may be a novel host for zoonotic HEV strains.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

de M de Lima TA, de Lima GG, Munir N, et al (2023)

Nanofibrillated cellulose originated from Rhododendron ponticum to produce scaffolds using 3D printing for biomedical applications.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)03452-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Rhododendron ponticum is an invasive species that spreads rapidly and is described as one of the biggest threats to peatlands in Ireland. This study offers an innovative approach to utilizing Rhododendron waste. Initially, sawdust was submitted to a bleaching treatment and the nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was obtained using two different methods: ultra-fine friction grinding and twin-screw extrusion with the assistance of TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy) pre-treatment. The samples processed through twin-screw extrusion exhibited the presence of NFC at five intervals, as confirmed by TEM analysis. However, these samples displayed a higher diameter deviation compared to those processed through grinding alone. Notably, after 20 extrusion steps, the NFC diameter became more uniform, reaching approximately 35 nm. Sedimentation tests showed that extrusion produced more homogeneous cellulose size than the grinder method. However, FTIR characterization for the samples showed a unique band related to C-O-C glycosidic linkage. The results showed that grinding breaks these groups resulting in crystallinity values lower than extrusion, 50 % compared 60 %. Therefore, NFC with 20 steps by grinding was blended with polycaprolactone to produce a 3D scaffold using a 3D printer at different ratios of 1-5 % addition. The effect of 1 % of NFC was unique showing significant enhanced mechanical properties compared to pure polycaprolactone (PCL), additionally, the NFC does not exhibit toxicity so these materials show promise for biomedical applications.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Hulme PE, Beggs JR, Binny RN, et al (2023)

Emerging advances in biosecurity to underpin human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health.

iScience, 26(9):107462.

One Biosecurity is an interdisciplinary approach to policy and research that builds on the interconnections between human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health to effectively prevent and mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species. To support this approach requires that key cross-sectoral research innovations be identified and prioritized. Following an interdisciplinary horizon scan for emerging research that underpins One Biosecurity, four major interlinked advances were identified: implementation of new surveillance technologies adopting state-of-the-art sensors connected to the Internet of Things, deployable handheld molecular and genomic tracing tools, the incorporation of wellbeing and diverse human values into biosecurity decision-making, and sophisticated socio-environmental models and data capture. The relevance and applicability of these innovations to address threats from pathogens, pests, and weeds in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems emphasize the opportunity to build critical mass around interdisciplinary teams at a global scale that can rapidly advance science solutions targeting biosecurity threats.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Nguyen QT, Huynh Thi KL, Nguyen MP, et al (2023)

A comparative study on essential oils from the leaves and stems of Vietnamese Mikania micrantha Kunth.

Natural product research [Epub ahead of print].

Mikania micrantha Kunth is widely known as potential herbal medicine, although it is an invasive alien species in Southeast Asia. In this study, the essential oils from leaves and stems of M. micrantha were extracted by hydrodistillation method, and the chemical profiles of essential oils were then analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). It was found that there were similarities and differences in chemical compositions and their percentage between the essential oils obtained from these two parts. The dominant components of leaves essential oil are β-Cubebene, Germacrene D, and α-Zingiberene, accounting for 11.34%, 10.96%, and 10.76%, respectively. Additionally, the major components of stems essential oils are D-Limonene (16.99%), β-Pinene (7.91%), and α-Zingiberene (7.26%). The research sheds fresh light on the chemical makeup of M. micrantha essential oils, emphasising their potential for the future.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Thirunavukkarasu S, Shadrin N, N Munuswamy (2023)

The pre- and postembryonic development of Artemia franciscana (Anostraca: Artemiidae).

Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Artemia franciscana is a universal live feed in aquaculture, and it has been reported as an invasive species in many Asian hypersaline ecosystems. The present observations illustrated the pre- and postembryonic development stages of the A. franciscana population confined to the Indian saltern of Kelambakkam. We observed their growth patterns during various hydration periods with specific time intervals. Results showed differences in the development stages with respect to unique identity. Interestingly, a period of hydration showed notable cellular movement toward clockwise positions in the hydrating cysts. After 10 h of hydration, blastocoel appeared, accelerating the dynamic route of nuclei movement. At the end of the invagination, the embryo burst out of the cyst, and a sequence of emerging stages was noted. With reference to light microscopic observations, a series of developmental stages were observed, and each instar was documented by developing limb buds of nauplii. Excitingly, the 10th and 11th instar stages reveal sexual differentiation between male and female individuals. Thus, the laboratory culture study clearly documented the different developmental stages with their specific characteristic features. However, further molecular study would provide a cellular basis for understanding the early development of A. franciscana.

RevDate: 2023-08-27

Liu Q, Zhang HD, Xing D, et al (2023)

The Predicted Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus in China under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP)1-2.6.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(23)00188-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the 100 most invasive species in the world and represents a significant threat to public health. The distribution of Ae. albopictus has been expanding rapidly due to increased international trade, population movement, global warming and accelerated urbanization. Consequently, it is very important to know the potential distribution area of Ae. albopictus in advance for early warning and control of its spread and invasion. We randomly selected 282 distribution sites from 27 provincial-level administrative regions in China, and used the GARP and MaxEnt models to analyze and predict the current and future distribution areas of Ae. albopictus in China. The results showed that the current range of Ae. albopictus in China covers most provinces such as Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces, and the distribution of Ae. albopictus in border provinces such as Tibet, Gansu and Jilin Provinces tend to expand westwards. In addition, the potential distribution area of Ae. albopictus in China will continue to expand westwards due to future climate change under the SSP126 climate scenario. Furthermore, the results of environmental factor filtering showed that temperature and precipitation had a large effect on the distribution probability of Ae. albopictus.

RevDate: 2023-08-28
CmpDate: 2023-08-28

Shavkunov KS, Markelova NY, Glazunova OA, et al (2023)

The Fate and Functionality of Alien tRNA Fragments in Culturing Medium and Cells of Escherichia coli.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(16):.

Numerous observations have supported the idea that various types of noncoding RNAs, including tRNA fragments (tRFs), are involved in communications between the host and its microbial community. The possibility of using their signaling function has stimulated the study of secreted RNAs, potentially involved in the interspecies interaction of bacteria. This work aimed at identifying such RNAs and characterizing their maturation during transport. We applied an approach that allowed us to detect oligoribonucleotides secreted by Prevotella copri (Segatella copri) or Rhodospirillum rubrum inside Escherichia coli cells. Four tRFs imported by E. coli cells co-cultured with these bacteria were obtained via chemical synthesis, and all of them affected the growth of E. coli. Their successive modifications in the culture medium and recipient cells were studied by high-throughput cDNA sequencing. Instead of the expected accidental exonucleolysis, in the milieu, we observed nonrandom cleavage by endonucleases continued in recipient cells. We also found intramolecular rearrangements of synthetic oligonucleotides, which may be considered traces of intermediate RNA circular isomerization. Using custom software, we estimated the frequency of such events in transcriptomes and secretomes of E. coli and observed surprising reproducibility in positions of such rare events, assuming the functionality of ring isoforms or their permuted derivatives in bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-08-28
CmpDate: 2023-08-28

Papa G, Abbà S, Galetto L, et al (2023)

Distribution and prevalence of viral genomes in Italian populations of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys.

Journal of invertebrate pathology, 200:107977.

Halyomorpha halys (Stål), the brown marmorated stink bug, is a highly invasive insect species that causes significant agricultural losses, especially to orchard fruits, vegetables, herbaceous and ornamental plants. It is also a nuisance pest that seeks shelter in indoor spaces during the winter months. Harnessing the H. halys virome can result in new environmentally sustainable approaches to contain its populations and its relatated agricultural damages. In this study, RNA-Seq data were used to explore the virome associated to ten field populations collected in the Lombardy region in Northern Italy. We identified six complete viral genomes, three of which were previously unknown, belonging to the orders Reovirales, Articulavirales, Ghabrivirales, Durnavirales, and Picornavirales. The prevalence of the six viruses was evaluated by Real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR on eighty individuals. Halyomorpha halys ifla-like virus 2 turned out to be the most geographically widespread virus, as it was found in more than 50% of the analyzed insects and in nine out of the ten sampling locations. Moreover, in some individuals, this iflavirus was found in association with each of the other viruses in various combinations that involved up to four viruses. Further studies on such virus-virus interactions and their relationships with the insect host may open the possibility to exploit these naturally occurring viruses as specific and targeted biocontrol agents of H. halys.

RevDate: 2023-08-28
CmpDate: 2023-08-28

Warren DA, Burgess AL, Prati S, et al (2023)

Histopathological screening of Pontogammarus robustoides (Amphipoda), an invader on route to the United Kingdom.

Journal of invertebrate pathology, 200:107970.

Biological invasions may act as conduits for pathogen introduction. To determine which invasive non-native species pose the biggest threat, we must first determine the symbionts (pathogens, parasites, commensals, mutualists) they carry, via pathological surveys that can be conducted in multiple ways (i.e., molecular, pathological, and histological). Whole animal histopathology allows for the observation of pathogenic agents (virus to Metazoa), based on their pathological effect upon host tissue. Where the technique cannot accurately predict pathogen taxonomy, it does highlight pathogen groups of importance. This study provides a histopathological survey of Pontogammarus robustoides (invasive amphipod in Europe) as a baseline for symbiont groups that may translocate to other areas/hosts in future invasions. Pontogammarus robustoides (n = 1,141) collected throughout Poland (seven sites), were noted to include a total of 13 symbiotic groups: a putative gut epithelia virus (overall prevalence = 0.6%), a putative hepatopancreatic cytoplasmic virus (1.4%), a hepatopancreatic bacilliform virus (15.7%), systemic bacteria (0.7%), fouling ciliates (62.0%), gut gregarines (39.5%), hepatopancreatic gregarines (0.4%), haplosporidians (0.4%), muscle infecting microsporidians (6.4%), digeneans (3.5%), external rotifers (3.0%), an endoparasitic arthropod (putatively: Isopoda) (0.1%), and Gregarines with putative microsporidian infections (1.4%). Parasite assemblages partially differed across collection sites. Co-infection patterns revealed strong positive and negative associations between five parasites. Microsporidians were common across sites and could easily spread to other areas following the invasion of P. robustoides. By providing this initial histopathological survey, we hope to provide a concise list of symbiont groups for risk-assessment in the case of a novel invasion by this highly invasive amphipod.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Glenn KR, CM Pennuto (2023)

Winter residency and foraging of non-native round goby populations in Great Lakes tributary streams.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

Investigations of winter diets and foraging in fish are rare, and less so for migratory species in the temperate zone. In the Great Lakes, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is known to out-migrate from nearshore habitats to offshore depths in the winter months. However, in Great Lake tributaries, populations of this fish were found up to 25 km upstream during winter months. Distance upstream was a predictor of out-migration behavior with populations farthest upstream remaining as winter residents whereas populations nearest the lakes out-migrated. Distance inland was also a predictor of fish total length, but not Fulton's condition index. Seasonal resources and local prey availability shaped the diets of these fish, but resource use remained unchanged over time since invasion. Total length and body condition also remained unchanged over time since invasion. Plasticity in both diet and migration behavior seem to be beneficial traits the inland invasion success in this fish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Jorge AOS, Costa ASG, MBPP Oliveira (2023)

Adapting to Climate Change with Opuntia.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(16): pii:plants12162907.

Adapting our food production chain and increasing the flora and fauna's livelihood in climate change-affected areas using Opuntia is not only theoretical but already exists in practice in many places. This cactus grows in unsuitable soil for most species as it is adapted to arid and semi-arid soils and hot weather. In these regions, Opuntia protects from erosion and contributes to soil health. The usage of this plant as fodder is also discussed, with immense potential in substituting a part of livestock's diet and even increasing the quality of the animal's by-products and decreasing water consumption. This would result in a feed that is low-cost and has a lower environmental impact. It is to be noted that Opuntia has a high potential as an invasive species, with caution always being recommended when dealing with this specie. The high content of specific compounds, such as proline, indicaxanthin, and betanin, found in Opuntia ficus-indica, influence the plant's adaptation to unfavourable conditions. This collective evidence depicts Opuntia as a crop that can battle climate change and ensure food security.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Czerniejewski P, Bienkiewicz G, G Tokarczyk (2023)

Nutritional Quality and Fatty Acids Composition of Invasive Chinese Mitten Crab from Odra Estuary (Baltic Basin).

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(16): pii:foods12163088.

The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is recognized as an invasive species in Europe but increasing fishing efforts may hold economic benefits and yield positive ecological and nutritional outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the yield of edible parts and the compositional and nutritional characteristics of this crab, especially as a source of n-3 PUFA. The overall yield of edible parts amounted to 38.09%, with males (27.72%) exhibiting a higher meat content compared to females (25.30%). The gonads displayed the highest protein content (24.12%), while the hepatopancreas (11.67%) showcased the highest fat content. Furthermore, the fatty acid composition varied depending on the distribution within different crab segments and gender and individual size. Notably, the gonad lipids contained the most nutritionally valuable n-3 fatty acids, followed by muscle and hepatopancreas lipids. The determined index of atherogenicity (IA) from 0.2 for gonadal lipids to 0.42 for hepatopancreas lipids, index of thrombogenicity (IT) in the range of 0.10 for gonads to 0.41 for hepatopancreas, and flesh lipid quality (FLQ) from 6.9 for hepatopancreas to 23 for muscle lipids indicate their pro-health properties. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids showed Chinese mitten crab as an excellent source of oil that can be used for food fortification and dietary supplement production.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Pereira CG, Neng NR, L Custódio (2023)

From Threat to Opportunity: Harnessing the Invasive Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br for Nutritional and Phytotherapeutic Valorization Amid Seasonal and Spatial Variability.

Marine drugs, 21(8):.

Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. (Hottentot-fig) is a problematic invasive species found in coastal areas worldwide. Mechanical removal is a common control method, leaving the removed biomass available as a possible source of natural phytochemicals with prospective commercial applications. While the Hottentot-fig's vegetative organs have been studied previously, this work establishes for the first time a seasonal and spatial comparative analysis of its nutritional, chemical, and bioactivity profiles (in three locations over four seasons). Proximate and mineral contents were assessed, along with its phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Hottentot-fig's biomass offered a good supply of nutrients, mainly carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals, with a tendency for higher concentrations of the most relevant minerals and proteins in autumn and winter, and in plants from sites A (Ria de Alvor lagoon) and B (Ancão beach). The extracts were rich in polyphenolics, with higher levels in spring and summer, especially for luteolin-7-O-glucoside and salicylic and coumaric acids. The extracts were also effective antioxidants, with stronger radical scavenging activities in spring and summer, along with anti-inflammatory properties. Our results suggest that the usually discarded plant material of this invasive halophyte could be valuable as a source of natural products with potential biotechnological applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Wu H, Xu Y, Zafar J, et al (2023)

Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Impact of the Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae on the Immune System of Major Workers in Solenopsis invicta.

Insects, 14(8): pii:insects14080701.

The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972) is a globally significant invasive species, causing extensive agricultural, human health, and biodiversity damage amounting to billions of dollars worldwide. The pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (1883), widely distributed in natural environments, has been used to control S. invicta populations. However, the interaction between M. anisopliae and the immune system of the social insect S. invicta remains poorly understood. In this study, we employed RNA-seq to investigate the effects of M. anisopliae on the immune systems of S. invicta at different time points (0, 6, 24, and 48 h). A total of 1313 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and classified into 12 expression profiles using short time-series expression miner (STEM) for analysis. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was employed to partition all genes into 21 gene modules. Upon analyzing the statistically significant WGCNA model and conducting Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis on the modules, we identified key immune pathways, including the Toll and Imd signaling pathways, lysosomes, autophagy, and phagosomes, which may collectively contribute to S. invicta defense against M. anisopliae infection. Subsequently, we conducted a comprehensive scan of all differentially expressed genes and identified 33 immune-related genes, encompassing various aspects such as recognition, signal transduction, and effector gene expression. Furthermore, by integrating the significant gene modules derived from the WGCNA analysis, we constructed illustrative pathway diagrams depicting the Toll and Imd signaling pathways. Overall, our research findings demonstrated that M. anisopliae suppressed the immune response of S. invicta during the early stages while stimulating its immune response at later stages, making it a potential biopesticide for controlling S. invicta populations. These discoveries lay the foundation for further understanding the immune mechanisms of S. invicta and the molecular mechanisms underlying its response to M. anisopliae.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Mayack C, Cook SE, Niño BD, et al (2023)

Poor Air Quality Is Linked to Stress in Honeybees and Can Be Compounded by the Presence of Disease.

Insects, 14(8): pii:insects14080689.

Climate change-related extreme weather events have manifested in the western United States as warmer and drier conditions with an increased risk of wildfires. Honeybees, essential for crop pollination in California, are at the center of these extreme weather events. We associated the maximum daily temperature and air quality index values with the performance of colonies placed in wildfire-prone areas and determined the impact of these abiotic stressors on gene expression and histopathology. Our results indicate that poor air quality was associated with higher maximum daily temperatures and a lower gene expression level of Prophenoloxidase (ProPO), which is tied to immune system strength; however, a higher gene expression level of Vitellogenin (Vg) is tied to oxidative stress. There was a positive relationship between Varroa mites and N. ceranae pathogen loads, and a negative correlation between Varroa mites and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression, suggesting the limited ability of mite-infested colonies to buffer against extreme temperatures. Histological analyses did not reveal overt signs of interaction between pathology and abiotic stressors, but N. ceranae infections were evident. Our study provides insights into interactions between abiotic stressors, their relation to common biotic stressors, and the expression of genes related to immunity and oxidative stress in bees.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Kavallieratos NG, Boukouvala MC, Skourti A, et al (2023)

Comparison of Three Attractants for the Effective Capture of Xylotrechus chinensis Adults in Multi-Funnel Traps.

Insects, 14(8): pii:insects14080676.

The Asian coleopteran Xylotrechus chinensis (Chevrolat) (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) is an invasive species in several European countries, attacking mulberry trees. In the current research, we evaluated the performance of three mixtures consisting of pheromones and attractants for the monitoring of X. chinensis adults. Attractant 1 (i.e., geranyl acetone, fuscumol acetate, fuscumol, monochamol, 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, 2-methyl-1-butanol, anti-2,3-hexanediol, prionic acid + ethanol), attractant 2 (i.e., geranyl acetone, fuscumol acetate, fuscumol, monochamol, 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, 2-methyl-1-butanol, anti-2,3-hexanediol, prionic acid + α-pinene + ethanol) and attractant 3 (i.e., geranyl acetone, fuscumol acetate, fuscumol, monochamol, 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, 2-methyl-1-butanol, anti-2,3-hexanediol, prionic acid + α-pinene + ipsenol + ethanol) were baited in multi-funnel traps and installed in mulberries for a two-year period in Athens (Greece). The flight activity of X. chinensis starts at the end of April and terminates at the end of October. The peaks of X. chinensis flight activity were observed on 16 August 2021 and on 6 July 2022. Attractant 3 proved to be the most effective blend, catching 953 adults, followed by attractant 2 (523 adults) and attractant 1 (169 adults), throughout the experimental period. It seems that the pest was not attracted to the basic part of the blend (i.e., pheromones + ethanol). The incorporation of α-pinene and ipsenol resulted in the elevated activity of the base lure. The elevated performance of attractant 3 may be attributed to only the α-pinene and the ipsenol, or possibly the α-pinene, ipsenol, and ethanol, because the pheromone blend did not contain any of the pheromone components of the target species. Overall, attractant 3 could be a useful tool to detect and track X. chinensis in new invasive areas, triggering early management strategies against further establishment of this species.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Ciocchetta S, Frentiu FD, Montarsi F, et al (2023)

Investigation on key aspects of mating biology in the mosquito Aedes koreicus.

Medical and veterinary entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Aedes koreicus Edwards, 1917 (Hulecoetomyia koreica) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) from Northeast Asia with a rapidly expanding presence outside its original native range. Over the years, the species has been discovered in several new countries, either spreading after first introduction or remaining localised to limited areas. Notably, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of the species to transmit zoonotic parasites and viruses both in the field and in laboratory settings. Combined with its invasive potential, the possible role of Ae. koreicus in pathogen transmission highlights the public health risks resulting from its invasion. In this study, we used a recently established population from Italy to investigate aspects of biology that influence reproductive success in Ae. koreicus: autogeny, mating behaviour, mating disruption by the sympatric invasive species Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1894, and the presence of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis Hertig, 1936. Our laboratory population did not exhibit autogenic behaviour and required a bloodmeal to complete its ovarian cycle. When we exposed Ae. koreicus females to males of Ae. albopictus, we observed repeated attempts at insemination and an aggressive, disruptive mating behaviour initiated by male Ae. albopictus. Despite this, no sperm was identified in Ae. koreicus spermathecae. Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium capable of influencing mosquito reproductive behaviour, was not detected in this Ae. koreicus population and, therefore, had no effect on Ae. koreicus reproduction.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Lantiegne TH, CF Purchase (2023)

Can cryptic female choice prevent invasive hybridization in external fertilizing fish?.

Evolutionary applications, 16(8):1412-1421.

Polyandrous mating systems result in females mating with multiple males, generating opportunities for strong pre-mating and post-mating sexual selection. Polyandry also creates the potential for unintended matings and subsequent sperm competition with hybridizing species. Cryptic female choice allows females to bias paternity towards preferred males under sperm competition and may include conspecific sperm preference when under hybridization risk. The potential for hybridization becomes particularly important in context of invasive species that can novelly hybridize with natives, and by definition, have evolved allopatrically. We provide the first examination of conspecific sperm preference in a system of three species with the potential to hybridize: North American native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook char (Salvelinus fontinalis), and invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Europe. Using naturalized populations on the island of Newfoundland, we measured changes in sperm swimming performance, a known predictor of paternity, to determine the degree of modification in sperm swimming to female cues related to conspecific sperm preference. Compared to water alone, female ovarian fluid in general had a pronounced effect and changed sperm motility (by a mean of 53%) and swimming velocity (mean 30%), but not linearity (mean 6%). However, patterns in the degree of modification suggest there is no conspecific sperm preference in the North American populations. Furthermore, female cues from both native species tended to boost the sperm of invasive males more than their own. We conclude that cryptic female choice via ovarian fluid mediated sperm swimming modification is too weak in this system to prevent invasive hybridization and is likely insufficient to promote or maintain reproductive isolation between the native North American species.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Palomar G, Wos G, Stoks R, et al (2023)

Latitude-specific urbanization effects on life history traits in the damselfly Ischnura elegans.

Evolutionary applications, 16(8):1503-1515.

Many species are currently adapting to cities at different latitudes. Adaptation to urbanization may require eco-evolutionary changes in response to temperature and invasive species that may differ between latitudes. Here, we studied single and combined effects of increased temperatures and an invasive alien predator on the phenotypic response of replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans and contrasted these between central and high latitudes. Adult females were collected in rural and urban ponds at central and high latitudes. Their larvae were exposed to temperature treatments (current [20°C], mild warming [24°C], and heat wave [28°C; for high latitude only]) crossed with the presence or absence of chemical cues released by the spiny-cheek crayfish (Faxonius limosus), only present at the central latitude. We measured treatment effects on larval development time, mass, and growth rate. Urbanization type affected all life history traits, yet these responses were often dependent on latitude, temperature, and sex. Mild warming decreased mass in rural and increased growth rate in urban populations. The effects of urbanization type on mass were latitude-dependent, with central-latitude populations having a greater phenotypic difference. Urbanization type effects were sex-specific with urban males being lighter and having a lower growth rate than rural males. At the current temperature and mild warming, the predator cue reduced the growth rate, and this independently of urbanization type and latitude of origin. This pattern was reversed during a heat wave in high-latitude damselflies. Our results highlight the context-dependency of evolutionary and plastic responses to urbanization, and caution for generalizing how populations respond to cities based on populations at a single latitude.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Adkins JF, Kaur A, Alom MS, et al (2023)

Directing the size and dispersity of silver nanoparticles with kudzu leaf extracts.

RSC advances, 13(36):25360-25368.

Kudzu is an abundant and invasive species in the Southeastern United States. The prospective use of kudzu as a non-toxic, green and biocompatible reducing and stabilizing agent for one-pot Ag nanoparticle synthesis was investigated. Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous and ethanolic kudzu leaf and stem extracts. The size and dispersity of the synthesized nanoparticles were found to depend on the extract used. Ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies were used to characterize the extracts. Surface-enhanced fluorescence and Raman scattering were used to characterize the surface species on synthesized Ag nanoparticles. The primary reducing and stabilizing agents in aqueous kudzu leaf extracts were determined to be reducing sugars and saponins which result in Ag nanoparticles with average diameters of 21.2 ± 4.8 nm. Ethanolic kudzu leaf extract was determined to be composed of chlorophyll, reducing sugars and saponins, producing Ag nanoparticles with average diameters of 9.0 ± 1.6 nm. Control experiments using a chlorophyllin standard as the reducing and stabilizing agent reveal that chlorophyll has a key role in the formation of small and monodisperse Ag nanoparticles. Experiments carried out in the absence of light demonstrate that reducing sugars and saponins also contribute to the formation of Ag nanoparticles in ethanolic kudzu leaf extracts. We propose a mechanism by which reducing sugars donate electrons to reduce Ag[+] leading to the formation of Ag nanoparticles, forming carboxylic acid sugars which stabilize and partially stabilize Ag nanoparticles synthesized with aqueous and ethanolic kudzu leaf extracts, respectively. In the ethanolic extract, photoexcited chlorophyll serves as a co-reducing and co-stabilizing agent, leading to small and monodisperse Ag nanoparticles.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Sales E, Rogers L, Freire R, et al (2023)

Bold-shy personality traits of globally invasive, native and hatchery-reared fish.

Royal Society open science, 10(8):231035.

Bold behaviour of non-native species is hypothesized to facilitate invasion success, yet extreme boldness in wild and domesticated animals can be maladaptive. The purpose of this study was to compare individual behaviour among Australian native hatchery-reared (n = 33) and wild (n = 38) Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii) with invasive common carp (Cyprinus carpio; n = 30). Three laboratory tests measured individual behaviour: (1) emergence from a shelter, (2) exploration of a novel environment, and (3) approaching a predator. Wild invasive carp and hatchery-reared cod were generally faster and more likely to emerge and explore novel environments when compared with wild Murray cod. The 'bold-type' behaviours of hatchery-reared native cod were more like invasive carp than they were to 'shy-type' wild conspecifics, yet an important difference was that hatchery-reared cod spent substantially more time near a large predator while carp rapidly escaped. We suggest that these results are consistent with a bold-type invasion syndrome in invasive carp and learned boldness of hatchery-reared Murray cod. The propensity of invasive carp to rapidly explore and enter new environments, along with a fast predator escape response may have been important to their invasion success, while extreme risk-taking and predator naivety of hatchery-reared Murray cod may exacerbate post-release mortality rates in fisheries and conservation stocking programmes.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Egawa C, Yuta T, A Koyama (2023)

Specific alien plant species predominantly deliver nectar sugar and pollen but are not preferentially visited by wild pollinating insects in suburban riparian ecosystems.

Ecology and evolution, 13(8):e10441.

The invasion of alien plants has been rapidly proceeding worldwide due to urbanisation. This might be beneficial to wild pollinating insects, since some alien plant species have large flowers and/or long flowering periods, which can increase nectar sugar and pollen availability. To determine the relative contribution of alien plants to floral resource supply and whether resource-rich alien plants, if any, serve as an important food source of pollinating insects, we performed year-round field observations in suburban riverbanks. We quantified the per-unit-area availability of nectar sugar and pollen delivered by alien and native flowering species and counted wild flower visitors (bees and wasps, hoverflies and butterflies) per plant species. The available nectar sugar and pollen per area were predominantly delivered by a few specific alien species, and the relative contribution of other species to floral resource provision was low throughout the period that wild flower visitors were observed. Nonetheless, the resource-rich alien plants were not visited by as many insects as expected based on their contribution to resource provision. Rather, on a yearly basis, these plants received equal or even fewer visits than other flowering species, including resource-poor natives. We show that despite their great contribution to the gross floral resource supply, resource-rich alien plants do not serve as a principal food source for wild pollinating insects, and other plants, especially natives, are still needed to satisfy insect demand. For the conservation of pollinating insects in suburban ecosystems, maintaining floral resource diversity would be more beneficial than having an increase in gross floral resources by allowing the dominance of specific alien plants.

RevDate: 2023-08-24

Blackwood PE, Jonasen KL, Hoenig BD, et al (2023)

Epidemics in native species influence the outcome of a species invasion.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species can have large effects on native communities. When native and invasive species share parasites, an epidemic in a native species could facilitate or inhibit the invasion. We sought to understand how the incidence and timing of epidemics in native species caused by a generalist parasite influenced the success and impact of an invasive species. We focused on North American native and invasive species of zooplankton (Daphnia dentifera and Daphnia lumholtzi, respectively), that can both become infected with a fungal parasite (Metschnikowia bicuspidata). In a laboratory microcosm experiment, we exposed the native species to varying parasite inocula (none, low, high) and two invasive species introduction times (before or during an epidemic in the native species). We found that the invasive species density in treatments with the parasite was higher compared to uninfected treatments, though only the early invasion, low-parasite and uninfected treatments exhibited significant pairwise differences. However, invasive resting eggs were only found in the uninfected treatments. The density of the native species was lowest with a combination of the parasite present, and the invasive species introduced during the epidemic. Native infection prevalence in these treatments (late invasion, parasite present) was also higher than prevalence in treatments where the invasive species was introduced before the epidemic. Therefore, the timing of an invasion relative to an epidemic can affect both the native and invasive species. Our results suggest that the occurrence and timing of epidemics in native species can influence the impacts of a species invasion.

RevDate: 2023-08-24

Mukarugwiro JA, Newete SW, Nsanganwimana F, et al (2023)

Water turbidity affects the establishment of Neochetina eichhorniae (Warner) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Implications for biological control of water hyacinth.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01750-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Water hyacinth is the target of nine biological control agents in South Africa including Neochetina eichhorniae (Warner) and Neochetina bruchi (Hustache) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). These two weevils have also been released against water hyacinth in Rwanda, but failed to control the weed invasion, possibly due to high turbidity in the country's water bodies. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effect of water turbidity on the establishment and performance of N. eichhorniae in Rwanda. Turbidity levels were measured over two seasons in four Rwandan rivers and two lakes. The results were then used to benchmark laboratory trials to test the effect of turbidity on the weevils' development. Water hyacinth plants were maintained at fours turbidity levels: Clear water (2 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU): low (85 NTU), medium (600 NTU) and high (1500 NTU). Each treatment plant was inoculated with three N. eichhorniae larvae, while control plants were free of larvae. Plant growth was measured weekly for three months, while adult weevil emergence was recorded from the 56th day of the experiment. The number of adults emerging from the treatment plants grown in the clear water, low, medium and high turbidity levels were 24, 21, 12 and 0, respectively. Larval feeding was greater on plants growing in clear water and the low turbidity, compared to the medium and high turbidity treatments. These results indicate that N. eichhorniae may not establish or perform well in water bodies with high levels of turbidity, which in turn enhances the growth of water hyacinth, allowing compensatory growth for weevil feeding.

RevDate: 2023-08-24

Camacho-Cervantes M, BBM Wong (2023)

Invasive species behaviour in a toxic world.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(23)00208-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species and chemical pollution both threaten biodiversity. Here, we discuss how pollution, through its impacts on wildlife behaviour, shapes invasion dynamics by altering species interactions. Addressing knowledge gaps will have implications for the management of invasive species and conservation of native ecosystems in an increasingly toxic world.

RevDate: 2023-08-23

Delavaux CS, Crowther TW, Zohner CM, et al (2023)

Native diversity buffers against severity of non-native tree invasions.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

Determining the drivers of non-native plant invasions is critical for managing native ecosystems and limiting the spread of invasive species[1,2]. Tree invasions in particular have been relatively overlooked, even though they have the potential to transform ecosystems and economies[3,4]. Here, leveraging global tree databases[5-7], we explore how the phylogenetic and functional diversity of native tree communities, human pressure and the environment influence the establishment of non-native tree species and the subsequent invasion severity. We find that anthropogenic factors are key to predicting whether a location is invaded, but that invasion severity is underpinned by native diversity, with higher diversity predicting lower invasion severity. Temperature and precipitation emerge as strong predictors of invasion strategy, with non-native species invading successfully when they are similar to the native community in cold or dry extremes. Yet, despite the influence of these ecological forces in determining invasion strategy, we find evidence that these patterns can be obscured by human activity, with lower ecological signal in areas with higher proximity to shipping ports. Our global perspective of non-native tree invasion highlights that human drivers influence non-native tree presence, and that native phylogenetic and functional diversity have a critical role in the establishment and spread of subsequent invasions.

RevDate: 2023-08-23

Belouard N, JE Behm (2023)

Multiple paternity in the invasive spotted lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).

Environmental entomology pii:7249127 [Epub ahead of print].

In biological invasions, multiple paternity can preserve genetic diversity over time and space and contribute to invasion success. Therefore, knowledge on the mating system of invasive species is essential to develop adequate management practices to mitigate their impact on ecosystems. The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White, 1845), is an invasive pest that has colonized more than 10 eastern US states in less than 10 yr. Multiple paternity may contribute to its success, but little is known about spotted lanternfly's mating system. We explored the mating system using mated females and female-egg mass pairs sampled in the field. First, we assessed the existence of multiple mating by counting the number of spermatophores in the genital tract of all females. Second, we searched for genetic evidence for multiple paternity within egg masses by genotyping the female-egg mass pairs at 7 microsatellite loci. Third, we assessed whether multiple mating was correlated with female traits and distance from the introduction site. One to 3 spermatophores per female were found during dissections, confirming the existence of polyandrous female spotted lanternfly. We found genetic evidence for a minimum of 2 fathers in 4 egg masses associated with polyandrous females, validating multiple paternity in spotted lanternfly. Multiple paternity was associated with egg mass size, and multiple paternity was highest in populations closest to the original introduction site and decreased toward the invasion front. Multiple paternity may contribute to the invasion success of spotted lanternfly, and control efforts should consider the mating system and the implications of its spatial patterns.

RevDate: 2023-08-23

Rodrigues N, Ribeiro D, C Miyahira I, et al (2023)

Do feeding responses of a non-native bivalve outperform the native one in a coastal lagoon? A possible explanation for the invasion success of the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata.

PeerJ, 11:e15848.

The present study aimed to evaluate and compare feeding responses of the non-native and native bivalves, the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata and the scorched mussel Brachidontes darwinianus, respectively, by offering different concentrations of seston from the coastal lagoon where these species coexist after dark false mussel introduction (Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro-Brazil). For this purpose, independent laboratory experiments were carried out under five concentrations of seston to test the differences in clearance and ingestion rates of bivalves as a function of increasing concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on seston. In addition, from the integrated analysis of data obtained in experiments, it can be inferred about the efficiency levels of these species to remove SPM from seston and their effects on water turbidity and nutrient concentrations (total carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus). Our hypothesis was that the non-native bivalve is more efficient to clear and ingest SPM from seston compared to the native one, which may lead to competitive advantages to the successful invasion of M. leucophaeata in coastal lagoons. Native species did not show a significant difference in clearance and ingestion rates with increasing concentrations of seston. Whereas the non-native bivalve showed a slight tendency to increase its clearance and ingestion rates with the increase in seston concentrations, evidencing its plasticity to adjust its feeding responses. The native bivalve was significantly more efficient to clear and ingest SPM at the lower seston concentration (i.e., close to natural concentrations found in the lagoon) compared to the non-native bivalve, which, on the other hand, showed a significant increase in its ingestion rates at the higher concentration tested (140 mg SPM L[-1]). Thus, the present results did not suggest food competition between the non-native M. leucophaeata and the native B. darwinianus in the introduced system. However, M. leucophaeata increased its feeding response with experimental increment in seston concentration, which suggests species ability to benefit from conditions of increased inputs of organic matter and higher primary production that could mediate its establishment in introduced systems.

RevDate: 2023-08-23

López J, Mogedas M, Ballesteros C, et al (2023)

Infectious agents present in monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) and rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) invasive species in the parks of Madrid and Seville, Spain.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1162402.

INTRODUCTION: The introduction of invasive species into an ecosystem could result in biodiversity loss and the spread of infectious agents that could cause re-emergent or emergent zoonotic diseases. Monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) and rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) are considered widespread invasive exotic species in urban habitats from the Iberian Peninsula. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of relevant infectious agents in wild parakeets captured in urban parks in Madrid and Seville (Spain).

METHODS: A total of 81 cloacal samples were collected and analysed using molecular techniques.

RESULTS: The prevalence of infectious agents varied between parakeet species: 9.5% of monk parakeets and 15% of rose-ringed parakeets were positive for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 13.3% of rose-ringed parakeets for avian influenza virus (AIV), 3.3% of rose-ringed parakeets for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and a 23.8% of monk parakeets for Chlamydia psittaci.

DISCUSSION: All C. psittaci-identified isolates were classified as B, E, or E/B genotypes, indicating transmission from wild urban pigeons to parakeets. These results highlight the need for monitoring parakeet populations due to the implications for human and animal health.

RevDate: 2023-08-23
CmpDate: 2023-08-23

Magnani M, Díaz-Sierra R, Sweeney L, et al (2023)

Fire Responses Shape Plant Communities in a Minimal Model for Fire Ecosystems across the World.

The American naturalist, 202(3):E83-E103.

AbstractAcross plant communities worldwide, fire regimes reflect a combination of climatic factors and plant characteristics. To shed new light on the complex relationships between plant characteristics and fire regimes, we developed a new conceptual mechanistic model that includes plant competition, stochastic fires, and fire-vegetation feedback. Considering a single standing plant functional type, we observed that highly flammable and slowly colonizing plants can persist only when they have a strong fire response, while fast colonizing and less flammable plants can display a larger range of fire responses. At the community level, the fire response of the strongest competitor determines the existence of alternative ecological states (i.e., different plant communities) under the same environmental conditions. Specifically, when the strongest competitor had a very strong fire response, such as in Mediterranean forests, only one ecological state could be achieved. Conversely, when the strongest competitor was poorly fire adapted, alternative ecological states emerged-for example, between tropical humid savannas and forests or between different types of boreal forests. These findings underline the importance of including the plant fire response when modeling fire ecosystems, for example, to predict the vegetation response to invasive species or to climate change.

RevDate: 2023-08-21

Huynh NC, Nguyen TTT, Nguyen DTC, et al (2023)

Production of MgFe2O4/activated carbons derived from a harmful grass Cynodon dactylon and their utilization for ciprofloxacin removal.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)02160-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Cynodon dactylon, an invasive species, exhibits its robust adaptability, reproduction and nutrient regime against the local species. Taking advantage of this harmful grass as a raw precursor to produce valuable materials for wastewater treatment has paid much attention. Herein, we report on the fabrication of Cynodom dactylon derived MgFe2O4@AC with a main goal of effective removal of ciprofloxacin antibiotic from water. Our findings showed that MgFe2O4@ACK1 composites attained mesoporous textures, high specific surface areas (884.3-991.6 m[2] g[-1]), and MgFe2O4-20%@ACK1 was the most effective with a very high removal efficiency of 96.7%. The Elovich model was suitable for describing the kinetic of adsorption with (Radj)[2] of 0.9988. Meanwhile, the isotherm data obeyed the Langmuir model corresponding to (Radj)[2] of 0.9993. Qmax value of MgFe2O4-20%@ACK1 was determined at 211.67 mg g[-1]. The proposed adsorption mechanism primarily comprises five routes as follows, (i) pore-filling, (ii) π-π interaction, (iii) electrostatic interaction, (iv) hydrogen bonding, and (v) hydrophobic interaction. MgFe2O4-20%@ACK1 adsorbent could reuse with three cycles. We recommend that MgFe2O4/ACs derived from Cynodom dactylon could be high-efficiency adsorbents for the elimination of antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-08-21

Heinig R, Reeves LE, KJ Lucas (2023)


Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association pii:494809 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the distribution of mosquito species is an important element of surveillance. This is especially true in Florida, where detections of nonnative mosquitoes have been increasing. Collier Mosquito Control District performs routine adult mosquito surveillance for operational purposes throughout the year. Here, we report records for 3 species collected in 2021 that had not been documented previously in Collier County, FL: Aedes tortilis, Culex declarator, and Cx. tarsalis. Specimens were initially identified based on morphology, then each species was confirmed by comparing the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences to those of other related mosquito species. Although Ae. tortilis and Cx. declarator were collected at multiple sites, Cx. tarsalis was collected only once, making it unclear whether this species has established a permanent population within the county.

RevDate: 2023-08-21

Tulloch AIT, Healy A, Silcock J, et al (2023)

Long-term livestock exclusion increases plant richness and reproductive capacity in arid woodlands.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Herbivore exclusion is implemented globally to recover ecosystems from grazing by introduced and native herbivores, but evidence for large-scale biodiversity benefits is inconsistent in arid ecosystems. We examined the effects of livestock exclusion on dryland plant richness and reproductive capacity. We collected data on plant species richness and seeding (reproductive capacity), rainfall, vegetation productivity and cover, soil strength and herbivore grazing intensity from 68 sites across 6500 km[2] of arid Georgina gidgee (Acacia georginae) woodlands in central Australia between 2018 and 2020. Sites were on an actively grazed cattle station and two destocked conservation reserves. We used structural equation modelling to examine indirect (via soil or vegetation modification) versus direct (herbivory) effects of grazing intensity by two introduced herbivores (cattle, camels) and a native herbivore (red kangaroo), on seasonal plant species richness and seeding of all plants, and the richness and seeding of four plant groups (native grasses, forbs, annual chenopod shrubs, and palatable perennial shrubs). Non-native herbivores had a strong indirect effect on plant richness and seeding by reducing vegetative ground cover, resulting in decreased richness and seeding of both native grasses and forbs. . Herbivores also had small but negative direct impacts on plant richness and seeding. This direct effect was explained by reductions in annual chenopod and palatable perennial shrub richness under grazing activity Responses to grazing were herbivore-dependent - introduced herbivore grazing reduced native plant richness and seeding, while native herbivore grazing had no significant effect on richness or seeding of different plant functional groups. Soil strength decreased under grazing by cattle but not camels or kangaroos. Cattle had direct effects on palatable perennial shrub richness and seeding, whereas camels had indirect effects, reducing richness and seeding by reducing the abundance of shrubs. We show that considering indirect pathways improves evaluations of the effects of disturbances on biodiversity, as focusing only on direct effects can mask critical mechanisms of change. Our results indicate substantial biodiversity benefits from excluding livestock and controlling camels in drylands. Reducing introduced herbivore impacts will improve soil and vegetation condition, ensure reproduction and seasonal persistence of species, and protect native plant diversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )