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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Aug 2022 at 01:40 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: "invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-08-06

Macêdo RL, Franco ACS, Kozlowsky-Suzuki B, et al (2022)

The global social-economic dimension of biological invasions by plankton: Grossly underestimated costs but a rising concern for water quality benefits?.

Water research, 222:118918 pii:S0043-1354(22)00865-X [Epub ahead of print].

Planktonic invasive species cause adverse effects on aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, these impacts are often underestimated because of unresolved taxonomic issues and limited biogeographic knowledge. Thus, it is pivotal to start a rigorous quantification of impacts undertaken by planktonic invasive species on global economies. We used the InvaCost database, the most up-to-date database of economic cost estimates of biological invasions worldwide, to produce the first critical assessment of the economic dimension of biological invasions caused by planktonic taxa. We found that in period spanning from 1960 to 2021, the cumulative global cost of plankton invasions was US$ 5.8 billion for permanent plankton (holoplankton) of which viruses encompassed nearly 93%. Apart from viruses, we found more costs related to zooplankton (US$ 297 million) than to the other groups summed, including myco- (US$ 73 million), phyto- (43 million), and bacterioplankton (US$ 0.7 million). Strikingly, harmful and potentially toxic cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates are completely absent from the database. Furthermore, the data base showed a decrease in costs over time, which is probably an artifact as a sharp rise of novel planktonic alien species has gained international attention. Also, assessments of the costs of larval meroplanktonic stages of littoral and benthic invasive invertebrates are lacking whereas cumulative global cost of their adults stages is high up to US$ 98 billion billion and increasing. Considering the challenges and perspectives of increasing but unnoticed or neglected impacts by plankton invasions, the assessment of their ecological and economic impacts should be of high priority.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Dostál P (2022)

Evolution of plasticity prevents postinvasion extinction of a native forb.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(32):e2118866119.

Exotic plant invaders pose a serious threat to native plants. However, despite showing inferior competitive ability and decreased performance, native species often subsist in invaded communities. The decline of native populations is hypothesized to be halted and eventually reversed if adaptive evolutionary changes can keep up with the environmental stress induced by invaders, that is, when population extinction is prevented by evolutionary rescue (ER). Nevertheless, evidence for the role of ER in postinvasion persistence of native flora remains scarce. Here, I explored the population density of a native forb, Veronica chamaedrys, and evaluated the changes in the shade-responsive traits of its populations distributed along the invasion chronosequence of an exotic transformer, Heracleum mantegazzianum, which was replicated in five areas. I found a U-shaped population trajectory that paralleled the evolution of plasticity to shade. Whereas V. chamaedrys genotypes from intact, more open sites exhibited a shade-tolerance strategy (pronounced leaf area/mass ratio), reduced light availability at the invaded sites selected for a shade-avoidance strategy (greater internode elongation). Field experiments subsequently confirmed that the shifts in shade-response strategies were adaptive and secured postinvasion population persistence, as indicated by further modeling. Alternative ecological mechanisms (habitat improvement or arrival of immigrants) were less likely explanations than ER for the observed population rebound, although the contribution of maternal effects cannot be dismissed. These results suggest that V. chamaedrys survived because of adaptive evolutionary changes operating on the same timescale as the invasion-induced stress, but the generality of ER for postinvasion persistence of native plants remains unknown.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-07-25

Popkin G (2022)

Deadly pest reaches Oregon, sparking fears for ash trees.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 377(6604):356.

Emerald ash borer has already killed millions of trees.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Wu G, Mou X, Song H, et al (2022)

Characterization and functional analysis of pax3 in body color transition of polychromatic Midas cichlids (Amphilophus citrinellus).

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology pii:S1096-4959(22)00067-7 [Epub ahead of print].

As the representative genetic and economic trait of ornamental fish, skin color has a strong impact on speciation and adaptation. However, the genetic basis of skin color pigmentation, differentiation and change is still not understood. The Midas cichlid fish with three typical body color transition stages of "black-gray‑gold" is an ideal model system for investigating the formation and change of fish body color. In this study, to investigate the regulatory role of the pair box 3 (pax3) gene in the early body color fading process of Midas cichlids, the complete cDNA sequence (3513 bp) of pax3 was successfully isolated from Midas cichlids (Amphilophus Citrinellus), and found to encode polypeptides of 491 amino acids. Expression patterns of the pax3 gene in tissues of Midas cichlids during different periods, including embryonic development and body color fading stages were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that pax3 was expressed in all tissues of adult fish, with a higher expression level in muscle and skin. The highest expression level in muscle tissue was significantly higher than that in other tissues (P < 0.05). During embryonic development, the expression tendency of pax3 was first increased and then decreased. In the three typical stages of early skin color fading from black to gold, pax3 expression in skin, caudal fin and scales all showed a downward trend. The expression level in the black stage was significantly higher than that in other stages (P < 0.05). Positive signal of Pax3 protein was detected in the three typical skin color conversion stages, and the highest positive signal intensity was detected in the black stage, which was consistent with qRT-PCR results. After pax3 RNA interference, pax3 and the downstream genes mitf and tyr all decreased, while dct mRNA expression increased in the skin of fish. Western blotting also showed a decrease in Pax3 protein concentration. Those results suggest that pax3 plays an important role in skin color formation, distribution and change in Midas cichlids through the melanogenesis pathway.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Bailey SA, Brydges T, Casas-Monroy O, et al (2022)

First evaluation of ballast water management systems on operational ships for minimizing introductions of nonindigenous zooplankton.

Marine pollution bulletin, 182:113947 pii:S0025-326X(22)00629-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Ballast water is a leading pathway for the global introduction of aquatic nonindigenous species. Most international ships are expected to install ballast water management systems (BWMS) by 2024 to treat ballast water before release. This study examines if ballast water discharges managed by BWMS are meeting standards for organisms ≥50 μm in minimum dimension (i.e., <10 organisms per m3; typically zooplankton). Representative samples of ballast water were collected from 29 ships (using 14 different BWMS) arriving to Canada during 2017-2018. Fourteen samples (48 %) had zooplankton concentrations clearly exceeding the standard (ranging from 18 to 3822 organisms per m3). Nonetheless, compared to earlier management strategies, BWMS appear to reduce the frequency of high-risk introduction events. BWMS filter mesh size was an important predictor of zooplankton concentration following treatment. Greater rates of compliance may be achieved as ship crews gain experience with operation and maintenance of BWMS.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Enkerlin WR, R Pereira (2022)

The sterile insect technique: an international framework to facilitate transboundary shipments of sterile insects.

Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), 41(1):66-74.

The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully used since the 1950s as part of an integrated pest management approach in large-scale programmes to prevent, contain, suppress and eradicate key insect pests in many countries throughout the world. During this period, over one trillion live sterile insects have been shipped across borders. The very few adverse incidents from this significant trade were managed and resulted in no significant impacts. The phytosanitary and zoosanitary requirements by importing countries have been simple, facilitating the transboundary shipment of sterile insects, which is carried out mostly under the framework of cooperative agreements between the governments of the countries involved, and under technical cooperation projects of the United Nations. However, the shipment of sterile insects from sources outside this governmental framework, including public-private facilities, has been complicated, despite the availability of harmonised international guidelines in some cases, such as those for fruit flies. The SIT has great potential for the control of endemic pests or against the growing threat of invasive pests that can affect whole regions and even continents. Since SIT is species-specific, with negligible risk of introducing unwanted invasive species to the environment, and with the advantage of reducing insecticide use, a harmonised framework that recognises the low risk of SIT would facilitate shipments of sterile insects across borders and help to expand the use of this effective and environmentally friendly technology. The scope of this paper is limited to insects that have been sterilised using ionising radiation.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Goka K (2022)

Conservation biology for the commercial insect trade in Japan: agricultural bumblebees and companion insects as examples.

Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), 41(1):132-141.

Japan imports a wide range of arthropods for industrial use and as companion animals. Such imports may threaten ecosystems locally and in their regions of origin. Two iconic insect imports that pose ecological problems are agricultural bumblebees and companion beetles. Colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris have contributed significantly to agricultural production since they were first brought to Japan in the 1990s. But, in their progressive feralisation, they harm populations of native bumblebees through competition, hybridisation, and the introduction of parasites. They also threaten native plant reproduction. The species is currently permitted for agricultural use only in netted greenhouses. Since 2000, imports of companion beetles have thrived, with an estimated market size of many billions of yen. The popularity of rare species has led to a sharp rise in prices, overhunting, and smuggling from their native countries. These exotic species may also become invasive if they escape into nature. There are no clear restrictions on beetle imports, but a government campaign is aimed to improve ethical standards for breeding. In addition, imported tarantulas, centipedes and scorpions are becoming increasingly popular. These species pose similar threats as imported beetles and bees, but the actual state of importation and breeding is difficult to ascertain. Importing insects into Japan can create the following issues: the overexploitation of rare species collected from their native habitats; the traffic in species of which collection and sale is prohibited; the risk that escaped individuals will breed as invasive species; and the introduction of alien microorganisms and parasites.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Schneider R, Prati S, Grabner D, et al (2022)

First report of microsporidians in the non-native shrimp Neocaridina davidi from a temperate European stream.

Diseases of aquatic organisms, 150:125-130.

The release of ornamental pets outside their native range can directly or indirectly impact the recipient community, e.g. via the co-introduction of associated pathogens. However, studies on parasites associated with non-native species, in particular freshwater decapods, have focused mainly on a limited set of pathogens. Here we provide data for the first time on microsporidian parasites of the non-native ornamental shrimp Neocaridina davidi, collected in a stream in Germany. Furthermore, we confirm an ongoing range expansion of the warm-adapted N. davidi from thermally polluted colder water. In the investigated shrimps, the microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei and an unknown microsporidian isolate were detected, raising concerns about their transmission potential and pathogenicity on native crustacean species.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Anjum F, Mir A, Shakir Y, et al (2022)

Seed Coat Morphology and Sculpturing of Selected Invasive Alien Plants from Lesser Himalaya Pakistan and Their Systematic Implications.

BioMed research international, 2022:8225494.

Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered as the second major threat to biodiversity after habitat destruction worldwide. They are aggressive competitors and dominate an ecosystem where they introduce and cause reduction in indigenous diversity. Invasive plants alter the evolutionary pathways of native species by competition, niche displacement, hybridization, introgression, predation, and ultimately extinction of native species. Biological invasion also results in economic and environmental damage and harm to human health. Invasive plants have an effective reproductive as well as dispersal mechanisms. Most invasive plants produce abundant fruits and seeds that are widely disseminated and remain viable in the soil for several years. Invasive plants may change their seed character in order to adapt themselves to the new environment and facilitate their performance. A study on seed coat sculpturing in invasive alien plants collected from Lesser Himalaya region, Pakistan, was conducted using scanning electron microscope to determine the importance of seed morphological characters as an additional tool for identification. Quantitative characters such as seed length and width, macromorphological characters including color, hilum position, and seed shape, and micromorphological characters of seed including surface patterns and periclinal and anticlinal wall of seeds were studied. Findings at the present indicate that most of the seeds were found spherical followed by ovate and elliptical in shape with smooth surface and showed terminal hilum. Almost reticulate seed patterns were observed in seeds. Majority of seeds showed raised anticlinal walls with protuberance periclinal walls. The seeds of Xanthium strumarium were observed with maximum length of 13 mm and with width of 8 mm. Length by width ratio of seeds was also calculated; it was found that maximum L/W ratio was observed in Sonchus oleraceus L., i.e., 2.66. Seed characters, both macro- and micromorphological, furnish useful data for classification and delimitation of invasive taxa. This study will help to understand the invasion mechanism in plants due to variations in seed surface, shape, and other characters. Adaptive behavior of the seed during the invasion process of the new ecosystem is also elaborated.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Orihuela-Torres A, Pérez-García JM, Sánchez-Zapata JA, et al (2022)

Scavenger guild and consumption patterns of an invasive alien fish species in a Mediterranean wetland.

Ecology and evolution, 12(8):e9133 pii:ECE39133.

Invasive Alien Species (IAS) alter ecosystems, disrupting ecological processes and driving the loss of ecosystem services. The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a hazardous and widespread IAS, becoming the most abundant species in many aquatic ecosystems. This species transforms ecosystems by accumulating biomass to the detriment of other species, thus altering food webs. However, some terrestrial species, such as vertebrate scavengers, may benefit from dead carps, by incorporating part of the carp biomass into the terrestrial environment. This study describes the terrestrial vertebrate scavenger assemblage that benefits from carp carcasses in a Mediterranean wetland. We also evaluate the seasonal differences in the scavenger assemblage composition and carrion consumption patterns. Eighty carp carcasses (20 per season) were placed in El Hondo Natural Park, a seminatural mesohaline wetland in south-eastern Spain, and we monitored their consumption using camera traps. We recorded 14 scavenger species (10 birds and four mammals) consuming carp carcasses, including globally threatened species. Vertebrates consumed 73% of the carrion biomass and appeared consuming at 82% of the carcasses. Of these carcasses consumed, 75% were completely consumed and the mean consumption time of carcasses completely consumed by vertebrates was 44.4 h (SD = 42.1 h). We recorded differences in species richness, abundance, and assemblage composition among seasons, but we did not find seasonal differences in consumption patterns throughout the year. Our study recorded a rich and efficient terrestrial vertebrate scavenger assemblage benefitting from carp carcasses. We detected a seasonal replacement on the scavenger species, but a maintenance of the ecological function of carrion removal, as the most efficient carrion consumers were present throughout the year. The results highlight the importance of vertebrate scavengers in wetlands, removing possible infectious focus, and moving nutrients between aquatic and terrestrial environments.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Smertina E, Carroll AJ, Boileau J, et al (2022)

Lagovirus Non-structural Protein p23: A Putative Viroporin That Interacts With Heat Shock Proteins and Uses a Disulfide Bond for Dimerization.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:923256.

The exact function(s) of the lagovirus non-structural protein p23 is unknown as robust cell culture systems for the Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and other lagoviruses have not been established. Instead, a range of in vitro and in silico models have been used to study p23, revealing that p23 oligomerizes, accumulates in the cytoplasm, and possesses a conserved C-terminal region with two amphipathic helices. Furthermore, the positional homologs of p23 in other caliciviruses have been shown to possess viroporin activity. Here, we report on the mechanistic details of p23 oligomerization. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed the importance of an N-terminal cysteine for dimerization. Furthermore, we identified cellular interactors of p23 using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics; heat shock proteins Hsp70 and 110 interact with p23 in transfected cells, suggesting that they 'chaperone' p23 proteins before their integration into cellular membranes. We investigated changes to the global transcriptome and proteome that occurred in infected rabbit liver tissue and observed changes to the misfolded protein response, calcium signaling, and the regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Finally, flow cytometry studies indicate slightly elevated calcium concentrations in the cytoplasm of p23-transfected cells. Taken together, accumulating evidence suggests that p23 is a viroporin that might form calcium-conducting channels in the ER membranes.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-04

Castro N, Gestoso I, Marques CS, et al (2022)

Anthropogenic pressure leads to more introductions: Marine traffic and artificial structures in offshore islands increases non-indigenous species.

Marine pollution bulletin, 181:113898.

Anthropogenic pressures such as the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) have impacted global biodiversity and ecosystems. Most marine species spreading outside their natural biogeographical limits are promoted and facilitated by maritime traffic through ballast water and hull biofouling. Propagule pressure plays a primary role in invasion success mixed with environmental conditions of the arrival port. Moreover, with the current ocean sprawl, new substrates are offered for potential NIS recruits. Here, differences in the fouling assemblages thriving inside three different ports/marinas facilities in Madeira Island were assessed for comparison. The locations showed significant differences concerning assemblage structure. Most NIS were detected in plastic floating pontoons. Funchal harbour receives most of the marine traffic in Madeira, acting as the main hub for primary NIS introductions, being recreational boating involved in NIS secondary transfers. Our results highlight the need for future management actions in island ecosystems, particularly monitoring and sampling of recreational boating.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Leatherman SP (2022)

Management of invasive snakes in coastal environments: A baseline assessment of the Burmese python invasion in the Florida Everglades.

Marine pollution bulletin, 182:113996 pii:S0025-326X(22)00678-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The Florida Everglades is a unique and fragile coastal wetland ecosystem that is undergoing a decades-long, large-scale ecological restoration. This freshwater ecosystem in southern Florida has been stressed by diminishment of freshwater flow and water diversion due to agricultural activities and urbanization. The health of this vast ecosystem is also threatened by the presence of a large number of invasive species, including the Burmese python. These large constrictors were introduced to South Florida through the pet trade; first sightings in Everglades National Park occurred in the 1980s. Pythons are naturally camouflaged in the Everglades, which turns out to be an excellent environment for propagation of these huge predators. This top predator has severely disrupted the food web, consuming mammals, birds and even other reptiles. In this paper, the current population control efforts implemented by various management agencies are assessed. While more paid professional hunters should be retained to join the search and removal efforts, innovative control measures are necessary.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Li S, Qian Z, Yang J, et al (2022)

Seasonal variation in structure and function of gut microbiota in Pomacea canaliculata.

Ecology and evolution, 12(8):e9162 pii:ECE39162.

Gut microbiota is associated with host health and its environmental adaption, influenced by seasonal variation. Pomacea canaliculata is one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to analyze the seasonal variation of gut microbiota of P. canaliculata. The results suggested that the predominant gut microbial phyla of P. canaliculata included Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which helped digest plant food and accumulate energy. The gut microbiota of P. canaliculata in summer group showed the highest diversity, whereas the winter group possessed the lowest, probably due to the shortage of food resources of P. canaliculata in winter. Principal coordinate analysis analysis based on unweighted unifrac and weighted unifrac indicated that the composition of gut microbiota of P. canaliculata significantly varied across seasons. Bacteroidetes tended to be enriched in summer by linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis. Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria were extremely abundant in autumn, while Fusobacteria and Cetobacterium enriched in winter. In conclusion, the structure of the gut microbiota of P. canaliculata was significantly different among seasons, which was beneficial to the environment adaptation and the digestion and metabolism of food during different periods.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Kurucz K, Zeghbib S, Arnoldi D, et al (2022)

Aedes koreicus, a vector on the rise: Pan-European genetic patterns, mitochondrial and draft genome sequencing.

PloS one, 17(8):e0269880.

BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) is a recent invader on the European continent that was introduced to several new places since its first detection in 2008. Compared to other exotic Aedes mosquitoes with public health significance that invaded Europe during the last decades, this species' biology, behavior, and dispersal patterns were poorly investigated to date.

To understand the species' population relationships and dispersal patterns within Europe, a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI or COX1) gene was sequenced from 130 mosquitoes, collected from five countries where the species has been introduced and/or established. Oxford Nanopore and Illumina sequencing techniques were combined to generate the first complete nuclear and mitochondrial genomic sequences of Ae. koreicus from the European region. The complete genome of Ae. koreicus is 879 Mb. COI haplotype analyses identified five major groups (altogether 31 different haplotypes) and revealed a large-scale dispersal pattern between European Ae. koreicus populations. Continuous admixture of populations from Belgium, Italy, and Hungary was highlighted, additionally, haplotype diversity and clustering indicate a separation of German sequences from other populations, pointing to an independent introduction of Ae. koreicus to Europe. Finally, a genetic expansion signal was identified, suggesting the species might be present in more locations than currently detected.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the importance of genetic research of invasive mosquitoes to understand general dispersal patterns, reveal main dispersal routes and form the baseline of future mitigation actions. The first complete genomic sequence also provides a significant leap in the general understanding of this species, opening the possibility for future genome-related studies, such as the detection of 'Single Nucleotide Polymorphism' markers. Considering its public health importance, it is crucial to further investigate the species' population genetic dynamic, including a larger sampling and additional genomic markers.

RevDate: 2022-08-02
CmpDate: 2022-08-02

Lear L, Padfield D, Inamine H, et al (2022)

Disturbance-mediated invasions are dependent on community resource abundance.

Ecology, 103(8):e3728.

Disturbances can facilitate biological invasions, with the associated increase in resource availability being a proposed cause. Here, we experimentally tested the interactive effects of disturbance regime (different frequencies of biomass removal at equal intensities) and resource abundance on invasion success using a factorial design containing five disturbance frequencies and three resource levels. We invaded populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens with two ecologically different invader morphotypes: a fast-growing "colonizer" type and a slower growing "competitor" type. As resident populations were altered by the treatments, we additionally tested their effect on invader success. Disturbance frequency and resource abundance interacted to affect the success of both invaders, but this interaction differed between the invader types. The success of the colonizer type was positively affected by disturbance under high resources but negatively under low. However, disturbance negatively affected the success of the competitor type under high resource abundance but not under low or medium. Resident population changes did not alter invader success beyond direct treatment effects. We therefore demonstrate that the same disturbance regime can either be beneficial or detrimental for an invader depending on both community resource abundance and its life history. These results may help to explain some of the inconsistencies found in the disturbance-invasion literature.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Cafarchia C, Pellegrino R, Romano V, et al (2022)

Delivery and effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito and tick control: current knowledge and research challenges.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(22)00319-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Insects, ticks, and mites represent a threat to animal health globally, mainly due to their role as vectors of pathogens. Among the most important diseases, those transmitted by mosquitoes (e.g., malaria and arboviral infections) and ticks (e.g., Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, and viral haemorrhagic fever) have a huge impact on human health. The principal methods available for reducing the public health burden of most vector-borne diseases are vector-based intervention relying to insecticides and acaricides. However, the use of these products is challenged by the introduction of invasive species, the quick development of physiological insecticide and acaricide resistance, and their non-target effects on human health and environment. In this scenario, insecticide/acaricide-free control approaches based on the employment of entomopathogenic fungi (EPFs) are currently considered a promising tool in Integrated Pest/Vector Management, even if their large-scale use is still limited. In this article, we provide an overview on current knowledge about the role of EPFs for mosquito and tick management to assess solutions improving the delivery and efficacy of EPFs in the field. Laboratory research provided solid evidence that EPFs represent a next-generation control tool to manage mosquito and tick populations. However, the viability, infectivity, and persistence of fungal spores under field conditions are still inadequate. Herein we also discuss the development and optimization of EPF-based lure and kill approaches through biopolymers to improve cost-competitive, safety and eco-friendly pest and vector control tools.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Hancock SC, Essl F, Kraak MJ, et al (2022)

Introducing the combined atlas framework for large-scale web-based data visualization: The GloNAF atlas of plant invasion.

Methods in ecology and evolution, 13(5):1073-1081.

Large-scale biodiversity data, for example, on species distribution and richness information, are being mobilized and becoming available at an increasing rate. Interactive web applications like atlases have been developed to visualize available datasets and make them accessible to a wider audience. Web mapping tools are changing rapidly, and different underlying concepts have been developed to visualize datasets at a high cartographic standard.Here, we introduce the Combined Atlas Framework for the development of interactive web atlases for ecological data visualization. We combine two existing approaches: the five stages of the user-centred design approach for web mapping applications and the three U approach for interface success.Subsequently, we illustrate the use of this framework by developing the Atlas of Plant Invasions based on the Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database. This case study illustrates how the newly developed Combined Atlas Framework with a user-centred design philosophy can generate measurable success through communication with the target user group, iterative prototyping and competitive analysis of other existing web mapping approaches.The framework is useful in creating an atlas that employs user feedback to determine usability and utility features within an interactive atlas system. Finally, this framework will enable a better-informed development process of future visualization and dissemination of biodiversity data through web mapping applications and interactive atlases.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Brevé NWP, Leuven RSEW, Buijse AD, et al (2022)

The conservation paradox of critically endangered fish species: Trading alien sturgeons versus native sturgeon reintroduction in the Rhine-Meuse river delta.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04739-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Sturgeons rank among the most endangered vertebrates in the world. Yet, the dwindling of wild sturgeon populations stands in stark contrast to their thriving status in aquaculture. Moreover, through the exotic pet trade, sturgeons are introduced outside their natural ranges where they may compete and hybridize with native species and transmit parasites and diseases. Here, we present an in-depth inventory of alien sturgeons in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, because several countries consider reintroduction of the native, critically endangered European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio). Our study is based on (a) an inventory of the industry of sturgeon cultivation; (b) reports on spread of alien sturgeons; (c) an analysis of pathways for introduction and spread; and (d) a risk assessment using the Harmonia+ protocol. In total, 11 alien Acipenseriformes (sturgeons and paddlefishes) were traded across an intricate network of >1000 distribution points in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany. Circa 2500 alien sturgeons were reported from 53 angling ponds and 64 other lakes and ponds, whereas circa 500 alien sturgeons were reported widespread across hydrologically connected waters. Species that posed the highest risk of introduction, establishment and spread are Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii), Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii) and Sterlet (A. ruthenus). We recommend to implement stringent trade regulations and practical solutions to prevent spread of alien sturgeons. Measures must preferably be taken at the spatial scale of river basins.

RevDate: 2022-07-30

Park HR, Rahman MM, Park SM, et al (2022)

Risk assessment for the native anurans from an alien invasive species, American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), in South Korea.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13143.

The invasive species are of global concern, and the Invasive American Bullfrog (IAB; Lithobates catesbeianus) is one of the worst invasive amphibian species worldwide. Like other countries, South Korea is also facing challenges from IAB. Although many studies indicated impacts of IAB on native anurans in Korea, the actual risk at the specific level is yet to evaluate. Considering the putative invasiveness of IAB, it is hypothesized that any species with the possibility of physical contact or habitat sharing with them, will have a potential risk. Thus, we estimated and observed their home range, preferred habitats, morphology, behavior, and ecology. Then, comparing with existing knowledge, we assessed risks to the native anurans. We found a home range of 3474.2 ± 5872.5 m2 and identified three types of habitats for IAB. The analyses showed at least 84% of native anurans (frogs and toads) were at moderate to extreme risks, which included all frogs but only 33% of toads. Finally, we recommended immediate actions to conserve the native anurans based on our results. As this study is the first initiative to assess the specific risk level from the invasiveness of L. catesbeianus, it will help the managers to set conservation priorities and strategies.

RevDate: 2022-07-30

Brain RA, RS Prosser (2022)

Human induced fish declines in North America, how do agricultural pesticides compare to other drivers?.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Numerous anthropogenic factors, historical and contemporary, have contributed to declines in the abundance and diversity of freshwater fishes in North America. When Europeans first set foot on this continent some five hundred years ago, the environment was ineradicably changed. Settlers brought with them diseases, animals, and plants via the Columbian Exchange, from the old world to the new, facilitating a process of biological globalization. Invasive species were thus introduced into the Americas, displacing native inhabitants. Timber was felled for ship building and provisioning for agriculture, resulting in a mass land conversion for the purposes of crop cultivation. As European colonization expanded, landscapes were further modified to mitigate against floods and droughts via the building of dams and levees. Resources have been exploited, and native populations have been overfished to the point of collapse. The resultant population explosion has also resulted in wide-spread pollution of aquatic resources, particularly following the industrial and agricultural revolutions. Collectively, these activities have influenced the climate and the climate, in turn, has exacerbated the effects of these activities. Thus, the anthropogenic fingerprints are undeniable, but relatively speaking, which of these transformative factors has contributed most significantly to the decline of freshwater fishes in North America? This manuscript attempts to address this question by comparing and contrasting the preeminent drivers contributing to freshwater fish declines in this region in order to provide context and perspective. Ultimately, an evaluation of the available data makes clear that habitat loss, obstruction of streams and rivers, invasive species, overexploitation, and eutrophication are the most important drivers contributing to freshwater fish declines in North America. However, pesticides remain a dominant causal narrative in the popular media, despite technological advancements in pesticide development and regulation. Transitioning from organochlorines to organophosphates/carbamates, to pyrethroids and ultimately to the neonicotinoids, toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of pesticides have all steadily decreased over time. Concomitantly, regulatory frameworks designed to assess corresponding pesticide risks in Canada and the USA have become increasingly more stringent and intensive. Yet, comparatively, habitat loss continues unabated as agricultural land is ceded to the frontier of urban development, globalized commerce continues to introduce invasive species into North America, permanent barriers in the form of dams and levees remain intact, fish are still being extracted from native habitats (commercially and otherwise), and the climate continues to change. How then should we make sense of all these contributing factors? Here, we attempt to address this issue.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Sierra-Serrano B, García-García A, Hidalgo T, et al (2022)

Copper Glufosinate-Based Metal-Organic Framework as a Novel Multifunctional Agrochemical.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Pesticides are agrochemical compounds used to kill pests (insects, rodents, fungi, or unwanted plants), which are key to meet the world food demand. Regrettably, some important issues associated with their widespread/extensive use (contamination, bioaccumulation, and development of pest resistances) demand a reduction in the amount of pesticide applied in crop protection. Among the novel technologies used to combat the deterioration of our environment, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as innovative and promising materials in agroindustry since they possess several features (high porosity, functionalizable cavities, ecofriendly composition, etc.) that make them excellent candidates for the controlled release of pesticides. Moving toward a sustainable development, in this work, we originally describe the use of pesticides as building blocks for the MOF construction, leading to a new type of agricultural applied MOFs (or AgroMOFs). Particularly, we have prepared a novel 2D-MOF (namely, GR-MOF-7) based on the herbicide glufosinate and the widely used antibacterial and fungicide Cu2+. GR-MOF-7 crystallizes attaining a monoclinic P21/c space group, and the asymmetric unit is composed of one independent Cu2+ ion and one molecule of the Glu2- ligand. Considering the significant antibacterial activity of Cu-based compounds in agriculture, the potential combined bactericidal and herbicidal effect of GR-MOF-7 was investigated. GR-MOF-7 shows an important antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (involved in agricultural animal infections), improving the results obtained with its individual or even physical mixed precursors [glufosinate and Cu(NO3)2]. It is also an effective pesticide against germination and plant growth of the weed Raphanus sativus, an invasive species in berries and vines crops, demonstrating that the construction of MOFs based on herbicide and antibacterial/antifungal units is a promising strategy to achieve multifunctional agrochemicals. To the best of our knowledge, this first report on the synthesis of an MOF based on agrochemicals (what we have named AgroMOF) opens new ways on the safe and efficient MOF application in agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-07-30

Feyten LEA, Demers EEM, Ramnarine IW, et al (2022)

Assessing effects of predator density and diversity on neophobia in Trinidadian guppies.

Behavioural processes pii:S0376-6357(22)00134-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Neophobic predator avoidance, where prey actively avoid novel stimuli, is thought to allow prey to cope with the inability to predict predation risk (i.e. uncertainty) while reducing the costs associated with learning. Recent studies suggest that neophobia is elicited as a response to unpredictable and elevated mean predation risk, and is linked to experience with diverse novel cues. However, no research has disentangled the effects of predator density and diversity on neophobia. We conditioned Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high- or low-diversity predator model treatments paired with high, intermediate, or low concentrations of conspecific alarm cues as a proxy for predator density. We tested behavioural responses to a novel stimulus vs. a water control to determine differences in neophobia among treatments. We found that neophobic shoaling behaviour was shaped by mean risk (predator density). However both density and diversity shaped neophobic freezing, and to a weaker extent, neophobic area use. Our research suggests that predator diversity might elicit neophobic responses in guppies, but only when mean risk is high enough. The relationship between neophobia and components of predation risk is becoming increasingly relevant as ecological uncertainty becomes more prevalent with increasing climate change, anthropogenic impacts, and invasive species.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Yuning L, Luyang L, Xueming C, et al (2022)

The bacterial and fungal communities of the larval midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) varied by feeding on two cruciferous vegetables.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13063.

Spodoptera frugiperda is a highly polyphagous pest worldwide with a wide host range that causes serious losses to many economically important crops. Recently, insect-microbe associations have become a hot spot in current entomology research, and the midgut microbiome of S. frugiperda has been investigated, while the effects of cruciferous vegetables remain unknown. In this study, the growth of S. frugiperda larvae fed on an artificial diet, Brassica campestris and Brassica oleracea for 7 days was analyzed. Besides, the microbial community and functional prediction analyses of the larval midguts of S. frugiperda fed with different diets were performed by high-throughput sequencing. Our results showed that B. oleracea inhibited the growth of S. frugiperda larvae. The larval midgut microbial community composition and structure were significantly affected by different diets. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) suggested 20 bacterial genera and 2 fungal genera contributed to different gut microbial community structures. The functional classification of the midgut microbiome analyzed by PICRUSt and FUNGuild showed that the most COG function categories of midgut bacterial function were changed by B. oleracea, while the guilds of fungal function were altered by B. campestris significantly. These results showed that the diversity and structure of the S. frugiperda midgut microbial community were affected by cruciferous vegetable feeding. Our study provided a preliminary understanding of the role of midgut microbes in S. frugiperda larvae in response to cruciferous vegetables.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Verma M, Dar AI, A Acharya (2022)

Facile synthesis of biogenic silica nanomaterial loaded transparent tragacanth gum hydrogels with improved physicochemical properties and inherent anti-bacterial activity.

Nanoscale [Epub ahead of print].

In this report, biogenic, crystalline (∼60.5 ± 2%) bowknot structured silica nanoparticles (BSNPs) of length ∼ 274 ± 7 nm and width ∼ 36 ± 2 nm were isolated from invasive species viz. Lantana camara. These were then chemically modified using nitrogen containing moieties viz. APTES and CTAB. These modified BSNPs were then used as electrostatic cross-linking agents for the formation of tragacanth gum (TG) hydrogels. The cytocompatible CTAB@BSNP-TG hydrogels documented ∼10-12 fold enhancement in anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared with TG hydrogels. Disruption of the bacterial membrane by ROS generation and protein leakage were responsible for anti-bacterial activity. A cell migration assay suggested that CTAB@BSNP-TG augmented the cell proliferation of NIH-3T3 cells compared to other TG hydrogels. The present study will pave the path for the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite-based hydrogels for anti-bacterial and cell migration applications.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Xu M, Li SP, Dick JTA, et al (2022)

Exotic fishes that are phylogenetically close but functionally distant to native fishes are more likely to establish.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Since Darwin's time, degree of ecological similarity between exotic and native species has been assumed to affect the establishment success or failure of exotic species. However, a direct test of the effect of exotic-native similarity on establishment of exotics is scarce because of the difficulty in recognizing failures of species to establish in the field. Here, using a database on the establishment success and failure of exotic fish species introduced into 673 freshwater lakes, we evaluate the effect of similarity on the establishment of exotic fishes by combining phylogenetic and functional information. We illustrate that, relative to other biotic and abiotic factors, exotic-native phylogenetic and functional similarities were the most important correlates of exotic fish establishment. While phylogenetic similarity between exotic and resident fish species promoted successful establishment, functional similarity led to failure of exotics to become established. Those exotic species phylogenetically close to, but functionally distant from, native fishes were most likely to establish successfully. Our findings provide a perspective to reconcile Darwin's naturalization conundrum and suggest that, while phylogenetic relatedness allows exotic fish species to pre-adapt better to novel environments, they need to possess distinct functional traits to reduce competition with resident native fish species.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Vavassori L, Honnen AC, Saarman N, et al (2022)

Multiple introductions and overwintering shape the progressive invasion of Aedes albopictus beyond the Alps.

Ecology and evolution, 12(7):e9138 pii:ECE39138.

Aedes albopictus originates from Southeast Asia and is considered one of the most invasive species globally. This mosquito is a nuisance and a disease vector of significant public health relevance. In Europe, Ae. albopictus is firmly established and widespread south of the Alps, a mountain range that forms a formidable biogeographic barrier to many organisms. Recent reports of Ae. albopictus north of the Alps raise questions of (1) the origins of its recent invasion, and (2) if this mosquito has established overwintering populations north of the Alps. To answer these questions, we analyzed population genomic data from >4000 genome-wide SNPs obtained through double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. We collected SNP data from specimens from six sites in Switzerland, north and south of the Alps, and analyzed them together with specimens from other 33 European sites, five from the Americas, and five from its Asian native range. At a global level, we detected four genetic clusters with specimens from Indonesia, Brazil, and Japan as the most differentiated, whereas specimens from Europe, Hong Kong, and USA largely overlapped. Across the Alps, we detected a weak genetic structure and high levels of genetic admixture, supporting a scenario of rapid and human-aided dispersal along transportation routes. While the genetic pattern suggests frequent re-introductions into Switzerland from Italian sources, the recovery of a pair of full siblings in two consecutive years in Strasbourg, France, suggests the presence of an overwintering population north of the Alps. The suggestion of overwintering populations of Ae. albopictus north of the Alps and the expansion patterns identified points to an increased risk of further northward expansion and the need for increased surveillance of mosquito populations in Northern Europe.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Soto I, Cuthbert RN, Kouba A, et al (2022)

Global economic costs of herpetofauna invasions.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10829.

Biological invasions by amphibian and reptile species (i.e. herpetofauna) are numerous and widespread, having caused severe impacts on ecosystems, the economy and human health. However, there remains no synthesised assessment of the economic costs of these invasions. Therefore, using the most comprehensive database on the economic costs of invasive alien species worldwide (InvaCost), we analyse the costs caused by invasive alien herpetofauna according to taxonomic, geographic, sectoral and temporal dimensions, as well as the types of these costs. The cost of invasive herpetofauna totaled at 17.0 billion US$ between 1986 and 2020, divided split into 6.3 billion US$ for amphibians, 10.4 billion US$ for reptiles and 334 million US$ for mixed classes. However, these costs were associated predominantly with only two species (brown tree snake Boiga irregularis and American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus), with 10.3 and 6.0 billion US$ in costs, respectively. Costs for the remaining 19 reported species were relatively minor (< 0.6 billion US$), and they were entirely unavailable for over 94% of known invasive herpetofauna worldwide. Also, costs were positively correlated with research effort, suggesting research biases towards well-known taxa. So far, costs have been dominated by predictions and extrapolations (79%), and thus empirical observations for impact were relatively scarce. The activity sector most affected by amphibians was authorities-stakeholders through management (> 99%), while for reptiles, impacts were reported mostly through damages to mixed sectors (65%). Geographically, Oceania and Pacific Islands recorded 63% of total costs, followed by Europe (35%) and North America (2%). Cost reports have generally increased over time but peaked between 2011 and 2015 for amphibians and 2006 to 2010 for reptiles. A greater effort in studying the costs of invasive herpetofauna is necessary for a more complete understanding of invasion impacts of these species. We emphasise the need for greater control and prevention policies concerning the spread of current and future invasive herpetofauna.

RevDate: 2022-07-29
CmpDate: 2022-07-29

Clark KH, Iwanowicz DD, Iwanowicz LR, et al (2022)

Freshwater unionid mussels threatened by predation of Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus).

Scientific reports, 12(1):12859.

Indigenous freshwater mussels (Unionidae) are integral to riverine ecosystems, playing a pivotal role in aquatic food webs and providing ecological services. With populations on the decline worldwide, freshwater mussels are of conservation concern. In this study, we explore the propensity of the invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) fish to prey upon indigenous freshwater mussels. First, we conducted lab experiments where Round Gobies were given the opportunity to feed on juvenile unionid mussels and macroinvertebrates, revealing rates and preferences of consumption. Several Round Gobies consumed whole freshwater mussels during these experiments, as confirmed by mussel counts and x-ray images of the fishes. Next, we investigated Round Gobies collected from stream habitats of the French Creek watershed, which is renowned for its unique and rich aquatic biodiversity. We developed a novel DNA metabarcoding method to identify the specific species of mussels consumed by Round Goby and provide a new database of DNA gene sequences for 25 indigenous unionid mussel species. Several of the fishes sampled had consumed indigenous mussels, including the Elktoe (non-endangered), Creeper (non-endangered), Long Solid (state endangered), and Rayed Bean (federally endangered) species. The invasive Round Goby poses a growing threat to unionid mussels, including species of conservation concern. The introduction of the invasive Round Goby to freshwaters of North America is shaping ecosystem transitions within the aquatic critical zone having widespread implications for conservation and management.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Zhang Y, Kong WL, Wu XQ, et al (2022)

Inhibitory Effects of Phenazine Compounds and Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Pseudomonas aurantiaca ST-TJ4 Against Phytophthora cinnamomi.

Phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Phytophthora cinnamomi is an important plant pathogen that is widely distributed worldwide and has caused serious ecological damage and significant economic losses in forests and plantations in many countries. The use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is an effective and environmentally friendly strategy for controlling diseases caused by P. cinnamomi. In this study, we investigated the antagonistic mechanism of Pseudomonas aurantiaca ST-TJ4 against P. cinnamomi through different antagonistic approaches, observations of mycelial morphology, study of mycelial metabolism, and identification of antagonistic substances. The results showed that Pseudomonas aurantiaca ST-TJ4 was able to significantly inhibit mycelial growth, causing mycelial deformation and disrupting internal cell structures. Additionally, pathogen cell membranes were damaged by ST-TJ4, and mycelial cell content synthesis was disrupted. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that phenazine compounds and 2-undecanone were the main antagonistic components. The ammonia produced by the ST-TJ4 strain also contributed to the inhibition of the growth of P. cinnamomi. In conclusion, our results confirm that Pseudomonas aurantiaca ST-TJ4 can inhibit P. cinnamomi through multiple mechanisms and can be used as a biological control agent for various plant diseases caused by P. cinnamomi.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Pazos T, Álvarez-Figueiró P, Cortés-Vázquez JA, et al (2022)

Of Fears and Budgets: Strategies of Control in Vespa velutina Invasion and Lessons for Best Management Practices.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

Implementing management practices for the control of invasive species can be a complex task with multiple dimensions, where the identification of stakeholders and drivers of those practices is of paramount importance. The invasive hornet Vespa velutina has spread across Europe and Asia from its native range in SE Asia in recent years. A common control method is the removal and destruction of its nests on citizens' request to call centers. In this paper we have explored the knowledge and main factors that influence the perceptions of the citizens on the species in an invaded municipality in NW Spain, as well as the management practices of the municipal emergency unit responsible for nest removal activities. Our analysis brings out multiple drivers of management practices that derive both from the citizens' and practitioners' knowledge, and highlights several points of conflict between both stakeholder groups connected to (1) the degree of service provided to the local population, (2) the risk of allergic reactions as a motive to urge removals, or (3) the quality of information provided by mass media. Our results support the crucial importance of environmental education programs that seek to increase the knowledge of the general public about the threats of invasive species. Such programs might be incorporated to implement and optimize management plans of V. velutina by enhancing communication between experts and local population.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Lizuain AA, Maffey L, Garzón M, et al (2022)

Larval Competition Between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Argentina: Coexistence and Implications in the Distribution of the Asian Tiger Mosquito.

Journal of medical entomology pii:6650983 [Epub ahead of print].

Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) are worldwide vectors of dengue and yellow fever viruses. These species coexist in many countries and the biotic interactions between them can influence their abundances and distributions. In Argentina, Ae. aegypti is widely distributed in the north and center regions of the country, with temperate and subtropical climate, while both are sympatric only in the northeastern area of the subtropical region. Interspecific and intraspecific larval competition for food was evaluated to assess if their interaction influences on patterns of abundance and distribution. Finite rates of increase and survivorship for each species were estimated and the effects of mosquito density ratio and detritus availability were determined. The Lambda (λ´) index of population performance of both showed there is no competitive exclusion pattern. However, survival of Ae. albopictus was negatively affected by the presence of Ae. aegypti. These results suggest one possible explanation for the codominance pattern of both species display in rural regions of the southernmost distribution of Ae. albopictus in South America. They also show Ae. aegypti as a potential biotic barrier for the expansion of Ae. albopictus as was reported in regions of the United States.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Lin X, Liu W, Wei X, et al (2022)

Complete chloroplast genome of an invasive marine macroalga Ulva californica (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 7(7):1337-1339 pii:2098854.

Species belonging to Ulva (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) are one of the major members of invasive seaweeds. Ulva californica Wille 1899 was originally believed to be native to the Pacific coast of North America, while in recent years it has been reported as exotic species, or new record, in Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia, and Oceania. However, the paths of global dispersal of U. californica are unclear. In addition, the species boundary between U. californica and a related species is somewhat disputed. Here, we reported that the complete chloroplast genome of U. californica is 92,126 bp in size, harboring 96 genes (GenBank accession no. MZ561475). The overall base composition was A (37.9%), T (37.4%), C (12.3%), and G (12.4%), similar to those from other Ulva species. The phylogenomic analysis showed that although U. californica was genetically closer to Ulva aragoënsis (Bliding) Maggs 2018 in [Krupnik N et al., 2018], they were clearly distinguishable, supporting the recent opinion that they should be separated into different species. The chloroplast genome data of U. californica would provide plenty resources for phylogeography analysis and monitor on bioinvasion.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Ling Y, Zhang Y, Ngatia JN, et al (2022)

The complete mitochondrial genome of Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) in Guangdong, China.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 7(7):1319-1320 pii:2054735.

The Melanoides tuberculata is an invasive species, which is natively distributed in Africa and Southeast Asia. This study describes the first mitochondrial genome of the M. tuberculata based on the whole genome sequencing data. The complete sequence length of the mitogenome is 15,821 bp, including 37 genes (2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 13 protein-coding genes). Phylogenetic analysis using the 13 species of Cerithioidea species showed that the M. tuberculata is closely related to P. dartevellei, forming the sister group to C. sinensis and C. obtuse.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Sîrbu I, Benedek AM, Brown BL, et al (2022)

Disentangling structural and functional responses of native versus alien communities by canonical ordination analyses and variation partitioning with multiple matrices.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12813.

Freshwaters are under accelerated human pressure, and mollusk communities are among its most sensitive, threatened, and valuable components. To the best of our knowledge, the overall effects of damming, environment, space, time, and invasive alien mollusk species, on structural and functional responses of native mollusk communities were not yet compared. Using historical information and recent data from a river, we aimed to investigate and disentangle these effects and evaluate the differences in structural and functional responses of natives and alien invasives to the same predictors. Variation partitioning showed that alien species were as important predictors as were environmental factors and time in explaining species composition of native freshwater mollusk communities. Aliens were more independent of environmental conditions than natives and responded to different drivers, partially explaining their invasion success. The increased abundance of some alien gastropods was positively related to taxonomic diversity, while certain alien bivalves were negatively associated with the functional diversity of native communities. We introduce a cumulative variation partitioning with multiple response (native and alien) and predictor matrices, along with a diagram to show their relations, advocating for a conceptual shift in future community ecology, from "variables to matrices" and from "multivariate analyses to multi-matrix statistical modeling".

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Marcogliese DJ (2022)

RECRUITMENT AND SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF PARASITES IN JUVENILE INVASIVE ROUND GOBIES (NEOGOBIUS MELANOSTOMUS) IN THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER, QUEBEC, CANADA.

The Journal of parasitology, 108(4):337-342.

The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive species that has become one of the most abundant fish in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada over the past 15 yr. Since its introduction, the round goby has acquired a number of native parasites, yet little is known about the dynamics of parasite recruitment. To examine this question, young-of-the-year and juvenile round gobies were collected monthly from 2 localities in the river (Îles de la Paix, Île Dorval) from June through November 2012. At Îles de la Paix, round gobies (n = 180) were infected with 3 species of parasites, all larval stages (Diplostomum spp., Tylodelphys scheuringi, Neoechinorhynchus tenellus). Prevalence of the digenean Diplostomum spp. varied from 3.3 to 13.3%, and mean abundance from 0.03 to 0.53 from June through September, with a maximum in August. The digenean T. scheuringi was seen only in August, at a prevalence of 10.0% and a mean abundance of 0.53. The acanthocephalan N. tenellus was observed in June, August, and September, prevalence ranging from 3.3 to 10.0% and mean abundance from 0.03 to 0.27. Maximum infection for all 3 species occurred in August. All infected fish were ≥44 mm in total length (TL). Fish infected with more than 1 parasite species were >60 mm TL. No round goby (n = 178) was infected at Île Dorval. This study demonstrated that the invasive round goby starts to acquire parasite infections in the St. Lawrence River in the first year of life and may contribute to the transmission of some parasites within this ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Peach DAH, BJ Matthews (2022)

The Invasive Mosquitoes of Canada: An Entomological, Medical, and Veterinary Review.

The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene pii:tpmd210167 [Epub ahead of print].

Several invasive mosquitoes have become established in Canada, including important pathogen vectors such as Aedes albopictus, Ae. japonicus, and Culex pipiens. Some species have been present for decades, while others are recent arrivals. Several species present new health concerns and may result in autochthonous seasonal outbreaks of pathogens, particularly in southern Canada, that were previously restricted to imported cases. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of the biological, medical, and veterinary perspectives of these invasive species and highlights the need for increased monitoring efforts and information sharing.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Yagound B, West AJ, Richardson MF, et al (2022)

Captivity induces large and population-dependent brain transcriptomic changes in wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina).

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Gene expression levels are key molecular phenotypes at the interplay between genotype and environment. Mounting evidence suggests that short-term changes in environmental conditions, such as those encountered in captivity, can substantially affect gene expression levels. Yet, the exact magnitude of this effect, how general it is, and whether it results in parallel changes across populations are not well understood. Here, we take advantage of the well-studied cane toad, Rhinella marina, to examine the effect of short-term captivity on brain gene expression levels, and determine whether effects of captivity differ between long-colonised and vanguard populations of the cane toad's Australian invasion range. We compared the transcriptomes of wild-caught toads immediately assayed with those from toads captured from the same populations but maintained in captivity for seven months. We found large differences in gene expression levels between captive and wild-caught toads from the same population, with an over-representation of processes related to behaviour and the response to stress. Captivity had a much larger effect on both gene expression levels and gene expression variability in toads from vanguard populations compared to toads from long-colonised areas, potentially indicating an increased plasticity in toads at the leading edge of the invasion. Overall, our findings indicate that short-term captivity can induce large and population-specific transcriptomic changes, which has significant implications for studies comparing phenotypic traits of wild-caught organisms from different populations that have been held in captivity.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Jiang F, Wang S, Wang H, et al (2022)

A chromosome-level reference genome of a Convolvulaceae species Ipomoea cairica.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:6650628 [Epub ahead of print].

Ipomoea cairica is a perennial creeper that has been widely introduced as a garden ornamental across tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Because it grows extremely fast and spreads easily, it has been listed as an invasive species in many countries. Here, we constructed the chromosome-level reference genome of Ipomoea cairica by PacBio HiFi and Hi-C sequencing, with assembly size of 733.0 Mb, contig N50 of 43.8 Mb and scaffold N50 of 45.7 Mb, and BUSCO complete rate of 98.0%. Hi-C scaffolding assigned 97.9% of the contigs to 15 pseudo-chromosomes. Telomeric repeat analysis reveals that 7 of the 15 pseudo-chromosomes are gapless and telomere-to-telomere. The transposable element content of I. cairica is 73.4%, obviously higher than that of other Ipomoea species. A total of 38,115 protein-coding genes were predicted, with the BUSCO complete rate of 98.5%, comparable to that of the genome assembly, and 92.6% of genes were functional annotated. In addition, we identified 3,039 tRNA genes and 2,403 rRNA genes in the assembled genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that I. cairica formed a clade with I. aquatica, and they diverged from each other 8.1 million years ago. Through comparative genome analysis, we reconfirmed that a whole genome triplication event occurred specific to Convolvulaceae family and in the ancestor of the genus Ipomoea and Cuscuta. This high-quality reference genome of I. cairica will greatly facilitate the studies on the molecular mechanisms of its rapid growth and invasiveness.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Marchessaux G, Lüskow F, Bejean M, et al (2022)

Increasing Temperature Facilitates Polyp Spreading and Medusa Appearance of the Invasive Hydrozoan Craspedacusta sowerbii.

Biology, 11(8): pii:biology11081100.

The freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii is among the most widespread invasive species, observed across a wide temperature range. The aim of this study is to analyze the polyp and medusa stages response to different temperatures by using (i) an experimental study on the polyp colony growth at 19 and 29 °C, and (ii) prediction of the Thermal Habitat Suitability (THS) based on the thermal tolerance of the medusa stage. The total number of polyps and colonies was greater at high temperature. At 19 °C, colonies with 1 to 5 polyps were present, with colonies of 1 to 3 polyps numerically dominating. At 29 °C, colonies were 80% composed of 1- to 2-polyps. Based on the published medusa pulsation rhythm data, a Thermal Performance Curve (TPC) regression was performed and used to monthly predict the THS for current and future (2050 and 2100) scenarios. The southern hemisphere offered optimal conditions (THS > 0.6) year-round. In the northern hemisphere, the optimum period was predicted to be between June and September. The future THS were considerably larger than at present with an increase in optimal THS at higher latitudes (up to 60° N). The combination of experimental and modeling approaches allows to identify the optimal thermal conditions of the polyp and medusa stages and to predict their invasive capacities.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Hoefer A, Becker AAMJ, Moodley A, et al (2022)

Presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Feces of the Small Indian Mongooses (Urva auropunctata) on Saint Kitts and Nevis, West Indies.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(8): pii:antibiotics11080990.

Although, historically, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was restricted to humans, since 2005 these strains emerged in livestock and wildlife. Therefore, a One Health approach was applied to analyze the diversity and characteristics of S. aureus strains isolated from the invasive species of mongoose (Urva auropunctata) in St. Kitts. Fecal samples collected from these animals (n = 81) were cultured on selective agar. The isolated S. aureus strains were identified using MALDI-TOF and further characterized by whole genome sequence analysis. The fecal microbiome study identified the presence of S. aureus in 5 animals. Both MSSA (n = 3) and MRSA (n = 2) strains were identified. The two MRSA isolated were nearly identical ST5 SCCmec IVa (2B) strains. The two MSSA isolated were a new ST7434, pertaining to clonal complex 30, and the other belonged to ST5, but unrelated to the MRSA ST5. The SCCmec IVa (2B) is, however, the main SCCmec in human MRSA of different STs identified in St Kitts, indicating potential horizontal transmission events. In conclusion, a new type of MSSA, ST7434, was found and MRSA ST5 t002 SCCmec IVa (2B) found its way into wildlife on a small Caribbean Island. Further One Health studies are necessary to determine the role of MRSA in wildlife.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Carriazo S, A Ortiz (2022)

Wasp stings and plasma exchange.

Clinical kidney journal, 15(8):1455-1458 pii:sfac055.

Invasive species related to climate change and/or globalization may be associated with novel forms of kidney disease. This is the case for wasps. Several species of Asian wasps are increasingly found in America (e.g. Asian giant hornet, Vespa mandarinia) and Europe (e.g. yellow-legged Asian hornet, V. velutina; black shield hornet, V. bicolor; and Oriental hornet, V. orientalis). Some of these species have been associated with human deaths and acute kidney injury. The literature on wasps and acute kidney injury is scarce and mostly originates from Asia, so nephrologists outside Asia are not familiar with this health problem. In a recent issue of ckj, Liu et al. describe a simple, four-item Wasp Sting Severity Score (WSS) developed from 1131 wasp sting patients. Vespa mandarinia and V. velutina were among those causing hospitalization, although most cases were caused by the black-bellied hornet (V. basalis). Liu et al. propose that a WSS ≥3 should guide early (<24 h after stings) plasma exchange, as plasma exchange was associated with lower mortality in severely affected patients but continuous venovenous haemofiltration and haemoperfusion were not. The WSS will require external validation. This manuscript should raise awareness about the potentially fatal consequences of stings by wasp species making their way into America and Europe.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

French RK, Filion A, Niebuhr CN, et al (2022)

Metatranscriptomic Comparison of Viromes in Endemic and Introduced Passerines in New Zealand.

Viruses, 14(7): pii:v14071364.

New Zealand/Aotearoa has many endemic passerine birds vulnerable to emerging infectious diseases. Yet little is known about viruses in passerines, and in some countries, including New Zealand, the virome of wild passerines has been only scarcely researched. Using metatranscriptomic sequencing we characterised the virome of New Zealand endemic and introduced species of passerine. Accordingly, we identified 34 possible avian viruses from cloacal swabs of 12 endemic and introduced bird species not showing signs of disease. These included a novel siadenovirus, iltovirus, and avastrovirus in the Eurasian blackbird (Turdus merula, an introduced species), song thrush (Turdus philomelos, introduced) and silvereye/tauhou (Zosterops lateralis, introduced), respectively. This is the first time novel viruses from these genera have been identified in New Zealand, likely reflecting prior undersampling. It also represents the first identification of an iltovirus and siadenovirus in blackbirds and thrushes globally. These three viruses were only found in introduced species and may pose a risk to endemic species if they were to jump species boundaries, particularly the iltoviruses and siadenoviruses that have a prior history of disease associations. Further virus study and surveillance are needed in New Zealand avifauna, particularly in Turdus populations and endemic species.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Zeng Q, Lv YC, Xu XL, et al (2022)

Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Microfungi Associated with Phyllostachys (Poaceae) in Sichuan, China.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(7): pii:jof8070702.

In the present study, we surveyed the ascomycetes from bamboo of Phyllostachys across Sichuan Province, China. A biphasic approach based on morphological characteristics and multigene phylogeny confirmed seven species, including one new genus, two new species, and five new host record species. A novel genus Paralloneottiosporina is introduced to accommodate Pa. sichuanensis that was collected from leaves of Phyllostachys violascens. Moreover, the newly introduced species Bifusisporella sichuanensis was isolated from leaves of P. edulis, and five species were newly recorded on bamboos, four species belonging to Apiospora, viz. Ap. yunnana, Ap. neosubglobosa, Ap. jiangxiensis, and Ap. hydei, and the last species, Seriascoma yunnanense, isolated from dead culms of P. heterocycla. Morphologically similar and phylogenetically related taxa were compared. Comprehensive descriptions, color photo plates of micromorphology are provided.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Ni H, Kong WL, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

Effects of Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Pseudomonas aurantiaca ST-TJ4 against Verticillium dahliae.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(7): pii:jof8070697.

Verticillium dahliae is one of the most destructive fungal pathogens, causing substantial economic losses in agriculture and forestry. The use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is an effective and environmentally friendly strategy for controlling diseases caused by V. dahliae. In this study, 90 mm in diameter Petri plates were used to test the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by different concentrations of Pseudomonasaurantiaca ST-TJ4 cells suspension on V. dahliae mycelia radial growth and biomass. The mycelial morphology was observed by using scanning electron microscopy. The conidia germination and microsclerotia formation of V. dahliae were evaluated. The VOCs with antifungal activity were collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and their components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The VOCs produced by strain ST-TJ4 significantly inhibited the growth of mycelium of V. dahliae. The morphology of the hyphae was rough and wrinkled when exposed to VOCs. The VOCs of strain ST-TJ4 have a significant inhibitory effect on V. dahliae conidia germination and microsclerotia formation. At the same time, the VOCs also reduce the expression of genes related to melanin synthesis in V. dahliae. In particular, the expression of the hydrophobin gene (VDAG-02273) was down-regulated the most, about 67-fold. The VOCs effectively alleviate the severity of cotton root disease. In the volatile profile of strain ST-TJ4, 2-undecanone and 1-nonanol assayed in the range 10-200 µL per plate revealed a significant inhibitory effect on V. dahliae mycelial radial growth. These compounds may be useful to devise new control strategies for control of Verticillium wilt disease caused by V. dahliae.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Olenici N, Duduman ML, Popa I, et al (2022)

Geographical Distribution of Three Forest Invasive Beetle Species in Romania.

Insects, 13(7): pii:insects13070621.

Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg, 1836), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894) and Neoclytus acuminatus (Fabricius, 1775) are invasive species reported in Romania, but their current distribution is poorly known. The research aim was to provide new information on this issue. A survey was conducted over the period 2015-2017 in 82 locations, using flight-interception traps and bottle traps, baited with different attractants. Data obtained in our other unpublished studies were also taken into account. A total of 35,136 I. duplicatus beetles were collected in 30 survey locations. The highest captures were in the log yards of some factories processing logs of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Considering all known records so far, most of these are in the eastern part of Romania, where an outbreak took place during the years 2005-2014, mainly in spruce stands growing outside their natural range. During the survey, 4259 specimens of X. germanus were collected in 35 locations, but in our other studies the species was found in 13 additional places. It was collected at altitudes of 18-1200 m, and the largest catches were from beech stands, growing at 450-950 m. N. acuminatus was found in only six locations, in the western and southern parts of the country, at low altitudes, in tree stands composed of Fraxinus excelsior L., Quercus spp. and other broadleaf species, as well as in broadleaf log yards. The results suggest that I. duplicatus is established in most parts of the Norway spruce's range, X. germanus is still spreading in the country, with some areas having quite high populations, while N. acuminatus is present only in the warmest regions of the country.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Pace R, Ascolese R, Miele F, et al (2022)

The Bugs in the Bags: The Risk Associated with the Introduction of Small Quantities of Fruit and Plants by Airline Passengers.

Insects, 13(7): pii:insects13070617.

Among European countries, Italy is the most exposed to the risk of biological invasions, principally for its numerous entry points (ports and airports) and for climatic conditions favorable for the acclimatization of several invasive species. Here it was assessed that the greatest threats to our agro-ecosystems come mainly from the passenger baggage in which a variety of fruits and vegetables are carried. From 2016 to 2021, large quantities of plant products were found in the luggage of passengers travelling from outside the EU and seized at the BCPs (border control posts) in the Campania region. Inspections and the following laboratory analyses were conducted on the plant material to assess the presence of exotic pests. Inspections led to several non-native species being recorded, and among the intercepted organisms, some should be considered "alarming", such as Bactrocera dorsalis, Anastrepha obliqua, and Leucinodes africensis. Despite a well-organized border inspection system, travelers transporting infested material unknowingly contribute to increasing the risk of the introduction of exotic species. Given the current situation, it is necessary to impose stricter controls and greater attention, ensuring compliance with the requirements of the new phytosanitary regulations by the actors involved in the transport of plant material. Finally, it is essential to improve awareness through a phytosanitary campaign on plant health risks, especially for people wishing to transport fruits and vegetables in their luggage.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Johnson A, BT Forschler (2022)

Biodiversity and Distribution of Reticulitermes in the Southeastern USA.

Insects, 13(7): pii:insects13070565.

Reticulitermes subterranean termites are widely distributed ecosystem engineers and structural pests, yet describing their species distribution worldwide or regionally has been hindered by taxonomic uncertainties. Morphological plasticity confounds the use of taxonomic keys, while recent species descriptions and molecular techniques lacking taxonomic support have caused a muddle in interpreting the literature on Reticulitermes species distributions. We employed an integrative taxonomic approach combining behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques to identify 4371 Reticulitermes samples to species. Five Reticulitermes species were collected from wood-on-ground at 1570 sites covering 153,900 km2 in the state of Georgia, USA. Three species were collected throughout Georgia, with R. flavipes identified from every one of the 159 counties. R. nelsonae was the second most frequently collected species, found in 128 counties, with R. virginicus third with 122. Two species had distributions confined to the northern part of the state. R. malletei was collected from 73 counties, while the least collected species, R. hageni, was found in 16. Results show that the most recently described species (R. nelsonae, 2012) is widely distributed and the second-most frequently encountered termite, representing 23% of all samples. The invasive species R. flavipes represented half of all the samples collected, while R. hageni, the least at less than 1%. A search of GenBank identified a number of accessions mismatched to a species designation resulting in the literature under-reporting the biodiversity of the genus. We, therefore, outline a path to standardize methods for species identification using an integrated taxonomic approach with appropriate barcodes for consistent identification across research teams worldwide. The data also illuminate new opportunities to examine questions related to the ecology, evolution, dispersal, and resource partitioning behaviors of these sympatric species across distinct geographical regions.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Boback SM, Nafus MG, Yackel Adams AA, et al (2022)

Invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) move short distances and have small activity areas in a high prey environment.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12705.

Animal movements reflect temporal and spatial availability of resources as well as when, where, and how individuals access such resources. To test these relationships for a predatory reptile, we quantified the effects of prey abundance on the spatial ecology of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam. Five months after toxicant-mediated suppression of a brown treesnake population, we simultaneously used visual encounter surveys to generate relative rodent abundance and radiotelemetry of snakes to document movements of surviving snakes. After snake suppression, encounter rates for small mammals increased 22-fold and brown treesnakes had smaller mean daily movement distances (24 ± 13 m/day, [Formula: see text] ± SD) and activity areas (5.47 ± 5 ha) than all previous observations. Additionally, snakes frequenting forest edges, where our small mammal encounters were the highest, had smaller mean daily movement distances and three-dimensional activity volumes compared to those within the forest interior. Collectively, these results suggest that reduced movements by snakes were in part a response to increased prey availability. The impact of prey availability on snake movement may be a management consideration when attempting to control cryptic invasive species using tools that rely on movement of the target species to be effective.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Park JH, Choi YJ, Choi IY, et al (2022)

First Report of Powdery Mildew Caused by Golovinomyces ambrosiae on Leucanthemum vulgare in Korea.

Plant disease [Epub ahead of print].

Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. (Asteraceae), known as ox-eye daisy, is a perennial herb native to Europe and western Asia (Clements et al. 2004, McDougall et al. 2018). In Korea, this plant was introduced for ornamental purposes but has been naturalized as a widespread invasive species. In June 2015, symptoms of a powdery mildew disease were observed on L. vulgare in a public garden in Goseong (38°14'18"N, 128°32'56"E), Korea. Since then, its findings have continued throughout the country, including Mokpo and Seogwipo (in 2018), Hongcheon and Seoul (in 2020), Boeun, Gunsan, and Namwon (in 2022), where the disease incidence was often higher than 80%. Symptoms first appeared as circular to irregular white powdery patches covering leaves and stems. Affected plants became distorted, eventually losing their aesthetic and ornamental value. A total of sixteen samples were deposited in the herbarium of Korea University (KUS-F), Korea. Microscopic observations showed that hyphal appressoria were nipple-shaped. Conidiophores were cylindrical, 98 to 157 × 9 to 12 μm, and produced 2 to 5 immature conidia in chains with a sinuate outline. Foot cells were cylindrical, straight, and 37 to 65 μm long. Conidia were ellipsoid to barrel-shaped, 23 to 39 × 12 to 19 μm, with a length/width ratio of 1.4 to 2.3 and devoid of fibrosin bodies. Germ tubes were produced in the perihilar position of the conidia. Primary conidia were apically rounded and basally subtruncated. No chasmothecia were found until the plants died in winter. The morphological characteristics were typical for anamorph of the genus Golovinomyces. To identify the fungus, genomic DNA was extracted from the four herbarium specimens (KUS-F 28650, 30839, 31728, and 31787). PCR products were amplified using the primer sets PM10/ITS4 for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and PM3/TW14 for the large subunit (LSU) of the rDNA (Mori et al. 2000, Bradshaw and Tobin 2020). Sequences obtained in the present study were deposited at GenBank (accession numbers ON834488-91 for ITS and ON834494-7 for LSU). A BLASTn search of the Korean specimens showed 100% identity with reference sequences of G. ambrosiae in GenBank (KX98730, MK452580, and MK452588 for ITS and MF612182, MK452653, and MK452661 for LSU). In phylogenetic trees of a concatenated dataset of the ITS and LSU sequences, the Korean specimens formed a well-supported clade with the reference sequences of G. ambrosiae. Pathogenicity tests were carried out by touching and dusting an infected leaf (KUS-F 31787) onto the upper leaf surface of five healthy plants. Five non-inoculated plants served as controls. After two weeks, all inoculated plants formed white patches on the surface of leaves and stems, whereas the control plants remained symptomless. The fungus on the inoculated plants was identical to that observed on the initially diseased plant, fulfilling Koch's postulates. As a result, the causal agent of the powdery mildew on L. vulgare was confirmed as G. ambrosiae (Schwein.) U. Braun & R.T.A. Cook, based on the current taxonomy and nomenclature of this species by Qiu et al. (2020).. Previously powdery mildew collections on L. vulgare have been reported as Golovinomyces cichoracearum (≡ Erysiphe cichoracearum) s. lat. in Estonia, Finland, Germany, and Switzerland, Golovinomyces biocellatus in Spain, and Podosphaera fusca (probably P. xanthii according to the current taxonomy) in the former Soviet Union (now Russia and adjacent countries) (Farr and Rossman 2022). This study is the first report of powdery mildew disease caused by G. ambrosiae on L. vulgare in Korea. Qiu et al. (2020) confirmed the occurrence of G. ambrosiae on L. maximum, another species of the genus Leucanthemum. As powdery mildew causes damage to the cultivation of L. vulgare by loss of ornamental value, appropriate control measures should be developed.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Zhang Z, Zhang T, Yu W, et al (2022)

Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediments from Wetlands Invaded by Spartina alterniflora in the Yellow River Delta.

Toxics, 10(7): pii:toxics10070374.

Heavy metals are major pollutants that pose threats to wetland environments. In the present study, surface sediments from wetlands vegetated by invasive species Spartina alterniflora in the Yellow River Delta were collected and determined for the mass fractions of Co, Ni, As, Cd and Pb. Results showed mass fractions of Co, Ni, As, Cd and Pb in the sediments of the S. alterniflora communities ranged from 8.5 to 16.0, 13.9-27.9, 3.2-13.8, 0.08-0.24, and 17.6-37.5 mg/kg dw, respectively, generally presenting an order of Pb > Ni > Co > As > Cd. The levels of heavy metals in sediments in the S. alterniflora communities were higher than those in the wetland vegetated by the native plant species Suaeda heteroptera. Correlations among metal elements were highly significant, suggesting that they might have the same sources. Clay and TOC were important factors affecting the spatial distribution of metals. The Igeo values of the investigated elements in the sediments were frequently lower than 0, revealing the slight pollution status of these metals. Relatively slight values of Eri and RI suggested that the potential ecological risks caused by the 5 metals were low. Our findings could provide a better understanding of the correlation between metal pollution and bio-invasion in wetland ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Tourapi C, C Tsioutis (2022)

Circular Policy: A New Approach to Vector and Vector-Borne Diseases' Management in Line with the Global Vector Control Response (2017-2030).

Tropical medicine and infectious disease, 7(7): pii:tropicalmed7070125.

Integrated Vector Management (IVM) has yielded exemplary results in combating and preventing vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and their vectors. It's success and positive outcomes depend on the sound planning, implementation, enforcement, and validation of the locally adapted vector control efforts from the involved national sectors and stakeholders. Nevertheless, current realities create several implications impeding IVM's performance. Hence, there is a need to adjust local IVM plans to several factors, such as (i) the rapidly changing and unpredictable environmental conditions (i.e., climate change, shift on species distribution, invasive species-Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus); (ii) the environmental impacts from human activities (i.e., fossil fuel use, food sources, industry, land use, urbanization and deforestation); (iii) changes in human demographics and the international movement of people (travelers and forcibly displaced persons due to conflicts and severe weather) increasing the risk of contracting and transmitting vector-borne diseases and shifting humanitarian emergencies and societal demands; (iv) the SARS-CoV2 pandemic outbreak and the implication on national public health systems; (v) the continuous flow of technological advancements and newly acquired knowledge; (vi) the realization of the strong link between planetary health and public health. Addressing these factors in IVM can become difficult, taking into consideration the numerous involved sectors, stakeholders, and fields in the management of vectors and vector-borne diseases (VBD). This document proposes and discusses the aspects and steps of a holistic approach, referenced as the Circular Policy, for national and local IVM strategies to be effective and adaptable, capable of providing the optimum outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Frey JE, Frey B, Frei D, et al (2022)

Next generation biosecurity: Towards genome based identification to prevent spread of agronomic pests and pathogens using nanopore sequencing.

PloS one, 17(7):e0270897 pii:PONE-D-22-03204.

The unintentional movement of agronomic pests and pathogens is steadily increasing due to the intensification of global trade. Being able to identify accurately and rapidly early stages of an invasion is critical for developing successful eradication or management strategies. For most invasive organisms, molecular diagnostics is today the method of choice for species identification. However, the currently implemented tools are often developed for certain taxa and need to be adapted for new species, making them ill-suited to cope with the current constant increase in new invasive species. To alleviate this impediment, we developed a fast and accurate sequencing tool allowing to modularly obtain genetic information at different taxonomical levels. Using whole genome amplification (WGA) followed by Oxford nanopore MinION sequencing, our workflow does not require any a priori knowledge on the investigated species and its classification. While mainly focusing on harmful plant pathogenic insects, we also demonstrate the suitability of our workflow for the molecular identification of bacteria (Erwinia amylovora and Escherichia coli), fungi (Cladosporium herbarum, Colletotrichum salicis, Neofabraea alba) and nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis). On average, the pairwise identity between the generated consensus sequences and best GenBank BLAST matches was 99.6 ± 0.6%. Additionally, assessing the generated insect genomic dataset, the potential power of the workflow to detect pesticide resistance genes, as well as arthropod-infecting viruses and endosymbiotic bacteria is demonstrated.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Tedeschi L, Biancolini D, Capinha C, et al (2022)

Introduction, spread, and impacts of invasive alien mammal species in Europe.

Mammal review, 52(2):252-266.

Biological invasions have emerged as one of the main drivers of biodiversity change and decline, and numbers of species classed as alien in parts of their ranges are rapidly rising. The European Union established a dedicated regulation to limit the impacts of invasive alien species (IAS), which is focused on the species on a Union List of IAS of particular concern. However, no previous study has specifically addressed the ecology of invasive alien mammals included on the Union List.We performed a systematic review of published literature on these species. We retrieved 262 publications dealing with 16 species, and we complemented these with the most up-to-date information extracted from global databases on IAS.We show that most of the study species reached Europe as pets and then escaped from captivity or were intentionally released. On average each year in the period 1981-2020, 1.2 species were recorded for the first time as aliens in European countries, and most species are still expanding their alien ranges by colonising neighbouring territories. France is the most invaded nation, followed by Germany, Italy, and the Russian Federation, and the muskrat Ondatra zibethicus, the American mink Neovison vison, and the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides are the most widespread species, having invaded at least 27 countries each. Invasive mammals of European Union concern are threatening native biodiversity and human well-being: worryingly, 81% of the 16 study species are implicated in the epidemiological cycle of zoonotic pathogens.Containing secondary spread to further countries is of paramount importance to avoid the establishment of new populations of invasive mammals and the related impacts on native communities, ecosystem services, and human health.We present a compendium on the ecology and impacts of invasive mammals of European Union concern. It can be used to assist environmental policies, identify and subsequently fill knowledge gaps, and inform stakeholders.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Patrick CJ, Anderson KE, Brown BL, et al (2021)

The application of metacommunity theory to the management of riverine ecosystems.

WIREs. Water, 8(6):1-21.

River managers strive to use the best available science to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem function. To achieve this goal requires consideration of processes at different scales. Metacommunity theory describes how multiple species from different communities potentially interact with local-scale environmental drivers to influence population dynamics and community structure. However, this body of knowledge has only rarely been used to inform management practices for river ecosystems. In this paper, we present a conceptual model outlining how the metacommunity processes of local niche sorting and dispersal can influence the outcomes of management interventions and provide a series of specific recommendations for applying these ideas as well as research needs. In all cases, we identify situations where traditional approaches to riverine management could be enhanced by incorporating an understanding of metacommunity dynamics. A common theme is developing guidelines for assessing the metacommunity context of a site or region, evaluating how that context may affect the desired outcome, and incorporating that understanding into the planning process and methods used. To maximize the effectiveness of management activities, scientists and resource managers should update the toolbox of approaches to riverine management to reflect theoretical advances in metacommunity ecology.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Borkens Y, P Koppe (2022)

Mytilicola orientalis.

Aquaculture international : journal of the European Aquaculture Society pii:928 [Epub ahead of print].

Neozoa are invasive species that enter faunal communities as new species. Not infrequently, they pose a threat to local ecosystems. Climate change could further promote these developments or favor neozoa. Thus, they represent a relevant threat in the future. One of these neozoa is the copepod parasite Mytilicola orientalis. This parasite originates from Asia and infects a wide variety of bivalves like mussels and oysters. However, as an invasive species, it can be found more and more frequently in Europe, especially in the North and Baltic Seas. There, M. orientalis poses a real threat to mussels in aquaculture and thus also to the local economy.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Lundgren EJ, Ramp D, Middleton OS, et al (2022)

A novel trophic cascade between cougars and feral donkeys shapes desert wetlands.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Introduced large herbivores have partly filled ecological gaps formed in the late Pleistocene, when many of the Earth's megafauna were driven extinct. However, extant predators are generally considered incapable of exerting top-down influences on introduced megafauna, leading to unusually strong disturbance and herbivory relative to native herbivores. We report on the first documented predation of juvenile feral donkeys Equus africanus asinus by cougars Puma concolor in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of North America. We then investigated how cougar predation corresponds with differences in feral donkey behaviour and associated effects on desert wetlands. Focusing on a feral donkey population in the Death Valley National Park, we used camera traps and vegetation surveys to compare donkey activity patterns and impacts between wetlands with and without cougar predation. Donkeys were primarily diurnal at wetlands with cougar predation, thereby avoiding cougars. However, donkeys were active throughout the day and night at sites without predation. Donkeys were ~87% less active (measured as hours of activity a day) at wetlands with predation (p < 0.0001). Sites with predation had reduced donkey disturbance and herbivory, including ~46% fewer access trails, 43% less trampled bare ground and 192% more canopy cover (PERMANOVA, R2 = 0.22, p = 0.0003). Our study is the first to reveal a trophic cascade involving cougars, feral equids and vegetation. Cougar predation appears to rewire an ancient food web, with diverse implications for modern ecosystems. Our results suggest that protecting apex predators could have important implications for the ecological effects of introduced megafauna.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Jacob Rani BS, S Venkatachalam (2022)

Cleaner approach for the cascade production of nanocellulose, nanohemicellulose and nanolignin from Prosopis juliflora.

Carbohydrate polymers, 294:119807.

This research focuses on developing a cleaner approach for the cascade production of nanocellulose, nanohemicellulose and nanolignin from Prosopis juliflora biomass. Via screening experiments, LA2/ChCl NADES was selected for selective hemicellulose solubilization in the first stage, and FA3/ChCl was selected for lignin solubilization in the second stage. This two-stage cascade process integrated with microwave gives a higher recovery yield (96.8 % cellulose, 92.43 % hemicellulose and 90.56 % lignin). Subsequently, recovered particles were converted into nanoparticles using intense ultrasonication. The produced nanocellulose, nanohemicellulose and nanolignin typically had a spherical structure with an average particle size of 87.4 ± 5.1 nm, 68.8 ± 2.1 nm, and 77.8 ± 2.6 nm. Nanoparticles produced by this study have many potential applications, especially in food, biomedical and packaging sectors. In addition, 80 % of LA2/ChCl NADES and 98 % of ethanol were recovered and reused. This approach of the holistic utilization of an invasive species rather than eliminating it paves a path towards environmental sustainability.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Nemec K, Stephenson A, M Losch (2022)

How Engineers and Roadside Vegetation Managers Maintain Roadside Vegetation in Iowa, USA.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

Recently the value of roadside vegetation as habitat for pollinators has gained increased attention, particularly in areas dominated by agriculture where there is little native vegetation available. However, many factors, including safety, cost, public perception, erosion control, and weedy plants must be considered when managing roadside vegetation. Although their decisions influence thousands of hectares of public rights-of-way, how engineers and roadside managers maintain roadside vegetation has been the subject of little research. In this study, we surveyed county engineers and roadside managers who manage vegetation along secondary roads in Iowa, USA to assess how they maintain roadside vegetation. Some counties employ roadside managers, who often have an environmental sciences background, to implement the on-the-ground management of roadside vegetation, while some counties use other staff. Compared to engineers, roadside managers more strongly agreed that using the ecological principles of integrated roadside vegetation management (IRVM) provided environmental benefits. Engineers in counties with a roadside manager more strongly agreed that IRVM practices reduce the spread of invasive species and provide attractive roadsides. Both engineers and roadside managers mentioned challenges to managing roadside vegetation, including interference with some native plantings by adjacent landowners, and ranked safety and soil erosion concerns as the highest priorities when making decisions. Four in ten roadside managers said their counties had protected native plant community remnants on secondary roadsides. Our findings can inform conservation outreach efforts to those responsible for managing roadside vegetation, and emphasize the importance of addressing safety and soil erosion concerns in roadside research and communications.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Mills G, J Loeb (2022)

Controlling grey squirrel numbers in the UK.

The Veterinary record, 191(2):60-61.

Georgina Mills and Josh Loeb report on work to develop contraceptives for this invasive species.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Grabić J, Benka P, Ljevnaić-Mašić B, et al (2022)

Spatial distribution assessment of invasive alien species Amorpha fruticosa L. by UAV-based on remote sensing in the Special Nature Reserve Obedska Bara, Serbia.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 194(9):599.

The Obedska Bara Special Nature Reserve is one of the oldest protected areas in the world, also enlisted as an Important Bird Area, Ramsar and UNESCO world heritage site. False indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L.) represents an invasive alien species which is significantly deteriorating the biodiversity of the Obedska Bara Special Nature Reserve in Serbia. Mapping of A. fruticosa, using an unmanned aerial vehicle and GIS tools, showed that in meadows, pastures, ponds and wetland areas, A. fruticosa covered 85 ha or 11% of the area. However, coverage was uneven, and the most overgrown areas were some meadows (up to 35%), while flooded areas and areas where human impact is significant, as on pastures, were not so affected (1-3%). The most susceptible parts were forest edges. Active management practices, such as cattle grazing and topsoil tarping, and occasional moving, gave positive effects in A. fruticosa, but also other invasive terrestrial plant species spreading control in the reserve. This has also been confirmed by the UAV survey and mapping, which has proven to be an effective method for A. fruticosa monitoring over large areas.

RevDate: 2022-07-22
CmpDate: 2022-07-22

Bharti M, Nagar S, Khurana H, et al (2022)

Metagenomic insights to understand the role of polluted river Yamuna in shaping the gut microbial communities of two invasive fish species.

Archives of microbiology, 204(8):509.

The gastrointestinal microbial community plays a crucial role in host health, immunity, protection, development and provides nutrients to the host. The rising human-induced pollution and heavy metal contamination in all aquatic systems globally has led us to explore the gut microbial diversity of two exotic invasive fish Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1858) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus,1857) from river Yamuna, India. These fishes are aquatic bioindicators with high demographic resilience. Exploring these associations would pave the way for addressing problems that inhabitant fishes are facing due to the increasing pollution load in the River Yamuna. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, our results deliver comparative information on the gut microbiome of these fishes and highlight connotations between the microbiome of gut and water samples. The gut of C. carpio and O. niloticus was dominated by phyla Proteobacteria whereas Bacteroidetes dominated the water sample. Microbial communities showed predicted roles such as pathogenicity (Escherichia-Shigella, Aeromonas veronii, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus iniae, Flavobacterium columnare, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium sp.), probiotic applications (Bacillus velezensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc falkenbergense) and involvement in sewage and organic matter decomposition (Nitrosomonas sp., Methanosaeta harundinacea, Dechloromonas agitata, Thauera humireducens, Zoogloea ramigera). Heavy metal degrading members (Leucobacter chromiireducens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Micrococcus luteus) were detected in gut microbiome samples thus supporting the notion that fish shapes its gut microbiota with changing ecology. Functional profiling showed that microbial communities are specialized in metabolic functions thus reflecting the dietary profile of these invasive fishes.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Gairin E, Dussenne M, Mercader M, et al (2022)

Harbours as unique environmental sites of multiple anthropogenic stresses on fish hormonal systems.

Molecular and cellular endocrinology pii:S0303-7207(22)00175-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Fish development and acclimation to environmental conditions are strongly mediated by the hormonal endocrine system. In environments contaminated by anthropogenic stressors, hormonal pathway alterations can be detrimental for growth, survival, fitness, and at a larger scale for population maintenance. In the context of increasingly contaminated marine environments worldwide, numerous laboratory studies have confirmed the effect of one or a combination of pollutants on fish hormonal systems. However, this has not been confirmed in situ. In this review, we explore the body of knowledge related to the influence of anthropogenic stressors disrupting fish endocrine systems, recent advances (focusing on thyroid hormones and stress hormones such as cortisol), and potential research perspectives. Through this review, we highlight how harbours can be used as "in situ laboratories" given the variety of anthropogenic stressors (such as plastic, chemical, sound, light pollution, and invasive species) that can be simultaneously investigated in harbours over long periods of time.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Chinchio E, Romeo C, Crotta M, et al (2022)

Knowledge gaps in invasive species infections: Alien mammals of European Union concern as a case study.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04546-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive Alien Species (IAS), i.e. species introduced by humans outside their natural geographic range, may act as host or vectors of pathogens of both human and animal health relevance. Although it has been recognized that IAS should deserve more attention from a public and animal health perspective, data on the pathogens hosted by these species are not systematically collected and this prevents accurate assessments of IAS-specific risks of disease transmission. To support the future development of disease risk assessments, we systematically reviewed the scientific literature related to the pathogens of the eleven mammal species included in the European list of IAS of concern to gain insight in the amount and quality of data available. Data were analyzed to assess the current knowledge on the pathogens harbored by mammal IAS in natural conditions, through the identification of the main factors associated with research intensity on IAS pathogens and with the IAS observed pathogen species richness, the estimation of the true pathogen species richness for each IAS, and a meta-analysis of prevalence for the pathogens of health relevance. While the review confirmed that mammal IAS harbor pathogens of human and animal health relevance such as rabies virus, West Nile Virus, Borrelia burgdorferi and Mycobacterium bovis, results also highlighted strong information gaps and biases in research on IAS pathogens. In addition, the analyses showed an underestimation of the number of pathogens harbored by these species and the existence of high levels of uncertainty in the prevalence of the pathogens of health significance identified. These results highlight the need towards more efforts in making the available information on IAS pathogens accessible and systematically collected, in order to make data available for future investigations and risk assessments, and of relying on alternative sources of information to assess IAS disease risk, like expert opinions.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Bertaco VA, Becker FG, Azevedo MA, et al (2022)

The record and threats of the invasion of palometa Serrasalmus maculatus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae) in the Patos Lagoon drainage, Southern Brazil.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

We report the occurrence of an invasive alien species, palometa Serrasalmus maculatus, in the Patos Lagoon drainage. Primary occurrence data were based on three specimens captured and preserved as vouchers in scientific collections. Additionally, we searched for secondary records from unpublished scientific sources, public agencies reports and media news to find additional reports. We discussed the possible pathways of invasion, suggesting as vector of introduction transpositions from the Uruguay River basin. Ecological implications for ichthyofauna, environmental impacts, and risk of other events of invasion in the adjoining basins are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Beaurepaire A, Arredondo D, García MLG, et al (2022)

Genetic diversification of an invasive honey bee ectoparasite across sympatric and allopatric host populations.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases pii:S1567-1348(22)00137-X [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive parasites are major threats to biodiversity. The honey bee ectoparasite, Varroa destructor, has shifted host and spread almost globally several decades ago. This pest is generally considered to be the main global threat to Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, although the damages it causes are not equivalent in all its new host's populations. Due to the high virulence of this parasite and the viruses it vectors, beekeepers generally rely on acaricide treatments to keep their colonies alive. However, some populations of A. mellifera can survive without anthropogenic mite control, through the expression of diverse resistance and tolerance traits. Such surviving colonies are currently found throughout the globe, with the biggest populations being found in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Recently, genetic differences between mite populations infesting surviving and treated A. mellifera colonies in Europe were found, suggesting that adaptations of honey bees drive mite evolution. Yet, the prevalence of such co-evolutionary adaptations in other invasive populations of V. destructor remain unknown. Using the previous data from Europe and novel genetic data from V. destructor populations in South America and Africa, we here investigated whether mites display signs of adaptations to different host populations of diverse origins and undergoing differing management. Our results show that, contrary to the differences previously documented in Europe, mites infesting treated and untreated honey bee populations in Africa and South America are genetically similar. However, strong levels of genetic differentiation were found when comparing mites across continents, suggesting ongoing allopatric speciation despite a recent spread from genetically homogenous lineages. This study provides novel insights into the co-evolution of V. destructor and A. mellifera, and confirms that these species are ideal to investigate coevolution in newly established host-parasite systems.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-07-21

Marbella D, Santana-Hernández KM, E Rodríguez-Ponce (2022)

Small islands as potential model ecosystems for parasitology: climatic influence on parasites of feral cats.

Journal of helminthology, 96:e51 pii:S0022149X22000451.

The influence of climate on parasite distribution has been demonstrated in different regions worldwide. Despite its small size, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) constitutes a 'biodiversity laboratory' due to the huge climatic differences between municipalities. Feral cats may represent a threat to biodiversity due to their predatory behaviour. In addition, they may be a source of pathogens zoonotic to humans. To study the climatic/seasonal influence and prevalence of feral cat parasites throughout the island, a total of 290 stool samples from 29 feral cat colonies were analysed following standard concentration protocols (sodium chloride, formol-ether and zinc sulphate). In total, 13 feline parasitic taxa were found, with the most common species being Ancylostoma spp., which, together with Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia spp., are considered a concern for human health. Nematodes were the most common parasites in all areas. Nematodes and protozoans were significantly more prevalent in temperate mild (75.0% and 30.0%) than in dry desert areas (29.3% and 18.7%). In contrast, cestodes were significantly more prevalent in dry desert than in temperate mild areas (26.0% and 13.3%). Only protozoans exhibited statistically significant seasonal patterns, mostly in the wet season. Data reported in this study endorse the usage of small and diverse islands such as Gran Canaria to study the climatic influence on parasitic communities in wild/feral animals. Cat colonies require better management to reduce their threat to endemic wildlife, domestic animals and public health, being invasive species that harbour zoonotic parasites.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Nouri-Aiin M, Connolly S, Keough C, et al (2022)

Genetic population structure and reproductive system of two invasive Asian earthworms, Amynthas tokioensis and Amynthas agrestis.

PeerJ, 10:e13622.

The invasive Asian earthworms, Amynthas tokioensis and A. agrestis, have been successful in entering North American forests in recent decades, with significant damage to both soils and above-ground environments. This success could be driven in part by a polyploid genetic system and parthenogenetic reproduction, often suggested as benefits for invasive species. Therefore, we assessed the genetic population structure, genetic diversity, and reproductive system of both species using morphological traits and panels of microsatellite markers. A total of 216 A. tokioensis and 196 A. agrestis from six sites in Vermont USA were analyzed. Although all worms were morphologically hermaphroditic, all the A. agrestis lacked the male pore (the structure allowing pass of sperm between individuals), and only 19% of the A. tokioensis possessed the male pore. All A. tokioensis earthworms were triploid (scored for three alleles for at least 1 locus, and usually several), and A. agrestis was a mix of triploid and diploid individuals. Notable was the high proportion (80%) of A. agrestis earthworms that were diploid at one site. There was clearly clonal reproduction, with identical seven- locus genotypes observed for earthworms from each site, with as many as 45 individuals with the identical genotype at one site. However, the earthworms were also genetically diverse, with 14 genotypes observed for A. tokioensis and 54 for A. agrestis, and with many singleton genotypes (a single individual). Most genotypes (71% for A. tokioensis and 92% for A. agrestis) were found at a single site. The greatest number of genotypes was found at a commercial nursery where fully 23/26 A. agrestis earthworms were singleton genotypes. As expected for the pattern of private clone alleles at sites, several measures of geographic genetic differentiation were positive, and as expected for triploid systems, an AMOVA analysis showed high within-individual genetic diversity. The paradox of clear clonal reproduction, but with a great number of genotypes for each species, and the mix of triploid and diploid individuals could be explained if the worms have been sexually reproductive, with the switch to the uniparental system only recently (or even if sexual reproduction is episodic). Last, a large number of microsatellite loci were recovered for each species and there sequence and suggested PCR primers are provided for free use by other researchers.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-07-21

Degola F, Sanità di Toppi L, A Petraglia (2022)

Bryophytes: how to conquer an alien planet and live happily (ever after).

Journal of experimental botany, 73(13):4267-4272.

RevDate: 2022-07-18

Naimi B, Capinha C, Ribeiro J, et al (2022)

Potential for invasion of traded birds under climate and land-cover change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Humans have moved species away from their native ranges since the Neolithic, but globalization accelerated the rate at which species are being moved. We fitted more than half million distribution models for 610 traded bird species on the CITES list to examine the separate and joint effects of global climate and land-cover change on their potential end-of-century distributions. We found that climate-induced suitability for modelled invasive species increases with latitude, because traded birds are mainly of tropical origin and much of the temperate region is 'tropicalizing.' Conversely, the tropics are becoming more arid, thus limiting the potential from cross-continental invasion by tropical species. This trend is compounded by forest loss around the tropics since most traded birds are forest dwellers. In contrast, net gains in forest area across the temperate region could compound climate change effects and increase the potential for colonization of low-latitude birds. Climate change has always led to regional redistributions of species, but the combination of human transportation, climate, and land-cover changes will likely accelerate the redistribution of species globally, increasing chances of alien species successfully invading non-native lands. Such process of biodiversity homogenization can lead to emergence of non-analogue communities with unknown environmental and socioeconomic consequences.

RevDate: 2022-07-19
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Raney WR, Herslebs EJ, Langohr IM, et al (2022)

Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Powassan Virus by the Invasive Asian Longhorned Tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Under Laboratory Conditions.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:923914.

The Asian longhorned tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, is an ixodid tick native to East Asia that was first detected in North America outside a port of entry in 2017. This invasive species has since been detected in 17 states. As the invasive range of the tick continues to expand, the vector competence of H. longicornis for pathogens native to North America must be assessed. Here, we evaluate the vector competence of H. longicornis for Powassan virus (POWV) under laboratory conditions. POWV is a North American tick-borne flavivirus that is typically transmitted through the bite of Ixodes species ticks. The invasive range of H. longicornis is expected to overlap heavily with the geographic range of Ixodes scapularis and POWV cases, highlighting the potential for this invasive tick species to amplify POWV transmission in natural foci should the native tick vectors and H. longicornis share similar hosts. In these studies, adult female H. longicornis ticks were infected with POWV via anal pore microinjection. Viral RNA and infectious virions were detected in tick tissues via q-RT-PCR and focus-forming assay, respectively. POWV-injected female ticks were infested on mice, and virus was transmitted to mice during tick feeding, as shown by clinical signs of disease and seroconversion in the tick-exposed mice, as well as the detection of viral RNA in various mouse tissues. A POWV-injected female tick transmitted virus to her larval progeny, indicating that H. longicornis can vertically transmit POWV. These naturally-infected larval ticks were also able to transmit POWV to the mouse on which they fed and to the nymphal stage after molting, further demonstrating that H. longicornis can transmit POWV in the horizontal and transstadial modes. Larval and nymphal ticks were also orally infected with POWV while feeding on viremic mice. Additionally, this study provides the first report of POWV neuropathology based on a natural tick transmission model of POWV. Together, our results suggest that the invasive H. longicornis tick is a competent vector of POWV. These findings underline the growing danger this tick may pose to human health in the United States. Additional scholarship on the tick's biology, ecology, and pathogen transmission dynamics in nature will be important towards understanding the full public health impact of this invasive species.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Navarro-Ramos SE, Sparacino J, Rodríguez JM, et al (2022)

Active revegetation after mining: what is the contribution of peer-reviewed studies?.

Heliyon, 8(3):e09179.

Knowing the state of the art on research related to post-mining active revegetation can help to improve revegetation success and identify research gaps. We performed a systematic review about active revegetation after mining and identified 203 relevant studies. Most studies were performed in the USA (34%), in regions with a temperate climate (59%) and in abandoned coal mines (45%). The studies were focused on the plantation of woody species (59%) or sowing of herbaceous species (39%). The most widely evaluated treatments were the addition of amendments (24%) and fertilizers (21%), mainly with positive and neutral effects; in general, organic amendments presented more positive effects than inorganic amendments and fertilizers. We also identified studies on the effects of plowing, inoculation of microorganisms, nurse plants, herbivore exclusion and watering. The results of these treatments should be taken with caution, because they can vary according to the functional strategies of the introduced species and the local context, such as the degree of nutrient limitation in the mining area and abiotic conditions. Further research is needed in non-temperate climates, involving long-term monitoring and with detailed descriptions of the interventions to better interpret results and general implications of active revegetation of mining areas.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Gao L, Cai M, Zeng L, et al (2022)

Adaptation of the Invasive Plant (Sphagneticola trilobata L. Pruski) to a High Cadmium Environment by Hybridizing With Native Relatives.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:905577.

Invasive species can evolve rapidly in the invasion areas to adapt to new habitats. Sphagneticola trilobata L. Pruski, an invasive species, was studied for its tolerance to cadmium (Cd) in the soil and compared with its natural hybrid. From the perspective of photosynthetic physiology, antioxidant characteristics, and leaf hormone levels, the differences between the leaves of the two species before and after Cd treatment were compared. The results showed that the hybrid had stronger tolerance to Cd stress than invasive species. After Cd stress, the indexes of gas-exchange [net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr)] of the hybrid was higher than invasive species, while the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants (flavonoids and total phenols) and antioxidant enzyme activities [peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] was lower in hybrid than in invasive species. The changes in the content of plant hormones [auxin (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA)] under Cd stress showed that hybrid can still maintain growth and prevent leaf senescence. Furthermore, the differences in gene expression between hybrid and invasive species in photosynthetic physiology, the antioxidant capacity of leaves, and endogenous hormone (IAA and ABA) synthesis pathway also showed that hybrid has stronger Cd tolerance than invasive species. This suggests that invasive species will realize the invasion through hybridization with the native relatives to overcome the stress from environmental factors. The study implied that hybridization between invasive species and native relatives is an important way for invasive species to spread in a wider and new environment that invasive species have not experienced in the area of origin.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Qongqo A, Nchu F, S Geerts (2022)

Relationship of alien species continues in a foreign land: The case of Phytophthora and Australian Banksia (Proteaceae) in South African Fynbos.

Ecology and evolution, 12(7):.

Fungal invasions only recently started to receive more attention in invasion biology. This is largely attributed to little or non-existent information about these inconspicuous organisms. Most invasion hypotheses focus on factors that increase invasion success; few try to explain why invasions fail. Here we hypothesize that a host-pathogen relationships can limit the invasiveness of an alien plant species in a novel range. To test this, we investigate whether the invasiveness of the Australian genus of Proteaceae, Banksia, in South Africa is determined by the alien and major invasive phytopathogen, Phytophthora cinnamomi. The presence of P. cinnamomi in Banksia root and soil was evaluated using morphological and molecular techniques. Isolates were cultured onto selective media and polymerize chain reactions and internal transcribing spacers were used for identification. Acetone leaf extracts of 11 Banksia spp. were screened for antimicrobial activity against P. cinnamomi, using the minimum inhibitory concentration assay. A total of 3840 Banksia individuals from seven localities were surveyed. Phytophthora cinnamomi was consistently isolated from Banksia species root and soil samples. Out of the 12 Banksia species that were screened for antimicrobial activity, four introduced species, B. burdettii, B. coccinea, Banksia hookeriana, and B. prionotes and the invasive B. integrifolia and B. ericifolia exhibited relatively high antimicrobial activity against P. cinnamomi (strain 696/12). We show that the phytopathogen in the native range has similar impact in the novel range and in doing so may limit invasion success of Banksia species with low antimicrobial activity.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Shimoji H, Suwabe M, Kikuchi T, et al (2022)

Resilience of native ant community against invasion of exotic ants after anthropogenic disturbances of forest habitats.

Ecology and evolution, 12(7):e9073.

The positive association between disturbances and biological invasions is a widely observed ecological pattern in the Anthropocene. Such patterns have been hypothesized to be driven by the superior competitive ability of invaders or by modified environments, as well as by the interaction of these factors. An experimental study that tests these hypotheses is usually less feasible, especially in protected nature areas. An alternative approach is to focus on community resilience over time after the anthropogenic disturbance of habitats. Here, we focused on ant communities within a forest to examine their responses after disturbance over time. We selected the Yanbaru region of northern Okinawa Island, which is a biodiversity hotspot in East Asia. We compared ant communities among roadside environments in forests where the road age differed from 5 to 25 years. We also monitored the ant communities before and after disturbance from forest thinning. We found that the species richness and abundance of exotic ants were higher in recently disturbed environments (roadsides of 5-15 years old roads), where the physical environment was warmer and drier. In contrast, the roadsides of 25-year-old roads indicated the potential recovery of the physical environment with cooler and moister conditions, likely owing to regrowth of roadside vegetation. At these sites, there were few exotic ants, except for those immediately adjacent to the road. The population density of the invasive species Technoymex brunneus substantially increased 1-2 years after forest thinning. There was no evidence of the exclusion of native ants by exotic ants that were recorded after disturbance. Our results suggest that local ant communities in the Yanbaru forests have some resilience to disturbance. We suggest that restoration of environmental components is a better strategy for maintaining native ant communities, rather than removing exotic ants after anthropogenic disturbance.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Freistetter NC, Simmons GS, Wu Y, et al (2022)

Tracking global invasion pathways of the spongy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) to the United States using stable isotopes as endogenous biomarkers.

Ecology and evolution, 12(7):e9092.

The spread of invasive insect species causes enormous ecological damage and economic losses worldwide. A reliable method that tracks back an invaded insect's origin would be of great use to entomologists, phytopathologists, and pest managers. The spongy moth (Lymantria dispar, Linnaeus 1758) is a persistent invasive pest in the Northeastern United States and periodically causes major defoliations in temperate forests. We analyzed field-captured (Europe, Asia, United States) and laboratory-reared L. dispar specimens for their natal isotopic hydrogen and nitrogen signatures imprinted in their biological tissues (δ2H and δ15N) and compared these values to the long-term mean δ2H of regional precipitation (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) and δ15N of regional plants at the capture site. We established the percentage of hydrogen-deuterium exchange for L. dispar tissue (Pex = 8.2%) using the comparative equilibration method and two-source mixing models, which allowed the extraction of the moth's natal δ2H value. We confirmed that the natal δ2H and δ15N values of our specimens are related to the environmental signatures at their geographic origins. With our regression models, we were able to isolate potentially invasive individuals and give estimations of their geographic origin. To enable the application of these methods on eggs, we established an egg-to-adult fraction factor for L. dispar (Δegg-adult = 16.3 ± 4.3‰). Our models suggested that around 25% of the field-captured spongy moths worldwide were not native in the investigated capture sites. East Asia was the most frequently identified location of probable origin. Furthermore, our data suggested that eggs found on cargo ships in the United States harbors in Alaska, California, and Louisiana most probably originated from Asian L. dispar in East Russia. These findings show that stable isotope biomarkers give a unique insight into invasive insect species pathways, and thus, can be an effective tool to monitor the spread of insect pest epidemics.

RevDate: 2022-07-17

Jalali T, Rosinger HS, Hodgins KA, et al (2022)

Pollen competition in hybridising Cakile species: how does a latecomer win the race?.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: Hybridisation between cross-compatible species depends on the extent of competition between alternative mates. Even if stigmatic compatibility allows for hybridisation, hybridisation requires the heterospecific pollen to be competitive. Here, we determined whether conspecific pollen has an advantage in the race to fertilise ovules, and the potential handicap to be overcome by heterospecific pollen in invasive Cakile species.

METHODS: We measured pollen tube growth following conspecific and heterospecific hand-pollination treatments using fluorescent microscopy. We then determined siring success in the progeny relative to the timing of heterospecific pollen arrival on the stigma using CAPS markers.

KEY RESULTS: In the absence of pollen competition, pollination time and pollen recipient species had significant effect on the ratio of pollen tube growth. In long-styled C. maritima (outcrosser), pollen tubes grew similarly in both directions. In short-styled C. edentula (selfer), conspecific and heterospecific pollen tubes grew differently. Cakile edentula pollen produced more pollen tubes, revealing the potential for a mating asymmetry whereby C. edentula pollen had an advantage relative to C. maritima. In the presence of pollen competition, siring success was equivalent when pollen deposition was synchronous. However, a moderate one-hour advantage in the timing of conspecific pollination resulted in almost complete assortative mating while an equivalent delay in conspecific pollination resulted in substantial hybrid formation.

CONCLUSIONS: Hybridisation can aid in the establishment of invasive species through the transfer of adaptive alleles from cross-compatible species, but also lead to extinction through demographic or genetic swamping. Time of pollen arrival on the stigma substantially affected hybridisation rate, pointing to the importance of pollination timing in driving introgression and genetic swamping. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-07-17

Palmieri L, Lourdes Chamorro M, PP Sharma (2022)

Phylogenetic assessment of the Metamasius hemipterus species complex (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Dryophthorinae).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(22)00202-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Metamasius is a large genus of dryophthorine weevils, with nearly 85 species. Among the economically important pests in the genus, M. hemipterus is currently separated in three subspecies, based largely on color patterns of the elytra, pronotum, and sternum. The tenuous limits of M. hemipterus subspecies were created over fifty years ago and never tested under a phylogenetic framework. Here, for the first time, we address the M. hemipterus species boundaries applying a molecular approach. We constructed a reduced genome representation of a few species using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). Phylogenetic analysis using either a complete supermatrix or only SNPs revealed a clear separation of Metamasius species. We suggest that M. h. carbonarius syn. nov. and M. h. sericeus be treated as the same species, M. sericeus (Oliver) stat. n., and elevate M. h. hemipterus as a separate species M. hemipterus (Linnaeus). We updated Vaurie's identification key to reflect the new species status. This systematic reassessment reflects a more natural classification for these remarkable and economically significant weevils.

RevDate: 2022-07-17

Mallela A, A Hastings (2022)

Optimal management of stochastic invasion in a metapopulation with Allee effects.

Journal of theoretical biology pii:S0022-5193(22)00219-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species account for incalculable damages worldwide, in both ecological and bioeconomic terms. The question of how a network of invasive populations can be optimally managed is one that deserves further exploration. A study accounting for partial observability and imperfect detection, in particular, could yield useful insights into species eradication efforts. Here, we generalized a simple model system that we developed in previous work. This model consists of three interacting populations with underlying strong Allee effects and stochastic dynamics, inhabiting distinct locations connected by dispersal, which can generate bistability. To explore the stochastic dynamics, we formulated an individual-based modeling approach. Next, using the theory of continuous-time Markov chains, we approximated the original high-dimensional model by a Markov chain with eight states, with each state corresponding to a combination of population thresholds. We then used the reduced model as the core for a powerful decision-making tool, referred to as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP). Analysis of this POMDP indicates when the system results in optimal management outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Nishida S, Mimura K, Mori H, et al (2022)

Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Japanese endangered land snail Mandarina.

BMC research notes, 15(1):255.

OBJECTIVE: Mandarina is an endangered land snail genus of the oceanic Ogasawara archipelago. On Chichijima Island, the largest inhabited island in Ogasawara, this genus is almost extinct in the wild due to predation by invasive species. Although ex situ conservation programs started in 2010, genetic diversity and population structure remain unclear due to a lack of genetic markers with sufficient genetic variation. In this study, we designed polymorphic microsatellite markers of Mandarina to enable genetic analysis and to develop appropriate conservation plans.

RESULTS: Twenty-three polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified from the genomic DNA of wild samples of Mandarina mandarina. We assessed the genetic diversity of each marker. In 16 markers, neither linkage disequilibrium nor deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected. These 16 markers were tested for multiplex PCR using low-density DNA extracted non-lethally from captive samples of M. mandarina, M. chichijimana and M. suenoae. Of the 16 markers, 15, 12 and 9 were usable for multiplex PCR, respectively. Genetic analysis using these microsatellite loci will be an important resource for the conservation of Mandarina.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Khedkar G, Kambayashi C, Tabata H, et al (2022)

The draft genome sequence of the Brahminy blindsnake Indotyphlops braminus.

Scientific data, 9(1):410.

Blindsnakes of infraoder Scolecophidia (order Squamata) are the most basal group of extant snakes, comprising of more than 450 species with ecological and morphological features highly specialized to underground living. The Brahminy blindsnake, Indotyphlops braminus, is the only known obligate parthenogenetic species of snakes. Although the origin of I. braminus is thought to be South Asia, this snake has attracted worldwide attention as an alien species, as it has been introduced to all continents except Antarctica. In this study, we present the first draft genome assembly and annotation of I. braminus. We generated approximately 480 Gbp of sequencing data and produced a draft genome with a total length of 1.86 Gbp and N50 scaffold size of 1.25 Mbp containing 89.3% of orthologs conserved in Sauropsida. We also identified 0.98 Gbp (52.82%) of repetitive genome sequences and a total of 23,560 protein-coding genes. The first draft genome of I. braminus will facilitate further study of snake evolution as well as help to understand the emergence mechanism of parthenogenetic vertebrates.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Jabeen A, Ansari JA, Ikram A, et al (2022)

FIRST REPORT OF AEDES VITTATUS IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN.

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association pii:483902 [Epub ahead of print].

Aedes vittatus is distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe and can transmit dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. Like other Aedes species, larvae develop in both natural and artificial containers in urban, suburban, and rural areas. In September 2021, an entomological survey was conducted at the National Institute of Health of Pakistan (NIH) and adjacent housing within the NIH colony. All containers with water were examined for Aedes mosquitoes at 150 locations, including residential properties, a plant nursery, junkyards, and recreational parks and playgrounds. A total of 103 larvae, 37 pupae, 5 female and 2 male Ae. vittatus were collected from a fountain. This was the first detection of Ae. vittatus in urban Islamabad. Additional vector surveillance is needed to better understand the geographical distribution, ecology, and behavior of this invasive species and to understand its possible role in the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Pakistan.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Weber MM, D Cibulka (2022)

Overwinter survival of Corbicula fluminea in a central Minnesota lake.

PloS one, 17(7):e0271402 pii:PONE-D-22-09914.

Although Corbicula fluminea has been one of the more prolific freshwater invasive species in the world, previous studies have suggested a low probability for overwinter survival in northern latitudes without an artificially created thermal refuge. The discovery of live C. fluminea in a central Minnesota lake absent any known thermal refuge in 2020 presented an opportunity to further evaluate the overwinter survival and population structure of C. fluminea at the presumed edge of their potential range. The population was monitored from December 2020 through September 2021 alongside water temperature to better understand at which temperatures C. fluminea survived and if the population structure suggested reproduction occurring in the lake. We documented live C. fluminea in temperatures as low as 0.3°C. Shell size of recovered individuals suggested multiple cohorts, and the appearance of a new cohort at the end of the study, indicating active reproduction in the lake and suggesting the population had likely been present in the lake for at least two winters by the conclusion of the study period. Our findings provide evidence of the survival below historically documented lower lethal temperature limits and suggests adaptations to modeling predicting suitable habitat, both present and in a changing climate, are necessary to better assess risk of invasion by this species.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Arias MB, Hartle-Mougiou K, Taboada S, et al (2022)

Unveiling biogeographic patterns in the worldwide distributed Ceratitis capitata (medfly) using populations genomics and microbiome composition.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species are among the most important, growing threats to food security and agricultural systems. The Mediterranean medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most damaging representatives of a group of rapidly expanding species in the Tephritidae family, due to their wide host range and high invasiveness potential. Here, we used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to investigate the population genomic structure and phylogeographic history of medflies collected from six sampling sites, including Africa (South Africa), the Mediterranean (Spain, Greece), Latin America (Guatemala, Brazil) and Australia. A total of 1,907 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to identify two genetic clusters separating native and introduced ranges, consistent with previous findings. In the introduced range, all individuals were assigned to one genetic cluster except for those in Brazil, which showed introgression of an additional genetic cluster that also appeared in South Africa, and which could not be previously identified using microsatellite markers. Moreover, we assessed the microbial composition variations in medfly populations from selected sampling sites using amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (V4 region). Microbiome composition and structure were highly similar across geographic regions and host plants, and only the Brazilian specimens showed increased diversity levels and a unique composition of its microbiome compared to other sampling sites. The unique SNP patterns and microbiome features in the Brazilian specimens could point to a direct migration route from Africa with subsequent adaptation of the microbiota to the specific conditions present in Brazil. These findings significantly improve our understanding of the evolutionary history of the global medfly invasions and their adaptation to newly colonised environments.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Fontaine A, Simard A, Brunet N, et al (2022)

The scientific contributions of citizen science applied to rare or threatened animals.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Citizen science is filling important data gaps necessary to ensure effective monitoring and conservation of rare or threatened animals. However, most studies focus on peer-reviewed publications to evaluate citizen science contributions to science, as this type of contribution is easy to access. Our objective was to quantify a larger spectrum of citizen science's contributions to the monitoring of rare or threatened animals, including peer-reviewed publications, grey literature publications, and conservation measures, to provide broader information on how to optimize such studies for conservationists, project managers and participants. We also evaluated factors predicting the success of citizen science projects in terms of the number of each of those contributions. Based on a web search and a survey filled out by project managers, we found that the number of projects increased rapidly since 2010. Almost half of the surveyed projects produced at least one peer-reviewed scientific publication, 64% produced at least one grey literature publication, and 64% produced at least one conservation measure. Conservation measures were divers and included management and mitigation plans, modification of threatened status, identification and establishment of protected or at-risk areas, and direct measures such as habitat restoration, control of invasive species, captive breeding programs, and awareness campaigns. Longevity, data quality and collaboration type best explained quantities of all types of scientific contributions. We conclude that citizen science contributes substantially to knowledge advancement and conservation biology, especially if programs are maintained over the long-term with rigorous data collection and management standards, and multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary collaborations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Kwok ACM, Li C, Lam WT, et al (2022)

Responses of Dinoflagellate Cells to Ultraviolet-C Irradiation.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Dinoflagellates are important aquatic microbes and major harmful algal bloom (HAB) agents that form invasive species through ship ballast transfer. UV-C installations are recommended for ballast treatments and HAB controls, but there is a lack of knowledge in dinoflagellate responses to UV-C. We report here dose-dependent cell cycle delay and viability loss of dinoflagellate cells irradiated with UV-C, with significant proliferative reduction at 800 Jm-2 doses or higher, but immediate LD50 was in the range of 2400-3200 Jm-2 . At higher dosages, some dinoflagellate cells surprisingly survived after days of recovery incubation, and continued viability loss, with samples exhibiting DNA fragmentations per proliferative resumption. Sequential cell cycle postponements, suggesting DNA damages were repaired over one cell cycle, were revealed with flow cytometric analysis and transcriptomic analysis. Over a sustained level of other DNA Damage Repair pathways, transcript elevation was observed only for several components of Base Pair Repair and Mismatch Repair. Cumulatively, our findings demonstrated special DNA Damage responses in dinoflagellate cells, which we discussed in relation to their unique chromo-genomic characters, as well as indicating resilience of dinoflagellate cells to UV-C.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Rajesh TP, Manoj K, Prashanth Ballullaya U, et al (2022)

Urban tropical forest islets as hotspots of ants in general and invasive ants in particular.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12003.

Urbanization is a crucial driver of environmental and biodiversity change. It is suggested that urbanization favours generalist and invasive species and might harm specialists of natural and semi-natural habitats. In this study, we examined how an urbanization gradient and environmental gradients in the habitat area, habitat diversity, elevation, and proportion of built-up area influenced the abundance and richness of ants within tropical forest islet habitat in south India. We used abundance (proportional trap incidence) of overall ants, native ants, invasive ants, and Anoplolepis gracilipes-a globally notorious invasive ant of possible south Asian origin-and rarefied richness as the response variables. We found that native ant abundance was greater and A. gracilipes abundance was lesser in less-urbanized landscape compared to moderately-urbanized and highly-urbanized landscape. The richness of ants and abundance of overall and invasive ants were unaffected by the urbanization. We also found that none of the measured environmental gradients but habitat diversity influenced abundance of overall ants, native ants, overall invasive ants, and richness of ants; however, A. gracilipes abundance was negatively correlated with habitat diversity. Ant species composition of less-urbanized landscape was distinct from that of higher urbanization levels. The richness and abundance of native ants and abundance of non-A. gracilipes invasive ants decreased with the abundance of A. gracilipes. Because the forest islets of all three urbanization levels supported similar richness of native ants, the urbanization seems not to have an adverse effect for the native ants of native forest islets. The increasing population of A. gracilipes in urban green islets, however, is a concern. Future studies might investigate its effect on other invertebrates of epigeal and soil strata.

RevDate: 2022-07-15
CmpDate: 2022-07-15

Magliozzi C, Artois M, Bertaccini A, et al (2022)

European primary datasets of alien bacteria and viruses.

Scientific data, 9(1):403.

Bacteria and viruses are a natural component of Earth biodiversity and play an essential role in biochemical and geological cycles. They may also pose problems outside their native range, where they can negatively impact on natural resources, wildlife, and human health. To address these challenges and develop sustainable conservation strategies, a thorough understanding of their invasion related- factors is needed: origin, country and year of introduction, and pathways dynamics. Yet, alien bacteria and viruses are underrepresented in invasion ecology studies, which limits our ability to quantify their impacts and address future introductions. This study provides primary datasets of alien bacteria and viruses of plants and animals present in the European environment. The datasets contain expert-revised data on 446 taxa and their invasion related- factors across terrestrial and aquatic environments. Taxa information are complemented with spatial occurrences. The datasets provide a basis for collaborative initiatives to improve the collection of alien bacteria and viruses' data, and a starting point for data-driven conservation practices.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Kong WL, Chen X, Sun H, et al (2022)

Identification of Two Fungal Pathogens Responsible for Liriodendron chinense × tulipifera Black Spot and Screening of Trichoderma sp. for Disease Control.

Plant disease [Epub ahead of print].

Liriodendron chinense × tulipifera black spot is a newly discovered disease that causes yellowing and early shedding of leaves, affecting the growth of Liriodendron trees, and significantly reducing their ornamental value as a garden species. The pathogen responsible for this disease, and how it can be prevented and controlled, are not clear. In this study, the occurrence of this disease was first investigated according to Koch's postulates, and the primary pathogens causing Liriodendron black spot were determined to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria alternata. Biocontrol strains antagonistic to these two pathogens were then screened from the leaf microorganisms of L. chinense × tulipifera, and a preliminary investigation of the biological control of Liriodendron black spot was performed. Through the screening of antagonistic microorganisms on the leaf surface of L. chinense × tulipifera, the strain Trichoderma koningiopsis T2, which displayed strong antagonism against C. gloeosporioides and A. alternata, was obtained. The T2 strain could inhibit the growth of the two pathogens via three mechanisms: hyperparasitism, volatile and nonvolatile metabolite production, and environmental acidification. The biocontrol experiments in the greenhouse and field showed that initial spraying with a T. koningiopsis T2 spore suspension followed by the two pathogens resulted in the lowest disease incidence. These results confirmed the black spot pathogens of L. chinense × tulipifera, clarified the antagonistic mechanism of T. koningiopsis T2 against the two pathogens, and provided a theoretical basis and technical support for the biological control of the disease.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Khan N, Ullah R, Alamri SS, et al (2022)

Environment-Driven Changes in the Functional Traits of Milk Thistle [Silybum marianum (L). Gaertn.] Along an Altitudinal Gradient in the Semi-Arid Environment: Perspective on Future Plant Invasion.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:897678.

The elevation is an important gradient across which the environmental variables and plant traits vary and is considered as a barrier to the recent global problem of plant invasion. However, certain invasive plants show plasticity traits to adapt and cope with the changes across the elevation. Silybum marianum (S. marianum) is one such invasive species widely spread in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Therefore, this study investigates the traits plasticity and invasive behaviors of this plant species across the elevation gradient. Plant functional traits (PFTs) and environmental variables were recorded in forty different low, middle, and high elevation sites. The plant shows a decrease in plant functional traits, i.e., above-ground plant height/plant, leaf length/leaf, leaf width/leaf, leaf dry weight/plant, vegetative dry weight/plant, and number of capitula/plant having the significance of p < 0.05. In contrast, the dry reproductive weight does not change significantly with elevation, while the root length increases across the elevation. The soil and environmental variables such as organic matter, lime percentage, and latitude significantly affected the PFTs. The importance value index of the species was also related to elevation and diversity indices, i.e., species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and evenness index, indicating that the invasion has strong effects on diversity. This study concludes that S. marianum has traits plasticity across the elevation and affects community diversity. Further investigation is required to understand the invasion and diversity parameters in a better way.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Sewunet B, Gizeyatu A, Lingerew M, et al (2022)

On the use of contingent valuation method to assess factors affecting the contribution of local people for the management of water hyacinth in Lake Tana, northwestern Ethiopia.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The colonization of freshwater lakes by invasive alien species is increasingly alarming primarily owing to nutrient loads from the watersheds. For the sustainable management of invasive weeds, preventive methods, such as watershed management and sustainable agricultural practices, are recommended. Watershed protection activities by the upstream local community are believed to be effective measures to reduce nutrient loading to the receiving water bodies and hence help prevent the spread of water hyacinth. However, their willingness and potential contributions determine the effectiveness of watershed management activities. The objective of this study is, therefore, to evaluate the preferences and contributions (willingness to pay and willingness to contribute labor) of the local community for the management of water hyacinth in Lake Tana (Ethiopia). A contingent valuation method for a hypothetical market "prevention of water hyacinth infestation of Lake Tana through watershed management program" was used to collect data from 560 randomly selected households. A multivariable interval regression model was used to identify factors affecting the contribution of local people. The mean yearly willingness to pay and to contribute labor of the respondents was 435.4 Ethiopian Birr (US$ 10) and 22.4 man-days, respectively. The place of residence (rural/urban), educational level, private farm plot area, annual income, and water hyacinth-related conference participation significantly influenced the willingness to pay. Similarly, the willingness to contribute labor was strongly associated with place of residence, location, educational level, and household family size. The economic value derived from this study reflects community preferences, which could be an input for informed and evidence-based decision-making regarding the prevention of weed expansion and sustainable use of ecosystem services. Therefore, local, regional, and national authorities are advised to mobilize the local community to contribute labor and/or money so as to halt the expansion of the weed.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Martin E, Vallon L, Da Silva Carvalho C, et al (2022)

Gregarine parasites are adapted to mosquito winter diapause.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):249.

The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive species of mosquito. The prevalence of its apicomplexan gregarine parasite Ascogregarina taiwanensis is high in natural populations across both temperate and tropical regions. However, the parasite's oocysts cannot colonize the insect host during winter, when the mosquito lays diapausing eggs. It is therefore unclear if the parasite can survive outside of its insect host during the cold season in temperate regions. Oocysts stored for 1 month at a low temperature (representative of the temperatures that occur during periods of mosquito diapause) were as infectious as fresh oocysts, but those stored for the same period of time at a higher temperature (representative of the temperatures that occur during periods of mosquito activity) were uninfectious. We therefore suggest that the parasite has evolved traits that maximize its maintenance during periods of mosquito dormancy, while traits that would enable its long term survival during periods of mosquito activity have not been selected for.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Backus LH, Pascoe EL, J Foley (2022)

Will new ticks invade North America? How to identify future invaders.

Trends in parasitology pii:S1471-4922(22)00148-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive tick species and the pathogens they transmit pose increasing threats to human and animal health around the world. Little attention has been paid to the characteristics enabling tick species to invade. Here we analyze examples of tick invasion events in North America to identify factors that facilitated the invasion. Commonalities among invasive ticks are that they thrive in anthropogenically modified habitats, feed on either domestic animals or wildlife occurring in high density, and can survive across a broad range of climatic conditions. Invasive tick species varied widely in life history and reproductive habits, suggesting that invasion occurs when multiple characteristics converge. The combination of potential characteristics leading to invasion, however, improves our ability to predict future invaders and inform surveillance.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Vojtíšek J, Janssen N, Šikutová S, et al (2022)

Emergence of the invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in the Czech Republic.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):250.

BACKGROUND: Aedes japonicus is a mosquito species native to North-East Asia that was first found established outside its original geographic distribution range in 1998 and has since spread massively through North America and Europe. In the Czech Republic, the species was not reported before 2021.

METHODS: Aedes invasive mosquitoes (AIM) are routinely surveyed in the Czech Republic by ovitrapping at potential entry ports. This surveillance is supported by appeals to the population to report uncommon mosquitoes. The submission of an Ae. japonicus specimen by a citizen in 2021 was followed by local search for aquatic mosquito stages in the submitter's garden and short-term adult monitoring with encephalitis virus surveillance (EVS) traps in its surroundings. Collected Ae. japonicus specimens were subjected to nad4 haplotype and microsatellite analyses.

RESULTS: Aedes japonicus was detected for the first time in the Czech Republic in 2021. Aquatic stages and adults were collected in Prachatice, close to the Czech-German border, and eggs in Mikulov, on the Czech-Austrian border. Morphological identification was confirmed by molecular taxonomy. Genetic analysis of specimens and comparison of genetic data with those of other European populations, particularly from Germany, showed the Prachatice specimens to be most closely related to a German population. The Mikulov specimens were more distantly related to those, with no close relatives identifiable.

CONCLUSIONS: Aedes japonicus is already widely distributed in Germany and Austria, two countries neighbouring the Czech Republic, and continues to spread rapidly in Central Europe. It must therefore be assumed that the species is already present at more than the two described localities in the Czech Republic and will further spread in this country. These findings highlight the need for more comprehensive AIM surveillance in the Czech Republic.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Santini A, D Migliorini (2022)

Invasive Alien Plant Pathogens: The Need of New Detection Methods.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2536:111-118.

Invasive alien species are a major threat to natural and anthropogenic ecosystems and to the economy. Many invasive fungal species have severely impacted ecology and human lifestyle in the past. Most of them express a pathogenic lifestyle following introduction into a new region and hosts. They are usually cryptic during the introduction phase and hard to be identified, classified, and monitored.The increasing number of new alien pests coincide with the rapid increase in the volume and diversity of intercontinental trade in plants for planting, underlying the need to reduce the risk of their introduction with the development of molecular-based, inexpensive, rapid, accurate, and reliable methods that can identify and intercept plant pathogens even before symptoms occur in the new environment of diffusion. Applicative aerobiology, for instance, represents a challenging research line for the implementation of pest detection protocols during the early stage of fungal introduction, being capable to target aerial dispersed propagules.In addition to this, new metabarcoding protocols based on an innovative multigene approach, although not yet tested on fungi, are able to provide an output with very high taxonomic resolution and are likely to be considered in the next-future biosurveillance of invasive fungal pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Gloria-Soria A, Faraji A, Hamik J, et al (2022)

Origins of high latitude introductions of Aedes aegypti to Nebraska and Utah during 2019.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases pii:S1567-1348(22)00130-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Aedes aegypti (L.), the yellow fever mosquito, is also an important vector of dengue and Zika viruses, and an invasive species in North America. Aedes aegypti inhabits tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world and in North America, is primarily distributed throughout the southern US states and Mexico. The northern range of Ae. aegypti is limited by cold winter months and establishment in these areas has been mostly unsuccessful. However, frequent introductions of Ae. aegypti to temperate, non-endemic areas during the warmer months can lead to seasonal activity and disease outbreaks. Two Ae. aegypti incursions were reported in the late summer of 2019 into York, Nebraska and Moab, Utah. These states had no history of established populations of this mosquito and no evidence of previous seasonal activity. We genotyped a subset of individuals from each location at 12 microsatellite loci and ~ 14,000 single nucleotide polymorphic markers to determine their genetic affinities to other populations worldwide and investigate their potential source of introduction. Our results support a single origin for each of the introductions from different sources. Aedes aegypti from Utah likely derived from Tucson, Arizona, or a nearby location. Nebraska specimen results were not as conclusive, but point to an origin from southcentral or southeastern US. In addition to an effective, efficient, and sustainable control of invasive mosquitoes, such as Ae. aegypti, identifying the potential routes of introduction will be key to prevent future incursions and assess their potential health threat based on the ability of the source population to transmit a particular virus and its insecticide resistance profile, which may complicate vector control.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

van der Geer AAE (2018)

Changing Invaders: trends of gigantism in insular introduced rats.

Environmental conservation, 45(3):203-211.

The degree and direction of morphological change in invasive species with a long history of introduction is insufficiently known for a larger scale than the archipelago or island group. Here, I analyse data for 105 island populations of Polynesian rats, Rattus exulans, covering the entirety of Oceania and Wallacea to test whether body size differs in insular populations and if so what biotic and abiotic features are correlated with it. All insular populations of this rat, except one, exhibit body sizes up to twice the size of their mainland conspecifics. Body size of insular populations is positively correlated with latitude, consistent with thermoregulatory predictions based on Bergmann's rule. Body size is negatively correlated with number of co-occurring mammalian species, confirming an ecological hypothesis of the island rule. The largest rats are found in the temperate zone of New Zealand as well as on mammalian species-poor islands of Polynesia and the Solomon Islands. Carnivory in the form of predation on nesting seabird colonies seems to promote 1.4- to 1.9-fold body size increases.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Kruitwagen A, Beukeboom LW, Wertheim B, et al (2022)

Evolution of parasitoid host preference and performance in response to an invasive host acting as evolutionary trap.

Ecology and evolution, 12(7):e9030 pii:ECE39030.

The invasion of a novel host species can create a mismatch in host choice and offspring survival (performance) when native parasitoids attempt to exploit the invasive host without being able to circumvent its resistance mechanisms. Invasive hosts can therefore act as evolutionary trap reducing parasitoids' fitness and this may eventually lead to their extinction. Yet, escape from the trap can occur when parasitoids evolve behavioral avoidance or a physiological strategy compatible with the trap host, resulting in either host-range expansion or a complete host-shift. We developed an individual based model to investigate which conditions promote parasitoids to evolve behavioral preference that matches their performance, including host-trap avoidance, and which conditions lead to adaptations to the unsuitable hosts. The model was inspired by solitary endo-parasitoids attacking larval host stages. One important aspect of these conditions was reduced host survival during incompatible interaction, where a failed parasitization attempt by a parasitoid resulted not only in death of her offspring but also in host killing. This non-reproductive host mortality had a strong influence on the likelihood of establishment of novel host-parasitoid relationship, in some cases constraining adaptation to the trap host species. Moreover, our model revealed that host-search efficiency and genetic variation in host-preference play a key role in the likelihood that parasitoids will include the suboptimal host in their host range, or will evolve behavioral avoidance resulting in specialization and host-range conservation, respectively. Hence, invasive species might change the evolutionary trajectory of native parasitoid species, which is important for predicting biocontrol ability of native parasitoids towards novel hosts.

RevDate: 2022-07-10

Kawamura K, Jimbo M, Adachi K, et al (2022)

Diel and monthly activity pattern of brown bears and sika deer in the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan.

The Journal of veterinary medical science [Epub ahead of print].

Mammals exhibit several types of diel activity pattern, including nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular, and cathemeral. These patterns vary inter- and intra-specifically and are affected by environmental factors, individual status, and interactions with other individuals or species. Determining the factors that shape diel activity patterns is challenging but essential for understanding the behavioral ecology of animal species, and for wildlife conservation and management. Using camera-trap surveys, we investigated the species distributions and activity patterns of terrestrial mammals on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, with particular focus on brown bears and sika deer. From June to October 2019, a total of 7,530 observations were recorded by 65 camera-traps for eight species, including two alien species. The diel activity pattern of brown bears was diurnal/crepuscular, similar to that of bears in North America, but different from European populations. Bear observations were more frequent during the autumnal hyperphagia period, and adult females and sub-adults were more diurnal than adult males. In addition, bears inside the protected area were more diurnal than those outside it. These findings suggest that appetite motivation, competitive interactions between conspecifics, and human activities potentially affect bear activity patterns. Similar to other sika deer populations and other deer species, the diel activity patterns of sika deer were crepuscular. Deer showed less variation in activity patterns among months and sex-age classes, while adult males were observed more frequently during the autumn copulation period, suggesting that reproductive motivation affects their activity patterns.

RevDate: 2022-07-10

Queiroz RNM, Dias TLP, Batista R, et al (2022)

Reproduction and population dynamics of the invasive bivalves Mytilopsis sallei and Isognomon bicolor on the Northeast coast of Brazil.

Zoology (Jena, Germany), 153:126028 pii:S0944-2006(22)00029-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Knowing the reproductive biology and population dynamics of invasive species are essential for environmental conservation and protection of native species. The success of these invasive species is directly linked to their reproductive strategy. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the reproductive cycles and evaluate population parameters of the invasive bivalves Mytilopsis sallei and Isognomon bicolor, and to estimate if those characteristics would favor their population growths in the northeast coast of Brazil. The bivalves were sampled monthly from June 2016 to May 2017, respectively from the Sanhauá River estuary and Jacarapé beach, State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Through histological analyses, reproductive parameters were determined in order to identify sex, gonadal development, minimum size at maturity, and mean gonadal index. The asymptotic growth (L∞) and growth rate (K) parameters were estimated using the von Bertalanffy growth curve, and recruitment patterns and cohorts were projected based on shell length frequency distributions. Mytilopsis sallei presented more than 50% spawning individuals in most months, while animals showing gametogenic gonads were predominant during the season of greatest precipitation. Isognomon bicolor had ripe gonads (about 30%) and spawning individuals (more than 40%) in all months of the year, but unlike M. sallei, it had the highest concentration of ripe individuals in the months of greatest precipitation. Both species showed equal and high growth rates (K = 1.1 yr-¹) and analysis of the cohorts indicated that these populations are established and expanding. The results confirmed the great invasive potential of the two species in their local environments (estuary and marine) in Northeast Brazil and, therefore, their harmful potential for the conservation of native species and the environment in the invaded areas.

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

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