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Bibliography on: Biofilm

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Aug 2022 at 01:32 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-08-06

Moris V, Lam M, Amoureux L, et al (2022)

What is the best technic to dislodge Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm on medical implants?.

BMC microbiology, 22(1):192.

BACKGROUND: Bacterial biofilm can occur on all medical implanted devices and lead to infection and/or dysfunction of the device. In this study, artificial biofilm was formed on four different medical implants (silicone, piccline, peripheral venous catheter and endotracheal tube) of interest for our daily clinical and/or research practice. We investigated the best conventional technic to dislodge the biofilm on the implants and quantified the number of bacteria. Staphylococcus epidermidis previously isolated from a breast implant capsular contracture on a patient in the university hospital of Dijon was selected for its ability to produce biofilm on the implants. Different technics (sonication, Digest-EUR®, mechanized bead mill, combination of sonication plus Digest-EUR®) were tested and compared to detach the biofilm before quantifying viable bacteria by colony counting.

RESULTS: For all treatments, the optical and scanning electron microscope images showed substantial less biofilm biomass remaining on the silicone implant compared to non-treated implant. This study demonstrated that the US procedure was statistically superior to the other physical treatment: beads, Digest-EUR® alone and Digest-EUR® + US (p < 0.001) for the flexible materials (picc-line, PIV, and silicone). The number of bacteria released by the US is significantly higher with a difference of 1 log on each material. The result for a rigid endotracheal tube were different with superiority for the chemical treatment dithiothreitol: Digest-EUR®. Surprisingly the combination of the US plus Digest-EUR® treatment was consistently inferior for the four materials.

CONCLUSIONS: Depending on the materials used, the biofilm dislodging technique must be adapted. The US procedure was the best technic to dislodge S. epidermidis biofilm on silicone, piccline, peripheral venous catheter but not endotracheal tube. This suggested that scientists should compare themselves different methods before designing a protocol of biofilm study on a given material.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Prince Milton AA, Momin AG, Gandhale PN, et al (2022)

Prevalence, toxinotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm-forming ability of Clostridium perfringens isolated from free-living rodents and shrews.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(22)00111-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), is a spore-forming and toxin-producing pathogenic anaerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium with immense public health/zoonotic concern. Rodents are well-known reservoirs and vectors for a large number of zoonoses and strong links have been recognized between synanthropic rodents and foodborne disease outbreaks throughout the world. To date, no study has been conducted for studying the prevalence of C. perfringens in rodents and shrews. In this study, we investigated faecal samples from free-living rodents and shrews trapped in Meghalaya, a North-eastern hill state of India for the presence of virulent and antimicrobial-resistant C. perfringens.

METHODS: A total of 122 animals comprising six species of rodents and one species of shrews were trapped: Mus musculus (n = 15), Mus booduga (n = 7), Rattus rattus (n = 9), Rattus norvegicus (n = 3), Bandicota indica (n = 30), Bandicota bengalensis (n = 32) and Suncus murinus (n = 26). The faecal swabs were collected and processed for the isolation of C. perfringens. Toxinotyping was done using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and biofilm forming ability testing were done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method and crystal violet assay.

RESULTS: C. perfringens was isolated from 27 of the 122 faecal swabs (22.1%), from six species of rodents and shrews. Five of the host species were rodents, Bandicota bengalensis (25%), Bandicota indica (16.7%), Rattus norvegicus (33.3%), Mus musculus (13.3%), Mus booduga (42.8%) and Suncus murinus (29.6%). The common toxinotype was type A (59.2%) followed by Type A with beta2 toxin (33.3%), Type C (3.7%) and Type C with beta2 toxin (3.7%). None of the isolates harboured cpe, etx, iap, and NetB genes and therefore none was typed as either B, D, E, F, or G. Nine isolates (33.3%) turned out to be multi-drug resistant (MDR), displaying resistance to three or more categories of antibiotics tested. Twenty-three out of twenty-seven isolates (85.2%) were forming biofilms.

CONCLUSION: Globally, this is the first study to report the prevalence of C. perfringens and its virulence profile and antimicrobial resistance in free-living rodents and shrews. The rodents and shrews can potentially contaminate the food and environment and can infect humans and livestock with multi-drug resistant/virulent Type A and Type C C. perfringens.

RevDate: 2022-08-06

Pourhajibagher M, Bahrami R, A Bahador (2022)

An ex vivo evaluation of physico-mechanical and anti-biofilm properties of resin-modified glass ionomer containing ultrasound waves-activated nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans biofilm around orthodontic bands.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy pii:S1572-1000(22)00337-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the physico-mechanical and antimicrobial properties of ultrasound waves-activated modified-resin glass ionomer containing nanosonosensitizers such as nano-curcumin (n-Cur), nano-emodin (n-Emo), and nano-quercetin (n-Qct) against Streptococcus mutans biofilm on the surface of modified-resin glass ionomer bonded orthodontic bands.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 human molar teeth were used in this study. The shear bond strength (SBS), adhesive remnant index (ARI), setting time, and fluoride release of modified orthodontics cement containing different concentrations of n-Cur, n-Emo, and n-Qct (0, 2, 5, and 10%) were measured. The antimicrobial effectiveness was assessed against S. mutans by the biofilm inhibition test, and the Log10 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL was evaluated.

RESULTS: SBS and setting time of modified glass ionomer decreased compared with the control group. 5% n-Emo, 2% n-Qct, and 5% n-Cur were the highest concentrations that had an insignificant difference in comparison with Transbond XT (P=0.647, 0.819, and 0.292, respectively). The groups were not significantly different in terms of ARI score (P>0.05). The highest and lowest setting time belonged to the control and 5% n-Emo groups, respectively; this difference in setting time was significant (P<0.05). Ultrasound waves and 0.2% CHX significantly reduced S. mutans biofilms compared with the control group (P<0.001), and minimum S. mutans colony count was shown in 0.2% CHX and 5% n-Emo groups. The addition of nanosonosensitizers to the glass ionomer did not compromise the fluoride release of the glass ionomer.

CONCLUSION: It could be concluded that resin-modified glass ionomer containing ultrasound waves-activated 5% n-Emo reduces S. mutans biofilm around orthodontic bands with no adverse effect on SBS, ARI, and its application in the clinic.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Zhou X, Bi X, Yang T, et al (2022)

Metagenomic insights into microbial nitrogen metabolism in two-stage anoxic/oxic-moving bed biofilm reactor system with multiple chambers for municipal wastewater treatment.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(22)01058-6 [Epub ahead of print].

To explore the microbial nitrogen metabolism of a two-stage anoxic/oxic (A/O)-moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), biofilms of the system's chambers were analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Significant differences in microbial populations were found among the pre-anoxic, oxic and post-anoxic MBBRs (P < 0.01). Nitrospira and Nitrosomonas had positive correlations with ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) removal, and were also predominant in oxic MBBRs. These organisms were the hosts of functional genes for nitrification. The denitrifying genera were predominant in anoxic MBBRs, including Thiobacillus and Sulfurisoma in pre-anoxic MBBRs and Dechloromonas and Thauera in post-anoxic MBBRs. The four genera had positive correlations with total nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (NOX--N) removal and were the hosts of functional genes for denitrification. Specific functional biofilms with different microbial nitrogen metabolisms were formed in each chamber of this system. This work provides a microbial theoretical support for the two-stage A/O-MBBR system.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Zhao J, Ni G, Piculell M, et al (2022)

Characterizing and comparing microbial community and biofilm structure in three nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactors.

Journal of environmental management, 320:115883 pii:S0301-4797(22)01456-6 [Epub ahead of print].

This study investigated biofilm establishment, biofilm structure, and microbial community composition of biofilms in three laboratory-scale moving bed biofilm reactors. These reactors were filled with three types of plastic carriers with varied depths of living space for microbial growth. The reactors were operated under the same influent and operational conditions. Along with the operation, the results showed that carriers with grids of 50 μm in height delayed the biofilm development and formed the thinnest biofilm and a carpet-like structure with the lowest α-diversity. In comparison, another two carriers with grids of 200 and 400 μm in height formed thick biofilms and large colonies with more voids and channels. Quantified properties of biofilm thickness, biomass, heterogeneity, portion of the biofilm exposed to the nutrient, and maximum diffusion distance were examined, and the results demonstrated that they almost (except for heterogeneity) strongly correlated to the α-diversity of microbial community. These illustrate that depth of living space, as an important parameter for carrier, could drive the formation of biofilm structure and community composition. It improves understanding of influencing factors on biofilm establishment, structure and its microbial community, and would be helpful for the design of biofilm processes.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Yu H, Xu X, Xie Z, et al (2022)

High-Efficiency Near-Infrared Light Responsive Antibacterial System for Synergistic Ablation of Bacteria and Biofilm.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial infection is seriously threatening human health, and the design of high-efficiency and good biocompatibility antibacterial agents is an urgent problem to be solved. However, with the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, the existing antibacterial agents have low killing efficiency, and the formation of biofilms has further weakened the therapeutic effect. Herein, we constructed an efficient antibacterial system mediated by near-infrared light for synergistic antibacterial and biofilm dissipation. Specifically, the ZnO/Ti3C2Tx with heterojunction was synthesized by hydrothermal growth of ZnO on the surface of lamellar Ti3C2Tx-MXene. The prepared ZnO/Ti3C2Tx had better photothermal ability than ZnO and Ti3C2Tx, respectively. The local thermal effect can not only destroy the integrity of the bacterial membrane but also promote the release of Zn2+ ions and further improve the antibacterial performance. ZnO/Ti3C2Tx achieved a 100% sterilization rate (better than either ZnO or Ti3C2Tx) at 150 μg mL-1. The biofilm dissipation experiment further proved its excellent biofilm ablation effect. More importantly, the results of in vitro cell culture and animal experiments have demonstrated its good biological safety. In summary, this new type of nanomaterial shows strong local chemical photothermal sterilization ability and has great potential to replace traditional antibacterial agents.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Hympanova M, Oliver-Urrutia C, Vojta M, et al (2022)

Assessment of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on calcium phosphate ceramics: The role of crystalline composition and microstructure.

Biomaterials advances, 135:212750.

Streptococcus mutans is one of the bacteria that initiates the colonization of the pellicle at the tooth surface. It forms a plaque, together with other bacteria, which gradually dissolves the pellicle and leaves the tooth surface unprotected against the acidic oral environment. Calcium phosphate ceramics are excellent synthetic materials for the study of biofilm formation in dentistry because they are comparable to teeth in chemical composition and structure. Calcium phosphates can be processed to achieve a variety of crystalline compounds with biologically relevant ionic substitutions and structures that allow study of the effect of the surface chemistry and the topography independently. In this article, we describe the preparation and characterization of three types of calcium phosphate-based materials as a suitable surface for the formation of the S. mutans biofilm: beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP); sintered hydroxyapatite (SHA); and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). The densest biofilms were formed on the surfaces of SHA and CDHA, with no significant differences due to the stoichiometry or microstructure. In contrast, β-TCP showed a lower susceptibility to S. mutans biofilm formation, suggesting that the crystalline structure is the controlling parameter. Subsequently, SHA was selected to develop a dental biofilm model that allowed study of S. mutans biofilm susceptibility to chlorhexidine and ethanol.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Alves-Barroco C, Botelho AMN, Américo MA, et al (2022)

Assessing in vivo and in vitro biofilm development by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae using a murine model of catheter-associated biofilm and human keratinocyte cell.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:874694.

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) is an important agent of bovine mastitis. This infection causes an inflammatory reaction in udder tissue, being the most important disease-causing significant impact on the dairy industry. Therefore, it leads to an increase in dairy farming to meet commercial demands. As a result, there is a major impact on both the dairy industry and the environment including global warming. Recurrent mastitis is often attributed to the development of bacterial biofilms, which promote survival of sessile cells in hostile environments, and resistance to the immune system defense and antimicrobial therapy. Recently, we described the in vitro biofilm development on abiotic surfaces by bovine SDSD. In that work we integrated microbiology, imaging, and computational methods to evaluate the biofilm production capability of SDSD isolates on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, we reported that bovine SDSD can adhere and internalize human cells, including human epidermal keratinocyte (HEK) cells. We showed that the adherence and internalization rates of bovine SDSD isolates in HEK cells are higher than those of a SDSD DB49998-05 isolated from humans. In vivo, bovine SDSD can cause invasive infections leading to zebrafish morbidity and mortality. In the present work, we investigated for the first time the capability of bovine SDSD to develop biofilm in vivo using a murine animal model and ex-vivo on human HEK cells. Bovine SDSD isolates were selected based on their ability to form weak, moderate, or strong biofilms on glass surfaces. Our results showed that SDSD isolates displayed an increased ability to form biofilms on the surface of catheters implanted in mice when compared to in vitro biofilm formation on abiotic surface. A greater ability to form biofilm in vitro after animal passage was observed for the VSD45 isolate, but not for the other isolates tested. Besides that, in vitro scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that SDSD biofilm development was visible after 4 hours of SDSD adhesion to HEK cells. Cell viability tests showed an important reduction in the number of HEK cells after the formation of SDSD biofilms. In this study, the expression of genes encoding BrpA-like (biofilm regulatory protein), FbpA (fibronectin-binding protein A), HtrA (serine protease), and SagA (streptolysin S precursor) was higher for biofilm grown in vivo than in vitro, suggesting a potential role for these virulence determinants in the biofilm-development, host colonization, and SDSD infections. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SDSD can develop biofilms in vivo and on the surface of HEK cells causing important cellular damages. As SDSD infections are considered zoonotic diseases, our data contribute to a better understanding of the role of biofilm accumulation during SDSD colonization and pathogenesis not only in bovine mastitis, but they also shed some lights on the mechanisms of prosthesis-associated infection and cellulitis caused by SDSD in humans, as well.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Meganathan Y, Vishwakarma A, R Mohandass (2022)

Biofilm formation and social interaction of Leptospira in natural and artificial environments.

Research in microbiology pii:S0923-2508(22)00062-6 [Epub ahead of print].

In the recent decades, there has been increased interest in the study on social interactions of pathogenic bacteria and biofilm-forming microbes. Leptospira is a zoonotic pathogen that causes human leptospirosis. Biofilm formation by pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira has been documented in various biotic and abiotic environments. Biofilm supports cell growth and protects them from a variety of environmental stress. Pathogenic bacterial biofilm might increase the virulence and pathogenesis. However, research on the social behaviour and biofilm production by Leptospira is limited. This review discusses the interplay between the different species in the biofilm formation of saprophytic and pathogenic Leptospira and potential future applications.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Battulga B, Atarashi-Andoh M, Nakanishi T, et al (2022)

A new approach to extracting biofilm from environmental plastics using ultrasound-assisted syringe treatment for isotopic analyses.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04857-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Plastics are one of the ubiquitous and artificial types of substrates for microbial colonization and biofilm development in the aquatic environment. Characterizing plastic-associated biofilms is key to the better understanding of organic material and mineral cycling in the "Plastisphere"-the thin layer of microbial life on plastics. In this study, we propose a new method to extract biofilms from environmental plastics, in order to evaluate the properties of biofilm-derived organic matter through stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope signatures and their interactions with radionuclides especially radiocesium (137Cs). The extraction method is simple and cost-effective, requiring only an ultrasonic bath, disposable plastic syringes, and a freeze drier. After ultrasound-assisted separation from the plastics, biofilm samples were successfully collected via a sequence of syringe treatments, with less contamination from plastics and other mineral particles. Effective removal of small microplastics from the experimental suspension was satisfactorily achieved using the method with syringe treatments. Biofilm-derived organic matter samples (14.5-65.4 mg) from four river mouths in Japan showed 137Cs activity concentrations of <75 to 820 Bq·kg-1 biofilm (dw), providing evidence that environmental plastics, mediated by developed biofilms, serve as a carrier for 137Cs in the coastal riverine environment. Significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N signatures were also obtained for the biofilms, indicating the different sources, pathways, and development processes of biofilms on plastics. We demonstrate here a straightforward method for extracting biofilms from environmental plastics; the results obtained with this method could provide useful insights into the plastic-associated nutrient cycling in the environment.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Zhao Y, Zhu S, Fan X, et al (2022)

Precise portrayal of microscopic processes of wastewater biofilm formation: Taking SiO2 as the model carrier.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04875-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Precise characterization of the microscopic processes of wastewater biofilm formation is essential for regulating biofilm behavior. Nevertheless, it remains a great challenge. This study investigated biofilm formation on SiO2 carriers under gradually increasing shear force combining the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory in a Couette-Taylor reactor, and precisely revealed the micro-interface interaction and species colonization during biofilm formation. The results indicated that bacterial reversible adhesion distance on SiO2 carrier surface was 3.06 ± 0.48 nm. Meanwhile, the secondary minimum of total XDLVO interaction energy could be used as a novel indicator to distinguish biofilm formation stages. The revealed biofilm formation stages were also confirmed by the electrochemical analysis. Additionally, the pioneer species that colonized at first were Comamonadaceae, Azospira, Flavobacterium and Azonexus, while keystone species such as Hydrogenophaga, AKYH767, Aquimonas and Ignavibacterium determined the stability of microbial community. In conclusion, this study provided a methodological example to study wastewater biofilm micro-interface behavior through the integration of an experimental platform as well as multiple monitoring and analysis methods, which opened up new perspectives for biofilm research and provided useful guidance for the regulation of biofilm-related treatment processes and new technology development.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Wang J, Tabassum N, Toma TT, et al (2022)

3D GAN image synthesis and dataset quality assessment for bacterial biofilm.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6655685 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Data-driven deep learning techniques usually require a large quantity of labeled training data to achieve reliable solutions in bioimage analysis. However, noisy image conditions and high cell density in bacterial biofilm images make 3D cell annotations difficult to obtain. Alternatively, data augmentation via synthetic data generation is attempted, but current methods fail to produce realistic images.

RESULTS: This paper presents a bioimage synthesis and assessment workflow with application to augment bacterial biofilm images. 3D cyclic generative adversarial networks (GAN) with unbalanced cycle consistency loss functions are exploited in order to synthesize 3D biofilm images from binary cell labels. Then, a stochastic synthetic dataset quality assessment (SSQA) measure that compares statistical appearance similarity between random patches from random images in two datasets is proposed. Both SSQA scores and other existing image quality measures indicate that the proposed 3D Cyclic GAN, along with the unbalanced loss function, provides a reliably realistic (as measured by mean opinion score) 3D synthetic biofilm image. In 3D cell segmentation experiments, a GAN-augmented training model also presents more realistic signal-to-background intensity ratio and improved cell counting accuracy.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Chesnokova MG, Chesnokov VA, Mironov AY, et al (2022)

Analysis of micro-relief of biofilm of yeast Candida albicans of basic plastics by the method of laser modulation interference microscopy.

Klinicheskaia laboratornaia diagnostika, 67(7):407-413.

The development of mycotic colonization of the base surface with further biodegradation of acrylic plastics is currently of undoubted interest. The oral cavity is a favorable ecological niche for colonization by fungi and their subsequent possible invasion into the epithelium of the oral mucosa. The method of modulation interference laser microscopy is of considerable interest to researchers in medicine in the context of obtaining the necessary information about the morphological characteristics of microbial cells and the microbiome community as a whole during the colonization of a certain ecological niche in the human body. Purpose of the study: to analyze the microrelief of the biofilm of yeast-like fungi of the species Candida albicans of base plastics of the hot type of polymerization using the method of laser modulation interference microscopy. An experimental study was carried out in order to study biofilms of yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida on samples of basic plastics, an image of a biofilm of yeast-like fungi of the species Candida albicans was obtained on the surface of a plastic of a hot type of polymerization (polymethyl methacrylate) in the visualization of the phase portrait, a description of its horizontal and vertical bioprofile. As a result of the research, the heterogeneous structure of the biofilm was determined, due to the different density and accumulation of cells along the surface, the characteristics of the surface were established in accordance with the roughness criteria. The microrelief parameters on a separately arbitrarily selected section line allow one to determine the characteristics of the biofilm in the required area and make it possible to judge the nature of its formation in a certain biological niche.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Veloso M, Lopez Y, Bernaus M, et al (2022)

"In vitro" evaluation of bacterial biofilm formation on different cerclage systems.

Journal of biomaterials applications [Epub ahead of print].

Cerclage wiring may be used for fracture fixation or osteotomy stabilization in revision arthroplasty. There is a lack of evidence regarding the potential risk of bacterial colonization for the different types of cerclages. The objective of our research is to study the adhesion and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa on two different cerclage cable models, comparing a polymer cable and a stainless steel metal cable. A two-cm cerclage piece of each material was submerged in 2 mL of tryptic soy broth (TSB) inoculated with 10 μL of a 0.5 McFarland bacterial culture, and incubated at 37°C during 2 h for adhesion and 48 h for biofilm formation. The cerclages were washed with 1xPBS and sonicated in a new culture medium. Aliquots of several dilutions of each sonicated culture were spread in TSB agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The number of colonies was counted. The colony-forming units per ml (CFU/mL) and the percentage of reduction were calculated. Experiments were triplicated. For P. aeruginosa, a statistically significant reduction in biofilm formation was found on the polymer cerclage cable, compared to the metal cerclage cable. Reductions of 59% and 88%, after 2 h and 48 h, respectively, were observed. For S. epidermis and S. aureus, there was a trend towards lower bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation for the polymer cerclage cable. In summary, these results demonstrate that the braided polymer cerclage cable may be less prone to bacterial adherence and biofilm formation compared to the braided metal cerclage cable.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Maciel Monteiro R, Oliveira VC, Galo R, et al (2022)

Protocol with non-toxic chemicals to control biofilm in dental unit waterlines: physical, chemical, mechanical and biological perspective.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Biosafety in dentistry aims to combat cross-contamination and biofilm in dental unit waterlines. The aim was to investigate from a physical, chemical, mechanical and biological perspective, a protocol for using chemical products (citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride) to improve and maintain water quality in dental unit waterlines. Change in microhardness and corrosion tendency were observed in stainless steel samples. On the polyurethane surfaces, there were changes in color, microhardness and roughness. Anti-biofilm evaluations revealed a significant reduction in the biofilm biomass, metabolic activity and residual biofilm. These findings suggest that the protocol analyzed in this study showed an innovative potential against biofilm in dental unit waterlines, preserving the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the materials.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Abdeljelil N, Ben Miloud Yahia N, Landoulsi A, et al (2022)

Growth and biofilm formation of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 on different metallic and polymeric materials used in spaceflight applications.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria biofilm formation and its complications are of special concern in isolated structures, such as offshore stations, manned submarines and space habitats, as maintenance and technical support are poorly accessible due to costs and/or logistical challenges. In addition, considering that future exploration missions are planned to adventure farther and longer in space, unlocking biofilm formation mechanisms and developing new antifouling solutions are key goals in order to ensure spacecraft's efficiency, crew's safety and mission success. In this work, we explored the interactions between Cupriavidus metallidurans, a prevalently identified contaminant onboard the International Space Station, and aerospace grade materials such as the titanium alloy TiAl6V4, the stainless steel AISI 316 (SS316) and Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Teflon. Borosilicate glass was used as a control and all surfaces were investigated at two different pH values (5.0 and 7.0). Biofilms were almost absent on stainless steel and the titanium alloy contrary to Teflon and glass that were covered by an extensive biofilm formed via monolayers of scattered matrix-free cells and complex multilayered clusters or communities. Filamentous extracellular DNA structures were observed specifically in the complex multilayered clusters adherent to Teflon, indicating that the employed attachment machinery might depend on the physicochemical characteristics of the surface.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Japhet N, Tarchitzky J, Y Chen (2022)

Effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide treatments in preventing biofilm clogging in drip irrigation systems applying treated wastewater.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

The application of treated wastewater (TWW) via pressurized drip irrigation (DI) systems, specifically micro-irrigation, is an effective solution to mitigate water scarcity. TWW contains a higher concentration of nutrients and microbial activity compared to fresh water (FW) and poses a larger danger of fouling and subsequent clogging to DI systems. The goal of this paper was to characterize the effectiveness of chemical treatments, specifically hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in preventing clogging in DI systems utilizing secondary (ST) and tertiary (TT)_TWW. A novel field model was employed to compare the flow rate (FR), fouling accumulation and composition in laterals and emitters of different treatments. Under ST_TWW irrigation, control treatment performance quickly declined while regular low concentration H2O2 treatments exhibited the lowest amounts of fouling and maintained nominal FR and coefficient of variation (CV). Shock treatments, defined as periodical applications of concentrated chemicals combined with lateral flushing, were ineffective in maintaining satisfactory irrigation performance.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Kwon H, Park SY, Kim MS, et al (2022)

Characterization of a Lytic Bacteriophage vB_SurP-PSU3 Infecting Staphylococcus ureilyticus and Its Efficacy Against Biofilm.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:925866.

In response to the increasing nosocomial infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), bacteriophages (phages) have emerged as an alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcus ureilyticus, one of the representative species of the CoNS, is now considered a notable pathogen that causes nosocomial bloodstream infections, and its biofilm-forming ability increases pathogenicity and resistance to antimicrobial agents. In this study, a lytic phage infecting S. ureilyticus was newly isolated from wastewater collected from a sewage treatment plant and its biological and antimicrobial characteristics are described. The isolated phage, named vB_SurP-PSU3, was morphologically similar to Podoviridae and could simultaneously lyse some S. warneri strains used in this study. The sequenced genome of the phage consisted of linear dsDNA with 18,146 bp and genome-based phylogeny revealed that vB_SurP-PSU3 belonged to the genus Andhravirus. Although its overall genomic arrangement and contents were similar to those of other members of the Andhravirus, the predicted endolysin of vB_SurP-PSU3 distinctly differed from the other members of the genus. The bacteriolytic activity of vB_SurP-PSU3 was evaluated using S. ureilyticus ATCC 49330, and the phage could efficiently inhibit the planktonic growth of the bacteria. Moreover, the anti-biofilm analysis showed that vB_SurP-PSU3 could prevent the formation of bacterial biofilm and degrade the mature biofilm in vitro. In an additional cytotoxicity assay of vB_SurP-PSU3, no significant adverse effects were observed on the tested cell. Based on these findings, the newly isolated phage vB_SurP-PSU3 could be classified as a new member of Andhravirus and could be considered an alternative potential biocontrol agent against S. ureilyticus infections and its biofilm.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Sauer K, Stoodley P, Goeres DM, et al (2022)

The biofilm life cycle: expanding the conceptual model of biofilm formation.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilms are often defined as communities of surface-attached bacteria and are typically depicted with a classic mushroom-shaped structure characteristic of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, it has become evident that this is not how all biofilms develop, especially in vivo, in clinical and industrial settings, and in the environment, where biofilms often are observed as non-surface-attached aggregates. In this Review, we describe the origin of the current five-step biofilm development model and why it fails to capture many aspects of bacterial biofilm physiology. We aim to present a simplistic developmental model for biofilm formation that is flexible enough to include all the diverse scenarios and microenvironments where biofilms are formed. With this new expanded, inclusive model, we hereby introduce a common platform for developing an understanding of biofilms and anti-biofilm strategies that can be tailored to the microenvironment under investigation.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Weng L, Wu L, Guo R, et al (2022)

Lactobacillus cell envelope-coated nanoparticles for antibiotic delivery against cariogenic biofilm and dental caries.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 20(1):356.

BACKGROUND: Due to their prevalence, dental caries ranks first among all diseases endangering human health. Therefore, the prevention of caries is of great significance, as caries have become a serious public health problem worldwide. Currently, using nanoscale drug delivery systems to prevent caries has received increased attention. However, the preventive efficacy of these systems is substantially limited due to the unique physiological structure of cariogenic biofilms. Thus, novel strategies aimed at combating cariogenic biofilms to improve preventive efficiency against caries are meaningful and very necessary. Herein, inspired by cell membrane coating technology and Lactobacillus strains, we coated triclosan (TCS)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (TCS@PLGA-NPs) with an envelope of Lactobacillus (LA/TCS@PLGA-NPs) and investigated their potential as a nanoparticle delivery system against cariogenic biofilms and dental caries.

RESULTS: LA/TCS@PLGA-NPs were successfully prepared with favorable properties, including a coated envelope, controllable size, negative charge, sustained drug-release kinetics and so on. The LA/TCS@PLGA-NPs inherited native properties from the source cell surface, thus the LA/TCS@PLGA-NPs adhered to S. mutans, integrated into the S. mutans biofilm, and interfered with the biofilm formation of S. mutans. The nanoparticles significantly inhibited the activity, biomass and virulence gene expression of S. mutans biofilms in vitro. Additionally, LA/TCS@PLGA-NPs exhibited a long-lasting inhibitory effect on the progression of caries in vivo. The safety performance of the nanoparticles is also favorable.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that the antibiofilm effect of LA/TCS@PLGA-NPs relies not only on the inheritance of native properties from the Lactobacillus cell surface but also on the inhibitory effect on the activity, biomass and virulence of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, these nanoparticles could be considered feasible candidates for a new class of effective drug delivery systems for the prevention of caries. Furthermore, this work provides new insights into cell membrane coating technology and presents a novel strategy to combat bacterial biofilms and associated infections.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Kang T, Yim D, Baek KH, et al (2022)

The inactivation efficacy of plasma-activated acetic acid against Salmonella Typhimurium cells and biofilm.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: This study aimed to examine the inactivation efficacy of plasma-activated acetic acid (PAAA) against Salmonella Typhimurium cells and biofilm and elucidate the underlying the chemical inactivation pathway.

METHODS AND RESULTS: PAAA was prepared by discharging plasma to 20 ml of 0.2% (v/v) acetic acid (AA) for 20 min (2.2 kHz and 8.4 kVpp). The count of cells and biofilms decreased by 5.71 log CFU ml-1 and 4 log CFU/cm2 after 10 min of treatment with 0.2% PAAA and 0.4% PAAA compared with control group (without any treatment), respectively. In 0.2% PAAA, the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2) and nitrate anions were directly proportional to the plasma discharge time, while nitrite anions (NO2 -) was not detected. However, the pH values of both 0.2% PAAA and plasma-activated water were inversely proportional to the plasma discharge time. Treatment with catalase, L-histidine, D-mannitol, and sodium azide inhibited the antibacterial activity of PAAA.

CONCLUSION: H2 O2 , Singlet oxygen, Hydroxyl radical, and NO2 - are involved in the generation and decomposition of peroxynitrous acid generated from PAAA functioned as intermediate agent, which could diffuse through cell membranes of bacteria and induce cell injury.

This study provides the understanding of efficacy and selectivity of PAAA which could be a novel decontamination agent.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Mendes-Gouvêa CC, Danelon M, Vieira APM, et al (2022)

Silver nanoparticles associated with a polyphosphate and fluoride enhance the prevention of enamel demineralization and impact on dual-biofilm adhesion.

Journal of dentistry pii:S0300-5712(22)00301-3 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study were to produce a multifunctional nanocomposite combining silver nanoaparticles (Ag), sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and fluoride (F), to investigate its effect on dental enamel demineralization and on biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

METHODS: Bovine enamel blocks were submitted to five pH cycles and treated 2x/day with 100ppm F, 225ppm F, 100ppm F+0.2%TMP or 100ppm F+0.2%TMP+10% Ag (100F/TMP/Ag). Next, surface hardness loss (%SH), integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN), enamel fluoride (F) and calcium (Ca) concentration were determined. Biofilms from single and dual species of S. mutans and C. albicans were treated with 100F/TMP/Ag, Ag or chlorhexidine gluconate for 24h. The antibiofilm effect was evaluated by colony-forming unit counting and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

RESULTS: The nanocomposite reduced 43.0% of %SH and was similar with samples treated with 225F, 100F/TMP and 100/TMP/Ag. The attribute of F and/or TMP in reducing ΔKHN in 5-20 μm was not affected by the addiction of Ag (110F = 225F = 100F/TMP = 100F/TMP/Ag > Negative Control). Further, 100F/TMP/Ag strongly reduced viable cells of S. mutans in dual biofilms (∼5 log10cm2) and structurally affected the biofilms.

CONCLUSION: The 100F/TMP/F promoted a protective effect against enamel demineralization and was able to significantly inhibit the growth of biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The focus on prevention and non-invasive dental treatment is the most effective and least costly way to improve the population's oral health conditions. We present a nanocomposite for a multiple approach in prevention of caries.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Das MC, Samaddar S, Jawed JJ, et al (2022)

Vitexin alters Staphylococcus aureus surface hydrophobicity to obstruct biofilm formation.

Microbiological research, 263:127126 pii:S0944-5013(22)00166-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Cell Surface hydrophobicity is one of the determinant biophysical parameters of bacterial aggregation for being networked to form a biofilm. Phytoconstituent, like vitexin, has long been in use for their antibacterial effect. The present work demonstrates the role of vitexin in modulating Staphylococcus aureus surface hydrophobicity while aggregating to form biofilm and pathogenesis in a host. In planktonic form, vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration at 252 µg/ml against S. aureus. Sub-MIC doses of vitexin and antibiotics (26 µg/ml of vitexin, 55 µg/ml of azithromycin, and 2.5 µg/ml of gentamicin) were selected to treat S. aureus. Dead cell counts after treatment were studied through flow cytometry. As dead cell counts were minimal (<5 %), these doses were considered for all subsequent experiments. While studying aggregating cells, it was observed that vitexin reduces S. aureus surface hydrophobicity and membrane permeability at the sub-MIC dose of 26 µg/ml. The in silico binding analysis showed a higher binding affinity of vitexin with surface proteins (IcaA, DltA, and SasG) of S. aureus. Down-regulation of dltA and icaAB expression, along with the reduction in membrane potential with a sub-MIC dose of vitexin, explains reduced S. aureus surface hydrophobicity. Vitexin was found to interfere with S. aureus biofilm-associated protein biomass, EPS production, and swarming movement. Subsequently, the suppression of proteases production and down-regulation of icaAB and agrAC gene expression with a sub-MIC dose of vitexin explained the inhibition of S. aureus virulence in vitro. Besides, vitexin was also found to potentiate the antibiofilm activity of sub-MIC doses of gentamicin and azithromycin. Treatment with vitexin exhibits a protective response in S. aureus infected macrophages through modulation of expression of cytokines like IL-10 and IL-12p40 at protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, CFU count and histological examination of infected mouse tissue (liver and spleen) justify the in vivo protective effect of vitexin from S. aureus biofilm-associated infection. From this study, it can be inferred that vitexin can reduce S. aureus surface hydrophobicity, leading to interference with aggregation at the time of biofilm formation and subsequent pathogenesis in a host.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Muthami JM, Fernández-García L, Tomás M, et al (2022)

What is the fate of the biofilm matrix?.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Samuel MS, Moghaddam ST, Shang M, et al (2022)

A Flexible Anti-Biofilm Hygiene Coating for Water Devices.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm is a microbiome complex comprising different bacterial colonies that typically adhere to device surfaces in water, which causes serious medical issues such as indwelling infections and outbreaks. Here, we developed a non-nanoparticle, flexible anti-biofilm hygiene coating consisting of lithocholic acid (LCA), zinc pyrithione (Zn), and cinnamaldehyde (Cn) (named as LCA-Zn-Cn) that largely prevents the bacteria adhesion to various water device surfaces such as stainless steel and glass through a synergistic mechanism. The existing chelated groups on LCA and Cn attract plenty of bacteria via hydrophobic interaction. Both the bactericidal reaction by grafting biocidal groups from both LCA and Cn and the bacteriostatic reaction by inhibiting cell division via zinc ions (Zn) lead to a largely improved bacteria/biofilm prevention. The antibacterial performance was assessed by using the JIS Z 2801/ISO 22196 method. The designed LCA-Zn-Cn coating displayed log10 reduction of 4.23 (99.9% reduction) of E. coli and log10 reduction of 3.51 (99.8% reduction) of E. faecalis on stainless steel, which are much higher than the control samples, demonstrating a promising colonization inhibition. In parallel, the polysulfone encapsulated beads also showed >99% reduction efficiency in batch and >97-98% reduction efficiency in continuous column tests using the Lake Michigan water. Due to the strong cross-linked configuration, the coating still showed >90.9% bacterial reduction after 3000 abrasion cycles and over 99.9% bacteria reduction after a high flow velocity of 1.99 m/s test, which confirmed the enhanced mechanical durability. By applying either spray or dip-coating, the designed polymer composite can be coated on a variety of irregular water devices with mass production using an auto-controlled robot arm.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Cui F, Ning Y, Wang D, et al (2022)

Carbon dot-based therapeutics for combating drug-resistant bacteria and biofilm infections in food preservation.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Drug-resistant bacteria are caused by antibiotic abuse and/or biofilm formation and have become a threat to the food industry. Carbon dot (CD)-based nanomaterials are a very promising tools for combating pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, and they possess exceptional and adjustable photoelectric and chemical properties. In view of the rapid development of CD-based nanomaterials and their increasing popularity in the food industry, a comprehensive and updated review is needed to summarize their antimicrobial mechanisms and applications in foods. This review discusses the synthesis of CDs, antimicrobial mechanisms, and their applications for extending the shelf life of food. It includes the synthesis of CDs using small molecules, polymers, and biomass. It also discusses the different antimicrobial mechanisms of CDs and their use as antibacterial agents and carriers/ligands. CD-based materials have proven effective against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in food by inhibiting planktonic bacteria and biofilms. Optimization of the production parameters of CDs can help them achieve a full-spectral response, but degradability still requires further research.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Farkas Á, Balázs VL, Kõszegi T, et al (2022)

Antibacterial and Biofilm Degradation Effects of Hungarian Honeys Linked With Botanical Origin, Antioxidant Capacity and Mineral Content.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:953470.

The aim of the study was to assess the impact of four unifloral honeys on the food-borne pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by analyzing the honeys' antibacterial and biofilm degradation effects, as well as their antioxidant activity and element content. Linden and milkweed honeys represented light colored honeys, while goldenrod and chestnut honeys the darker ones. The botanical origin of the honeys and the relative frequency of their pollen types were established with melissopalynological analysis. The antioxidant capacities were calculated by two single electron transfer based methods (TRC - Total Reducing Capacity and TEAC - Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) and a hydrogen atom transfer based assay (ORAC - Oxygen Radical Absorbance). The amount of four main macro- and two microelements was quantified. The antibacterial activity was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and membrane degradation assays. Furthermore, the biofilm degradation power of the samples was studied as well. The light colored linden honey with the lowest TRC and TEAC, but with the highest ORAC antioxidant activity and high element content showed the best antibacterial and biofilm degradation effects. Meanwhile, the dark colored chestnut honey with significantly higher single electron transfer based antioxidant capacities, with high element content, but lower ORAC showed significantly higher MIC and lower membrane degradation activity than linden honey. In case of biofilm degradation, both honey types gave similarly high inhibitory effect. Goldenrod honey was similarly effective regarding its MIC properties like chestnut honey, but had significantly lower antioxidant potential and ability to disrupt bacterial membranes and biofilms. Milkweed honey was the honey type with the lowest bioactivity and element content. The honeys, unequivocally characterized by their antioxidant characters and element content, displayed different antibacterial and biofilm degradation effects. In addition, some honey traits were found to be good predictors of the antimicrobial potential of honeys: ORAC assay showed correlation with the MIC values of both bacteria, and strict correlation was found between the mineral content and the antibiofilm activity of the studied honeys. Our studies indicate that unifloral honeys, such as linden and chestnut honeys, are plant-derived products with great potential as antimicrobial agents in food preservation, exhibiting remarkable antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Al-Zawity J, Afzal F, Awan A, et al (2022)

Effects of the Sex Steroid Hormone Estradiol on Biofilm Growth of Cystic Fibrosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:941014.

Women with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a significantly lower life expectancy compared to men, which is indicated by an earlier impairment of lung function due to chronic colonization with biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is growing evidence that blood serum concentrations of the steroid sex hormone estradiol (E2) correlate with the occurrence of pulmonary exacerbations in CF but also play a role in the mucoid switch of P. aeruginosa. This study aims to shed light on possible microbiological reasons for sexual dimorphism in CF by investigating the influence of E2 on biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa CF isolates. For this purpose, 10 CF isolates of the respiratory tract derived from different CF patients have been treated with E2 in a microtiter plate biofilm model. Biofilms have been examined by crystal violet assays, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), 3D laser scanning microscopy (LSM), and quorum sensing (QS) reporter assays of the supernatants taken from biofilms. This allowed us to simultaneously investigate the effects of E2 on attached biofilm mass, biofilm ultrastructure, and QS activity. Upon E2 treatment, six out of 10 investigated CF isolates showed an increase of attached biofilm mass, whereas biofilms from two tested non-CF laboratory strains (PAO1 and ATCC19660) did not. Moreover, FE-SEM and 3D LSM analyses of the E2 responsive CF biofilms revealed ultrastructural remodeling of biofilm structure at different scales with increased formation of prominent biofilm spots, enhanced coverage with extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and extended average surface roughness. QS activity measurements performed in biofilm supernatants via luminescence acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) reporter assays further showed that E2 treatment may also modulate QS signaling, as shown in an E2 sensitive CF isolate. Together, our results suggest the biofilm modulating effects of E2 on various clinical CF isolates that are documented by both biomass and ultrastructural changes of biofilms. The gained new insight into the influence of steroid hormones on P. aeruginosa biofilm phenotypes might pave the way for novel future approaches in personalized medicine based on the patients' sex and hormonal status.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Baishya J, Everett JA, Chazin WJ, et al (2022)

The Innate Immune Protein Calprotectin Interacts With and Encases Biofilm Communities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:898796.

Calprotectin is a transition metal chelating protein of the innate immune response known to exert nutritional immunity upon microbial infection. It is abundantly released during inflammation and is therefore found at sites occupied by pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The metal limitation induced by this protein has previously been shown to mediate P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-culture. In addition to the transition metal sequestration role of calprotectin, it has also been shown to have metal-independent antimicrobial activity via direct cell contact. Therefore, we sought to assess the impact of this protein on the biofilm architecture of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus in monomicrobial and polymicrobial culture. The experiments described in this report reveal novel aspects of calprotectin's interaction with biofilm communities of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus discovered using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results indicate that calprotectin can interact with microbial cells by stimulating encapsulation in mesh-like structures. This physical interaction leads to compositional changes in the biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Upmanyu K, Haq QMR, R Singh (2022)

Factors mediating Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm formation: Opportunities for developing therapeutics.

Current research in microbial sciences, 3:100131 pii:S2666-5174(22)00028-1.

Acinetobacter baumannii has notably become a superbug due to its mounting risk of infection and escalating rates of antimicrobial resistance, including colistin, the last-resort antibiotic. Its propensity to form biofilm on biotic and abiotic surfaces has contributed to the majority of nosocomial infections. Bacterial cells in biofilms are resistant to antibiotics and host immune response, and pose challenges in treatment. Therefore current scenario urgently requires the development of novel therapeutic strategies for successful treatment outcomes. This article provides a holistic understanding of sequential events and regulatory mechanisms directing A. baumannii biofilm formation. Understanding the key factors functioning and regulating the biofilm machinery of A. baumannii will provide us insight to develop novel approaches to combat A. baumannii infections. Further, the review article deliberates promising strategies for the prevention of biofilm formation on medically relevant substances and potential therapeutic strategies for the eradication of preformed biofilms which can help tackle biofilm-associated A. baumannii infections. Advances in emerging therapeutic opportunities such as phage therapy, nanoparticle therapy and photodynamic therapy are also discussed to comprehend the current scenario and future outlook for the development of successful treatment against biofilm-associated A. baumannii infections.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Matilla-Cuenca L, Taglialegna A, Gil C, et al (2022)

Bacterial biofilm functionalization through Bap amyloid engineering.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1):62.

Biofilm engineering has emerged as a controllable way to fabricate living structures with programmable functionalities. The amyloidogenic proteins comprising the biofilms can be engineered to create self-assembling extracellular functionalized surfaces. In this regard, facultative amyloids, which play a dual role in biofilm formation by acting as adhesins in their native conformation and as matrix scaffolds when they polymerize into amyloid-like fibrillar structures, are interesting candidates. Here, we report the use of the facultative amyloid-like Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus as a tool to decorate the extracellular biofilm matrix or the bacterial cell surface with a battery of functional domains or proteins. We demonstrate that the localization of the functional tags can be change by simply modulating the pH of the medium. Using Bap features, we build a tool for trapping and covalent immobilizing molecules at bacterial cell surface or at the biofilm matrix based on the SpyTag/SpyCatcher system. Finally, we show that the cell wall of several Gram-positive bacteria could be functionalized through the external addition of the recombinant engineered Bap-amyloid domain. Overall, this work shows a simple and modulable system for biofilm functionalization based on the facultative protein Bap.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Weng X, Mao Z, Fu HM, et al (2022)

Biofilm formation during wastewater treatment: Motility and physiological response of aerobic denitrifying bacteria under ammonia stress based on surface plasmon resonance imaging.

Bioresource technology, 361:127712 pii:S0960-8524(22)01041-0 [Epub ahead of print].

A bacterial image analysis system based on surface plasmon resonance imaging was established to investigate the effect of bacterial motility on biofilm formation under high ammonia nitrogen at the single-cell level. The results showed that the bacterial mean rotation speed and vertical motility distance decreased with the increasing concentration of ammonia nitrogen. Ammonia nitrogen inhibited the metabolic activity of the bacteria, decreasing bacterial motility. Bacterial motility was negatively correlated with the biofilm-formation ability. The biofilm formation ability of Enterobacter cloacae strain HNR exposed to ammonia nitrogen was enhanced by reducing its movement and promoting EPS secretion. Genes related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation were down-regulated, indicating inhibition of microbial energy metabolism. Genes related to bacterial secretion and lipopolysaccharide synthesis were up-regulated, facilitating the formation of biofilms and enabling the bacteria to resist ammonia nitrogen stress. This study provides new insights into the biofilm formation under ammonia stress.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Shukla SK, TS Rao (2022)

Targeting hydrophobicity in biofilm-associated protein (Bap) as a novel antibiofilm strategy against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

Biophysical chemistry, 289:106860 pii:S0301-4622(22)00102-8 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, a comprehensive in silico characterization was performed on Bap-family proteins to develop novel approaches to deal with Staphylococcus biofilms with a better understanding of the functional, structural, and topological features of Bap proteins. This study showed that Bap-like proteins in staphylococci are highly acidic, large, and cell-wall anchored proteins with tandem repeats. Structurally, Bap-family proteins have two distinct parts. N terminal part, which contains at least 2-3 calcium-binding EF-hand motifs that play a regulatory role in Bap functioning. Whereas the C-terminal part which predominantly consists of tandem repeats (TR), plays a functional as well as structural role. Bioinformatic analysis of Bap proteins and other homologous proteins revealed the presence of an amyloidogenic heptapeptide (STVTVTF) in the hydrophobic core of TRs of protein, responsible for the protein-protein interactions. The synthetic heptapeptide was tested if the masking effect on surface proteins could inhibit the S. aureus biofilm development and act as an 'antibiofilm-peptide'. The results clearly showed that the heptapeptide was able to inhibit early adhesion as well as biofilm development in the S. aureus biofilms. This approach has a promising potential to treat persistent biofilm-based S. aureus infections where Bap-like proteins do play a significant role.

RevDate: 2022-07-30

Fan M, Li M, Yang Y, et al (2022)

Dual-functional adhesive containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate promoted enamel remineralization in a biofilm-challenged environment.

Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials pii:S0109-5641(22)00203-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The cariogenic biofilm on enamel, restoration, and bonding interface is closely related to dental caries and composite restoration failure. Enamel remineralization at adhesive interface is conducive to protecting bonding interface and inhibiting secondary caries. This study intended to assess the remineralization efficiency of adhesive with dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on initial caries lesion of biofilm-coated enamel.

METHODS: Artificial initial carious lesion was created via 72-hour immersion in demineralization solution and cariogenic biofilm was formed after 24-hour culture of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Specimens were then divided into 4 groups: enamel control, enamel treated with NACP, DMAHDM and NACP+DMAHDM respectively. Samples next underwent 7-day cycling, 4 h in BHIS (brain heart infusion broth containing 1 % sucrose) and 20 h in AS (artificial saliva) per day. The pH of BHIS was tested daily. So did the concentration of calcium and phosphate in BHIS and AS. Live/dead staining, colony-forming unit (CFU) count, and lactic acid production of biofilms were measured 7 days later. The enamel remineralization efficiency was evaluated by microhardness testing and transverse microradiography (TMR) quantitatively.

RESULTS: Enamel of NACP+DMAHDM group demonstrated excellent remineralization effectiveness. And the NACP+DMAHDM adhesive released a great number of Ca2+ and PO43- ions, increased pH to 5.81 via acid neutralization, decreased production of lactic acid, and reduced CFU count of S. mutans (P < 0.05).

SIGNIFICANCE: The NACP+DMAHDM adhesive would be applicable to preventing secondary caries, strengthening enamel-adhesive interface, and extending the lifespan of composite restoration.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

El-Atrees DM, El-Kased RF, Abbas AM, et al (2022)

Characterization and anti-biofilm activity of bacteriophages against urinary tract Enterococcus faecalis isolates.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13048.

Strong biofilm-forming Enterococcus feacalis urinary tract pathogens (n = 35) were used to determine the lytic spectrum of six bacteriophages isolated from sewage samples. Only 17 Enterococcus feacalis isolates gave lytic zones with the tested bacteriophages from which five isolates were susceptible to all of them. The isolated enterococcal phages are characterized by wide range of thermal (30-90 °C) and pH (3-10) stability. They belong to order Caudovirales, from which four bacteriophages (EPA, EPB, EPD, EPF) belong to family Myoviridae and two (EPC, EPE) belong to family Siphoviridae. In addition, they have promising antibiofilm activity against the tested strong-forming biofilm E. faecalis isolates. The enterococcal phages reduced the formed and preformed biofilms to a range of 38.02-45.7% and 71.0-80.0%, respectively, as compared to the control. The same promising activities were obtained on studying the anti-adherent effect of the tested bacteriophages on the adherence of bacterial cells to the surface of urinary catheter segments. They reduced the number of adherent cells to a range of 30.8-43.8% and eradicated the pre-adherent cells to a range of 48.2-71.1%, as compared to the control. Overall, the obtained promising antibiofilm activity makes these phages good candidates for application in preventing and treating biofilm associated Enterococcus faecalis infections.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Wang Y, Fu M, Wu B, et al (2022)

Insight into biofilm-forming patterns: biofilm-forming conditions and dynamic changes in extracellular polymer substances.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The microbial biofilm adheres to the surface of the carrier, which protects the pollutant-degrading bacteria and resists harsh environments; thus, research on biofilm-forming patterns will help promote the application of biofilms in wastewater treatment. Herein, univariate analysis and response surface methodology (RSM) confirmed that glucose and mannose at 3-5 g/L promoted biofilm formation. Notably, the microplate method demonstrated that compared to trivalent cations, divalent cations could more greatly enhance the activity (especially magnesium) of the biofilm matrix, and the period of biofilm formation in the three strains was divided into the following stages: initial attachment (0-10 h), microcolony (10-24 h), maturation (24-48 h), and dispersion (36-72 h). During maturation, large amounts of extracellular polysaccharides (EPs) and extracellular DNA (eDNA) were distributed in the extracellular and intracellular spaces, respectively, as observed by super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM). This study enhances the understanding of the characteristics and patterns of biofilm formation and can facilitate the application of biofilms in wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Okuda KI, Yamada-Ueno S, Yoshii Y, et al (2022)

Small-Molecule-Induced Activation of Cellular Respiration Inhibits Biofilm Formation and Triggers Metabolic Remodeling in Staphylococcus aureus.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen of community-acquired and nosocomial-associated infections, forms biofilms consisting of extracellular matrix-embedded cell aggregates. S. aureus biofilm formation on implanted medical devices can cause local and systemic infections due to the dispersion of cells from the biofilms. Usually, conventional antibiotic treatments are not effective against biofilm-related infections, and there is no effective treatment other than removing the contaminated devices. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic agents to combat biofilm-related infections is urgently needed. We conducted high-throughput screening of S. aureus biofilm inhibitors and obtained a small compound, JBD1. JBD1 strongly inhibits biofilm formation of S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains. In addition, JBD1 activated the respiratory activity of S. aureus cells and increased the sensitivity to aminoglycosides. Furthermore, it was shown that the metabolic profile of S. aureus was significantly altered in the presence of JBD1 and that metabolic remodeling was induced. Surprisingly, these JBD1-induced phenotypes were blocked by adding an excess amount of the electron carrier menaquinone to suppress respiratory activation. These results indicate that JBD1 induces biofilm inhibition and metabolic remodeling through respiratory activation. This study demonstrates that compounds that enhance the respiratory activity of S. aureus may be potential leads in the development of therapeutic agents for chronic S. aureus-biofilm-related infections. IMPORTANCE Chronic infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are characterized by biofilm formation, suggesting that methods to control biofilm formation may be of therapeutic value. The small compound JBD1 showed biofilm inhibitory activity and increased sensitivity to aminoglycosides and respiratory activity of S. aureus. Additionally, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses demonstrated that JBD1 induced metabolic remodeling. All JBD1-induced phenotypes were suppressed by the extracellular addition of an excess amount of menaquinone, indicating that JBD1-mediated respiratory stimulation inhibits biofilm formation and triggers metabolic remodeling in S. aureus. These findings suggest a strategy for developing new therapeutic agents for chronic S. aureus infections.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Huang Z, Qi Z, Ding X, et al (2022)

N-chlorosuccinimide enhancing the antimicrobial effect of benzalkonium chloride on biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its interaction mechanisms.

Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering [Epub ahead of print].

This study investigated the influence of N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS) pretreatment on the antimicrobial effect of benzalkonium chloride (BZC, representative of QACs) against biofilm bacteria and its mechanisms. Results show that 0.04 - 0.07 mmol/L NCS pretreatment significantly increased the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.03 mmol/L BZC on biofilm cells by 30% - 70%. The main mechanisms involved membrane permeability, oxidative damage, and metabolic disorder. More precisely, NCS pretreatment increased the permeability of bacteria and reduced the activity of the electron transport system (ETS) and dehydrogenase (DHA). At the same time, the oxidative damage of both endogenous and exogenous ROS and the disorder of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) further improved their combined antibacterial ability. Moreover, NCS pretreatment greatly reduced the resistance of biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa to BZC. The findings of the study provide a new method to effectively enhance the antimicrobial efficiency of quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants (e.g., BZC) and reduce bacterial resistance, as well as a scientific guidance for the development of new antimicrobial products.

RevDate: 2022-07-30

Tao H, Yang L, Qi Y, et al (2022)

Deposition of polystyrene microplastics on bare or biofilm-coated silica analysed via QCM-D.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04759-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The mobility of microplastics (MPs) in aqueous media is closely related to their environmental risk. The naturally occurring silica substrate surface in the aquatic environment is easily colonized by microorganisms and forms a biofilm, which may affect the migration and distribution of MPs. Herein, a typical MP, polystyrene (PS), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) biofilms were selected to study the deposition and release of pristine or ultraviolet (UV)-aged PS MPs on silica and biofilms under different ionic strengths using a quartz crystal microbalance dissipation (QCM-D) system. Statistical analyses of the deposition experiments revealed a significant impact of P. fluorescens biofilms on deposition (p = 0.0042). The deposition rate of weathered MPs on the biofilms was 4.0 ± 0.1 to 16.3 ± 0.6 times that on silica. A release experiment revealed that the biofilm reduced the release fraction (fr) of weathered MPs by 34.5 ± 0.3 % compared to bare silica. In addition, the UV-ageing treatment reduced the deposition mass of MPs on the surface of silica by 27.6 ± 0.21 % compared to pristine microspheres. The analysis of the deposition mechanism revealed that the promotion and inhibition of biofilm or UV-ageing treatment on the deposition of microspheres could be attributed to the non-Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) force and the decreased electrostatic repulsion or the increased hydration repulsion, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Shi K, Cheng W, Jiang Q, et al (2022)

Insight of the bio-cathode biofilm construction in microbial electrolysis cell dealing with sulfate reduction.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(22)01024-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Signaling molecules are useful in biofilm formation, but the mechanism for biofilm construction still needs to be explored. In this study, a signaling molecule, N-butyryl-L-Homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), was supplied to enhance the construction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bio-cathode biofilm in microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The sulfate reduction efficiency was more than 90% in less time under the system with C4-HSL addition. The analysis of SRB bio-cathode biofilms indicated that the activity, distribution, microbial population, and secretion of extracellular polymers prompted by C4-HSL, which accelerate the sulfate reduction, in particular for the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. Specifically, the relative abundance of acidogenic fermentation bacteria increased, and Desulfovibrio was co-metabolized with acidogenic fermentation bacteria. This knowledge will help to reveal the potential of signaling molecules to enhance the SRB bio-cathode biofilm MEC construction and improve the performance of treating sulfate-containing wastewater.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Di Capua F, Iannacone F, Sabba F, et al (2022)

Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in biofilm systems for wastewater treatment: key factors, potential routes, and engineered applications.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(22)01031-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) is an advantageous bioprocess that allows the complete removal of ammonia nitrogen through sequential redox reactions leading to nitrogen gas production. SND can govern nitrogen removal in single-stage biofilm systems, such as the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and aerobic granular sludge (AGS) system, as oxygen gradients allow the development of multilayered biofilms including nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. Environmental and operational conditions can strongly influence SND performance, biofilm development and biochemical pathways. Recent advances have outlined the possibility to reduce the carbon and energy consumption of the process via the "shortcut pathway", and simultaneously remove both N and phosphorus under specific operational conditions, opening new possibilities for wastewater treatment. This work critically reviews the factors influencing SND and its application in biofilm systems from laboratory to full scale. Operational strategies to enhance SND efficiency and hints to reduce nitrous oxide emission and operational costs are provided.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Kaushik V, Tiwari M, V Tiwari (2022)

Interaction of RecA mediated SOS response with bacterial persistence, biofilm formation, and host response.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(22)01608-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotics have a primary mode of actions, and most of them have a common secondary mode of action via reactive species (ROS and RNS) mediated DNA damage. Bacteria have been able to tolerate this DNA damage by SOS (Save-Our-Soul) response. RecA is the universal essential key protein of the DNA damage mediated SOS repair in various bacteria including ESKAPE pathogens. In addition, antibiotics also triggers activation of various other bacterial mechanisms such as biofilm formation, host dependent responses, persister subpopulation formation. These supporting the survival of bacteria in unfriendly natural conditions i.e. antibiotic presence. This review highlights the detailed mechanism of RecA mediated SOS response as well as role of RecA-LexA interaction in SOS response. The review also focuses on inter-connection between DNA damage repair pathway (like SOS response) with other survival mechanisms of bacteria such as host mediated RecA induction, persister-SOS interplay, and biofilm-SOS interplay. This understanding of inter-connection of SOS response with different other survival mechanisms will prove beneficial in targeting the SOS response for prevention and development of therapeutics against recalcitrant bacterial infections. The review also covers the significance of RecA as a promising potent therapeutic target for hindering bacterial SOS response in prevailing successful treatments of bacterial infections and enhancing the conventional antibiotic efficiency.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Del Rey YC, Parize H, Pedrazzi V, et al (2022)

Clinical and In Situ Oral Biofilm Formation on Dental Implant Abutment Materials: A Systematic Review.

The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants, 37(4):639-652.

PURPOSE: This review aimed to summarize the current literature on the oral biofilm formation on alternative abutment materials compared with titanium (Ti) or Ti alloy in clinical and in situ conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, LIVIVO, BVS, ProQuest, and OpenGrey up to November 2020. Clinical and in situ studies evaluating the biofilm formed on metallic, ceramic, or polymeric abutment materials compared with Ti or Ti alloy were included. Outcome measures were microbial counts/profile, cell viability, and biofilm coverage/thickness. Clinical parameters were deemed secondary outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed by RoB 2 and ROBINS-I tools.

RESULTS: A total of 10 clinical and 9 in situ studies were included. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity across studies. The abutment materials polytetrafluoroethylene, gold alloy, gold-platinum alloy, cobalt-chromium, alumina, and zirconia were reported. Six out of ten clinical studies (60%) and four out of nine in situ studies (44%) found no qualitative or quantitative microbiologic differences between tested materials. When significant differences were detected, conflicting results were reported. Clinical outcomes were consistent with healthy conditions for all investigated materials.

CONCLUSION: There is not enough evidence to support the existence of relevant microbiologic differences in the biofilm formed on alternative abutment materials over Ti and its alloys in oral conditions. No evident relationship between microbiologic results and clinical outcomes were found. In situ studies and polymicrobial analyses showed a higher tendency to find significant differences between materials.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Elken EM, Tan ZN, Wang Q, et al (2022)

Impact of Sub-MIC Eugenol on Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Formation via Upregulation of rcsB.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 9:945491.

The Rcs phosphorelay system is present in many members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of this study was to illustrate the possible mechanisms of eugenol on ultimate targets of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) Rcs phosphorelay, rcsB, and impact on biofilm formation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eugenol against K. pneumoniae KP1 and KP1 ΔrcsB strain was determined using the 2-fold micro-dilution method. Biofilm was measured by crystal violet staining. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to investigate sub-MIC eugenol on K. pneumoniae, and gene expression at mRNA level was analyzed by RT-qPCR. In vitro biofilm formation test and molecular docking were used to evaluate the effect of eugenol and to predict potential interactions with RcsB. MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) was conducted for further validation. MIC of eugenol against K. pneumoniae KP1 and KP1 ΔrcsB strain was both 200 μg/ml. Transcriptome sequencing and RT-qPCR results indicated that rpmg, degP, rnpA, and dapD were downregulated, while rcsB, rcsD, rcsA, yiaG, and yiaD were upregulated in the eugenol-treated group. ΔrcsB exhibited a weakened biofilm formation capacity. Additional isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) hinders biofilm formation, while sub-MIC eugenol could promote biofilm formation greatly. Docking analysis revealed that eugenol forms more hydrophobic bonds than hydrogen bonds. MST assay also showed a weak binding affinity between eugenol and RcsB. These results provide significant evidence that rcsB plays a key role in K. pneumoniae biofilm formation. Sub-MIC eugenol facilitates biofilm formation to a large extent instead of inhibiting it. Our findings reveal the potential risk of natural anti-biofilm ingredients at sub-MIC to treat drug-resistance bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Shein AMS, Wannigama DL, Higgins PG, et al (2022)

High prevalence of mgrB-mediated colistin resistance among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is associated with biofilm formation, and can be overcome by colistin-EDTA combination therapy.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12939.

The global prevalence of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (ColRkp) facilitated by chromosomal and plasmid-mediated Ara4N or PEtN-remodeled LPS alterations has steadily increased with increased colistin usage for treating carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRkp). Our study demonstrated the rising trend of ColRkp showing extensively and pandrug-resistant characteristics among CRkp, with a prevalence of 28.5%, which was mediated by chromosomal mgrB, pmrB, or phoQ mutations (91.5%), and plasmid-mediated mcr-1.1, mcr-8.1, mcr-8.2 alone or in conjunction with R256G PmrB (8.5%). Several genetic alterations in mgrB (85.1%) with increased expressions of Ara4N-related phoPQ and pmrK were critical for establishing colistin resistance in our isolates. In this study, we discovered the significant associations between extensively drug-resistant bacteria (XDR) and pandrug-resistant bacteria (PDR) ColRkp in terms of moderate, weak or no biofilm-producing abilities, and altered expressions of virulence factors. These ColRkp would therefore be very challenging to treat, emphasizing for innovative therapy to combat these infections. Regardless of the underlying colistin-resistant mechanisms, colistin-EDTA combination therapy in this study produced potent synergistic effects in both in vitro and in vivo murine bacteremia, with no ColRkp regrowth and improved animal survival, implying the significance of colistin-EDTA combination therapy as systemic therapy for unlocking colistin resistance in ColRkp-associated bacteremia.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Fu D, Shao Y, Li J, et al (2022)

LuxR family transcriptional repressor YjjQ modulates the biofilm formation and motility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

Research in veterinary science, 152:10-19 pii:S0034-5288(22)00213-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause the acute and sudden death of poultry, which leads to serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Biofilm formation contributes to the persistence of bacterial infection, drug resistance, and resistance to diverse environmental stress. Many transcription regulators in APEC play an essential role in the formation of biofilm and could provide further insights into APEC pathogenesis. YjjQ has an important role in the pathogenicity of bacteria by regulating the expression of virulence factors, such as flagellar and iron uptake. However, YjjQ regulates other virulence factors, and their role in the overall regulatory network is unclear. Here, we further evaluate the function of YjjQ on APEC biofilm formation and motility. In this study, we successfully constructed mutant (AE27∆yjjQ) and complement (AE27ΔyjjQ-comp) strains of the wild-type strain AE27. Inactivation of the yjjQ gene significantly increased biofilm-forming ability in APEC. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the biofilm formation of the AE27 was single-layered and flat, whereas that of the AE27∆yjjQ had a porous three-dimensional structure. Moreover, the deletion of the yjjQ gene inhibited the motility of APEC. RNA-sequencing was used to further investigate the regulatory mechanism of YjjQ in APEC. The results indicate that YjjQ regulates biofilm formation and flagellar genes in AE27∆yjjQ. RT-qPCR shows that YjjQ affects the transcriptional levels of genes, including flagella genes (flhD, flhC and flgE), and biofilm formation genes (pstA, uhpC, nikD, and ygcS). These results confirm that the transcription regulator YjjQ is involved in APEC biofilm formation and motility, and provide new evidence for the prevention and control of APEC.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Rismayuddin NAR, Mohd Badri PEA, Ismail AF, et al (2022)

Synbiotic Musa acuminata skin extract and Streptococcus salivarius K12 inhibit candida species biofilm formation.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to determine the effect of synbiotic Musa acuminata skin extract (MASE) and Streptococcus salivarius K12 (K12) on Candida species biofilm formation. Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was conducted to characterize MASE. To determine the effect of synbiotic on Candida biofilm, 200 µL of RPMI-1640 containing Candida, K12, and MASE were pipetted into the same well and incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. A similar protocol was repeated with K12 or MASE to determine the probiotic and prebiotic effects, respectively. Dimorphism, biofilm biomass, and Candida total cell count (TCC) were determined. A total of 60 compounds were detected in MASE. C. albicans (ALT5) and Candida lusitaniae exhibited the highest reduction in biofilm biomass when co-cultured with prebiotic (77.70 ± 7.67%) and synbiotic (97.73 ± 0.28%), respectively. All Candida spp. had decreased TCC and hyphae when co-cultured with synbiotic. In conclusion, MASE and K12 inhibit Candida biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Wang Q, Wang P, Liu P, et al (2022)

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Regulatory Factors Involved in Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Biofilm Formation.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:917131.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilm poses a serious threat to food safety and human health. However, there is limited knowledge of transcriptional regulatory mechanism during the biofilm formation of this organism. Hence, the RNA sequencing technique was employed to compare the differences in transcriptome profiles between planktonic and biofilm state of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC33847 in this study. Collections of mRNA from planktonic and biofilm cells cultured at 25°C for 36 h were sequenced by studying their biological characteristics. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels of 956 genes in biofilms compared with planktonic cells. These differences suggested that two-component regulatory system (TCS) and quorum sensing (QS) regulated V. parahaemolyticus biofilm formation by affecting important factors such as flagellar motility, Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) secretion, tripartite ATP-independent (TRAP) transport system and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport system. The present work in transcriptomics serves as a basis for future studies examining the complex network systems that regulate bacterial biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Didehdar M, Chegini Z, Tabaeian SP, et al (2022)

Cinnamomum: The New Therapeutic Agents for Inhibition of Bacterial and Fungal Biofilm-Associated Infection.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:930624.

Due to the potent antibacterial properties of Cinnamomum and its derivatives, particularly cinnamaldehyde, recent studies have used these compounds to inhibit the growth of the most prevalent bacterial and fungal biofilms. By inhibiting flagella protein synthesis and swarming motility, Cinnamomum could suppress bacterial attachment, colonization, and biofilm formation in an early stage. Furthermore, by downregulation of Cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), biofilm-related genes, and quorum sensing, this compound suppresses intercellular adherence and accumulation of bacterial cells in biofilm and inhibits important bacterial virulence factors. In addition, Cinnamomum could lead to preformed biofilm elimination by enhancing membrane permeability and the disruption of membrane integrity. Moreover, this substance suppresses the Candida species adherence to the oral epithelial cells, leading to the cell wall deformities, damage, and leakages of intracellular material that may contribute to the established Candida's biofilm elimination. Therefore, by inhibiting biofilm maturation and destroying the external structure of biofilm, Cinnamomum could boost antibiotic treatment success in combination therapy. However, Cinnamomum has several disadvantages, such as poor solubility in aqueous solution, instability, and volatility; thus, the use of different drug-delivery systems may resolve these limitations and should be further considered in future investigations. Overall, Cinnamomum could be a promising agent for inhibiting microbial biofilm-associated infection and could be used as a catheter and other medical materials surface coatings to suppress biofilm formation. Nonetheless, further in vitro toxicology analysis and animal experiments are required to confirm the reported molecular antibiofilm effect of Cinnamomum and its derivative components against microbial biofilm.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Chen H, Yan CH, Zhan YF, et al (2022)

Boron Derivatives Accelerate Biofilm Formation of Recombinant Escherichia coli via Increasing Quorum Sensing System Autoinducer-2 Activity.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(15): pii:ijms23158059.

Boron is an essential element for autoinducer-2 (AI-2) synthesis of quorum sensing (QS) system, which affects bacterial collective behavior. As a living biocatalyst, biofilms can stably catalyze the activity of intracellular enzymes. However, it is unclear how boron affects biofilm formation in E. coli, particularly recombinant E. coli with intracellular enzymes. This study screened different boron derivatives to explore their effect on biofilm formation. The stress response of biofilm formation to boron was illuminated by analyzing AI-2 activity, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composition, gene expression levels, etc. Results showed that boron derivatives promote AI-2 activity in QS system. After treatment with H3BO3 (0.6 mM), the AI-2 activity increased by 65.99%, while boron derivatives increased the biomass biofilms in the order H3BO3 > NaBO2 > Na2B4O7 > NaBO3. Moreover, treatment with H3BO3 (0.6 mM) increased biomass by 88.54%. Meanwhile, AI-2 activity had a linear correlation with polysaccharides and protein of EPS at 0-0.6 mM H3BO3 and NaBO2 (R2 > 0.8). Furthermore, H3BO3 upregulated the expression levels of biofilm formation genes, quorum sensing genes, and flagellar movement genes. These findings demonstrated that boron promoted biofilm formation by upregulating the expression levels of biofilm-related genes, improving the QS system AI-2 activity, and increasing EPS secretion in E. coli.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Liu Y, Li W, Tao C, et al (2022)

Distinct Responses of Biofilm Carbon Metabolism to Nanoplastics with Different Surface Modifications.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(15): pii:ijerph19159148.

Recently, there is an increasing concern regarding the toxicity of nanoplastics (NPs) on freshwater organisms. However, knowledge about the potential impacts of NPs with different surface modification on freshwater biofilms is still very limited. In this research, biofilms were cultured in lab and exposed to nano polystyrene (PS) beads: non-functionalized PS NPs, PS-COOH NPs, and the carbon source utilization of biofilms were measured by BIOLOG ECO microplates. The results showed that both two types of PS NPs significantly reduced the total carbon metabolic activity of biofilms, compared with the controls, whereas the carbon metabolic rate increased notably, especially for the PS-COOH NPs treatments at day 14. Moreover, results from six categories of carbon sources analysis suggested that PS NPs with different surface chemical properties exhibit distinct effects on the carbon utilization of biofilms, and the divergent changes of the specific carbon source category were observed at day 21 from the two PS NPs treatments. In addition, the metabolic functional diversity of biofilms were not altered by the PS NPs treatments. These findings highlighted that chemical properties of NPs play an important role in the toxic effects on the carbon metabolism activities of the biofilms. This study offers new insights that nanoplastics of different chemical characteristics have the ability to affect the microbial-mediated carbon cycling process in aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Deng Y, SY Wang (2022)

Sorption of Cellulases in Biofilm Enhances Cellulose Degradation by Bacillus subtilis.

Microorganisms, 10(8): pii:microorganisms10081505.

Biofilm commonly forms on the surfaces of cellulosic biomass but its roles in cellulose degradation remain largely unexplored. We used Bacillus subtilis to study possible mechanisms and the contributions of two major biofilm components, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and TasA protein, to submerged biofilm formation on cellulose and its degradation. We found that biofilm produced by B. subtilis is able to absorb exogenous cellulase added to the culture medium and also retain self-produced cellulase within the biofilm matrix. The bacteria that produced more biofilm degraded more cellulose compared to strains that produced less biofilm. Knockout strains that lacked both EPS and TasA formed a smaller amount of submerged biofilm on cellulose than the wild-type strain and also degraded less cellulose. Imaging of biofilm on cellulose suggests that bacteria, cellulose, and cellulases form cellulolytic biofilm complexes that facilitate synergistic cellulose degradation. This study brings additional insight into the important functions of biofilm in cellulose degradation and could potentiate the development of biofilm-based technology to enhance biomass degradation for biofuel production.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Durand BARN, Pouget C, Magnan C, et al (2022)

Bacterial Interactions in the Context of Chronic Wound Biofilm: A Review.

Microorganisms, 10(8): pii:microorganisms10081500.

Chronic wounds, defined by their resistance to care after four weeks, are a major concern, affecting millions of patients every year. They can be divided into three types of lesions: diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), pressure ulcers (PU), and venous/arterial ulcers. Once established, the classical treatment for chronic wounds includes tissue debridement at regular intervals to decrease biofilm mass constituted by microorganisms physiologically colonizing the wound. This particular niche hosts a dynamic bacterial population constituting the bed of interaction between the various microorganisms. The temporal reshuffle of biofilm relies on an organized architecture. Microbial community turnover is mainly associated with debridement (allowing transitioning from one major representant to another), but also with microbial competition and/or collaboration within wounds. This complex network of species and interactions has the potential, through diversity in antagonist and/or synergistic crosstalk, to accelerate, delay, or worsen wound healing. Understanding these interactions between microorganisms encountered in this clinical situation is essential to improve the management of chronic wounds.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Asma ST, Imre K, Morar A, et al (2022)

An Overview of Biofilm Formation-Combating Strategies and Mechanisms of Action of Antibiofilm Agents.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(8): pii:life12081110.

Biofilm formation on surfaces via microbial colonization causes infections and has become a major health issue globally. The biofilm lifestyle provides resistance to environmental stresses and antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms can cause several chronic conditions, and effective treatment has become a challenge due to increased antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotics available for treating biofilm-associated infections are generally not very effective and require high doses that may cause toxicity in the host. Therefore, it is essential to study and develop efficient anti-biofilm strategies that can significantly reduce the rate of biofilm-associated healthcare problems. In this context, some effective combating strategies with potential anti-biofilm agents, including plant extracts, peptides, enzymes, lantibiotics, chelating agents, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, organic, inorganic, and metal nanoparticles, etc., have been reviewed to overcome biofilm-associated healthcare problems. From their extensive literature survey, it can be concluded that these molecules with considerable structural alterations might be applied to the treatment of biofilm-associated infections, by evaluating their significant delivery to the target site of the host. To design effective anti-biofilm molecules, it must be assured that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of these anti-biofilm compounds can eradicate biofilm-associated infections without causing toxic effects at a significant rate.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Attallah NGM, Al-Fakhrany OM, Elekhnawy E, et al (2022)

Anti-Biofilm and Antibacterial Activities of Cycas media R. Br Secondary Metabolites: In Silico, In Vitro, and In Vivo Approaches.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(8): pii:antibiotics11080993.

Enterococcus species possess many virulence factors that have an essential role in exacerbating the infections caused by them. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of the secondary metabolites ginkgetin (GINK) and sotetsuflavone (SOTE), isolated from Cycas media R. Br dichloromethane fraction, on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) isolates for the first time. The antibacterial and antivirulence activities of the isolated compounds were investigated using docking studies and in vitro by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Additionally, flow cytometry and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were utilized to assess the effect of SOTE on the tested bacteria. Moreover, crystal violet assay and qRT-PCR were used to test the effect of SOTE on the biofilm-forming ability of E. faecalis isolates. In addition, a systemic infection model was utilized in vivo to investigate the antibacterial activity of SOTE. We found that both GINK and SOTE showed a good affinity for the five proteins enrolled in the virulence of E. faecalis, with SOTE being the highest, suggesting the possible mechanisms for the antivirulence activity of both ligands. In addition, SOTE exhibited a higher antibacterial activity than GINK, as the values of the MICs of SOTE were lower than those of GINK. Thus, we performed the in vitro and in vivo assays on SOTE. However, they did not exhibit any significant variations (p > 0.05) in the membrane depolarization of E. faecalis isolates. Moreover, as evaluated by SEM, SOTE caused distortion and deformation in the treated cells. Regarding its impact on the biofilm formation, it inhibited the biofilm-forming ability of the tested isolates, as determined by crystal violet assay and qRT-PCR. The in vivo experiment revealed that SOTE resulted in a reduction of the inflammation of the liver and spleen with an increase in the survival rate. SOTE also improved the liver-function tests and decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha using immunostaining and the inflammation markers, interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), using ELISA. Thus, we can conclude that SOTE could be a promising compound that should be investigated in future preclinical and clinical studies.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

da Fonseca STD, Teixeira TR, Ferreira JMS, et al (2022)

Flavonoid-Rich Fractions of Bauhinia holophylla Leaves Inhibit Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphae Growth.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(14): pii:plants11141796.

This study evaluated the effect of the extract and fractions of Bauhinia holophylla on Candida albicans planktonic growth, biofilm formation, mature biofilm, and hyphae growth. Three C. albicans strains (SC5314, ATCC 18804, and ATCC 10231) were tested. The crude extract and the fractions were obtained by exhaustive percolation and liquid-liquid partition, respectively. Phytochemical analyses of B. holophylla extract and fractions were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). A microdilution assay was used to evaluate the effect of the B. holophylla extract and fractions on C. albicans planktonic growth, and crystal violet staining was used to measure the total biomass of the biofilm. Hyphae growth was analyzed using light microscopy. Thirteen flavonoids were identified, with a predominance of the flavonol-3-O-glycoside type based on quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Flavonoid-rich fractions of B. holophylla leaves displayed antifungal activity and inhibited both biofilm formation and hyphae growth in all the tested strains, but were not effective on C. albicans planktonic growth and mature biofilm. This study indicates that flavonoid-rich fractions from B. holophylla leaves interfere with the virulence of Candida species and support the use of Bauhinia spp. in folk medicine to treat infections.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Seredin P, Goloshchapov D, Kashkarov V, et al (2022)

Effect of Exo/Endogenous Prophylaxis Dentifrice/Drug and Cariogenic Conditions of Patient on Molecular Property of Dental Biofilm: Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopic Study.

Pharmaceutics, 14(7): pii:pharmaceutics14071355.

(1) Objectives: This study is the first one to investigate the molecular composition of the dental biofilm during the exogenous and endogenous prophylaxis stages (use of dentifrice/drug) of individuals with different cariogenic conditions using molecular spectroscopy methods. (2) Materials and Methods: The study involved 100 participants (50 males and 50 females), aged 18-25 years with different caries conditions. Biofilm samples were collected from the teeth surface of all participants. The molecular composition of biofilms was investigated using synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy. Changes in the molecular composition were studied through calculation and analysis of ratios between organic and mineral components of biofilm samples. (3) Results: Based on the data obtained by synchrotron FTIR, calculations of organic and mineral component ratios, and statistical analysis of the data, we were able to assess changes occurring in the molecular composition of the dental biofilm. Variations in the phosphate/protein/lipid, phosphate/mineral, and phospholipid/lipid ratios and the presence of statistically significant intra- and inter-group differences in these ratios indicate that the mechanisms of ion adsorption, compounds and complexes arriving from oral fluid into dental biofilm during exo/endogenous prophylaxis, differ for patients in norm and caries development. (4) Conclusions: The conformational environment and charge interaction in the microbiota and the electrostatic state of the biofilm protein network in patients with different cariogenic conditions play an important role. (5) Clinical Significance: Understanding the changes that occur in the molecular composition of the dental biofilm in different oral homeostasis conditions will enable successful transition to a personalised approach in dentistry and high-tech healthcare.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Ugalde-Arbizu M, Aguilera-Correa JJ, Mediero A, et al (2022)

Hybrid Nanosystems Based on Nicotinate-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica and Silver Chloride Nanoparticles Loaded with Phenytoin for Preventing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 15(7): pii:ph15070884.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most common bacteria isolated from chronic wounds and burns. Its treatment is a challenge due to antimicrobial drug resistance and biofilm formation. In this context, this study aimed to perform the synthesis and full characterization of hybrid nanosystems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) functionalized with a nicotinic ligand and silver chloride nanoparticles, both phenytoin sodium (Ph)-loaded and unloaded, to evaluate the antibacterial properties against three different strains of PA (including two clinical strains) in a planktonic state and as biofilms. Ph is a well-known proliferative agent, which was incorporated into the hybrid nanomaterials to obtain an effective material for tissue healing and prevention of infection caused by PA. The Ph-loaded materials promoted a quasi-complete inhibition of bacterial growth in wound-like medium and biofilm development, with values of 99% and 96%, respectively, with selectivity indices above the requirements for drugs to become promising agents for the topic preventive treatment of chronic wounds and burns.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Sisto F, Carradori S, D'Alessandro S, et al (2022)

In Vitro Activity of the Arylaminoartemisinin GC012 against Helicobacter pylori and Its Effects on Biofilm.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:pathogens11070740.

This study evaluated the in vitro activity of the arylaminoartemisinin GC012, readily obtained from dihydroartemisinin (DHA), against clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with different antibiotic susceptibilities in the planktonic and sessile state. The activity was assessed in terms of bacteriostatic and bactericidal potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. After treatment with GC012, all bacterial strains showed significantly lower MIC and MBC values compared to those of DHA. The effect of combination of GC012 with antibiotics was examined using the checkerboard method. GC012 displayed synergistic interactions with metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin in all the strains. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated via crystal violet staining, AlamarBlue® assay, colony-forming unit count, and fluorescence microscopy. At ½ MIC and ¼ MIC concentration, both GC012 and DHA inhibited biofilm formation, but only GC012 showed a minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) on mature biofilm. Furthermore, both compounds induced structural changes in the bacterial membrane, as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is thereby demonstrated that GC012 has the potential to be efficacious against H. pylori infection.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Švarcová K, Hofmeisterová L, Švecová B, et al (2022)

In Vitro Activity of Water Extracts of Olive Oil against Planktonic Cells and Biofilm Formation of Arcobacter-like Species.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(14): pii:molecules27144509.

Extra-virgin olive oils contain many bioactive substances that are phenolic compounds. The survival of Arcobacter-like strains in non-buffered (WEOO) and buffered (BEOO) extracts of olive oils were studied. Time kill curves of different strains were measured in the environment of olive oil extracts of different grades. The activity of the extracts was also monitored for biofilm formation using the Christensen method. In vitro results revealed that extra-virgin olive oil extracts exhibited the strongest antimicrobial effects, especially non-buffered extracts, which exhibited strain inhibition after only 5 min of exposure. The weakest inhibitory effects were observed for olive oil extracts. A decrease in biofilm formation was observed in the environment of higher WEOO concentrations, although at lower concentrations of extracts, increased biofilm formation occurred due to stress conditions. The dialdehydic forms of oleuropein derivatives, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol were the main compounds detected by HPLC-CoulArray. The results indicate that not all olive oils had a similar bactericidal effect, and that bioactivity primarily depended on the content of certain phenolic compounds.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Xu S, Cao Q, Liu Z, et al (2022)

Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Role of tmRNA on Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis.

Microorganisms, 10(7): pii:microorganisms10071338.

Bacillus strains are widely distributed in terrestrial and marine environments, and some of them are used as biocontrol organisms for their biofilm-formation ability. In Bacillus subtilis, biofilm formation is fine-tuned by a complex network, a clear understanding of which still requires study. In bacteria, tmRNA, encoded by the ssrA gene, catalyzes trans-translation that can rescue ribosomes stalled on mRNA transcripts lacking a functional stop codon. tmRNA also affects physiological bioprocesses in some bacteria. In this study, we constructed a ssrA mutant in B. subtilis and found that the biofilm formation in the ssrA mutant was largely impaired. Moreover, we isolated a biofilm-formation suppressor of ssrA, in which the biofilm formation was restored to a level even stronger than that in the wild type. We further performed RNAseq assays with the wild type, ssrA mutant, and suppressor of ssrA for comparisons of their transcriptomes. By analyzing the transcriptomic data, we predicted the possible functions of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the tmRNA regulation of biofilm formation in B. subtilis. Finally, we found that the overexpression of two DEGs, acoA and yhjR, could restore the biofilm formation in the ssrA mutant, indicating that AcoA and YhjR were immediate regulators involved in the tmRNA regulatory web controlling biofilm formation in B. subtilis. Our data can improve the knowledge about the molecular network involved in Bacillus biofilm formation and provide new targets for manipulation of Bacillus biofilms for future investigation.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Rugaie OA, Abdellatif AAH, El-Mokhtar MA, et al (2022)

Retardation of Bacterial Biofilm Formation by Coating Urinary Catheters with Metal Nanoparticle-Stabilized Polymers.

Microorganisms, 10(7): pii:microorganisms10071297.

Urinary catheter infections remain an issue for many patients and can complicate their health status, especially for individuals who require long-term catheterization. Catheters can be colonized by biofilm-forming bacteria resistant to the administered antibiotics. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different polymeric materials generated via a one-step simple coating technique for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheters. AgNPs were prepared and characterized to confirm their formation and determine their size, charge, morphology, and physical stability. Screening of the antimicrobial activity of nanoparticle formulations and determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and their cytotoxicity against PC3 cells were performed. Moreover, the antibiofilm activity and efficacy of the AgNPs coated on the urinary catheters under static and flowing conditions were examined against a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. The results showed that the investigated polymers could form physically stable AgNPs, especially those prepared using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and ethyl cellulose (EC). Preliminary screening and MIC determinations suggested that the AgNPs-EC and AgNPs-PVP had superior antibacterial effects against E. coli. AgNPs-EC and AgNPs-PVP inhibited biofilm formation to 58.2% and 50.8% compared with AgNPs-PEG, silver nitrate solution and control samples. In addition, coating urinary catheters with AgNPs-EC and AgNPs-PVP at concentrations lower than the determined IC50 values significantly (p < 0.05; t-test) inhibited bacterial biofilm formation compared with noncoated catheters under both static and static and flowing conditions using two different types of commercial Foley urinary catheters. The data obtained in this study provide evidence that AgNP-coated EC and PVP could be useful as potential antibacterial and antibiofilm catheter coating agents to prevent the development of urinary tract infections caused by E. coli.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Di Domenico EG, Oliva A, M Guembe (2022)

The Current Knowledge on the Pathogenesis of Tissue and Medical Device-Related Biofilm Infections.

Microorganisms, 10(7): pii:microorganisms10071259.

Biofilm is the trigger for the majority of infections caused by the ability of microorganisms to adhere to tissues and medical devices. Microbial cells embedded in the biofilm matrix are highly tolerant to antimicrobials and escape the host immune system. Thus, the refractory nature of biofilm-related infections (BRIs) still represents a great challenge for physicians and is a serious health threat worldwide. Despite its importance, the microbiological diagnosis of a BRI is still difficult and not routinely assessed in clinical microbiology. Moreover, biofilm bacteria are up to 100-1000 times less susceptible to antibiotics than their planktonic counterpart. Consequently, conventional antibiograms might not be representative of the bacterial drug susceptibility in vivo. The timely recognition of a BRI is a crucial step to directing the most appropriate biofilm-targeted antimicrobial strategy.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

AlJindan R, DM AlEraky (2022)

Silver Nanoparticles: A Promising Antifungal Agent against the Growth and Biofilm Formation of the Emergent Candida auris.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(7): pii:jof8070744.

Candida auris is a globally-emerging pathogen that is correlated to nosocomial infections and high mortality rates, causing major outbreaks in hospitals and serious public health concerns worldwide. This study investigated the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on clinical isolates of C. auris. A total of eight clinical isolates were collected from blood, urine, ear swab, and groin. C. auris was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS, and gene sequencing. All isolates confirmed as C. auris were subjected to antimicrobial agents, including amphotericin B, fluconazole, caspofungin, voriconazole, micafungin, and flucytosine. A serial dilution of a silver nanoparticles solution was prepared to test antifungal susceptibility testing under planktonic conditions. Moreover, an antibiofilm activity assay was determined using a colony-forming assay and a cell viability assay by a live-dead yeast kit. Significant antifungal and antibiofilm activity of AgNPs was detected against all isolates; MIC was <6.25 μg/mL, the range of MFC was from 6.25 to 12.5 μg/mL for all isolates, and the highest value of IC50 was 3.2 μg/mL. Silver nanomaterials could represent a possible antimicrobial agent to prevent outbreaks caused by C. auris infections.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Żebrowska J, Żołnierkiewicz O, Ponikowska M, et al (2022)

Cloning and Characterization of a Thermostable Endolysin of Bacteriophage TP-84 as a Potential Disinfectant and Biofilm-Removing Biological Agent.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(14): pii:ijms23147612.

The obligatory step in the life cycle of a lytic bacteriophage is the release of its progeny particles from infected bacterial cells. The main barrier to overcome is the cell wall, composed of crosslinked peptidoglycan, which counteracts the pressure prevailing in the cytoplasm and protects the cell against osmotic lysis and mechanical damage. Bacteriophages have developed two strategies leading to the release of progeny particles: the inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis and enzymatic cleavage by a bacteriophage-coded endolysin. In this study, we cloned and investigated the TP84_28 endolysin of the bacteriophage TP-84, which infects thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus, determined the enzymatic characteristics, and initially evaluated the endolysin application as a non-invasive agent for disinfecting surfaces, including those exposed to high temperatures. Both the native and recombinant TP84_28 endolysins, obtained through the Escherichia coli T7-lac expression system, are highly thermostable and retain trace activity after incubation at 100 °C for 30 min. The proteins exhibit strong bacterial wall digestion activity up to 77.6 °C, decreasing to marginal activity at ambient temperatures. We assayed the lysis of various types of bacteria using TP84_28 endolysins: Gram-positive, Gram-negative, encapsulated, and pathogenic. Significant lytic activity was observed on the thermophilic and mesophilic Gram-positive bacteria and, to a lesser extent, on the thermophilic and mesophilic Gram-negative bacteria. The thermostable TP84_28 endolysin seems to be a promising mild agent for disinfecting surfaces exposed to high temperatures.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Zuo J, Fan Q, Li J, et al (2022)

Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Amoxicillin and Tylosin Affect the Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Streptococcus suis.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(14): pii:ijerph19148359.

Streptococcus suis (S. suis) can form a protective biofilm during infection and lead to prolonged disease. Oral antibiotics are often used for treatment in clinical practice, but sub-inhibitory concentration levels often exist due to low oral absorption rate, resulting in disease deterioration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Amoxicillin and Tylosin on the biofilm formation and virulence of S. suis HA9801 at sub-inhibitory concentration. We first determined that the test groups (1/4MIC Amoxicillin and Tylosin) could significantly increase the amount of biofilm formation without affecting bacterial growth. The LD50 value of the test groups was significantly higher than that of the control group in the mouse infection model. In the mouse infection model, the LD50 value of the experimental group was significantly increased, but the tissue bacterial load was significantly decreased. Further RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of virulence-related genes in the experimental group were significantly reduced. Our study suggests that both Amoxicillin and Tylosin at sub-inhibitory concentrations could enhance the biofilm formation ability of S. suis HA9801 and reduce its virulence to form persistent infection.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Jailani A, Ahmed B, Lee JH, et al (2022)

Inhibition of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Growth and Biofilm Formation by Tannic Acid.

Biomedicines, 10(7): pii:biomedicines10071619.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens underlies the pathogenesis of crown gall disease and is characterized by tumor-like gall formation on the stems and roots of a wide variety of economically important plant species. The bacterium initiates infection by colonizing and forming biofilms on plant surfaces, and thus, novel compounds are required to prevent its growth and biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the ability of tannic acid, which is ubiquitously present in woody plants, to specifically inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of A. tumefaciens. Tannic acid showed antibacterial activity and significantly reduced the biofilm formation on polystyrene and on the roots of Raphanus sativus as determined by 3D bright-field and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Furthermore, tannic acid dose-dependently reduced the virulence features of A. tumefaciens, which are swimming motility, exopolysaccharide production, protease production, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Transcriptional analysis of cells (Abs600 nm = 1.0) incubated with tannic acid for 24 h at 30 °C showed tannic acid most significantly downregulated the exoR gene, which is required for adhesion to surfaces. Tannic acid at 100 or 200 µg/mL limited the iron supply to A. tumefaciens and similarly reduced the biofilm formation to that performed by 0.1 mM EDTA. Notably, tannic acid did not significantly affect R. sativus germination even at 400 µg/mL. The findings of this study suggest that tannic acid has the potential to prevent growth and biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens and thus infections resulting from A. tumefaciens colonization.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Rakhimbekova A, Kudaibergenov B, Moldabay D, et al (2022)

Biofilm Detection by a Fiber-Tip Ball Resonator Optical Fiber Sensor.

Biosensors, 12(7): pii:bios12070481.

Bacterial biofilms are one of the most important challenges that modern medicine faces due to the difficulties of diagnosis, antibiotic resistance, and protective mechanisms against aggressive environments. For these reasons, methods that ensure the inexpensive and rapid or real-time detection of biofilm formation on medical devices are needed. This study examines the possibilities of using optical- and fiber-based biosensors to detect and analyze early bacterial biofilms. In this study, the biofilm-forming model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inoculated on the surface of the optical sensor and allowed to attach for 2 h. The biosensors were made by a fiber-tip ball resonator, fabricated through a CO2 laser splicer on a single-mode fiber, forming a weak reflective spectrum. An optical backscatter reflectometer was used to measure the refractive index detected by the sensors during different growth periods. The early biofilm concentration was determined by crystal violet (CV) binding assay; however, such a concentration was lower than the detection limit of this assay. This work presents a new approach of biofilm sensing in the early attachment stage with a low limit of detection up to 10-4 RIU (refractive index units) or 35 ± 20 × 103 CFU/mL (colony formed units).

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Wences M, Wolf ER, Li C, et al (2022)

Combatting Planktonic and Biofilm Populations of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with Polymyxin-Based Combinations.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070959.

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) can cause serious infections that are associated with high mortality rates. During the course of an infection, many CRAB isolates are able to form biofilms, which are recalcitrant to several antibiotics and can be difficult to treat. Polymyxin-based regimens are a first-line treatment option for CRAB infections, but they have not been optimized against both planktonic and biofilm phases of growth. The objective of this study was to identify polymyxin-based combinations that are active against planktonic and biofilm populations of CRAB. Four CRAB isolates (meropenem MICs: 8-256 mg/L) capable of forming biofilms were used in each experiment. The activities of polymyxin B alone and in combination with ampicillin/sulbactam, meropenem, minocycline, and rifampin were assessed using time-kill assays, with the CRAB isolates grown in planktonic and biofilm phases. Viable colony counts were used to detect the bactericidal activity and synergy of the antibiotic combinations. Against the planktonic populations, polymyxin B combined with meropenem, minocycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, and rifampin caused 3.78, -0.15, 4.38, and 3.23 mean log10 CFU/mL reductions against all isolates at 24 h, respectively. Polymyxin B combined with meropenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, or rifampin was synergistic against 75-100% (3/4 or 4/4) of CRAB isolates. Against biofilms, polymyxin B combined with meropenem, minocycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, and rifampin caused 1.86, 1.01, 0.66, and 3.55 mean log10 CFU/mL reductions against all isolates at 24 h, respectively. Only the combination of polymyxin B and rifampin retained bactericidal activity or synergy against any of the isolates when grown as biofilms (50% of isolates). The combination of polymyxin B and rifampin may be promising for CRAB infections that have planktonic and biofilm populations present.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Raorane CJ, Shastri D, Parveen AS, et al (2022)

Grafted Chitosan-Hyaluronic Acid (CS-g-poly (MA-co-AN) HA) Complex Inhibits Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070950.

Fungal resistance that leads to the failure of drug therapy due to biofilm development is a major clinical challenge. Various polysaccharides have been used to control biofilm formation by drug-resistant fungi, and this study was undertaken to develop chitosan (CS)-modified materials and evaluate their abilities to inhibit Candida biofilm growth. CS was grafted with methacrylamide (MA) and acrylonitrile (AN) and, to improve its application characteristics further, was grafted with hyaluronic acid to produce CS-g-poly (MA-co-AN) HA complex. Grafting and complex formation were confirmed using spectroscopic techniques. CS-g-poly (MA-co-AN) HA was tested to investigate its ability to inhibit Candida albicans biofilm formation and showed significant antibiofilm activity at 200 µg/mL. Additionally, CS-g-poly (MA-co-AN) HA did not have any toxic effect on Caenorhabditis elegans. Thus, this study provides an innovative means of preventing microorganism-associated biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Dutt Y, Dhiman R, Singh T, et al (2022)

The Association between Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Resistance with Possible Ingenious Bio-Remedial Approaches.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070930.

Biofilm has garnered a lot of interest due to concerns in various sectors such as public health, medicine, and the pharmaceutical industry. Biofilm-producing bacteria show a remarkable drug resistance capability, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. This results in enormous economic pressure on the healthcare sector. The development of biofilms is a complex phenomenon governed by multiple factors. Several attempts have been made to unravel the events of biofilm formation; and, such efforts have provided insights into the mechanisms to target for the therapy. Owing to the fact that the biofilm-state makes the bacterial pathogens significantly resistant to antibiotics, targeting pathogens within biofilm is indeed a lucrative prospect. The available drugs can be repurposed to eradicate the pathogen, and as a result, ease the antimicrobial treatment burden. Biofilm formers and their infections have also been found in plants, livestock, and humans. The advent of novel strategies such as bioinformatics tools in treating, as well as preventing, biofilm formation has gained a great deal of attention. Development of newfangled anti-biofilm agents, such as silver nanoparticles, may be accomplished through omics approaches such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics. Nanoparticles' anti-biofilm properties could help to reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This approach may also be integrated for a better understanding of biofilm biology, guided by mechanistic understanding, virtual screening, and machine learning in silico techniques for discovering small molecules in order to inhibit key biofilm regulators. This stimulated research is a rapidly growing field for applicable control measures to prevent biofilm formation. Therefore, the current article discusses the current understanding of biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance mechanisms in bacterial biofilm, and the novel therapeutic strategies to combat biofilm-mediated infections.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Spiegel C, Steixner SJM, DC Coraça-Huber (2022)

Antibiofilm Activity of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Its Influence on the Expression of Biofilm Formation Genes on Staphylococcus aureus.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070932.

Background: Currently, 1-2% of all prosthetic joint surgeries are followed by an infection. These infections cause approximately 4% of deaths in the first year after surgery, while the 5-year mortality rate is up to 21%. Prosthetic joint infections are mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermis strains. Both species share the capability of biofilm formation and methicillin resistance. The formation of biofilm helps bacterial cells to withstand critical environmental conditions. Due to their tolerance against antibacterial substances, biofilms are a significant problem in modern medicine. Alternatives for the use of methicillin as a therapeutic are not yet widespread. The use of omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid, may help against prosthetic joint infections and lower mortality rates. The aim of this study is to evaluate if docosahexaenoic acid offers a safe anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA without enhancing icaADBC-dependent biofilm formation or additional stress responses, therefore enhancing antibiotic tolerance and resistance. Methods: In this study, we examined the gene expression of biofilm-associated genes and regulators. We performed RT-qPCR after RNA extraction of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and one clinical MRSA strain. We compared gene expression of icaADBC, SarA, SigB, and agrAC under the influence of 1.25 mg /L and 0.625 mg/L of docosahexaenoic acid to their controls. Results: We found a higher expression of regulatory genes such as SarA, SigB, agrA, and agrC at 1.25 mg/L of docosahexaenoic acid in ATCC 29213 and a lower increase in gene expression levels in clinical MRSA isolates. icaADBC was not affected in both strains at both concentration levels by docosahexaenoic acid. Conclusions: Docosahexaenoic acid does not enhance icaADBC-dependent biofilm formation while still reducing bacterial CFU in biofilms. Docosahexaenoic acid can be considered an option as a therapeutic substance against biofilm formation and may be a good alternative in reducing the risk of MRSA formation.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Gülmez D, Brown JL, Butcher MC, et al (2022)

Investigating Dual-Species Candida auris and Staphylococcal Biofilm Antiseptic Challenge.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070931.

Candida auris can persistently colonize human skin, alongside a diverse bacterial microbiome. In this study we aimed to investigate the efficacy of antiseptic activities on dual-species interkingdom biofilms containing staphylococci to determine if antiseptic tolerance was negatively impacted by dual-species biofilms. Chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were able to significantly reduce biofilm viable cell counts following exposure at 2%, 10%, and 3%, respectively. Notably, H2O2-treated biofilms were able to significantly recover and considerably repopulate following treatment. Fortunately, inter-kingdom interactions in dual-species biofilms of C. auris and staphylococci did not increase the tolerance of C. auris against antiseptics in vitro. These data indicate mixed infections are manageable with chlorhexidine and povidone iodine, but caution should be exercised in the consideration of H2O2.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Azevedo AS, LDR Melo (2022)

New Insights on Biofilm Antimicrobial Strategies, 2nd Volume.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070908.

In biofilms, microorganisms are able to communicate together and assemble by themselves, creating a consortium with different properties from the original free-floating microorganisms [...].

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Hernández P, Sánchez MC, Llama-Palacios A, et al (2022)

Strategies to Combat Caries by Maintaining the Integrity of Biofilm and Homeostasis during the Rapid Phase of Supragingival Plaque Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070880.

Bacteria in the oral cavity, including commensals and opportunistic pathogens, are organized into highly specialized sessile communities, coexisting in homeostasis with the host under healthy conditions. A dysbiotic environment during biofilm evolution, however, allows opportunistic pathogens to become the dominant species at caries-affected sites at the expense of health-associated taxa. Combining tooth brushing with dentifrices or rinses combat the onset of caries by partially removes plaque, but resulting in the biofilm remaining in an immature state with undesirables' consequences on homeostasis and oral ecosystem. This leads to the need for therapeutic pathways that focus on preserving balance in the oral microbiota and applying strategies to combat caries by maintaining biofilm integrity and homeostasis during the rapid phase of supragingival plaque formation. Adhesion, nutrition, and communication are fundamental in this phase in which the bacteria that have survived these adverse conditions rebuild and reorganize the biofilm, and are considered targets for designing preventive strategies to guide the biofilm towards a composition compatible with health. The present review summarizes the most important advances and future prospects for therapies based on the maintenance of biofilm integrity and homeostasis as a preventive measure of dysbiosis focused on these three key factors during the rapid phase of plaque formation.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Abdelaziz NA, Elkhatib WF, Sherif MM, et al (2022)

In Silico Docking, Resistance Modulation and Biofilm Gene Expression in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii via Cinnamic and Gallic Acids.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070870.

Despite the mounting global burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the generation of new classes of effective antimicrobials still lags far behind. The interplay between multidrug resistance and biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii has drastically narrowed the available therapeutic choices. The use of natural compounds holds promise as an alternate option for restoring the activity of existing antibiotics and attenuating virulence traits through reduced biofilm formation. This study aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of combining cinnamic and gallic acids at ½MIC with various antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii clinical isolates as well as study the effect on the expression of the biofilm-associated genes (bap, csuE, ompA) via quantitative, real-time PCR. Combining cinnamic or gallic acid with imipenem, amikacin or doxycycline resulted in significant reduction of resistance (p < 0.05). On the contrary, no effect was recorded when both acids were combined with levofloxacin, and only cinnamic acid had a synergistic effect with colistin. The transcriptomic changes of biofilm-related genes in the presence of gallic acid at ½MIC were compared with untreated control samples. The fold expression values proved that gallic acid substantially down-regulated the respective genes in all five strong biofilm formers. Molecular docking studies of gallic and cinnamic acids on target genes revealed good binding affinities and verified the proposed mechanism of action. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of gallic acid on the expression of bap, csuE and ompA genes in A. baumannii, which may permit its use as an adjunct anti-virulence therapeutic strategy.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Altayb HN, Elbadawi HS, Baothman O, et al (2022)

Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcusepidermidis Carrying Biofilm-Associated Genes and a Unique Composite of SCCmec.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070861.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is part of the normal human flora that has recently become an important opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections and tends to be multidrug-resistant. In this investigation, we aimed to study the genomic characteristics of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis isolated from clinical specimens. Three isolates were identified using biochemical tests and evaluated for drug susceptibility. Genomic DNA sequences were obtained using Illumina, and were processed for analysis using various bioinformatics tools. The isolates showed multidrug resistance to most of the antibiotics tested in this study, and were identified with three types (III(3A), IV(2B&5), and VI(4B)) of the mobile genetic element SCCmec that carries the methicillin resistance gene (mecA) and its regulators (mecI and mecR1). A total of 11 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) was identified as chromosomally mediated or in plasmids; these genes encode for proteins causing decreased susceptibility to methicillin (mecA), penicillin (blaZ), fusidic acid (fusB), fosfomycin (fosB), tetracycline (tet(K)), aminoglycosides (aadD, aac(6')-aph(2'')), fluoroquinolone (MFS antibiotic efflux pump), trimethoprim (dfrG), macrolide (msr(A)), and chlorhexidine (qacA)). Additionally, the 9SE strain belongs to the globally disseminated ST2, and harbors biofilm-formation genes (icaA, icaB, icaC, icaD, and IS256) with phenotypic biofilm production capability. It also harbors the fusidic acid resistance gene (fusB), which could increase the risk of device-associated healthcare infections, and 9SE has been identified as having a unique extra SCC gene (ccrB4); this new composite element of the ccr type needs more focus to better understand its role in the drug resistance mechanism.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Ramić D, Ogrizek J, Bucar F, et al (2022)

Campylobacter jejuni Biofilm Control with Lavandin Essential Oils and By-Products.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7): pii:antibiotics11070854.

The food industry is constantly struggling with one of the most prevalent biofilm-forming and food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Campylobacter jejuni. Different approaches are used to control biofilms in the food production chain, but none is fully effective. In this study, we aim to produce and determine the chemical profile of essential oils (EOs), ethanolic extracts of flowers prior to distillation (EFs), and ethanolic extracts of post-distillation waste material (EWMs) from Lavandula × intermedia 'Bila', 'Budrovka' St Nicholas and 'Budrovka', which were further used to reduce C. jejuni intercellular signaling, adhesion, and biofilm formation, as well as to test their antioxidant activity. Glycosides of hydroxycinnamic acids were the major constituents of both types of lavandin ethanolic extract, while linalool, linalyl acetate, 1,8-cineol, and camphor were the major compounds found in lavandin EOs. Tested EOs showed the best antibacterial activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.25 mg/mL. Lavandin EFs proved more effective in reducing C. jejuni intercellular signaling and adhesion compared to lavandin EOs and EWMs, while lavandin EOs showed a slightly better effect against biofilm formation. Interestingly, the best antioxidant activity was determined for lavandin EWMs. A positive and moderate correlation was found between the reduction of C. jejuni intercellular signaling and adhesion, as well as between adhesion and biofilm formation. These findings mean novel bacterial targets are of interest for biofilm control with alternative natural agents throughout the whole food production chain.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Sun F, Sun Y, Wang Y, et al (2022)

Role of Penicillin-Binding Protein 1b in the Biofilm Inhibitory Efficacy of Ceftazidime Against Escherichia coli.

Current microbiology, 79(9):271.

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in bacterial biofilm formation and are the targets of β-lactam antibiotics. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the β-lactam antibiotic ceftazidime (CAZ) at subminimal inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) on the biofilm formation of Escherichia coli by targeting PBPs. In this study, PBP1a (encoded by mrcA), PBP1b (encoded by mrcB) and PBP3 (encoded by ftsI), which have high affinity for CAZ, were deleted from the E. coli strain. The mrcB mutant showed lower adhesion, biofilm formation and swimming motility, whereas the knockout of mrcA or ftsI had no obvious influence on the biofilm-associated indicators mentioned above. After treatment with sub-MIC of CAZ, the adhesion, biofilm formation and swimming motility of the mrcB-mutant strain were not different or were slightly reduced compared with those of the untreated group. However, sub-MIC of CAZ still significantly inhibited these biofilm-associated indicators in mrcA- and ftsI-mutant strains. In addition, consistent with the bacterial motility results, the deletion of the mrcB gene reduced the flagellar numbers and the expression of flagellar structural genes, but flagellum-related indicators in the mrcB-mutant strain treated with CAZ were similar to those in the untreated group. Bioinformatic analysis showed that CAZ binds to Lys287, Lys274, Glu281, and Arg286 in PBP1b. Taken together, these results suggest that CAZ reduced flagellar synthesis and bacterial motility by binding with PBP1b and thereby inhibited the adhesion and biofilm formation of E. coli.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Zhang Z, Yang Y, Sun Q, et al (2022)

Inhibition of Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factors of Cariogenic Oral Pathogen Streptococcus mutans by Shikimic Acid.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Streptococcus mutans is known as an important oral pathogen causing dental caries, a widespread oral infectious disease. S. mutans synthesize exopolysaccharide (EPS) using glucosyltransferases (Gtfs), resulting in biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Bacterial cells in the biofilms become strongly resistant to a harsh environment, such as antibiotics and host defense mechanisms, making biofilm-based infections difficult to eliminate. Discovering novel antibiofilm agents, especially from natural products, helps to develop effective strategies against this kind of diseases. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of shikimic acid (SA), one abundant compound derived from Illicium verum extract, on the biofilm formation of S. mutans. We found SA can reduce the EPS synthesized by this oral pathogen and modulate the transcription of biofilm formation related genes, leading to fewer bacterial cells in its biofilm. SA also interacted with cell membrane and membrane proteins, causing damage to bacterial cells. Ex vivo testing of biofilm formation on bovine teeth showed SA strongly decreased the number of S. mutans cells and the number of EPS accumulated on dental enamel surfaces. Moreover, SA exhibits almost no toxicity to human oral cells evaluated by in vitro biocompatibility assay. In conclusion, shikimic acid exhibits remarkable antibiofilm activity against S. mutans and has the potential to be further developed as a novel anticaries agent. IMPORTANCE Natural products are an important and cost-effective source for screening antimicrobial agents. Here, we identified one compound, shikimic acid, from Illicium verum extract, exhibiting antimicrobial activity against S. mutans proliferation. It also inhibits biofilm formation of this bacteria through decreasing Gtf expression and EPS synthesis. Furthermore, this compound exhibits no significant cytotoxicity at its MIC against S. mutans, providing evidence for its clinical application.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Benyoussef W, Deforet M, Monmeyran A, et al (2022)

Flagellar Motility During E. coli Biofilm Formation Provides a Competitive Disadvantage Which Recedes in the Presence of Co-Colonizers.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:896898.

In nature, bacteria form biofilms in very diverse environments, involving a range of specific properties and exhibiting competitive advantages for surface colonization. However, the underlying mechanisms are difficult to decipher. In particular, the contribution of cell flagellar motility to biofilm formation remains unclear. Here, we examined the ability of motile and nonmotile E. coli cells to form a biofilm in a well-controlled geometry, both in a simple situation involving a single-species biofilm and in the presence of co-colonizers. Using a millifluidic channel, we determined that motile cells have a clear disadvantage in forming a biofilm, exhibiting a long delay as compared to nonmotile cells. By monitoring biofilm development in real time, we observed that the decisive impact of flagellar motility on biofilm formation consists in the alteration of surface access time potentially highly dependent on the geometry of the environment to be colonized. We also report that the difference between motile and nonmotile cells in the ability to form a biofilm diminishes in the presence of co-colonizers, which could be due to motility inhibition through the consumption of key resources by the co-colonizers. We conclude that the impact of flagellar motility on surface colonization closely depends on the environment properties and the population features, suggesting a unifying vision of the role of cell motility in surface colonization and biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Chen L, Wang XD, Chang JS, et al (2022)

Biofilm with highly heterogeneous interior structure for pollutant removal: Effects of individual extracellular polymeric substance.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(22)00998-1 [Epub ahead of print].

For the first time, this study reveals the effects of an individual component of extracellular polymeric substances on the substrate consumption rates by the embedded cells based on the highly heterogeneous interior structures of a working biofilm. The flow-across mode in operation established a boundary-layer flow field with high transport resistance, making the uniformly structured model valid. Conversely, the flow field of the flow-through mode is determined by 46% jointly by proteins and β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides. The substrate consumption rates hindered by β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharide is up to 60% over the 20%-40% biofilm height from the bottom, much lower than expected by the uniformly structured models. The strategies to maximize the biofilm performance have been suggested.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Hsu CC, Hsu RB, Oon XH, et al (2022)

Streptococcus mutans PrsA mediates AtlA secretion contributing to extracellular DNA release and biofilm formation in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.

Virulence [Epub ahead of print].

The role of secretion chaperone-regulated virulence proteins in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE) induced by viridans streptococci such as Streptococcus mutans is unclear. In this study, we investigated the contribution of the foldase protein PrsA, a putative parvulin-type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, to the pathogenesis of S. mutans-induced IE. We found that a prsA-deficient strain had reduced virulence in terms of formation of vegetation on damaged heart valves, as well as reduced autolysis activity, eDNA release and biofilm formation capacity. The secretion and surface exposure of AtlA in vitro was reduced in the prsA-deficient mutant strain, and complementation of recombinant AtlA in the culture medium restored a wild type biofilm phenotype of the prsA-deficient mutant strain. This result suggests that secretion and surface localization of AtlA is regulated by PrsA during biofilm formation. Together, these results demonstrate that S. mutans PrsA could regulate AtlA-mediated eDNA release to contribute to biofilm formation in the pathogenesis of IE.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Macias-Valcayo A, Aguilera-Correa JJ, Broncano A, et al (2022)

Comparative In Vitro Study of Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Prosthetic Joint Infections.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are typically caused by microorganisms that grow in biofilms. Traditional antimicrobial susceptibility tests are based on the study of planktonic bacteria that might lead to missing the biofilm behavior and to a treatment failure. This study was designed to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolates from PJIs in planktonic and sessile states and the possible relationship between antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. A total of 46 clinical isolates from patients with PJIs (mainly hip and knee prostheses) plus three GNB ATCC isolates were studied. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) were assessed using a previously published methodology. Almost all of the GNB clinical isolates tested were biofilm forming. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the largest biofilm-forming species. A comparison of MBIC90 versus MIC90 shows an increase higher than 1- to -2-fold dilutions in most antimicrobials studied, and MBEC90 was significantly higher than MIC90, becoming resistant to all the antimicrobial drugs tested. Higher biofilm production values were obtained in antibiotic-susceptible Escherichia coli in comparison to their resistant counterparts. However, regarding the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, our analysis showed that each strain differed. A high antimicrobial resistance rate was found among the GNB studied. Moreover, almost all bacterial isolates were in vitro biofilm formers. Although there was no significant association between biofilm and antibiotic resistance, multidrug-resistant isolates were found to be greater biofilm formers than non-multidrug-resistant isolates. IMPORTANCE This study is the first one to analyze a high number of isolates of Gram-negative bacilli that are the cause of prosthetic joint infection. The analysis includes biofilm development and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of both planktonic and sessile bacteria. The obtained results support the clinical knowledge about the treatment of these bacteria when biofilms are involved.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Tarsitano J, Ramis LY, Alonso LG, et al (2022)

RapD Is a Multimeric Calcium-Binding Protein That Interacts With the Rhizobium leguminosarum Biofilm Exopolysaccharide, Influencing the Polymer Lengths.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:895526.

Rhizobium leguminosarum synthesizes an acidic polysaccharide mostly secreted to the extracellular medium, known as exopolysaccharide (EPS) and partially retained on the bacterial surface as a capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Rap proteins, extracellular protein substrates of the PrsDE type I secretion system (TISS), share at least one Ra/CHDL (cadherin-like) domain and are involved in biofilm matrix development either through cleaving the polysaccharide by Ply glycanases or by altering the bacterial adhesive properties. It was shown that the absence or excess of extracellular RapA2 (a monomeric CPS calcium-binding lectin) alters the biofilm matrix's properties. Here, we show evidence of the role of a new Rap protein, RapD, which comprises an N-terminal Ra/CHDL domain and a C-terminal region of unknown function. RapD was completely released to the extracellular medium and co-secreted with the other Rap proteins in a PrsDE-dependent manner. Furthermore, high levels of RapD secretion were found in biofilms under conditions that favor EPS production. Interestingly, size exclusion chromatography of the EPS produced by the ΔrapA2ΔrapD double mutant showed a profile of EPS molecules of smaller sizes than those of the single mutants and the wild type strain, suggesting that both RapA2 and RapD proteins influence EPS processing on the cell surface. Biophysical studies showed that calcium triggers proper folding and multimerization of recombinant RapD. Besides, further conformational changes were observed in the presence of EPS. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) and Binding Inhibition Assays (BIA) indicated that RapD specifically binds the EPS and that galactose residues would be involved in this interaction. Taken together, these observations indicate that RapD is a biofilm matrix-associated multimeric protein that influences the properties of the EPS, the main structural component of the rhizobial biofilm.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Aoki M, Miyashita Y, Miwa T, et al (2022)

Manganese oxidation and prokaryotic community analysis in a polycaprolactone-packed aerated biofilm reactor operated under seawater conditions.

3 Biotech, 12(9):187.

Biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) have been receiving increasing attention for the removal of environmental contaminants and recovery of minor metals from water environments. However, the enrichment of heterotrophic Mn(II)-oxidizing microorganisms for BioMnOx production in the presence of fast-growing coexisting heterotrophs is challenging. In our previous work, we revealed that polycaprolactone (PCL), a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, can serve as an effective solid organic substrate to enrich Mn-oxidizing microbial communities under seawater conditions. However, marine BioMnOx-producing bioreactor systems utilizing PCL have not yet been established. Therefore, a laboratory-scale continuous-flow PCL-packed aerated biofilm (PAB) reactor was operated for 238 days to evaluate its feasibility for BioMnOx production under seawater conditions. After the start-up of the reactor, the average dissolved Mn removal rates of 0.4-2.3 mg/L/day, likely caused by Mn(II) oxidation, were confirmed under different influent dissolved Mn concentrations (2.5-14.0 mg/L on average) and theoretical hydraulic retention time (0.19-0.77 day) conditions. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis suggested the presence of putative Mn(II)-oxidizing and PCL-degrading bacterial lineages in the reactor. Two highly dominant operational units (OTUs) in the packed PCL-associated biofilm were assigned to the genera Marinobacter and Pseudohoeflea, whereas the genus Lewinella and unclassified Alphaproteobacteria OTUs were highly dominant in the MnOx-containing black/dark brown precipitate-associated biofilm formed in the reactor. Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis revealed the production of tyrosine- and tryptophane-like components, which may serve as soluble heterotrophic organic substrates in the reactor. Our findings indicate that PAB reactors are potentially applicable to BioMnOx production under seawater conditions.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Wu Y, Liu X, Wang Q, et al (2022)

Fe3O4-Fused Magnetic Air Stone Prepared From Wasted Iron Slag Enhances Denitrification in a Biofilm Reactor by Increasing Electron Transfer Flow.

Frontiers in chemistry, 10:948453 pii:948453.

nFe3O4 was prepared from waste iron slag and loaded onto air stone (named magnetic air stone or MAS in the following text). The main component of air stone is carborundum. To study the magnetic effects of MAS on denitrification, a biofilm reactor was built, and its microbial community structure and electron transfer in denitrification were analyzed. The results showed that MAS improved the performance of the reactor in both carbon and nitrogen removal compared with air stone (AS) control, and the average removal efficiencies of COD, TN, and NH4 +-N increased by 17.15, 16.1, and 11.58%, respectively. High-throughput sequencing revealed that magnetism of MAS had a significant effect on the diversity and richness of microorganisms in the biofilm. The MAS also reduced the inhibition of rotenone, mipalene dihydrochloride (QDH), and sodium azide on the respiratory chain in denitrification and enhanced the accumulation of nitrite, in order to provide sufficient substrate for the following denitrification process. Therefore, the denitrification process is accelerated by the MAS. The results allowed us to deduce the acceleration sites of MAS in the denitrification electron transport chain. The existence of MAS provides a new rapid method for the denitrifying electron transport process. Even in the presence of respiratory inhibitors of denitrifying enzymes, the electron transfer acceleration provided by MAS still exists objectively. This is the mechanism through which MAS can restore the denitrification process inhibited by respiratory inhibitors to a certain extent.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Ranjbar A, Rasooli I, Jahangiri A, et al (2022)

Specific egg yolk antibody raised to biofilm associated protein (Bap) is protective against murine pneumonia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12576.

Acinetobacter baumannii easily turns into pan drug-resistant (PDR) with a high mortality rate. No effective commercial antibiotic or approved vaccine is available against drug-resistant strains of this pathogen. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) could be used as a simple and low-cost biotherapeutic against its infections. This study evaluates the prophylactic potential of IgY against A. baumannii in a murine pneumonia model. White Leghorn hens were immunized with intramuscular injection of the recombinant biofilm-associated protein (Bap) from A. baumannii on days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The reactivity and antibiofilm activity of specific IgYs raised against the Bap was evaluated by indirect ELISA and a microtiter plate assay for biofilm formation. The IgYs against Bap were able to decrease the biofilm formation ability of A. baumannii and protect the mice against the challenge of A. baumannii. IgYs antibody raised here shows a good antigen-specificity and protectivity which can be used in passive immunotherapy against A. baumannii. In conclusion, the IgY against biofilm-associated protein proves prophylactic in a murine pneumonia model.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Anonymous (2022)

Patients are enthusiastic about Guided Biofilm Therapy.

British dental journal, 233(2):166.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Godzieba M, Zubrowska-Sudol M, Walczak J, et al (2022)

Development of microbial communities in biofilm and activated sludge in a hybrid reactor.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12558.

Microorganisms play a key role in biological wastewater treatment. The form in which biomass develops determines the efficiency and mechanisms of organic compound conversion, due to different conditions in various microbial structures. However, the results of studies comparing the microbial communities in biofilm and activated sludge have often conflicted. Therefore, this study compared the composition and development of the bacterial communities in biofilm and activated sludge in a hybrid reactor, employing 16S rRNA sequencing. Statistical analysis of the sequencing data included the identification of taxa characteristic to the biofilm and activated sludge, alpha and beta diversity analysis, and network analysis. These analyses indicated that the biofilm bacterial community was richer and more diverse than the activated sludge community. The mean numbers of OTU were 1614 in the biofilm and 993 in the activated sludge, and the mean values of the Chao1 (1735 vs. 1105) and Shannon (5.3 vs. 4.3) biodiversity indices were significantly higher for the biofilm. The biofilm was a better environment for development of nitrifiers (e.g., Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (Candidatus Accumulibacter). Bacteria in the biofilm co-occurrence network had more connections (based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) with each other, indicating that they interact more than those in the activated sludge.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Higa B, Cintra BS, Ormeño CMA, et al (2022)

Ozonated oil is effective at killing Candida species and Streptococcus mutans biofilm-derived cells under aerobic and microaerobic conditions.

Medical mycology pii:6649213 [Epub ahead of print].

This study explores the growth of bacterial, fungal, and interkingdom biofilms under aerobiosis or microaerobic conditions and the effect of ozonated sunflower oil on these biofilms. Candida species and Streptococcus mutans were used to study this interaction due to their importance in oral health and disease as these microorganisms display a synergistic relationship that manifests in the onset of caries and tooth decay. Biofilms were developed in a 96-well microtiter plate at 37 ºC for 24 h, under aerobiosis or microaerobic conditions, and treated with ozonated oil for 5 to 120 min. All the microorganisms formed biofilms in both oxygenation conditions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize biofilm morphology. Rodent experiments were performed to verify the oil-related toxicity and its efficacy in oral candidiasis. The growth of all Candida species was increased when co-cultured with S. mutans, whilst the growth of bacteria was greater only when co-cultured with C. krusei and C. orthopsilosis under aerobiosis and microaerobic conditions, respectively. Regardless of the oxygenation condition, ozonated oil significantly reduced the viability of all the tested biofilms and infected mice, showing remarkable microbicidal activity as corroborated with confocal microscopy and minimal toxicity. Thus, ozonated oil therapy can be explored as a strategy to control diseases associated with these biofilms especially in the oral cavity.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Yan D, Tajima H, Cline LC, et al (2022)

Genetic modification of flavone biosynthesis in rice enhances biofilm formation of soil diazotrophic bacteria and biological nitrogen fixation.

Plant biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

Improving Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in cereal crops is a long-sought objective, however no successful modification of cereal crops showing increased BNF has been reported. Here, we described a novel approach in which rice plants were modified to increase the production of compounds that stimulated biofilm formation in soil diazotrophic bacteria, promoted bacterial colonization of plant tissues, improved BNF with increased grain yield at limiting soil nitrogen contents. We first used a chemical screening to identify plant-produced compounds that induced biofilm formation in nitrogen-fixing bacteria and demonstrated that apigenin and other flavones induced BNF. We then used CRISPR-based gene editing targeting apigenin breakdown in rice, increasing plant apigenin contents and apigenin root exudation. When grown at limiting soil nitrogen conditions, modified rice plants displayed increased grain yield. Biofilm production also modified the root microbiome structure, favoring the enrichment of diazotrophic bacteria recruitment. Our results support the manipulation of the flavone biosynthetic pathway as a feasible strategy for the induction of biological nitrogen fixation in cereals and a reduction in the use of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Behera SK, Panda AK, Mishra R, et al (2022)

Structure based virtual screening and molecular dynamics of natural anti-biofilm compounds against SagS response regulator/sensor kinase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics [Epub ahead of print].

SagS sensor regulator plays a vital role in biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which subsequently makes the cells more tolerant to various antimicrobials. The multidrug resistance (MDR) issue has risen substantially in recent years and is considered a global threat. Therefore, alternative compounds should be unearthed immediately to address the issues related to P. aeruginosa drug resistance for which SagS could be a candidate. The present study is an attempt to screen natural anti-biofilm compounds as the potent inhibitors of SagS. Twenty natural anti-biofilm/quorum sensing inhibiting compounds were retrieved from various literatures with significant inhibitory effects against P. aeruginosa biofilm from in-vitro experiments which were screened using various pharmacokinetic parameters. The screened and three standard drugs were docked against SagS-HisKA using AutoDock 4.2 tool, which were further analysed by MD simulations to understand the binding mode of compounds and dynamic behaviour of the complexes. Two potential anti-biofilm natural compounds, pinocembrin with binding affinity (-7.19 kcal/mol), vestitol (-7.18 kcal/mol) and the standard drug ceftazidime (-8.89 kcal/mol) were selected based on filtered parameters and better binding affinity. The trajectory analysis of MD simulations reflected Pinocembrin in stabilizing the system compared to ceftazidime. The existing reports state that the natural products represent promising source of therapy with least or almost nil adverse effect compared to synthetic drugs which is well collated with our in-silico findings. This investigation can save both time and cost required for in-vitro and in-vivo analysis for designing of a novel anti-biofilm agent against P. aeruginosa biofilm-associated infections.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Wu Y, Du Q, Wan Y, et al (2022)

Autotrophic nitrate reduction to ammonium via reverse electron transfer in Geobacter dominated biofilm.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 215:114578 pii:S0956-5663(22)00618-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Geobacter dominated electroactive biofilms (EABs) have been demonstrated to perform bidirectional extracellular electron transfer (EET) in bioelectrochemical systems, but it is largely unknown when nitrate is the electron acceptor at the cathode. If reverse EET occurs on biocathode, this EAB has to perform dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) rather than denitrification according to genomes. Here, we have proven the feasibility of reverse bioelectron transfer in EAB, achieving a DNRA efficiency up to 93 ± 3% and high Faraday efficiency of 74 ± 1%. Constant current was found to be more effective than constant potential to maintain Geobacter on the cathode, which highly determines this electrotrophic respiration. The prevalent DNRA at constant current surpassed denitrification, demonstrated by the reverse tendencies of DNRA (nrfA) and denitrification (nirS and nirK) gene transcription. Metatranscriptomics further revealed the possible electron uptake mechanisms by which the outer membrane (OmcZ and OmcB) and periplasmic cytochromes (PpcB and PpcD) may be involved. These findings extend our understanding of the bidirectional electron transfer and advance the applications of EABs.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Kashyap S, Sidhu H, Sharma P, et al (2022)

3-indoleacetonitrile attenuates biofilm formation and enhances sensitivity to imipenem in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Pathogens and disease pii:6648707 [Epub ahead of print].

Acinetobacter baumannii poses a global danger due to its ability to resist most of the currently available antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the rise of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates has limited the treatment options available. In the present study, plant auxin 3-indoleacetonitrile was found to inhibit biofilm formation and motility of A. baumannii at sub-lethal concentration. Mechanistically, 3-indoleacetonitrile inhibited the synthesis of the quorum sensing signal 3-OH-C12-HSL by downregulating the expression of the abaI autoinducer synthase gene. 3-indoleacetonitrile was found to reduce MIC of A. baumannii ATCC 17 978 against imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, and levofloxacin, and significantly decreased persistence against imipenem. Inhibition of efflux pumps by down-regulating genes expression may be responsible for enhanced sensitivity and low persistence. 3-indoleacetonitrile reduced the resistance to imipenem in carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates by down-regulating the expression of OXA β-lactamases (blaoxa-51 and blaoxa-23), outer membrane protein carO and transporter protein adeB. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of 3-indoleacetonitrile which could be explored as an adjuvant with antibiotics for controlling A. baumannii infections.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Misra T, Tare M, PN Jha (2022)

Insights Into the Dynamics and Composition of Biofilm Formed by Environmental Isolate of Enterobacter cloacae.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:877060.

Bacterial biofilms are clinically admissible and illustrate an influential role in infections, particularly those related to the implant of medical devices. The characterization of biofilms is important to understand the etiology of the diseases. Enterobacter cloacae are known for causing infections by forming biofilms on various abiotic surfaces, such as medical devices. However, a detailed characterization in terms of morphology and the molecular composition of the formed biofilms by this bacterium is sparse. The present study provides insights into the biofilm formation of E. cloacae SBP-8, an environmental isolate, on various surfaces. We performed assays to understand the biofilm-forming capability of the SBP-8 strain and characterized the adhering potential of the bacteria on the surface of different medical devices (foley latex catheter, enteral feeding tube, and glass) at different temperatures. We found that medical devices exhibited strong colonization by E. cloacae SBP-8. Using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) studies, we characterized the biofilms as a function of time. It indicated stronger biofilm formation in terms of cellular density and EPS production on the surfaces. Further, we characterized the biofilm employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and identified the vast heterogenic nature of the biofilm-forming molecules. Interestingly, we also found that this heterogeneity varies from the initial stages of biofilm formation until the maturation and dispersion. Our studies provide insights into biofilm composition over a period of time, which might aid in understanding the biofilm dispersion phases, to enhance the presently available treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

M Fathil MA, Faris Taufeq FY, Suleman Ismail Abdalla S, et al (2022)

Roles of chitosan in synthesis, antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties of bionano silver and gold.

RSC advances, 12(30):19297-19312.

Antibiotic-resistance and bacterial bioburden on wound surfaces are the significant challenges to wound healing. Silver and gold nanoparticles (are termed as AgNPs and AuNPs) have been investigated as alternative antimicrobial agents to combat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections owing to their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. Chitosan (CS) has largely been used in nanoparticle synthesis as a stabilizing or capping agent. In this study, AgNPs and AuNPs were synthesized using different concentrations of aqueous extract of tiger milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerotis) (WETMM) and CS as reducing and stabilizing agent, respectively. Particle size and morphology of both were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method and transmission electron microscopic analysis (TEM). FTIR analysis was conducted to determine the interactions between nanoparticle precursors. The observed peaks at 450 nm and 534-565 nm using a spectrophotometer were corresponded to the surface Plasmon resonance of AgNPs and AuNPs respectively, indicating the formation of respective nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed the role of WETMM as a reducing agent and CS as a stabilizer of AgNPs and AuNPs. Faster formation of nanoparticles was observed besides an increase in particle size when higher CS concentrations were used. TEM micrographs revealed the spherical shape of most nanoparticles with particle sizes in the range of 4 to 58 nm and 18 to 28 nm for AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively. Both nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, with AgNPs showing a superior antibacterial efficacy than AuNPs. Both microbroth dilution and agar well diffusion assays indicated that CS was an important component to facilitate antibacterial activity for AuNPs. Contrarily, CS stabilization did not enhance the antibacterial efficacy of AgNPs. CS-stabilized AgNPs and AuNPs achieved biofilm inhibition of 53.21% and 79.39% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 48.71% and 48.16% for Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Similarly, CS stabilization enhanced the anti-biofilm activity of AuNPs but no such effect was seen for AgNPs. In conclusion, CS-stabilized AgNPs and AuNPs possess both antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities. However, CS acted differently when combined with AgNPs and AuNPs, needing further investigation and optimization to improve the antimicrobial activity of both nanoparticles.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Gu M, Cheng J, Lee YG, et al (2022)

Discovery of Novel Iminosugar Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus paragasseri MJM60645 and Their Anti-Biofilm Activity against Streptococcus mutans.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The oral cavity contains a number of microbes. They interact with each other and play an important role in human health. Among oral cariogenic microbes, Streptococcus mutans is recognized a major etiological bacteria of dental caries. Lactobacilli strains have been promoted as possible probiotic agents against S. mutans. However, their inhibitory mechanism has not been well elucidated yet. In the present study, two new compounds with strong antibiofilm activities were purified from the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus paragasseri MJM60645, which was isolated from the human oral cavity. These compounds showed strong inhibitory activities against S. mutans biofilm formation, with IC50 (concentration at which 50% biofilm was inhibited) of 30.4 μM for compound 1 and 18.9 μM for compound 2. However, these compounds did not show bactericidal activities against S. mutans. Structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry showed that compound 1 was composed of two arabinofuranose iminosugars jointed with one glycerol and oleic acid, and compound 2 was composed of two arabinofuranose iminosugars jointed with one glycerol and nervonic acid. To the best of our knowledge, these structures were discovered for the first time in this study. Treatment of S. mutans with compound 1 strongly downregulated expression levels of genes related to biofilm formation, including gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, brpA, spaP, ftf, and smu0630 without affecting the expression of comDE or relA. This study provides new insights into novel molecules produced by Lactobacillus to regulate the pathogenesis of S. mutans, facilitating a better understanding of the mechanism for interactions between Lactobacillus and S. mutans. IMPORTANCE In this study, we isolated lactic acid bacteria that inhibit streptococcal biofilm from the oral cavity of infants and identified two novel compounds from the supernatant of their culture broth. The two compounds are structurally similar, and both consist of iminosugars, glycerol, and unsaturated fatty acid. A search of the SciFinder database revealed that these structures are novel and were discovered for the first time in this study. Mechanism studies have shown that these compounds can inhibit the expression of biofilm synthesis-related genes. This is the first report that lactic acid bacteria inhibit streptococcal biofilms by small molecules with new chemical structures. This study not only expands the understanding of natural products derived from lactic acid bacteria but also provides a new paradigm for the understanding of the interaction of bacteria in the oral microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Lopes ACUA, Lobo CIV, Ribeiro SM, et al (2022)

Distinct Agents Induce Streptococcus mutans Cells with Altered Biofilm Formation Capacity.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Dental caries is a multifactorial biofilm- and sugar-dependent disease. This study investigated the influence of different agents on the induction of surviving Streptococcus mutans cells after successive treatment cycles and characterized the biofilms formed by these cells recovered posttreatment. The agents (with their main targets listed in parentheses) were compound 1771 (lipoteichoic acids), 4' hydroxychalcone (exopolysaccharides), myricetin (exopolysaccharides), tt-farnesol (cytoplasmatic membrane), sodium fluoride (enolase-glycolysis), chlorhexidine (antimicrobial), and vehicle. Recovered cells from biofilms were generated from exposure to each agent during 10 cycles of consecutive treatments (modeled on a polystyrene plate bottom). The recovered cell counting was different for each agent. The recovered cells from each group were grown as biofilms on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs (culture medium with sucrose/starch). In S. mutans biofilms formed by cells recovered from biofilms previously exposed to compound 1771, 4' hydroxychalcone, or myricetin, cells presented higher expression of the 16S rRNA, gyrA (DNA replication and transcription), gtfB (insoluble exopolysaccharides), and eno (enolase-glycolysis) genes and lower quantities of insoluble dry weight and insoluble exopolysaccharides than those derived from other agents. These findings were confirmed by the smaller biovolume of bacteria and/or exopolysaccharides and the biofilm distribution (coverage area). Moreover, preexposure to chlorhexidine increased exopolysaccharide production. Therefore, agents with different targets induce cells with distinct biofilm formation capacities, which is critical for developing formulations for biofilm control. IMPORTANCE This article addresses the effect of distinct agents with distinct targets in the bacterial cell (cytoplasmatic membrane and glycolysis), the cell's extracellular synthesis of exopolysaccharides that are important for cariogenic extracellular matrix construction and biofilm buildup in the generation of cells that persisted after treatment, and how these cells form biofilms in vitro. For example, if preexposure to an agent augments the production of virulence determinants, such as exopolysaccharides, its clinical value may be inadequate. Modification of biofilm formation capacity after exposure to agents is critical for the development of formulations for biofilm control to prevent caries, a ubiquitous disease associated with biofilm and diet.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Naito M, Shoji M, Sato K, et al (2022)

Insertional Inactivation and Gene Complementation of Prevotella intermedia Type IX Secretion System Reveals Its Indispensable Roles in Black Pigmentation, Hemagglutination, Protease Activity of Interpain A, and Biofilm Formation.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

Prevotella intermedia, a Gram-negative oral anaerobic bacterium, is frequently isolated from the periodontal pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis. In recent years, the involvement of the bacterium in respiratory tract infections as well as in oral infections has been revealed. P. intermedia possesses several potent virulence factors, such as cysteine proteinase interpain A encoded by the inpA gene. The genome of P. intermedia carries genes of the type IX secretion system (T9SS), which enables the translocation of virulence factors across the outer membrane in several pathogens belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes; however, it is still unclear whether the T9SS is functional in this microorganism. Recently, we performed targeted mutagenesis in the strain OMA14 of P. intermedia. Here, we successfully obtained mutants deficient in inpA and the T9SS component genes porK and porT. None of the mutants exhibited protease activity of interpain A. The porK and porT mutants, but not the inpA mutant, showed defects in colony pigmentation, hemagglutination, and biofilm formation. We also obtained a complemented strain for the porK gene that recovered all the above abilities. These results indicate that T9SS functions in P. intermedia and that interpain A is one of the T9SS cargo proteins. IMPORTANCE The virulence factors of periodontal pathogens such as Prevotella intermedia have not been elucidated. Using our established procedure, we succeeded in generating type IX secretion system mutants and gene complementation strains that might transfer virulence factors to the bacterial surface. The generated strains clearly indicate that T9SS in P. intermedia is essential for colonial pigmentation, hemagglutination, and biofilm formation. These results indicated that interpain A is a T9SS cargo protein.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )