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Bibliography on: Biofilm

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2020 at 01:33 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: biofilm[title] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-05-28

de Assis Graciano Dos Santos F, Leite-Andrade MC, de Sousa Brandão I, et al (2020)

Anti-biofilm effect by the combined action of fluconazole and acetylsalicylic acid against species of Candida parapsilosis complex.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases pii:S1567-1348(20)30209-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The Candida parapsilosis complex has been associated with highly refractory infections mainly due to the presence of biofilms. High glucose levels enable the development of this virulence factor which can aggravate the clinical condition of patients with diabetes mellitus, those using parenteral nutrition, with invasive medical device, including others. Combined antifungal therapy, such as azole and cyclooxygenase inhibitors, may be an alternative in such infections since they modulate prostaglandin production favoring the adhesion and development of biofilms. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the influence of glucose supplementation in the formation and detection of Candida parapsilosis complex biofilms and to treat them using fluconazole and a cyclooxygenase inhibitor in combination. Protein spectra evaluation allowed the differentiation between species from the complex (score > 2) in our studies. All isolates were able to form active biofilms at different glucose concentrations. In addition, a significant reduction in biofilm formation was observed when fluconazole and acetylsalicylic acid were combined. The ultrastructural analysis presented typical biofilm characteristics by species from the complex. These data support new combined therapies for the treatment of fungal infections, especially with those which are resistant and therapeutic failure is associated with virulence factors.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Frassinetti S, Falleni A, R Del Carratore (2020)

Effect of itraconazole on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and extracellular vesicles formation.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(20)30633-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of a wide range of clinical chronic infections mainly due to the establishment of a biofilm. Biofilm, a population of bacteria within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance, decreases the susceptibility to antibiotics, immune defenses and contributes to antimicrobial resistance. To date antibiotic combination has been considered a strategy to combat S. aureus infection, but this approach does not solves the main pharmacokinetic problem caused by biofilms, consisting in insufficient drug penetration within the structure. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Fighting staphylococcal resistance and biofilm formation is an important goal of the pharmaceutical research. Some fungicide has been observed to have antibacterial effect anyway their use as antibiotics on S.aureus has been poorly studied. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the fungicide itraconazole (IT) on S. aureus biofilm formation and explore by SEM the morphological alteration after treatment. A strong biofilm disaggregation and morphologically different extracellular vesicles (EV) production were observed starting from sublethal IT doses. This suggests that IT resistance phenomena on the part of S. aureus are more difficult to establish respect other antibiotics. The adjuvant properties of IT could be used to combat bacterial biofilm and/or to improve antibiotic treatment. Moreover because the production of EV represents a secretory pathway involved in intercellular communication shared to mammalian cells, fungi, and bacteria, our study is important to increase information that can be generalized to higher organisms.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Okaro U, George S, Valdes S, et al (2020)

A non-coding RNA controls transcription of a gene encoding a DNA binding protein that modulates biofilm development in Bartonella henselae.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(20)30638-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Bartonella henselae (Bh) is a Gram-negative zoonotic bacterium that can grow as large aggregates and form biofilms in vitro dependent upon the adhesin BadA. Previously, we reported that the Houston-1 strain of Bh has a family of nine small, highly-expressed intergenic transcripts called Bartonellaregulatory transcripts, Brt1-9. Each of the Brts bears a stem and loop structure on the 3' end followed by a gene encoding a DNA binding protein called the Transcriptional regulatory proteins, Trp1-9. RNA-seq analysis of laboratory-grown bacteria revealed the trps were poorly transcribed suggesting that the 3' stem and loop on the Brts results in transcript termination upstream of the trp genes under these conditions. Here we demonstrate that transcription of brt1 continues into trp1 when Bh is grown in a biofilm. Deletion of brt1, or just the 3' terminus of brt1 (containing the stem and loop structure), resulted in increased transcription of both trp1 and badA and increased biofilm formation. Trp1 was shown to directly bind the putative badA promoter region as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Our data suggest that the 3' end of brt1 responds to a stimulus generated by growth of Bh in an in vitro biofilm to allow increased trp1 transcription. We further show that transcription of trp1 increases under conditions consistent with the mammalian host but is not highly expressed in the cat flea vector until the bacterium is excreted into the flea feces. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the 3' end of Brt1 functions to control trp1 transcription and Trp1 in turn results in increased badA expression and enhanced biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Kim HR, Shin DS, Jang HI, et al (2020)

Anti-biofilm and anti-virulence effects of zerumbone against Acinetobacter baumannii.

Microbiology (Reading, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogen that affects patients with a compromised immune system and is becoming increasingly important as a hospital-derived infection. This pathogen is difficult to treat owing to its intrinsic multidrug resistance and ability to form antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential use of zerumbone as a novel anti-biofilm and/or anti-virulence agent against A. baumannii. The results showed that zerumbone at sub-inhibitory doses decreased biofilm formation and disrupted established A. baumannii biofilms. The zerumbone-induced decrease in biofilm formation was dose-dependent based on the results of microtitre plate biofilm assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, our data validated the anti-virulence efficacy of zerumbone, wherein it significantly interfered with the motility of A. baumannii. To support these phenotypic results, transcriptional analysis revealed that zerumbone downregulated the expression of biofilm- and virulence-associated genes (adeA, adeB, adeC and bap) in A. baumannii. Overall, our findings suggested that zerumbone might be a promising bioactive agent for the treatment of biofilm- and virulence-related infections caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Badar W, MA Ullah Khan (2020)

Analytical study of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles against multi-drug resistant biofilm-forming pathogens.

IET nanobiotechnology, 14(4):331-340.

The emergence of the huge number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria requires an alternative to the drugs. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a strong candidate for this due to their bactericidal properties, which can be better concluded by understanding their morphology and chemistry. The study hypothesised that AgNPs synthesised using leaves of Syzygium cumini can be used to treat locally emerging MDRs forming biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Synthesised particles were characterised by methods like UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Zetasizer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to predict phytochemicals present in the leaves. The shape of particles is revealed to be relatively spherical, with average size to be around 10-100 nm. Phenolic compounds are attributed to the formation of nanoparticles, stability analysis shows particles to be stable, and zeta potential determined the surface charge to be -20.1 mV. Biosynthesised particles are found to possess efficient antibacterial activity MDR bacteria developing biofilms in medical devices; hence, it is concluded that S. cumini based NPs can be used to develop a layer on implant-related medical devices. Toxicity evaluation against A594 cancer cells portrays AgNPs to be potential tumour reduction agents in a concentration-dependent manner.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Cusimano MG, Ardizzone F, Nasillo G, et al (2020)

Biogenic iron-silver nanoparticles inhibit bacterial biofilm formation due to Ag+ release as determined by a novel phycoerythrin-based assay.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-020-10686-w [Epub ahead of print].

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) can be considered as a cost-effective alternative to antibiotics. In the presence of Fe(III)-citrate and Ag+, Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 produces biogenic Ag-NPs embedded in its peculiar exopolysaccharide (EPS). K. oxytoca DSM 29614 was cultivated in a defined growth medium-containing citrate (as sole carbon source) and supplemented with Ag+ and either low or high Fe(III) concentration. As inferred from elemental analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and dynamic light scattering, Ag-EPS NPs were produced in both conditions and contained also Fe. The production yield of high-Fe/Ag-EPS NPs was 12 times higher than the production yield of low-Fe/Ag-EPS NPs, confirming the stimulatory effect of iron. However, relative Ag content and Ag+ ion release were higher in low-Fe/Ag-EPS NPs than in high-Fe/Ag-EPS NPs, as revealed by emission-excitation spectra by luminescent spectrometry using a novel ad hoc established phycoerythrin fluorescence-based assay. Interestingly, high and low-Fe/Ag-EPS NPs showed different and growth medium-dependent minimal inhibitory concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. In addition, low-Fe/Ag-EPS NPs exert inhibition of staphylococcal and pseudomonal biofilm formation, while high-Fe/Ag-EPS NPs inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation only. Altogether, these results, highlighting the different capability of Ag+ release, support the idea that Fe/Ag-EPS NPs produced by K. oxytoca DSM 29614 can be considered as promising candidates in the development of specific antibacterial and anti-biofilm agents.Key points • Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 produces bimetal nanoparticles containing Fe and Ag.• Fe concentration in growth medium affects nanoparticle yield and composition.• Phycoerythrin fluorescence-based assay was developed to determine Ag+release.• Antimicrobial efficacy of bimetal nanoparticle parallels Ag+ions release.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Lima JY, Moreira C, Nunes Freitas PN, et al (2020)

Structuring biofilm communities living in pesticide contaminated water.

Heliyon, 6(5):e03996 pii:e03996.

The wide use of pesticides in agriculture expose microbiota to stressful conditions that require the development of survival strategies. The bacterial response to many pollutants has not been elucidated in detail, as well as the evolutionary processes that occur to build adapted communities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial population structure and adaptation strategies in planktonic and biofilm communities in limited environments, as tanks containing water used for washing herbicide containers. This biodiversity, with high percentage of nonculturable microorganisms, was characterized based on habitat and abiotic parameters using molecular and bioinformatics tools. According to water and wastewater standards, the physicochemical conditions of the tank water were inadequate for survival of the identified bacteria, which had to develop survival strategies in this hostile environment. The biodiversity decreased in the transition from planktonic to biofilm samples, indicating a possible association between genetic drift and selection of individuals that survive under stressful conditions, such as heating in water and the presence of chlorine, fluorine and agrochemicals over a six-month period. The abundance of Enterobacter, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas in biofilms from water tanks was linked to essential processes, deduced from the genes attributed to these taxonomic units, and related to biofilm formation, structure and membrane transport, quorum sensing and xenobiotic degradation. These characteristics were randomly combined and fixed in the biofilm community. Thus, communities of biofilm bacteria obtained under these environmental conditions serve as interesting models for studying herbicide biodegradation kinetics and the prospects of consortia suitable for use in bioremediation in reservoirs containing herbicide-contaminated wastewater, as biofilters containing biofilm communities capable of degrading herbicides.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Zhang J, Brown J, Scurr D, et al (2020)

Cryo-OrbiSIMS for 3D molecular imaging of a bacterial biofilm in its native state.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is gaining popularity for molecular imaging in the life-sciences since it is label-free and allows imaging in two and three dimensions. The recent introduction of the OrbiSIMS has significantly improved the utility for biological imaging through combining sub-cellular spatial resolution with high-performance Orbitrap mass spectrometry. SIMS instruments operate in high-vacuum and samples are typically analysed in a freeze-dried state. Consequently, the molecular and structural information may not be well-preserved. We report a method for molecular imaging of biological materials, preserved in a native state, by using an OrbiSIMS instrument, equipped with cryogenic sample handling, and a high-pressure freezing protocol compatible with mass spectrometry. The performance is demonstrated by imaging a challenging sample (>90% water) of a mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in its native state. The 3D distribution of quorum sensing signaling molecules, nucleobases and bacterial membrane molecules are revealed with high spatial-resolution and high mass-resolution. We discover that analysis in the frozen-hydrated state yields a 10,000 fold increase in signal intensity for polar molecules, such as amino acid, which has important implications for SIMS imaging of metabolites and pharmaceuticals.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Hillman KM, RC Sims (2020)

Struvite formation associated with the microalgae biofilm matrix of a rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) during nutrient removal from municipal wastewater.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 81(4):644-655.

Struvite was observed within the microalgae biofilm matrix of an outdoor, pilot-scale rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) designed to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal anaerobic digester filtrate. The bottom layer of cells (2.5-month growth) and two top layers of cells (1-week and 2.5-month growth) were evaluated on east- and west-facing sides of the RABR. Sun orientation and shading effects of upper biofilm layers impacted the species composition and microalgae content of the bottom biofilm layers. Struvite formed within the microalgae biofilm matrix, and a higher struvite content appeared to be correlated with a higher microalgae content. The highest struvite content (expressed as %wt. of total solids) was observed in the east- and west-facing bottom layers of growth and west-facing 1-week growth (5.0%, 4.3%, and 4.1%, respectively). The lowest struvite content was observed in east- and west-facing 2.5-month growth and east-facing 1-week growth (1.1%, 1.5%, and 1.1%, respectively). Despite RABR influent component ion molar ratios with potential for various magnesium and calcium precipitates, microalgae biofilm provided pH and nucleation sites favorable to struvite precipitation. This evaluation is the first in the refereed literature the authors are aware of that reports on the association of struvite formation in the presence of a microalgae biofilm.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Badal D, Jayarani AV, Kollaran MA, et al (2020)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on endotracheal tubes requires multiple two-component systems.

Journal of medical microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction. Indwelling medical devices such as endotracheal tubes (ETTs), urinary catheters, vascular access devices, tracheostomies and feeding tubes are often associated with hospital-acquired infections. Bacterial biofilm formed on the ETTs in intubated patients is a significant risk factor associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the four frequently encountered bacteria responsible for causing pneumonia, and the biofilm formation on ETTs. However, understanding of biofilm formation on ETT and interventions to prevent biofilm remains lagging. The ability to sense and adapt to external cues contributes to their success. Thus, the biofilm formation is likely to be influenced by the two-component systems (TCSs) that are composed of a membrane-associated sensor kinase and an intracellular response regulator.Aim. This study aims to establish an in vitro method to analyse the P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on ETTs, and identify the TCSs that contribute to this process.Methodology. In total, 112 P. aeruginosa PA14 TCS mutants were tested for their ability to form biofilm on ETTs, their effect on quorum sensing (QS) and motility.Results. Out of 112 TCS mutants studied, 56 had altered biofilm biomass on ETTs. Although the biofilm formation on ETTs is QS-dependent, none of the 56 loci controlled quorum signal. Of these, 18 novel TCSs specific to ETT biofilm were identified, namely, AauS, AgtS, ColR, CopS, CprR, NasT, KdpD, ParS, PmrB, PprA, PvrS, RcsC, PA14_11120, PA14_32580, PA14_45880, PA14_49420, PA14_52240, PA14_70790. The set of 56 included the GacS network, TCS proteins involved in fimbriae synthesis, TCS proteins involved in antimicrobial peptide resistance, and surface-sensing. Additionally, several of the TCS-encoding genes involved in biofilm formation on ETTs were found to be linked to flagellum-dependent swimming motility.Conclusions. Our study established an in vitro method for studying P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on the ETT surfaces. We also identified novel ETT-specific TCSs that could serve as targets to prevent biofilm formation on indwelling devices frequently used in clinical settings.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Parducho KR, Beadell B, Ybarra TK, et al (2020)

The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin 2 Inhibits Biofilm Production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Without Compromising Metabolic Activity.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:805.

Biofilm production is a key virulence factor that facilitates bacterial colonization on host surfaces and is regulated by complex pathways, including quorum sensing, that also control pigment production, among others. To limit colonization, epithelial cells, as part of the first line of defense, utilize a variety of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including defensins. Pore formation is the best investigated mechanism for the bactericidal activity of AMPs. Considering the induction of human beta-defensin 2 (HBD2) secretion to the epithelial surface in response to bacteria and the importance of biofilm in microbial infection, we hypothesized that HBD2 has biofilm inhibitory activity. We assessed the viability and biofilm formation of a pyorubin-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in the presence and absence of HBD2 in comparison to the highly bactericidal HBD3. At nanomolar concentrations, HBD2 - independent of its chiral state - significantly reduced biofilm formation but not metabolic activity, unlike HBD3, which reduced biofilm and metabolic activity to the same degree. A similar discrepancy between biofilm inhibition and maintenance of metabolic activity was also observed in HBD2 treated Acinetobacter baumannii, another Gram-negative bacterium. There was no evidence for HBD2 interference with the regulation of biofilm production. The expression of biofilm-related genes and the extracellular accumulation of pyorubin pigment, another quorum sensing controlled product, did not differ significantly between HBD2 treated and control bacteria, and in silico modeling did not support direct binding of HBD2 to quorum sensing molecules. However, alterations in the outer membrane protein profile accompanied by surface topology changes, documented by atomic force microscopy, was observed after HBD2 treatment. This suggests that HBD2 induces structural changes that interfere with the transport of biofilm precursors into the extracellular space. Taken together, these data support a novel mechanism of biofilm inhibition by nanomolar concentrations of HBD2 that is independent of biofilm regulatory pathways.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Aqawi M, Gallily R, Sionov RV, et al (2020)

Cannabigerol Prevents Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation of Vibrio harveyi.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:858.

Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid naturally present in trace amounts in the Cannabis plant. So far, CBG has been shown to exert diverse activities in eukaryotes. However, much less is known about its effects on prokaryotes. In this study, we investigated the potential role of CBG as an anti-biofilm and anti-quorum sensing agent against Vibrio harveyi. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication system among bacteria that involves small signaling molecules called autoinducers, enabling bacteria to sense the surrounding environment. The autoinducers cause alterations in gene expression and induce bioluminescence, pigment production, motility and biofilm formation. The effect of CBG was tested on V. harveyi grown under planktonic and biofilm conditions. CBG reduced the QS-regulated bioluminescence and biofilm formation of V. harveyi at concentrations not affecting the planktonic bacterial growth. CBG also reduced the motility of V. harveyi in a dose-dependent manner. We further observed that CBG increased LuxO expression and activity, with a concomitant 80% downregulation of the LuxR gene. Exogenous addition of autoinducers could not overcome the QS-inhibitory effect of CBG, suggesting that CBG interferes with the transmission of the autoinducer signals. In conclusion, our study shows that CBG is a potential anti-biofilm agent via inhibition of the QS cascade.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Silva AV, Edel M, Gescher J, et al (2020)

Exploring the Effects of bolA in Biofilm Formation and Current Generation by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:815.

Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) have emerged in recent years as a promising alternative green source of energy, with microbes consuming organic matter to produce energy or valuable byproducts. It is the ability of performing extracellular electron transfer that allows these microbes to exchange electrons with an electrode in these systems. The low levels of current achieved have been the limiting factor for the large-scale application of METs. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is one of the most studied electroactive organisms regarding extracellular electron transfer, and it has been shown that biofilm formation is a key factor for current generation. The transcription factor bolA has been identified as a central player in biofilm formation in other organisms, with its overexpression leading to increased biofilm. In this work we explore the effect of this gene in biofilm formation and current production by S. oneidensis MR-1. Our results demonstrate that an increased biofilm formation and consequent current generation was achieved by the overexpression of this gene. This information is crucial to optimize electroactive organisms toward their practical application in METs.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Akinpelu S, Ajayi A, Smith SI, et al (2020)

Efflux pump activity, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance profile of Klebsiella spp. isolated from clinical samples at Lagos University Teaching Hospital.

BMC research notes, 13(1):258 pii:10.1186/s13104-020-05105-2.

OBJECTIVE: Nosocomial and community acquired multidrug resistant Klebsiella infections are wide spread resulting in high morbidity and mortality due to limited number of antibiotics treatment options. This study investigated efflux pump activity, biofilm forming potential and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Klebsiella spp. isolated from clinical samples in a tertiary hospital in Lagos Nigeria. Eighteen clinical Klebsiella spp. isolated from urine, blood and sputum were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. Efflux pump activity was evaluated by the ethidium bromide cartwheel method and biofilm forming ability was determined by the tissue culture plate technique.

RESULTS: All 18 (100%) Klebsiella isolates were resistant to cefuroxime, cefixime, amoxicillin - clavulanate, ampicillin + cloxacillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem. Seventeen (94.4%) were resistant to ofloxacin while sixteen (88.9%) were resistance to nalidixic acid, Gentamicin and levofloxacin. All Klebsiella isolates possessed active efflux pump with the ability to form biofilm. However, their biofilm forming capabilities varied as 4 (22.2%) were strong, 3 (16.7%) were moderate and 11 (61.1%) were weak biofilm formers. Findings in this study reveal multiple factors at play in mediating the high level of antibiotic resistance observed in Klebsiella isolates. Hence a multifaceted approach is advocated in managing the infections caused by the pathogen.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Teul J, Deja S, Celińska-Janowicz K, et al (2020)

LC-QTOF-MS and 1H NMR Metabolomics Verifies Potential Use of Greater Omentum for Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Eradication in Rats.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:pathogens9050399.

Bacterial wound infections are a common problem associated with surgical interventions. In particular, biofilm-forming bacteria are hard to eradicate, and alternative methods of treatment based on covering wounds with vascularized flaps of tissue are being developed. The greater omentum is a complex organ covering the intestines in the abdomen, which support wound recovery following surgical procedures and exhibit natural antimicrobial activity that could improve biofilm eradication. We investigated changes in rats' metabolome following Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, as well as the greater omentum's ability for Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm eradication. Rats received either sterile implants or implants covered with Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm (placed in the peritoneum or greater omentum). Metabolic profiles were monitored at days 0, 2, and 5 after surgery using combined proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF‑MS) measurements of urine samples followed by chemometric analysis. Obtained results indicated that grafting of the sterile implant to the greater omentum did not cause major disturbances in rats' metabolism, whereas the sterile implant located in the peritoneum triggered metabolic perturbations related to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, as well as choline, tryptophan, and hippurate metabolism. Presence of implants colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm resulted in similar levels of metabolic perturbations in both locations. Our findings confirmed that surgical procedures utilizing the greater omentum may have a practical use in wound healing and tissue regeneration in the future.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Ferriol-González C, P Domingo-Calap (2020)

Phages for Biofilm Removal.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:antibiotics9050268.

Biofilms are clusters of bacteria that live in association with surfaces. Their main characteristic is that the bacteria inside the biofilms are attached to other bacterial cells and to the surface by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms are capable of adhering to a wide variety of surfaces, both biotic and abiotic, including human tissues, medical devices, and other materials. On these surfaces, biofilms represent a major threat causing infectious diseases and economic losses. In addition, current antibiotics and common disinfectants have shown limited ability to remove biofilms adequately, and phage-based treatments are proposed as promising alternatives for biofilm eradication. This review analyzes the main advantages and challenges that phages can offer for the elimination of biofilms, as well as the most important factors to be taken into account in order to design effective phage-based treatments.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Sapata DM, Ramos AL, Sábio S, et al (2020)

Evaluation of biofilm accumulation on and deactivation force of orthodontic Ni-Ti archwires before and after exposure to an oral medium: A prospective clinical study.

Journal of dental research, dental clinics, dental prospects, 14(1):41-47.

Background. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate biofilm accumulation on and deactivation force of orthodontic nickeltitanium (NiTi) archwires before and after exposure to an oral medium. Methods. Four commercial brands of orthodontic NiTi 0.016" archwires were examined before and after exposure to the oral medium for 4 weeks. Six archwire segments, 30 mm in length, from each manufacturer were tested in a device with four selfligating brackets, channel 0.022", adapted to a universal test machine to evaluate the deactivation force between 0.5 and 3 mm of deflection. The presence of biofilm on the archwire surfaces was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, before and after exposure to the oral medium. The Wilcoxon and kappa tests were applied to the biofilm scores, three-way ANOVA for repeated measures (Bonferroni post-test), and linear regression between biofilm and deactivation force. Results. The exposure to the oral medium promoted moderate to severe presence of debris on the archwire surfaces and caused a reduction in deactivation force for the Ormco and GAC brands, while maintaining them with adequate force levels. The MORELLI and ORTHOMETRIC archwires underwent no significant reduction in deactivation force; moreover, these maintained elevated levels of force after exposure to the oral medium. The Spearman test indicated a low correlation between biofilm accumulation and deflection force for the Morelli (R2=0.132 and P=0.683) and Orthometric (R2=0.308 and P=0.330) brands. On the other hand, the GAC (R=0.767 and P=0.004) and ORMCO (R=0.725 and P=0.008) brands exhibited statistically significant correlation between these variables. Conclusion. Exposure to the oral medium for one month might give rise to significant changes in the dissipation of forces of orthodontic NiTi archwires, resulting from biofilm accumulation.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Kart D, AS Kuştimur (2019)

Investigation of Gelatinase Gene Expression and Growth of Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Isolates in Biofilm Models.

Turkish journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 16(3):356-361.

Objectives: Enterococcus faecalis is the major reason for biofilm-related infections and it also interacts with Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms. Gelatinase (gelE) enzyme is an important virulence factor of E. faecalis for biofilm formation. This study aimed to compare the biofilm producing E. faecalis isolates from urine and urinary catheters. The influence of S. aureus on the growth of E. faecalis biofilm cells was also investigated in a dual biofilm model in vitro. Another aim was to evaluate E. faecalis gelE gene expression during biofilm formation.

Materials and Methods: Firstly, crystal violet staining was used to measure the total biofilm biomass of the isolates. Secondly, plate counting was performed to determine the biofilm formation ability of E. faecalis isolates and the effect of S. aureus on E. faecalis biofilm formation. Finally, the gelE expression profile of the isolates was assessed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction.

Results: According to crystal violet staining and plate counting, all E. faecalis isolates were biofilm producers and the number of E. faecalis sessile cells increased in the presence of S. aureus. Among the 21 E. faecalis isolates, ten expressed high levels of the gelE gene, while eight of them had low expression profiles (p<0.05).

Conclusion: When they grow together, S. aureus may give some advantages to E. faecalis such as increasing sessile cell growth. The expression of the gelE gene was not affected by E. faecalis biofilm formation of the isolates collected from the patients with urinary tract infections.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Zakaria BS, BR Dhar (2020)

Changes in syntrophic microbial communities, EPS matrix, and gene-expression patterns in biofilm anode in response to silver nanoparticles exposure.

The Science of the total environment, 734:139395 pii:S0048-9697(20)32912-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on various biological wastewater treatment systems is of significant interest to researchers. In recent years, microbial electrochemical technologies have opened up new opportunities for bioenergy and chemicals production from organic wastewater. However, the effects of AgNPs on microbial electrochemical systems are yet to be understood fully. Notably, no studies have investigated the impact of AgNPs on a microbial electrochemical system fed with a complex fermentable substrate. Here, we investigated the impact of AgNPs (50 mg/L) exposure to a biofilm anode in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) fed with glucose. The volumetric current density was 29 ± 2.0 A/m3 before the AgNPs exposure, which decreased to 20 ± 2.2 A/m3 after AgNPs exposure. The biofilms produced more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to cope with the AgNPs exposure, while carbohydrate to protein ratio in EPS considerably increased from 0.4 to 0.7. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging also confirmed the marked excretion of EPS, forming a thick layer covering the anode biofilms after AgNPs injection. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging showed that AgNPs still penetrated some microbial cells, which could explain the deterioration of MEC performance after AgNPs exposure. The relative expression level of the quorum signalling gene (LuxR) increased by 30%. Microbial community analyses suggested that various fermentative bacterial species (e.g., Bacteroides, Synergistaceae_vadinCA02, Dysgonomonas, etc.) were susceptible to AgNPs toxicity, which led to the disruption of their syntrophic partnership with electroactive bacteria. The abundance of some specific electroactive bacteria (e.g., Geobacter species) also decreased. Moreover, decreased relative expressions of various extracellular electron transfer associated genes (omcB, omcC, omcE, omcZ, omcS, and pilA) were observed. However, the members of family Enterobacteriaceae, known to perform a dual function of fermentation and anodic respiration, became dominant after biofilm anode exposed to AgNPs. Thus, EPS extraction provided partial protection against AgNPs exposure.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Baattrup-Pedersen A, Graeber D, Kallestrup H, et al (2020)

Effects of low flow and co-occurring stressors on structural and functional characteristics of the benthic biofilm in small streams.

The Science of the total environment, 733:139331 pii:S0048-9697(20)32848-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Low flow and co-occurring stress is a more and more frequent phenomenon these years in small agricultural streams as a consequence of climate change. In the present study we explored short and longer term structural responses of the stream benthic algae community and biofilm metabolism to multiple stress in small streams applying a semi-experimental approach. We hypothesized that i) a reduction in flow in combination with secondary stress (nutrients and sediments) have immediate effects on the benthic algae community in terms of biomass (chlorophyll a, biovolume), taxonomic and trait (lifeform and size distribution) compositions as well as on metabolism (GPP and CR), and ii) that changes in the benthic algae community persist due to altered environmental settings but that functional redundancy among benthic algae species provides a high level of resilience in metabolism (GPP and CR). Overall, we found that stress imposed by nutrients was less pronounced than stress imposed by fine sediments under low flow, and that nutrient enrichment to some extent mitigated effects of fine sediments. Fine sediment deposition mediated a decline in the fraction of erect algae and/or algae with mucilage stalks but this did not happen under co-occurring stress from both sediments and nutrients. Additionally, fine sediment deposition mediated a decline in GPP of the biofilm, but again this did not happen under co-occurring stress from nutrients. We conclude that 1) the benthic algae community and biofilm metabolism displayed similar resilience to stress imposed by low flow and co-occurring stress from nutrients and sediments on a short and longer time scale and 2) as structure-function adaptations may occur at several trophic levels in the biofilm, more research is needed to explore mechanisms underlying mitigating effects of nutrients in response to sediment deposition under low flow.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Badi S, Salah Abbassi M, Snoussi M, et al (2020)

High rates of antibiotic resistance and biofilm production in Escherichia coli isolates from food products of animal and vegetable origins in Tunisia: a real threat to human health.

International journal of environmental health research [Epub ahead of print].

The aim of this study was to compare the antibiotic susceptibility of eighty Escherichia coli isolates from vegetables and food products of animal origin in Tunisia, and to study their genes encoding antibiotic resistance and in vitro biofilm forming capacity. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined, as well as PCR investigation of genes associated with antibiotic resistance. Biofilm formation was tested using four different methods: the microtiter plate-, MTT-staining-, XTT-staining-, and the Congo Red Agar assays. High antibiotic resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin (68.7%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (73.7%), gentamicin (68.7%), kanamycin (66.2%), nalidixic acid (36.2%), streptomycin (68.7%) and tetracycline (35%). The majority of isolates was multidrug resistant and biofilm producer. MTT testing showed that vegetables isolates were significantly higher biofilm producers compared to foods of animal origins. This study showed that E. coli isolates from food products were reservoirs of genes encoding antibiotic-resistance and have a high propensity to produce biofilm.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Li M, Shi D, Li Y, et al (2020)

Recombination of T4-like Phages and Its Activity against Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Planktonic and Biofilm Forms.

Virologica Sinica pii:10.1007/s12250-020-00233-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The increasing emergence of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) has become a global concern, primarily due to the limitation of antimicrobial treatment options. Phage therapy has been considered as a promising alternative for treating infections caused by multi-drug resistant E. coli. However, the application of phages as a promising antimicrobial agent is limited by their narrow host range and specificity. In this research, a recombinant T4-like phage, named WGqlae, has been obtained by changing the receptor specificity determinant region of gene 37, using a homologous recombination platform of T4-like phages established by our laboratory previously. The engineered phage WGqlae can lyse four additional hosts, comparing to its parental phages WG01 and QL01. WGqlae showed similar characteristics, including thermo and pH stability, optimal multiplicity of infection and one-step growth curve, to the donor phage QL01. In addition, sequencing results showed that gene 37 of recombinant phage WGqlae had genetically stable even after 20 generations. In planktonic test, phage WGqlae had significant antimicrobial effects on E. coli DE192 and DE205B. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) of E. coli in phage WGqlae treating group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.01). Besides, phage WGqlae demonstrated an obvious inhibitory effect on the biofilm formation and the clearance of mature biofilms. Our study suggested that engineered phages may be promising candidates for future phage therapy applications against pathogenic E. coli in planktonic and biofilm forms.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Vishwakarma J, S V L (2020)

Unraveling the anti-biofilm potential of green algal sulfated polysaccharides against Salmonella enterica and Vibrio harveyi.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-020-10653-5 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the main reasons for the bacterial resistance to antibiotics is caused by biofilm formation of microbial pathogens during bacterial infections. Salmonella enterica and Vibrio harveyi are known to form biofilms and represent a major health concern worldwide, causing human infections responsible for morbidity and mortality. The current study aims to investigate the effect of purified sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) on planktonic and biofilm growth of these bacteria. The effect of Cr-SPs on bacterial planktonic growth was assessed by using the agar well diffusion method, which showed clear zones ranging from 13 to 26 mm in diameter from 0.5 to 8 mg/mL of Cr-SPs against both the bacteria. Time-kill activity and reduction in clonogenic propagation further help to understand the anti-microbial potential of Cr-SPs. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cr-SPs against S. enterica and V. harveyi was as low as 440 μg/mL and 490 μg/mL respectively. Cr-SPs inhibited bacterial cell attachment up to 34.65-100% at 0.5-8 mg/mL in S. enterica and V. harveyi respectively. Cr-SPs also showed 2-fold decrease in the cell surface hydrophobicity, indicating their potential to prevent bacterial adherence. Interestingly, Cr-SPs efficiently eradicated the preformed biofilms. Increased reduction in total extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and extracellular DNA (eDNA) content in a dose-dependent manner demonstrates Cr-SPs ability to interact and destroy the bacterial EPS layer. SEM analysis showed that Cr-SPs effectively distorted preformed biofilms and also induced morphological changes. Furthermore, Cr-SPs also showed anti-quorum-sensing potential by reducing bacterial urease and protease activities. These results indicate the potential of Cr-SPs as an anti-biofilm agent and will help to develop them as alternative therapeutics against biofilm-forming bacterial infections. KEY POINTS: • Cr-SPs not only inhibited biofilm formation but also eradicated preformed biofilms. • Cr-SPs altered bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity preventing biofilm formation. • Cr-SPs efficiently degraded eDNA of the EPS layer disrupting mature biofilms. • Cr-SPs reduced activity of quorum-sensing-mediated enzymes like protease and urease.

RevDate: 2020-05-25

Zhang L, Liang E, Cheng Y, et al (2020)

Is combined medication with natural medicine a promising therapy for bacterial biofilm infection?.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 128:110184 pii:S0753-3322(20)30376-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilms widely exist in nature and seriously threaten global public health. Biofilms always cause persistent infection and seriously aggravate the occurrence of antibiotic resistance, which makes the treatment of bacterial infection difficult. Current conventional therapies, such as antibiotics, bacteriophages and quorum sensing inhibitors, are widely used to combat biofilms. However, these therapies are inadequate for the safe and effective treatment of biofilms. Antibiotics often produce resistance in treated bacteria, and antibacterial peptides are easily decomposed by proteases, so their efficacy is reduced. These results indicate that the treatment of biofilms needs further improvement. Increasing evidence has shown that natural medicine therapies have significant inhibitory effects on biofilms. This review summarized and analyzed the efficacy characteristics and corresponding mechanisms of conventional and natural medicine therapies combatting biofilms. By comparison, the advantages and disadvantages of those therapies have been classified and interpreted, so we have inferred that combined medication with natural medicines will be a more effective strategy against biofilms. This review lays a promising foundation for the development of antibiofilm agents and provides novel thinking for the treatment of bacterial biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2020-05-25

Zhou X, Ahmad JI, van der Hoek JP, et al (2020)

Thermal energy recovery from chlorinated drinking water distribution systems: Effect on chlorine and microbial water and biofilm characteristics.

Environmental research, 187:109655 pii:S0013-9351(20)30548-X [Epub ahead of print].

Thermal energy recovery from drinking water has a high potential in the application of sustainable building and industrial cooling. However, drinking water and biofilm microbial qualities should be concerned because the elevated water temperature after cold recovery may influence the microbial activities in water and biofilm phases in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, the effect of cold recovery on microbial qualities was investigated in a chlorinated DWDS. The chlorine decay was slight (1.1%-15.5%) due to a short contact time (~60 s) and was not affected by the cold recovery (p > 0.05). The concentrations of cellular ATP and intact cell numbers in the bulk water were partially inactivated by the residual chlorine, with the removal rates of 10.1%-16.2% and 22.4%-29.4%, respectively. The chlorine inactivation was probably promoted by heat exchangers but was not further enhanced by higher temperatures. The higher water temperature (25 °C) enhanced the growth of biofilm biomass on pipelines. Principle coordination analysis (PCoA) showed that the biofilms on the stainless steel plates of HEs and the plastic pipe inner surfaces had totally different community compositions. Elevated temperatures favored the growth of Pseudomonas spp. and Legionella spp. in the biofilm after cold recovery. The community functional predictions revealed more abundances of five human diseases (e.g. Staphylococcis aureus infection) and beta-lactam resistance pathways in the biofilms at higher temperature. Compared with a previous study with a non-chlorinated DWDS, chlorine dramatically reduced the biofilm biomass growth but raised the relative abundances of the chlorine-resistant genera (i.e. Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas) in bacterial communities.

RevDate: 2020-05-25

Tu C, Chen T, Zhou Q, et al (2020)

Biofilm formation and its influences on the properties of microplastics as affected by exposure time and depth in the seawater.

The Science of the total environment, 734:139237 pii:S0048-9697(20)32754-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The effects of microbial colonization and biofilm formation on microplastics in the marine and coastal environments have aroused global concern recently. However, the simultaneous influences of exposure time and depth on biofilm formation, and subsequently on the properties variations of microplastics is less studied. In this study, polyethylene (PE) film was exposed at three depths (2 m, 6 m, and 12 m) for three time periods (30 days, 75 days, and 135 days) in the coastal seawater of Yellow Sea, China. The results show that the total amount of biofilms markedly increased with exposure time, but decreased with water depth. Typical morphologies and compositions of biofilms such as coccus-, rod-, disc-shaped bacteria and filaments, as well as a dense layer of extracellular polymeric substances were observed on the surfaces of the PE microplastics. Biofilm formation could decrease the hydrophobicity of PE microplastics, and increase the abundances of hydrophilic C-O and CO groups on the surface of PE. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidia were identified as the core microbiome of the PE associated biofilms, while the dominant bacteria families vary from the early to the late phases of the biofilm formation. Our results indicate that microplastics associated biofilms could affect the environmental processes and fates of microplastics in the marine and coastal environment.

RevDate: 2020-05-25

Hujslová M, Gryndlerová H, Bystrianský L, et al (2020)

Biofilm and planktonic microbial communities in highly acidic soil (pH < 3) in the Soos National Nature Reserve, Czech Republic.

Extremophiles : life under extreme conditions pii:10.1007/s00792-020-01177-x [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation is a typical life strategy used by microorganisms populating acidic water systems. The same strategy might be used by microbes in highly acidic soils that are, however, neglected in this regard. In the present study, the microbial community in such highly acidic soil in the Soos National Nature Reserve (Czech Republic) has been investigated using high-throughput DNA sequencing and the organisms associated with biofilm life mode and those preferring planktonic life were distinguished using the biofilm trap technique. Our data show the differences between biofilm and planktonic microbiota fraction, although the majority of the organisms were capable of using both life modes. The by far most abundant prokaryotic genus was Acidiphilium and fungi were identified among the most abundant eukaryotic elements in biofilm formations. On the other hand, small flagellates from diverse taxonomical groups predominated in plankton. The application of cellulose amendment as well as the depth of sampling significantly influenced the composition of the detected microbial community.

RevDate: 2020-05-24

Lundström T, Lingström P, Wattle O, et al (2020)

Equine saliva components during mastication, and in vivo pH changes in the oral biofilm of sound and carious tooth surfaces after sucrose exposure.

Acta veterinaria Scandinavica, 62(1):21 pii:10.1186/s13028-020-00518-2.

BACKGROUND: The role of saliva composition and dietary sugar in development of infundibular caries in equine cheek teeth is not fully understood. This study analysed electrolyte and urea concentrations in saliva in relation to different forage and measured pH changes after sucrose application in vivo in sound and carious cheek teeth.

RESULTS: Forage type had no effect on the equine saliva electrolyte concentrations, which varied considerably both intra- and inter-individually. Chewing resulted in increased values for all electrolytes except bicarbonate. Compared with stimulated human saliva, horse saliva after mastication, contained higher amounts of potassium, calcium and bicarbonate, and less phosphate. The in vivo pH measurements showed a lower resting pH and a more pronounced pH drop after sucrose application in carious teeth compared to sound teeth.

CONCLUSIONS: No large differences were found between the composition of equine saliva and human saliva. A more pronounced acidogenicity was found for the carious than sound teeth. Thus, the caries process in equine cheek teeth seems to follow the same pattern as in human teeth, caused by acid production by oral microorganisms after sugar consumption.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Yang Z, Wang Z, Lei M, et al (2020)

Effects of Spo0A on Clostridium acetobutylicum with an emphasis on biofilm formation.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 36(6):80 pii:10.1007/s11274-020-02859-6.

Clostridium acetobutylicum is a well-known strain for biofuel production. In previous work, it was found that this strain formed biofilm readily during fermentation processes. Biofilm formation could protect cells and enhance productivities under environmental stresses in our previous work. To explore the molecular mechanism of biofilm formation, Spo0A of C. acetobutylicum was selected to investigate its influences on biofilm formation and other physiological performances. When spo0A gene was disrupted, the spo0A mutant could hardly form biofilm. The aggregation and adhesion abilities of the spo0A mutant as well as its swarming motility were dramatically reduced compared to those of wild type strain. Sporulation was also negatively influenced by spo0A disruption, and solvent production was almost undetectable in the spo0A mutant fermentation. Furthermore, proteomic differences between wild type strain and the spo0A mutant were consistent with physiological performances. This is the first study confirming a genetic clue to C. acetobutylicum biofilm and will be valuable for biofilm optimization through genetic engineering in the future.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Song Y, Sun M, Feng L, et al (2020)

Lactobacillus plantarum-12 Exopolysaccharides Have Anti-Biofilm Activity Against Shigella flexneri.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.00694-20 [Epub ahead of print].

In the developing countries, Shigella flexneri is the most common enteric pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. And the biofilm formation of S. flexneri can cause the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and serious threat to food safety and human health. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum-12 exopolysaccharides (L-EPS) and S. flexneri exopolysaccharides (S-EPS) on the S. flexneri CMCC51574 biofilm formation were investigated. The results showed that L-EPS could decrease the polysaccharides production in the extracellular polymeric matrix of S. flexneri, and inhibit the biofilm formation of S. flexneri L-EPS could decrease the minimum biofilm elimination concentration (MBEC) of the antibiotics against S. flexneri biofilm and inhibit S. flexneri adhesion and invasion to the HT-29 cell monolayers, which might be ascribed to the S. flexneri biofilm disturbance by L-EPS. While the S-EPS exhibited the exactly opposite effects compared to L-EPS. The monosaccharide composition analysis showed that L-EPS was composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, galactosamine, glucose, galactose and xylose, with the molar ratio of 32.26: 0.99: 1.79: 5.63: 0.05: 4.07, and the S-EPS was composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, galactosamine, glucose, galactose, with the molar ratio of 25.43: 2.28: 7.13: 5.35. The L-EPS was separated to the neutral polysaccharide L-EPS 1-1 and the acidic polysaccharide L-EPS 2-1 by the ion exchange chromatography and gel chromatography. The L-EPS 2-1 exerted higher anti-biofilm activity than the L-EPS 1-1. The anti-biofilm activity of L-EPS might be associated with its structure.Importance:S. flexneri is a wide-spread food-borne pathogen causing food contamination and responsible for food poisoning outbreaks through various foods in developing countries. The biofilm formation of S. flexneri was not only difficult to be eliminated, but also increased the drug-resistant of the strain. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the L-EPS secreted by the Lactobacillus plantrum-12 could inhibit the biofilm formation, adhesion and invasion to HT-29 cells of S. flexneri And the L-EPS could also decrease the minimum biofilm elimination concentration (MBEC) of the antibiotics against S. flexneri biofilm. Therefore, the L-EPS was a bioactive macromolecule with the potential ability against the infections of the S. flexneri.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Khan F, Yu H, YM Kim (2020)

Bactericidal Activity of Usnic Acid-Chitosan Nanoparticles against Persister Cells of Biofilm-Forming Pathogenic Bacteria.

Marine drugs, 18(5): pii:md18050270.

The present study aimed to prepare usnic acid (UA)-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (UA-CS NPs) and evaluate its antibacterial activity against biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria. UA-CS NPs were prepared through simple ionic gelification of UA with CS, and further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and field-emission transmission electron microscopy. The UA-CS NPs presented a loading capacity (LC) of 5.2%, encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 24%, and a spherical shape and rough surface. The maximum release of UA was higher in pH 1.2 buffer solution as compared to that in pH 6.8 and 7.4 buffer solution. The average size and zeta potential of the UA-CS NPs was 311.5 ± 49.9 nm in diameter and +27.3 ± 0.8 mV, respectively. The newly prepared UA-CS NPs exhibited antibacterial activity against persister cells obtained from the stationary phase in batch culture, mature biofilms, and antibiotic-induced gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Exposure of sub-inhibitory concentrations of UA-CS NPs to the bacterial cells resulted in a change in morphology. The present study suggests an alternative method for the application of UA into nanoparticles. Furthermore, the anti-persister activity of UA-CS NPs may be another possible strategy for the treatment of infections caused by biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Sun X, Chen B, Xia B, et al (2020)

Impact of mariculture-derived microplastics on bacterial biofilm formation and their potential threat to mariculture: A case in situ study on the Sungo Bay, China.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 262:114336.

Microplastics (MPs) pollution in the marine environment has attracted considerable global attention. However, the colonization of microorganisms on mariculture-derived MPs and their effects on mariculture remain poorly understood. In this study, the MPs (fishing nets, foams and floats) and a natural substrate, within size ranges (1-4 mm), were then incubated for 21 days in Sungo Bay (China), and the composition and diversity of bacterial communities attached on all substrates were investigated. Results showed that bacterial communities on MPs mainly originated from their surrounding seawater and sediment, with an average contribution on total MPs adherent population of 47.91% and 37.33%, respectively. Principle coordinate analysis showed that community similarity between MPs and surrounding seawater decreased with exposure time. In addition, lower average bacterial community diversity and higher relative abundances of bacteria from the genera Vibrio, Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas on MPs than those in their surrounding seawater and sediments indicated that MPs might enrich potential pathogens and bacteria related with carbohydrate metabolism. They are responsible for the significant differences in KEGG Orthology pathways (infectious disease and carbohydrate metabolism) between MPs and seawater. The KO pathway (Infectious Diseases) associated with MPs was also significantly higher than those with feathers in the nearshore area. MPs might be vectors for enrichment of potentially pathogenic Vibrio, and enhance the ecological risk of MPs to mariculture industry.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Liu W, Lu H, Chu X, et al (2020)

Tea polyphenols inhibits biofilm formation, attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence and enhances resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in Caenorhabditis elegans model.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(20)30632-X [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria cells can communicate with each other via quorum sensing (QS) system. Various physiological characteristics including virulence factors and biofilm formation are controlled by QS. So interrupting the bacterial communication is an alternative strategy instead of antibiotics for control bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tea polyphenols (TPs) on quorum sensing and virulence factors of Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vitro study showed that the anti-QS activity of tea polyphenols against Chromobacterium violaceum in violacein production. At sub-MICs, TPs inhibited the motility, reduced protease and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and also biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae. In addition, in vivo study showed that tea polyphenols at 200 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL increased the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans to 73.3% and 82.2% against K. pneumonia infection. Our findings suggest that tea polyphenols can act as an effective QS inhibitor and can serve as a novel anti-virulence agent for the management of bacterial pathogens.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Brzezinka MS, Walczak M, Kalwasińska A, et al (2020)

Biofilm formation during biodegradation of polylactide, poly (3,4 hydroxybutyrate) and poly(ε-caprolactone) in activated sludge.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(20)33260-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Biodegradable materials, namely pure polylactide (PLA), poly (3,4-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were investigated to assess their degradability by activated sludge. The study aimed at the isolation of biofilm-forming bacteria and the determination of their hydrolytic activity toward the PLA, PHB, and PCL with embedded PHMG derivatives. The biological oxygen demand and physical properties (tensile strength, water vapor permeability, surface structure) of materials indicated that PCL was the best biodegradable film. Aeromonas and Rhodococcus isolated from the polymers' surface during the process of decomposition showed the ability to form biofilms. The introduction of PHMG derivatives into PLA, PCL, and PHB films did not affect biofilm formation and hydrolase activity for most of the isolates. PHMG derivatives at the concentration of 1% disturbed the degradation process.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Arutyunov AS, Tsareva TV, Kirakosyan LG, et al (2020)

[Features and significance of adhesion of bacteria and fungi of the oral cavity as the initial stage of the formation of a microbial biofilm on dental polymer materials].

Stomatologiia, 99(2):79-84.

OBJECTIVE: Characteristics of the adhesion of yeast fungi and oral bacteria of various types in vitro to samples of polymeric materials for fixed structures of dental prostheses, obtained using various technologies: adjective digital 3D printing and traditional methods.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conducted model experiments on the adhesion of bacterial (including the main periodontopic-pathogenic species - P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, etc.) and fungal pathogens (C. albicans) to standard samples of polymer materials NextDent C & B Micro Filled Hybrid («NextDent», Netherlands), Detax Freeprint temp UV («Detax», Germany), obtained by digital additive 3D printing technology, and Luxatemp Automix Plus («DMG», Germany) and Acrytemp («Zhermack», Italy) - by the traditional method as a control. Removal of adhering microbes from the material was carried out using an ultrasound machine (exposure time 10 minutes, power 60 kHz).

RESULTS: The dependence of the degree of microbial adhesion on the nature of the material and processing technology (3D printing, milling) was established. The materials of NextDent C & B Micro Filled Hybrid and Detax Freeprint temp UV showed high resistance to adhesion of clinical isolates of periodontal pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans fungi.

CONCLUSION: The lowest adhesion values for periodontopathogenic species and C. albicans fungi were detected when using samples of materials obtained by 3D printing: NextDent C & B Micro Filled Hybrid and Detax Freeprint temp UV compared to Luxatemp Automix Plus and Acrytemp polymers.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Lee M, Ponraja G, McLeod K, et al (2020)

Breast Implant Illness: A Biofilm Hypothesis.

Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open, 8(4):e2755.

Background: "Breast implant illness" (BII) is a poorly defined cluster of nonspecific symptoms, attributed by patients as being caused by their breast implants. These symptoms can include joint pain, skin and hair changes, concentration, and fatigue. Many patients complaining of BII symptoms are dismissed as psychosomatic. There are currently over 10,000 peer-reviewed articles on breast implants, but at the time of commencing this study, only 2 articles discussed this entity. At the same time, mainstream media and social media are exploding with nonscientific discussion about BII.

Methods: We have prospectively followed 50 consecutive patients, self-referring for explantation due to BII. We analyzed their preoperative symptoms and followed up each patient with a Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaire. All implants and capsules were, if possible, removed en bloc. Explanted implants were photographed. Implant shell and capsule sent for histology and microbiological culture.

Results: BII symptoms were not shown to correlate with any particular implant type, surface, or fill. There was no significant finding as to duration of implant or location of original surgery. Chronic infection was found in 36% of cases with Propionibacterium acnes the most common finding. Histologically, synoviocyte metaplasia was found in a significantly greater incidence than a matched cohort that had no BII symptoms (P = 0.0164). Eighty-four percent of patients reported partial or complete resolution of BII symptoms on Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaire. None of the 50 patients would consider having breast implants again.

Conclusion: The authors believe BII to be a genuine entity worthy of further study. We have identified microbiological and histological abnormalities in a significant number of patients identifying as having BII. A large proportion of these patients have reported resolution or improvement of their symptoms in patient-reported outcomes. Improved microbiology culture techniques may identify a larger proportion of chronic infection, and further investigation of immune phenotypes and toxicology may also be warranted in this group.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Tahrioui A, Duchesne R, Bouffartigues E, et al (2019)

Extracellular DNA release, quorum sensing, and PrrF1/F2 small RNAs are key players in Pseudomonas aeruginosa tobramycin-enhanced biofilm formation.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 5(1):15 pii:10.1038/s41522-019-0088-3.

Biofilms are structured microbial communities that are the leading cause of numerous chronic infections which are difficult to eradicate. Within the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent biofilm infection that is commonly treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics such as tobramycin. However, sublethal concentrations of this aminoglycoside were previously shown to increase biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa, but the underlying adaptive mechanisms still remain elusive. Herein, we combined confocal laser scanning microscope analyses, proteomics profiling, gene expression assays and phenotypic studies to unravel P. aeruginosa potential adaptive mechanisms in response to tobramycin exposure during biofilm growth. Under this condition, we show that the modified biofilm architecture is related at least in part to increased extracellular DNA (eDNA) release, most likely as a result of biofilm cell death. Furthermore, the activity of quorum sensing (QS) systems was increased, leading to higher production of QS signaling molecules. We also demonstrate upon tobramycin exposure an increase in expression of the PrrF small regulatory RNAs, as well as expression of iron uptake systems. Remarkably, biofilm biovolumes and eDNA relative abundances in pqs and prrF mutant strains decrease in the presence of tobramycin. Overall, our findings offer experimental evidences for a potential adaptive mechanism linking PrrF sRNAs, QS signaling, biofilm cell death, eDNA release, and tobramycin-enhanced biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa. These specific adaptive mechanisms should be considered to improve treatment strategies against P. aeruginosa biofilm establishment in CF patients' lungs.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Toledano-Osorio M, Osorio R, Aguilera FS, et al (2020)

Polymeric nanoparticles protect the resin-dentin bonded interface from cariogenic biofilm degradation.

Acta biomaterialia pii:S1742-7061(20)30263-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The objective was to assess doxycycline (Dox) and zinc (Zn) doped nanoparticles' (NPs) potential to protect the resin-dentin interface from cariogenic biofilm. Three groups of polymeric NPs were tested: unloaded, loaded with zinc and with doxycycline. NPs were applied after dentin etching. The disks were exposed to a cariogenic biofilm challenge in a Drip-Flow Reactor during 72 h and 7 d. Half of the specimens were not subjected to biofilm formation but stored 72 h and 7 d. LIVE/DEAD® viability assay, nano-dynamic mechanical assessment, Raman spectroscopy and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis were performed. The measured bacterial death rates, at 7 d were 46% for the control group, 51% for the undoped-NPs, 32% for Dox-NPs, and 87% for Zn-NPs; being total detected bacteria reduced five times in the Dox-NPs group. Zn-NPs treated samples reached, in general, the highest complex modulus values at the resin-dentin interface over time. Regarding the mineral content, Zn-NPs-treated dentin interfaces showed the highest mineralization degree associated to the phosphate peak and the relative mineral concentration. FESEM images after Zn-NPs application permitted to observe remineralization of the etched and non-resin infiltrated collagen layer, and bacteria were scarcely encountered. The combined antibacterial and remineralizing effects, when Zn-NPs were applied, reduced biofilm formation. Dox-NPs exerted an antibacterial role but did not remineralize the bonded interface. Undoped-NPs did not improve the properties of the interfaces. Application of Zn-doped NPs during the bonding procedure is encouraged. Statement of significance Application of Zn-doped nanoparticles on acid etched dentin reduced biofilm formation and viability at the resin-dentin interface due to both remineralization and antibacterial properties. Doxycycline-doped nanoparticles also diminished oral biofilm viability, but did not remineralize the resin-dentin interface.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Rocca DM, Silvero C MJ, Aiassa V, et al (2020)

Rapid and effective phototreatment of biofilm infections using low doses of amoxicillin-coated gold nanoparticles.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy pii:S1572-1000(20)30165-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilm are complex microbial communities covered by a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, which develops when a community of microorganisms irreversibly adheres to a living or inert surface. This structure is considered an important virulence factor because it is difficult to eradicate and often responsible for treatment failures. This adherent community represents one of the greatest problems in public health due to the continued emergence of conventional antibiotic-therapy resistance. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Therapy (PACT) is a therapeutic alternative and promises to be an effective treatment against multiresistant bacteria biofilm, demonstrating a broad spectrum of action. This work demonstrates the reduction in biofilms of relevant clinical isolates (as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) treated with PACT using low concentrations of amoxicillin-coated gold nanoparticles (amoxi@AuNP) as a photosensitizer. Moreover, the viability reduction of 60% in S. aureus biofilms and 70% in P. aeruginosa biofilms were obtained after three hours of irradiation with white light and amoxi@AuNP. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that amoxi@AuNP could penetrate and cause damage to the biofilm matrix, and interact with bacteria cells. A strong biofilm production in P. aeruginosa was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using acridine orange as a probe, and a markedly decrease in live bacteria was appreciated when PACT was applied. The use of amoxi@AuNP for PACT allows the viability reduction of clinical Gram positive and Gram negative biofilms. This novel strategy needs shorter irradiation times and lower concentrations of nanoparticles than other reports described. This could be attributed to two major innovations: the selectivity for the bacterial wall given by the amoxicillin and the polydispersity of size and shapes with seems to contribute to the photo-antibacterial capacity.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Hans S, Purkait D, Nandan S, et al (2020)

Rec A disruption unveils cross talk between DNA repair and membrane damage, efflux pump activity, biofilm formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(20)30628-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has emerged in recent decades as one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The burden of TB is alarmingly high, with one third affected global population as reported by WHO. Short-course treatment with an antibiotic is a powerful weapon to treat infection of susceptible MTB strain, however; MTB has developed resistance to anti-TB drugs, which is an escalating global health crisis. Thus there is urgent need to identify new drug targets. RecA is a 38 kilodalton protein required for the repair and maintenance of DNA and regulation of the SOS response. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of disruption of RecA gene (deletion mutant ΔdisA from previous study) in a surrogate model for MTB, Mycobacterium smegmatis. This study demonstrated that disruption of RecA causes enhanced susceptibility towards rifampicin and generation of ROS leading to lipid peroxidation and impaired membrane homeostasis as depicted by altered cell membrane permeability and efflux pump activity. Mass spectrometry based lipidomic analysis revealed decreased mycolic acid moieties, phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIM), Phthiocerol dimycocerosate (DIM). Furthermore, biofilm formation was considerably reduced. Additionally, we have validated all the disrupted phenotypes by RT-PCR which showed a good correlation with the biochemical assays. Lastly, RecA mutant displayed reduced infectivity in Caenorhabditis elegans illustrating its vulnerability as antimycobacterial target. Together, present study establishes a link between DNA repair, drug efflux and biofilm formation and validates RecA as an effective drug target. Intricate studies are needed to further understand and exploit this therapeutic opportunity.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Tang M, Wei X, Wan X, et al (2020)

The role and relationship with efflux pump of biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(20)30531-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to identify the role and relationship with efflux pump of biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sixty-one K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were collected between January and June of 2017 from the affiliated hospital of southwest medical university in Luzhou, China. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) were determined using broth microdilution method. Crystal violet (CV) staining and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) were used to monitor biofilm formation. Efflux pump expression was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Crystal violet staining was performed to evaluate the effect of efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP) on K. pneumoniae biofilms. Our results showed that crystal violet staining and CLSM had good consistency in biofilm detection. Biofilm formation was an independent biological behavior of the strain and measured at 24 h was reasonable. Biofilms up-regulated antimicrobial resistance and expression of efflux pump gene acrA, emrB, oqxA, and qacEΔ1 in K. pneumoniae. CCCP inhibited biofilms but dose-dependent effect was obvious. Altogether, our data demonstrates that biofilm formation, as well as its interaction with efflux pump, promotes antimicrobial resistance in K. pneumoniae.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Yang D, JI Reyes-De-Corcuera (2020)

Continuous flow system for biofilm formation using controlled concentrations of Pseudomonas putida from chicken carcass and coupled to electrochemical impedance detection.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Most studies dealing with monitoring the dynamics of biofilm formation use microbial suspensions at high concentrations. These conditions do not always represent food or water distribution systems. A continuous flow system capable of controlling the concentration of the microbial suspension stream from 104 to 106 CFU ml-1 is reported. Pseudomonas putida biofilms formed using 100-fold, 1,000-fold or 10,000-fold diluted bacterial suspensions were monitored in-line by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and total plate counts. Randles equivalent circuit model and a modified Randles model with biofilm elements were used to fit the EIS data. In Randles equivalent circuit, the charge transfer resistance decreased as the biofilm formed. The log colony counts of the biofilm correlated to the charge transfer resistance. In the biofilm model, the biofilm resistance and the double layer capacitance decreased as the biofilm formed. The log colony counts of the biofilm correlated to the biofilm resistance.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Dong Y, Li S, Zhao D, et al (2020)

IolR, a negative regulator of the myo-inositol metabolic pathway, inhibits cell autoaggregation and biofilm formation by downregulating RpmA in Aeromonas hydrophila.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 6(1):22 pii:10.1038/s41522-020-0132-3.

Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative agent of motile Aeromonad septicemia in fish. Previous studies have shown that the myo-inositol metabolism is essential for the virulence of this bacterium. IolR is a transcription inhibitor that negatively regulates myo-inositol metabolic activity. While in the process of studying the inositol catabolism in A. hydrophila Chinese epidemic strain NJ-35, we incidentally found that ΔiolR mutant exhibited obvious autoaggregation and increased biofilm formation compared to the wild type. The role of surface proteins in A. hydrophila autoaggregation was confirmed by different degradation treatments. Furthermore, calcium promotes the formation of aggregates, which disappear in the presence of the calcium chelator EGTA. Transcriptome analysis, followed by targeted gene deletion, demonstrated that biofilm formation and autoaggregation caused by the inactivation of iolR was due to the increased transcription of a RTX-family adhesion gene, rmpA. Further, IolR was determined to directly regulate the transcription of rmpA. These results indicated that iolR is negatively involved in autoaggregation and biofilm formation in A. hydrophila, and this involvement was associated with its inhibition on the expression of rmpA.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Luze H, Holzer J, Nischwitz SP, et al (2020)

The importance of in vivo biofilm models for clinical practice.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Ma Q, Wang H, Chen ZN, et al (2020)

Removal of biofilm is essential for long-term ventilation tube retention.

World journal of clinical cases, 8(9):1592-1599.

BACKGROUND: Although long-term retention of a ventilation tube is required in many ear diseases, spontaneous removal of conventional ventilation tube is observed in patients within 3 to 12 mo. To address this issue, we aimed to determine a new method for long-term retention of the ventilation tube.

AIM: To explore the value of removing the biofilm for long-term retention of tympanostomy ventilation tubes.

METHODS: A case-control study design was used to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of long-term tube retention by directly removing the biofilm (via surgical exfoliation) in patients who underwent myringotomy with ventilation tube placement. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Control group and treatment group. Patients in the treatment group underwent regular biofilm exfoliation surgery in the clinic, whereas those in the control group did not have their biofilm removed. Only conventional ventilation tubes were placed in this study. Outcome measures were tube position and patency. Tube retention time and any complications were documented.

RESULTS: Eight patients with biofilm removal and eight patients without biofilm removal as a control group were enrolled in the study. The tympanostomy tube retention time was significantly longer in the treatment group (43.5 ± 26.4 mo) than in the control group (9.5 ± 6.9 mo) (P = 0.003). More tympanostomy tubes were found to be patent and in correct position in the treatment group during the follow-up intervals than in the control group (P = 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Despite the use of short-term ventilation tubes, direct biofilm removal can be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for long-term tube retention of tympanostomy ventilation tubes in patients who underwent myringotomy.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Soukarieh F, Liu R, Romero M, et al (2020)

Hit Identification of New Potent PqsR Antagonists as Inhibitors of Quorum Sensing in Planktonic and Biofilm Grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Frontiers in chemistry, 8:204.

Current treatments for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are becoming less effective because of the increasing rates of multi-antibiotic resistance. Pharmacological targeting of virulence through inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) dependent virulence gene regulation has considerable therapeutic potential. In P. aeruginosa, the pqs QS system regulates the production of multiple virulence factors as well as biofilm maturation and is a promising approach for developing antimicrobial adjuvants for combatting drug resistance. In this work, we report the hit optimisation for a series of potent novel inhibitors of PqsR, a key regulator of the pqs system, bearing a 2-((5-methyl-5H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indol-3-yl)thio) acetamide scaffold. The initial hit compound 7 (PAO1-L IC50 0.98 ± 0.02 μM, PA14 inactive at 10 μM) was obtained through a virtual screening campaign performed on the PqsR ligand binding domain using the University of Nottingham Managed Chemical Compound Collection. Hit optimisation gave compounds with enhanced potency against strains PAO1-L and PA14, evaluated using P. aeruginosa pqs-based QS bioreporter assays. Compound 40 (PAO1-L IC50 0.25 ± 0.12 μM, PA14 IC50 0.34 ± 0.03 μM) is one of the most potent PqsR antagonists reported showing significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa pyocyanin production and pqs system signaling in both planktonic cultures and biofilms. The co-crystal structure of 40 with the PqsR ligand binding domain revealed the specific binding interactions occurring between inhibitor and this key regulatory protein.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Pijls BG, Sanders IMJG, Kujiper EJ, et al (2020)

Induction heating for eradicating Staphylococcus epidermidis from biofilm.

Bone & joint research, 9(4):192-199 pii:10.1302_2046-3758.94.BJR-2019-0274.R1.

Aims: Induction heating is a noninvasive, nonantibiotic treatment modality that can potentially be used to cause thermal damage to the bacterial biofilm on the metal implant surface. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of induction heating on killing Staphylococcus epidermidis from biofilm and to determine the possible synergistic effect of induction heating and antibiotics.

Methods: S. epidermidis biofilms were grown on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) coupons for 24 hours (young biofilm) and seven days (mature biofilm). These coupons with biofilm were heated to temperatures of 50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C for 3.5 minutes and subsequently exposed to vancomycin and rifampicin at clinically relevant concentrations.

Results: For the young biofilm, total eradication was observed at 65°C or higher for 3.5 minutes followed by 24 hours of vancomycin 10 mg/l and rifampicin 1 mg/l. For the mature biofilm, total eradication was observed at 60°C for 3.5 minutes followed by 24 hours of vancomycin 10 mg/l and rifampicin 1 mg/l. Total eradication was also observed at 60°C for 3.5 minutes followed by 24 hours of vancomycin 1 mg/l and rifampicin 1 mg/l followed by another thermal shock of 60°C for 3.5 minutes (two thermal shocks).

Conclusion: Induction heating of Ti6Al4V coupons is effective in reducing bacterial load in vitro for S. epidermidis biofilms. Induction heating and antibiotics have a synergistic effect resulting in total eradication of the biofilm at 60°C or higher for clinically relevant concentrations of vancomycin and rifampicin.Cite this article:Bone Joint Res. 2020;9(4):192-199.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Said MB, Saad MB, Bousselmi L, et al (2020)

Use of the catalytic complex TiO2/Red Cabbage Anthocyanins to reduce the biofilm formation by planktonic bacteria.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

The bacterial cells dwelling within the biofilm usually develop resistance against common disinfectants. In this current study, to improve the effectiveness of photocatalytic treatment, a natural sensitizer in combination with unsupported titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) was used to optimize the absorbance of NPs in the visible region and, to enhance the catalytic activity of the semiconductor. Different kinetic parameters were determined according to the first-order and the biphasic models to evaluate the ability of tested bacteria to form biofilm under different photocatalytic treatment conditions. As a result, the addition of red cabbage anthocyanins (RCA) as photosensitizer allows the enhancement of biocide activity of TiO2-NPs and the reduction of biofilm formation by tested bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Souza C, Mota HF, Faria YV, et al (2020)

Resistance to Antiseptics and Disinfectants of Planktonic and Biofilm-Associated Forms of Corynebacterium striatum.

Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) [Epub ahead of print].

Disinfection and antisepsis are of primary importance in controlling nosocomial infections and outbreaks by pathogens expressing multiple resistance to antimicrobial agents (multidrug-resistant [MDR]) used in therapy. Nowadays, infections related to health services (HAIs) due to MDR and multidrug-susceptible (MDS) Corynebacterium striatum should not be underestimated, including patients using invasive medical devices. The virulence potential of C. striatum needs further investigation. Currently, susceptibility profiles of planktonic and/or sessile forms of four C. striatum strains of different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were examined as biocides based on the manufacturer's recommendations: 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 2% peracetic acid (PA), 1% potassium monopersulfate (Virkon®; VK), 1% sodium hypochlorite (SH), and 70% ethyl alcohol (ET). Time-kill assays using 2% bovine serum albumin (BSA) were performed for evaluation of influence of organic matter on biocides effects. Planktonic forms expressed GA resistance at different levels. C. striatum viability was observed until 2, 4, 20, and 30 min for MDR 2369/II, MDS 1954/IV, MDR 1987/I, and MDS 1961/III strains, respectively. In contrast to GA, the biocides PA, VK24h, SH, and ET had higher effective bacterial mortality. However, storage of VK (48 hr) reduced their biocide activities. Moreover, mature biofilms were produced on abiotic substrates, including steel surfaces. Post-treatment with GA (30 min), survival of sessile forms was ≥100% than planktonic forms of all C. striatum tested strains. Independent of biocides tested, BSA increased the survival of planktonic and sessile forms (p ≤ 0.005). Present data indicated that hospital staff should be aware of dissemination and eradication of HAIs by C. striatum presenting resistance to biocides, including high-level disinfectants, such as GA.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Bumunang EW, Ateba CN, Stanford K, et al (2020)

Activity of Bacteriophage and Complex Tannins against Biofilm-Forming Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Canada and South Africa.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:antibiotics9050257.

Bacteriophages, natural killers of bacteria, and plant secondary metabolites, such as condensed tannins, are potential agents for the control of foodborne pathogens. The first objective of this study evaluated the efficacy of a bacteriophage SA21RB in reducing pre-formed biofilms on stainless-steel produced by two Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, one from South Africa and the other from Canada. The second objective examined the anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity of condensed tannin (CT) from purple prairie clover and phlorotannins (PT) from brown seaweed against these strains. For 24-h-old biofilms, (O113:H21; 6.2 log10 colony-forming units per square centimeter (CFU/cm2) and O154:H10; 5.4 log10 CFU/cm2), 3 h of exposure to phage (1013 plaque-forming units per milliliter (PFU/mL)) reduced (p ≤ 0.05) the number of viable cells attached to stainless-steel coupons by 2.5 and 2.1 log10 CFU/cm2 for O113:H21 and O154:H10, respectively. However, as biofilms matured, the ability of phage to control biofilm formation declined. In biofilms formed for 72 h (O113:H21; 5.4 log10 CFU/cm2 and O154:H10; 7 log10 CFU/cm2), reductions after the same duration of phage treatment were only 0.9 and 1.3 log10 CFU/cm2 for O113:H21 and O154:H10, respectively. Initial screening of CT and PT for anti-bacterial activity by a microplate assay indicated that both STEC strains were less sensitive (p ≤ 0.05) to CT than PT over a concentration range of 25-400 µg/mL. Based on the lower activity of CT (25-400 µg/mL), they were not further examined. Accordingly, PT (50 µg/mL) inhibited (p ≤ 0.05) biofilm formation for up to 24 h of incubation at 22 °C, but this inhibition progressively declined over 72 h for both O154:H10 and O113:H21. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that both SA21RB and PT eliminated 24 h biofilms, but that both strains were able to adhere and form biofilms on stainless-steel coupons at longer incubation times. These findings revealed that phage SA21RB is more effective at disrupting 24 than 72 h biofilms and that PT were able to inhibit biofilm formation of both E. coli O154:H10 and O113:H21 for up to 24 h.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Ingendoh-Tsakmakidis A, Eberhard J, Falk CS, et al (2020)

In Vitro Effects of Streptococcus oralis Biofilm on Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Cells.

Cells, 9(5): pii:cells9051226.

Human gingival epithelial cells (HGEps) and fibroblasts (HGFs) are the main cell types in peri-implant soft tissue. HGEps are constantly exposed to bacteria, but HGFs are protected by connective tissue as long as the mucosa-implant seal is intact. Streptococcus oralis is one of the commensal bacteria, is highly abundant at healthy implant sites, and might modulate soft tissue cells-as has been described for other streptococci. We have therefore investigated the effects of the S. oralis biofilm on HGEps and HGFs. HGEps or HGFs were grown separately on titanium disks and responded to challenge with S. oralis biofilm. HGFs were severely damaged after 4 h, exhibiting transcriptional inflammatory and stress responses. In contrast, challenge with S. oralis only induced a mild transcriptional inflammatory response in HGEps, without cellular damage. HGFs were more susceptible to the S. oralis biofilm than HGEps. The pro-inflammatory interleukin 6 (IL-6) was attenuated in HGFs, as was interleukin 8 (CXCL8) in HGEps. This indicates that S. oralis can actively protect tissue. In conclusion, commensal biofilms can promote homeostatic tissue protection, but only if the implant-mucosa interface is intact and HGFs are not directly exposed.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Riquelme SA, Liimatta K, Wong Fok Lung T, et al (2020)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Utilizes Host-Derived Itaconate to Redirect Its Metabolism to Promote Biofilm Formation.

Cell metabolism pii:S1550-4131(20)30199-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is especially pathogenic, often being associated with intractable pneumonia and high mortality. How P. aeruginosa avoids immune clearance and persists in the inflamed human airway remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that P. aeruginosa can exploit the host immune response to maintain infection. Notably, unlike other opportunistic bacteria, we found that P. aeruginosa alters its metabolic and immunostimulatory properties in response to itaconate, an abundant host-derived immunometabolite in the infected lung. Itaconate induces bacterial membrane stress, resulting in downregulation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and upregulation of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These itaconate-adapted P. aeruginosa accumulate lptD mutations, which favor itaconate assimilation and biofilm formation. EPS, in turn, induces itaconate production by myeloid cells, both in the airway and systemically, skewing the host immune response to one permissive of chronic infection. Thus, the metabolic versatility of P. aeruginosa needs to be taken into account when designing therapies.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Chatterjee S, Samal B, Singh P, et al (2020)

Transition of a solitary to a biofilm community life style in bacteria: a survival strategy with division of labour.

The International journal of developmental biology pii:190176sc [Epub ahead of print].

Multicellularity is associated with higher eukaryotes having an organized division of labour and a coordinated action of different organs composed of multiple cell types. This division of different cell types and organizations to form a multicellular structure by developmental programming is a key to the multitasking of complex traits that enable higher eukaryotes to cope with fluctuating environmental conditions. Microbes such as bacteria, on the other hand, are unicellular and have flourished in diverse environmental conditions for a much longer time than eukaryotes in evolutionary history. In this review, we will focus on different strategies and functions exhibited by microbes that enable them to adapt to changes in lifestyle associated with transitioning from a unicellular solitary state to a complex community architecture known as a biofilm. We will also discuss various environmental stimuli and signaling processes which bacteria utilize to coordinate their social traits and enable themselves to form complex multicellular-like biofilm structures, and the division of labour operative within such communities driving their diverse social traits. We will also discuss here recent studies from our laboratory using a plant-associated bacterial pathogen as a model organism to elucidate the mechanism of bacterial cell-cell communication and the transition of a bacterial community to a multicellular-like structure driven by the complex regulation of traits influenced by cell density, as well as environmental sensing such as chemotaxis and nutrient availability. These studies are shedding important insights into bacterial developmental transitions and will help us to understand community cooperation and conflict using bacterial cell-cell communication as a model system.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Böttcher B, Hoffmann B, Garbe E, et al (2020)

The Transcription Factor Stp2 Is Important for Candida albicans Biofilm Establishment and Sustainability.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:794.

The fungal pathogen Candida albicans forms polymorphic biofilms where hyphal morphogenesis and metabolic adaptation are tightly coordinated by a complex intertwined network of transcription factors. The sensing and metabolism of amino acids play important roles during various phases of biofilm development - from adhesion to maturation. Stp2 is a transcription factor that activates the expression of amino acid permease genes and is required for environmental alkalinization and hyphal growth in vitro and during macrophage phagocytosis. While it is well established that Stp2 is activated in response to external amino acids, its role in biofilm formation remains unknown. In addition to widely used techniques, we applied newly developed approaches for automated image analysis to quantify Stp2-regulated filamentation and biofilm growth. Our results show that in the stp2Δ deletion mutant adherence to abiotic surfaces and initial germ tube formation were strongly impaired, but formed mature biofilms with cell density and morphological structures comparable to the control strains. Stp2-dependent nutrient adaptation appeared to play an important role in biofilm development: stp2Δ biofilms formed under continuous nutrient flow displayed an overall reduction in biofilm formation, whereas under steady conditions the mutant strain formed biofilms with lower metabolic activity, resulting in increased cell survival and biofilm longevity. A deletion of STP2 led to increased rapamycin susceptibility and transcriptional activation of GCN4, the transcriptional regulator of the general amino acid control pathway, demonstrating a connection of Stp2 to other nutrient-responsive pathways. In summary, the transcription factor Stp2 is important for C. albicans biofilm formation, where it contributes to adherence and induction of morphogenesis, and mediates nutrient adaption and cell longevity in mature biofilms.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Zhang G, Lu M, Liu R, et al (2020)

Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Virulence by Lactobacillus plantarum K41 Isolated From Traditional Sichuan Pickles.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:774.

Among cariogenic microbes, Streptococcus mutans is considered a major etiological pathogen of dental caries. Lactobacilli strains have been promoted as possible probiotic agents against S. mutans, although the inhibitory effect of Lactobacilli on caries has not yet been properly addressed. The objective of this study was to screen Lactobacillus strains found in traditional Sichuan pickles and to evaluate their antagonistic properties against S. mutans in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we analyzed 54 Lactobacillus strains isolated from pickles and found that strain L. plantarum K41 showed the highest inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth as well as on the formation of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and biofilm in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) revealed the reduction of both EPS and of the network-like structure in S. mutans biofilm when these bacteria were co-cultured with strain L. plantarum K41. Furthermore, when rats were treated with strain L. plantarum K41, there was a significant reduction in the incidence and severity of dental caries. Due to K41's origin in a high salinity environment, it showed a high tolerance to acids and salts. This may give this strain an advantage in harsh oral conditions. Results showed that L. plantarum K41 isolated from traditional Sichuan pickles effectively inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation and thus possesses a potential inhibitory effect on dental caries in vivo.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Xu X, Peng Q, Zhang Y, et al (2020)

A novel exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 exhibits antioxidant and biofilm-inhibiting properties in vitro.

Food & nutrition research, 64: pii:3744.

Background: Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted from lactic acid bacteria are carbohydrate polymers with reported biological activities. In this study, we extracted and characterized the composition as well as antioxidant and biofilm-inhibitory properties of EPS from Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 isolated from northeast Chinese sauerkraut (Suan Cai).

Methods: Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 was identified with 16S rDNA amplification and Neighbor Joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis. EPS derived from Lactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 (EPS-NA3) was analyzed, including compositions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), functional groups by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and glycosidic bond configuration by Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR). Antioxidant activity of EPS was evaluated with hydroxyl and superoxide radical-scavenging. Anti-biofilm activities of EPS-NA3 were checked through inhibition and dispersion.

Results: The monosaccharide composition of EPS included α-rhamnose, α-mannose, α-galactose, and α-glucose in a ratio of 2.6:1.0:5.0:3.3. The free radical-scavenging abilities of EPS-NA3 were 37.77% ± 1.56% and 78.87% ± 3.07% on hydroxyl and superoxide reactive oxygen species respectively. Moreover, EPS-NA3 attenuated the formation of Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium biofilms by inhibition ratios of approximately 80% and 40% respectively. Additionally, treatment with EPS-NA3 dispersed established biofilms of B. cereus and S. typhimurium by approximately 90% and 20% respectively.

Conclusion: These results suggest that EPS-NA3 may be developed as antioxidant and anti-biofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications due to its capacity of scavenging free radicals, inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation, and dispersion of established biofilms.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Julák J, Vaňková E, Válková M, et al (2020)

Combination of non-thermal plasma and subsequent antibiotic treatment for biofilm re-development prevention.

Folia microbiologica pii:10.1007/s12223-020-00796-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The influence of non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatment on the prevention of antibiotic resistance of microbial biofilms was studied. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans, grown on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy used in the manufacture of prosthetic implants, were employed. Their biofilms were exposed to NTP produced by DC cometary discharge and subsequently treated with antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of infections caused by them: erythromycin (ERY), polymyxin B (PMB), or amphotericin B (AMB), respectively. All biofilms displayed significant reduction of their metabolic activity after NTP exposure, the most sensitive was S. epidermidis. The subsequent action of antibiotics caused significant decrease in the metabolic activity of S. epidermidis and E. coli, but not C. albicans, although the area covered by biofilm decreased in all cases. The combined effect of NTP with antibiotics was thus proved to be a promising strategy in bacterial pathogen treatment.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Falkinham JO (3rd) (2020)

Disinfection and cleaning of heater-cooler units: suspension- and biofilm-killing.

The Journal of hospital infection pii:S0195-6701(20)30236-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in cardiac surgery patients, caused by Mycobacterium chimaera or Mycobacterium abscessus, have been traced to NTM-aerosols produced by heater-cooler units of cardiopulmonary bypass equipment.

AIM: To develop a protocol to disinfect the water reservoir(s) of heater-coolers to reduce NTM numbers and thereby prevent potential NTM aerosolization; and to devise an approach to disrupt surface biofilms of heater-coolers to reduce reinoculation of the heater-cooler reservoir(s) after disinfection.

METHODS: A laboratory-scale Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bioreactor and a heater-cooler were inoculated with M. chimaera or M. abscessus to measure the ability of different disinfection protocols to reduce NTM colony-forming units in water and biofilm samples and to delay the reappearance of NTM after disinfection.

FINDINGS: The combination of an enzyme detergent cleaning agent and Clorox® were equivalent to Clorox alone in reducing M. chimaera cfu in heater-cooler water reservoir samples. However, reappearance of those bacteria was delayed by 12 weeks by the combination of enzyme detergent cleaning agent and Clorox exposure compared to Clorox disinfection alone.

CONCLUSION: A combination of an enzyme detergent and Clorox was an effective disinfection treatment and significantly delayed the reappearance of M. chimaera in the heater-cooler reservoir.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Venkata S, Zeeshan F, Kamal A, et al (2020)

Efficiency of vanillin in impeding metabolic adaptability and virulence of Candida albicans by inhibiting glyoxylate cycle, morphogenesis, and biofilm formation.

Current medical mycology, 6(1):1-8.

Background and Purpose: Candida albicans is the fourth most common cause of nosocomial fungal infections across the world. The current drug regimens are suffering from such drawbacks as drug resistance, toxicity, and costliness; accordingly, they highlight the need for the discovery of novel drug agents. The metabolic adaptability under low-carbon conditions and expression of functional virulence traits mark the success of pathogens to cause infection. The metabolic pathways, such as glyoxylate cycle (GC), enable C. albicans to survive under glucose-deficient conditions prevalent in the hostile niche. Therefore, the key enzymes, namely isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MLS), represent attractive agents against C. albicans. Similarly, virulence traits, such as morphogenesis and biofilm formation, are the crucial determinants of C. albicans pathogenicity. Regarding this, the present study was conducted to uncover the role of vanillin (Van), a natural food flavoring agent, in inhibiting GC, yeast-to-hyphal transition, and biofilm formation in human fungal pathogen C. albicans.

Materials and Methods: For the determination of hypersensitivity under low-glucose conditions, phenotypic susceptibility assay was utilized. In addition, enzyme activities were estimated based on crude extracts while in-silico binding was confirmed by molecular docking. The assessment of morphogenesis was accomplished using hyphal-inducing media, and biofilm formation was estimated using calcofluor staining, MTT assay, and biomass measurement. Additionally, the in vivo efficacy of Van was demonstrated using Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model.

Results: Based on the results, Van was found to be a potent GC inhibitor that phenocopied ICL1 deletion mutant and displayed hypersensitivity under low-carbon conditions. Accordingly, Van facilitated the inhibition of ICL and MLS activities in vitro. Molecular docking analyses revealed the in-silico binding affinity of Van with Icl1p and Mls1p. Those analyses were also confirmative of the binding of Van to the active sites of both proteins with better binding energy in comparison to their known inhibitors. Furthermore, Van led to the attenuation of such virulence traits as morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and cell adherence. Finally, the antifungal efficacy of Van was demonstrated by the enhanced survival of C. elegans with Candida infection. The results also confirmed negligible hemolytic activity on erythrocytes.

Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, Van is a persuasive natural compound that warrants further attention to exploit its anticandidal potential.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Romiyo V, JW Wilson (2020)

Phenotypes, transcriptome, and novel biofilm formation associated with the ydcI gene.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek pii:10.1007/s10482-020-01412-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The ydcI gene has previously been shown to encode a DNA-binding protein involved with acid stress resistance and induced biofilm formation in a strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition, characterisation of the ydcI gene in Escherichia coli and other bacteria demonstrated strikingly different tolerance for induced ydcI expression across Gram negative species. In this report, we investigated the conservation of these phenotypes across multiple strains of S. Typhimurium and E. coli, and we used RNA Seq to identify the transcriptome of the ΔydcI mutant compared to WT in S. Typhimurium and E. coli (to establish the YdcI regulon in each species). We constructed deletion mutants in each species based on the RNA Seq results and tested these mutants for the relevant ydcI-related phenotypes. Though no evidence for a role in these phenotypes was found via the RNA Seq deletion mutants, we found that the ydcI-induced biofilm in S. Typhimurium is formed independently of the major biofilm genes csgA and bcsA indicating a potentially novel type of biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Khan F, Lee JW, Javaid A, et al (2020)

Inhibition of biofilm and virulence properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by sub-inhibitory concentrations of aminoglycosides.

Microbial pathogenesis, 146:104249 pii:S0882-4010(20)30536-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Aminoglycosides are a commonly used class of antibiotics; however, their application has been discontinued due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance bacterial strains. In the present study, the subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of several aminoglycosides were determined and tested as an antibiofilm and for their anti-virulence properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, which is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen. P. aeruginosa PAO1 exhibits multiple mechanisms of resistance, including the formation of biofilm and production of several virulence factors, against aminoglycoside antibiotics. The sub-MIC of these antibiotics exhibited biofilm inhibition of P. aeruginosa in alkaline TSB (pH 7.9). Moreover, various concentrations of these aminoglycosides also eradicate the mature biofilm of P. aeruginosa. In the presence of sub-MIC of aminoglycosides, the morphological changes of P. aeruginosa were found to change from rod-shaped to the filamentous, elongated, and streptococcal forms. Similar growth conditions and sub-MIC of aminoglycosides were also found to attenuate several virulence properties of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Molecular docking studies demonstrate that these aminoglycosides possess strong binding properties with the LasR protein, which is a well-characterized quorum-sensing receptor of P. aeruginosa. The present study suggests a new approach to revitalize aminoglycosides as antibiofilm and antivirulence drugs to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-05-17

van Geelen L, Kaschani F, Sazzadeh SS, et al (2020)

Natural brominated phenoxyphenols kill persistent and biofilm-incorporated cells of MRSA and other pathogenic bacteria.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-020-10654-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to a high unresponsiveness to chemotherapy, biofilm formation is an important medical problem that frequently occurs during infection with many bacterial pathogens. In this study, the marine sponge-derived natural compounds 4,6-dibromo-2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)phenol and 3,4,6-tribromo-2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)phenol were found to exhibit broad antibacterial activity against medically relevant gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. The compounds were not only bactericidal against both replicating and stationary phase-persistent planktonic cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; they also killed biofilm-incorporated cells of both species while not affecting biofilm structural integrity. Moreover, these compounds were active against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter sp. This simultaneous activity of compounds against different growth forms of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is rare. Genome sequencing of spontaneous resistant mutants and proteome analysis suggest that resistance is mediated by downregulation of the bacterial EIIBC phosphotransferase components scrA and mtlA in MRSA likely leading to a lower uptake of the molecules. Due to their only moderate cytotoxicity against human cell lines, phenoxyphenols provide an interesting new scaffold for development of antimicrobial agents with activity against planktonic cells, persisters and biofilm-incoporated cells of ESKAPE pathogens. KEY POINTS: • Brominated phenoxyphenols kill actively replicating and biofilm-incorporated bacteria. • Phosphotransferase systems mediate uptake of brominated phenoxyphenols. • Downregulation of phosphotransferase systems mediate resistance.

RevDate: 2020-05-17

Wang J, Lu J, Zhang Y, et al (2020)

Unique Bacterial Community of the Biofilm on Microplastics in Coastal Water.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology pii:10.1007/s00128-020-02875-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Being immersed in seawater for a few days, microorganisms will adhere to the surface of different materials and form biofilms. After being immersed in seawater for 1 week, high-throughput sequencing method was used to analyze the bacterial community structure of the biofilms on the surface of microbeads with different materials including steel, SiO2, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Operational taxonomic unit clustering results showed that some differences existed in the bacterial communities attached to the surface of different microbeads. Each microbead made by different material had its unique bacterial community. The heatmap indicated that the dominant genera on the surface of different microbeads were different from each other. Quantitative analysis showed that the relative abundance of dominant genera were different among different types of microbeads. Beta diversity analysis and principal component analysis showed that difference in the bacterial community on surface of steel-bead and PVC-bead was the most significant.

RevDate: 2020-05-17

Luan X, Zhang H, Tian Z, et al (2020)

Microbial community functional structure in an aerobic biofilm reactor: Impact of streptomycin and recovery.

Chemosphere, 255:127032 pii:S0045-6535(20)31225-X [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotics can affect microbial community structure and promote antibiotic resistance. However, the course of microbial community recovery in wastewater treatment systems after antibiotic disturbance remains unclear. Herein, multiple molecular biology tools, including 16S amplicon sequencing, GeoChip 5.0, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic sequencing, were used to investigate the year-long (352 d) recovery of the microbial community functional structure in an aerobic biofilm reactor. Nitrification was completely inhibited under 50 mg/L of streptomycin spiking (STM_50) due to the significant reduction of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, but recovered to original pre-disturbance levels after streptomycin removal, indicating the high resilience of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Bacterial community richness and diversity decreased significantly under STM_50 (p < 0.05), but recovered to levels similar to those observed before disturbance after 352 d. In contrast, bacterial composition did not recover to the original structure. The carbon degradation and nitrogen cycling functional community significantly changed after recovery compared to that observed pre-disturbance (p < 0.05), thus indicating functional redundancy. Additionally, levels of aminoglycoside and total antibiotic resistance genes under STM_50 (relative abundance, 0.33 and 0.80, respectively) and after one year of recovery (0.12 and 0.29, respectively) were higher than the levels detected pre-disturbance (0.04 and 0.24, respectively). This study provides an overall depiction of the recovery of the microbial community functional structure after antibiotic exposure. Our findings give notice that recovery caused by antibiotic disturbance in the water environment should be taken more seriously, and that engineering control strategies should be implemented to prevent the antibiotic pollution of wastewater.

RevDate: 2020-05-17

Xu Y, Ou Q, Zhou X, et al (2020)

Impacts of carrier properties, environmental conditions and extracellular polymeric substances on biofilm formation of sieved fine particles from activated sludge.

The Science of the total environment, 731:139196 pii:S0048-9697(20)32713-3 [Epub ahead of print].

To investigate the effect of properties of carriers, environmental conditions and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the initial adhesion of biofilm formation in biofilm-based reactors, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was applied to monitor the deposition rates and viscoelastic properties of sieved sludge particles on model biocarriers. The results suggested that surface charge, hydrophobicity and surface coating of five representative carriers influenced deposition rates and viscoelastic properties of biofilm, whose variation with NaCl concentrations was controlled by not only the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction but also non-DLVO forces. On hydrophobic surface, the addition of cationic substances enhanced the deposition rates and the compaction of deposited layer due to strong "hydrophobizing effect". For examples, 10 mM Ca2+, 10 mM Mg2+ and 10 mg/L poly-l-lysine enhanced the deposition rates to nearly 3, 2 and 4 times, as well as reduced the softness of deposited layer to almost 35%, 60% and 35%. Conversely, 10 mg/L negatively charged alginate might cause water retainment and steric shielding, thereby reducing the deposition rates to 40% and increasing the softness of deposited film to 120%. The presence of EPS sub-fractions can modify surface properties of sludge particles, to distinct degrees, contributing to biofilm formation. Notably, compared to tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) was more conducive to microbial attachment, but the presence of LB-EPS promoted the formation of a soft layer on a hydrophobic surface. Overall, these results provide insights into intrinsic mechanisms of the variation of deposition rates and viscoelastic properties responding to critical factors, which are meaningful to predict and regulate the initial adhesion process in biofilm-based reactors.

RevDate: 2020-05-17

Guo L, Wang J, Gou Y, et al (2020)

Comparative proteomics reveals stress responses of Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilm on different surfaces: Internal adaptation and external adjustment.

The Science of the total environment, 731:138386 pii:S0048-9697(20)31899-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a kind of gram-negative marine pathogen, which usually adheres to stainless steel (SS), glass (GS) and other abiotic surfaces in aquaculture and food processing in the form of biofilm and causes the spread of gastrointestinal illness. However, the deeply survival adaptation mechanism of V. parahaemolyticus biofilm cells on these contact surface remained unclear. Here, proteomics was used to investigated the physiological response of the V. parahaemolyticus biofilms cells to different abiotic surfaces (SS, GS and polystyrene (PS)). In addition, the effect of contact materials on the physical-chemical properties of biofilms are also characterized. Results showed that the expression of proteins of biofilm cells established on the SS surface were mainly related to the alleviation of metal ion stress and toxicity. The up-regulated proteins in the biofilm cells formed on the GS surface were mainly involved in the biological processes of sugar uptake, protein synthesis and bacterial chemotaxis. Meanwhile, the significantly expressed proteins in the biofilm cells formed on the PS surface were mainly involved in the cellular physiological activity of aromatic compound metabolism, osmotic stress and nutrient transport. All functional proteins mentioned above were closely related to the interaction characteristics of the contact surface and biofilm. This study provided an in-depth comparison of V. parahaemolyticus biofilm formation on these three abiotic surfaces, and presented a model in first time for the adaptation behavior of biofilm cells on different surfaces as affected by metal ion stress, nutrition, osmotic stress, and sugar utilization, which could facilitate an efficient control strategy for biofilm formation in industrial field.

RevDate: 2020-05-17

Pejčić M, Stojanović-Radić Z, Genčić M, et al (2020)

Anti-virulence potential of basil and sage essential oils: Inhibition of biofilm formation, motility and pyocyanin production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association pii:S0278-6915(20)30321-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The effects of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oils on selected virulence factors (biofilm formation, mature biofilm resistance, motility, and pyocyanin production) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates were evaluated in the present study for the first time. The two essential oils were chemically characterized by GC and GC-MS analyses. Linalool and (E)-anethole were found to be the main components of the investigated basil oil, while α-thujone and camphor were the major constituents of the studied sage essential oil. The oils inhibited biofilm formation up to 99.9% vs control, and significant reductions (74.7-99.9%) were also noted when the oils were applied to mature biofilms. Likewise, swimming, swarming, and twitching motility patterns were highly affected by both oils. The basil and sage oils reduced pyocyanin production by 13.32-55.6% and 5.0-58.7%, respectively. Thus, basil and sage essential oils are potentially highly efficient antipseudomonal agents that could be used against both acute and chronic infections.

RevDate: 2020-05-17

Luo W, Huang Y, Zhou X, et al (2020)

The effect of disaggregated nano-hydroxyapatite on oral biofilm in vitro.

Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials pii:S0109-5641(20)30102-0 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Agglomeration is a common problem facing the preparation and application of nanomaterials, and whether nano-hydroxyapatite (nano HA) can modulate oral microecology left to be unclear. In this study, nano HA was disaggregated by sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and ultrasonic cavitation to observe whether agglomeration would affect its effect on oral bacterial biofilm.

METHODS: Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to observe the treatment solutions. Single-species biofilms and multi-species biofilms were treated with 10% nano HA, 10% disaggregated nano HA, 10% micro hydroxyapatite (micro HA) and deionized water (DDW) for 30min and analyzed via MTT assay, lactic acid measurement, SEM and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the biofilm composition.

RESULTS: Ultrasonic cavitation combined with SHMP could significantly reduce the degree of agglomeration of nano HA. Disaggregated nano HA could inhibit bacterial growth and reduce the ability of bacterial biofilm to produce lactic acid and extracellular polysaccharides. There was no significant difference on composition of multi-species biofilms between nano HA and disaggregated nano HA.

SIGNIFICANCE: The disaggregated nano-hydroxyapatite could inhibit the metabolism and acid production of oral bacterial biofilm, but did not significantly affect the composition of multi-species biofilms.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Rahman APH, Dash S, Mohanty PS, et al (2020)

Sonophotocatalytic disinfection of Shigella species under visible light irradiation: Insights into its molecular mechanism, antibacterial resistance and biofilm formation.

Environmental research, 187:109620 pii:S0013-9351(20)30513-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial contamination of water is one of the major sources of many diseases worldwide. Evolution of antibacterial resistance (ABR) alongside the caveats in most of the water treatment methods causes the severity of the current problem extremely vexing. This calls for an urgent need to develop new treatment methods aiming to reduce the microbial as well as ABR load in the environment. Herein, we successfully developed a visible light assisted sonophotocatalysis (SPC) using Fe/ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for the disinfection of Shigella dysenteriae. A consortia containing S. dysenteriae and S. flexineri was also completely disinfected using SPC. Growth conditions of S. dysenteriae like growth phases and growth temperaturehad different outcomes on the overall efficacy of SPC. Compared with catalysts such as ZnO and TiO2, Fe/ZnO resulted in better disinfection. Multi-ROS production, mostly containing h+ and O2· radicals, due to the electron displacement in the catalyst and acoustic cavitation was identified as the factors behind bacterial lethality. The ROS produced was found to interfere with the metabolic activities of S. dysenteriae by causing membrane perturbation. We identified DNA damage inside the cells and the subsequent release of intracellular components. The compositional changes in the fatty acid makeup of the cells were altered as a result of SPC and few fatty acid markers indicating the stress posed by SPC were also identified. Loss of ABR in S. dysenteriae was also recorded post SPC treatment. Abatement in the biofilm forming ability of the injured bacterial cells was also recorded, proving the extremity of stress induced by SPC. Hence, the excellent efficacy of SPC in disinfecting bacteria is proposed for tertiary water treatment applications.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Tantivitayakul P, Kaypetch R, T Muadchiengka (2020)

Thymoquinone inhibits biofilm formation and virulence properties of periodontal bacteria.

Archives of oral biology, 115:104744 pii:S0003-9969(20)30122-9 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on biofilm formation, hemolysis, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and expression of virulence factors of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reference strains of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and P. gingivalis A7436 were tested in our study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of TQ was determined by broth microdilution method. The impacts of TQ on virulence properties of the periodontal bacteria including biofilm formation, hemolysis and H2S activities were studied. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to evaluate the expression levels of key virulence factors including outer membrane proteins (aim-1, fadA) in F. nucleatum as well as cysteine proteinases or gingipains (rgpA, rgpB, kgp) and fimbriae (fimA, mfa1) in P. gingivalis.

RESULTS: The MIC of TQ were 12.5 and 1.56 μg/mL in F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis, respectively. The sub-MIC concentrations of TQ could prevent biofilm formation and hemolysis activities of both bacteria. TQ also inhibited H2S production which is highly associated with oral malodour. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that TQ could disrupt bacterial membrane and led to cell lysis. Furthermore, TQ reduced the expression of major virulence factors tested in F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis.

CONCLUSIONS: The TQ had potent antibacterial effect and could attenuate virulence properties of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Therefore, TQ has the potential to be developed and used in periodontal treatments, especially to prevent the progression of periodontitis.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Zhang L, Jin M, M Sun (2020)

Inhibition characteristics of biofilm structure of Staphylococcus aureus.

Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 66(2):204-211.

Different extracts have different effects on the biofilm structure of Staphylococcus aureus, and the biofilm structure of Staphylococcus aureus will produce different inhibition reactions. In this study, different experimental reagent extracts were used to analyze the inhibition characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm structure. The inhibition characteristics of bacterial biofilm structure were obtained by using the same bacteria species and the same experimental environment. The results showed that the chloroform extract had a good inhibitory effect on the biofilm structure, which could effectively inhibit the formation of biofilm; the acetic acid extract had an impact on the formation of biofilm, which was destructive to the biofilm; the petroleum ether extract had no effect on the formation of biofilm, that is, it had no inhibitory effect.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Iseppi R, Feminò R, Sabia C, et al (2020)

Evaluation of Bacterial Biofilm Removal Properties of MEDSTER 2000 Cold Sterilant on Different Materials.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology [Epub ahead of print].

We studied the antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties of MEDSTER 2000, a pH neutral biodegradable mixed acidic peroxide disinfectant belonging to the class IIb medical device which has been designed for decontamination and cold sterilization of hospital instruments. The broth microdilution method was used to define the antibacterial activity against planktonic form of both classified bacteria and antibiotic resistant strains of clinical source, whereas effectiveness toward their biofilm was determined on mature biofilm, grown both on plastic and stainless steel surfaces. The results showed that for the planktonic form the antibacterial activity of MEDSTER 2000 was already observed after 10 min at the lowest concentration (0.1%), and this effect was not exposure-and/or concentration-dependent. After the same time of exposure at the concentration of 2% the disinfectant was able to completely eradicate all tested bacteria grown in sessile form on both surfaces, with a greater than 6 log CFU/cm2 reduction in viable cells. This result is supported by the microscope observation by crystal violet and live/dead assays. For the high antibacterial and anti-biofilm ability emerged, MEDSTER 2000 could represent a new and more effective approach for semicritical devices that need a high-level disinfection and could not sustain the process of heat sterilization.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Benedek T, Szentgyörgyi F, Szabó I, et al (2020)

Aerobic and oxygen-limited naphthalene-amended enrichments induced the dominance of Pseudomonas spp. from a groundwater bacterial biofilm.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-020-10668-y [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we aimed at determining the impact of naphthalene and different oxygen levels on a biofilm bacterial community originated from a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater. By using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches, the enrichment, identification, and isolation of aerobic and oxygen-limited naphthalene degraders was possible. Results indicated that, regardless of the oxygenation conditions, Pseudomonas spp. became the most dominant in the naphthalene-amended selective enrichment cultures. Under low-oxygen conditions, P. veronii/P. extremaustralis lineage affiliating bacteria, and under full aerobic conditions P. laurentiana-related isolates were most probably capable of naphthalene biodegradation. A molecular biological tool has been developed for the detection of naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase-related 2Fe-2S reductase genes of Gram-negative bacteria. The newly developed COnsensus DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers (CODEHOP-PCR) technique may be used in the monitoring of the natural attenuation capacity of PAH-contaminated sites. A bacterial strain collection with prolific biofilm-producing and effective naphthalene-degrading organisms was established. The obtained strain collection may be applicable in the future for the development of biofilm-based bioremediation systems for the elimination of PAHs from groundwater (e.g., biofilm-based biobarriers).

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Bamford NC, Le Mauff F, Van Loon JC, et al (2020)

Structural and biochemical characterization of the exopolysaccharide deacetylase Agd3 required for Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation.

Nature communications, 11(1):2450 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-16144-5.

The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) is an important virulence factor of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Deletion of a gene encoding a putative deacetylase, Agd3, leads to defects in GAG deacetylation, biofilm formation, and virulence. Here, we show that Agd3 deacetylates GAG in a metal-dependent manner, and is the founding member of carbohydrate esterase family CE18. The active site is formed by four catalytic motifs that are essential for activity. The structure of Agd3 includes an elongated substrate-binding cleft formed by a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) that is the founding member of CBM family 87. Agd3 homologues are encoded in previously unidentified putative bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic operons and in other fungal genomes.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Iwahashi J, Kamei K, H Watanabe (2020)

Disruption of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm by Streptococcus pneumoniae: Mycelial fragmentation by hydrogen peroxide.

Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy pii:S1341-321X(20)30105-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm is a complex structure consisting of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and an extracellular matrix (ECM). Biofilms are involved in most microbial infections and show persistent resistance to antibiotic treatment and immune response. Both Aspergillus fumigatus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are colonizers that can form biofilms in the respiratory tract. These pathogens have been simultaneously isolated from the same patient, but their interaction is poorly understood. We observed morphological changes in single- and mixed-species biofilms prepared for confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pneumococci suppressed the development of a fungal biofilm, and it even disrupted a preformed fungal biofilm. When a preformed fungal biofilm was treated with pneumococci, the mycelial network was fragmented, and only bacteria could develop. SEM revealed that the fragmented mycelium was further disrupted into fine filaments as treatment time progressed, and that the ECM of the preformed fungal biofilm had disappeared. The pneumococcal culture supernatant contained mycelial fragmentation activity that was heat-sensitive. The culture supernatant of a mutant pneumococcal strain deficient in pneumolysin (Δply) also exhibited the mycelial fragmentation activity. Enolase and lactate oxidase, which are involved in glycolysis and hydrogen peroxide production, were identified in the culture supernatant of the Δply mutant. Neither the wild type nor the mutant strain could fragment the mycelium in the presence of catalase. These data suggest that hydrogen peroxide could fragment the mycelium and would terminate the co-existence of A. fumigatus and S. pneumoniae in biofilm.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Arun D, Vimala R, K Devendranath Ramkumar (2020)

Investigating the microbial-influenced corrosion of UNS S32750 stainless-steel base alloy and weld seams by biofilm-forming marine bacterium Macrococcus equipercicus.

Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 135:107546 pii:S1567-5394(20)30021-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This study investigates the microbial-influenced corrosion of UNS S32750 super-duplex stainless-steel joints fabricated using different welding methods. Herein, the samples were introduced into a medium inoculated with Macrococcus equipercicus isolated from a marine environment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterise the topography and formation of pits in the corroded samples, respectively. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies were conducted on both the base alloy and weld seams exposed for 30 and 60 days in the experimental system inoculated with M. equipercicus and un-inoculated system. Results indicate that the thickness of the biofilm formed due to this bacterium increased and became heterogeneous with an increase in the exposure time, thereby resulting in micro-pits. Bacterial colonisation was observed in all the coupons after exposure to the inoculated medium. Although micro-pits were observed in all the coupons, the base metal and flux-cored arc weld seams showed highest sensitivity to bacterial attack.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Patel M, Srivastava V, A Ahmad (2020)

Dodonaea viscosa var angustifolia derived 5,6,8-trihydroxy-7,4' dimethoxy flavone inhibits ergosterol synthesis and the production of hyphae and biofilm in Candida albicans.

Journal of ethnopharmacology pii:S0378-8741(20)30951-X [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans is developing resistance to existing drugs increasing morbidity and mortality, which elevates an immediate need to explore new antifungal agents. Phytochemicals are an excellent source of therapeutic agents. We previously reported the antifungal activity of the crude extract of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia Jacq. (DVA) from which a beneficial compound flavone: 5,6,8-trihydroxy-7,4' dimethoxy flavone (5,6,8-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) abbreviated as TMMC, was extracted.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study evaluated the effect of a TMMC subfraction on biofilms, membrane stability, ergosterol biosynthesis and germ tube (GT) formation in Candida albicans.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extracts were prepared and fractionated to obtain purified TMMC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of TMMC were obtained and subinhibitory concentrations were selected for further studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was performed to assess the effect of TMMC on membrane permeability and sterol deposition using propidium iodide (PI) and filipin stains, respectively.

RESULTS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of TMMC were 0.39 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively. TMMC inhibited biofilm formation and damaged mature biofilms at 0.39 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively. CLSM further confirmed the disruption and architectural changes in biofilms following treatment with TMMC. TMMC also inhibited GT formation and ergosterol biosynthesis in a concentration dependent manner, which was further confirmed by varying sterol distribution and membrane disruption in treated and untreated cells.

CONCLUSIONS: With the multiple targets at different concentrations, TMMC warrants its potential use as antifungal drug against C. albicans. However further studies using animal models and more mechanistic approaches will be required.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Peng N, Cai P, Mortimer M, et al (2020)

The exopolysaccharide-eDNA interaction modulates 3D architecture of Bacillus subtilis biofilm.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):115 pii:10.1186/s12866-020-01789-5.

BACKGROUND: Bacterial biofilms are surface-adherent microbial communities in which individual cells are surrounded by a self-produced extracellular matrix of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins. Interactions among matrix components within biofilms are responsible for creating an adaptable structure during biofilm development. However, it is unclear how the interactions among matrix components contribute to the construction of the three-dimensional (3D) biofilm architecture.

RESULTS: DNase I treatment significantly inhibited Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation in the early phases of biofilm development. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and image analysis revealed that eDNA was cooperative with exopolysaccharide (EPS) in the early stages of B. subtilis biofilm development, while EPS played a major structural role in the later stages. In addition, deletion of the EPS production gene epsG in B. subtilis SBE1 resulted in loss of the interaction between EPS and eDNA and reduced the biofilm biomass in pellicles at the air-liquid interface. The physical interaction between these two essential biofilm matrix components was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).

CONCLUSIONS: Biofilm 3D structures become interconnected through surrounding eDNA and EPS. eDNA interacts with EPS in the early phases of biofilm development, while EPS mainly participates in the maturation of biofilms. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of the role of the interaction between eDNA and EPS in shaping the biofilm 3D matrix structure and biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Tak S, Tiwari A, BP Vellanki (2020)

Identification of emerging contaminants and their transformation products in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR)-based drinking water treatment plant around River Yamuna in India.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 192(6):365 pii:10.1007/s10661-020-08303-4.

The prevalence of emerging contaminants of concern in water regimes is very common these days. High anthropogenic intervention is leading to occurrence of various types of microcontaminants of concern in drinking water systems. Their removal using conventional form of treatment systems employed in water treatment plants is not widely researched upon. Their fate in the conventional as well as advanced water treatment system needs to be focused upon for efficient and safe water disposal. Some compounds may leave the system unchanged or some might transform into much more toxic byproduct. Moreover, understanding level of occurrence of these emerging contaminants in source water bodies is also quintessential for assessing their fate in treatment plant itself as well as in the final treated water. Here in this study, the occurrence and removal of various classes of emerging contaminants were investigated in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR)-based advanced drinking water treatment plant (ADWTP) alongside one conventional drinking water treatment plant, both of which use River Yamuna as the source of water. Non-target analysis utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography combined with time of flight (HPLC-QToF) identified more than 300 compounds. Pharmaceuticals accounted for a major fraction (58%) of the identified compounds, followed by plasticizers and insecticides. Nine parent compound and their transformation products were additionally identified using solid-phase extraction followed by analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and HPLC-QToF. The degradation pathway of the parent compounds in MBBR-based ADWTP was also analyzed in depth. The efficiency of each unit process of MBBR-based drinking water treatment plant was studied in terms of removal of few emerging contaminants. Pharmaceutical compound like diclofenac supposedly was persistent, even, toward the end of the treatment train. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed ineffective removal of pyridine, hydrochlorothiazide, and diethyl phthalate in the outlet of ADWTP. ADWTP was able to remove a few emerging contaminants, but a few were recalcitrant. Likewise, it was established that although some parent compounds were degraded, much more toxic transformation products were formed and were prevalent at the end of the treatment.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Saygin H, A Baysal (2020)

Biofilm Formation of Clinically Important Bacteria on Bio-Based and Conventional Micro/Submicron-Sized Plastics.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology pii:10.1007/s00128-020-02876-z [Epub ahead of print].

Micron/submicron-sized plastic debris in the environment is a global issue of increasing concern and may harm human health. A large number of studies have shown that plastic debris has various toxicological effects on different organisms. Thus, efforts have increased to replace conventional plastics with bioplastics. However, investigations on the relation of submicron-sized bioplastics- and conventional plastics to culture-dependent biofilm formation and their similarities and discrepancies are still very limited. For this purpose, two end products made from bioplastics and their equivalent end products from conventional plastics were used to examine the response of the biofilm formation of selected clinically important bacteria. To evaluate the similarities and differences of submicron-sized bioplastics and conventional plastics on biofilm formation, the physicochemistry (particle size, zeta potential, chemical composition, and surface chemistry) of the tested plastics was examined, as well as the characteristics of the biofilms (categorization, protein/carbohydrate).

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Naclerio GA, Onyedibe KI, HO Sintim (2020)

Lipoteichoic Acid Biosynthesis Inhibitors as Potent Inhibitors of S. aureus and E. faecalis Growth and Biofilm Formation.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 25(10): pii:molecules25102277.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) have been deemed as serious threats by the CDC. Many chronic MRSA and VRE infections are due to biofilm formation. Biofilm are considered to be between 10-10,000 times more resistant to antibiotics, and therefore new chemical entities that inhibit and/or eradicate biofilm formation are needed. Teichoic acids, such as lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) and wall teichoic acids (WTAs), play pivotal roles in Gram-positive bacteria's ability to grow, replicate, and form biofilms, making the inhibition of these teichoic acids a promising approach to fight infections by biofilm forming bacteria. Here, we describe the potent biofilm inhibition activity against MRSA and VRE biofilms by two LTA biosynthesis inhibitors HSGN-94 and HSGN-189 with MBICs as low as 0.0625 µg/mL against MRSA biofilms and 0.5 µg/mL against VRE biofilms. Additionally, both HSGN-94 and HSGN-189 were shown to potently synergize with the WTA inhibitor Tunicamycin in inhibiting MRSA and VRE biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Yuan L, Lyu P, Huang YY, et al (2020)

Corrigendum to "Potassium iodide enhances the photobactericidal effect of methylene blue on Enterococcus faecalis as planktonic cells and as biofilm infection in teeth" [J Photochem Photobiol B 203(2020) 1-11/111730].

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Zhu C, Mahmood Z, Zhang W, et al (2020)

In situ investigation of acute exposure of graphene oxide on activated sludge: Biofilm characteristics, microbial activity and cytotoxicity.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 199:110639 pii:S0147-6513(20)30478-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Graphene Oxide (GO) has wide applications in many fields which has caused a large expected quantity of the graphene-based wastes. It is necessary to understand the toxic effects of the GO on the activated sludge (AS) considering its inevitable discharge to the wastewater treatment plants as the ultimate repositories for these wastes. In this study, the acute exposures of the multilayer Nano-graphene oxide (MNGO) at different dosages were conducted in order to investigate its integrated effects on the formation of the biofilm, mature biofilm and the microbial activity of the activated sludge. Raman spectroscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were adopted for the in-situ characterization of the biofilm with the exposure of the MNGO. The results showed that the activated sludge was tolerable to the acute exposure of the less than 100 mg/L of the MNGO, especially for the mature biofilm, and only a subtle decrease was found in the size and thickness during the formation of the biofilm, while the amount of 300 mg/L of the MNGO caused the sever deterioration on the activated sludge system. The microbial metabolic activity, viability, and the biological removal of the nutrients were significantly affected with the more than 100 mg/L of the MNGO. It was also demonstrated by the microbial cytotoxicity tests that the increase in the exposure of the MNGO was related to the increase in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the damaging degree of the cell membrane.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Nie M, Deng DM, Wu Y, et al (2020)

Photodynamic inactivation mediated by methylene blue or chlorin e6 against Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy pii:S1572-1000(20)30171-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: An appropriate photosensitizer (PS) for photodynamic inactivation should have a pronounced antimicrobial efficacy but low dark toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the concentration-dependent antimicrobial efficacies of methylene blue (MB) and chlorin e6 (Ce6), against Streptococcus mutans biofilms and to compare the efficacies of these two PSs.

METHODS: The 48-h S. mutans UA159 biofilms, grown on glass coverslips, were subjected to MB or Ce6 at 25, 50, 100 and 200 μM with or without irradiation by 660 nM LED light (L). Control groups (-PS-L and -PS + L) were also included. Viability of the biofilm was analyzed by CFU/biofilm and biofilm lactic acid production was quantified by an enzymatic assay.

RESULTS: With irradiation, MB under 25 μM resulted in 2-log reduction in biofilm viability and 30-fold reduction in biofilm lactic acid production. However, this biofilm killing efficacy did not change with increasing MB concentration. The biofilm killing efficacy of Ce6 increased with increasing Ce6 concentrations and resulted in 5-log reduction in biofilm viability. The lactic acid inhibitory effect of Ce6 was significantly lower than MB at 25 μM (p<0.01) but higher than MB at 200 μM (p=0.05), although the difference at 200 μM did not reach statistical significance. No dark toxicity could be observed for MB whereas low dark toxicity could be seen for Ce6 when the concentration is above 50 μM.

CONCLUSION: Ce6 under 200 μM showed to be more powerful PS for photodynamic inactivation than MB. Both Ce6- and MB-based photodynamic inactivation are useful methods for biofilm control in caries prevention.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Sánchez-Herrera R, Flores-Villavicencio LL, Pichardo-Molina JL, et al (2020)

Analysis of biofilm formation by Sporothrix schenckii.

Medical mycology pii:5837101 [Epub ahead of print].

The development of mature biofilms is an aid in numerous aspects of the life cycle of fungi. It is well known that Sporothrix schenckii complex causes a benign subcutaneous mycosis, but recent studies have suggestedthat biofilm formation may be one of the important factors involved in its virulence. Here we report the study of the biomass organization and a model of the stages of S. schenckii biofilm development: adsorption, active adhesion, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersal of biofilm fragments. During the development, the biofilm is surrounded by extracellular matrix, which contains glycoprotein (mannose rich), carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acid. In addition, the extracellular DNA increases in extracellular matrix as a key component to structural integrity and antifungal resistance. The study of S. schenckii biofilm contributes to a better understanding of growth biofilm and physiology, adding new insights into the mechanisms of virulence and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Pestrak MJ, Gupta TT, Dusane DH, et al (2020)

Correction: Investigation of synovial fluid induced Staphylococcus aureus aggregate development and its impact on surface attachment and biofilm formation.

PloS one, 15(5):e0233534 pii:PONE-D-20-13657.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231791.].

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Chakraborty T, Tóth Z, Tóth R, et al (2020)

Iron Metabolism, Pseudohypha Production, and Biofilm Formation through a Multicopper Oxidase in the Human-Pathogenic Fungus Candida parapsilosis.

mSphere, 5(3): pii:5/3/e00227-20.

Among all the essential micronutrients, iron plays an important role in mammalian biology. It is also essential for pathogens infecting mammalian hosts, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. As the availability of accessible iron is limited within the mammalian host, several human-pathogenic fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, and Aspergillus fumigatus, have developed various iron uptake mechanisms. Although Candida parapsilosis is the second or third most common non-albicans Candida species associated with systemic and superficial Candida infections in immunocompromised patients, the mechanisms of iron uptake and homoeostasis remain unknown in this fungus. In the current report, we show that a homologue of the multicopper oxidase gene FET3 is present in the genome of C. parapsilosis (CPAR2_603600) and plays a significant role in iron acquisition. We found that homozygous deletion mutants of CPAR2_603600 showed defects under low-iron conditions and were also sensitive to various stressors. Our results also revealed that the levels of pseudohypha formation and biofilm formation were reduced in the null mutants compared to the wild type. This phenotypic defect could be partially rescued by supplementation with excess iron in the growth medium. The expression levels of the orthologues of various iron metabolism-related genes were also altered in the mutants compared to the parental strain. In conclusion, our report describes the role of CPAR2_603600 in iron homoeostasis maintenance as well as morphology and biofilm formation regulation in this pathogenic fungus.IMPORTANCEC. parapsilosis is the second or third most common opportunistic human-pathogenic Candida species, being responsible for severe fungal infections among immunocompromised patients, especially low-birth-weight infants (0 to 2 years of age). Among the major virulence factors that pathogenic fungi possess is the ability to compete with the host for essential micronutrients, including iron. Accessible iron is required for the maintenance of several metabolic processes. In order to obtain accessible iron from the host, pathogenic fungi have developed several iron acquisition and metabolic mechanisms. Although C. parapsilosis is a frequent cause of invasive candidiasis, little is known about what iron metabolic processes this fungus possesses that could contribute to the species' virulent behavior. In this study, we identified the multicopper oxidase FET3 gene that regulates iron homeostasis maintenance and also plays important roles in the morphology of the fungus as well as in biofilm formation, two additional factors in fungal virulence.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Madaha EL, Gonsu HK, Bughe RN, et al (2020)

Occurrence of blaTEM and blaCTXM Genes and Biofilm-Forming Ability among Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonasaeruginosa and Acinetobacterbaumannii in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Microorganisms, 8(5): pii:microorganisms8050708.

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA) and Acinetobacterbaumannii (ACB) are non-fermentative bacteria mostly associated with nosocomial infections in humans.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles and virulence gene of PSA and ACB previously isolated from humans in selected health facilities in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

METHODS: A total of 77 and 27 presumptive PSA and ACB isolates, respectively, were collected from the Yaoundé teaching hospital. These isolates were previously isolated from various samples including pus, blood and broncho-alveolar lavage. The identities of the isolates were determined through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of PSA and ACB specific sequences. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Phenotypical expression of AmpC β-lactamases (AmpC), extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo β-Lactamases (MBLs) were determined using the combined disc method. Bacterial genomes were screened for the presence of β-lactamases blaTEM and blaCTXM genes using specific PCR. The pathogenicity of PSA and ACB was assessed through amplification of the lasB,exoA,pslA and exoS as well as OmpA and csuE virulence genes, respectively.

RESULTS: Of the 77 presumptive PSA isolates, a large proportion (75 to 97.4%) were positively identified. All (100%) of the presumptive 27 ACB harbored the ACB-specific ITS gene fragment by PCR. Twenty five percent of the PSA isolates produced ESBLs phenotypically while more than 90% of these isolates were positive for the lasB,exoA,pslA and exoS genes. A large proportion (88%) of the ACB isolates harboured the OmpA and csuE genes. blaTEM and blaCTXM were detected in 17 and 4% of PSA, respectively, while a much higher proportion (70 and 29%) of the ACB isolates possessed these resistance determinants respectively.

CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal the occurrence of both virulence and drug-resistant determinants in clinical PSA and ACB isolates from patients in health care settings in Yaoundé, Cameroon, thus suggesting their role in the pathological conditions in patients.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Francis F, Druart F, Mavungu JDD, et al (2020)

Biofilm Mode of Cultivation Leads to an Improvement of the Entomotoxic Patterns of Two Aspergillus Species.

Microorganisms, 8(5): pii:microorganisms8050705.

Two fungi, i.e., Aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus oryzae (Ahlb.) E. Cohn, were cultivated according to two methodologies, namely submerged and biofilm cultures with the primary aim to use their secondary metabolites the supernatant CL50, and CL90 varied between 1.3% (v/v) to 12.7% (v/v) for incubation times from 24 to 72 h. While the A. flavus supernatant entomotoxicity was higher than this of A. oryzae, the biofilm culture application increased the efficiency of the former. Proteomic analysis of the supernatants revealed discrepancies among the two species and modes of cultivation. Furthermore, the secondary metabolite profiles of both Aspergillus cultures were verified. Aspergillic acid, beta-cyclopiazonic acid, cyclopiazonic acid, ferrineospergillin, flavacol, and spermadin A were most predominant. Generally, these secondary metabolites were present in higher concentrations in the supernatants of A. flavus and biofilm cultures. These molecular identifications correlated positively with entomotoxic activity. Noteworthy, the absence of carcinogenic aflatoxins was remarkable, and it will allow further valorization to produce A. flavus to develop potential biopesticides.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Alves P, Gomes LC, Rodríguez-Emmenegger C, et al (2020)

Efficacy of A Poly(MeOEGMA) Brush on the Prevention of Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation and Susceptibility.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:antibiotics9050216.

Urinary tract infections are one of the most common hospital-acquired infections, and they are often associated with biofilm formation in indwelling medical devices such as catheters and stents. This study aims to investigate the antibiofilm performance of a polymer brush-poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate], poly(MeOEGMA)-and evaluate its effect on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli biofilms formed on that surface. Biofilms were formed in a parallel plate flow chamber (PPFC) for 24 h under the hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in urinary catheters and stents and challenged with ampicillin. Results obtained with the brush were compared to those obtained with two control surfaces, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. The polymer brush reduced by 57% the surface area covered by E. coli after 24 h, as well as the number of total adhered cells. The antibiotic treatment potentiated cell death and removal, and the total cell number was reduced by 88%. Biofilms adapted their architecture, and cell morphology changed to a more elongated form during that period. This work suggests that the poly(MeOEGMA) brush has potential to prevent bacterial adhesion in urinary tract devices like ureteral stents and catheters, as well as in eradicating biofilms developed in these biomedical devices.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Subh L, Correa W, Pinkvos TJ, et al (2020)

Synthetic anti-endotoxin peptides interfere with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, their adhesion and biofilm formation on titanium.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Implant-associated infections arise from the formation of bacterial biofilms, which are difficult to be treated with conventional antibiotics. Therefore, there is a need for new implant functionalizations, which inhibit biofilm formation. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of synthetic peptides to assess their applicability for this purpose.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Two synthetic anti-endotoxin peptides, Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF (Aspidasept I and II) were tested against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus oralis) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) bacteria associated with implant infections. Their activity was evaluated against different states of biofilm formation on the implant material titanium using CFU, live/dead fluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. Both peptides inhibited planktonic bacteria growth, impacted initial bacterial adhesion, reduced biofilm volume and increased the proportion of dead cells. Additionally, cytotoxicity analyses showed that neither peptide harmed human gingival fibroblasts or osteoblasts at lower concentrations.

CONCLUSION: A concentration dependent antibacterial activity of both peptides against biofilms of four clinically relevant bacteria could be demonstrated.

The results of this study serve as a promising basis for the improvement of these peptides in order to finally achieve a peptide-equipped antibacterial implant surface.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Tiwari M, Panwar S, Kothidar A, et al (2020)

Rational targeting of Wzb phosphatase and Wzc kinase interaction inhibits extracellular polysaccharides synthesis and biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Carbohydrate research, 492:108025 pii:S0008-6215(20)30169-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, and responsible for high mortality and morbidity. Biofilm formation is one of the resistance determinants, where extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) is an essential component. EPS synthesis and its export is regulated by the bacterial Wza-Wzb-Wzc system. Wzc exhibits auto-phosphorylation protein tyrosine kinase activity, while Wzb is a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Wzb mediates dephosphorylation of Wzc. Dephosphorylated Wzc is required for the export of the EPS through porin Wza-Wzc complex. It shows that the interaction of Wzb with Wzc is critical for the export of EPS. Therefore, if the Wzb-Wzc interaction is inhibited, then it might hinder the EPS transport and diminish the biofilm formation. In this study, we have modelled the Wzb, and Wzc proteins and further validated using PSVS, ProSA, RAMPAGE, and PDBsum. The modelled proteins were used for protein-protein docking. The docked protein-protein complex was minimized by Schrodinger software using OPLS_2005 force field. The binding site of the minimized Wzb-Wzc complex was identified by Sitemap. The high throughput virtual screening identified Labetalol hydrochloride and 4-{1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl) amino] propyl} phenol from FDA-approved drug library based on their interaction at the interface of Wzb-Wzc complex. The inhibitor-protein complex was further undergone molecular mechanics analysis using Generalized Born model and Solvent Accessibility (MMGBSA) to estimate the binding free energies. The lead was also used to generate the pharmacophore model and screening the molecule with antimicrobial scaffold. The identified lead was experimentally validated for its effect on EPS quantity and biofilm formation by A. baumannii. Wzb-Wzc interaction is essential for biofilm and EPS export; hence, the identified lead might be useful to regulate the biofilm formation by A. baumannii.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Ramazanpour Esfahani A, Batelaan O, Hutson JL, et al (2020)

Role of biofilm on virus inactivation in limestone aquifers: implications for managed aquifer recharge.

Journal of environmental health science & engineering, 18(1):21-34 pii:431.

Background: Virus, as nano-sized microorganisms are prevalent in aquifers, which threaten groundwater quality and human health wellbeing. Virus inactivation by attachment onto the limestone surfaces is a determining factor in the transport and retention behavior of virus in carbonaceous aquifers.

Methods: In the present study, the inactivation of MS2 -as a model virus- by attachment onto the surfaces of limestone grains was investigated in a series of batch experiments under different conditions such as limestone particle size distribution (0.25-0.50, 0.5-1 and 1-2 mm), treated wastewater and RO water, temperature (4 and 22 °C), initial MS2 concentrations (103-107 PFU/mL) and static and dynamic conditions. The experimental data of MS2 inactivation was also fitted to a non-linear kinetic model with shoulder and tailing. The characteristics of biofilm on the surfaces of limestone aquifer materials were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

Results: The inactivation rate of virus decreased with increasing the adsorbent diameter. Furthermore, virus inactivation was greater at room temperature (22 °C) than 4 °C, in both static and dynamic conditions. The inactivation of virus via attachment onto the limestone aquifer materials in dynamic conditions was higher than under static conditions. In addition, fitting the experimental data with a kinetic model showed that virus inactivation was high at higher temperature, smaller limestone grains and dynamic conditions. Moreover, the experiments with treated wastewater showed that in authentic aqueous media, the virus inactivation was considerably higher than in RO water, due to the presence of either monovalent or divalent cations and surface roughness created by biofilms.

Conclusion: Finally, in terms of managed aquifer recharge systems, the presence of biofilm increases bacteria and virus retention onto the aquifer surfaces. Graphical abstract.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Castillo Pedraza MC, de Oliveira Fratucelli ED, Ribeiro SM, et al (2020)

Modulation of Lipoteichoic Acids and Exopolysaccharides Prevents Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Accumulation.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 25(9): pii:molecules25092232.

Dental caries is a diet-biofilm-dependent disease. Streptococcus mutans contributes to cariogenic biofilms by producing an extracellular matrix rich in exopolysaccharides and acids. The study aimed to determine the effect of topical treatments with compound 1771 (modulates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) metabolism) and myricetin (affects the synthesis of exopolysaccharides) on S. mutans biofilms. In vitro S. mutans UA159 biofilms were grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs, alternating 0.1% sucrose and 0.5% sucrose plus 1% starch. Twice-daily topical treatments were performed with both agents alone and combined with and without fluoride: compound 1771 (2.6 µg/mL), myricetin (500 µg/mL), 1771 + myricetin, fluoride (250 ppm), 1771 + fluoride, myricetin + fluoride, 1771 + myricetin + fluoride, and vehicle. Biofilms were evaluated via microbiological, biochemical, imaging, and gene expression methods. Compound 1771 alone yielded less viable counts, biomass, exopolysaccharides, and extracellular LTA. Moreover, the combination 1771 + myricetin + fluoride decreased three logs of bacterium counts, 60% biomass, >74% exopolysaccharides, and 20% LTA. The effect of treatments on extracellular DNA was not pronounced. The combination strategy affected the size of microcolonies and exopolysaccharides distribution and inhibited the expression of genes linked to insoluble exopolysaccharides synthesis. Therefore, compound 1771 prevented the accumulation of S. mutans biofilm; however, the effect was more pronounced when it was associated with fluoride and myricetin.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Vollaro A, Esposito A, Esposito EP, et al (2020)

PYED-1 Inhibits Biofilm Formation and Disrupts the Preformed Biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5): pii:antibiotics9050240.

Pregnadiene-11-hydroxy-16α,17α-epoxy-3,20-dione-1 (PYED-1), a heterocyclic corticosteroid derivative of deflazacort, exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of PYED-1 on the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, an etiological agent of biofilm-based chronic infections such as osteomyelitis, indwelling medical device infections, periodontitis, chronic wound infections, and endocarditis. PYED-1 caused a strong reduction in biofilm formation in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, it was also able to completely remove the preformed biofilm. Transcriptional analysis performed on the established biofilm revealed that PYED-1 downregulates the expression of genes related to quorum sensing (agrA, RNAIII, hld, psm, and sarA), surface proteins (clfB and fnbB), secreted toxins (hla, hlb, and lukD), and capsular polysaccharides (capC). The expression of genes that encode two main global regulators, sigB and saeR, was also significantly inhibited after treatment with PYED-1. In conclusion, PYED-1 not only effectively inhibited biofilm formation, but also eradicated preformed biofilms of S. aureus, modulating the expression of genes related to quorum sensing, surface and secreted proteins, and capsular polysaccharides. These results indicated that PYED-1 may have great potential as an effective antibiofilm agent to prevent S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Zhang L, Chichlowski M, Gross G, et al (2020)

Milk fat globule membrane protects Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG from bile stress by regulating exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a complex, highly conserved structure surrounding fat droplets secreted into mammalian milk. This study evaluated the impact of MFGM on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). MFGM-10 (2.5 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L) did not affect LGG growth in MRS medium but enhanced the ability of LGG to survive in the presence of 0.5% porcine bile. In the presence of MFGM-10 (5 g/L) and bile (0.5%), there was less complex polysaccharide in the media and less capsular polysaccharide associated with the LGG cells compared to bile exposure alone (p < 0.05). The expression of four EPS genes were modulated by bile stress and MFGM. Biofilm thickness was increased (p < 0.05) during bile stress with MFGM compared to other treatments. Furthermore, MFGM increased LGG survival during transit in the murine GI tract. Future experiments will determine the impact of MFGM on LGG probiotic functionality.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Abu El-Wafa WM, Ahmed RH, MA Ramadan (2020)

Synergistic effects of pomegranate and rosemary extracts in combination with antibiotics against antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] pii:10.1007/s42770-020-00284-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The combination of plant extract and antibiotic represents a template for developing of antibiofilm drugs. This study investigated the synergistic effects of pomegranate/rosemary/antibiotic combinations against antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that 17 (85%) of total P. aeruginosa isolates were biofilm producers; however, 5 (25%) isolates were demonstrated as a strong biofilm producer. The highest MIC level (1024 μg/ml) of tested antibiotics against strong biofilm producer isolates was observed with piperacillin, however the MIC ranges of ceftazidime, gentamycin, imipenem, and levofloxacin against these isolates were reached to (256-1024 μg/ml), (32-1024 μg/ml), (8-1024 μg/ml), and (8-512 μg/ml), respectively. PS-1 was the representative isolate for strong biofilm formation and high antibiotic resistance. 16S rRNA gene analysis suggested that PS-1 (accession No. MN619678) was identified as a strain of P. aeruginosa POA1. Pomegranate and rosemary extracts were the most effective extracts in biofilm inhibition, which significantly inhibited 91.93 and 90.83% of PS-1 biofilm, respectively. Notably, the synergism between both plant extracts and antibiotics has significantly reduced the MICs of used antibiotics at the level lower than the susceptibility breakpoints. Pomegranate/rosemary/antibiotic combinations achieved the highest biofilm eradication, which ranging from 90.0 to 99.6%, followed by the eradication ranges of pomegranate/rosemary combination, rosemary, and pomegranate extracts, which reached to (76.5-85.4%), (53.1-73.7%), and (41.2-71.5%), respectively. The findings suggest that pomegranate/rosemary/antibiotic combinations may be an effective therapeutic agent for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Tsukatani T, Sakata F, Kuroda R, et al (2020)

Biofilm Eradication Activity of Herb and Spice Extracts Alone and in Combination Against Oral and Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria.

Current microbiology pii:10.1007/s00284-020-02017-z [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of this study was to select herbs and spices with potent biofilm eradication activities. Further, the combined effects of herb and spice extracts against pathogenic biofilms were evaluated. The biofilm eradication activities of ethanol extracts of 104 herbs and spices were measured by combining a colorimetric microbial viability assay with a biofilm formation technique. Ethanol extract of clove had potent biofilm eradication activities against Escherichia coli, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Streptococcus mutans. Ethanol extracts of eucalyptus and rosemary had potent biofilm eradication activities against P. gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. mutans. The combination of extracts of clove with eucalyptus or rosemary showed synergistic or additive effects, or both, on biofilm eradication activities. The main biofilm inhibitors in the ethanol extracts of clove, eucalyptus and rosemary were eugenol, macrocarpals and carnosic acid, respectively. The combinations of extracts of clove with eucalyptus or rosemary had potent biofilm eradication activities against oral and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The findings of the present study reveal that specific combinations of herb and spice extracts may prevent and control biofilm-related oral diseases, food spoilage, and food poisoning.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Kimura T, K Kobayashi (2020)

Role of glutamate synthase in biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis.

Journal of bacteriology pii:JB.00120-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacillus subtilis forms robust biofilms in the presence of large amounts of carbon sources, such as glycerol. However, little is known about the importance of the metabolic systems, or the relationship between metabolic systems and regulatory systems, involved in biofilm formation. Glutamate synthase, encoded by gltAB, is an enzyme that converts 2-ketoglutarate (a TCA cycle intermediate) and glutamine into glutamate, which is a general amino group donor in metabolisms. Here, we show that a ΔgltA mutant exhibited early arrest of biofilm formation in complex medium containing glycerol. This phenotype was not due to glutamate auxotrophy. Consistent with its biofilm formation phenotype, the ΔgltA mutant exhibited an early decrease in expression of the epsA and tapA operons, which are responsible for production of biofilm matrix polymers. This resulted from decreased activity of their regulator, Spo0A, as evidenced by reduced expression of other Spo0A-regulated genes in the ΔgltA mutant. The ΔgltA mutation prevented biofilm formation only in the presence of large amounts of glycerol. Moreover, limited expression of citrate synthase (but not other TCA enzymes) restored biofilm-forming ability to the ΔgltA mutant. These results indicate that the ΔgltA mutant accumulates an inhibitory intermediate (citrate) in the TCA cycle in the presence of large amounts of glycerol. The ΔgltA mutant formed biofilms when excess iron was added to the medium. Taken together, the data suggest that accumulation of citrate ions by the ΔgltA mutant causes iron shortage due to chelation, which prevents activation of Spo0A and causes defective biofilm formation.IMPORTANCEBacillus subtilis, a model organism for bacterial biofilm formation, forms robust biofilms in a medium-dependent manner. Although the regulatory network that controls biofilm formation has been well-studied, the importance of the underlying metabolic systems remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrates that a metabolic disorder in a well-conserved metabolic system causes accumulation of an inhibitory metabolic intermediate that prevents activation of the system that regulates biofilm formation. These findings increase our understanding of the coordination between cellular metabolic status and the regulatory networks governing biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Brück HL, Coutte F, Dhulster P, et al (2020)

Growth Dynamics of Bacterial Populations in a Two-Compartment Biofilm Bioreactor Designed for Continuous Surfactin Biosynthesis.

Microorganisms, 8(5): pii:microorganisms8050679.

Biofilm bioreactors are promising systems for continuous biosurfactant production since they provide process stability through cell immobilization and avoid foam formation. In this work, a two-compartment biofilm bioreactor was designed consisting of a stirred tank reactor and a trickle-bed reactor containing a structured metal packing for biofilm formation. A strong and poor biofilm forming B. subtilis 168 strain due to restored exopolysaccharides (EPS) production or not were cultivated in the system to study the growth behavior of the planktonic and biofilm population for the establishment of a growth model. A high dilution rate was used in order to promote biofilm formation on the packing and wash out unwanted planktonic cells. Biofilm development kinetics on the packing were assessed through a total organic carbon mass balance. The EPS+ strain showed a significantly improved performance in terms of adhesion capacity and surfactin production. The mean surfactin productivity of the EPS+ strain was about 37% higher during the continuous cultivation compared to the EPS- strain. The substrate consumption together with the planktonic cell and biofilm development were properly predicted by the model (α = 0.05). The results show the efficiency of the biofilm bioreactor for continuous surfactin production using an EPS producing strain.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )