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Bibliography on: Biofilm

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2023 at 01:36 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-05-28

Costa-Orlandi CB, Bila NM, Bonatti JLC, et al (2023)

Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis.

Pharmaceutics, 15(5):.

The ability of dermatophytes to live in communities and resist antifungal drugs may explain treatment recurrence, especially in onychomycosis. Therefore, new molecules with reduced toxicity that target dermatophyte biofilms should be investigated. This study evaluated nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (nonyl) susceptibility and mechanism of action on planktonic cells and biofilms of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes. Metabolic activities, ergosterol, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified, and the expression of genes encoding ergosterol was determined by real-time PCR. The effects on the biofilm structure were visualized using confocal electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms were susceptible to nonyl and resistant to fluconazole, griseofulvin (all strains), and terbinafine (two strains). The SEM results revealed that nonyl groups seriously damaged the biofilms, whereas synthetic drugs caused little or no damage and, in some cases, stimulated the development of resistance structures. Confocal microscopy showed a drastic reduction in biofilm thickness, and transmission electron microscopy results indicated that the compound promoted the derangement and formation of pores in the plasma membrane. Biochemical and molecular assays indicated that fungal membrane ergosterol is a nonyl target. These findings show that nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate is a promising antifungal compound.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Almasri D, Y Dahman (2023)

Prosthetic Joint Infections: Biofilm Formation, Management, and the Potential of Mesoporous Bioactive Glass as a New Treatment Option.

Pharmaceutics, 15(5): pii:pharmaceutics15051401.

Infection of prosthetic joints is one of the biggest challenges to a successful replacement of the joint after a total joint arthroplasty. Such infections are caused by bacterial colonies that are difficult to treat by systemic delivery of antibiotics. Local delivery of antibiotics can prove to be the solution to such a devastating outcome that impacts patients' health and ability to regain function in their joints as well as costs the healthcare system millions of dollars every year. This review will discuss prosthetic joint infections in detail with a focus on the development, management, and diagnosis of the infections. Surgeons often opt to use polymethacrylate cement locally to deliver antibiotics; however, due to the rapid release of antibiotics, non-biodegradability, and high chance of reinfection, the search for alternatives is in high demand. One of the most researched alternatives to current treatments is the use of biodegradable and highly compatible bioactive glass. The novelty of this review lies in its focus on mesoporous bioactive glass as a potential alternative to current treatments for prosthetic joint infection. Mesoporous bioactive glass is the focus of this review because it has a higher capacity to deliver biomolecules, stimulate bone growth, and treat infections after prosthetic joint replacement surgeries. The review also examines different synthesis methods, compositions, and properties of mesoporous bioactive glass, highlighting its potential as a biomaterial for the treatment of joint infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Abudalu M, Aqawi M, Sionov RV, et al (2023)

Polyglactin 910 Meshes Coated with Sustained-Release Cannabigerol Varnish Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Macrophage Cytokine Secretion: An In Vitro Study.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(5): pii:ph16050745.

Synthetic surgical meshes are commonly used in abdominal wall reconstruction surgeries to strengthen a weak abdominal wall. Common mesh-related complications include local infection and inflammatory processes. Because cannabigerol (CBG) has both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, we proposed that coating VICRYL (polyglactin 910) mesh with a sustained-release varnish (SRV) containing CBG would prevent these complications. We used an in vitro infection model with Staphylococcus aureus and an in vitro inflammation model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Meshes coated with either SRV-placebo or SRV-CBG were exposed daily to S. aureus in tryptic soy medium (TSB) or macrophage Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM). Bacterial growth and biofilm formation in the environment and on the meshes were assessed by changes in optical density, bacterial ATP content, metabolic activity, crystal violet staining, spinning disk confocal microscopy (SDCM), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The anti-inflammatory effect of the culture medium that was exposed daily to the coated meshes was analyzed by measuring the release of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages with appropriate ELISA kits. Additionally, a cytotoxicity assay was performed on Vero epithelial cell lines. We observed that compared with SRV-placebo, the segments coated with SRV-CBG inhibited the bacterial growth of S. aureus in the mesh environment for 9 days by 86 ± 4% and prevented biofilm formation and metabolic activity in the surroundings for 9 days, with respective 70 ± 2% and 95 ± 0.2% reductions. The culture medium that was incubated with the SRV-CBG-coated mesh inhibited LPS-induced secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 from the RAW 264.7 macrophages for up to 6 days without affecting macrophage viability. A partial anti-inflammatory effect was also observed with SRV-placebo. The conditioned culture medium was not toxic to Vero epithelial cells, which had an IC50 of 25 µg/mL for CBG. In conclusion, our data indicate a potential role of coating VICRYL mesh with SRV-CBG in preventing infection and inflammation in the initial period after surgery.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Leesombun A, Sungpradit S, Bangphoomi N, et al (2023)

Effects of Piper betle Extracts against Biofilm Formation by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Isolated from Dogs.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(5): pii:ph16050741.

Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolated from dogs with cutaneous and wound infections has significantly impacted veterinary medicine. This study aimed to isolate S. pseudintermedius from canine pyoderma and investigate the effects of ethanolic extracts of Piper betle (PB), P. sarmentosum (PS), and P. nigrum (PN) on the bacterial growth and biofilm formation of S. pseudintermedius and MRSP. Of the isolated 152 isolates, 53 were identified as S. pseudintermedius using polymerase chain reaction, and 10 isolates (6.58%) were identified as MRSP based on the presence of mecA. Based on phenotype, 90% of MRSPs were multidrug-resistant. All MRSP had moderate (10%, 1/10) and strong (90%, 9/10) biofilm production ability. PB extracts were the most effective in inhibiting planktonic cells, and the minimum inhibitory concentration at which ≥50% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC50) was 256 µg/mL (256-1024 µg/mL) for S. pseudintermedius isolates and 512 µg/mL (256-1024 µg/mL) for MRSP isolates. The MIC90 for S. pseudintermedius and MRSP was 512 µg/mL. In XTT assay, PB at 4× MIC showed an inhibition rate of 39.66-68.90% and 45.58-59.13% for S. pseudintermedius and MRSP, respectively, in inhibiting biofilm formation. For PB at 8× MIC, the inhibition rates for S. pseudintermedius and MRSP were 50.74-81.66% and 59.57-78.33%, respectively. Further, 18 compounds were identified in PB using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and hydroxychavicol (36.02%) was the major constituent. These results indicated that PB could inhibit bacteria growth of and biofilm formation by S. pseudintermedius and MRSP isolated from canine pyoderma in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, PB is a potential candidate for the treatment of MRSP infection and biofilm formation in veterinary medicine.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Ścibik Ł, Ochońska D, Gołda-Cępa M, et al (2023)

Sonochemical Deposition of Gentamicin Nanoparticles at the PCV Tracheostomy Tube Surface Limiting Bacterial Biofilm Formation.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 16(10): pii:ma16103765.

BACKGROUND: The use of nanotechnology in the production of medical equipment has opened new possibilities to fight bacterial biofilm developing on their surfaces, which can cause infectious complications. In this study, we decided to use gentamicin nanoparticles. An ultrasonic technique was used for their synthesis and immediate deposition onto the surface of tracheostomy tubes, and their effect on bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated.

METHODS: Polyvinyl chloride was functionalized using oxygen plasma followed by sonochemical formation and the embedment of gentamicin nanoparticles. The resulting surfaces were characterized with the use of AFM, WCA, NTA, FTIR and evaluated for cytotoxicity with the use of A549 cell line and for bacterial adhesion using reference strains of S. aureus (ATCC[®] 25923™) and E. coli (ATCC[®] 25922™).

RESULTS: The use of gentamicin nanoparticles significantly reduced the adhesion of bacterial colonies on the surface of the tracheostomy tube for S. aureus from 6 × 10[5] CFU/mL to 5 × 10[3] CFU/mL and for E. coli from 1.655 × 10[5] CFU/mL to 2 × 10[1] CFU/mL, and the functionalized surfaces did not show a cytotoxic effect on A549 cells (ATTC CCL 185).

CONCLUSIONS: The use of gentamicin nanoparticles on the polyvinyl chloride surface may be an additional supporting method for patients after tracheostomy in order to prevent the colonization of the biomaterial by potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Vladkova TG, Staneva AD, Avramova IA, et al (2023)

Fucoidan-Containing, Low-Adhesive Siloxane Coatings for Medical Applications: Inhibition of Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Development.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 16(10): pii:ma16103651.

The deposition of low-adhesive siloxane coatings is a current trend for the non-toxic control of bacterial growth and biofilm formation. Total elimination of biofilm formation has not been reported so far. The aim of this investigation was to study the ability of a non-toxic, natural, biologically active substance, such as fucoidan, to inhibit bacterial growth on similar medical coatings. The fucoidan amount was varied, and its impact on the bioadhesion-influencing surface characteristics, as well as on bacterial cell growth, was investigated. The inclusion of up to 3-4 wt.% brown algae-derived fucoidan in the coatings increases their inhibitory effect, more significantly on the Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus than on the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. The biological activity of the studied siloxane coatings was ascribed to the formation of a low-adhesive, biologically active surface top layer consisting of siloxane oil and dispersed water-soluble fucoidan particles. This is the first report on the antibacterial activity of fucoidan-containing medical siloxane coatings. The experimental results give reason to expect that relevantly selected, natural biologically active substances can be efficient in the non-toxic control of bacterial growth on medical devices and, as a result, medical device-associated infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Ma X, Liu H, Liu Z, et al (2023)

Trichosporon asahii PLA2 Gene Enhances Drug Resistance to Azoles by Improving Drug Efflux and Biofilm Formation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108855.

Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe or even fatal infections in patients with low immune function. sPLA2 plays different roles in different fungi and is also related to fungal drug resistance. However, the mechanism underlying its drug resistance to azoles has not yet been reported in T. asahii. Therefore, we investigated the drug resistance of T. asahii PLA2 (TaPLA2) by constructing overexpressing mutant strains (TaPLA2[OE]). TaPLA2[OE] was generated by homologous recombination of the recombinant vector pEGFP-N1-TaPLA2, induced by the CMV promoter, with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The structure of the protein was found to be typical of sPLA2, and it belongs to the phospholipase A2_3 superfamily. TaPLA2[OE] enhanced antifungal drug resistance by upregulating the expression of effector genes and increasing the number of arthrospores to promote biofilm formation. TaPLA2[OE] was highly sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate and Congo red, indicating impaired cell wall integrity due to downregulation of chitin synthesis or degradation genes, which can indirectly affect fungal resistance. In conclusion, TaPLA2 overexpression enhanced the resistance to azoles of T. asahii by enhancing drug efflux and biofilm formation and upregulating HOG-MAPK pathway genes; therefore, it has promising research prospects.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Chung J, Eisha S, Park S, et al (2023)

How Three Self-Secreted Biofilm Exopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psl, Pel, and Alginate, Can Each Be Exploited for Antibiotic Adjuvant Effects in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infection.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108709.

In cystic fibrosis (CF), pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cause of increased morbidity and mortality, especially in patients for whom infection becomes chronic and there is reliance on long-term suppressive therapies. Current antimicrobials, though varied mechanistically and by mode of delivery, are inadequate not only due to their failure to eradicate infection but also because they do not halt the progression of lung function decline over time. One of the reasons for this failure is thought to be the biofilm mode of growth of P. aeruginosa, wherein self-secreted exopolysaccharides (EPSs) provide physical protection against antibiotics and an array of niches with resulting metabolic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The three biofilm-associated EPSs secreted by P. aeruginosa (alginate, Psl, and Pel) are each under investigation and are being exploited in ways that potentiate antibiotics. In this review, we describe the development and structure of P. aeruginosa biofilms before examining each EPS as a potential therapeutic target for combating pulmonary infection with P. aeruginosa in CF, with a particular focus on the current evidence for these emerging therapies and barriers to bringing these therapies into clinic.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Su X, Cui H, W Zhang (2023)

Copiotrophy in a Marine-Biofilm-Derived Roseobacteraceae Bacterium Can Be Supported by Amino Acid Metabolism and Thiosulfate Oxidation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108617.

Copiotrophic bacteria that respond rapidly to nutrient availability, particularly high concentrations of carbon sources, play indispensable roles in marine carbon cycling. However, the molecular and metabolic mechanisms governing their response to carbon concentration gradients are not well understood. Here, we focused on a new member of the family Roseobacteraceae isolated from coastal marine biofilms and explored the growth strategy at different carbon concentrations. When cultured in a carbon-rich medium, the bacterium grew to significantly higher cell densities than Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, although there was no difference when cultured in media with reduced carbon. Genomic analysis showed that the bacterium utilized various pathways involved in biofilm formation, amino acid metabolism, and energy production via the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that 28.4% of genes were regulated by carbon concentration, with increased carbon concentration inducing the expression of key enzymes in the EMP, ED, PP, and TCA cycles, genes responsible for the transformation of amino acids into TCA intermediates, as well as the sox genes for thiosulfate oxidation. Metabolomics showed that amino acid metabolism was enhanced and preferred in the presence of a high carbon concentration. Mutation of the sox genes decreased cell proton motive force when grown with amino acids and thiosulfate. In conclusion, we propose that copiotrophy in this Roseobacteraceae bacterium can be supported by amino acid metabolism and thiosulfate oxidation.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Arumugam M, Manikandan DB, Marimuthu SK, et al (2023)

Evaluating Biofilm Inhibitory Potential in Fish Pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila by Agricultural Waste Extracts and Assessment of Aerolysin Inhibitors Using In Silico Approach.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050891.

Aeromonas hydrophila, an opportunistic bacteria, causes several devastating diseases in humans and animals, particularly aquatic species. Antibiotics have been constrained by the rise of antibiotic resistance caused by drug overuse. Therefore, new strategies are required to prevent appropriate antibiotic inability from antibiotic-resistant strains. Aerolysin is essential for A. hydrophila pathogenesis and has been proposed as a potential target for inventing drugs with anti-virulence properties. It is a unique method of disease prevention in fish to block the quorum-sensing mechanism of A. hydrophila. In SEM analysis, the crude solvent extracts of both groundnut shells and black gram pods exhibited a reduction of aerolysin formation and biofilm matrix formation by blocking the QS in A. hydrophila. Morphological changes were identified in the extracts treated bacterial cells. Furthermore, in previous studies, 34 ligands were identified with potential antibacterial metabolites from agricultural wastes, groundnut shells, and black gram pods using a literature survey. Twelve potent metabolites showed interactions between aerolysin and metabolites during molecular docking analysis, in that H-Pyran-4-one-2,3 dihydro-3,5 dihydroxy-6-methyl (-5.3 kcal/mol) and 2-Hexyldecanoic acid (-5.2 kcal/mol) showed promising results with potential hydrogen bond interactions with aerolysin. These metabolites showed a better binding affinity with aerolysin for 100 ns in molecular simulation dynamics. These findings point to a novel strategy for developing drugs using metabolites from agricultural wastes that may be feasible pharmacological solutions for treating A. hydrophila infections for the betterment of aquaculture.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Makhlouf Z, Ali AA, MH Al-Sayah (2023)

Liposomes-Based Drug Delivery Systems of Anti-Biofilm Agents to Combat Bacterial Biofilm Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050875.

All currently approved antibiotics are being met by some degree of resistance by the bacteria they target. Biofilm formation is one of the crucial enablers of bacterial resistance, making it an important bacterial process to target for overcoming antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, several drug delivery systems that target biofilm formation have been developed. One of these systems is based on lipid-based nanocarriers (liposomes), which have shown strong efficacy against biofilms of bacterial pathogens. Liposomes come in various types, namely conventional (charged or neutral), stimuli-responsive, deformable, targeted, and stealth. This paper reviews studies employing liposomal formulations against biofilms of medically salient gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species reported recently. When it comes to gram-negative species, liposomal formulations of various types were reported to be efficacious against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and members of the genera Klebsiella, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Serratia, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella. A range of liposomal formulations were also effective against gram-positive biofilms, including mostly biofilms of Staphylococcal strains, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subspecies bovis, followed by Streptococcal strains (pneumonia, oralis, and mutans), Cutibacterium acnes, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, Mycobacterium abscessus, and Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. This review outlines the benefits and limitations of using liposomal formulations as means to combat different multidrug-resistant bacteria, urging the investigation of the effects of bacterial gram-stain on liposomal efficiency and the inclusion of pathogenic bacterial strains previously unstudied.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Neidhöfer C, Rathore K, Parčina M, et al (2023)

ESKAPEE Pathogen Biofilm Control on Surfaces with Probiotic Lactobacillaceae and Bacillus species.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050871.

Combatting the rapidly growing threat of antimicrobial resistance and reducing prevalence and transmission of ESKAPEE pathogens in healthcare settings requires innovative strategies, one of which is displacing these pathogens using beneficial microorganisms. Our review comprehensively examines the evidence of probiotic bacteria displacing ESKAPEE pathogens, with a focus on inanimate surfaces. A systematic search was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases on 21 December 2021, and 143 studies were identified examining the effects of Lactobacillaceae and Bacillus spp. cells and products on the growth, colonization, and survival of ESKAPEE pathogens. While the diversity of study methods limits evidence analysis, results presented by narrative synthesis demonstrate that several species have the potential as cells or their products or supernatants to displace nosocomial infection-causing organisms in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings. Our review aims to aid the development of new promising approaches to control pathogen biofilms in medical settings by informing researchers and policymakers about the potential of probiotics to combat nosocomial infections. More targeted studies are needed to assess safety and efficacy of different probiotic formulations, followed by large-scale studies to assess utility in infection control and medical practice.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Hwang HJ, Li DD, Lee J, et al (2023)

Compounds That Have an Anti-Biofilm Effect against Common Bacteria at Very Low Concentrations and Their Antibiotic Combination Effect.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050853.

Two synthetic compounds, MHY1383, azo-resveratrol and MHY1387, 5-[4-hydroxy-3,5-methoxybenzy]-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6[1H,5H]-dione have been reported to have an anti-biofilm effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa at very low concentrations (1-10 pM). Here, we investigated the anti-biofilm effects of these compounds in various bacteria. We found that MHY1383 significantly inhibited Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation at 1 pM, 1 nM, and 10 nM, respectively. MHY1387 also inhibited the biofilm formation of E. coli, B. subtilis, and S. aureus at 1 pM, 10 nM, and 100 pM, respectively. Both MHY1383 and MHY1387 showed medium-dependent anti-biofilm effects on Salmonella enterica at high concentrations (10 μM). We also tested the susceptibility to antibiotics by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in various bacteria. When P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B. subtilis, S. enterica, and S. aureus were treated with MHY1383 or MHY1387 in combination with four different antibiotics, the MICs of carbenicillin against B. subtilis and S. aureus were lowered more than two-fold by the combination with MHY1387. However, in all other combinations, the MIC changed within two-fold. The results of this study suggest that MHY1383 and MHY1387 are effective anti-biofilm agents and can be used at very low concentrations against biofilms formed by various types of bacteria. We also suggest that even if a substance that inhibits biofilm is used together with antibiotics, it does not necessarily have the effect of lowering the MIC of the antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Martínez A, Stashenko EE, Sáez RT, et al (2023)

Effect of Essential Oil from Lippia origanoides on the Transcriptional Expression of Genes Related to Quorum Sensing, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050845.

Microbial infections resistant to conventional antibiotics constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. In some bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens, biofilm formation can favor their antimicrobial resistance. These biofilm-forming bacteria produce a compact and protective matrix, allowing their adherence and colonization to different surfaces, and contributing to resistance, recurrence, and chronicity of the infections. Therefore, different therapeutic alternatives have been investigated to interrupt both cellular communication routes and biofilm formation. Among these, essential oils (EO) from Lippia origanoides thymol-carvacrol II chemotype (LOTC II) plants have demonstrated biological activity against different biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we determined the effect of LOTC II EO on the expression of genes associated with quorum sensing (QS) communication, biofilm formation, and virulence of E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 29213. This EO was found to have high efficacy against biofilm formation, decreasing-by negative regulation-the expression of genes involved in motility (fimH), adherence and cellular aggregation (csgD), and exopolysaccharide production (pgaC) in E. coli. In addition, this effect was also determined in S. aureus where the L. origanoides EO diminished the expression of genes involved in QS communication (agrA), production of exopolysaccharides by PIA/PNG (icaA), synthesis of alpha hemolysin (hla), transcriptional regulators of the production of extracellular toxins (RNA III), QS and biofilm formation transcriptional regulators (sarA) and global regulators of biofilm formation (rbf and aur). Positive regulation was observed on the expression of genes encoding inhibitors of biofilm formation (e.g., sdiA and ariR). These findings suggest that LOTCII EO can affect biological pathways associated with QS communication, biofilm formation, and virulence of E. coli and S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations and could be a promising candidate as a natural antibacterial alternative to conventional antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Kurow O, Nuwayhid R, Stock P, et al (2023)

Organotypic 3D Co-Culture of Human Pleura as a Novel In Vitro Model of Staphylococcus aureus Infection and Biofilm Development.

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 10(5): pii:bioengineering10050537.

Bacterial pleural infections are associated with high mortality. Treatment is complicated due to biofilm formation. A common causative pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Since it is distinctly human-specific, rodent models do not provide adequate conditions for research. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of S. aureus infection on human pleural mesothelial cells using a recently established 3D organotypic co-culture model of pleura derived from human specimens. After infection of our model with S. aureus, samples were harvested at defined time points. Histological analysis and immunostaining for tight junction proteins (c-Jun, VE-cadherin, and ZO-1) were performed, demonstrating changes comparable to in vivo empyema. The measurement of secreted cytokine levels (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β) proved host-pathogen interactions in our model. Similarly, mesothelial cells produced VEGF on in vivo levels. These findings were contrasted by vital, unimpaired cells in a sterile control model. We were able to establish a 3D organotypic in vitro co-culture model of human pleura infected with S. aureus resulting in the formation of biofilm, including host-pathogen interactions. This novel model could be a useful microenvironment tool for in vitro studies on biofilm in pleural empyema.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Zhang Q, Peng L, Han W, et al (2023)

The morphology and metabolic changes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during its growth as a biofilm.

Veterinary research, 54(1):42.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important swine respiratory pathogen. Previous studies have suggested that growth as a biofilm is a natural state of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. To understand the survival features involved in the biofilm state, the growth features, morphology and gene expression profiles of planktonic and biofilm A. pleuropneumoniae were compared. A. pleuropneumoniae in biofilms showed reduced viability but maintained the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) after late log-phase. Under the microscope, bacteria in biofilms formed dense aggregated structures that were connected by abundant EPS, with reduced condensed chromatin. By construction of Δpga and ΔdspB mutants, polymeric β-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine and dispersin B were confirmed to be critical for normal biofilm formation. RNA-seq analysis indicated that, compared to their planktonic counterparts, A. pleuropneumoniae in biofilms had an extensively altered transcriptome. Carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and translation were significantly repressed, while fermentation and genes contributing to EPS synthesis and translocation were up-regulated. The regulators Fnr (HlyX) and Fis were found to be up-regulated and their binding motifs were identified in the majority of the differentially expressed genes, suggesting their coordinated global role in regulating biofilm metabolism. By comparing the transcriptome of wild-type biofilm and Δpga, the utilization of oligosaccharides, iron and sulfur and fermentation were found to be important in adhesion and aggregation during biofilm formation. Additionally, when used as inocula, biofilm bacteria showed reduced virulence in mouse, compared with planktonic grown cells. Thus, these results have identified new facets of A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm maintenance and regulation.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Elad T, Hally MP, Domingo-Félez C, et al (2023)

Exploring the effects of intermittent aeration on the performance of nitrifying membrane-aerated biofilm reactors.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02950-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) are an emerging technology for nutrient removal; however, a trade-off remains between their removal rate and oxygen transfer efficiency. This study compares nitrifying flow-through MABRs operated under continuous and intermittent aeration modes at mainstream wastewater ammonia levels. The intermittently-aerated MABRs maintained maximal nitrification rates, including under conditions allowing the oxygen partial pressure on the gas side of the membrane to considerably drop during the no-aeration period. Nitrous oxide emissions of all reactors were comparable and amounted to approximately 20 % of the converted ammonia. Intermittent aeration increased the transformation rate constant of atenolol, yet did not affect the removal of sulfamethoxazole. Seven additional trace organic chemicals were not biodegraded by any of the reactors. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the intermittently-aerated MABRs were dominated by Nitrosospira, previously shown to be abundant at low oxygen concentrations and provide reactor stability under changing conditions. Our findings indicate that intermittently-aerated flow-through MABRs can achieve high nitrification rates and oxygen transfer efficiencies, highlighting the possible implications of air supply discontinuity on nitrous oxide emissions and trace organic chemical biotransformation.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Guo L, Ye C, Yu X, et al (2023)

Induction of bacteria in biofilm into a VBNC state by chlorine and monitoring of biofilm structure changes by means of OCT.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02915-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The occurrence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria in drinking water may result in significant underestimation of viable cell counts detected by culture-based method, thus raising microbiological safety concern. Chlorine disinfection has been widely used in drinking water treatment to ensure microbiological safety. However, the effect of residual chlorine on inducing bacteria in biofilms into a VBNC state remains unclear. We determined cell numbers of Pseudomonas fluorescence in different physiological states (culturable, viable, dead) by heterotrophic plate count method and flow cytometer in a flow cell system under 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/L chlorine treatment. Numbers of culturable cells were 4.66 ± 0.47 Log10, 2.82 ± 0.76 Log10, 2.30 ± 1.23 Log10 (CFU/112.5 mm[3]) in each chlorine treatment group. However, viable cell numbers remained at 6.32 ± 0.05 Log10, 6.11 ± 0.24 Log10, 5.08 ± 0.81 Log10 (cells/112.5 mm[3]). Significant difference between numbers of viable and culturable cells demonstrated chlorine could induce bacteria in biofilms into a VBNC state. In this study, flow cells combination with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) were applied to construct an Automated experimental Platform for replicate Biofilm cultivation and structural Monitoring (APBM) system. The OCT imaging results demonstrated that changes of biofilm structure under chlorine treatment were closely related to their inherent characteristics. Biofilms with low thickness and high roughness coefficient or porosity were easier to be removed from the substrate. Biofilm with high rigid properties were more resistant to chlorine treatment. Even though >95 % bacteria in biofilms entered a VBNC state, the biofilm physical structure was still remained. This study revealed the possibility of bacteria to enter a VBNC state in drinking water biofilms and changes of biofilm structure with different characteristics under chlorine treatment, which provide reference for biofilms control in drinking water distribution system.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Xu Y, Liu S, Zhao H, et al (2023)

Ultrasonic irradiation enhanced the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 97:106423 pii:S1350-4177(23)00135-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a non-pharmacological antimicrobial regimen based on light, photosensitizer and oxygen. It has become a potential method to inactivate multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, limited by the delivery of photosensitizer (PS) in biofilm, eradicating biofilm-associated infections by aPDT remains challenging. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of combining ultrasonic irradiation with aPDT to enhance the efficacy of aPDT against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm. A cationic benzylidene cyclopentanone photosensitizer with much higher selectivity to bacterial cells than mammalian cells were applied at the concentration of 10 μM. 532 nm laser (40 mW/cm[2], 10 min) and 1 MHz ultrasound (500 mW/cm[2], 10 min, simultaneously with aPDT) were employed against MRSA biofilms in vitro. In addition to combined with ultrasonic irradiation and aPDT, MRSA biofilms were treated with laser irradiation only, photosensitizer only, ultrasonic irradiation only, ultrasonic irradiation and photosensitizer, and aPDT respectively. The antibacterial efficacy was determined by XTT assay, and the penetration depth of PS in biofilm was observed using a photoluminescence spectrometer and a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In addition, the viability of human dermal fibroblasts (WS-1 cells) after the same treatments mentioned above and the uptake of P3 by WS-1 cells after ultrasonic irradiation were detected by CCK-8 and CLSM in vitro. Results showed that the percent decrease in metabolic activity resulting from the US + aPDT group (75.76%) was higher than the sum of the aPDT group (44.14%) and the US group (9.88%), suggesting synergistic effects. Meanwhile, the diffusion of PS in the biofilm of MRSA was significantly increased by 1 MHz ultrasonic irradiation. Ultrasonic irradiation neither induced the PS uptake by WS-1 cells nor reduced the viability of WS-1 cells. These results suggested that 1 MHz ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhanced the efficacy of aPDT against MRSA biofilm by increasing the penetration depth of PS. In addition, the antibacterial efficacy of aPDT can be enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation, the US + aPDT treatment demonstrated encouraging in vivo antibacterial efficacy (1.73 log10 CFU/mL reduction). In conclusion, the combination of aPDT and 1 MHz ultrasound is a potential and promising strategy to eradicate biofilm-associated infections of MRSA.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Shi X, Lin L, J Sun (2023)

The Value of Continuous Closed Negative Pressure Drainage Combined with Antibacterial Biofilm Dressing in Postoperative Wound Healing for Severe Pancreatitis.

Alternative therapies in health and medicine pii:AT8248 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application value of continuous vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) combined with antibacterial biofilm hydraulic fiber dressing in wound healing after surgery for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).

METHODS: A total of 82 SAP patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery in our hospital from March 2021 to September 2022 were randomly divided into two groups using a random number table method. Each group consisted of 41 cases. Both groups received surgical treatment, with the control group receiving VSD treatment and the observation group receiving VSD treatment combined with antibacterial biofilm hydraulic fiber dressing. The postoperative recovery efficiency, preoperative and postoperative wound area reduction rate, pressure ulcer healing score (PUSH), serum biological indicators (white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT)), and the rate of wound-related adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the two groups in the time to resume eating (P > .05). However, the wound healing time and hospitalization days in the observation group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (P < .05). After 7 and 14 days of treatment, the wound area reduction rate in the observation group was significantly higher than in the control group, and the PUSH score was significantly lower than in the control group (P < .05). WBC, CRP, and PCT levels in the observation group were lower than in the control group (P < .05). The incidence of wound-related adverse reactions in the observation group (12.20%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (34.15%) (P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: The application of VSD combined with antibacterial biofilm hydraulic fiber dressing in the postoperative wound healing of SAP has a significant effect. It improves wound healing efficiency, reduces pressure ulcer scores, decreases inflammation indicators, and lowers the incidence of adverse reactions. While further research is needed to determine its impact on infection and inflammation prevention, this treatment approach shows promise for clinical application.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Katsburg M, Weingart C, Aubry E, et al (2023)

Limiting Factors in Treatment Success of Biofilm-Forming Streptococci in the Case of Canine Infective Endocarditis Caused by Streptococcus canis.

Veterinary sciences, 10(5): pii:vetsci10050314.

An 8-year-old male Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented with fever and severe thrombocytopenia. Clinical and laboratory examination, echocardiography, blood culture, and pathohistology revealed evidence of infective endocarditis, ischemic renal infarcts, and septic encephalitis. Treatment was started immediately but the dog's condition worsened, and the dog had to be euthanized. The causative Streptococcus canis strain was detected by blood culture and MALDI-TOF MS and analyzed using whole-genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing did not detect any resistance. The affected heart valve was analyzed using FISH imaging, which showed a streptococcal biofilm on the heart valve. Bacteria in biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. Early diagnosis could be beneficial to treatment outcome. Treatment of endocarditis could be improved by researching the optimal dosage of antibiotics in conjunction with the use of biofilm-active drugs.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Ren Q, Luo W, Chi H, et al (2023)

Down-regulation of β-lactam antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis is associated with isookanin.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1139796.

INTRODUCTION: Biofilm formation is the major pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), which enhances bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Isookanin has potential inhibitory activity on biofilm.

METHOD: The inhibiting mechanisms of isookanin against biofilm formation through surface hydrophobicity assay, exopolysaccharides, eDNA, gene expression analysis, microscopic visualization, and molecular docking were explored. Additionally, the combination of isookanin and β-lactam antibiotics were evaluated by the broth micro-checkerboard assay.

RESULTS: The results showed that isookanin could decrease the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis by ≥85% at 250 μg/mL. The exopolysaccharides, eDNA and surface hydrophobicity were reduced after treatment with isookanin. Microscopic visualization analysis showed that there were fewer bacteria on the surface of the microscopic coverslip and the bacterial cell membrane was damaged after treatment with isookanin. The down-regulation of icaB and up-regulation of icaR were observed after treatment with isookanin. Additionally, the RNAIII gene was significantly up-regulated (p < 0.0001) at the mRNA level. Molecular docking showed that isookanin could bind to biofilm-related proteins. This indicated that isookanin can affect biofilm formation at the initial attachment phase and the aggregation phase. The FICI index showed that the combination of isookanin and β-lactam antibiotics were synergistic and could reduce doses of antibiotics by inhibiting biofilm formation.

DISCUSSION: This study improved the antibiotic susceptibility of S. epidermidis through inhibition of the biofilm formation, and provided a guidance for the treatment of antibiotic resistance caused by biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Alamiri F, André O, De S, et al (2023)

Role of serotype and virulence determinants of Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm bacteria in internalization and persistence in epithelial cells in vitro.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1146431.

Streptococcus pyogenes causes a multitude of local and systemic infections, the most common being pharyngitis in children. Recurrent pharyngeal infections are common and are thought to be due to the re-emergence of intracellular GAS upon completion of antibiotic treatment. The role of colonizing biofilm bacteria in this process is not fully clear. Here, live respiratory epithelial cells were inoculated with broth-grown or biofilm bacteria of different M-types, as well as with isogenic mutants lacking common virulence factors. All M-types tested adhered to and were internalized into epithelial cells. Interestingly, internalization and persistence of planktonic bacteria varied significantly between strains, whereas biofilm bacteria were internalized in similar and higher numbers, and all strains persisted beyond 44 hours, showing a more homogenous phenotype. The M3 protein, but not the M1 or M5 proteins, was required for optimal uptake and persistence of both planktonic and biofilm bacteria inside cells. Moreover, the high expression of capsule and SLO inhibited cellular uptake and capsule expression was required for intracellular survival. Streptolysin S was required for optimal uptake and persistence of M3 planktonic bacteria, whereas SpeB improved intracellular survival of biofilm bacteria. Microscopy of internalized bacteria showed that planktonic bacteria were internalized in lower numbers as individual or small clumps of bacteria in the cytoplasm, whereas GAS biofilm bacteria displayed a pattern of perinuclear localization of bacterial aggregates that affected actin structure. Using inhibitors targeting cellular uptake pathways, we confirmed that planktonic GAS mainly uses a clathrin-mediated uptake pathway that also required actin and dynamin. Clathrin was not involved in biofilm internalization, but internalization required actin rearrangement and PI3 kinase activity, possibly suggesting macropinocytosis. Together these results provide a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of uptake and survival of various phenotypes of GAS bacteria relevant for colonization and recurrent infection.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Chen Y, Gao Y, Huang Y, et al (2023)

Inhibiting Quorum Sensing by Active Targeted pH-Sensitive Nanoparticles for Enhanced Antibiotic Therapy of Biofilm-Associated Bacterial Infections.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) is considered as an effective strategy in combatting biofilm-associated bacterial infections. However, the application of quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI) is strongly restricted by poor water-solubility and low bioavailability. We herein fabricate pH-sensitive curcumin (Cur) loaded clustered nanoparticles with active targeting ability (denoted as anti-CD54@Cur-DA NPs) to inhibit QS for enhanced antibiotic therapy. Cur-DA NPs are first prepared through electrostatic interaction between Cur loaded amino-ended poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) and 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride (DA) modified biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)-polylysine (biotin-PEG-PLys). Anti-CD54@Cur-DA NPs are then obtained by the modification of Cur-DA NPs with anti-CD54. Cur loaded PAMAM can be released from Cur-DA NPs in acidic pH, leading to simultaneous charge reversal and size decrease, which is beneficial for biofilm penetration. Cur-DA NPs are hence much better in inhibiting QS than free Cur due to enhanced biofilm penetration. Compared to free Cur, Cur-DA NPs exhibit stronger capability in inhibiting the development of biofilm architecture and maturation, thus downregulating efflux pump-related genes and improving bactericidal performance of multiple antibiotics, including Penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, and tobramycin. Moreover, since anti-CD54 can selectively bind to inflamed endothelial cells, anti-CD54@Cur-DA NPs can be targeted accumulated in bacteria-infected tissues. The sequential treatment using anti-CD54@Cur-DA NPs and free antibiotics can effectively reduce bacterial burden and alleviate inflammation in a chronic lung infection model in vivo. This research provides an effective way to improve the therapeutic performance of QSI to enhance the anti-biofilm effects of antibiotics, which radiate a vitality of conventional antibiotics in treating biofilm-associated bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Salvador A, Veiga FF, Svidzinski TIE, et al (2023)

Case of Mixed Infection of Toenail Caused by Candida parapsilosis and Exophiala dermatitidis and In Vitro Effectiveness of Propolis Extract on Mixed Biofilm.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5):.

Onychomycosis is a chronic fungal nail infection caused by several filamentous and yeast-like fungi, such as the genus Candida spp., of great clinical importance. Black yeasts, such as Exophiala dermatitidis, a closely related Candida spp. species, also act as opportunistic pathogens. Fungi infectious diseases are affected by organisms organized in biofilm in onychomycosis, making treatment even more difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility profile to propolis extract and the ability to form a simple and mixed biofilm of two yeasts isolated from the same onychomycosis infection. The yeasts isolated from a patient with onychomycosis were identified as Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Exophiala dermatitidis. Both yeasts were able to form simple and mixed (in combination) biofilms. Notably, C. parapsilosis prevailed when presented in combination. The susceptibility profile of propolis extract showed action against E. dermatitidis and C. parapsilosis in planktonic form, but when the yeasts were in mixed biofilm, we only observed action against E. dermatitidis, until total eradication.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Zheng L, Gu X, Sun L, et al (2023)

Adding Metal Ions to the Bacillus mojavensis D50 Promotes Biofilm Formation and Improves Ability of Biocontrol.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5):.

Bacillus mojavensis D50, a biocontrol strain, is used to prevent and treat the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Bacillus mojavensis D50's biofilms can affect its colonization; thus, the effects of different metal ions and culture conditions on biofilm formation were determined in this study. The results of medium optimization showed that Ca[2+] had the best ability to promote biofilm formation. The optimal medium composition for the formation of biofilms contained tryptone (10 g/L), CaCl2 (5.14 g/L), and yeast extract (5.0 g/L), and the optimal fermentation conditions included pH 7, a temperature of 31.4 °C, and a culture time of 51.8 h. We found that the antifungal activity and abilities to form biofilms and colonize roots were improved after optimization. In addition, the levels of expression of the genes luxS, SinR, FlhA, and tasA were up-regulated by 37.56-, 2.87-, 12.46-, and 6.22-fold, respectively. The soil enzymatic activities which related biocontrol-related enzymes were the highest when the soil was treated by strain D50 after optimization. In vivo biocontrol assays indicated that the biocontrol effect of strain D50 after optimization was improved.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Bajire SK, Prabhu A, Bhandary YP, et al (2023)

7-Ethoxycoumarin rescued Caenorhabditis elegans from infection of COPD derived clinical isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa through virulence and biofilm inhibition via targeting Rhl and Pqs quorum sensing systems.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 39(8):208.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ambidextrous Gram-negative contagium with density convoluted network defined quorum sensing, which enables the persistent survival within the host environment, contributing to various lung related diseases including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). It is clear that P. aeruginosa is a powerful, exquisite pathogen that has adopted a variety of virulence properties through quorum sensing (QS) regulated phenomenon and that it dominates both in the development and exacerbations of COPD. Interestingly, 7-Ethoxycoumarin (7-EC), a compound that adequately mimics QS signaling molecule of P. aeruginosa, was introduced as part of the process of developing novel ways to treat the severe exacerbations. The results showed that, introduction of 7-EC significantly decreased exopolysaccharide-mediated biofilm development of strains isolated from COPD sputum, as evidenced by SEM analysis. Furthermore, 7-EC was able to modulate a variety of virulence factors and motility without subjecting planktonic cells to any selection pressure. Bacterial invasion assay revealed the potential activity of the 7-EC in preventing the active entry to A549 cells without causing any damage to the cells and found functionally active in protecting the C. elegans from P. aeruginosa infection and being non-toxic to the worms. Docking analysis was further proved that 7-EC to be the potential anti-QS compound competing specifically with Rhl and Pqs Systems. Therefore, 7-EC in the utilisation against the P. aeruginosa based infections, may open an avenue for the futuristic mechanistic study in chronic respiratory diseases and a initiator for the development of non-antibiotic based antibacterial therapy.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Siriweera B, Ahmar Siddiqui M, Zou X, et al (2023)

Integrated thiosulfate-driven denitrification, partial nitrification and anammox process in membrane-aerated biofilm reactor for low-carbon, energy-efficient biological nitrogen removal.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00638-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Combining multiple bioprocesses in a single membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) unit for wastewater treatment is an emerging research focus. This study investigated the feasibility of coupling thiosulfate-driven denitrification (TDD) with partial nitrification and anammox (PNA) in a MABR for the treatment of ammonium-containing wastewater. The integrated bioprocess was tested over a continuous operation period (>130 d) in two MABRs: one with a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (MABR-1), and the other with micro-porous aeration tubes covered with non-wovenpolyester fabrics (MABR-2). After start-up, the MABR-1 and MABR-2 based on the TDD-PNA process achieved satisfactory total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 63% and 76%, with maximum oxygen utilisation efficiencies of up to 66% and 80% and nitrogen removal fluxes of 1.3 and 4.7 gN/(m[2]·d), respectively. Predictions from the AQUASIM-model verified the integrated bioprocess. These lab scale findings confirmed the applicability of MABR technology for simultaneous sulfur and nitrogen removal, promising for pilot-scale application.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Mello TP, Barcellos IC, Branquinha MH, et al (2023)

Cell dispersion during biofilm formation by Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Scedosporium minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans.

Current research in microbial sciences, 4:100191.

Dispersion is an essential step in the lifecycle of biofilms, since it enables the dissemination of microbial cells and, consequently, the potential colonization of new sites. Filamentous fungi belonging to the Scedosporium/Lomentospora genera are opportunistic human pathogens able to form multidrug-resistant biofilms on surfaces of different chemical compositions, environments and nutritional conditions. Despite the rising understanding of how biofilms are formed by Scedosporium/Lomentospora species, the cell dispersal step has not yet been explored. In the present study, the cell dispersion was investigated during biofilm formation by S. apiospermum, S. minutisporum, S. aurantiacum and L. prolificans cells. The results revealed that conidia were the major type of dispersed cells, which were detected throughout biofilm development (from 24 to 72 h). Dispersion was not influenced by increased glucose concentration (the main source for energetic metabolism) neither the presence of voriconazole (the most common antifungal used to treat scedosporiosis); however, the presence of mucin (a component of mucous, present in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, who are usually affected by these filamentous fungi) triggered cell dispersion. Contrarily, a poor nutritional environment (e.g., phosphate-buffered saline) inhibited this step. Overall, our study reveals new insights into the biofilm development of Scedosporium/Lomentospora species.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Theis TJ, Daubert TA, Kluthe KE, et al (2023)

Staphylococcus aureus persisters are associated with reduced clearance in a catheter-associated biofilm infection.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1178526.

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections, many of which are chronic or relapsing in nature. Antibiotic therapy is often ineffective against S. aureus biofilm-mediated infections. Biofilms are difficult to treat partly due to their tolerance to antibiotics, however the underlying mechanism responsible for this remains unknown. One possible explanation is the presence of persister cells-dormant-like cells that exhibit tolerance to antibiotics. Recent studies have shown a connection between a fumC (fumarase C, a gene in the tricarboxylic acid cycle) knockout strain and increased survival to antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, and in a Drosophila melanogaster model.

OBJECTIVE: It remained unclear whether a S. aureus high persister strain would have a survival advantage in the presence of innate and adaptive immunity. To further investigate this, a fumC knockout and wild type strains were examined in a murine catheter-associated biofilm model.

RESULTS: Interestingly, mice struggled to clear both S. aureus wild type and the fumC knockout strains. We reasoned both biofilm-mediated infections predominantly consisted of persister cells. To determine the persister cell population within biofilms, expression of a persister cell marker (Pcap5A::dsRED) in a biofilm was examined. Cell sorting of biofilms challenged with antibiotics revealed cells with intermediate and high expression of cap5A had 5.9-and 4.5-fold higher percent survival compared to cells with low cap5A expression. Based on previous findings that persisters are associated with reduced membrane potential, flow cytometry analysis was used to examine the metabolic state of cells within a biofilm. We confirmed cells within biofilms had reduced membrane potential compared to both stationary phase cultures (2.5-fold) and exponential phase cultures (22.4-fold). Supporting these findings, cells within a biofilm still exhibited tolerance to antibiotic challenge following dispersal of the matrix through proteinase K.

CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data show that biofilms are largely comprised of persister cells, and this may explain why biofilm infections are often chronic and/or relapsing in clinical settings.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Kandoth N, Chaudhary SP, Gupta S, et al (2023)

Multimodal Biofilm Inactivation Using a Photocatalytic Bismuth Perovskite-TiO2-Ru(II)polypyridyl-Based Multisite Heterojunction.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Infectious bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to most antibiotics compared to their planktonic version, and the lack of appropriate therapeutic strategies for mitigating them poses a serious threat to clinical treatment. A ternary heterojunction material derived from a Bi-based perovskite-TiO2 hybrid and a [Ru(2,2'-bpy)2(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bpy)][2+] (2,2'-bpy, 2,2'-bipyridyl) as a photosensitizer (RuPS) is developed. This hybrid material is found to be capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) upon solar light irradiation. The aligned band edges and effective exciton dynamics between multisite heterojunctions are established by steady-state/time-resolved optical and other spectroscopic studies. Proposed mechanistic pathways for the photocatalytic generation of ROS/RNS are rationalized based on a cascade-redox processes arising from three catalytic centers. These ROS/RNS are utilized to demonstrate a proof-of-concept in treating two elusive bacterial biofilms while maintaining a high level of biocompatibility (IC50 > 1 mg/mL). The in situ generation of radical species (ROS/RNS) upon photoirradiation is established with EPR spectroscopic measurements and colorimetric assays. Experimental results showed improved efficacy toward biofilm inactivation of the ternary heterojunction material as compared to their individual/binary counterparts under solar light irradiation. The multisite heterojunction formation helped with better exciton delocalization for an efficient catalytic biofilm inactivation. This was rationalized based on the favorable exciton dissociation followed by the onset of multiple oxidation and reduction sites in the ternary heterojunction. This together with exceptional photoelectric features of lead-free halide perovskites outlines a proof-of-principle demonstration in biomedical optoelectronics addressing multimodal antibiofilm/antimicrobial modality.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Kuwada N, Fujii Y, Nakatani T, et al (2023)

Diamond-like carbon coating to inner surface of polyurethane tube reduces Staphylococcus aureus bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

Journal of artificial organs : the official journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative bacteria for polyurethane catheter and artificial graft infection. Recently, we developed a unique technique for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) inside the luminal resin structure of polyurethane tubes. This study aimed to elucidate the infection-preventing effects of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on a polyurethane surface against S. aureus. We applied DLC to polyurethane tubes and rolled polyurethane sheets with our newly developed DLC coating technique for resin tubes. The DLC-coated and uncoated polyurethane surfaces were tested in smoothness, hydrophilicity, zeta-potential, and anti-bacterial properties against S. aureus (biofilm formation and bacterial attachment) by contact with bacterial fluids under static and flow conditions. The DLC-coated polyurethane surface was significantly smoother, more hydrophilic, and had a more negative zeta-potential than did the uncoated polyurethane surface. Upon exposure to bacterial fluid under both static and flow conditions, DLC-coated polyurethane exhibited significantly less biofilm formation than uncoated polyurethane, based on absorbance measurements. In addition, the adherence of S. aureus was significantly lower for DLC-coated polyurethane than for uncoated polyurethane under both conditions, based on scanning electron microscopy. These results show that applying DLC coating to the luminal resin of polyurethane tubes may impart antimicrobial effects against S. aureus to implantable medical polyurethane devices, such as vascular grafts and central venous catheters.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Bakó C, Balázs VL, Kerekes E, et al (2023)

Flowering phenophases influence the antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil.

BMC complementary medicine and therapies, 23(1):168.

BACKGROUND: Essential oils are becoming increasingly popular in medicinal applications because of their antimicrobial effect. Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) is a well-known and widely cultivated medicinal plant, which is used as a remedy for cold, cough and gastrointestinal symptoms. Essential oil content of thyme is responsible for its antimicrobial activity, however, it has been reported that the chemical composition of essential oils influences its biological activity. In order to explore flowering phenophases influence on the chemical composition of thyme essential oil and its antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity, plant materials were collected at the beginning of flowering, in full bloom and at the end of flowering periods in 2019.

METHODS: Essential oils from fresh and dried plant materials were distilled and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The antibacterial activity was performed by broth microdilution and thin layer chromatography-direct bioautography (TLC-DB) assays and the anti-biofilm effect by crystal violet assay, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to illustrate the cellular changes of bacterial cells after essential oil treatment.

RESULTS: Thymol (52.33-62.46%) was the main component in the thyme essential oils. Thyme oil distilled from fresh plant material and collected at the beginning of flowering period exerted the highest antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

CONCLUSION: The different flowering periods of Thymus vulgaris influence the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of its essential oils, therefore, the collection time has to be taken into consideration and not only the full bloom, but the beginning of flowering period may provide biological active thyme essential oil.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Karine Marcomini E, M Negri (2023)

Fungal quorum-sensing molecules and antiseptics: a promising strategy for biofilm modulation?.

Drug discovery today pii:S1359-6446(23)00140-X [Epub ahead of print].

New strategies to control fungal biofilms are essential, especially those that interfere in the biofilm organization process and cellular communication, known as quorum sensing. The effect of antiseptics and quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) have been considered with regard to this; however, little has been elucidated, particularly because studies are often restricted to the action of antiseptics and QSMs against a few fungal genera. In this review, we discuss progress reported in the literature thus far and analyze, through in silico methods, 13 fungal QSMs with regard to their physicochemical, pharmacological, and toxicity properties, including their mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. From these in silico analyses, we highlight 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and tryptophol as having satisfactory properties and, thus, propose that these should be investigated further as antifungal agents. We also recommend future in vitro approaches to determine the association of QSMs with commonly used antiseptics as potential antibiofilm agents.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Gao L, Tang Z, Li T, et al (2023)

Myricetin exerts anti-biofilm activity and attenuates osteomyelitis by inhibiting the TLR2/MAPK pathway in experimental mice.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00198-5 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To evaluate the potential of Myricetin against S.aureus induced osteomyelitis.

BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis is infected condition of bone by micro-organisms. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) pathway are mainly involved in osteomyelitis. Myricetin is a plant-food derived flavonoid which shows anti-inflammatory activity.

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we evaluated the potential of Myricetin against S.aureus induced osteomyelitis. MC3T3-E1 cells were used for in vitro studies.

METHOD: Murine model of osteomyelitis was developed in BALB/c mice by injecting S.aureus in the medullary cavity of the femur. The mice were studied for bone destruction, anti-biofilm activity, osteoblast growth markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OCN) and collagen type-I (COLL-1) were studied by RT-PCR, ELISA analysis for levels of proinflammatory factors CRP, IL-6 and IL-1β. Expression of proteins by Western blot analysis and anti-biofilm effect by Sytox green dye fluorescence assay. Target confirmation was done by performing in silico docking analysis.

RESULTS: Myricetin reduced bone destruction in osteomyelitis induced mice. The treatment decreased bone levels of ALP, OCN, COLL-1 and TLR2. Myricetin decreased serum levels of CRP, IL-6 and IL-1β. The treatment suppressed activation of MAPK pathway and showed anti-biofilm effect. Docking studies suggested high binding affinity of Myricetin with MAPK protein in silico, by showing lower binding energies.

CONCLUSION: Myricetin suppresses osteomyelitis by inhibiting ALP, OCN, COLL-1 via the TLR2 and MAPK pathway involving inhibition of biofilm formation. In silico studies suggested MAPK as potential binding protein for myricetin.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Kim B, Madukoma CS, Shrout JD, et al (2023)

Effect of EPS production on the performance of membrane-based biofilm reactors.

Water research, 240:120101 pii:S0043-1354(23)00537-7 [Epub ahead of print].

This study explored the effect of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production on the performance of membrane-based biofilm reactors. Changing EPS production was induced by eliminating one of the main EPS polysaccharides, i.e., Pel. The studies were carried out using a pure culture of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or an isogenic P. aeruginosa mutant that was unable to produce the Pel polysaccharide. The biofilm cell density for both strains was compared to confirm the Pel deletion mutant decreased overall EPS production in a bioreactor system. When the Pel-deficient mutant was grown as a biofilm, its cell density, i.e., ratio of cells/(cells + EPS), was 74 % higher than the wild type, showing EPS production was reduced by eliminating pel production. The growth kinetics were determined for both strains. The Pel-deficient mutant had a maximum specific growth rate (μ^) that was 14% higher than the wild type. Next, the effects of EPS reduction on reactor performance were assessed for a membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). For the MABR, the organic removal with the Pel-deficient mutant was around 8% higher than for the wild type. For the MBR, the time to reach the fouling threshold was 65 % greater for the Pel-deficient mutant than for the wild type. These results suggest that amount of EPS production can have significant effects on bacterial growth kinetics and bacterial cell density, which in turn can affect the performance of the membrane-based biofilm reactors. In both cases, lower EPS production correlated with more efficient treatment processes.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Jakkampudi T, Lin Q, Mitra S, et al (2023)

Lung SPLUNC1 Peptide Derivatives in the Lipid Membrane Headgroup Kill Gram-Negative Planktonic and Biofilm Bacteria.

Biomacromolecules [Epub ahead of print].

SPLUNC1 (short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1) is a multifunctional host defense protein found in human respiratory tract with antimicrobial properties. In this work, we compare the biological activities of four SPLUNC1 antimicrobial peptide (AMP) derivatives using paired clinical isolates of the Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, obtained from 11 patients with/without colistin resistance. Secondary structural studies were carried out to study interactions between the AMPs and lipid model membranes (LMMs) utilizing circular dichroism (CD). Two peptides were further characterized using X-ray diffuse scattering (XDS) and neutron reflectivity (NR). A4-153 displayed superior antibacterial activity in both G(-) planktonic cultures and biofilms. NR and XDS revealed that A4-153 (highest activity) is located primarily in membrane headgroups, while A4-198 (lowest activity) is located in hydrophobic interior. CD revealed that A4-153 is helical, while A4-198 has little helical character, demonstrating that helicity and efficacy are correlated in these SPLUNC1 AMPs.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Ma D, Yu M, Eszterhas S, et al (2023)

A C. albicans TRAPP Complex-Associated Gene Contributes to Cell Wall Integrity, Hyphal and Biofilm Formation, and Tissue Invasion.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

While endocytic and secretory pathways are well-studied cellular processes in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, they remain understudied in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We previously found that null mutants of C. albicans homologs of the S. cerevisiae early endocytosis genes ENT2 and END3 not only exhibited delayed endocytosis but also had defects in cell wall integrity, filamentation, biofilm formation, extracellular protease activity, and tissue invasion in an in vitro model. In this study, we focused on a potential C. albicans homolog to S. cerevisiae TCA17, which was discovered in our whole-genome bioinformatics approach aimed at identifying genes involved in endocytosis. In S. cerevisiae, TCA17 encodes a transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex-associated protein. Using a reverse genetics approach with CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene deletion, we analyzed the function of the TCA17 homolog in C. albicans. Although the C. albicans tca17Δ/Δ null mutant did not have defects in endocytosis, it displayed an enlarged cell and vacuole morphology, impaired filamentation, and reduced biofilm formation. Moreover, the mutant exhibited altered sensitivity to cell wall stressors and antifungal agents. When assayed using an in vitro keratinocyte infection model, virulence properties were also diminished. Our findings indicate that C. albicans TCA17 may be involved in secretion-related vesicle transport and plays a role in cell wall and vacuolar integrity, hyphal and biofilm formation, and virulence. IMPORTANCE The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes serious opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients and has become a major cause of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, catheter-associated infections, and invasive disease. However, due to a limited understanding of Candida molecular pathogenesis, clinical approaches for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of invasive candidiasis need significant improvement. In this study, we focus on identifying and characterizing a gene potentially involved in the C. albicans secretory pathway, as intracellular transport is critical for C. albicans virulence. We specifically investigated the role of this gene in filamentation, biofilm formation, and tissue invasion. Ultimately, these findings advance our current understanding of C. albicans biology and may have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Yoshida M, Thiriet-Rupert S, Mayer L, et al (2022)

Selection for nonspecific adhesion is a driver of FimH evolution increasing Escherichia coli biofilm capacity.

microLife, 3:uqac001.

Bacterial interactions with surfaces rely on the coordinated expression of a vast repertoire of surface-exposed adhesins. However, how bacteria dynamically modulate their adhesion potential to achieve successful surface colonization is not yet well understood. Here, we investigated changes in adhesion capacity of an initially poorly adherent Escherichia coli strain using experimental evolution and positive selection for mutations improving adhesion and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. We showed that all identified evolved populations and clones acquired mutations located almost exclusively in the lectin domain of fimH, the gene coding for the α-d-mannose-specific tip adhesin of type 1 fimbriae, a key E. coli virulence factor. While most of these fimH mutants showed reduced mannose-binding ability, they all displayed enhanced binding to abiotic surfaces, indicating a trade-off between FimH-mediated specific and nonspecific adhesion properties. Several of the identified mutations were already reported in the FimH lectin domain of pathogenic and environmental E. coli, suggesting that, beyond pathoadaptation, FimH microevolution favoring nonspecific surface adhesion could constitute a selective advantage for natural E. coli isolates. Consistently, although E. coli deleted for the fim operon still evolves an increased adhesion capacity, mutants selected in the ∆fim background are outcompeted by fimH mutants revealing clonal interference for adhesion. Our study therefore provides insights into the plasticity of E. coli adhesion potential and shows that evolution of type 1 fimbriae is a major driver of the adaptation of natural E. coli to colonization.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Morrisette T, Stamper KC, Lev KL, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Omadacycline Alone and in Combination with Rifampin against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Biofilm Model.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm-associated infections lead to substantial morbidity. Omadacycline (OMC) is a novel aminomethylcycline with potent in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, but data surrounding its use in biofilm-associated infections are lacking. We investigated the activity of OMC alone and in combination with rifampin (RIF) against 20 clinical strains of staphylococci in multiple in vitro biofilm analyses, including an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) CDC biofilm reactor (CBR) model (simulating human exposures). The observed MICs for OMC demonstrated potent activity against the evaluated strains (0.125 to 1 mg/L), with an increase of MICs generally observed in the presence of biofilm (0.25 to >64 mg/L). Furthermore, RIF was shown to reduce OMC biofilm MICs (bMICs) in 90% of strains, and OMC plus RIF combination in biofilm time-kill analyses (TKAs) exhibited synergistic activity in most of the strains. Within the PK/PD CBR model, OMC monotherapy primarily displayed bacteriostatic activity, while RIF monotherapy generally exhibited initial bacterial eradication, followed by rapid regrowth likely due to the emergence of RIF resistance (RIF bMIC, >64 mg/L). However, the combination of OMC plus RIF produced rapid and sustained bactericidal activity in nearly all the strains (3.76 to 4.03 log10 CFU/cm[2] reductions from starting inoculum in strains in which bactericidal activity was reached). Furthermore, OMC was shown to prevent the emergence of RIF resistance. Our data provide preliminary evidence that OMC in combination with RIF could be a viable option for biofilm-associated infections with S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Further research involving OMC in biofilm-associated infections is warranted.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Tkachuk N, L Zelena (2023)

Bacterial sulfidogenic community from the surface of technogenic materials in vitro: composition and biofilm formation.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio oryzae SRB1 and SRB2 were evaluated on polyethylene terephthalate in mono- and associative bacterial cultures. Bacillus velesensis strains C1 and C2b suppressed both the formation of biofilm and reduced the number of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the biofilm on the polyethylene terephthalate during the 50-day experiment. A decrease in the number of sulfate-reducing bacteria compared to the monoculture was also noted in association of D. oryzae SRB1 + Sat1 (bacterium-satellite of the sulfate-reducing bacteria). The strain Sat1 was identified as Anaerotignum (Clostridium) propionicum based on some microbiological, physiological and biochemical, genetic features. The importance of studying existing interactions between microorganisms in the ferrosphere and plastisphere is emphasized.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Noach N, Lavy E, Reifen R, et al (2023)

Zinc chloride is effective as an antibiotic in biofilm prevention following septoplasty.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8344.

Biofilm-state bacterial infections associated with inserted medical devices constitute a massive health and financial problem worldwide. Although bacteria exhibit significantly lower susceptibility to antibiotics in the biofilm state, the most common treatment approach still relies on antibiotics, exacerbating the phenomenon of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, we aimed to assess whether ZnCl2 coating of intranasal silicone splints (ISSs) can reduce the biofilm infections associated with the insertion of these devices and prevent the overuse of antibiotics while minimizing waste, pollution and costs. We tested the ability of ZnCl2 to prevent biofilm formation on ISS both in vitro and in vivo by using the microtiter dish biofilm formation assay, crystal violet staining, and electron and confocal microscopy. We found a significant decrease in biofilm formation between the treatment group and the growth control when ZnCl2-coated splints were placed in patients' nasal flora. According to these results, infections associated with ISS insertion may be prevented by using ZnCl2 coating, thereby obviating the overuse and abuse of antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

de Menezes CLA, Boscolo M, da Silva R, et al (2023)

The degradation of chicken feathers by Ochrobactrum intermedium results in antioxidant and metal chelating hydrolysates and proteolytic enzymes for staphylococcal biofilm dispersion.

3 Biotech, 13(6):202.

The increase in the generation of chicken feathers, due to the large production of the poultry industry, has created the need to search for ecologically safer ways to manage these residues. As a sustainable alternative for recycling keratin waste, we investigated the ability of the bacterium Ochrobactrum intermedium to hydrolyze chicken feathers and the valorization of the resulting enzymes and protein hydrolysate. In submerged fermentation with three different inoculum sizes (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg of bacterial cells per 50 mL of medium), the fastest degradation of feathers was achieved with 5.0 mg cells, in which a complete decomposition of the substrate (96 h) and earlier peaks of keratinolytic and caseinolytic activities were detected. In the resulting protein hydrolysate, we noticed antioxidant and Fe[2+] and Cu[2+] chelating activities. ABTS scavenging, Fe[3+]-reducing ability and metal chelating activities of the fermentative samples followed the same trend of feather degradation; as feather mass decreased in the media, these activities increased. Furthermore, we noticed about 47% and 60% dispersion of established 7-day biofilms formed by S. aureus after enzymatic treatment for 5 h and 24 h, respectively. These findings highlight the potential use of this bacterium as an environmentally friendly alternative to treat this poultry waste and offer valuable products.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Zhao W, Wang Y, M Bai (2023)

Nitrogen removal enhancement reinforced by nitritation/anammox in an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic system with integrated fixed biofilm activated sludge.

Bioprocess and biosystems engineering [Epub ahead of print].

The enhancement of nitrogen removal was reinforced by nitritation/anammox in an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic (AOA) system of integrated fixed biofilm activated sludge. Nitritation was first attained by the method of free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition with ammonia residues, and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) were then added into the system, which enabled the occurrence of nitritation coupled with anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). The results indicated that nitrogen removal was enhanced by the nitritation/anammox pathway with an efficiency of 88.9%. A microbial analysis showed that the ammonia oxidizing bacterium (AOB) Nitrosomonas was enriched on the biofilm (5.98%) and in the activated sludge (2.40%), and the AnAOB Candidatus Brocadia was detected on the biofilm with a proportion of 0.27%. Nitritation/anammox was attained and maintained due to the accumulation of functional bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Wardani AK, Buana EOGHN, A Sutrisno (2023)

The potency of bacteriophages isolated from chicken intestine and beef tribe to control biofilm-forming bacteria, Bacillus subtilis.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8222.

Biofilm becomes one of the crucial food safety problems in the food industry as the formation of biofilm can be a source of contamination. To deal with the problem, an industry generally employs physical and chemical methods including sanitizers, disinfectants, and antimicrobials to remove biofilm. However, the use of these methods may bring about new problems, which are bacterial resistance in the biofilm and the risk for product contamination. New strategies to deal with bacterial biofilms are needed. Bacteriophages (phages), as a green alternative to chemical, have re-emerged as a promising approach to treat bacterial biofilm. In the present study, the potential of lytic phages which have antibiofilm activity on biofilm-forming bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), were isolated from chicken intestines and beef tripe obtained from Indonesian traditional markets using host cells obtained isolated from these samples. Phages isolation was conducted by using double layer agar technique. A lytic test of phages was administered on biofilm-forming bacteria. The difference of turbidity level between control (which were not infected by phages) and the test tubes containing host bacteria infected by phages was investigated. The infection time for the production of phages was determined based on the level of clarity of the media in the test tube with a longer lysate addition time. Three phages were isolated namely: ϕBS6, ϕBS8, and ϕUA7. It showed the ability to inhibit B. subtilis as biofilm-forming spoilage bacteria. The best inhibition results were obtained from ϕBS6. Infection with ϕBS6 in B. subtilis lead to 0.5 log cycle decreased in bacterial cells. This study showed that isolated phages might be used as a potential approach for handling the problem of biofilm formation by B. subtilis.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Cho H, Ren Z, Divaris K, et al (2023)

Selenomonas sputigena acts as a pathobiont mediating spatial structure and biofilm virulence in early childhood caries.

Nature communications, 14(1):2919.

Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the primary pathogen in childhood caries (tooth decay). While the role of polymicrobial communities is appreciated, it remains unclear whether other microorganisms are active contributors or interact with pathogens. Here, we integrate multi-omics of supragingival biofilm (dental plaque) from 416 preschool-age children (208 males and 208 females) in a discovery-validation pipeline to identify disease-relevant inter-species interactions. Sixteen taxa associate with childhood caries in metagenomics-metatranscriptomics analyses. Using multiscale/computational imaging and virulence assays, we examine biofilm formation dynamics, spatial arrangement, and metabolic activity of Selenomonas sputigena, Prevotella salivae and Leptotrichia wadei, either individually or with S. mutans. We show that S. sputigena, a flagellated anaerobe with previously unknown role in supragingival biofilm, becomes trapped in streptococcal exoglucans, loses motility but actively proliferates to build a honeycomb-like multicellular-superstructure encapsulating S. mutans, enhancing acidogenesis. Rodent model experiments reveal an unrecognized ability of S. sputigena to colonize supragingival tooth surfaces. While incapable of causing caries on its own, when co-infected with S. mutans, S. sputigena causes extensive tooth enamel lesions and exacerbates disease severity in vivo. In summary, we discover a pathobiont cooperating with a known pathogen to build a unique spatial structure and heighten biofilm virulence in a prevalent human disease.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Cohen R, Mani KA, Primatova M, et al (2023)

A green formulation for superhydrophobic coatings based on Pickering emulsion templating for anti-biofilm applications.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 227:113355 pii:S0927-7765(23)00233-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This study reports significant steps toward developing anti-biofilm surfaces based on superhydrophobic properties that meet the complex demands of today's food and medical regulations. It presents inverse Pickering emulsions of water in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) stabilized by hydrophobic silica (R202) as a possible food-grade coating formulation and describes its significant passive anti-biofilm properties. The final coatings are formed by applying the emulsions on the target surface, followed by evaporation to form a rough layer. Analysis shows that the final coatings exhibited a Contact Angle (CA) of up to 155° and a Roll-off Angle (RA) lower than 1° on the polypropylene (PP) surface, along with a relatively high light transition. Dissolving polycaprolactone (PCL) into the continuous phase enhanced the average CA and coating uniformity but hindered the anti-biofilm activity and light transmission. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a uniform coating by a "Swiss-cheese" like structure with high nanoscale and microscale roughness. Biofilm experiments confirm the coating's anti-biofilm abilities that led to the reduction in survival rates of S.aureus and E.coli, by 90-95% respectively, compared to uncoated PP surfaces.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Kitts G, Rogers A, Teschler JK, et al (2023)

The Rvv two-component regulatory system regulates biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio cholerae.

PLoS pathogens, 19(5):e1011415 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-23-00110 [Epub ahead of print].

The facultative human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, employs two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) to sense and respond to environmental signals encountered during its infection cycle. TCSs consist of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR); the V. cholerae genome encodes 43 HKs and 49 RRs, of which 25 are predicted to be cognate pairs. Using deletion mutants of each HK gene, we analyzed the transcription of vpsL, a biofilm gene required for Vibrio polysaccharide and biofilm formation. We found that a V. cholerae TCS that had not been studied before, now termed Rvv, controls biofilm gene transcription. The Rvv TCS is part of a three-gene operon that is present in 30% of Vibrionales species. The rvv operon encodes RvvA, the HK; RvvB, the cognate RR; and RvvC, a protein of unknown function. Deletion of rvvA increased transcription of biofilm genes and altered biofilm formation, while deletion of rvvB or rvvC lead to no changes in biofilm gene transcription. The phenotypes observed in ΔrvvA depend on RvvB. Mutating RvvB to mimic constitutively active and inactive versions of the RR only impacted phenotypes in the ΔrvvA genetic background. Mutating the conserved residue required for kinase activity in RvvA did not affect phenotypes, whereas mutation of the conserved residue required for phosphatase activity mimicked the phenotype of the rvvA mutant. Furthermore, ΔrvvA displayed a significant colonization defect which was dependent on RvvB and RvvB phosphorylation state, but not on VPS production. We found that RvvA's phosphatase activity regulates biofilm gene transcription, biofilm formation, and colonization phenotypes. This is the first systematic analysis of the role of V. cholerae HKs in biofilm gene transcription and resulted in the identification of a new regulator of biofilm formation and virulence, advancing our understanding of the role TCSs play in regulating these critical cellular processes in V. cholerae.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Auria E, Deschamps J, Briandet R, et al (2023)

Extracellular succinate induces spatially organized biofilm formation in Clostridioides difficile.

Biofilm, 5:100125.

Clostridioides difficile infection associated to gut microbiome dysbiosis is the leading cause for nosocomial diarrhea. The ability of C. difficile to form biofilms has been progressively linked to its pathogenesis as well as its persistence in the gut. Although C. difficile has been reported to form biofilms in an increasing number of conditions, little is known about how these biofilms are formed in the gut and what factors may trigger their formation. Here we report that succinate, a metabolite abundantly produced by the dysbiotic gut microbiota, induces in vitro biofilm formation of C. difficile strains. We characterized the morphology and spatial composition of succinate-induced biofilms, and compared to non-induced or deoxycholate (DCA) induced biofilms. Biofilms induced by succinate are significantly thicker, structurally more complex, and poorer in proteins and exopolysaccharides (EPS). We then applied transcriptomics and genetics to characterize the early stages of succinate-induced biofilm formation and we showed that succinate-induced biofilm results from major metabolic shifts and cell-wall composition changes. Similar to DCA-induced biofilms, biofilms induced by succinate depend on the presence of a rapidly metabolized sugar. Finally, although succinate can be consumed by the bacteria, we found that the extracellular succinate is in fact responsible for the induction of biofilm formation through complex regulation involving global metabolic regulators and the osmotic stress response. Thus, our work suggests that as a gut signal, succinate may drive biofilm formation and help persistence of C. difficile in the gut, increasing the risk of relapse.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Tsopmene UJ, Iwewe YS, Eyong IM, et al (2023)

Antibiotic Resistance Profile, Biofilm Formation Ability, and Virulence Factors Analysis of Three Staphylococcus spp. Isolates From Urine.

Cureus, 15(4):e37877.

Background Staphylococcus spp. is one of the most causative agents of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile and the virulence factors, including the biofilm formation ability of Staphylococcus spp. isolates from urine. Methodology The agar disk diffusion method was used to test the susceptibility of Staphylococcus isolates to ten antibiotics. The biofilm formation ability was determined using the safranin microplate-based method, and the phospholipase, esterase, and hemolysin activities were assessed by the agar plate method. Results During the study period, a prevalence of 18.12% of urinary tract infections caused by the identified Staphylococci was obtained. All the isolated Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were resistant to cefazolin. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was recorded in 80.01%, 81.49%, and 76.20% of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus isolates, respectively. Most of the isolates were moderate biofilm formers, while 44.44%, 31.75%, and 30.16% were positive for phospholipase, esterase, and hemolysin activities, respectively. No relevant correlations were observed between the ability of biofilm formation and the resistance to antibiotics or the expression of virulence factors investigated. Conclusion This study shows that Staphylococcus spp. isolates from patients with clinical manifestations of UTIs expressed a high degree of virulence factors, including the ability of biofilm formation, and exhibited multi-drug resistance to the majority of antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of Staphylococcal infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Ahmad Ansari F, Ahmad I, J Pichtel (2023)

Synergistic effects of biofilm-producing PGPR strains on wheat plant colonization, growth and soil resilience under drought stress.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 30(6):103664.

Drought stress substantially impedes crop productivity throughout the world. Microbial based approaches have been considered a potential possibility and are under study. Based on our prior screening examination, two distinct and novel biofilm-forming PGPR strains namely Bacillus subtilis-FAB1 and Pseudomonas azotoformans-FAP3 are encompassed in this research. Bacterial biofilm development on glass surface, microtiter plate and seedling roots were assessed and characterized quantitatively and qualitatively by light and scanning electron microscopy. Above two isolates were further evaluated for their consistent performance by inoculating on wheat plants in a pot-soil system under water stresses. Bacterial moderate tolerance to ten-day drought was recorded on the application of individual strains with wheat plants; however, the FAB1 + FAP3 consortium expressively improved wheat survival during drought. The strains FAB1 and FAP3 displayed distinct and multifunctional plant growth stimulating attributes as well as effective roots and rhizosphere colonization in combination which could provide sustained wheat growth during drought. FAB1 and FAP3-induced alterations cooperatively conferred improved plant drought tolerance by controlling physiological traits (gs, Ci, E, iWUE and PN), stress indicators (SOD, CAT, GR, proline and MDA content) and also maintained physico-chemical attributes and hydrolytic enzymes including DHA, urease, ALP, protease, ACP and β glucosidase in the soil. Our findings could support future efforts to enhance plant drought tolerance by engineering the rhizobacterial biofilms and associated attributes which requires in-depth exploration and exploiting potential native strains for local agricultural application.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Zdziarski P, Paściak M, Chudzik A, et al (2023)

Cutaneous tuberculosis-ambiguous transmission, bacterial diversity with biofilm formation in humoral abnormality: case report illustration.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1091373.

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) and its paucibacillary forms are rare and difficult to diagnose, especially in immunocompromised patients with significant comorbidity. The aim of the study was to introduce the modern concept of the microbiome and diagnostic chain into clinical practice (patient-centered care) with the presentation of an atypical form of cutaneous tuberculosis with necrotizing non-healing ulcers leading to polymicrobial infection.

METHODS: The study material included samples from sputum, broncho-alveolar lavage and skin ulcer, taken from a patient developing cutaneous tuberculosis. The microbiological investigation was performed, and identification of the isolates was carried out using genotyping and the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: The immunocompromised patient with humoral abnormality (plasma cell dyscrasia) and severe paraproteinemia developed multiorgan tuberculosis. Although cutaneous manifestation preceded systemic and pulmonary symptoms (approximately half a year), the mycobacterial genotyping confirmed the same MTB strain existence in skin ulcers and the respiratory system. Therefore, the infectious chain: transmission, the portal of entry, and bacterial spreading in vivo, were unclear. Microbial diversity found in wound microbiota (among others Gordonia bronchialis, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) was associated with the spread of a skin lesion. The in vitro biofilm-forming capacity of strains isolated from the wound may represent the potential virulence of these strains. Thus, the role of polymicrobial biofilm may be crucial in ulcer formation and CTB manifestation.

CONCLUSIONS: Severe wound healing as a unique biofilm-forming niche should be tested for Mycobacterium (on species and strain levels) and coexisting microorganisms using a wide range of microbiological techniques. In immunodeficient patients with non-typical CTB presentation, the chain of transmission and MTB spread is still an open issue for further research.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Wu Y, D Yang (2023)

Effects of Bacterial Biofilm on Regulation of Neurovascular Unit Functions and Neuroinflammation of Patients with Ischemic Cerebral Stroke by Immunocyte.

Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 69(1):81-86.

In this experiment, the effects of biofilm on neurovascular unit functions and neuroinflammation of patients with ischemic cerebral stroke were investigated. For this purpose, 20 adult male rats were purchased from Taconic (8 to 10 weeks old, weighing between 20 and 24g) and selected as the research objects. Then, they were randomly divided into an experimental group (10 rats) and a control group (10 rats). Ischemic cerebral stroke rat models were established. Besides, pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) was prepared manually and implanted into the bodies of rats in the experimental group. mNSS scores, cerebral infarction area, and the release of inflammatory cytokines of rats in the two groups were compared. Results showed that mNSS scores for rats in the experimental group at all periods were remarkably higher than those for rats in the control group (P<0.05), which demonstrated that the rats in the experimental group suffered much severer neurological impairment than those in the control group. In addition, the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and IL-10 were all higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). The cerebral infarction area of the experimental group at all periods was remarkably larger than that of the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the formation of biofilm led to the aggravation of neurological impairment and inflammatory reactions among patients with ischemic cerebral stroke.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Sun H, Chai X, Xu G, et al (2023)

The Formation and Drug Resistance Mechanism of Biofilm for Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Severe Respiratory Patients.

Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 69(1):75-80.

This study was to explore whether Streptococcus pneumoniae would form biofilms and the formative factors of biofilms, as well as the drug resistance mechanism of S. pneumoniae. In this study, a total of 150 strains of S. pneumoniae were collected from 5 local hospitals in the past two years, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and penicillin were determined by agar double dilution method to select the drug-resistant strains. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing were performed on specific genes of drug-resistant strains. In addition, 5 strains of S. pneumoniae with penicillin MIC ≤ 0.065 μg/mL, 0.5 μg/mL, 2 μg/mL, ≥ 4μg/mL were randomly selected, and the biofilms were cultured on two kinds of well plates for 24 hours. Finally, whether the biofilms were formed was observed. Experimental results revealed that the resistance rate of S. pneumoniae to erythromycin in this area was as high as 90.3%, and the strains that were resistant to penicillin account for only 1.5%. The amplification and sequencing experiment revealed that one (strain 1) of the strains, which was resistant to both drugs, had a GyrA mutation and ParE mutation, and strain 2 had a parC mutation. All strains generated biofilms, and the optical density (OD) value of penicillin MIC ≤ 0.065 μg/mL group (0.235 ± 0.053) was higher than that of 0.5 μg/mL group (0.192 ± 0.073) (P< 0.05) and higher than the OD value of the 4 μg/mL group (0.200 ± 0.041) (P< 0.05), showing statistically great differences. It was confirmed that the resistance rate of S. pneumoniae to erythromycin remained high, the rate of sensitivity to penicillin was relatively high, and the moxifloxacin and levofloxacin-resistant strains had appeared; S. pneumoniae mainly showed QRDR mutations in gyrA, parE, and parC; and it was confirmed that S. pneumoniae can generate biofilms in vitro.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Seebach E, Elschner T, Kraus FV, et al (2023)

Bacterial and Metabolic Factors of Staphylococcal Planktonic and Biofilm Environments Differentially Regulate Macrophage Immune Activation.

Inflammation [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation is a leading cause for chronic implant-related bone infections as biofilms shield bacteria against the immune system and antibiotics. Additionally, biofilms generate a metabolic microenvironment that shifts the immune response towards tolerance. Here, we compared the impact of the metabolite profile of bacterial environments on macrophage immune activation using Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and epidermidis (SE) conditioned media (CM) of planktonic and biofilm cultures. The biofilm environment had reduced glucose and increased lactate concentrations. Moreover, the expression of typical immune activation markers on macrophages was reduced in the biofilm environment compared to the respective planktonic CM. However, all CM caused a predominantly pro-inflammatory macrophage cytokine response with a comparable induction of Tnfa expression. In biofilm CM, this was accompanied by higher levels of anti-inflammatory Il10. Planktonic CM, on the other hand, induced an IRF7 mediated Ifnb gene expression which was absent in the biofilm environments. For SA but not for SE planktonic CM, this was accompanied by IRF3 activation. Stimulation of macrophages with TLR-2/-9 ligands under varying metabolic conditions revealed that, like in the biofilm setting, low glucose concentration reduced the Tnfa to Il10 mRNA ratio. However, the addition of extracellular L-lactate but not D-lactate increased the Tnfa to Il10 mRNA ratio upon TLR-2/-9 stimulation. In summary, our data indicate that the mechanisms behind the activation of macrophages differ between planktonic and biofilm environments. These differences are independent of the metabolite profiles, suggesting that the production of different bacterial factors is ultimately more important than the concentrations of glucose and lactate in the environment.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Wang K, Deng Y, Cui X, et al (2023)

PatA Regulates Isoniazid Resistance by Mediating Mycolic Acid Synthesis and Controls Biofilm Formation by Affecting Lipid Synthesis in Mycobacteria.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Lipids are prominent components of the mycobacterial cell wall, and they play critical roles not only in maintaining biofilm formation but also in resisting environmental stress, including drug resistance. However, information regarding the mechanism mediating mycobacterial lipid synthesis remains limited. PatA is a membrane-associated acyltransferase and synthesizes phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs) in mycobacteria. Here, we found that PatA could regulate the synthesis of lipids (except mycolic acids) to maintain biofilm formation and environmental stress resistance in Mycolicibacterium smegmatis. Interestingly, the deletion of patA significantly enhanced isoniazid (INH) resistance in M. smegmatis, although it reduced bacterial biofilm formation. This might be due to the fact that the patA deletion promoted the synthesis of mycolic acids through an unknown synthesis pathway other than the reported fatty acid synthase (FAS) pathway, which could effectively counteract the inhibition by INH of mycolic acid synthesis in mycobacteria. Furthermore, the amino acid sequences and physiological functions of PatA were highly conserved in mycobacteria. Therefore, we found a mycolic acid synthesis pathway regulated by PatA in mycobacteria. In addition, PatA also affected biofilm formation and environmental stress resistance by regulating the synthesis of lipids (except mycolic acids) in mycobacteria. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leads to a large number of human deaths every year. This is so serious, which is due mainly to the drug resistance of mycobacteria. INH kills M. tuberculosis by inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are synthesized by the FAS pathway. However, whether there is another mycolic acid synthesis pathway is unknown. In this study, we found a PatA-mediated mycolic acid synthesis pathway that led to INH resistance of in patA-deleted mutant. In addition, we first report the regulatory effect of PatA on mycobacterial biofilm formation, which could affect the bacterial response to environmental stress. Our findings represent a new model for regulating biofilm formation by mycobacteria. More importantly, the discovery of the PatA-mediated mycolic acid synthesis pathway indicates that the study of mycobacterial lipids has entered a new stage, and the enzymes might be new targets of antituberculosis drugs.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Var I, AlMatar M, Heshmati B, et al (2023)

Bacteriophage Cocktail Can Effectively Control Salmonella Biofilm on Gallstone and Tooth Surfaces.

Current drug targets pii:CDT-EPUB-131934 [Epub ahead of print].

Salmonellosis, which is typically distinguished by an immediate onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella. The rising incidence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium is a major worldwide problem, and a better knowledge of the distribution of antibiotic resistance patterns in Salmonella Typhimurium is critical for selecting the best antibiotic for infection treatment. In this work, the efficiency of bacteriophage therapy of vegetative cells and biofilms of S. Typhimurium was investigated. Based on their host ranges, five Bacteriophages were chosen for therapy against 22 Salmonella isolates collected from various sources. PSCs1, PSDs1, PSCs2, PSSr1, and PSMc1 phages were found to exhibit potent anti-S. Typhimurium properties. In a 96-well microplate, the efficacy of bacteriophage therapy (105-1011 PFU/mL) against S. Typhimurium biofilm formers was first tested. A bacteriophage treatment (109 PFU/mL) was subsequently applied in the laboratory for 24 hours to minimize Salmonella adhering to the surfaces of gallstones and teeth. In 96-well microplate experiments, bacteriophage treatment inhibited biofilm development and reduced biofilm by up to 63.6% (P ≤ 0.05). When compared to controls, bacteriophages (PSCs1, PSDs1, PSCs2, PSSr1, PSMc1) demonstrated a rapid drop in the populations of S. Typhimurium biofilms generated on the surfaces of gallstones and teeth where the structure of the Salmonella bacteria in the biofilm was broken and holes were created. Clearly, this study indicated that phages might be employed to eliminate S. Typhimurium biofilms on gallstone and tooth surfaces.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Eghbalifam N, Shojaosadati SA, S Hashemi-Najafabadi (2023)

Role of bioactive magnetic nanoparticles in the prevention of wound pathogenic biofilm formation using smart nanocomposites.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 21(1):161.

BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation and its resistance to various antibiotics is a serious health problem in the treatment of wound infections. An ideal wound dressing should have characteristics such as protection of wound from microbial infection, suitable porosity (to absorb wound exudates), proper permeability (to maintain wound moisture), nontoxicity, and biocompatibility. Although silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been investigated as antimicrobial agents, their limitations in penetrating into the biofilm, affecting their efficiency, have consistently been an area for further research.

RESULTS: Consequently, in this study, the optimal amounts of natural and synthetic polymers combination, along with AgNPs, accompanied by iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), were utilized to fabricate a smart bionanocomposite that meets all the requirements of an ideal wound dressing. Superparamagnetic IONPs (with the average size of 11.8 nm) were synthesized through co-precipitation method using oleic acid to improve their stability. It was found that the addition of IONPs to bionanocomposites had a synergistic effect on their antibacterial and antibiofilm properties. Cytotoxicity assay results showed that nanoparticles does not considerably affect eukaryotic cells compared to prokaryotic cells. Based on the images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), significant AgNPs release was observed when an external magnetic field (EMF) was applied to the bionanocomposites loaded with IONPs, which increased the antibacterial activity and inhibited the formation of biofilm significantly.

CONCLUSION: These finding indicated that the nanocomposite recommended can have an efficient properties for the management of wounds through prevention and treatment of antibiotic-resistant biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Benavent E, Ulldemolins M, Haj CE, et al (2023)

Efficacy of meropenem extended infusion vs. intermittent bolus monotherapy and its combinations with colistin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

International journal of antimicrobial agents pii:S0924-8579(23)00135-8 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Device-related infections are difficult-to-treat due to biofilms. In this setting, optimizing the antibiotic efficacy is difficult since most PK/PD studies have been performed on planktonic cells, and therapies are limited when multidrug-resistant bacteria are involved. We aimed to analyze the PK/PD indices of meropenem predicting anti-biofilm efficacy against meropenem-susceptible and -resistant P. aeruginosa strains.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pharmacodynamics of meropenem dosages mimicking those of clinical practice (intermittent bolus of 2g every 8h; extended infusion of 2g over 4h every 8h), with and without colistin, were evaluated with the CDC Biofilm Reactor in vitro model for susceptible (PAO1) and extensively drug resistant (XDR-HUB3) P. aeruginosa. Efficacy was correlated with the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices for meropenem.

RESULTS: Concerning PAO1, both meropenem regimens were bactericidal, with higher killing for the extended infusion (∆log10 CFU/mL 54-0h=-4.66±0.93 and ∆log10 CFU/mL 54-0h=-3.4±0.41 for intermittent bolus; p<0.001). Concerning XDR-HUB3, meropenem by intermittent bolus was non-active whereas it showed bactericidal effect by extended infusion (∆log10 CFU/mL 54-0h=-3.65±0.29; p<0.001). Time above minimum inhibitory concentration (f%T>MIC) had the best correlation with efficacy for both strains. Adding colistin always improved meropenem activity and resistant-strains did not emerge.

CONCLUSION: The f%T>MIC was the PK/PD index that best correlated with the anti-biofilm efficacy of meropenem; it was better optimized when using extended infusion, allowing to recover bactericidal activity in monotherapy also against meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. Combining meropenem by extended infusion with colistin offered the most effective therapy for both strains. Optimizing meropenem dosing by extended infusion should be encouraged when treating biofilm-related infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Queraltó C, Ortega C, Díaz-Yáñez F, et al (2023)

The chaperone ClpC participates in sporulation, motility, biofilm, and toxin production of Clostridioides difficile.

Journal of global antimicrobial resistance pii:S2213-7165(23)00080-2 [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Clostridioides difficile is a nosocomial pathogen that is associated with the use of antibiotics. One of the most worrying aspects of C. difficile infection is its ability to resist antimicrobial therapies due to spore formation. In several bacterial pathogens, proteases of the Clp family participate in phenotypes associated with persistence and virulence. This suggests that these proteins could be involved in virulence-related traits.

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we analyzed the role of ClpC chaperone-protease of C. difficile in virulence-related traits by comparing the phenotypes of a wild-type and a mutant strain lacking the clpC gene (ΔclpC).

METHODS: We performed biofilm, motility, spore formation, and cytotoxicity assays.

RESULTS: Our results show significant differences between the wild-type and ΔclpC strains in all analyzed parameters.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, we conclude that clpC plays a role in the virulence properties of C. difficile.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Saint-Aimé R, Guittonny M, CM Neculita (2023)

Valorization potential of N-rich zeolite and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) biomass in the revegetation of non-acid generating gold mine tailings.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02900-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Treatment of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in mine effluents generates N-rich residual materials, such as moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) biomass and spent zeolite. Using them as substitutes for mineral fertilizers in revegetation of mine tailings avoids disposal and contributes to a circular economy. The study evaluated the effect of MBBR biomass and N-rich zeolite amendments on above- and below-ground growth and foliar nutrient and trace element concentrations of a legume and several graminoid species grown on non-acid generating gold mine tailings. N-rich zeolite (clinoptilolite) was produced by treating saline (up to 60 mS/cm) synthetic and real mine effluents (250 vs 280 mg/L NH3-N). A three-month pot experiment was conducted with a dose of tested amendments equivalent to 100 kg/ha N and compared to unamended tailings (as negative control), tailings with a mineral NPK fertilizer, and a topsoil (as positive controls). Higher foliar N concentrations were found in amended and fertilized tailings vs negative control, but N was less available in the zeolite treatments than in other tailings treatments. For all plant species, the mean leaf area and above-ground, root, and total biomasses were similar in the zeolite-amended tailings to the unamended tailings, while the MBBR biomass amendment resulted in similar above- and below-ground growth to the NPK fertilized tailings and the commercial topsoil. Trace metal concentrations in water leaching from the amended tailings remained low, but tailings amended with zeolite exported NO3-N concentrations up to 10 times greater (>200 mg/L) after 28 days compared to all other treatments. Foliar Na concentrations in zeolite mixtures were six to nine times higher than in other treatments. The MBBR biomass is a promising potential amendment for revegetation of mine tailings. However, Se concentrations in plants after MBBR biomass amendment should not be underestimated, while Cr transfer from tailings to plants was observed.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Ferreres G, Ivanova K, Torrent-Burgués J, et al (2023)

Multimodal silver-chitosan-acylase nanoparticles inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm formation by Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 646:576-586 pii:S0021-9797(23)00784-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria originate severe infections in hospitalized patients and those with chronic debilitating diseases leading to increased morbidity and mortality, longer hospitalization and huge financial burden to the healthcare system. The clinical relevance of P. aeruginosa infections is increased by the capability of this bacterium to grow in biofilms and develop multidrug resistant mechanisms that preclude conventional antibiotic treatments. Herein, we engineered novel multimodal nanocomposites that integrate in the same entity antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (NPs), the intrinsically antimicrobial, but biocompatible biopolymer chitosan, and the anti-infective quorum quenching enzyme acylase I. Acylase present in the NPs specifically degraded the signal molecules governing bacterial cell-to-cell communication and inhibited by ∼ 55 % P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, while the silver/chitosan template altered the integrity of bacterial membrane, leading to complete eradication of planktonic bacteria. The innovative combination of multiple bacteria targeting modalities resulted in 100-fold synergistic enhancement of the antimicrobial efficacy of the nanocomposite at lower and non-hazardous towards human skin cells concentrations, compared to the silver/chitosan NPs alone.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Fei F, Wang T, Jiang Y, et al (2023)

A frog-derived antimicrobial peptide as a potential anti-biofilm agent in combating Staphylococcus aureus skin infection.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of the most prevalent bacteria found in atopic dermatitis lesions, can induce ongoing infections and inflammation by downregulating the expression of host defence peptides in the skin. In addition, the emergence of the 'superbug' Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), due to their potent antimicrobial activity, limited evidence of resistance development, and potential immunomodulatory effects, have gained increasing attention as potential therapeutic agents for atopic dermatitis. In this study, we report a novel AMP, brevinin-1E-OG9, isolated from the skin secretions of Odorrana grahami, which shows potent antibacterial activity, especially against S. aureus. Based on the characteristics of the 'Rana Box', we designed a set of brevinin-1E-OG9 analogues to explore its structure-activity relationship. Brevinin-1E-OG9c-De-NH2 exhibited the most potent antimicrobial efficacy in both in vitro and ex vivo studies and attenuated inflammatory responses induced by lipoteichoic acid and heat-killed microbes. As a result, brevinin-1E-OG9c-De-NH2 might represent a promising candidate for the treatment of S. aureus skin infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Wu KK, Zhao L, Zheng XC, et al (2023)

Recovery of methane and acetate during ex-situ biogas upgrading via novel dual-membrane aerated biofilm reactor.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00607-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological biogas upgrading has been well-proven to be a promising approach for renewable bioenergy recovery, but hydrogen (H2)-assisted ex-situ biogas upgrading is hindered by a large solubility discrepancy between H2 and carbon dioxide (CO2). This study established a new dual-membrane aerated biofilm reactor (dMBfR) to improve the upgrading efficiency. Results showed that dMBfR operated at 1.25 atm H2 partial pressure, 1.5 atm biogas partial pressure, and 1.0 d hydraulic retention time could significantly improve the efficiency. The maximum methane purity of 97.6%, acetate production rate of 34.5 mmol L[-1]d[-1], and H2 and CO2 utilization ratios of 96.5% and 96.3% were achieved. Further analysis showed that the improved performances of biogas upgrading and acetate recovery were positively correlated with the total abundances of functional microorganisms. Taken together, these results suggest that the dMBfR, which facilitates the precise CO2 and H2 supply, is an ideal approach for efficient biological biogas upgrading.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Cui Y, Gao J, Zhao M, et al (2023)

Deciphering the interaction impacts between antiseptic benzethonium chloride and biofilm nitrification system: Performance, resistance mechanisms and biodegradation.

Water research, 240:120062 pii:S0043-1354(23)00498-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Benzethonium chloride (BEC) is one of emerging bacteriostatic agents. BEC-bearing wastewater generated during sanitary applications in food and medication is easily combined with other wastewater streams to flow into wastewater treatment plants. This study focused on the long-term (231 days) impacts of BEC on the sequencing moving bed biofilm nitrification system. Nitrification performance was tolerant to low concentration of BEC (≤ 0.2 mg/L), but the nitrite oxidation was severely inhibited when the concentration of BEC was 1.0-2.0 mg/L. Partial nitrification maintained about 140 days with nitrite accumulation ratio over 80%, mainly caused by the inhibition of Nitrospira, Nitrotoga and Comammox. Notably, BEC exposure in the system might cause the co-selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and disinfectant resistance genes (DRGs), and the resistance of biofilm system to BEC was strengthened by efflux pumps mechanism (qacEdelta1 and qacH) and antibiotic deactivation mechanism (aadA, aac(6')-Ib and blaTEM). Extracellular polymeric substances secretion and BEC biodegradation were also contributed to the system microorganisms resisting BEC exposure. In addition, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Pseudomonas were isolated and identified as BEC degrading bacteria. The metabolites of N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, N-benzylmethylamine and benzoic acid were identified, and the biodegradation pathway of BEC was proposed. This study brought new knowledge about the fate of BEC in biological treatment units and laid a foundation for its elimination from wastewater.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Karley D, Shukla SK, TS Rao (2023)

Sequestration of cobalt and nickel by biofilm forming bacteria isolated from spent nuclear fuel pool water.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(6):699.

In the current study, six bacterial types, isolated from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) pool facility, were investigated for their ability to sequester heavy metals (cobalt and nickel). Biofilm formation by the six bacterial isolates, viz., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus species, Staphylococcus arlettae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus auricularis, and Chryseobacterium gleum, were assayed, and they were found to have significant biofilm forming property. Their biofilms were characterised using confocal scanning laser microscopy, and their potential to accumulate Co[2+] and Ni[2+] from bulk solutions was analysed with respect to time. A comparative assessment of bioaccumulation capacity was done using biofilms, planktonic cells, and live vs dead cells. The strains accumulated Co[2+] and Ni[2+] in the range of 4 × 10[-4] to 1 × 10[-5] g/mg of cell biomass. It is interesting to note that dead biomass also showed significant removal of the two metal ions, suggesting an alternative process for metal removal. This study suggests that hostile environments can be a repertoire of putative bacterial species with potential heavy metals and other contaminants remediation properties.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Çam S, Küçük Ç, A Almaca (2023)

Bacillus strains exhibit various plant growth promoting traits and their biofilm-forming capability correlates to their salt stress alleviation effect on maize seedlings.

Journal of biotechnology pii:S0168-1656(23)00096-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Soil salinity interferes with plant growth and development. Bacillus genus has been used to increase the growth and productivity of a wide variety of crops by alleviating the effects of salt stress. A total of thirty two Bacillus isolates were obtained from maize rhizosphere, and their plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and biocontrol activities were tested. Bacillus isolates displayed varying degrees of PGP properties-the production of extracellular enzymes, indole acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, phosphate solubilization, biofilm formation, and antifungal potential against several fungal pathogens. The phosphate-solubilizing isolates belong to B. safensis, B. thuringiensis, B. cereus, and B. megaterium species. Each Bacillus isolate demonstrated different levels of antifungal activity against the fungal pathogens tested. Biofilm production by some salt-tolerant isolates significantly increased at elevated levels of NaCl (p<0.05). The strains B. safensis B24, B. halotolerans B7/B18, B. subtilis B26, and B. thuringiensis B10 significantly increased the length of root (by 32.7-38.2%) and shoot (by 19.5-29.8%) of maize (p<0.05). Maize plants treated with some Bacillus strains displayed significantly greater chlorophyll content with an increase of 26.7-32.1% (p <0.05). Among PGP properties, enhanced biofilm formation played a more important role in maize growth under higher salinity. These salt-tolerant biofilm-forming strains could be efficiently used as bio-inoculant for maize under salinity stress.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Chen X, Li D, Zhou C, et al (2023)

Predation preference for extracellular polysaccharides by paramecia and rotifers may have accelerated the decline of membrane biofilm hydraulic resistance.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02711-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The hydraulic resistance of biofilm layer on membranes impacts the filtration resistance significantly. The effect of predation by two model microfauna (i.e., paramecia and rotifers) on the hydraulic resistance, structure, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and bacterial community of biofilms developed on supporting materials (i.e., nylon mesh) was evaluated in this study. Long-term experiments demonstrated that predation could alter biofilm compositions and accelerated the decline of hydraulic resistance by increasing biofilm heterogeneity and deformation. Importantly, predation preference of paramecia and rotifers on biofilm components were further investigated for the first time by tracking the fluorescence change in the predator bodies after exposure to the stained biofilms. Results indicated that after 12-hour's incubation, the ratio of extracellular α-polysaccharides (α-PS) to proteins (PN) within the bodies of paramecia and rotifers increased to 2.6 and 3.9, respectively, which was 0.76 in the original biofilms. The ratios of α-PS/live cells within paramecia and rotifers increased to 1.42 and 1.64 from 0.81 in the original biofilms. The ratio of live/dead cells in the predator bodies, however, changed slightly compared to the original biofilms. These results clearly and directly evidenced that both paramecia and rotifers could feed on biofilm EPS and cells, but having a significant preference for PS over PN and cells. Since extracellular PS is recognized as a primary biofilm adhesion agent, the preference for PS could better explain why predation had accelerated the disintegration and hydraulic resistance decline of mesh biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Nandy A, Farkas D, Pepió-Tárrega B, et al (2023)

Influence of carbon-based cathodes on biofilm composition and electrochemical performance in soil microbial fuel cells.

Environmental science and ecotechnology, 16:100276.

Increasing energy demands and environmental pollution concerns press for sustainable and environmentally friendly technologies. Soil microbial fuel cell (SMFC) technology has great potential for carbon-neutral bioenergy generation and self-powered electrochemical bioremediation. In this study, an in-depth assessment on the effect of several carbon-based cathode materials on the electrochemical performance of SMFCs is provided for the first time. An innovative carbon nanofibers electrode doped with Fe (CNFFe) is used as cathode material in membrane-less SMFCs, and the performance of the resulting device is compared with SMFCs implementing either Pt-doped carbon cloth (PtC), carbon cloth, or graphite felt (GF) as the cathode. Electrochemical analyses are integrated with microbial analyses to assess the impact on both electrogenesis and microbial composition of the anodic and cathodic biofilm. The results show that CNFFe and PtC generate very stable performances, with a peak power density (with respect to the cathode geometric area) of 25.5 and 30.4 mW m[-2], respectively. The best electrochemical performance was obtained with GF, with a peak power density of 87.3 mW m[-2]. Taxonomic profiling of the microbial communities revealed differences between anodic and cathodic communities. The anodes were predominantly enriched with Geobacter and Pseudomonas species, while cathodic communities were dominated by hydrogen-producing and hydrogenotrophic bacteria, indicating H2 cycling as a possible electron transfer mechanism. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria, combined with the results of cyclic voltammograms, suggests microbial nitrate reduction occurred on GF cathodes. The results of this study can contribute to the development of effective SMFC design strategies for field implementation.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Khoshnood S, Akrami S, Saki M, et al (2023)

Molecular evaluation of aminoglycosides resistance and biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates: A cross-sectional study.

Health science reports, 6(5):e1266.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Resistance to antibiotics and the capability to develop biofilm as two main virulent determinants of Klebsiella pneumoniae have important role in infection persistence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes and biofilm formation capacity in K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in South-West of Iran.

METHODS: A total of 114 non-duplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae collected from Ahvaz teaching hospitals. Identification of species was performed by biochemical tests and then confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of rpoB gene. The susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Biofilm formation was assessed by microtiter plate method. Finally, PCR was conducted to detect virulence gene determinants including fimbrial genes, aminoglycoside modifying enzymes- and 16S rRNA methylase (RMTase) genes.

RESULTS: Totally, all collected strains were carbapenem resistant and showed multidrug- and extensively drug-resistance phenotype (75% and 25%, respectively). Seventy-one percent (n = 81) of isolates were non-susceptible to aminoglycosides. Among aminoglycoside antibiotics, K. pneumoniae isolates showed the highest and lowest resistance rates to tobramycin (71%) and the amikacin (25%), respectively. All biofilm producer strains were positive for the presence virulence determinants including ecpA, fimA, mrkD, and mrkA. Of 81 aminoglycosides non-susceptible isolates 33% were positive for the presence ant (2″)-Ia as the most prevalent gene followed by aac (3')-IIa and armA (27%), aac (6')-Ib (18%), and aph (3')-Ia (15%).

CONCLUSION: K. pneumoniae isolates showed the highest and the lowest aminoglycoside resistance rates to tobramycin and amikacin, respectively. Majority of isolates were biofilm producers and there was significant association between antibiotic resistance pattern and the strength of biofilm production. The ant(2″)-Ia, aac (3')-IIa, and armA genes in aminoglycoside-resistant isolates.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Markale I, Carrel M, Kurz DL, et al (2023)

Internal Biofilm Heterogeneities Enhance Solute Mixing and Chemical Reactions in Porous Media.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilms can form in porous media that are of interest in industrial applications ranging from medical implants to biofilters as well as in environmental applications such as in situ groundwater remediation, where they can be critical locations for biogeochemical reactions. The presence of biofilms modifies porous media topology and hydrodynamics by clogging pores and consequently solutes transport and reactions kinetics. The interplay between highly heterogeneous flow fields found in porous media and microbial behavior, including biofilm growth, results in a spatially heterogeneous biofilm distribution in the porous media as well as internal heterogeneity across the thickness of the biofilm. Our study leverages highly resolved three-dimensional X-ray computed microtomography images of bacterial biofilms in a tubular reactor to numerically compute pore-scale fluid flow and solute transport by considering multiple equivalent stochastically generated internal permeability fields for the biofilm. We show that the internal heterogeneous permeability mainly impacts intermediate velocities when compared with homogeneous biofilm permeability. While the equivalent internal permeability fields of the biofilm do not impact fluid-fluid mixing, they significantly control a fast reaction. For biologically driven reactions such as nutrient or contaminant uptake by the biofilm, its internal permeability field controls the efficiency of the process. This study highlights the importance of considering the internal heterogeneity of biofilms to better predict reactivity in industrial and environmental bioclogged porous systems.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Middlemiss AD, Haycocks JRJ, Stringer AM, et al (2023)

Mapping direct and indirect MarA/SoxS/Rob/RamA regulons in Salmonella Typhimurium reveals repression of csgD and biofilm formation.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 169(5):.

The closely related transcription factors MarA, SoxS, Rob and RamA control overlapping stress responses in many enteric bacteria. Furthermore, constitutive expression of such regulators is linked to clinical antibiotic resistance. In this work we have mapped the binding of MarA, SoxS, Rob and RamA across the Salmonella Typhimurium genome. In parallel, we have monitored changes in transcription start site use resulting from expression of the regulators. Together, these data allow direct and indirect gene regulatory effects to be disentangled. Promoter architecture across the regulon can also be deduced. At a phylogenetic scale, around one third of regulatory targets are conserved in most organisms encoding MarA, SoxS, Rob or RamA. We focused our attention on the control of csgD, which encodes a transcriptional activator responsible for stimulating production of curli fibres during biofilm formation. We show that expression of csgD is particularly sensitive to SoxS that binds upstream to repress transcription. This differs to the situation in Escherichia coli, where MarA regulates csgD indirectly.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Septama AW, Chiara MA, Turnip G, et al (2023)

Essential Oil of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Zingiber officinale Rosc.: A Comparative Study on Chemical Constituents, Antibacterial Activity, Biofilm Formation, and Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing System.

Chemistry & biodiversity [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa can regulate its pathogenicity via quorum sensing (QS) system. Zingiber cassumunar and Z. officinale have been used for the treatment of infectious diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare the chemical constituents, antibacterial, and QS inhibitor of Z. cassumunar essential oils (ZCEO) and Z. officinale essential oils (ZOEO). The chemical constituent was analysed using GC-MS. Broth microdilution and spectrophotometry analysis were used to evaluate their antibacterial and QS inhibitor activities. The main constituent of ZOEO with percent composition above 6% (α-curcumene, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, and β-bisabolene, α-citral, and α-farnesene) were exist in a very minimal percentage less than 0.7% in Z. cassumunar. All major components of ZCEO with percentages higher than 5% (terpinen-4-ol, sabinene, γ-terpinene) were present in low proportion (<1.18%) in Z. officinale. ZCEO demonstrated moderate antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The combination of ZCEO and tetracycline showed a synergistic effect (FICI of 0.5). ZCEO exhibited strong activity in inhibiting biofilm formation. ZCEO at ½ MIC (62.5 μg/mL) was able to reduce pyoverdine, pyocyanin, and proteolytic activity. This is the first report on the activity of ZCEO in the inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS system and it may be used to control the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Wang G, Yin X, Feng Z, et al (2023)

Novel biological aqua crust enhances in situ metal(loid) bioremediation driven by phototrophic/diazotrophic biofilm.

Microbiome, 11(1):110.

BACKGROUND: Understanding the ecological and environmental functions of phototrophic biofilms in the biological crust is crucial for improving metal(loid) (e.g. Cd, As) bioremediation in mining ecosystems. In this study, in combination with metal(loid) monitoring and metagenomic analysis, we systematically evaluated the effect of biofilm in a novel biological aqua crust (biogenic aqua crust-BAC) on in situ metal(loid) bioremediation of a representative Pb/Zn tailing pond.

RESULTS: We observed strong accumulation of potentially bioavailable metal(loid)s and visible phototrophic biofilms in the BAC. Furthermore, dominating taxa Leptolyngbyaceae (10.2-10.4%, Cyanobacteria) and Cytophagales (12.3-22.1%, Bacteroidota) were enriched in biofilm. Along with predominant heterotrophs (e.g. Cytophagales sp.) as well as diazotrophs (e.g. Hyphomonadaceae sp.), autotrophs/diazotrophs (e.g. Leptolyngbyaceae sp.) in phototrophic biofilm enriched the genes encoding extracellular peptidase (e.g. family S9, S1), CAZymes (e.g. CBM50, GT2) and biofilm formation (e.g. OmpR, CRP and LuxS), thus enhancing the capacity of nutrient accumulation and metal(loid) bioremediation in BAC system.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that a phototrophic/diazotrophic biofilm constitutes the structured communities containing specific autotrophs (e.g. Leptolyngbyaceae sp.) and heterotrophs (e.g. Cytophagales sp.), which effectively control metal(loid) and nutrient input using solar energy in aquatic environments. Elucidation of the mechanisms of biofilm formation coupled with metal(loid) immobilization in BAC expands the fundamental understanding of the geochemical fate of metal(loid)s, which may be harnessed to enhance in situ metal(loid) bioremediation in the aquatic ecosystem of the mining area. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

He L, Lv H, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Antibiotic treatment can exacerbate biofilm-associated infection by promoting quorum cheater development.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):26.

Quorum cheating, a socio-microbiological process that is based on mutations in cell density-sensing (quorum-sensing) systems, has emerged as an important contributor to biofilm-associated infection in the leading human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. This is because inactivation of the staphylococcal Agr quorum-sensing system leads to pronounced biofilm formation, increasing resistance to antibiotics and immune defense mechanisms. Since biofilm infections in the clinic usually progress under antibiotic treatment, we here investigated whether such treatment promotes biofilm infection via the promotion of quorum cheating. Quorum cheater development was stimulated by several antibiotics used in the treatment of staphylococcal biofilm infections more strongly in biofilm than in the planktonic mode of growth. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of levofloxacin and vancomycin were investigated for their impact on biofilm-associated (subcutaneous catheter-associated and prosthetic joint-associated infection), where in contrast to a non-biofilm-associated subcutaneous skin infection model, a significant increase of the bacterial load and development of agr mutants was observed. Our results directly demonstrate the development of Agr dysfunctionality in animal biofilm-associated infection models and reveal that inappropriate antibiotic treatment can be counterproductive for such infections as it promotes quorum cheating and the associated development of biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Fernández-Barat L, Vázquez Burgos N, Alcaraz V, et al (2023)

The value of biofilm testing to guide antimicrobial stewardship in chronic respiratory diseases.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1142274.

INTRODUCTION: Biofilm production is an important yet currently overlooked aspect of diagnostic microbiology that has implications for antimicrobial stewardship. In this study, we aimed to validate and identify additional applications of the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolates from patients with bronchiectasis (BE).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sputa were collected from BE patients who had at least one PA positive culture in the previous year. We processed the sputa to isolate both mucoid and non-mucoid PA, and determined their susceptibility pattern, mucA gene status, and presence of ciprofloxacin mutations in QRDR genes. The Biofilm production index (BPI) was obtained at 5 and 24 hours. Biofilms were imaged using Gram staining.

RESULTS: We collected 69 PA isolates, including 33 mucoid and 36 non-mucoid. A BPI value below 14.75 at 5 hours predicted the mucoid PA phenotype with 64% sensitivity and 72% specificity.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings suggest that the fitness-cost associated with the mucoid phenotype or ciprofloxacin resistance is shown through a time-dependent BPI profile. The BRT has the potential to reveal biofilm features with clinical implications.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Takano T, Kudo H, Eguchi S, et al (2023)

Inhibitory effects of vaginal Lactobacilli on Candida albicans growth, hyphal formation, biofilm development, and epithelial cell adhesion.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1113401.

INTRODUCTION: Antifungal agents are not always efficient in resolving vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), a common genital infection caused by the overgrowth of Candida spp., including Candida albicans, or in preventing recurrent infections. Although lactobacilli (which are dominant microorganisms constituting healthy human vaginal microbiota) are important barriers against VVC, the Lactobacillus metabolite concentration needed to suppress VVC is unknown.

METHODS: We quantitatively evaluated Lactobacillus metabolite concentrations to determine their effect on Candida spp., including 27 vaginal strains of Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasseri, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, and Limosilactobacillus vaginalis, with inhibitory abilities against biofilms of C. albicans clinical isolates.

RESULTS: Lactobacillus culture supernatants suppressed viable fungi by approximately 24%-92% relative to preformed C. albicans biofilms; however, their suppression differed among strains and not species. A moderate negative correlation was found between Lactobacillus lactate production and biofilm formation, but no correlation was observed between hydrogen peroxide production and biofilm formation. Both lactate and hydrogen peroxide were required to suppress C. albicans planktonic cell growth. Lactobacillus strains that significantly inhibited biofilm formation in culture supernatant also inhibited C. albicans adhesion to epithelial cells in an actual live bacterial adhesion competition test.

DISCUSSION: Healthy human microflora and their metabolites may play important roles in the development of new antifungal agent against C. albicans-induced VVC.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Park S, Dingemans J, K Sauer (2023)

Manganese Acts as an Environmental Inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development by Inducing Dispersion and Modulating c-di-GMP and Exopolysaccharide Production via RbdA.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic infections that involve multicellular aggregates called biofilms. Biofilm formation is modulated by the host environment and the presence of cues and/or signals, likely affecting the pool of the bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). The manganese ion Mn[2+] is a divalent metal cation that is essential for pathogenic bacterial survival and replication during the infection in a host organism. In this study, we investigated how Mn[2+] alters P. aeruginosa biofilm formation via the regulation of c-di-GMP levels. Exposure to Mn[2+] was found to temporally enhance attachment but impair subsequent biofilm development, apparent by reduced biofilm biomass accumulation and lack of microcolony formation due to the induction of dispersion. Moreover, exposure to Mn[2+] coincided with reduced production of the exopolysaccharides Psl and Pel, decreased transcriptional abundance of pel and psl, and decreased levels of c-di-GMP. To determine whether the effect of Mn[2+] was linked to the activation of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), we screened several PDE mutants for Mn[2+]-dependent phenotypes (attachment and polysaccharide production) as well as PDE activity. The screen revealed that the PDE RbdA is activated by Mn[2+] and is responsible for Mn[2+]-dependent attachment, inhibition of Psl production, and dispersion. Taken together, our findings suggest Mn[2+] is an environmental inhibitor of P. aeruginosa biofilm development that acts through the PDE RbdA to modulate c-di-GMP levels, thereby impeding polysaccharide production and biofilm formation but enhancing dispersion. IMPORTANCE While diverse environmental conditions such as the availability of metal ions have been shown to affect biofilm development, little is known about the mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that Mn[2+] affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development by stimulating phosphodiesterase RbdA activity to reduce the signaling molecule c-di-GMP levels, thereby hindering polysaccharide production and biofilm formation but enhancing dispersion. Our findings demonstrate that Mn[2+] acts as an environmental inhibitor of P. aeruginosa biofilms, further suggesting manganese to be a promising new antibiofilm factor.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Shin JY, Kim MA, Kim HJ, et al (2023)

Evaluation of machine-assisted irrigation on removal of intracanal biofilm and extrusion of sodium hypochlorite using a three-dimensionally printed root canal model.

Journal of oral science [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the biofilm removal and apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) following machine-assisted irrigation using a three-dimensionally (3D) printed dentin-insert model.

METHODS: Multispecies biofilms were formed in a 3D-printed curved root canal model with dentin insert. The model was then placed in a container that was filled with 0.2% agarose gel containing 0.1% m-Cresol purple. Root canals were irrigated with 1% NaOCl using syringe irrigation, sonically agitated (EndoActivator or EDDY) or ultrasonically activated (Endosonic Blue) irrigation. Samples were photographed and the color-changed area was measured. Biofilm removal was assessed using colony-forming unit counting, confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis and scanning electron microscopic observations. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey test (P < 0.05).

RESULTS: EDDY and Endosonic Blue demonstrated significantly greater reduction of biofilms compared to other groups. No significant differences were observed in the remaining biofilm volume in syringe irrigation and EndoActivator groups. Furthermore, EDDY and Endosonic Blue presented with numerous exposed dentinal tubules. EDDY showed significantly greater NaOCl extrusion compared to other groups.

CONCLUSION: Ultrasonic activation with a small-sized nickel-titanium file irrigation system may be beneficial in intracanal biofilm removal avoiding extrusion of NaOCl beyond the root apex.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Lin X, Yin H, Wang L, et al (2023)

Study of a three-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor (3D-BER) that combined heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification (HAD) to remove nitrate from water.

RSC advances, 13(21):14675-14684.

A three-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor (3D-BER) that combined heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification (HAD) was developed to remove nitrate. The denitrification performance of the 3D-BER was evaluated under different experimental conditions, including current intensities (0-80 mA), COD/N ratios (0.5-5), and hydraulic retention times (2-12 h). The results showed that excessive current limited the nitrate removal efficiency. However, a longer hydraulic retention time was not required to achieve a better denitrification effect in the 3D-BER. Moreover, the nitrate could be effectively reduced over a broad range of COD/Ns (1-2.5), and its removal rate peaked at 89% at I = 40 mA, HRT = 8 h, and COD/N = 2. Although the current reduced the diversity of microorganisms in the system, it promoted the growth of dominant species. Nitrification microorganisms were enriched in the reactor, especially Thauera and Hydrogenophaga, which were crucial to the denitrification process. Thus, the combination of autotrophic denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification was promoted by the 3D-BER system to increase the efficiency of nitrogen removal.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Kim SY, Kim SH, SH Park (2023)

Inactivation of foodborne pathogen biofilm cells using a combination treatment with gaseous chlorine dioxide and aerosolized sanitizers.

Journal of food protection pii:S0362-028X(23)06777-7 [Epub ahead of print].

A biofilm is a three-dimensional microbial community, which is difficult to completely control with a typical sanitizer owing to its complex structure. The aim of this study was to establish a system for the combined treatment of biofilms with 10 ppmv gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and antimicrobial agents (2% citric acid, 2% hydrogen peroxide [H2O2], and 100 ppm peracetic acid [PAA]), and to investigate the synergistic microbicidal efficacy of the combination treatments to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilms. The antimicrobial agents were aerosolized using a humidifier on top of a chamber to achieve a relative humidity of 90% (within a range of ±2%). While biofilm treatment with the aerosolized antimicrobial agents for 20 min inactivated approximately 1 log CFU/cm[2] (0.72-1.26 log CFU/cm[2]) of the pathogens and the gaseous ClO2 gas treatment for 20 min inactivated <3 log CFU/cm[2] (2.19-2.77 log CFU/cm[2]), combination treatment with citric acid, H2O2, and PAA for 20 min achieved microbial reductions of 2.71-3.79, 4.56-5.12, and 4.45-4.67 log CFU/cm[2] respectively. Our study demonstrates that foodborne pathogens in biofilms can be inactivated by combining gaseous ClO2 treatment with aerosolized antimicrobial agents. The results of this study provide baseline data for the food industry to help control foodborne pathogens in biofilms on inaccessible surfaces.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Liang K, Liu T, X Quan (2023)

Simultaneous removal of refractory organic pollutants and nitrogen using electron shuttle suspended biofilm carriers in an integrated hydrolysis/acidification-anoxic/aerobic process.

Chemosphere, 333:138946 pii:S0045-6535(23)01213-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Azo dyes wastewater contains refractory pollutant and nitrogen, which threatens human health and ecological environment when discharged into environment directly. Electron shuttle (ES) is able to participate in the extracellular electron transfer, and thus enhances the removal efficiency of refractory pollutant. However, the continuous dosing of soluble ES would rise operation cost and cause contamination inevitably. In this study, a type of insoluble ES (carbonylated graphene oxide (C-GO)) was developed and melt blended into polyethylene (PE) to prepare novel C-GO-modified suspended carriers. Compared to those of conventional carrier (31.60%), the surface active sites of novel C-GO-modified carrier increased to 52.95%. An integrated hydrolysis/acidification (HA, filled with C-GO-modified carrier) - anoxic/aerobic (AO, filled with clinoptilolite-modified carrier) process was applied to remove azo dye acid red B (ARB) and nitrogen simultaneously. ARB removal efficiency was significantly improved in the reactor filled with C-GO-modified carriers (HA2) compared to the reactor filled with conventional PE carriers (HA1) or activated sludge (HA0). Total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of the proposed process increased by 25.95-32.64% compared to the reactor filled with activated sludge. Moreover, the intermediates of ARB were identified by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), and the degradation pathway of ARB through ES was proposed. C-GO-modified carriers induced ARB-removal-related bacterial enrichment (such as Chloroflexi, Lactivibrio, Longilinea, Bacteroidales and Anaerolineaceae). Besides, the relative abundance of denitrifiers and nitrifiers in the AO reactor filled with clinoptilolite-modified carrier was increased by 11.60% compared with activated sludge. Copy numbers of genes related to membrane transport, carbon/energy metabolism and nitrogen metabolism increased significantly on the surface-modified carriers. This study proposed an efficient approach for simultaneous azo dyes and nitrogen removal, showing potential in actual application.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Daabash R, Alqahtani MQ, Price RB, et al (2023)

Surface Properties and Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Adhesion of Ion-Releasing Resin-Based Composite Materials.

Journal of dentistry pii:S0300-5712(23)00135-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and related surface properties of ion-releasing resin-based composite (RBC) restorative materials.

METHODS: Two ion-releasing RBCs, Activa (ACT) and Cention-N (CN), were compared to a conventional RBC (Z350) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji-II-LC). Ten disk-shaped specimens were fabricated for each material (n=40). After standardized surface polishing procedure, the surface properties of the specimens were evaluated using surface roughness measurements by a profilometer and hydrophobicity using water contact angle measurements. To assess bacterial adhesion, the number of S. mutans bacteria was calculated from colony-forming units (CFU). Confocal laser scanning microscope analysis was done for qualitative & quantitative assessment. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test to compare the mean values of surface roughness, water contact angle and CFU values. To compare the mean dead cell percentage Kruskal-Wallis rank test and Conover test were used. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was used to report the statistical significance.

RESULTS: Z350 and ACT had the smoothest surfaces, followed by CN, and the roughest surface was seen in FUJI-II-LC. The lowest water contact angles were seen in CN, and Z350, and the highest were in ACT. S. mutans counts were the highest in ACT and the lowest in Z350 and CN. CN and Fuji-II-LC registered the highest percentage of dead bacterial cells, while the lowest were in ACT.

SIGNIFICANCE: Surface properties did not significantly influence bacterial adhesion. More S. mutans bacteria accumulated on ACT than on the nanofilled composite and on CN. CN had antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Wang J, Wu J, Li J, et al (2023)

Simulation of various biofilm fractal morphologies by agent-based model.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 227:113352 pii:S0927-7765(23)00230-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms are clusters of bacteria wrapped in extracellular matrix and polymers. The study of biofilm morphological transformation has been around for a long time and has attracted widespread attention. In this paper, we present a model for biofilm growth based on the interaction force, in which bacteria are treated as tiny particles and locations of particles are updated by calculating the repulsive forces among particles. We adapt a continuity equation to indicate nutrient concentration variation in the substrate. Based on the above, we study the morphological transformation of biofilms. We find that nutrient concentration and nutrient diffusion rate dominate different biofilm morphological transition processes, in which biofilms would grow into fractal morphology under the conditions of low nutrient concentration and nutrient diffusivity. At the same time, we expand our model by introducing a second particle to mimic extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms. We find that the interaction between different particles can lead to phase separation patterns between cells and EPSs, and the adhesion effect of EPS can attenuate this phenomenon. In contrast to single particle system models, branches are inhibited due to EPS filling in dual particle system models, and this invalidation is boosted by the enhancement of the depletion effect.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Xu LC, Ochetto A, Chen C, et al (2023)

Surfaces modified with small molecules that interfere with nucleotide signaling reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm and increase the efficacy of ciprofloxacin.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 227:113345 pii:S0927-7765(23)00223-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus epidermidis are common bacteria associated with biofilm related infections on implanted medical devices. Antibiotics are often used in combating such infections, but they may lose their efficacy in the presence of biofilms. Bacterial intracellular nucleotide second messenger signaling plays an important role in biofilm formation, and interference with the nucleotide signaling pathways provides a possible way to control biofilm formation and to increase biofilm susceptibility to antibiotic therapy. This study synthesized small molecule derivates of 4-arylazo-3,5-diamino-1 H-pyrazole (named as SP02 and SP03) and found these molecules inhibited S. epidermidis biofilm formation and induced biofilm dispersal. Analysis of bacterial nucleotide signaling molecules showed that both SP02 and SP03 significantly reduced cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) levels in S. epidermidis at doses as low as 25 µM while having significant effects on multiple nucleotides signaling including cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), c-di-AMP, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at high doses (100 µM or greater). We then tethered these small molecules to polyurethane (PU) biomaterial surfaces and investigated biofilm formation on the modified surfaces. Results showed that the modified surfaces significantly inhibited biofilm formation during 24 h and 7-day incubations. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin was used to treat these biofilms and the efficacy of the antibiotic (2 µg/mL) was found to increase from 94.8% on unmodified PU surfaces to > 99.9% on both SP02 and SP03 modified surfaces (>3 log units). Results demonstrated the feasibility of tethering small molecules that interfere with nucleotide signaling onto polymeric biomaterial surfaces and in a way that interrupts biofilm formation and increases antibiotic efficacy for S. epidermidis infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Wang H, Fu Y, Du S, et al (2023)

Mechanically Robust Dissolving Microneedles Made of Supramolecular Photosensitizers for Effective Photodynamic Bacterial Biofilm Elimination.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilms pose severe threats to public health worldwide and are intractable by conventional antibiotic treatment. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a promising strategy for eradicating biofilms by virtue of low invasiveness, broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, and nondrug resistance. However, its practical efficacy is impeded by the low water solubility, severe aggregation, and poor penetration of photosensitizers (PSs) into the dense extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of biofilms. Herein, we develop a dissolving microneedle (DMN) patch composed of a sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SCD)/tetra(4-pyridyl)-porphine (TPyP) supramolecular PS for enhanced biofilm penetration and eradication. The inclusion of TPyP into the SCD cavity can drastically inhibit the aggregation of TPyP, thereby allowing for nearly tenfold reactive oxygen species production and high photodynamic antibacterial efficacy. Moreover, the TPyP/SCD-based DMN (TSMN) possesses excellent mechanical performance that can easily pierce the EPS of biofilm with a penetration depth of ∼350 μm, enabling sufficient contact of TPyP with bacteria and optimal photodynamic elimination of bacterial biofilms. Furthermore, TSMN could efficiently eradicate Staphylococcus aureus biofilm infection in vivo with good biosafety. This study offers a promising platform for supramolecular DMN for efficient biofilm elimination and other PDTs.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Alvarado M, Gómez-Navajas JA, Blázquez-Muñoz MT, et al (2023)

Integrated post-genomic cell wall analysis reveals floating biofilm formation associated with high expression of flocculins in the pathogen Pichia kudriavzevii.

PLoS pathogens, 19(5):e1011158 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-23-00151 [Epub ahead of print].

The pathogenic yeast Pichia kudriavzevii, previously known as Candida krusei, is more distantly related to Candida albicans than clinically relevant CTG-clade Candida species. Its cell wall, a dynamic organelle that is the first point of interaction between pathogen and host, is relatively understudied, and its wall proteome remains unidentified to date. Here, we present an integrated study of the cell wall in P. kudriavzevii. Our comparative genomic studies and experimental data indicate that the general structure of the cell wall in P. kudriavzevii is similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. albicans and is comprised of β-1,3-glucan, β-1,6-glucan, chitin, and mannoproteins. However, some pronounced differences with C. albicans walls were observed, for instance, higher mannan and protein levels and altered protein mannosylation patterns. Further, despite absence of proteins with high sequence similarity to Candida adhesins, protein structure modeling identified eleven proteins related to flocculins/adhesins in S. cerevisiae or C. albicans. To obtain a proteomic comparison of biofilm and planktonic cells, P. kudriavzevii cells were grown to exponential phase and in static 24-h cultures. Interestingly, the 24-h static cultures of P. kudriavzevii yielded formation of floating biofilm (flor) rather than adherence to polystyrene at the bottom. The proteomic analysis of both conditions identified a total of 33 cell wall proteins. In line with a possible role in flor formation, increased abundance of flocculins, in particular Flo110, was observed in the floating biofilm compared to exponential cells. This study is the first to provide a detailed description of the cell wall in P. kudriavzevii including its cell wall proteome, and paves the way for further investigations on the importance of flor formation and flocculins in the pathogenesis of P. kudriavzevii.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Howard MK, Miller KR, Sohn BS, et al (2023)

Probing the drivers of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm protein amyloidogenesis and disrupting biofilms with engineered protein disaggregases.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are the primary proteinaceous component of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Residence in the protective environment of biofilms allows bacteria to rapidly evolve and acquire antimicrobial resistance, which can lead to persistent infections such as those caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In their soluble form, PSMs hinder the immune response of the host and can increase the virulence potential of MRSA. PSMs also self-assemble into insoluble functional amyloids that contribute to the structural scaffold of biofilms. The specific roles of PSM peptides in biofilms remain poorly understood. Here, we report the development of a genetically tractable yeast model system for studying the properties of PSMα peptides. Expression of PSMα peptides in yeast drives the formation of toxic insoluble aggregates that adopt vesicle-like structures. Using this system, we probed the molecular drivers of PSMα aggregation to delineate key similarities and differences among the PSMs and identified a crucial residue that drives PSM features. Biofilms are a major public health threat; thus, biofilm disruption is a key goal. To solubilize aggregates comprised of a diverse range of amyloid and amyloid-like species, we have developed engineered variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ protein disaggregase from yeast. Here, we demonstrate that potentiated Hsp104 variants counter the toxicity and aggregation of PSMα peptides. Further, we demonstrate that a potentiated Hsp104 variant can drive the disassembly of preformed S. aureus biofilms. We suggest that this new yeast model can be a powerful platform for screening for agents that disrupt PSM aggregation and that Hsp104 disaggregases could be a promising tool for the safe enzymatic disruption of biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Visser JA, Yager D, Chambers SA, et al (2023)

Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid (NDGA) Inhibits CsgA Polymerization, Bacterial Amyloid Biogenesis, and Biofilm Formation.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology [Epub ahead of print].

Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae thrive in robust biofilm communities through the coproduction of curli amyloid fibers and phosphoethanolamine cellulose. Curli promote adhesion to abiotic surfaces and plant and human host tissues and are associated with pathogenesis in urinary tract infection and foodborne illness. As amyloid, curli production in the host has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. We report that the natural product nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is effective as a curlicide in E. coli. NDGA prevents CsgA polymerization in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. NDGA selectively inhibits cellassociated curli assembly in E. coli and inhibits biofilm formation among uropathogenic E. coli in a curli-specific manner. More broadly, our work emphasizes the ability to evaluate and identify bioactive amyloid assembly inhibitors using the powerful gene-directed amyloid biogenesis machinery in E. coli.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Wang Y, Liu H, Geng F, et al (2023)

Label-free analysis of biofilm phenotypes by infrared micro- and correlation spectroscopy.

Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The methodology development for deeply describing the complex biofilm phenotypes is an urgent demand for understanding their basic biology and the central clinic relevance. Here, we developed an infrared microspectroscopy-based method for the quantitative evaluation and description of biofilm phenotypic characteristics by calculating the spectral similarity of the infrared data. Using this approach, we revealed the phenotypic variation during the biofilm formation process and biofilm heterogeneity between two E. coli strains. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was further combined to deeply investigate the biochemical component evolution sequences during E. coli biofilm formation and revealed the first-order of the polysaccharide molecules change, expanding new opportunities for infrared microspectroscopy in revealing molecule evolution in the biofilm formation. This novel development offers a label-free optical toolkit for the bioanalytical analysis of biofilm phenotypes but also paves the way for screening the drugs to modulate the structure and ecology of biofilm microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Mao Y, Liu P, Chen H, et al (2023)

Baicalein Inhibits the Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm and the LuxS/AI-2 System in vitro.

Infection and drug resistance, 16:2861-2882.

INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common cause of mastitis in dairy cows, a condition that has a significant economic impact. S. aureus displays quorum sensing (QS) system-controlled virulence characteristics, like biofilm formation, that make therapy challenging. In order to effectively combat S. aureus, one potential technique is to interfere with quorum sensing.

METHODS: This study evaluated the effects of different Baicalin (BAI) concentrations on the growth and the biofilm of S. aureus isolates, including the biofilm formation and mature biofilm clearance. The binding activity of BAI to LuxS was verified by molecular docking and kinetic simulations. The secondary structure of LuxS in the formulations was characterized using fluorescence quenching and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, using fluorescence quantitative PCR, the impact of BAI on the transcript levels of the luxS and biofilm-related genes was investigated. The impact of BAI on LuxS at the level of protein expression was also confirmed by a Western blotting investigation.

RESULTS: According to the docking experiments, they were able to engage with the amino acid residues in LuxS and BAI through hydrogen bonding. The results of molecular dynamics simulations and the binding free energy also confirmed the stability of the complex and supported the experimental results. BAI showed weak inhibitory activity against S. aureus but significantly reduced biofilm formation and disrupted mature biofilms. BAI also downregulated luxS and biofilm-associated genes' mRNA expression. Successful binding was confirmed using fluorescence quenching and FTIR.

DISCUSSION: We thus report that BAI inhibits the S. aureus LuxS/AI-2 system for the first time, which raises the possibility that BAI could be employed as a possible antimicrobial drug to treat S. aureus strain-caused biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Xia F, Tao X, Wang H, et al (2023)

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Biofilm Supernatant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA75 and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial, Antibiofilm, and Antitumor Activities.

International journal of nanomedicine, 18:2485-2502.

PURPOSE: As an under-explored biomaterial, bacterial biofilms have a wide range of applications in the green synthesis of nanomaterials. The biofilm supernatant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA75 was used to synthesize novel silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). BF75-AgNPs were found to possess several biological properties.

METHODS: In this study, we biosynthesized BF75-AgNPs using biofilm supernatant as the reducing agent, stabilizer, and dispersant and investigated their biopotential in terms of antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities.

RESULTS: The synthesized BF75-AgNPs demonstrated a typical face-centered cubic crystal structure; they were well dispersed; and they were spherical with a size of 13.899 ± 4.036 nm. The average zeta potential of the BF75-AgNPs was -31.0 ± 8.1 mV. The BF75-AgNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activities against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC), extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (XDR-KP), and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CR-PA). Moreover, the BF75-AgNPs had a strong bactericidal effect on XDR-KP at 1/2 × MIC, and the expression level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria was significantly increased. A synergistic effect was observed when the BF75-AgNPs and colistin were used for the co-treatment of two colistin-resistant XDR-KP strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values of 0.281 and 0.187, respectively. Furthermore, the BF75-AgNPs demonstrated a strong biofilm inhibition activity and mature biofilm bactericidal activity against XDR-KP. The BF75-AgNPs also exhibited a strong antitumor activity against melanoma cells and low cytotoxicity against normal epidermal cells. In addition, the BF75-AgNPs increased the proportion of apoptotic cells in two melanoma cell lines, and the proportion of late apoptotic cells increased with BF75-AgNP concentration.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that BF75-AgNPs synthesized from biofilm supernatant have broad prospects for antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antitumor applications.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Tong F, Wang P, Chen Z, et al (2023)

Combined Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles for Effective Periodontal Biofilm Eradication in Rat Model.

International journal of nanomedicine, 18:2371-2388.

INTRODUCTION: The critical challenge for periodontitis therapy is thoroughly eliminating the dental plaque biofilm, particularly penetrating the deep periodontal tissue. Regular therapeutic strategies are insufficient to penetrate the plaque without disturbing the commensal microflora of the oral cavity. Here, we constructed a Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle loading minocycline (FPM NPs) to penetrate the biofilm physically and effectively eliminate periodontal biofilm.

METHODS: In order to penetrate and remove the biofilm effectively, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were modified with minocycline using a co-precipitation method. The particle size and dispersion of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial effects were examined to verify the magnetic targeting of FPM NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was employed to check the effect of FPM + MF and develop the best FPM NPs treatment strategy. Additionally, the therapeutic effect of FPM NPs was investigated in periodontitis rat models. The expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in periodontal tissues was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot.

RESULTS: The multifunctional nanoparticles exhibited intense anti-biofilm activity and good biocompatibility. The magnetic forces could pull FMP NPs against the biofilm mass and kill bacteria deep in the biofilms both in vivo and in vitro. The integrity of the bacterial biofilm is disrupted under the motivation of the magnetic field, allowing for improved drug penetration and antibacterial performance. The periodontal inflammation recovered well after FPM NPs treatment in rat models. Furthermore, FPM NPs could be monitored in real-time and have magnetic targeting potentials.

CONCLUSION: FPM NPs exhibit good chemical stability and biocompatibility. The novel nanoparticle presents a new approach for treating periodontitis and provides experimental support for using magnetic-targeted nanoparticles in clinic applications.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Nassar R, Nassar M, Senok A, et al (2023)

Phytic Acid Demonstrates Rapid Antibiofilm Activity and Inhibits Biofilm Formation When Used as a Surface Conditioning Agent.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Root canal infections are associated with biofilms and are treated with chemical irrigants with a high success rate. However, treatment failure does arise, which is attributed primarily to resistance exhibited by biofilms. Currently used irrigants in root canal treatment have disadvantages, and there is therefore a need for more biocompatible alternatives with antibiofilm properties to reduce root canal treatment failure and complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibiofilm properties of phytic acid (IP6), which is a potential alternative treatment agent. Single- and dual-species biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans were developed on the well surfaces of 12-well plates and on hydroxyapatite (HA) coupons, and then exposed to IP6. In addition, selected HA coupons were preconditioned with IP6 before biofilm development. IP6 demonstrated bactericidal effects and altered the metabolic activity of biofilm cells. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy showed that IP6 caused significant and rapid reduction in live biofilm cells. At sublethal concentrations, IP6 did not alter the expression of tested virulence genes except for C. albicans hwp1, the expression of which was upregulated but not reflected by a change in hyphal transformation. IP6-preconditioned HA coupons led to extensive inhibition of dual-species biofilm formation. The results of this study highlight for the first time the antibiofilm inhibitory properties of IP6 and the potential for its exploitation in several clinical applications. IMPORTANCE Root canal infections are biofilm associated, and despite mechanical and chemical treatment procedures, infection recurrence occurs, and this is likely due to the high tolerance of associated biofilms to antimicrobials. The currently used treatment agents have several disadvantages, which necessitates the search for new improved agents. In this study, the natural chemical phytic acid was found to exhibit antibiofilm activity against established mono and dual mature biofilms over a short contact time. Most importantly, phytic acid was found to cause significant inhibition of dual-species biofilm formation when used as a surface preconditioning agent. The findings of this study identified a novel use of phytic acid as a potential antibiofilm agent that can be used in several clinical applications.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Silva-Rohwer AR, Held K, Yakhnin H, et al (2023)

CsrA-Mediated Translational Activation of the hmsE mRNA Enhances HmsD-Dependent C-di-GMP-Enabled Biofilm Production in Yersinia pestis.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

The plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, forms a biofilm-mediated blockage in the flea foregut that enhances its transmission by fleabite. Biofilm formation is positively controlled by cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), which is synthesized by the diguanylate cyclases (DGC), HmsD and HmsT. While HmsD primarily promotes biofilm-mediated blockage of fleas, HmsT plays a more minor role in this process. HmsD is a component of the HmsCDE tripartite signaling system. HmsC and HmsE posttranslationally inhibit or activate HmsD, respectively. HmsT-dependent c-di-GMP levels and biofilm formation are positively regulated by the RNA-binding protein CsrA. In this study we determined whether CsrA positively regulates HmsD-dependent biofilm formation through interactions with the hmsE mRNA. Gel mobility shift assays determined that CsrA binds specifically to the hmsE transcript. RNase T1 footprint assays identified a single CsrA binding site and CsrA-induced structural changes in the hmsE leader region. Translational activation of the hmsE mRNA was confirmed in vivo using plasmid-encoded inducible translational fusion reporters and by HmsE protein expression studies. Furthermore, mutation of the CsrA binding site in the hmsE transcript significantly reduced HmsD-dependent biofilm formation. These results suggest that CsrA binding leads to structural changes in the hmsE mRNA that enhance its translation to enable increased HmsD-dependent biofilm formation. Given the requisite function of HmsD in biofilm-mediated flea blockage, this CsrA-dependent increase in HmsD activity underscores that complex and conditionally defined modulation of c-di-GMP synthesis within the flea gut is required for Y. pestis transmission. IMPORTANCE Mutations enhancing c-di-GMP biosynthesis drove the evolution of Y. pestis to flea-borne transmissibility. c-di-GMP-dependent biofilm-mediated blockage of the flea foregut enables regurgitative transmission of Y. pestis by fleabite. The Y. pestis diguanylate cyclases (DGC), HmsT and HmsD, which synthesize c-di-GMP, play significant roles in transmission. Several regulatory proteins involved in environmental sensing, as well as signal transduction and response regulation, tightly control DGC function. An example is CsrA, a global posttranscriptional regulator that modulates carbon metabolism and biofilm formation. CsrA integrates alternative carbon usage metabolism cues to activate c-di-GMP biosynthesis through HmsT. Here, we demonstrated that CsrA additionally activates hmsE translation to promote c-di-GMP biosynthesis through HmsD. This emphasizes that a highly evolved regulatory network controls c-di-GMP synthesis and Y. pestis transmission.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Shaghayegh G, Cooksley C, Bouras G, et al (2023)

Staphylococcus aureus biofilm properties and chronic rhinosinusitis severity scores correlate positively with total CD4+ T-cell frequencies and inversely with its Th1, Th17 and regulatory cell frequencies.

Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) represents chronic inflammation of the sinus mucosa characterised by dysfunction of the sinuses' natural defence mechanisms and induction of different inflammatory pathways ranging from a Th1 to a Th2 predominant polarisation. Recalcitrant CRS is associated with Staphylococcus aureus dominant mucosal biofilms; however, S. aureus colonisation of the sinonasal mucosa has also been observed in healthy individuals challenging the significance of S. aureus in CRS pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the relationship between CRS key inflammatory markers, S. aureus biofilm properties/virulence genes and the severity of the disease. Tissue samples were collected during endoscopic sinus surgery from the ethmoid sinuses of CRS patients with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps and controls (n = 59). CD3+ T-cell subset frequencies and key inflammatory markers of CD4+ helper T cells were determined using FACS analysis. Sinonasal S. aureus clinical isolates were isolated (n = 26), sequenced and grown into biofilm in vitro, followed by determining their properties, including metabolic activity, biomass, colony-forming units and exoprotein production. Disease severity was assessed using Lund-Mackay radiologic scores, Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores and SNOT22 quality of life scores. Our results showed that S. aureus biofilm properties and CRS severity scores correlated positively with total CD4+ T-cell frequencies but looking into CD4+ T-cell subsets showed an inverse correlation with Th1 and Th17 cell frequencies. CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher in patients harbouring lukF.PV-positive S. aureus while its regulatory and Th17 cell subset frequencies were lower in patients carrying sea- and sarT/U-positive S. aureus. Recalcitrant CRS is characterised by increased S. aureus biofilm properties in relation to increased total CD4+ helper T-cell frequencies and reduced frequencies of its Th1, Th17 and regulatory T-cell subsets. These findings offer insights into the pathophysiology of CRS and could lead to the development of more targeted therapies.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Luan Y, Wang Y, Liu C, et al (2023)

Effects of potassium monopersulfate on nitrification activity and bacterial community structure of sponge biocarrier biofilm in Litopenaeus vannamei aquaculture system.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

Effects of potassium monopersulfate (KMPS) on the nitrification activity, aquacultural water quality and bacterial community structure of sponge biocarriers with pre-cultured biofilm (SBBF) were analysed through shaking flask experiments and L. vannamei aquaculture experiments. Changes in the ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) and nitrite oxidation rate (NOR) of SBBF under six KMPS concentration treatments (0 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L, 3 mg/L, 4 mg/L and 5 mg/L) were studied. The results showed that the AOR and NOR of SBBF treated with high concentrations of KMPS (3 mg/L, 4 mg/L and 5 mg/L) were significantly lower than those of the control group (CK) (p < 0.05). However, compared with the first dosing of NH4Cl and NaNO2, the inhibition of AOR and NOR by KMPS on AOR and NOR was weakened after the second and third dosing times. That is, AOR and NOR can recover partially or completely over time. The L. vannamei aquaculture experiment was performed using four concentrations of KMPS (0 mg/L, 2 mg/L, 4 mg/L and 8 mg/L). The results showed that with increasing KMPS dosage, the average and peak concentrations of NH4[+]-N and NO2[-]-N in each treatment significantly increased (P <0.05), and the final body weight of shrimp significantly decreased (P <0.05). Furthermore the highest dose (8.0 mg/L) of KMPS reduced the survival rate by 9.33% compared to the CK. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the biofilm structure showed that the relative abundances of Nitrospirota, Nitrosomonas and Nitrococcus, which are related to nitrogen cycling, and beneficial bacteria including Firmicutes and Bacilli decreased with the addition of KMPS (p<0.05).

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Sun H, Si F, Zhao X, et al (2023)

The cellular redox state in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WH1 affects biofilm formation indirectly in a surfactant direct manner.

Journal of basic microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Surfactin is a signal to trigger biofilm formation against harsh environments. Generally, harsh environments can result in change of the cellular redox state to induce biofilm formation, but we know little about whether the cellular redox state influences biofilm formation via surfactin. Here, the reductant glucose could reduce surfactin and enhance biofilm formation by a surfactin-indirect way. The oxidant H2 O2 led to a decrease of surfactin accompanying with weakened biofilm formation. Spx and PerR were both necessary for surfactin production and biofilm formation. H2 O2 improved surfactin production but inhibited biofilm formation by a surfactin-indirect manner in Δspx, while it reduced surfactin production without obvious influence on biofilm formation in ΔperR. The ability against H2 O2 stress was enhanced in Δspx, but weakened in ΔperR. Thereby, PerR was favorable for resisting oxidative stress, while Spx played a negative role in this action. Knockout and compensation of rex also supported that the cells could form biofilm by a surfactin-indirect way. Collectively, surfactin is not a unique signal to trigger biofilm formation, and the cellular redox state can influence biofilm formation by a surfactin-direct or -indirect way in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WH1.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Harpke M, E Kothe (2023)

Biofilm formation in Gram-positives as an answer to combined salt and metal stress.

Journal of basic microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation can lead to tolerance against stressors like antibiotics, toxic metals, salts, and other environmental contaminants. Halo- and metal-tolerant bacilli and actinomycete strains isolated from a former uranium mining and milling site in Germany were shown to form biofilm in response to salt and metal treatment; specifically, Cs and Sr exposition led to biofilm formation. Since the strains were obtained from soil samples, a more structured environment was tested using expanded clay to provide porous structures resembling the natural environment. There, accumulation of Cs could be shown for Bacillus sp. SB53B, and high Sr accumulation ranging from 75% to 90% was seen with all isolates tested. We could, therefore, show that biofilms in a structured environment like soil will contribute to the water purification obtained by the passage of water through the critical zone of soil, providing an ecosystem benefit that can hardly be overestimated.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Islam OK, Islam I, Saha O, et al (2023)

Genomic variability correlates with biofilm phenotypes in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7867.

The multifactorial nature of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development and genomic variabilities implicates its resistance to conventional antimicrobials and virulence. Therefore, genetic determinants need to be extensively studied to block the early steps of biofilm or already formed biofilms. In this study, a total of 20 multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were evaluated for their biofilm forming abilities and related genes. Of the isolates tested, all of them showed surface attachment tendencies in nutrient limiting conditions, and classified as strong (SBF = 45%), moderate (MBF = 30%) and weak (WBF = 25%) biofilm formers. Complete genome sequencing of representative strong (DMC-27b), moderate (DMC-20c) and weak biofilm former (DMC-30b) isolates was performed. Analysis of biofilm related genes in the sequenced genomes revealed that, 80 of the 88 biofilm related genes possess 98-100% sequence identity to the reference PAO1 strain. Complete and partial sequence data of LecB proteins from tested isolates indicate that isolates containing PA14-like LecB sequences produced strong biofilms. All of the 7 pel operon protein coding genes in weak biofilm former isolate 30b showed significant nucleotide sequence variation with other tested isolates, and their corresponding proteins are 99% identical with the pel operon proteins of PA7. Bioinformatics analyses identified divergent sequence and structural features that separate PA7 like pel operon proteins from reference PAO1-like pel operon. Congo red and pellicle forming assays revealed that the sequence and structure variations may have interfered with the Pel production pathway and resulted in impaired Pel production in isolate 30b that has a PA7 like pel operon. Expression analysis also showed that both pelB and lecB genes were about 5 to 6 folds upregulated after 24 h in SBF 27b in comparison with WBF 30b. Our findings indicate significant genomic divergence in biofilm related genes of P. aeruginosa strains that affect their biofilm phenotypes.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )