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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jun 2020 at 01:33 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ahasan K, Landry CM, Chen X, et al (2020)

Effect of angle-of-attacks on deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) with symmetric airfoil pillars.

Biomedical microdevices, 22(2):42 pii:10.1007/s10544-020-00496-2.

Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a microfluidic technique for size fractionation of particles/cells in continuous flow with a great potential for biological and clinical applications. Growing interest of DLD devices in enabling high-throughput operation for practical applications, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) separation, necessitates employing higher flow rates, leading to operation at moderate to high Reynolds number (Re) regimes. Recently, it has been shown that symmetric airfoil shaped pillars with neutral angle-of-attack (AoA) can be used for high-throughput design of DLD devices due to their mitigation of vortex effects and preservation of flow symmetry under high Re conditions. While high-Re operation with symmetric airfoil shaped pillars has been established, the effect of AoAs on the DLD performance has not been investigated. In this paper, we have characterized the airfoil DLD device with various AoAs. The transport behavior of microparticles has been observed and analyzed with various AoAs in realistic high-Re. Furthermore, we have modeled the flow fields and anisotropy in a representative airfoil pillar array, for both positive and negative AoA configurations. Unlike the conventional DLD device, lateral displacement has been suppressed with +5° and + 15° AoA configurations regardless of particle sizes. On the other hand, stronger lateral displacement has been seen with -5° and - 15° AoAs. This can be attributed to growing flow anisotropy as Re climbs, and significant expansion or compression of streamlines between airfoils with AoAs. The findings in this study can be utilized for the design and optimization of airfoil DLD microfluidic devices with various AoAs.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Li X, Gao J, Guo Z, et al (2020)

A Study of Rainfall-Runoff Movement Process on High and Steep Slopes Affected by Double Turbulence Sources.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9001 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66060-3.

To increase the available land area, a large-scale land remediation campaign was carried out in the loess hilly and gully area. A large number of high and steep slopes have been produced in the construction of road engineering and water conservancy engineering, and these slopes will cause serious soil erosion under rainfall conditions. Because rainfall runoff is simultaneously affected by slope, bed surface and rainfall, the runoff movement characteristics are complex. It is difficult to consider all influencing factors in the existing models, especially for steep slopes. In this study, artificial rainfall experiments were conducted to study the rainfall-runoff hydraulic processes under different rainfall intensities and slope gradients, and a modified method was proposed to model the key hydraulic parameters (i.e., equilibrium time, water surface line, and runoff processes) on steep slopes. The results showed that (1) For steep slopes (a 70° slope compared to a 5° slope), the runoff generation time, confluence time and equilibrium time of the slope decreased significantly. At the same time, the single width runoff of the steep slope had a power function relationship with the rainfall intensity and gradient. (2) The runoff patterns of steep slopes were different from those on gentle slopes and runoff patterns were more likely to change. The Reynolds number and Froude number for slope flow changed slowly when the slope was less than the critical gradient and increased significantly when the slope exceeded the critical gradient. (3) Based on the analysis of the "double turbulent model theory of thin-layer flow on a high-steep slope", combined with the dispersed motion wave model, a modified method for calculating the hydrodynamic factors of rainfall runoff was proposed. Then, this method was verified with indoor and outdoor experiments. The research results not only have theoretical significance, but also provide a more accurate calculation method for the design of high and steep slopes involved in land treatment engineering, road engineering and water conservancy engineering.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Robles-Romero JM, Romero-Martín M, Conde-Guillén G, et al (2020)

The Physics of Fluid Dynamics Applied to Vascular Ulcers and Its Impact on Nursing Care.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 8(2): pii:healthcare8020147.

The high incidence of vascular ulcers and the difficulties encountered in their healing process require the understanding of their multiple etiologies to develop effective strategies focused on providing different treatment options. This work provides a description of the principles of the physics of fluid dynamics related to vascular ulcers. The morphological characteristics of the cardiovascular system promote blood flow. The contraction force of the left ventricle is enhanced by its ability to reduce its radius of curvature and by increasing the thickness of the ventricular wall (Laplace's Law). Arterial flow must overcome vascular resistance (Ohm's equation). The elastic nature of the artery and the ability to reduce its diameter as flow rate progresses facilitate blood conduction at high speed up to arteriolar level, and this can be determined by the second equation of continuity. As it is a viscous fluid, we must discuss laminar flow, calculated by the Reynolds number, which favors proper conduction while aiming at the correct net filtration pressure. Any endothelial harmful process that affects the muscle wall of the vessel increases the flow speed, causing a decrease in capillary hydrostatic pressure, thus reducing the exchange of nutrients at the interstitial level. With regard to the return system, the flow direction is anti-gravity and requires endogenous aid to establish the Starling's equilibrium. Knowledge on the physics of vascular fluid dynamics makes it easier to understand the processes of formation of these ulcers so as to choosing the optimal healing and prevention techniques for these chronic wounds.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Charlton AJ, Lian B, Blandin G, et al (2020)

Impact of FO Operating Pressure and Membrane Tensile Strength on Draw-Channel Geometry and Resulting Hydrodynamics.

Membranes, 10(5): pii:membranes10050111.

In an effort to improve performances of forward osmosis (FO) systems, several innovative draw spacers have been proposed. However, the small pressure generally applied on the feed side of the process is expected to result in the membrane bending towards the draw side, and in the gradual occlusion of the channel. This phenomenon potentially presents detrimental effects on process performance, including pressure drop and external concentration polarization (ECP) in the draw channel. A flat sheet FO system with a dot-spacer draw channel geometry was characterized to determine the degree of draw channel occlusion resulting from feed pressurization, and the resulting implications on flow performance. First, tensile testing was performed on the FO membrane to derive a Young's modulus, used to assess the membrane stretching, and the resulting draw channel characteristics under a range of moderate feed pressures. Membrane apex reached up to 67% of the membrane channel height when transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 1.4 bar was applied. The new FO channels considerations were then processed by computational fluid dynamics model (computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by ANSYS Fluent v19.1) and validated against previously obtained experimental data. Further simulations were conducted to better assess velocity profiles, Reynolds number and shear rate. Reynolds number on the membrane surface (draw side) increased by 20% and shear rate increased by 90% when occlusion changed from 0 to 70%, impacting concentration polarisation (CP) on the membrane surface and therefore FO performance. This paper shows that FO draw channel occlusion is expected to have a significant impact on fluid hydrodynamics when the membrane is not appropriately supported in the draw side.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Asghar Z, Ali N, Waqas M, et al (2020)

Locomotion of an efficient biomechanical sperm through viscoelastic medium.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology pii:10.1007/s10237-020-01338-z [Epub ahead of print].

Every group of microorganism utilizes a diverse mechanical strategy to propel through complex environments. These swimming problems deal with the fluid-organism interaction at micro-scales in which Reynolds number is of the order of 10-3. By adopting the same propulsion mechanism of so-called Taylor's sheet, here we address the biomechanical principle of swimming via different wavy surfaces. The passage (containing micro-swimmers) is considered to be passive two-dimensional channel filled with viscoelastic liquid, i.e., Oldroyd-4 constant fluid. For some initial value of unknowns, i.e., cell speed and flow rate of surrounding liquid, the resulting boundary value problem is solved by robust finite difference scheme. This convergent solution is further employed in the equilibrium conditions which will obviously not be satisfied for such crude values of unknowns. These unknowns are further refined (to satisfy the equilibrium conditions) by modified Newton-Raphson algorithm. These computed pairs are also utilized to compute the energy losses. The speed of swimming sheet its power delivered and flow rate of Oldroyd-4 constant fluid are compared for different kinds of wavy sheets. These results are also useful in the manufacturing of artificial (soft) microbots and the optimization of locomotion strategies.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Cassineri S, Cioncolini A, Smith L, et al (2020)

Experiments on Liquid Flow through Non-Circular Micro-Orifices.

Micromachines, 11(5): pii:mi11050510.

Microfluidics is an active research area in modern fluid mechanics, with several applications in science and engineering. Despite their importance in microfluidic systems, micro-orifices with non-circular cross-sections have not been extensively investigated. In this study, micro-orifice discharge with single-phase liquid flow was experimentally investigated for seven square and rectangular cross-section micro-orifices with a hydraulic diameter in the range of 326-510 µm. The discharge measurements were carried out in pressurized water (12 MPa) at ambient temperature (298 K) and high temperature (503 K). During the tests, the Reynolds number varied between 5883 and 212,030, significantly extending the range in which data are currently available in the literature on non-circular micro-orifices. The results indicate that the cross-sectional shape of the micro-orifice has little, if any, effect on the hydrodynamic behavior. Thus, existing methods for the prediction of turbulent flow behavior in circular micro-orifices can be used to predict the flow behavior in non-circular micro-orifices, provided that the flow geometry of the non-circular micro-orifice is described using a hydraulic diameter.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Moriconi L (2020)

Magnetic dissipation of near-wall turbulent coherent structures in magnetohydrodynamic pipe flows.

Physical review. E, 101(4-1):043111.

Relaminarization of wall-bounded turbulent flows by means of external static magnetic fields is a long-known phenomenon in the physics of electrically conducting fluids at low magnetic Reynolds numbers. Despite the large literature on the subject, it is not yet completely clear what combination of the Hartmann (M) and the Reynolds number has to be used to predict the laminar-turbulent transition in channel or pipe flows fed by upstream turbulent flows free of magnetic perturbations. Relying upon standard phenomenological approaches related to mixing length and structural concepts, we put forward that M/R_{τ}, where R_{τ} is the friction Reynolds number, is the appropriate controlling parameter for relaminarization, a proposal which finds good support from available experimental data.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Ekanem EM, Berg S, De S, et al (2020)

Signature of elastic turbulence of viscoelastic fluid flow in a single pore throat.

Physical review. E, 101(4-1):042605.

When a viscoelastic fluid, such as an aqueous polymer solution, flows through a porous medium, the fluid undergoes a repetitive expansion and contraction as it passes from one pore to the next. Above a critical flow rate, the interaction between the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and the pore configuration results in spatial and temporal flow instabilities reminiscent of turbulentlike behavior, even though the Reynolds number Re≪1. To investigate whether this is caused by many repeated pore body-pore throat sequences, or simply a consequence of the converging (diverging) nature present in a single pore throat, we performed experiments using anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in a microfluidic flow geometry representing a single pore throat. This allows the viscoelastic fluid to be characterized at increasing flow rates using microparticle image velocimetry in combination with pressure drop measurements. The key finding is that the effect, popularly known as "elastic turbulence," occurs already in a single pore throat geometry. The critical Deborah number at which the transition in rheological flow behavior from pseudoplastic (shear thinning) to dilatant (shear thickening) strongly depends on the ionic strength, the type of cation in the anionic HPAM solution, and the nature of pore configuration. The transition towards the elastic turbulence regime was found to directly correlate with an increase in normal stresses. The topology parameter, Q_{f}, computed from the velocity distribution, suggests that the "shear thickening" regime, where much of the elastic turbulence occurs in a single pore throat, is a consequence of viscoelastic normal stresses that cause a complex flow field. This flow field consists of extensional, shear, and rotational features around the constriction, as well as upstream and downstream of the constriction. Furthermore, this elastic turbulence regime, has high-pressure fluctuations, with a power-law decay exponent of up to |-2.1| which is higher than the Kolmogorov value for turbulence of |-5/3|.

RevDate: 2020-05-11

Jain SK, Banerjee U, AK Sen (2020)

Trapping and coalescence of diamagnetic aqueous droplets using negative magnetophoresis.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Manipulation of aqueous droplets has profound significance in biochemical assays. Magnetic field-driven droplet manipulation, offering unique advantages, is consequently gaining attention. However, the phenomenon relating to diamagnetic droplets is not well understood. Here, we report understanding of trapping and coalescence of flowing diamagnetic aqueous droplets in a paramagnetic (oil-based ferrofluid) medium using negative magnetophoresis. Our study revealed that the trapping phenomenon is underpinned by the interplay of magnetic energy (E_m) and frictional (viscous) energy (E_f), in terms of magnetophoretic stability number, S_m=(E_m⁄E_f). The trapping and non-trapping regimes are characterized based on the peak value of magnetophoretic stability number, S_mp and droplet size, D^*. Study of coalescence of a trapped droplet with a follower droplet (and a train of droplets) revealed that the film-drainage Reynolds number (Re_fd) representing the coalescence time depends on the magnetic Bond number, Bo_m. The coalesced droplet continues to remain trapped or gets self-released obeying the S_mp and D^*criterion. Our study offers an understanding of the magnetic manipulation of diamagnetic aqueous droplets that can potentially be used for biochemical assays in microfluidics.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Chen H, M Yao (2018)

A high-flow portable biological aerosol trap (HighBioTrap) for rapid microbial detection.

Journal of aerosol science, 117:212-223.

Bioaerosols exposure can lead to many adverse health effects and even result in death if highly infectious agents involved. Apparently, there is a great need for rapid detection of bioaerosols, for which air sampling often is the first critical step. However, currently available samplers often either require an external power and/or with low sampling flow rate, thus falling short of providing a practical solution when response time is of great concern. Here, we have designed and evaluated a new portable high volume bioaerosol sampler named as HighBioTrap through optimizing its operating parameters. The sampler was operated at a sampling flow rate of 1200 L/min, with an impaction velocity of about 10.2 m/s (S/W = 1.5, T/W = 1), while the weight of the sampler is about 1.9 kg. The performances of the HighBioTrap sampler were tested both in lab controlled and natural environments (outdoor and indoor environments in a university building) along with the reference sampler-the BioStage impactor using aerosolized Polystyrene (PS) uniform microspheres of various sizes, aerosolized bacteria and also ambient air particles. The microbial community structures of collected culturable bacterial aerosol particles both by the HighBioTrap and the BioStage impactor in the natural environments were analyzed using gene sequence method. Experimental results with PS particles showed the HighBioTrap has a cutoff size of ~ 2 µm. The widely used impactor design equation was found to be not applicable for predicting the performance of the HighBioTrap due to its large Reynolds number. When sampling aerosolized individual Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis bacterial particles, the HighBioTrap had physical collection efficiencies of 10% and 20%, respectively. Despite the higher desiccation effects introduced by higher flow rate, the HighBioTrap was shown to obtain a higher microbial diversity than the BioStage impactor for both in outdoor and indoor environments given the same sampling time (p < 0.01). Our data also showed that most of the desiccation effects might have occurred between 3 and 5 min of the sampling and an impaction velocity of around 10 m/s might be a close-to-optimal impaction velocity for collecting most environmental bacterial aerosols while maximally preserving their culturability. This work contributes to our understanding of microbial sampling stress (impaction velocity and sampling time), while developing a portable high volume sampler. The HighBioTrap sampler could find its great efficiencies in qualitative microbial aerosol detection and analysis, such as investigation of microbial aerosol diversity for a particular environment, or when the low level of pathogens is present and detection time is of great concern.

RevDate: 2020-05-02

Garcia F, Seilmayer M, Giesecke A, et al (2020)

Chaotic wave dynamics in weakly magnetized spherical Couette flows.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 30(4):043116.

Direct numerical simulations of a liquid metal filling the gap between two concentric spheres are presented. The flow is governed by the interplay between the rotation of the inner sphere (measured by the Reynolds number Re) and a weak externally applied axial magnetic field (measured by the Hartmann number Ha). By varying the latter, a rich variety of flow features, both in terms of spatial symmetry and temporal dependence, is obtained. Flows with two or three independent frequencies describing their time evolution are found as a result of Hopf bifurcations. They are stable on a sufficiently large interval of Hartmann numbers where regions of multistability of two, three, and even four types of these different flows are detected. The temporal character of the solutions is analyzed by means of an accurate frequency analysis and Poincaré sections. An unstable branch of flows undergoing a period doubling cascade and frequency locking of three-frequency solutions is described as well.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Kang S, R Kwak (2020)

Pattern Formation of Three-Dimensional Electroconvection on a Charge Selective Surface.

Physical review letters, 124(15):154502.

When a charge selective surface consumes or transports only cations or anions in the electrolyte, biased ion rejection initiates hydrodynamic instability, resulting in vortical fluid motions called electroconvection. In this Letter, we describe the first laboratory observation of three-dimensional electroconvection on a charge selective surface. Combining experiment and scaling analysis, we successfully categorized three distinct patterns of 3D electroconvection according to [(Ra_{E})/(Re^{2}Sc)] [electric Rayleigh number (Ra_{E}), Reynolds number (Re), Schmidt number (Sc)] as (i) polygonal, (ii) transverse, or (iii) longitudinal rolls. If Re increases or Ra_{E} decreases, pure longitudinal rolls are presented. On the other hand, transverse rolls are formed between longitudinal rolls, and two rolls are transformed as polygonal one at higher Ra_{E} or lower Re. In this pattern selection scenario, Sc determines the critical electric Rayleigh number (Ra_{E}^{*}) for the onset of each roll, resulting in Ra_{E}^{*}∼Re^{2}Sc. We also verify that convective ion flux by electroconvection (represented by an electric Nusselt number Nu_{E}) is fitted to a power law, Nu_{E}∼[(Ra_{E}-Ra_{E}^{*})/(Re^{2}Sc)]^{α_{1}}Re^{α_{2}}Pe^{α_{3}} [Péclet number (Pe)], where each term represents the characteristics of electroconvection, shear flow, and ion transport.

RevDate: 2020-04-30

Raza W, Hossain S, KY Kim (2020)

A Review of Passive Micromixers with a Comparative Analysis.

Micromachines, 11(5): pii:mi11050455.

A wide range of existing passive micromixers are reviewed, and quantitative analyses of ten typical passive micromixers were performed to compare their mixing indices, pressure drops, and mixing costs under the same axial length and flow conditions across a wide Reynolds number range of 0.01-120. The tested micromixers were selected from five types of micromixer designs. The analyses of flow and mixing were performed using continuity, Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations. The results of the comparative analysis were presented for three different Reynolds number ranges: low-Re (Re ≤ 1), intermediate-Re (1 < Re ≤ 40), and high-Re (Re > 40) ranges, where the mixing mechanisms are different. The results show a two-dimensional micromixer of Tesla structure is recommended in the intermediate- and high-Re ranges, while two three-dimensional micromixers with two layers are recommended in the low-Re range due to their excellent mixing performance.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Storm TJ, Nolan KE, Roberts EM, et al (2020)

Oropharyngeal morphology related to filtration mechanisms in suspension-feeding American shad (Clupeidae).

Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology [Epub ahead of print].

To assess potential filtration mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy was used in a comprehensive quantification and analysis of the morphology and surface ultrastructure for all five branchial arches in the ram suspension-feeding fish, American shad (Alosa sapidissima, Clupeidae). The orientation of the branchial arches and the location of mucus cells on the gill rakers were more consistent with mechanisms of crossflow filtration and cross-step filtration rather than conventional dead-end sieving. The long, thin gill rakers could lead to a large area for the exit of water from the oropharyngeal cavity during suspension feeding (high fluid exit ratio). The substantial elongation of gill rakers along the dorsal-ventral axis formed d-type ribs with a groove aspect ratio of 0.5 and a Reynolds number of approximately 500, consistent with the potential operation of cross-step filtration. Mucus cell abundance differed significantly along the length of the raker and the height of the raker. The mucus cell abundance data and the observed sloughing of denticles along the gill raker margins closest to the interior of the oropharyngeal cavity suggest that gill raker growth may occur primarily at the raker tips, the denticle bases, and the internal raker margins along the length of the raker. These findings will be applied in ongoing experiments with 3D-printed physical models of fish oral cavities in flow tanks, and in future ecological studies on the diet and nutrition of suspension-feeding fishes.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Singh AV, Ansari MHD, Mahajan M, et al (2020)

Sperm Cell Driven Microrobots-Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Biologically Inspired Robotic Design.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040448.

With the advent of small-scale robotics, several exciting new applications like Targeted Drug Delivery, single cell manipulation and so forth, are being discussed. However, some challenges remain to be overcome before any such technology becomes medically usable; among which propulsion and biocompatibility are the main challenges. Propulsion at micro-scale where the Reynolds number is very low is difficult. To overcome this, nature has developed flagella which have evolved over millions of years to work as a micromotor. Among the microscopic cells that exhibit this mode of propulsion, sperm cells are considered to be fast paced. Here, we give a brief review of the state-of-the-art of Spermbots - a new class of microrobots created by coupling sperm cells to mechanical loads. Spermbots utilize the flagellar movement of the sperm cells for propulsion and as such do not require any toxic fuel in their environment. They are also naturally biocompatible and show considerable speed of motion thereby giving us an option to overcome the two challenges of propulsion and biocompatibility. The coupling mechanisms of physical load to the sperm cells are discussed along with the advantages and challenges associated with the spermbot. A few most promising applications of spermbots are also discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the future outlook of this extremely promising category of microrobots is given at the end.

RevDate: 2020-04-23

Zhou Q, Fidalgo J, Calvi L, et al (2020)

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dilute Red Blood Cell Suspensions in Low-Inertia Microchannel Flow.

Biophysical journal pii:S0006-3495(20)30269-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Microfluidic technologies are commonly used for the manipulation of red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and analyses of flow-mediated biomechanics. To enhance the performance of microfluidic devices, understanding the dynamics of the suspensions processed within is crucial. We report novel, to our knowledge, aspects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of RBC suspensions flowing through a typical microchannel at low Reynolds number. Through experiments with dilute RBC suspensions, we find an off-center two-peak (OCTP) profile of cells contrary to the centralized distribution commonly reported for low-inertia flows. This is reminiscent of the well-known "tubular pinch effect," which arises from inertial effects. However, given the conditions of negligible inertia in our experiments, an alternative explanation is needed for this OCTP profile. Our massively parallel simulations of RBC flow in real-size microfluidic dimensions using the immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method confirm the experimental findings and elucidate the underlying mechanism for the counterintuitive RBC pattern. By analyzing the RBC migration and cell-free layer development within a high-aspect-ratio channel, we show that such a distribution is co-determined by the spatial decay of hydrodynamic lift and the global deficiency of cell dispersion in dilute suspensions. We find a cell-free layer development length greater than 46 and 28 hydraulic diameters in the experiment and simulation, respectively, exceeding typical lengths of microfluidic designs. Our work highlights the key role of transient cell distribution in dilute suspensions, which may negatively affect the reliability of experimental results if not taken into account.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Navah F, de la Llave Plata M, V Couaillier (2020)

A High-Order Multiscale Approach to Turbulence for Compact Nodal Schemes.

Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, 363:.

This article presents a formulation that extends the multiscale modelling for compressible large-eddy simulation to a vast family of compact nodal numerical methods represented by the high-order flux reconstruction scheme. The theoretical aspects of the proposed formulation are laid down via mathematical derivations which clearly expose the underlying assumptions and approximations and provide sufficient details for accurate reproduction of the methodology. The final form is assessed on a Taylor-Green vortex benchmark with Reynolds number of 5000 and compared to filtered direct numerical simulation data. These numerical experiments exhibit the important role of sufficient de-aliasing, appropriate amount of upwinding from Roe's numerical flux and large/small scale partition, in achieving better agreement with reference data, especially on coarse grids, when compared to the baseline implicit large-eddy simulation.

RevDate: 2020-04-21

Banerjee A, Sharma T, Nautiyal AK, et al (2020)

Scale-up strategy for yeast single cell oil production for Rhodotorula mucilagenosa IIPL32 from corn cob derived pentosan.

Bioresource technology, 309:123329 pii:S0960-8524(20)30601-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This work was aimed to strategically scale-up the yeast lipid production process using Reynolds number as a standard rheological parameter from 50 mL to 50 L scale. Oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 was cultivated in xylose rich corncob hydrolysate. The fermentation process for growth and maturation was operated in fed-batch with two different C/N ratios of 40 and 60. The hydrodynamic parameters were used to standardize and represent the effect of rheology on the fermentation process. The growth pattern of the yeast was found similar in both shake flask and fermenter with the maximum growth observed at 48 h. The lipid yield increased from 0.4 g/L and 0.5 g/L to 1.3 g/L and 1.83 g/L for 50 mL to 50 L for C/N ratio 40 and 60 respectively. The increase in productivity during the growth phase and lipid accumulation during the maturation phase showed that the scale-up strategy was successful.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Erdem K, Ahmadi VE, Kosar A, et al (2020)

Differential Sorting of Microparticles Using Spiral Microchannels with Elliptic Configurations.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040412.

Label-free, size-dependent cell-sorting applications based on inertial focusing phenomena have attracted much interest during the last decade. The separation capability heavily depends on the precision of microparticle focusing. In this study, five-loop spiral microchannels with a height of 90 µm and a width of 500 µm are introduced. Unlike their original spiral counterparts, these channels have elliptic configurations of varying initial aspect ratios, namely major axis to minor axis ratios of 3:2, 11:9, 9:11, and 2:3. Accordingly, the curvature of these configurations increases in a curvilinear manner through the channel. The effects of the alternating curvature and channel Reynolds number on the focusing of fluorescent microparticles with sizes of 10 and 20 µm in the prepared suspensions were investigated. At volumetric flow rates between 0.5 and 3.5 mL/min (allowing separation), each channel was tested to collect samples at the designated outlets. Then, these samples were analyzed by counting the particles. These curved channels were capable of separating 20 and 10 µm particles with total yields up to approximately 95% and 90%, respectively. The results exhibited that the level of enrichment and the focusing behavior of the proposed configurations are promising compared to the existing microfluidic channel configurations.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Sun HCM, Liao P, Wei T, et al (2020)

Magnetically Powered Biodegradable Microswimmers.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040404.

The propulsive efficiency and biodegradability of wireless microrobots play a significant role in facilitating promising biomedical applications. Mimicking biological matters is a promising way to improve the performance of microrobots. Among diverse locomotion strategies, undulatory propulsion shows remarkable efficiency and agility. This work proposes a novel magnetically powered and hydrogel-based biodegradable microswimmer. The microswimmer is fabricated integrally by 3D laser lithography based on two-photon polymerization from a biodegradable material and has a total length of 200 μm and a diameter of 8 μm. The designed microswimmer incorporates a novel design utilizing four rigid segments, each of which is connected to the succeeding segment by spring to achieve undulation, improving structural integrity as well as simplifying the fabrication process. Under an external oscillating magnetic field, the microswimmer with multiple rigid segments connected by flexible spring can achieve undulatory locomotion and move forward along with the directions guided by the external magnetic field in the low Reynolds number (Re) regime. In addition, experiments demonstrated that the microswimmer can be degraded successfully, which allows it to be safely applied in real-time in vivo environments. This design has great potential in future in vivo applications such as precision medicine, drug delivery, and diagnosis.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Huang B, Li H, T Xu (2020)

Experimental Investigation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Reentrant Cavities.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040403.

The application of microchannel heat exchangers is of great significance in industrial fields due to their advantages of miniaturized scale, large surface-area-to-volume ratio, and high heat transfer rate. In this study, microchannel heat exchangers with and without fan-shaped reentrant cavities were designed and manufactured, and experiments were conducted to investigate the flow and heat-transfer characteristics. The impact rising from the radius of reentrant cavities, as well as the Reynolds number on the heat transfer and the pressure drop, is also analyzed. The results indicate that, compared with straight microchannels, microchannels with reentrant cavities could enhance the heat transfer and, more importantly, reduce the pressure drop at the same time. For the ranges of parameters studied, increasing the radius of reentrant cavities could augment the effect of pressure-drop reduction, while the corresponding variation of heat transfer is complicated. It is considered that adding reentrant cavities in microchannel heat exchangers is an ideal approach to improve performance.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Alboussière T, Drif K, F Plunian (2020)

Dynamo action in sliding plates of anisotropic electrical conductivity.

Physical review. E, 101(3-1):033107.

With materials of anisotropic electrical conductivity, it is possible to generate a dynamo with a simple velocity field, of the type precluded by Cowling's theorems with isotropic materials. Following a previous study by Ruderman and Ruzmaikin [M. S. Ruderman and A. A. Ruzmaikin, Magnetic field generation in an anisotropically conducting fluid, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 28, 77 (1984)GAFDD30309-192910.1080/03091928408210135], who considered the dynamo effect induced by a uniform shear flow, we determine the conditions for the dynamo threshold when a solid plate is sliding over another one, both with anisotropic electrical conductivity. We obtain numerical solutions for a general class of anisotropy and obtain the conditions for the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, using a collocation Chebyshev method. In a particular geometry of anisotropy and wave number, we also derive an analytical solution, where the eigenvectors are just combinations of four exponential functions. An explicit analytical expression is obtained for the critical magnetic Reynolds number. Above the critical magnetic Reynolds number, we have also derived an analytical expression for the growth rate showing that this is a "very fast" dynamo, extrapolating on the "slow" and "fast" terminology introduced by Vainshtein and Zeldovich [S. I. Vainshtein and Y. B. Zeldovich, Reviews of topical problems: Origin of magnetic fields in astrophysics (turbulent "dynamo" mechanisms), Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 159 (1972)SOPUAP0038-567010.1070/PU1972v015n02ABEH004960].

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Reyes F, Torrejón V, C Falcón (2020)

Wave damping of a sloshing wave by an interacting turbulent vortex flow.

Physical review. E, 101(3-1):033106.

We report on the enhancement of the hydrodynamic damping of gravity waves at the surface of a fluid layer as they interact with a turbulent vortex flow in a sloshing experiment. Gravity surface waves are excited by oscillating horizontally a square container holding our working fluid (water). At the bottom of the container, four impellers in a quadrupole configuration generate a vortex array at moderate to high Reynolds number, which interact with the wave. We measure the surface fluctuations using different optical nonintrusive methods and the local velocity of the flow. In our experimental range, we show that as we increase the angular velocity of the impellers, the gravity wave amplitude decreases without changing the oscillation frequency or generating transverse modes. This wave dissipation enhancement is contrasted with the increase of the turbulent velocity fluctuations from particle image velocimetry measurements via a turbulent viscosity. To rationalize the damping enhancement a periodically forced shallow water model including viscous terms is presented, which is used to calculate the sloshing wave resonance curve. The enhanced viscous dissipation coefficient is found to scale linearly with the measured turbulent viscosity. Hence, the proposed scheme is a good candidate as an active surface gravity wave dampener via vortex flow reconfiguration.

RevDate: 2020-04-14

Spandan V, Putt D, Ostilla-Mónico R, et al (2020)

Fluctuation-induced force in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

Science advances, 6(14):eaba0461 pii:aba0461.

Understanding force generation in nonequilibrium systems is a notable challenge in statistical physics. We uncover a fluctuation-induced force between two plates immersed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence using direct numerical simulations. The force is a nonmonotonic function of plate separation. The mechanism of force generation reveals an intriguing analogy with fluctuation-induced forces: In a fluid, energy and vorticity are localized in regions of defined length scales. When varying the distance between the plates, we exclude energy structures modifying the overall pressure on the plates. At intermediate plate distances, the intense vorticity structures (worms) are forced to interact in close vicinity between the plates. This interaction affects the pressure in the slit and the force between the plates. The combination of these two effects causes a nonmonotonic attractive force with a complex Reynolds number dependence. Our study sheds light on how length scale-dependent distributions of energy and high-intensity vortex structures determine Casimir forces.

RevDate: 2020-04-08

Asakawa J, Nishii K, Nakagawa Y, et al (2020)

Direct measurement of 1-mN-class thrust and 100-s-class specific impulse for a CubeSat propulsion system.

The Review of scientific instruments, 91(3):035116.

This paper presents the development of a thrust stand to enable direct measurement of thrust and specific impulse for a CubeSat propulsion system during firing. The thrust stand is an inverted pendulum and incorporates a mass balance for direct in situ mass measurement. The proposed calibration procedure allows precise performance characterization and achieves a resolution of 80 μN thrust and 0.01 g mass loss, by taking into account the drift of the thrust-stand zero caused by propellant consumption. The performance of a water micro-resistojet propulsion system for CubeSats was directly characterized as a proof of concept of the thrust stand. Continuous profiles of thrust, specific impulse, and mass consumption were acquired under various conditions in a single firing test. A thrust from 1 mN to 10 mN and a specific impulse from 45 s to 100 s with a maximum measurement uncertainty of ±15.3% were measured for the throat Reynolds number in the range 100-400.

RevDate: 2020-04-04

Joseph J, Rehman D, Delanaye M, et al (2020)

Numerical and Experimental Study of Microchannel Performance on Flow Maldistribution.

Micromachines, 11(3): pii:mi11030323.

Miniaturized heat exchangers are well known for their superior heat transfer capabilities in comparison to macro-scale devices. While in standard microchannel systems the improved performance is provided by miniaturized distances and very small hydraulic diameters, another approach can also be followed, namely, the generation of local turbulences. Localized turbulence enhances the heat exchanger performance in any channel or tube, but also includes an increased pressure loss. Shifting the critical Reynolds number to a lower value by introducing perturbators controls pressure losses and improves thermal efficiency to a considerable extent. The objective of this paper is to investigate in detail collector performance based on reduced-order modelling and validate the numerical model based on experimental observations of flow maldistribution and pressure losses. Two different types of perturbators, Wire-net and S-shape, were analyzed. For the former, a metallic wire mesh was inserted in the flow passages (hot and cold gas flow) to ensure stiffness and enhance microchannel efficiency. The wire-net perturbators were replaced using an S-shaped perturbator model for a comparative study in the second case mentioned above. An optimum mass flow rate could be found when the thermal efficiency reaches a maximum. Investigation of collectors with different microchannel configurations (s-shaped, wire-net and plane channels) showed that mass flow rate deviation decreases with an increase in microchannel resistance. The recirculation zones in the cylindrical collectors also changed the maldistribution pattern. From experiments, it could be observed that microchannels with S-shaped perturbators shifted the onset of turbulent transition to lower Reynolds number values. Experimental studies on pressure losses showed that the pressure losses obtained from numerical studies were in good agreement with the experiments (<4%).

RevDate: 2020-03-20

Sherlin GC (1960)

Behavior of Isolated Disturbances Superimposed on Laminar Flow in a Rectangular Pipe.

Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards. Section A, Physics and chemistry, 64A(4):281-289.

An investigation was conducted in a horizontal transparent rectangular pipe to study the behavior, in laminar flow, of an isolated turbulent-like disturbance produced by injecting a quantity of dye into the pipe 39 feet from the entrance. As the resulting mass of colored water moved downstream, time-distance measurements were made for the front of the dye mass and for the rear of the disturbance. The experimental setup, which is described in some detail, permitted reasonable control over the mean flow rate from which Reynolds number was calculated. The utilization of the data unfolded a functional relationship among three quantities: The ratio of the velocity of the rear of the disturbance to the velocity of the front of the dye UR/UF ; the distance from the origin, XF ; and the Reynolds number R. The similarity of this work to that being done by Lindgren in Stockholm is mentioned.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Thirani S, Gupta P, C Scalo (2020)

Knudsen number effects on the nonlinear acoustic spectral energy cascade.

Physical review. E, 101(2-1):023101.

We present a numerical investigation of the effects of gas rarefaction on the energy dynamics of resonating planar nonlinear acoustic waves. The problem setup is a gas-filled, adiabatic tube, excited from one end by a piston oscillating at the fundamental resonant frequency of the tube and closed at the other end; nonlinear wave steepening occurs until a limit cycle is reached, resulting in shock formation for sufficiently high densities. The Knudsen number, defined here as the ratio of the characteristic molecular collision timescale to the resonance period, is varied in the range Kn=10^{-1}-10^{-5}, from rarefied to dense regime, by changing the base density of the gas. The working fluid is Argon. A numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation, closed with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model, is used to simulate cases for Kn≥0.01. The fully compressible one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are used for Kn<0.01 with adaptive mesh refinement to resolve the resonating weak shocks, reaching wave Mach numbers up to 1.01. Nonlinear wave steepening and shock formation are associated with spectral broadening of the acoustic energy in the wavenumber-frequency domain; the latter is defined based on the exact energy corollary for second-order nonlinear acoustics derived by Gupta and Scalo [Phys. Rev. E 98, 033117 (2018)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.98.033117], representing the Lyapunov function of the system. At the limit cycle, the acoustic energy spectra exhibit an equilibrium energy cascade with a -2 slope in the inertial range, also observed in freely decaying nonlinear acoustic waves by the same authors. In the present system, energy is introduced externally via a piston at low wavenumbers or frequencies and balanced by thermoviscous dissipation at high wavenumbers or frequencies, responsible for the base temperature increase in the system. The thermoviscous dissipation rate is shown to scale as Kn^{2} for fixed Reynolds number based on the maximum velocity amplitude, i.e., increasing with the degree of flow rarefaction; consistently, the smallest length scale of the steepened waves at the limit cycle, corresponding to the thickness of the shock (when present) also increases with Kn. For a given fixed piston velocity amplitude, the bandwidth of the inertial range of the spectral energy cascade decreases with increasing Knudsen numbers, resulting in a reduced resonant response of the system. By exploiting dimensionless scaling laws borrowed by Kolmogorov's theory of hydrodynamic turbulence, it is shown that an inertial range for spectral energy transfer can be expected for acoustic Reynolds numbers Re_{U_{max}}>100, based on the maximum acoustic velocity amplitude in the domain.

RevDate: 2020-03-10

Krieg M, K Mohseni (2020)

Transient Pressure Modeling in Jetting Animals.

Journal of theoretical biology pii:S0022-5193(20)30092-8 [Epub ahead of print].

There are many marine animals that employ a form of jet propulsion to move through the water, often creating the jets by expanding and collapsing internal fluid cavities. Due to the unsteady nature of this form of locomotion and complex body/nozzle geometries, standard modeling techniques prove insufficient at capturing internal pressure dynamics, and hence swimming forces. This issue has been resolved with a novel technique for predicting the pressure inside deformable jet producing cavities (M. Krieg and K. Mohseni, J. Fluid Mech., 769, 2015), which is derived from evolution of the surrounding fluid circulation. However, this model was only validated for an engineered jet thruster with simple geometry and relatively high Reynolds number (Re) jets. The purpose of this manuscript is twofold: (i) to demonstrate how the circulation based pressure model can be used to analyze different animal body motions as they relate to propulsive output, for multiple species of jetting animals, (ii) and to quantitatively validate the pressure modeling for biological jetting organisms (typically characterized by complicated cavity geometry and low/intermediate Re flows). Using jellyfish (Sarsia tubulosa) as an example, we show that the pressure model is insensitive to complex cavity geometry, and can be applied to lower Re swimming. By breaking down the swimming behavior of the jellyfish, as well as that of squid and dragonfly larvae, according to circulation generating mechanisms, we demonstrate that the body motions of Sarsia tubulosa are optimized for acceleration at the beginning of pulsation as a survival response. Whereas towards the end of jetting, the velar morphology is adjusted to decrease the energetic cost. Similarly, we show that mantle collapse rates in squid maximize propulsive efficiency. Finally, we observe that the hindgut geometry of dragonfly larvae minimizes the work required to refill the cavity. Date Received: 10-18-2019, Date Accepted: 99-99-9999 *, UHM Ocean and Res Eng, 2540 Dole St, Honolulu, HI 96822.

RevDate: 2020-03-03

Fang WZ, Ham S, Qiao R, et al (2020)

Magnetic Actuation of Surface Walkers: The Effects of Confinement and Inertia.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Driven by a magnetic field, the rotation of a particle near a wall can be rectified into a net translation. The particles thus actuated, or surface walkers, are a kind of active colloids that find applications in biology and microfluidics. Here, we investigate the motion of spherical surface walkers confined between two walls using simulations based on the immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann method. The degree of confinement and the nature of the confining walls (slip vs. no-slip) significantly affect a particle's translation speed and can even reverse its translation direction. When the rotational Reynolds number Reω is larger than 1, inertia effects reduce the critical frequency of the applied magnetic fields, beyond which the sphere can no longer follow the applied fields. The reduction of the critical frequency is especially pronounced when the sphere is confined near a no-slip wall. As Reω increases beyond 1, even when a sphere still rotates synchronously with the applied field, its translational Reynolds number no longer increases linearly with Reω and even decreases when Reω exceeds ~10.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Mensch AE, TG Cleary (2019)

Measurements and predictions of thermophoretic soot deposition.

International journal of heat and mass transfer, 143:.

A thin laminar flow channel with a transverse temperature gradient was used to examine thermophoretic deposition of soot aerosol particles in experiments and modeled in Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) simulations. Conditions investigated included three flowrates, with nominal Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter of 55, 115 and 230, and two applied temperature gradients, nominally 10 °C/mm and 20 °C/mm, with repeats. Soot was generated from a propene diffusion flame. The burner exhaust was mixed with dilution air, and most large agglomerates greater than 1 μm aerodynamic diameter were removed prior to the channel inlet. The expected thermophoretic velocity of the aerosol was calculated from the applied temperature gradient. A calculated deposition velocity was determined from the mass of deposition, the channel inlet soot concentration, and the exposure time. Uniform soot deposition allowed targets to be used to measure the mass of deposition on the cold side of the channel. The mass of deposition was also determined by subtracting the mass of soot exiting the channel from the mass of soot entering the channel during the exposure time. The deposition velocities from these two methods generally agreed with the thermophoretic velocity and with each other. The deposition mass predicted by the FDS model also compared well with the experiments in most cases. The disagreements for the lowest flow rate cases are attributed to buoyant flow effects adding uncertainty to the actual temperature gradients present in the channel. (The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this paper are the authors' and do not represent the views or policies of NIST or the United States Government.).

RevDate: 2020-02-26

Stixrude L, Scipioni R, MP Desjarlais (2020)

A silicate dynamo in the early Earth.

Nature communications, 11(1):935 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-14773-4.

The Earth's magnetic field has operated for at least 3.4 billion years, yet how the ancient field was produced is still unknown. The core in the early Earth was surrounded by a molten silicate layer, a basal magma ocean that may have survived for more than one billion years. Here we use density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations to predict the electrical conductivity of silicate liquid at the conditions of the basal magma ocean: 100-140 GPa, and 4000-6000 K. We find that the electrical conductivity exceeds 10,000 S/m, more than 100 times that measured in silicate liquids at low pressure and temperature. The magnetic Reynolds number computed from our results exceeds the threshold for dynamo activity and the magnetic field strength is similar to that observed in the Archean paleomagnetic record. We therefore conclude that the Archean field was produced by the basal magma ocean.

RevDate: 2020-02-25

Rehman D, Joseph J, Morini GL, et al (2020)

A Hybrid Numerical Methodology Based on CFD and Porous Medium for Thermal Performance Evaluation of Gas to Gas Micro Heat Exchanger.

Micromachines, 11(2): pii:mi11020218.

In micro heat exchangers, due to the presence of distributing and collecting manifolds as well as hundreds of parallel microchannels, a complete conjugate heat transfer analysis requires a large amount of computational power. Therefore in this study, a novel methodology is developed to model the microchannels as a porous medium where a compressible gas is used as a working fluid. With the help of such a reduced model, a detailed flow analysis through individual microchannels can be avoided by studying the device as a whole at a considerably less computational cost. A micro heat exchanger with 133 parallel microchannels (average hydraulic diameter of 200 μ m) in both cocurrent and counterflow configurations is investigated in the current study. Hot and cold streams are separated by a stainless-steel partition foil having a thickness of 100 μ m. Microchannels have a rectangular cross section of 200 μ m × 200 μ m with a wall thickness of 100 μ m in between. As a first step, a numerical study for conjugate heat transfer analysis of microchannels only, without distributing and collecting manifolds is performed. Mass flow inside hot and cold fluid domains is increased such that inlet Reynolds number for both domains remains within the laminar regime. Inertial and viscous coefficients extracted from this study are then utilized to model pressure and temperature trends within the porous medium model. To cater for the density dependence of inertial and viscous coefficients due to the compressible nature of gas flow in microchannels, a modified formulation of Darcy-Forschheimer law is adopted. A complete model of a double layer micro heat exchanger with collecting and distributing manifolds where microchannels are modeled as the porous medium is finally developed and used to estimate the overall heat exchanger effectiveness of the investigated micro heat exchanger. A comparison of computational results using proposed hybrid methodology with previously published experimental results of the same micro heat exchanger showed that adopted methodology can predict the heat exchanger effectiveness within the experimental uncertainty for both cocurrent and counterflow configurations.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Luo J, Chen L, Li K, et al (2020)

Optimal kinematic dynamos in a sphere.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 476(2233):20190675.

A variational optimization approach is used to optimize kinematic dynamos in a unit sphere and locate the enstrophy-based critical magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action. The magnetic boundary condition is chosen to be either pseudo-vacuum or perfectly conducting. Spectra of the optimal flows corresponding to these two magnetic boundary conditions are identical since theory shows that they are relatable by reversing the flow field (Favier & Proctor 2013 Phys. Rev. E88, 031001 (doi:10.1103/physreve.88.031001)). A no-slip boundary for the flow field gives a critical magnetic Reynolds number of 62.06, while a free-slip boundary reduces this number to 57.07. Optimal solutions are found to possess certain rotation symmetries (or anti-symmetries) and optimal flows share certain common features. The flows localize in a small region near the sphere's centre and spiral upwards with very large velocity and vorticity, so that they are locally nearly Beltrami. We also derive a new lower bound on the magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action, which, for the case of enstrophy normalization, is five times larger than the previous best bound.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Jose S, R Govindarajan (2020)

Non-normal origin of modal instabilities in rotating plane shear flows.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 476(2233):20190550.

Small variations introduced in shear flows are known to affect stability dramatically. Rotation of the flow system is one example, where the critical Reynolds number for exponential instabilities falls steeply with a small increase in rotation rate. We ask whether there is a fundamental reason for this sensitivity to rotation. We answer in the affirmative, showing that it is the non-normality of the stability operator in the absence of rotation which triggers this sensitivity. We treat the flow in the presence of rotation as a perturbation on the non-rotating case, and show that the rotating case is a special element of the pseudospectrum of the non-rotating case. Thus, while the non-rotating flow is always modally stable to streamwise-independent perturbations, rotating flows with the smallest rotation are unstable at zero streamwise wavenumber, with the spanwise wavenumbers close to that of disturbances with the highest transient growth in the non-rotating case. The instability critical rotation number scales inversely as the square of the Reynolds number, which we demonstrate is the same as the scaling obeyed by the minimum perturbation amplitude in non-rotating shear flow needed for the pseudospectrum to cross the neutral line. Plane Poiseuille flow and plane Couette flow are shown to behave similarly in this context.

RevDate: 2020-02-18

Razavi Bazaz S, Mashhadian A, Ehsani A, et al (2020)

Computational inertial microfluidics: a review.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

Since the discovery of inertial focusing in 1961, numerous theories have been put forward to explain the migration of particles in inertial flows, but a complete understanding is still lacking. Recently, computational approaches have been utilized to obtain better insights into the underlying physics. In particular, fundamental aspects of particle focusing inside straight and curved microchannels have been explored in detail to determine the dependence of focusing behavior on particle size, channel shape, and flow Reynolds number. In this review, we differentiate between the models developed for inertial particle motion on the basis of whether they are semi-analytical, Navier-Stokes-based, or built on the lattice Boltzmann method. This review provides a blueprint for the consideration of numerical solutions for modeling of inertial particle motion, whether deformable or rigid, spherical or non-spherical, and whether suspended in Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluids. In each section, we provide the general equations used to solve particle motion, followed by a tutorial appendix and specified sections to engage the reader with details of the numerical studies. Finally, we address the challenges ahead in the modeling of inertial particle microfluidics for future investigators.

RevDate: 2020-02-17

Tanveer A, Salahuddin T, Khan M, et al (2019)

Theoretical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow in a microchannel.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 191:105280 pii:S0169-2607(19)31978-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In this work the theoretical analysis is presented for a electroosmotic flow of Bingham nanofluid induced by applied electrostatic potential. The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is considered in the presence of Electric double layer (EDL). A Bingham fluid model is employed to describe the rheological behavior of the non-Newtonian fluid. Mathematical formulation is presented under the assumption of long wavelength and small Reynolds number. Flow characteristics are investigated by employing Debye-Huckel linearization principle. Such preferences have not been reported previously for non-Newtonian Bingham nanofluid to the best of author's knowledge.

METHOD: The transformed equations for electroosmotic flow are solved to seek values for the nanofluid velocity, concentration and temperature along the channel length.

RESULTS: The effects of key parameters like Brinkmann number, Prandtl number, Debey Huckel parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter are plotted on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Graphical results for the flow phenomenon are discussed briefly.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-uniformity in channel as well as yield stress τ0 cause velocity declaration for both positive and negative values of U. Nanofluid temperature is found an increasing function of electro osmotic parameter κ if U is positive while it is a decreasing function if U is negative. A completely reverse response is seen in case of concentration profile. The thermophoresis parameter Nt, the Brow nian motion parameter Nb and Brinkman number Br cause an enhancement in temperature. The results are new in case of U.

RevDate: 2020-02-18

Yan SR, Sedeh S, Toghraie D, et al (2020)

Analysis and manegement of laminar blood flow inside a cerebral blood vessel using a finite volume software program for biomedical engineering.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 190:105384 pii:S0169-2607(19)32471-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hemodynamic blood flow analysis in the cerebrovascular is has become one of the important research topics in the bio-mechanic in recent decades. The primary duty of the cerebral blood vessel is supplying Glucose and oxygen for the brain.

METHODS: In this investigation, the non-Newtonian blood flow in the cerebral blood vessels studied. For modeling the geometry of this problem, we used Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) approach to take Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images and using an open-source software package to construct the geometry, which is a complicated one. The power-law indexes, heat flux, and Reynolds number range in the investigation are 0.6 ≤ n ≤ 0.8, 5 ≤ q ≤ 15Wm-2 and 160≤Re≤310. Effects of Reynolds number, power-law indexes and heat fluxes are investigated.

RESULTS: We found that the pressure drop increase with increasing the Reynolds number and power-law index. The maximum Nusselt number in the cerebral blood vessels accrued in the running position of the body in n = 0.8. Also, the highest average wall shear stress occurs in maximum power-law indexes and Reynolds number.

CONCLUSION: By increasing the power-law index and Reynolds number, the wall shear stress increases.

RevDate: 2020-02-13

Waheed S, Noreen S, Tripathi D, et al (2020)

Electrothermal transport of third-order fluids regulated by peristaltic pumping.

Journal of biological physics pii:10.1007/s10867-020-09540-x [Epub ahead of print].

The study of heat and electroosmotic characteristics in the flow of a third-order fluid regulated by peristaltic pumping is examined by using governing equations, i.e., the continuity equation, momentum equation, energy equation, and concentration equation. The wavelength is considered long compared to its height and a low Reynolds number is assumed. The velocity slip condition is employed. Analytical solutions are performed through the perturbation technique. The expressions for the dimensionless velocity components, temperature, concentration, and heat transfer rate are obtained. Pumping features were computed numerically for discussion of results. Trapping and heat transfer coefficient distributions were also studied graphically. The findings of the present study can be applied to design biomicrofluidic devices like tumor-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Cerbus RT, Liu CC, Gioia G, et al (2020)

Small-scale universality in the spectral structure of transitional pipe flows.

Science advances, 6(4):eaaw6256 pii:aaw6256.

Turbulent flows are not only everywhere, but every turbulent flow is the same at small scales. The extraordinary simplification engendered by this "small-scale universality" is a hallmark of turbulence theory. However, on the basis of the restrictive assumptions invoked by A. N. Kolmogorov to demonstrate this universality, it is widely thought that only idealized turbulent flows conform to this framework. Using experiments and simulations that span a wide range of Reynolds number, we show that small-scale universality governs the spectral structure of a class of flows with no apparent ties to the idealized flows: transitional pipe flows. Our results not only extend the universality of Kolmogorov's framework beyond expectation but also establish an unexpected link between transitional pipe flows and Kolmogorovian turbulence.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Usherwood JR, Cheney JA, Song J, et al (2020)

High aerodynamic lift from the tail reduces drag in gliding raptors.

The Journal of experimental biology, 223(Pt 3): pii:223/3/jeb214809.

Many functions have been postulated for the aerodynamic role of the avian tail during steady-state flight. By analogy with conventional aircraft, the tail might provide passive pitch stability if it produced very low or negative lift. Alternatively, aeronautical principles might suggest strategies that allow the tail to reduce inviscid, induced drag: if the wings and tail act in different horizontal planes, they might benefit from biplane-like aerodynamics; if they act in the same plane, lift from the tail might compensate for lift lost over the fuselage (body), reducing induced drag with a more even downwash profile. However, textbook aeronautical principles should be applied with caution because birds have highly capable sensing and active control, presumably reducing the demand for passive aerodynamic stability, and, because of their small size and low flight speeds, operate at Reynolds numbers two orders of magnitude below those of light aircraft. Here, by tracking up to 20,000, 0.3 mm neutrally buoyant soap bubbles behind a gliding barn owl, tawny owl and goshawk, we found that downwash velocity due to the body/tail consistently exceeds that due to the wings. The downwash measured behind the centreline is quantitatively consistent with an alternative hypothesis: that of constant lift production per planform area, a requirement for minimizing viscous, profile drag. Gliding raptors use lift distributions that compromise both inviscid induced drag minimization and static pitch stability, instead adopting a strategy that reduces the viscous drag, which is of proportionately greater importance to lower Reynolds number fliers.

RevDate: 2020-02-06

Wu Z, Zaki TA, C Meneveau (2020)

High-Reynolds-number fractal signature of nascent turbulence during transition.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1916636117 [Epub ahead of print].

Transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurring over a smooth surface is a particularly important route to chaos in fluid dynamics. It often occurs via sporadic inception of spatially localized patches (spots) of turbulence that grow and merge downstream to become the fully turbulent boundary layer. A long-standing question has been whether these incipient spots already contain properties of high-Reynolds-number, developed turbulence. In this study, the question is posed for geometric scaling properties of the interface separating turbulence within the spots from the outer flow. For high-Reynolds-number turbulence, such interfaces are known to display fractal scaling laws with a dimension [Formula: see text], where the 1/3 excess exponent above 2 (smooth surfaces) follows from Kolmogorov scaling of velocity fluctuations. The data used in this study are from a direct numerical simulation, and the spot boundaries (interfaces) are determined by using an unsupervised machine-learning method that can identify such interfaces without setting arbitrary thresholds. Wide separation between small and large scales during transition is provided by the large range of spot volumes, enabling accurate measurements of the volume-area fractal scaling exponent. Measurements show a dimension of [Formula: see text] over almost 5 decades of spot volume, i.e., trends fully consistent with high-Reynolds-number turbulence. Additional observations pertaining to the dependence on height above the surface are also presented. Results provide evidence that turbulent spots exhibit high-Reynolds-number fractal-scaling properties already during early transitional and nonisotropic stages of the flow evolution.

RevDate: 2020-02-06

Xu Z, Qin H, Li P, et al (2020)

Computational fluid dynamics approaches to drag and wake of a long-line mussel dropper under tidal current.

Science progress, 103(1):36850419901235.

Hydrodynamic effects of mussel farms have attracted increased research attentions in recent years. The understanding of the hydrodynamic impacts is essential for predicting the sustainability of mussel farms. A large mussel farm includes thousands of mussel droppers, and the combined drag on the mussel droppers is sufficient to possibly affect the longevity of the entire long-lines. This article intends to study the drag and wake of an individual long-line mussel dropper using computational fluid dynamics approaches. Two equivalent rough cylinders, namely, Curved-Model and Sharp-Model, have been utilized to simulate the mussel dropper, and each rough cylinder is assigned with surface roughness. The porosity is not considered in this article due to its complexity from inhalant and exhalant of mussels. Two-dimensional laminar simulations are conducted at Reynolds number from 10 to 200, and three-dimensional large eddy simulations are conducted at subcritical Reynolds number ranging from 3900 to 10 5 . The results show that larger drag coefficients and Strouhal numbers are attributed to surface roughness and sharp crowns on the rough cylinder. The obtained drag coefficient ranges from 1.1 to 1.2 with respect to the diameter of the mussel dropper and the peak value of the tidal velocities. Wakes behind rough cylinders fluctuate more actively compared to those of smooth cylinders. This research work provides new insight for further investigations on hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and mussel droppers.

RevDate: 2020-02-02

Ganta N, Mahato B, YG Bhumkar (2020)

Prediction of the aerodynamic sound generated due to flow over a cylinder performing combined steady rotation and rotary oscillations.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 147(1):325.

Analysis of sound generated due to a laminar flow past a circular cylinder subjected to the mean rotation along with the rotary oscillating motion has been performed for the Reynolds number Re = 150 and the Mach number M = 0.2. The direct numerical simulation approach has been used to study modifications in the generated sound field over a range of forcing parameters using disturbance pressure field information. Flow and sound fields are accurately resolved over a nondimensional radial distance r≤100 from the center of the cylinder. Frequencies, as well as wavelengths of generated sound waves, have been effectively altered by varying the forcing frequency-ratio, whereas the directivity nature of the radiated sound field has been modified by varying the forcing amplitude-ratio. Doak's decomposition technique has been used to understand the reasons behind changes in the radiated sound fields as the forcing parameters are varied.

RevDate: 2020-02-01

Alouges F, G Di Fratta (2020)

Parking 3-sphere swimmer: II. The long-arm asymptotic regime.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 43(2):6 pii:10.1140/epje/i2020-11932-5.

The paper carries on our previous investigations on the complementary version of Purcell's rotator (sPr3): a low-Reynolds-number swimmer composed of three balls of equal radii. In the asymptotic regime of very long arms, the Stokes-induced governing dynamics is derived, and then experimented in the context of energy-minimizing self-propulsion characterized in the first part of the paper.

RevDate: 2020-01-30

Liu P, Liu H, Yang Y, et al (2020)

Comparison of design methods for negative pressure gradient rotary bodies: A CFD study.

PloS one, 15(1):e0228186 pii:PONE-D-19-20026.

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to test two body design methods which use negative pressure gradient to suppress laminar flow separation and drag reduction. The steady-state model of the Transition SST model is used to calculate the pressure distribution, wall shear stress, and drag coefficient under zero angle of attack at different velocities. Four bodies designed by two different methods are considered. Our results show the first method is superior to the body of Hansen in drag reduction and the body designed by the first method is more likely to obtain the characteristics of suppressing or eliminating separation, which can effectively improve laminar flow coverage to achieve drag reduction under higher Reynolds number conditions. The results show that the negative pressure gradient method can suppress separation and drag reduction better than the second method. This successful design method is expected to open a promising prospect for its application in the design of small drag, small noise subsonic hydrodynamic hull and underwater weapons.

RevDate: 2020-01-28

Nguyen KH, Gemmell BJ, JR Rohr (2020)

Effects of temperature and viscosity on miracidial and cercarial movement of Schistosoma mansoni: ramifications for disease transmission.

International journal for parasitology pii:S0020-7519(20)30009-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Parasites with complex life cycles can be susceptible to temperature shifts associated with seasonal changes, especially as free-living larvae that depend on a fixed energy reserve to survive outside the host. The life cycle of Schistosoma, a trematode genus containing some species that cause human schistosomiasis, has free-living, aquatic miracidial and cercarial larval stages that swim using cilia or a forked tail, respectively. The small size of these swimmers (150-350 µm) dictates that their propulsion is dominated by viscous forces. Given that viscosity inhibits the swimming ability of small organisms and is inversely correlated with temperature, changes in temperature should affect the ability of free-living larval stages to swim and locate a host. By recording miracidial and cercarial movement of Schistosoma mansoni using a high-speed camera and manipulating temperature and viscosity independently, we assessed the role each factor plays in the swimming mechanics of the parasite. We found a positive effect of temperature and a negative effect of viscosity on miracidial and cercarial speed. Reynolds numbers, which describe the ratio of inertial to viscous forces exerted on an aquatic organism, were <1 across treatments. Q10 values were <2 when comparing viscosity treatments at 20°C and 30°C, further supporting the influence of viscosity on miracidial and cercarial speed. Given that both larval stages have limited energy reserves and infection takes considerable energy, successful transmission depends on both speed and lifespan. We coupled our speed data with mortality measurements across temperatures and discovered that the theoretical maximum distance travelled increased with temperature and decreased with viscosity for both larval stages. Thus, our results suggest that S. mansoni transmission is high during warm times of the year, partly due to improved swimming performance of the free-living larval stages, and that increases in temperature variation associated with climate change might further increase transmission.

RevDate: 2020-01-28

Fauzi FB, Ismail E, Syed Abu Bakar SN, et al (2020)

The role of gas-phase dynamics in interfacial phenomena during few-layer graphene growth through atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition.

Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP [Epub ahead of print].

The complicated chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is currently the most viable method of producing graphene. Most studies have extensively focused on chemical aspects either through experiments or computational studies. However, gas-phase dynamics in CVD reportedly plays an important role in improving graphene quality. Given that mass transport is the rate-limiting step for graphene deposition in atmospheric-pressure CVD (APCVD), the interfacial phenomena at the gas-solid interface (i.e., the boundary layer) are a crucial controlling factor. Accordingly, only by understanding and controlling the boundary-layer thickness can uniform full-coverage graphene deposition be achieved. In this study, a simplified computational fluid dynamics analysis of APCVD was performed to investigate gas-phase dynamics during deposition. Boundary-layer thickness was also estimated through the development of a customised homogeneous gas model. Interfacial phenomena, particularly the boundary layer and mass transport within it, were studied. The effects of Reynolds number on these factors were explored and compared with experimentally obtained results of the characterised graphene deposit. We then discussed and elucidated the important relation of fluid dynamics to graphene growth through APCVD.

RevDate: 2020-01-26

Asghar Z, Ali N, Javid K, et al (2020)

Bio-inspired propulsion of micro-swimmers within a passive cervix filled with couple stress mucus.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 189:105313 pii:S0169-2607(19)31516-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The swimming mechanism of self-propelling organisms has been imitated by biomedical engineers to design the mechanical micro bots. The interaction of these swimmers with surrounding environment is another important aspect. The present swimming problem integrates Taylor sheet model with couple stress fluid model. The thin passage containing micro-swimmers and mucus is approximated as a rigid (passive) two-dimensional channel. The spermatozoa forms a pack quite similar as a complex wavy sheet.

METHODS: Swimming problem with couple stress cervical liquid (at low Reynolds number) leads to a linear sixth order differential equation. The boundary value problem (BVP) is solved analytically with two unknowns i.e. speed of complex wavy sheet and flow rate of couple stress mucus. After utilizing this solution into equilibrium conditions these unknowns can be computed via Newton-Raphson algorithm. Furthermore, the pairs of numerically calculated organism speed and flow rate are utilized in the expression of power dissipation.

RESULTS: This work describes that the speed of micro-swimmers can be enhanced by suitable rheology of the surrounding liquid. The usage of couple stress fluid as compared to Newtonian fluid enhances the energy dissipation and reduces the flow rate. On the other hand complex wavy surface also aids the organisms to swim faster.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Zhu Y, Yang G, Zhuang C, et al (2020)

Oral cavity flow distribution and pressure drop in balaenid whales feeding: A theoretical analysis.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Balaenid whales, as continuous ram filter feeders, can efficiently separate prey from water by baleen. The feeding process of balaenid whales is extremely complex, in which the flow distribution and pressure drop in the oral cavity play a significant role. In this paper, a theoretical model coupled with oral cavity velocity and pressure in balaenid whales is established based on mass conservation, momentum conservation and pressure drop equations, considering both the inertial and the friction terms. A discrete method with section-by-section calculation is adopted to solve the theoretical model. The effects of four crucial parameters, i.e., the ratio of filtration area to inlet area (S), the Reynolds number of entrance (Rein), the ratio of thickness to permeability of the porous media formed by the fringe layer (φ) and the width ratio of the anteroposterior canal within the mouth along the tongue (APT channel) to that along the lip (APL channel) (H) are discussed. The results show that, for a give case, the flow distribution and the pressure drop both show increasing trends with the flow direction. For different cases, whenSis small,Reinis small andφis large, a good flow pattern emerges with a smoother flow speed near the oropharynx, better drainage, better shunting and filtration, and higher energy efficiency. However, for smaller values ofH, some energy efficiency is sacrificed to achieve additional average transverse flow in order to produce better shunting and filtration. The research in this paper provides a reference for the design of high-efficiency bionic filters.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Afrouzi HH, Ahmadian M, Hosseini M, et al (2020)

Simulation of blood flow in arteries with aneurysm: Lattice Boltzmann Approach (LBM).

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 187:105312 pii:S0169-2607(19)31835-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In most countries, the higher death rates are due to cardiovascular disease and stroke. These problems often derive from irregular blood flow and the circulatory system disorder.

METHODS: In this paper, the blood flow is simulated in a created aneurysm in the artery upon using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). Blood is selected as a non-Newtonian fluid which was simulated with power-law model. The lattice Boltzmann results for non-Newtonian fluid flow with power-law model and the curved boundary are compared and validated with previous studies which show a good agreement. In this study, simulations are carried out for two types of aneurysms. For the first aneurysm, three power-law exponents of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 at Reynolds number of 100 for three different cases are investigated.

RESULTS: The results show that the wall shear stress increases with increasing the power-law exponent. In addition, in the main duct of artery where the velocity is larger, shear stress is lower due to the smaller velocity gradient. For the second Aneurysm, the simulations are done for three Reynolds numbers of 100, 150 and 200, and three Womersley numbers of 4, 12 and 20. The blood flow is pulsating at the inlet such as the real pulsating wave in the blood. Results show that with increasing the Womersley number, the velocity profiles in the middle of the aneurysm are closer at a constant Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: With increasing the Reynolds number, the range of vortices and values of velocity and tension grow in the aneurysm.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Porté-Agel F, Bastankhah M, S Shamsoddin (2020)

Wind-Turbine and Wind-Farm Flows: A Review.

Boundary-layer meteorology, 174(1):1-59.

Wind energy, together with other renewable energy sources, are expected to grow substantially in the coming decades and play a key role in mitigating climate change and achieving energy sustainability. One of the main challenges in optimizing the design, operation, control, and grid integration of wind farms is the prediction of their performance, owing to the complex multiscale two-way interactions between wind farms and the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). From a fluid mechanical perspective, these interactions are complicated by the high Reynolds number of the ABL flow, its inherent unsteadiness due to the diurnal cycle and synoptic-forcing variability, the ubiquitous nature of thermal effects, and the heterogeneity of the terrain. Particularly important is the effect of ABL turbulence on wind-turbine wake flows and their superposition, as they are responsible for considerable turbine power losses and fatigue loads in wind farms. These flow interactions affect, in turn, the structure of the ABL and the turbulent fluxes of momentum and scalars. This review summarizes recent experimental, computational, and theoretical research efforts that have contributed to improving our understanding and ability to predict the interactions of ABL flow with wind turbines and wind farms.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Kaminsky J, Klewicki J, B Birnir (2019)

Application of the stochastic closure theory to the Townsend-Perry constants.

Physical review. E, 100(6-1):061101.

We compare the stochastic closure theory (SCT) to the Townsend-Perry constants as estimated from measurements in the Flow Physic Facility (FPF) at the University of New Hampshire. First, we explain the derivation of the Townsend-Perry constants, which were originally formulated by Meneveau and Marusic, in analogy with a Gaussian distribution. However, this was not supported by the data. Instead, the data show a sub-Gaussian relation that was explained by Birnir and Chen. We show herein how the SCT can be used to compute the constants, which explains their sub-Gaussian relations. We then compare the SCT theory predictions, including Reynolds-number-dependent corrections, with the data, showing good agreement.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Jin Y, Cheng S, LP Chamorro (2019)

Active pitching of short splitters past a cylinder: Drag increase and wake.

Physical review. E, 100(6-1):063106.

The flow and drag induced by active pitching of plates in the wake of a cylinder of diameter d were experimentally studied for various plate lengths L as well as pitching frequencies f_{p} and amplitudes A_{0} at Reynolds number Re=1.6×10^{4}. Planar particle image velocimetry and a load cell were used to characterize the flow statistics and mean drag of a variety of cylinder-splitter assemblies. Results show the distinctive effect of active pitching on these quantities. In particular, flow recovery was significantly modulated by L, f_{p}, or A_{0}. Specific pitching settings resulted in a wake with dominant meandering patterns and faster flow recovery. We defined a modified version of the amplitude-based Strouhal number of the system St_{A} to account for the effect of the cylinder in active pitching. It characterizes the drag coefficient C_{d} across all the cases studied, and reveals two regions intersecting at a critical value of St_{A}≈0.035. Below this value, the C_{d} remained nearly constant; however, it exhibited a linear increase with increasing St_{A} past this critical point. Inspection of the integral momentum equation showed the dominant role of velocity fluctuations in modulating C_{d} past the critical St_{A}.

RevDate: 2020-01-19

Rajwa-Kuligiewicz A, Radecki-Pawlik A, Skalski T, et al (2020)

Hydromorphologically-driven variability of thermal and oxygen conditions at the block ramp hydraulic structure: The Porębianka River, Polish Carpathians.

The Science of the total environment, 713:136661 pii:S0048-9697(20)30171-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Growing anthropopressure in mountain streams aimed at limiting erosion and flood protection often caused adverse effects on the natural environment. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the restoration and conservation of natural habitats in mountain streams using environmentally friendly solutions such as the Block Ramp (BR) Hydraulic Structures. In this study we investigated the factors responsible for spatial variability in thermal and oxygen conditions at the single BR structure in the growing season, and the relation between water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. This has been done by measurements of hydraulic characteristics along with physicochemical properties of water, such as water temperature and DO concentration, at two different discharges. The redundancy analysis has been applied in order to describe the relationships among hydraulic parameters and physicochemical variables, and extract potential sources of water temperature and DO variability within the BR hydraulic structure. Results have shown that DO and water temperature distributions within the BR hydraulic structure depend on discharge conditions and are associated with the submergence of the block ramp. The highest heterogeneity in hydraulic, DO and water temperature conditions occurs at low flow and is associated with the presence of crevices between protruding cobbles at the block ramp. The lowest variability, in turn, occurs at high discharge, when the block ramp is completely submerged. The results indicated that thermal and oxygen conditions within the BR hydraulic structure are independent of hydraulic parameters at low flow. Moreover, the relation between DO concentration and water temperature is positive at low flow indicating potential impact of biological processes. On the contrary, at high discharge both, the DO concentrations and water temperature within the BR structure, depend on bed shear velocity and maximum Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Haghighinia A, S Movahedirad (2020)

Mass transfer in a novel passive micro-mixer: Flow tortuosity effects.

Analytica chimica acta, 1098:75-85.

Hydroynamic fluid tortuosity is a parameter to describe the fluid streamlines average elongation. The motivation of the present study is introducing a new concept for theoretical predictions of dynamic tortuosity effects on mass transfer in a novel three-dimensional passive T-shape micro-mixer both experimentally and by numerical simulation. In the numerical analysis, continuity, motion, and diffusion-convection equations were solved, and the amount of mass transfer and the fluid tortuosity was calculated for different rectangular winglet angles. The Reynolds number is considered in the range of 0.1-93. The results show that when the angle of winglet tends to 22.5°, the fluid tortuosity, lateral velocity, and fluid mass transfer tend to maximum values. Furthermore, the effect of fluid tortuosity on the fluid stretching as a theory of chaotic mixing is investigated.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Rhoades T, Kothapalli CR, PS Fodor (2020)

Mixing Optimization in Grooved Serpentine Microchannels.

Micromachines, 11(1): pii:mi11010061.

Computational fluid dynamics modeling at Reynolds numbers ranging from 10 to 100 was used to characterize the performance of a new type of micromixer employing a serpentine channel with a grooved surface. The new topology exploits the overlap between the typical Dean flows present in curved channels due to the centrifugal forces experienced by the fluids, and the helical flows induced by slanted groove-ridge patterns with respect to the direction of the flow. The resulting flows are complex, with multiple vortices and saddle points, leading to enhanced mixing across the section of the channel. The optimization of the mixers with respect to the inner radius of curvature (Rin) of the serpentine channel identifies the designs in which the mixing index quality is both high (M > 0.95) and independent of the Reynolds number across all the values investigated.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Oktamuliani S, Hasegawa K, Y Saijo (2019)

Left Ventricular Vortices in Myocardial Infarction Observed with Echodynamography.

Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference, 2019:5816-5819.

Echodynamography (EDG) is a computational method to deduce two-dimensional (2D) blood flow vector from conventional color Doppler ultrasound image by considering that the blood flow is divided into vortex and base flow components. Left ventricular (LV) vortices indicate cardiac flow status influenced by LV wall motion. Thus, quantitative assessment of LV vortices may become new and sensitive parameters for cardiac function. In the present study, quantitative parameters of LV vortices such as vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were calculated and relation between each parameter was assessed. Six healthy volunteers and three patients with myocardial infarction (MI) who underwent color Doppler echocardiography (CDE) were involved in the study. Serial CDE images in apical three-chamber view were recorded and 2D blood flow vector was superimposed on the CDE image. Vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were compared between the normal volunteers and the MI patients. The results showed that vortex index (3.09±2.06 vs. 3.34±2.33, p<; 0.05), vortex size (1.76 0.69 vs. 2.01 ±0.68, p<; 0.05), Reynolds number (1020±603 vs.±1312 1046, p<; ±0.05) were significantly greater in the MI patients than in the healthy volunteers. Vortex equivalent diameter in LV showed significant positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.799, y = 0.001x + 0.7098, p <; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.6404, y = 0.0005x+1.3185, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. Vortex index showed positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.9351, y = 0.002x+0.1397, p<; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.758, y = 0.0019x+0.7957, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. In conclusion, EDG provides information on LV hemodynamics by quantitative LV vortices parameters both in healthy volunteers and MI patients.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Hamad EM, Sawalmeh B, Mhawsh AA, et al (2019)

Investigation of Bifurcation Effect on Various Microfluidic Designs for Blood Separation.

Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference, 2019:1097-1100.

In this project, a microfluidic device for blood separation will be designed and tested in order to separate plasma from whole blood for diagnostic purposes. The design will be based on previously implemented designs that will be further discussed in the next sections. When designing microfluidic devices, it is essential to consider the different physical phenomena that arise from switching from the macro scale to the micro scale. Parameters such as the Reynolds number and the forces affecting the fluid must be studied in order to produce a suitable and effective design. Finite element methods have been implemented prior to the production of the microfluidic devices. Various geometries/designs have been tested using Fluent ANSYS software. Later on, the successful design was fabricated using micromachining on an acrylic substrate and was tested using simulated blood through of a syringe pump.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Martínez-Merino P, Midgley S, Martín EI, et al (2020)

Novel WS2-based nanofluids for concentrating solar power: performance characterization and molecular-level insights.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Nano-colloidal suspensions of nanomaterials in a fluid, nanofluids, are appealing because of their interesting properties related to heat transfer processes. Whilst nanomaterials based on transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have been widely studied in catalysis, sensing, and energy storage applications, there are few studies of nanofluids based on TMCs for heat transfer applications. In this study, the preparation and analysis of nanofluids based on 2D-WS2 in a typical heat transfer fluid (HTF) used in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is reported. Nanofluids prepared using a exfoliation process exhibited well-defined nanosheets and were highly stable. The nanofluids were characterized in terms of properties related to their application in CSP. The presence of WS2 nanosheets did not modify significantly the surface tension, the viscosity, or the isobaric specific heat, but the thermal conductivity was improved by up to 30%. The Ur factor, which characterizes the thermal efficiency of the fluid in the solar collector, shows an enhancement of up to 22% in the nanofluid, demonstrating great promise for CSP applications. The Reynolds number and friction factor of the fluid were not significantly modified by the addition of the nanomaterial to the HTF, which is also positive for practical applications in CSP plants. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the nanoparticle/fluid interface showed an irreversible dissociative adsorption of diphenyl oxide molecules on the WS2 edge, with very low kinetic barrier. The resulting 'decoration' of the WS2 edge dramatically affects the nature of the interface interactions and is therefore expected to affect significantly the rheological and transport properties of the nanofluids.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Zhang T, Moreau D, Geyer T, et al (2020)

Dataset on tip vortex formation noise produced by wall-mounted finite airfoils with flat and rounded tip geometries.

Data in brief, 28:105058 pii:105058.

The vortex generated at the tip of an airfoil such as an aircraft wing, wind turbine blade, submarine fin or propeller blade can dominate its wake and be a significant source of unwanted noise. The data collection presented in this paper consists of measurements of tip vortex formation noise produced by finite length airfoils with flat and rounded tips. These data were obtained using the specialist aeroacoustic test facilities at the Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) in Cottbus, Germany and a 47-channel planar microphone array. Over 1200 unique test cases with variations in airfoil profile shape, tip geometry, angle of attack and Reynolds number were measured during the experimental campaign. The dataset contains one-third-octave band tip noise spectra that have been processed using Acoular, a Python module for acoustic beamforming.

RevDate: 2020-01-14

Salazar-Magallón JA, A Huerta de la Peña (2020)

Production of antifungal saponins in an airlift bioreactor with a cell line transformed from Solanum chrysotrichum and its activity against strawberry phytopathogens.

Preparative biochemistry & biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Biotechnology through plant cell cultures in bioreactors is a tool that allows increasing the production of secondary metabolites of commercial interest. The hydrodynamic characterization, in addition to the transfer (OTR) and uptake (OUR) of oxygen through the dynamic method with different aeration rate, were used to see their influence on the production of biomass and saponins. The culture poisoning technique was used to determine the antifungal activity of the SC-2 and SC-3 saponins in vitro. Likewise, the shear or hydrodynamic stress of 273.6 mN/m2 were calculated based on the Reynolds Number. The oxygen supply (OTR) was always greater than the demand (OUR) for all the aeration rate evaluated. Dry weight values of 8.6 gDW/L and a concentration of 2.7 mg/L and 187.3 mg/L of the saponins SC-2 and SC-3 respectively were obtained with an air flow of 0.1 vvm. In addition, it was possible to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro by up to 93%, while in vivo it was possible to reduce the infections of strawberry seeds inoculated with phytopathogens, obtaining up to 94% of germinated seeds. This information will facilitate the rational operation of the bioreactor culture system that produces secondary metabolites.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Hu X, Lin J, Chen D, et al (2020)

Influence of non-Newtonian power law rheology on inertial migration of particles in channel flow.

Biomicrofluidics, 14(1):014105.

In this paper, the inertial migration of particles in the channel flow of power-law fluid is numerically investigated. The effects of the power-law index (n), Reynolds number (Re), blockage ratio (k), and channel aspect ratio (AR) on the inertial migration of particles and equilibrium position are explored. The results show that there exist two stages of particle migration and four stable equilibrium positions for particles in the cross section of a square channel. The particle equilibrium positions in a rectangular channel are much different from those in a square channel. In shear-thinning fluids, the long channel face equilibrium position and two kinds of particle trajectories are found at low Re. With increasing Re, the short channel face equilibrium position turns to be stable, multiequilibrium positions, and three kinds of particle trajectories along the long wall start to form. Only two stable equilibrium positions exist in shear-thickening fluids. The equilibrium positions are getting closer to the channel centerline with increasing n and k and with decreasing Re. The inertial focusing length L2 in the second stage of particle migration is much longer than inertial focusing length L1 in the first stage. In the square channel, L2 is decreased with increasing Re and k and with decreasing n. In the rectangular channel, L2 is the shortest in the shear-thinning fluid.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Feng Y, Wang Q, Duan JL, et al (2020)

Attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket.

Water research, 171:115458 pii:S0043-1354(19)31235-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The performance of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) is significantly governed by the hydrodynamics of the reactor. Though the influence of hydrodynamics on mass transfer, granular size distribution, and biogas production was well studied, the interaction between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) is poorly understood. This study used the impinging-jet technique and bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles (CH4 and CO2) and AGS. The fluxes of normalized CH4 or CO2 bubble-attachment on two kinds of AGS were directly affected by gas velocity and decreased with an increase in the Reynolds number ranged from 40 to 140. The bubble-attachment had a positive linear relationship with the contact angles, ratio of exopolymeric protein and polysaccharide, and hydrophilic functional groups of AGS. A bubble probe AFM was used to explore the adhesion force between a single bubble and AGS. The results indicated that the adhesion force between the bubbles and the two kinds of AGS also decreased with increasing approach velocity. Overall, these results contribute to a new insight into the understanding of interaction between biogas bubbles and AGS in UASB reactors.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Muhammad R, Khan MI, Jameel M, et al (2019)

Fully developed Darcy-Forchheimer mixed convective flow over a curved surface with activation energy and entropy generation.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 188:105298 pii:S0169-2607(19)31617-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Mixed convection (forced+natural convection) is frequently observed in exceptionally high output devices where the forced convection isn't sufficient to dissipate all of the heat essential. At this point, consolidating natural convection with forced convection will frequently convey the ideal outcomes. Nuclear reactor technology and a few features of electronic cooling are the examples of these processes. Mixed convection problems are categorized by Richardson number (Ri), which is the ratio of Grashof number (for natural convection) and Reynolds number (for forced convection). For buoyancy or mixed convection the relative effect can be addressed by Richardson number. Typically, the natural convection is negligible when Richardson number is less than 0.1 (Ri < 0.1), forced convection is negligible when Richardson number is greater than 10 (Ri > 10) and neither is negligible when (0.1 < Ri < 10). It might be noticed that generally the forced convection is large comparative with natural convection except in case of remarkably low forced flow velocities. The current work gives significant insights regarding dissipative mixed convective Darcy-Forchheimer flow with entropy generation over a stretched curved surface. The energy equation is developed with respect to nonlinear radiation, dissipation and Ohmic heating (Joule heating). Binary reaction via activation energy is accounted.

METHOD: Curvilinear transformations are utilized to change the nonlinear PDE's into ordinary ones. Computational outcomes are obtained via NDSolve MATHEMATICA. The results are computed and discussed graphically.

RESULTS: Velocity decays for Forchheimer number. Entropy generation enhances for diffusion parameter and chemical reaction parameter. Concentration profile reduces chemical reaction parameter and enhances for activation parameter.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Rane YS, JO Marston (2020)

Computational study of fluid flow in tapered orifices for needle-free injectors.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 319:382-396 pii:S0168-3659(20)30019-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Transdermal drug delivery using spring-powered jet injection has been studied for several decades and continues to be highly sought after due to the advent of targeted needle-free techniques, especially for viscous and complex fluids. As such, this paper reports results from numerical simulations to study the role of fluid rheology and cartridge geometry on characteristics such as jet exit velocity, total pressure drop and boundary layer thickness, since these all factor in to jet stability and collimation. The numerical approach involves incompressible steady flow with turbulence modelling based on the system Reynolds number at the orifice (Re = ρdovj/μ). The results are experimentally validated for a given geometry over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (101 < Re < 104), and our results indicate a sharp decrease in dimensionless pressure drop (Eu = 2∆P/ρvj2) for Re < 102) and gradually approaching the inviscid limit at Re ≥ 104. By extending the study to non-Newtonian fluids, whose rheological profile is approximated by the Carreau model, we also elucidated the effect of different rheological parameters. Lastly by studying a range of nozzle geometries such as conical, sigmoid taper and multi-tier tapers, we observe that fluid acceleration suppresses the boundary layer growth, which indicates there may be optimal geometries for creating jets to target specific tissue depths.

RevDate: 2020-01-07

Pan X, Tang L, Feng J, et al (2020)

Experimental Research on the Degradation Coefficient of Ammonia Nitrogen Under Different Hydrodynamic Conditions.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology pii:10.1007/s00128-019-02781-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Degradation coefficients for pollutants in water are important parameters that are significantly influenced by environmental conditions. In controlled experiments, the processes and trends of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) degradation in raw waters were studied under different flow conditions using a laboratory annular flume. Analysis of the observed change in NH3-N concentration with time under various flow conditions allowed calculation of a degradation efficiency (concentration change amount/initial concentration) which for NH3-N increased as the flow velocity increased. According to a first-order kinetic equation to fit the experimental data, the range of variation of the degradation coefficient of NH3-N at different flowrates was between 0.047 per day (0.01 m/s) and 0.203 per day (0.30 m/s). Dimensional analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the degradation coefficient and flow velocity (v), water depth (H), Froude number (Fr), and Reynolds number (Re), which was verified through field data collected in the Chishui River.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Sobecki C, Zhang J, C Wang (2019)

Numerical Study of Paramagnetic Elliptical Microparticles in Curved Channels and Uniform Magnetic Fields.

Micromachines, 11(1): pii:mi11010037.

We numerically investigated the dynamics of a paramagnetic elliptical particle immersed in a low Reynolds number Poiseuille flow in a curved channel and under a uniform magnetic field by direct numerical simulation. A finite element method, based on an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, analyzed how the channel geometry, the strength and direction of the magnetic field, and the particle shape affected the rotation and radial migration of the particle. The net radial migration of the particle was analyzed after executing a π rotation and at the exit of the curved channel with and without a magnetic field. In the absence of a magnetic field, the rotation is symmetric, but the particle-wall distance remains the same. When a magnetic field is applied, the rotation of symmetry is broken, and the particle-wall distance increases as the magnetic field strength increases. The causation of the radial migration is due to the magnetic angular velocity caused by the magnetic torque that constantly changes directions during particle transportation. This research provides a method of magnetically manipulating non-spherical particles on lab-on-a-chip devices for industrial and biological applications.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2020-01-06

Bahrami A, Hoseinzadeh S, Heyns PS, et al (2019)

Experimental investigation of co-flow jet's airfoil flow control by hot wire anemometer.

The Review of scientific instruments, 90(12):125107.

An experimental flow control technique is given in this paper to study the jet effect on the coflow jet's airfoil with injection and suction and compared with the jet-off condition. The airfoil is CFJ0025-065-196, and the Reynolds number based on the airfoil's chord length is 105. To measure the turbulence components of flow, a hot wire anemometry apparatus in a wind tunnel has been used. In this paper, the effect of the average velocity and boundary layer thickness on the coflow jet's airfoil is analyzed. The test is done for two different coflow velocities and for different angles of attack. It is also shown that, by increasing the velocity difference between the jet and the main flow, separation is delayed, and this delay can be preserved by raising coflow velocity at higher angles of attack. So, this flow control method has a good efficiency, and it is possible to reach higher numbers of lift and lower numbers of drag coefficients.

RevDate: 2020-01-02

Pendse V, Mazumdar B, H Kumar (2020)

Formulation of experimental data based model for solid-liquid mass transfer enhancement in three phase fluidized bed using nanofluid.

Data in brief, 28:104990.

This experimental data based model in three phase fluidized bed was designed to enhance the solid-liquid mass transfer. This data focuses on mass transfer enhancement using nanomaterial. In present investigation benzoic acid-water-air system was used as three phases ie solid, liquid and gas respectively with Arachitol nano as nanomaterial in different volume percent in three phase fluidized bed. Data from experiment were collected by varying gas velocity, bed height, nanomaterial percentage and time. After a convenient selection various correlation have been derived. The data presented here is the full set of experimental value and coefficients and exponents in correlation were estimated from nonlinear optimization technique in MATLAB.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Krishnan SR, Bal J, SA Putnam (2019)

A simple analytic model for predicting the wicking velocity in micropillar arrays.

Scientific reports, 9(1):20074.

Hemiwicking is the phenomena where a liquid wets a textured surface beyond its intrinsic wetting length due to capillary action and imbibition. In this work, we derive a simple analytical model for hemiwicking in micropillar arrays. The model is based on the combined effects of capillary action dictated by interfacial and intermolecular pressures gradients within the curved liquid meniscus and fluid drag from the pillars at ultra-low Reynolds numbers [Formula: see text]. Fluid drag is conceptualized via a critical Reynolds number: [Formula: see text], where v0 corresponds to the maximum wetting speed on a flat, dry surface and x0 is the extension length of the liquid meniscus that drives the bulk fluid toward the adsorbed thin-film region. The model is validated with wicking experiments on different hemiwicking surfaces in conjunction with v0 and x0 measurements using Water [Formula: see text], viscous FC-70 [Formula: see text] and lower viscosity Ethanol [Formula: see text].

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Li H, Li Y, Huang B, et al (2019)

Flow Characteristics of the Entrance Region with Roughness Effect within Rectangular Microchannels.

Micromachines, 11(1): pii:mi11010030.

We conducted systematic numerical investigations of the flow characteristics within the entrance region of rectangular microchannels. The effects of the geometrical aspect ratio and roughness on entrance lengths were analyzed. The incompressible laminar Navier-Stokes equations were solved using finite volume method (FVM). In the simulation, hydraulic diameters (Dh) ranging from 50 to 200 µm were studied, and aspect ratios of 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 were considered as well. The working fluid was set as water, and the Reynolds number ranged from 0.5 to 100. The results showed a good agreement with the conducted experiment. Correlations are proposed to predict the entrance lengths of microchannels with respect to different aspect ratios. Compared with other correlations, these new correlations are more reliable because a more practical inlet condition was considered in our investigations. Instead of considering the influence of the width and height of the microchannels, in our investigation we proved that the critical role is played by the aspect ratio, representing the combination of the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the existence of rough elements obviously shortens the entrance region, and this effect became more pronounced with increasing relative roughness and Reynolds number. A similar effect could be seen by shortening the roughness spacing. An asymmetric distribution of rough elements decreased the entrance length compared with a symmetric distribution, which can be extrapolated to other irregularly distributed forms.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Kang DJ (2019)

Effects of Channel Wall Twisting on the Mixing in a T-Shaped Micro-Channel.

Micromachines, 11(1): pii:mi11010026.

A new design scheme is proposed for twisting the walls of a microchannel, and its performance is demonstrated numerically. The numerical study was carried out for a T-shaped microchannel with twist angles in the range of 0 to 34π. The Reynolds number range was 0.15 to 6. The T-shaped microchannel consists of two inlet branches and an outlet branch. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the degree of mixing and relative mixing cost. All numerical results show that the twisting scheme is an effective way to enhance the mixing in a T-shaped microchannel. The mixing enhancement is realized by the swirling of two fluids in the cross section and is more prominent as the Reynolds number decreases. The twist angle was optimized to maximize the degree of mixing (DOM), which increases with the length of the outlet branch. The twist angle was also optimized in terms of the relative mixing cost (MC). The two optimum twisting angles are generally not coincident. The optimum twist angle shows a dependence on the length of the outlet branch but it is not affected much by the Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2019-12-26

Zhang L, Zhou J, Zhang B, et al (2019)

Numerical investigation on the solid particle erosion in elbow with water-hydrate-solid flow.

Science progress [Epub ahead of print].

Erosion in pipeline caused by solid particles, which may lead to premature failure of the pipe system, is regarded as one of the most important concerns in the field of oil and gas. Therefore, the Euler-Lagrange, erosion model, and discrete phase model are applied for the purpose of simulating the erosion of water-hydrate-solid flow in submarine hydrate transportation pipeline. In this article, the flow and erosion characteristics are well verified on the basis of experiments. Moreover, analysis is conducted to have a good understanding of the effects of hydrate volume, mean curvature radius/pipe diameter (R/D) rate, flow velocity, and particle diameter on elbow erosion. It is finally obtained that the hydrate volume directly affects the Reynolds number through viscosity and the trend of the Reynolds number is consistent with the trend of erosion rate. Taking into account different R/D rates, the same Stokes number reflects different dynamic transforms of the maximum erosion zone. However, the outmost wall (zone D) will be the final erosion zone when the value of the Stokes number increases to a certain degree. In addition, the erosion rate increases sharply along with the increase of flow velocity and particle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the erosion zone can be ignored in comparison with the particle diameter. Moreover, it is observed that flow velocity is deemed as the most sensitive factor on erosion rate among these factors employed in the orthogonal experiment.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Liu X, Fan D, Yu X, et al (2019)

Effects of Simulated Gravel on Hydraulic Characteristics of Overland Flow Under Varying Flow Discharges, Slope Gradients and Gravel Coverage Degrees.

Scientific reports, 9(1):19781 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-56223-2.

To quantify the hydraulic characteristics of overland flow on gravel-covered slopes, eight flow discharges (Q) (8.44-122 L/min), five slope gradients (J) (2°-10°) and four gravel coverage degrees (Cr) (0-30%) were examined via a laboratory flume. The results showed that (1) gravel changed flow regime. Gravel increased the Reynolds number (Re) by 2.94-33.03%. Re were less affected by J and positively correlated with Cr and Q. Gravel decreased the Froude number (Fr) by 6.83-77.31%. Fr was positively correlated with Q and J and negatively correlated with Cr. (2) Gravel delayed the flow velocity (u) and increased the flow depth (h) and flow resistance (f). Gravel reduced u by 1.20-58.95%. u was positively correlated with Q and J and negatively correlated with Cr. Gravel increased h by 0.12-2.41 times. h was positively correlated with Q and Cr and negatively correlated with J. Gravel increased f by 0.15-18.42 times. f were less affected by J, positively correlated with Cr and negatively correlated with Q. (3) The relationships between hydraulic parameters and Q, J and Cr identified good power functions. Hydraulic parameters were mainly affected by Cr. These results can guide the ecological construction of soil and water conservation.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-12-30

Panickacheril John J, Donzis DA, KR Sreenivasan (2019)

Solenoidal Scaling Laws for Compressible Mixing.

Physical review letters, 123(22):224501.

Mixing of passive scalars in compressible turbulence does not obey the same classical Reynolds number scaling as its incompressible counterpart. We first show from a large database of direct numerical simulations that even the solenoidal part of the velocity field fails to follow the classical incompressible scaling when the forcing includes a substantial dilatational component. Though the dilatational effects on the flow remain significant, our main results are that both the solenoidal energy spectrum and the passive scalar spectrum assume incompressible forms, and that the scalar gradient essentially aligns with the most compressive eigenvalue of the solenoidal part, provided that only the solenoidal components are consistently used for scaling. A slight refinement of this statement is also pointed out.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Nath R, M Krishnan (2019)

Optimization of double diffusive mixed convection in a BFS channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle using Taguchi method and utility concept.

Scientific reports, 9(1):19536.

This research work focuses on the implementation of Taguchi method and utility concept for optimization of flow, geometrical and thermo-physical parameters for mixed convective heat and mass transfer in a backward facing step (BFS) channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle doped in water-ethylene glycol mixture. Mass, momentum, energy and solutal conservation equations for the flow field are cast in velocity-vorticity form of Navier-Stokes equations, which are solved using Galerkin's weighted residual finite element method through isoparametric formulation. The following six parameters, expansion ratio of the BFS channel (H/h), Reynolds number (Re), buoyancy ratio (N), nanoparticle volume fraction (χ), shape of nanoparticles and thermal Grashof number (GrT) at three levels are considered as controlling parameters for optimization using Taguchi method. An L27 orthogonal array has been chosen to get the levels of the six parameters for the 27 trial runs. Simulation results were obtained for 27 trial runs from which three different sets of optimum levels of the control parameters were obtained for maximum Nu and Sh and minimum wall shear stress during double diffusive mixed convection in the channel. Then, in order to obtain a single set of optimum levels of the control parameters to achieve maximum heat and mass transfer and minimum wall shear stress concurrently, utility concept has been implemented. Taguchi results indicate that expansion ratio and volume fraction of nanoparticles are the significant contributing parameters to achieve maximum heat and mass transfer and minimum wall shear stress. Utility concept predicts the average Nusselt number less by 2% and Sherwood number less by 3% compared to the Taguchi method with equal weightage of 40% assumed for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers and 20% for wall shear stress.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Maklad O, Eliasy A, Chen KJ, et al (2019)

Simulation of Air Puff Tonometry Test Using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Deforming Mesh for Corneal Material Characterisation.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(1): pii:ijerph17010054.

: Purpose: To improve numerical simulation of the non-contact tonometry test by using arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian deforming mesh in the coupling between computational fluid dynamics model of an air jet and finite element model of the human eye.

METHODS: Computational fluid dynamics model simulated impingement of the air puff and employed Spallart-Allmaras model to capture turbulence of the air jet. The time span of the jet was 30 ms and maximum Reynolds number was Re=2.3×104, with jet orifice diameter 2.4 mm and impinging distance 11 mm. The model of the human eye was analysed using finite element method with regional hyperelastic material variation and corneal patient-specific topography starting from stress-free configuration. The cornea was free to deform as a response to the air puff using an adaptive deforming mesh at every time step of the solution. Aqueous and vitreous humours were simulated as a fluid cavity filled with incompressible fluid with a density of 1000 kg/m3.

RESULTS: Using the adaptive deforming mesh in numerical simulation of the air puff test improved the traditional understanding of how pressure distribution on cornea changes with time of the test. There was a mean decrease in maximum pressure (at corneal apex) of 6.29 ± 2.2% and a development of negative pressure on a peripheral corneal region 2-4 mm away from cornea centre.

CONCLUSIONS: The study presented an improvement of numerical simulation of the air puff test, which will lead to more accurate intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal material behaviour estimation. The parametric study showed that pressure of the air puff is different from one model to another, value-wise and distribution-wise, based on cornea biomechanical parameters.

RevDate: 2019-12-31

Sum Wu K, Nowak J, KS Breuer (2019)

Scaling of the performance of insect-inspired passive-pitching flapping wings.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 16(161):20190609.

Flapping flight using passive pitch regulation is a commonly used mode of thrust and lift generation in insects and has been widely emulated in flying vehicles because it allows for simple implementation of the complex kinematics associated with flapping wing systems. Although robotic flight employing passive pitching to regulate angle of attack has been previously demonstrated, there does not exist a comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness of this mode of aerodynamic force generation, nor a method to accurately predict its performance over a range of relevant scales. Here, we present such scaling laws, incorporating aerodynamic, inertial and structural elements of the flapping-wing system, validating the theoretical considerations using a mechanical model which is tested for a linear elastic hinge and near-sinusoidal stroke kinematics over a range of scales, hinge stiffnesses and flapping frequencies. We find that suitably defined dimensionless parameters, including the Reynolds number, Re, the Cauchy number, Ch, and a newly defined 'inertial-elastic' number, IE, can reliably predict the kinematic and aerodynamic performance of the system. Our results also reveal a consistent dependency of pitching kinematics on these dimensionless parameters, providing a connection between lift coefficient and kinematic features such as angle of attack and wing rotation.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Tan L, Ali J, Cheang UK, et al (2019)

µ-PIV Measurements of Flows Generated by Photolithography-Fabricated Achiral Microswimmers.

Micromachines, 10(12): pii:mi10120865.

Robotic micro/nanoswimmers can potentially be used as tools for medical applications, such as drug delivery and noninvasive surgery. Recently, achiral microswimmers have gained significant attention because of their simple structures, which enables high-throughput fabrication and size scalability. Here, microparticle image velocimetry (µ-PIV) was used to study the hydrodynamics of achiral microswimmers near a boundary. The structures of these microswimmers resemble the letter L and were fabricated using photolithography and thin-film deposition. Through µ-PIV measurements, the velocity flow fields of the microswimmers rotating at different frequencies were observed. The results herein yield an understanding of the hydrodynamics of the L-shaped microswimmers, which will be useful in applications such as fluidic manipulation.

RevDate: 2019-12-18

Ford MP, Lai HK, Samaee M, et al (2019)

Hydrodynamics of metachronal paddling: effects of varying Reynolds number and phase lag.

Royal Society open science, 6(10):191387.

Negatively buoyant freely swimming crustaceans such as krill must generate downward momentum in order to maintain their position in the water column. These animals use a drag-based propulsion strategy, where pairs of closely spaced swimming limbs are oscillated rhythmically from the tail to head. Each pair is oscillated with a phase delay relative to the neighbouring pair, resulting in a metachronal wave travelling in the direction of animal motion. It remains unclear how oscillations of limbs in the horizontal plane can generate vertical momentum. Using particle image velocimetry measurements on a robotic model, we observed that metachronal paddling with non-zero phase lag created geometries of adjacent paddles that promote the formation of counter-rotating vortices. The interaction of these vortices resulted in generating large-scale angled downward jets. Increasing phase lag resulted in more vertical orientation of the jet, and phase lags in the range used by Antarctic krill produced the most total momentum. Synchronous paddling produced lower total momentum when compared with metachronal paddling. Lowering Reynolds number by an order of magnitude below the range of adult krill (250-1000) showed diminished downward propagation of the jet and lower vertical momentum. Our findings show that metachronal paddling is capable of producing flows that can generate both lift (vertical) and thrust (horizontal) forces needed for fast forward swimming and hovering.

RevDate: 2019-12-18

Wang X, IC Christov (2019)

Theory of the flow-induced deformation of shallow compliant microchannels with thick walls.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 475(2231):20190513.

Long, shallow microchannels embedded in thick, soft materials are widely used in microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications. However, the bulging effect caused by fluid-structure interactions between the internal viscous flow and the soft walls has not been completely understood. Previous models either contain a fitting parameter or are specialized to channels with plate-like walls. This work is a theoretical study of the steady-state response of a compliant microchannel with a thick wall. Using lubrication theory for low-Reynolds-number flows and the theory for linearly elastic isotropic solids, we obtain perturbative solutions for the flow and deformation. Specifically, only the channel's top wall deformation is considered, and the ratio between its thickness t and width w is assumed to be (t/w)2≫1. We show that the deformation at each stream-wise cross section can be considered independently, and that the top wall can be regarded as a simply supported rectangle subject to uniform pressure at its bottom. The stress and displacement fields are found using Fourier series, based on which the channel shape and the hydrodynamic resistance are calculated, yielding a new flow rate-pressure drop relation without fitting parameters. Our results agree favourably with, and thus rationalize, previous experiments.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Raza W, KY Kim (2019)

Asymmetrical Split-and-Recombine Micromixer with Baffles.

Micromachines, 10(12): pii:mi10120844.

The present work proposes a planar micromixer design comprising hybrid mixing modules of split-and-recombine units and curved channels with radial baffles. The mixing performance was evaluated numerically by solving the continuity and momentum equations along with the advection-diffusion equation in a Reynolds number range of 0.1-80. The variance of the concentration of the mixed species was considered to quantify the mixing index. The micromixer showed far better mixing performance over whole Reynolds number range than an earlier split-and-recombine micromixer. The mixer achieved mixing indices greater than 90% at Re ≥ 20 and a mixing index of 99.8% at Re = 80. The response of the mixing quality to the change of three geometrical parameters was also studied. A mixing index over 80% was achieved within 63% of the full length at Re = 20.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Abay A, Recktenwald SM, John T, et al (2020)

Cross-sectional focusing of red blood cells in a constricted microfluidic channel.

Soft matter, 16(2):534-543.

Constrictions in blood vessels and microfluidic devices can dramatically change the spatial distribution of passing cells or particles and are commonly used in biomedical cell sorting applications. However, the three-dimensional nature of cell focusing in the channel cross-section remains poorly investigated. Here, we explore the cross-sectional distribution of living and rigid red blood cells passing a constricted microfluidic channel by tracking individual cells in multiple layers across the channel depth and across the channel width. While cells are homogeneously distributed in the channel cross-section pre-contraction, we observe a strong geometry-induced focusing towards the four channel faces post-contraction. The magnitude of this cross-sectional focusing effect increases with increasing Reynolds number for both living and rigid red blood cells. We discuss how this non-uniform cell distribution downstream of the contraction results in an apparent double-peaked velocity profile in particle image velocimetry analysis and show that trapping of red blood cells in the recirculation zones of the abrupt construction depends on cell deformability.

RevDate: 2019-12-17

Shah Z, Khan A, Khan W, et al (2019)

Micropolar gold blood nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer between permeable channels.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 186:105197 pii:S0169-2607(19)31672-4 [Epub ahead of print].

This article characterizes flow and heat transmission of blood that carries the micropolar nanofluid of gold in a permeable channel. The thermal radiations are also present in the channel while its walls are either moving or stationary. The base-fluid is considered as blood while micro polar nanofluid is taken as gold. By using similarity transformations along with dimensionless quantities the modeled equations of the problem are transmuted into a system of non-linear ODEs with a set of appropriate boundary conditions. The semi-analytical method, HAM is then applied to determine the solution of a set of resultant equations. The results obtained by HAM have also compared with numerical solutions. The influence of non-dimensional parameters like fractional parameter suction/injection β, Reynolds Number Re, Darcys Number Da, micropolar parameter K, Prandtl number Pr and Radiation parameter Rd etc., which provides physical interpretations of temperature, microrotation n and velocity fields are discussed in detail with the help of graphical representations. Nusselt number is calculated and presented through table. This study determined that the temperature of micropolar nanofluid augmented along with augmentation in the volume fraction. Radiation Rd augmented the heat transfer rate at the upper wall and reduce it at the lower wall. The suction/injection parameter 'β' reduces the heat transfer rate in case of β < 0 at the upper wall, where it is augmented at lower wall.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Pandey R, Kumar M, Majdoubi J, et al (2019)

A review study on blood in human coronary artery: Numerical approach.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 187:105243 pii:S0169-2607(19)31946-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of blood flow in human coronary artery is one of the emerging fields of Biomed- ical engineering. In present review paper, Finite Volume Method with governing equations and boundary conditions are briefly discussed for different coronary models. Many researchers have come up with astonishing results related to the various factors (blood viscosity, rate of blood flow, shear stress on the arterial wall, Reynolds number, etc.) affecting the hemodynamic of blood in the right/left coronary artery. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of all those work done by the researchers to justify their work related to factors which hampers proper functioning of heart and lead to Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Governing equations like Navier-stokes equations, continuity equations etc. are widely used and are solved using CFD solver to get a clearer view of coronary artery blockage. Different boundary conditions and blood properties published in the last ten years are summarized in the tabulated form. This table will help new researchers to work on this area.

RevDate: 2019-12-04

Poehnl R, Popescu MN, W Uspal (2019)

Axisymmetric spheroidal squirmers and self-diffusiophoretic particles.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal [Epub ahead of print].

We study, by means of an exact analytical solution, the motion of a spheroidal, axisymmetric squirmer in an unbounded fluid, as well as the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic flow associated to it. In contrast to the case of a spherical squirmer --- for which, e.g., the velocity of the squirmer and the magnitude of the stresslet associated with the flow induced by the squirmer are respectively determined by the amplitudes of the first two slip (``squirming'') modes --- for the spheroidal squirmer each squirming mode either contributes to the velocity, or contributes to the stresslet. The results are straightforwardly extended to the self-phoresis of axisymmetric, spheroidal, chemically active particles in the case when the phoretic slip approximation holds.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Rajappan A, GH McKinley (2019)

Epidermal biopolysaccharides from plant seeds enable biodegradable turbulent drag reduction.

Scientific reports, 9(1):18263.

The high cost of synthetic polymers has been a key impediment limiting the widespread adoption of polymer drag reduction techniques in large-scale engineering applications, such as marine drag reduction. To address consumable cost constraints, we investigate the use of high molar mass biopolysaccharides, present in the mucilaginous epidermis of plant seeds, as inexpensive drag reducers in large Reynolds number turbulent flows. Specifically, we study the aqueous mucilage extracted from flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum) and compare its drag reduction efficacy to that of poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO, a common synthetic polymer widely used as a drag reducing agent in aqueous flows. Macromolecular and rheological characterisation confirm the presence of high molar mass (≥2 MDa) polysaccharides in the extracted mucilage, with an acidic fraction comprising negatively charged chains. Frictional drag measurements, performed inside a bespoke Taylor-Couette apparatus, show that the as-extracted mucilage has comparable drag reduction performance under turbulent flow conditions as aqueous PEO solutions, while concurrently offering advantages in terms of raw material cost, availability, and bio-compatibility. Our results indicate that plant-sourced mucilage can potentially serve as a cost-effective and eco-friendly substitute for synthetic drag reducing polymers in large scale turbulent flow applications.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Ibrahim M, M Ijaz Khan (2019)

Mathematical modeling and analysis of SWCNT-Water and MWCNT-Water flow over a stretchable sheet.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 187:105222 pii:S0169-2607(19)31683-9 [Epub ahead of print].

In this article we focused on the mixed convection flow of SWCNT-Water and MWCNT-Water over a stretchable permeable sheet. The nanofluid occupied porous medium. Darcy's law is used to characterize porous medium. The impact of viscous dissipation is considered. Transformation procedure is adopted to transform the governing PDE's system into dimensionless form. In order to solve the dimensionless PDE's system we used numerical method known as Finite difference method. Effects of flow variables i.e porosity parameter, suction parameter, Grashof number and Reynolds number on velocity, skin friction, temperature and Nusselt number are described graphically. The obtained results shows that velocity is dominant in SWCNT-Water over MWCNT-Water. Temperature is dominant in MWCNT-Water over SWCNT-Water.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Turkyilmazoglu M (2019)

Single phase nanofluids in fluid mechanics and their hydrodynamic linear stability analysis.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 187:105171 pii:S0169-2607(19)31698-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The hydrodynamic stability of nanofluids of one phase is investigated in this paper based on linear stability theory. The overall thrust here is that the linear stability features of nanofluids can be estimated from their corresponding working fluid, at least in special circumstances.

METHODS: The approach uses the adjusting parameter to make assertions about stability. This is possible by certain correlations between the resulting eigenvalues.

RESULTS: It is shown that as the nanoparticles are added, the mean flow of nanofluids is slightly modified and the resulting eigen space of nano disturbances is built on the corresponding pure flow eigen space of perturbations. Several fluid dynamics problems are revisited to verify the usefulness of the obtained correlations.

CONCLUSION: The presented approach in this work serves us to understand the stabilizing/destabilizing effects of nanofluids as compared to the standard base fluids in terms of stability of viscous/inviscid and temporal/spatial senses. To illustrate, the critical Reynolds number in a traditional boundary layer flow is shown to be pushed to higher values with the dispersed nanoparticles in a working fluid, clearly implying the delay in transition from laminar to turbulent state.

RevDate: 2020-01-13
CmpDate: 2020-01-13

Chen J, He Y, Wang J, et al (2019)

Dynamics of nitrogen transformation and bacterial community with different aeration depths in malodorous river.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 35(12):196.

In this research, the dynamics of nitrogen transformation and bacterial community in malodorous river were investigated with different aeration depths. Computational flow dynamics (CFD) and Reynolds number (Re) were specially used to characterize the hydrodynamics condition under different aeration depths. The results indicated that aeration depth had vital impact on nitrogen transformation and bacterial community structure. It was found that a range of aeration depth (0.20-0.45 m above sediment-water interface) facilitated the removal of NH4+-N and TN with Re ranging between 6211 and 8930. Proteobacteria took over Firmicutes to become the predominant phylum (36-78%) under aeration, and the main subdivisions of γ-, β- and δ-Proteobacteria also varied greatly with different aeration depths. Interestingly, there was a marked shift of the inferentially identified dominant functional role within Proteobacteria from organic-matter degradation to nitrogen metabolism and then to sulfur metabolism as well as the coupling of nitrogen and sulfur with the increase of disturbance. The redundancy analysis (RDA) further confirmed the importance of aeration disturbance in shaping bacterial community. These findings help to gain improved understanding of endogenous N-behavior and aquatic microbial ecology, and underline the need for integrating the hydrodynamics factors with microbial community.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-12-02

Singh H, Bonnesoeur A, Besnard H, et al (2019)

A large thermal turbulent Taylor-Couette (THETACO) facility for investigation of turbulence induced by simultaneous action of rotation and radial temperature gradient.

The Review of scientific instruments, 90(11):115112.

A thermal turbulent Taylor-Couette facility has been designed to investigate turbulent flows generated by differential rotation and radial temperature gradient. It consists of a cylindrical annulus with a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer cylinder. The electric heating system is installed inside the inner cylinder, and the annulus is immersed in a large cylindrical container filled with cooling fluid. Temperature regulators independently control the temperature of the inner surface of the inner cylinder and that of the cooling fluid. The facility allows us to reach values of the Reynolds number (Re ∼ 5 × 105) and of the Rayleigh number (Ra ∼ 3 × 106) for water as the working fluid. The facility provides torque measurements, a full optical access at the side and from the bottom for velocity measurements using particle image velocimetry (2D, stereoscopic, and tomographic). Temperature measurements in the flow can be performed by thermochromic liquid crystals or laser induced fluorescence.

RevDate: 2019-12-01

Zhang X, Lam WA, MD Graham (2019)

Dynamics of deformable straight and curved prolate capsules in simple shear flow.

Physical review fluids, 4(4):.

This work investigates the motion of neutrally-buoyant, slightly deformable straight and curved prolate fluid-filled capsules in unbounded simple shear flow at zero Reynolds number using direct simulations. The curved capsules serve as a model for the typical crescent-shaped sickle red blood cells in sickle cell disease (SCD). The effects of deformability and curvature on the dynamics are revealed. We show that with low deformability, straight prolate spheroidal capsules exhibit tumbling in the shear plane as their unique asymptotically stable orbit. This result contrasts with that for rigid spheroids, where infinitely many neutrally stable Jeffery orbits exist. The dynamics of curved prolate capsules are more complicated due to a combined effect of deformability and curvature. At short times, depending on the initial orientation, slightly deformable curved prolate capsules exhibit either a Jeffery-like motion such as tumbling or kayaking, or a non-Jeffery-like behavior in which the director (end-to-end vector) of the capsule crosses the shear-gradient plane back and forth. At long times, however, a Jeffery-like quasiperiodic orbit is taken regardless of the initial orientation. We further show that the average of the long-time trajectory can be well approximated using the analytical solution for Jeffery orbits with an effective orbit constant Ceff and aspect ratio ℓeff. These parameters are useful for characterizing the dynamics of curved capsules as a function of given deformability and curvature. As the capsule becomes more deformable or curved, Ceff decreases, indicating a shift of the orbit towards log-rolling motion, while ℓeff increases weakly as the degree of curvature increases but shows negligible dependency on deformability. These features are not changed substantially as the viscosity ratio between the inner and outer fluids is changed from 1 to 5. As cell deformability, cell shape, and cell-cell interactions are all pathologically altered in blood disorders such as SCD, these results will have clear implications on improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of hematologic disease.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

Shan X (2019)

Central-moment-based Galilean-invariant multiple-relaxation-time collision model.

Physical review. E, 100(4-1):043308.

Aiming at systematically correcting the non-Galilean-invariant thermal diffusivity in the previous multiple-relaxation-time Boltzmann equation collision model [Shan and Chen, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 18, 635 (2007)IJMPEO0129-183110.1142/S0129183107010887], we show that by separately relaxing the central moments of the distribution function, Chapman-Enskog calculation leads to the correct hydrodynamic equations with mutually independent and Galilean invariant viscosity and thermal diffusivity, provided the velocity-space discretization preserves moments up to the fourth order. By transforming the central moments back to the absolute reference frame and evaluating using fixed discrete velocities, the efficient and accurate streaming-collision time-stepping algorithm is preserved. The lattice Boltzmann model is found to have excellent numerical stability in high-Reynolds-number simulations.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

Berera A, D Clark (2019)

Information production in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

Physical review. E, 100(4-1):041101.

We study the Reynolds number scaling of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and attractor dimension for three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence through the use of direct numerical simulation. To do so, we obtain Lyapunov spectra for a range of different Reynolds numbers by following the divergence of a large number of orthogonal fluid trajectories. We find that the attractor dimension grows with the Reynolds number as Re^{2.35} with this exponent being larger than predicted by either dimensional arguments or intermittency models. The distribution of Lyapunov exponents is found to be finite around λ≈0 contrary to a possible divergence suggested by Ruelle. The relevance of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Lyapunov spectra in comparing complex physical systems is discussed.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

Chitsaz M, M Fathali (2019)

Impact of an initial random magnetic field on the evolution of two-dimensional shearless mixing layers.

Physical review. E, 100(4-1):043106.

The impact of an initial random magnetic field on the temporal evolution of a two-dimensional incompressible turbulent shearless mixing layer is investigated using direct numerical simulation. Different intensities of the initial random magnetic field are imposed with uniform probability distribution on an identical flow field. The initial flow field condition is the turbulent shearless mixing layer with different kinetic energy ratio (E_{H}/E_{L}=6.7) and identical integral length scale. Simulations are carried out in a moderate magnetic Reynolds number, which causes a two-way interaction between the velocity and magnetic fields. In order to analyze the effect of the initial random magnetic field on the mixing characteristics, the intermittency inside the mixing layer and the mixing evolution parameters are investigated. It is found that with small initial magnetic field intensity, the intermittency in both large and small scales are larger than those values in hydrodynamic flow. However, increasing the intensity of the initial magnetic field reduces the intermittency in the mixing region to lower values compared to the hydrodynamic flow. The mixing layer growth rate and the mixing efficiency both show reduction by increasing the initial magnetic field intensity, which is attributed to the reduction of the averaged Reynolds number of both homogenous isotropic turbulent regions due to the suppressing effect of the Lorentz force on the velocity fields of these regions.

RevDate: 2020-01-11

Ćmiel AM, Strużyński A, Wyrębek M, et al (2020)

Response of freshwater mussel recruitment to hydrological changes in a eutrophic floodplain lake.

The Science of the total environment, 703:135467.

Although eutrophication of freshwaters is a natural process, the human impact often leads to inland waters becoming overloaded with nutrients, impoverishing many valuable and vanishing habitats, such as floodplain lakes. These changes need to be reversed if the occurrence of endangered aquatic species is to be restored. In this paper we analyse the impact of a change in the water regime of a naturally eutrophic floodplain lake, which harbours a large diversity of Unionidae (large freshwater mussels), a globally threatened taxonomic group that provides important ecosystem functions and services. We found that a slight increase in the discharge from this waterbody, following the construction of an additional outflow pipe, positively influenced recruitment in three of the five mussel species inhabiting the lake. We also found that, after the construction of this additional outflow, the niches of juveniles of Anodonta cygnea and Unio spp. changed, revealing differences in their hydrological requirements. Our results suggest that, as in lotic habitats, complex hydraulic parameters are highly significant to unionid mussels in lentic conditions.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Taheri RA, Goodarzi V, A Allahverdi (2019)

Mixing Performance of a Cost-effective Split-and-Recombine 3D Micromixer Fabricated by Xurographic Method.

Micromachines, 10(11):.

This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of a novel passive micromixer based on the lamination of fluid layers. Lamination-based mixers benefit from increasing the contact surface between two fluid phases by enhancing molecular diffusion to achieve a faster mixing. Novel three-dimensional split and recombine (SAR) structures are proposed to generate fluid laminations. Numerical simulations were conducted to model the mixer performance. Furthermore, experiments were conducted using dyes to observe fluid laminations and evaluate the proposed mixer's characteristics. Mixing quality was experimentally obtained by means of image-based mixing index (MI) measurement. The multi-layer device was fabricated utilizing the Xurography method, which is a simple and low-cost method to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. Mixing indexes of 96% and 90% were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 0.1 and 1, respectively. Moreover, the device had an MI value of 67% at a Reynolds number of 10 (flow rate of 116 µL/min for each inlet). The proposed micromixer, with its novel design and fabrication method, is expected to benefit a wide range of lab-on-a-chip applications, due to its high efficiency, low cost, high throughput and ease of fabrication.

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Shaikh MM, Massan SU, AI Wagan (2019)

A sixteen decimal places' accurate Darcy friction factor database using non-linear Colebrook's equation with a million nodes: A way forward to the soft computing techniques.

Data in brief, 27:104733 pii:104733.

The Colebrook's equation is considered as an empirical model to accurately compute the Darcy friction factor in pipes under fully-developed turbulent flow. Due to non-linearity and implicitness of the Colebrook's equation, one needs to use numerical methods to acquire reasonably good approximation to the true friction factor values. However, such idea is not preferred by practitioners as it demands use of computers - also more computational time and effort. To overcome this, explicit equations that can describe Darcy friction factor directly in terms of the Reynolds number and relative roughness are essential. Using Fixed point iteration method in the MATLAB software, we have developed a 16 decimal places' accurate friction factor database for the Darcy friction factor for a 1000 by 1000 mesh of Reynolds number and relative roughness values. The accurate dataset described in this work will serve to be basis for the construction of new and more reliable explicit equations using regression modeling, artificial intelligence techniques and other soft computing methods.

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Papageorgiou DT, S Tanveer (2019)

Analysis and computations of a non-local thin-film model for two-fluid shear driven flows.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 475(2230):20190367.

This paper is concerned with analysis and computations of a non-local thin-film model developed in Kalogirou & Papageorgiou (J. Fluid Mech.802, 5-36, 2016) for a perturbed two-layer Couette flow when the thickness of the more viscous fluid layer next to the stationary wall is small compared to the thickness of the less viscous fluid. Travelling wave solutions and their stability are determined numerically, and secondary bifurcation points are identified in the process. We also determine regions in parameter space where bistability is observed with two branches being linearly stable at the same time. The travelling wave solutions are mathematically justified through a quasi-solution analysis in a neighbourhood of an empirically constructed approximate solution. This relies in part on precise asymptotics of integrals of Airy functions for large wave numbers. The primary bifurcation about the trivial state is shown rigorously to be supercritical, and the dependence of bifurcation points, as a function of Reynolds number R and the primary wavelength 2πν-1/2 of the disturbance, is determined analytically.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )