Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2023 at 01:32 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "reynolds number" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-05-27

Che H, Xu Q, Xu G, et al (2023)

Numerical Study on Characteristics of Convection and Temperature Evolution in Microchannel of Thermal Flowmeter.

Micromachines, 14(5): pii:mi14050935.

During practical usage, thermal flowmeters have a limited range of applications. The present work investigates the factors influencing thermal flowmeter measurements and observes the effects of buoyancy convection and forced convection on the flow rate measurement sensitivity. The results show that the gravity level, inclination angle, channel height, mass flow rate, and heating power affect the flow rate measurements by influencing the flow pattern and the temperature distribution. Gravity determines the generation of convective cells, while the inclination angle affects the location of the convective cells. Channel height affects the flow pattern and temperature distribution. Higher sensitivity can be achieved with smaller mass flow rates or higher heating power. According to the combined influence of the aforementioned parameters, the present work investigates the flow transition based on the Reynolds number and the Grashof number. When the Reynolds number is below the critical value corresponding to the Grashof number, convective cells emerge and affect the accuracy of flowmeter measurements. The research on influencing factors and flow transition presented in this paper has potential implications for the design and manufacture of thermal flowmeters under different working conditions.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Li S, Mao L, Alizadeh A, et al (2023)

The application of non-uniform magnetic field for thermal enhancement of the nanofluid flow inside the U-turn pipe at solar collectors.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8471.

The improvement of heat transfer inside the solar heat exchangers is important for the development of solar energy in an urban area. In this study, the usage of a non-uniform magnetic field on the thermal efficiency of the nanofluid (Fe3O4) streaming inside the U-turn pipe of solar heat exchangers is examined. Computational fluid dynamic is applied to visualize the nanofluid flow inside the solar heat exchanger. The role of magnetic intensity and Reynolds number on thermal efficiency are fully investigated. The effect of single and triple sources of the magnetic field is also studied in our research. Obtained results indicate that the usage of the magnetic field results in the production of vortex in the base fluid and heat transfer improves inside the domain. Our finding indicates that the usage of the magnetic field with Mn = 25 K would improve the average heat transfer by about 21% along the U-turn pipe of solar heat exchangers.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Yeom J, Park J, JY Park (2023)

Fluid dynamic simulation for cellular damage due to lymphatic flow within the anatomical arrangement of the outer hair cells in the cochlea.

Computers in biology and medicine, 161:106986 pii:S0010-4825(23)00451-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Damage to the sensory hair cells in the cochlea is a major cause of hearing loss since human sensory hair cells do not regenerate naturally after damage. As these sensory hair cells are exposed to a vibrating lymphatic environment, they may be affected by physical flow. It is known that the outer hair cells (OHCs) are physically more damaged by sound than the inner hair cells (IHCs). In this study, the lymphatic flow is compared using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on the arrangement of the OHCs, and the effects of such flow on the OHCs is analyzed. In addition, flow visualization is used to validate the Stokes flow. The Stokes flow behavior is attributed to the low Reynolds number, and the same behavior is observed even when the flow direction is reversed. When the distance between the rows of the OHCs is large, each row is independent, but when this distance is short, the flow change in each row influences the other rows. The stimulation caused by flow changes on the OHCs is confirmed through surface pressure and shear stress. The OHCs located at the base with a short distance between the rows receive excess hydrodynamic stimulation, and the tip of the V-shaped pattern receives an excess mechanical force. This study attempts to understand the contributions of lymphatic flow to OHC damage by quantitatively suggesting stimulation of the OHCs and is expected to contribute to the development of OHC regeneration technologies in the future.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Tisdell CC (2023)

Improved perturbation solution for two-dimensional viscous flow between expanding or contracting permeable walls.

Journal of biomechanics, 155:111642 pii:S0021-9290(23)00211-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the continuing interest in the transport of biological fluid within contracting or expanding vessels, our knowledge is yet to be fully developed, even in the two-dimensional case. For example, explicit solutions and close approximations to these models remain unknown, and the physical problem has been restricted to the "slow" expansion or contraction of the walls. Thus, the purpose of this short communication is to partially address such challenges and gaps by generating explicit solutions and improving approximations to the flow problem without the "slowness" restriction being imposed. We show that when the Reynolds number is zero (i.e., the inviscid case), the corresponding homogeneous differential equation under consideration may be completely solved. We then illustrate how this exact solution may be leveraged to form more precise approximations to the flow via perturbation techniques when the Reynolds number is small. Our perturbation approach is only in one parameter (the Reynolds number) instead of the usual two parameters (the Reynolds number and wall dilation rate), and thus we make no restriction regarding the "slowness" of wall expansion or contraction for our general perturbation scheme. Our act of "shining new light through old windows" improves and extends the results of Majdalani, Zhou and Dawson and, moreover, our method has significant potential to be applied by researchers to form more precise one-parameter perturbation approximations to flow problems in contrast to the limitations of the traditional two-parameter perturbation approaches that have dominated the literature.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Zhao L, Wang Y, Z Qi (2023)

Investigation of periodic characteristics of perturbed flow over a slender body.

Heliyon, 9(5):e16194 pii:S2405-8440(23)03401-1.

The asymmetric flow over a slender body was particularly sensitive to the nose at a high angle of attack (AoA). Two patterns of separation occurred on the noses of the pointed-nosed slender body and blunt-nosed slender body as open- and close-type separation, respectively. The effects of the bluntness were investigated at high AoA (α = 50°) to clarify the evolution of the separated pattern from open-to close-type separation by the nose and by the periodic characteristics of perturbed flow. Wind tunnel experimental tests were conducted to investigate the periodic characteristics of asymmetric flow at a Reynolds number ReD = 1.54 × 10[5], based on incoming free-stream velocity (U∞) and the diameter (D) of the model. A particle was attached to the tip of the nose to induce the perturbed flow and attain a definite and predictable asymmetric flow in experimental tests. The pressure scanning and surface oil-flow visualization techniques were used to capture the pressure distributions and flow separations. The major findings were that axial flow increases with the increase of bluntness, resulting in open-type separation turning into close-type separation, and the perturbation moved from downstream to upstream of starting points of the separation line. The critical bluntness of separation pattern switching from open-type to close-type located between 1.5 and 3. Thus, the management of perturbation on asymmetric flow pattern switched from directly participating in separation to influencing separation through micro-flow. Therefore, the locations of perturbation and starting points of the separation line were closely related to asymmetric flow management by perturbation, then affecting the periodic characteristics of perturbed flow.

RevDate: 2023-05-18
CmpDate: 2023-05-18

Yoo H, Wissocq G, Jacob J, et al (2023)

Compressible lattice Boltzmann method with rotating overset grids.

Physical review. E, 107(4-2):045306.

The numerical instability of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) at high Mach or high Reynolds number flow is well identified, and it remains a major barrier to its application in more complex configurations such as moving geometries. This work combines the compressible lattice Boltzmann model with rotating overset grids (the so-called Chimera method, sliding mesh, or moving reference frame) for high Mach flows. This paper proposes to use the compressible hybrid recursive regularized collision model with fictitious forces (or inertial forces) in a noninertial rotating reference frame. Also, polynomial interpolations are investigated, which allow fixed inertial and rotating noninertial grids to communicate with each other. We suggest a way to effectively couple the LBM with the MUSCL-Hancock scheme in the rotating grid, which is needed to account for thermal effect of compressible flow. As a result, this approach is demonstrated to have an extended Mach stability limit for the rotating grid. It also demonstrates that this complex LBM scheme can maintain the second-order accuracy of the classic LBM by appropriately using numerical methods like polynomial interpolations and the MUSCL-Hancock scheme. Furthermore, the method shows a very good agreement on aerodynamic coefficients compared to experiments and the conventional finite-volume scheme. This work presents a thorough academic validation and error analysis of the LBM for simulating moving geometries in high Mach compressible flows.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Niven RK (2023)

Dimensionless Groups by Entropic Similarity: I - Diffusion, Chemical Reaction and Dispersion Processes.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 25(4): pii:e25040617.

Since the time of Buckingham in 1914, dimensional analysis and similarity arguments based on dimensionless groups have served as powerful tools for the analysis of systems in all branches of science and engineering. Dimensionless groups are generally classified into those arising from geometric similarity, based on ratios of length scales; kinematic similarity, based on ratios of velocities or accelerations; and dynamic similarity, based on ratios of forces. We propose an additional category of dimensionless groups based on entropic similarity, defined by ratios of (i) entropy production terms; (ii) entropy flow rates or fluxes; or (iii) information flow rates or fluxes. Since all processes involving work against friction, dissipation, diffusion, dispersion, mixing, separation, chemical reaction, gain of information or other irreversible changes are driven by (or must overcome) the second law of thermodynamics, it is appropriate to analyze them directly in terms of competing entropy-producing and transporting phenomena and the dominant entropic regime, rather than indirectly in terms of forces. In this study, entropic groups are derived for a wide variety of diffusion, chemical reaction and dispersion processes relevant to fluid mechanics, chemical engineering and environmental engineering. It is shown that many dimensionless groups traditionally derived by kinematic or dynamic similarity (including the Reynolds number) can also be recovered by entropic similarity-with a different entropic interpretation-while many new dimensionless groups can also be identified. The analyses significantly expand the scope of dimensional analysis and similarity arguments for the resolution of new and existing problems in science and engineering.

RevDate: 2023-05-15

Guo Q, Zhang J, Li D, et al (2023)

Effect of Wettability on the Collision Behavior of Acoustically Excited Droplets.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is a noncontact technique for micro-liquid handling (usually nanoliters or picoliters) that is not restricted by nozzles and enables high-throughput liquid dispensing without sacrificing precision. It is widely regarded as the most advanced solution for liquid handling in large-scale drug screening. Stable coalescence of the acoustically excited droplets on the target substrate is a fundamental requirement during the application of the ADE system. However, it is challenging to investigate the collision behavior of nanoliter droplets flying upward during the ADE. In particular, the dependence of the droplet's collision behavior on substrate wettability and droplet velocity has yet to be thoroughly analyzed. In this paper, the kinetic processes of binary droplet collisions were investigated experimentally for different wettability substrate surfaces. Four states occur as the droplet collision velocity increases: coalescence after minor deformation, complete rebound, coalescence during rebound, and direct coalescence. For the hydrophilic substrate, there are wider ranges of Weber number (We) and Reynolds number (Re) in the complete rebound state. And with the decrease of the substrate wettability, the critical Weber and Reynolds numbers for the coalescence during rebound and the direct coalescence decrease. It is further revealed that the hydrophilic substrate is susceptible to droplet rebound because the sessile droplet has a larger radius of curvature and the viscous energy dissipation is greater. Besides, the prediction model of the maximum spreading diameter was established by modifying the droplet morphology in the complete rebound state. It is found that, under the same Weber and Reynolds numbers, droplet collisions on the hydrophilic substrate achieve a smaller maximum spreading coefficient and greater viscous energy dissipation, so the hydrophilic substrate is prone to droplet bounce.

RevDate: 2023-05-01

Ishimoto K, Gaffney EA, DJ Smith (2023)

Squirmer hydrodynamics near a periodic surface topography.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 11:1123446.

The behaviour of microscopic swimmers has previously been explored near large-scale confining geometries and in the presence of very small-scale surface roughness. Here, we consider an intermediate case of how a simple microswimmer, the tangential spherical squirmer, behaves adjacent to singly and doubly periodic sinusoidal surface topographies that spatially oscillate with an amplitude that is an order of magnitude less than the swimmer size and wavelengths that are also within an order of magnitude of this scale. The nearest neighbour regularised Stokeslet method is used for numerical explorations after validating its accuracy for a spherical tangential squirmer that swims stably near a flat surface. The same squirmer is then introduced to different surface topographies. The key governing factor in the resulting swimming behaviour is the size of the squirmer relative to the surface topography wavelength. For instance, directional guidance is not observed when the squirmer is much larger, or much smaller, than the surface topography wavelength. In contrast, once the squirmer size is on the scale of the topography wavelength, limited guidance is possible, often with local capture in the topography troughs. However, complex dynamics can also emerge, especially when the initial configuration is not close to alignment along topography troughs or above topography crests. In contrast to sensitivity in alignment and topography wavelength, reductions in the amplitude of the surface topography or variations in the shape of the periodic surface topography do not have extensive impacts on the squirmer behaviour. Our findings more generally highlight that the numerical framework provides an essential basis to elucidate how swimmers may be guided by surface topography.

RevDate: 2023-04-28

Ambruş VE, Schlichting S, C Werthmann (2023)

Establishing the Range of Applicability of Hydrodynamics in High-Energy Collisions.

Physical review letters, 130(15):152301.

We simulate the space-time dynamics of high-energy collisions based on a microscopic kinetic description in the conformal relaxation time approximation, in order to determine the range of applicability of an effective description in relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. We find that hydrodynamics provides a quantitatively accurate description of collective flow when the average inverse Reynolds number Re^{-1} is sufficiently small and the early preequilibrium stage is properly accounted for. We further discuss the implications of our findings for the (in)applicability of hydrodynamics in proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and light nucleus collisions.

RevDate: 2023-04-28

Lin W, Li Z, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Numerical Study on the Distribution of Rodlike Particles in Laminar Flows of Power Law Fluids Past a Cylinder.

Polymers, 15(8): pii:polym15081956.

The contraction/expansion laminar flow containing rodlike particles in power-law fluid is studied numerically when the particles are in a dilute phase. The fluid velocity vector and streamline of flow are given at the finite Reynolds number (Re) region. The effects of Re, power index n and particle aspect ratio β on the spatial and orientation distributions of particles are analyzed. The results showed that for the shear-thickening fluid, particles are dispersed in the whole area in the contraction flow, while more particles are gathered near the two walls in the expansion flow. The spatial distribution of particles with small β is more regular. Β has a significant, n has a moderate, but Re has a small impact on the spatial distribution of particles in the contraction and expansion flow. In the case of large Re, most particles are oriented in the flow direction. The particles near the wall show obvious orientation along the flow direction. In shear-thickening fluid, when the flow changes from contraction to expansion, the orientation distribution of particles becomes more dispersed; while in shear-thinning fluid, the opposite is true. More particles orient to the flow direction in expansion flow than that in contraction flow. The particles with a large β tend to align with the flow direction more obviously. Re, n and β have great influence on the orientation distribution of particles in the contraction and expansion flow. Whether the particles initially located at the inlet can bypass the cylinder depends on the transverse position and initial orientation of the particles at the inlet. The number of particles with θ0 = 90° bypassing the cylinder is the largest, followed by θ0 = 45° and θ0 = 0°. The conclusions obtained in this paper have reference value for practical engineering applications.

RevDate: 2023-04-26

Pilloton C, Lugni C, Graziani G, et al (2023)

Wave dispersion in moderate channel turbulence.

Scientific reports, 13(1):6801.

We study channel turbulence by interpreting its vorticity as a random sea of ocean wave packet analogues. In particular, we investigate the ocean-like properties of vortical packets applying stochastic methods developed for oceanic fields. Taylor's hypothesis of frozen eddies does not hold when turbulence is not weak, and vortical packets change shape as they are advected by the mean flow, altering their own speed. This is the physical manifestation of a hidden wave dispersion of turbulence. Our analysis at the bulk Reynolds number Reb = 5600 suggests that turbulent fluctuations behave dispersively as gravity-capillary waves, with capillarity being dominant near the wall region.

RevDate: 2023-04-25

Prasad V, Sharma A, SS Kulkarni (2023)

Chaotic advection in a recirculating flow: Effect of a fluid multiple-flexible-solid interaction.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 33(4):.

This paper deals with chaotic advection due to a two-way interaction between flexible elliptical-solids and a laminar lid-driven cavity flow in two dimensions. The present Fluid multiple-flexible-Solid Interaction study involves various number N(= 1-120) of equal-sized neutrally buoyant elliptical-solids (aspect ratio β = 0.5) such that they result in the total volume fraction Φ = 10 % as in our recent study on single solid, done for non-dimensional shear modulus G ∗ = 0.2 and Reynolds number R e = 100. Results are presented first for flow-induced motion and deformation of the solids and later for chaotic advection of the fluid. After the initial transients, the fluid as well as solid motion (and deformation) attain periodicity for smaller N ≤ 10 while they attain aperiodic states for larger N > 10. Adaptive material tracking (AMT) and Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE)-based Lagrangian dynamical analysis revealed that the chaotic advection increases up to N = 6 and decreases at larger N(= 6-10) for the periodic state. Similar analysis for the transient state revealed an asymptotic increase in the chaotic advection with increasing N ≤ 120. These findings are demonstrated with the help of two types of chaos signatures: exponential growth of material blob's interface and Lagrangian coherent structures, revealed by the AMT and FTLE, respectively. Our work, which is relevant to several applications, presents a novel technique based on the motion of multiple deformable-solids for enhancement of chaotic advection.

RevDate: 2023-04-24

Yang C, Arcondoulis EJG, Yang Y, et al (2023)

Active control of airfoil turbulent boundary layer noise with trailing-edge blowing.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 153(4):2115.

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy are performed to study the effect of trailing-edge blowing on airfoil self-noise. Simulations were conducted using a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack and a chord-based Reynolds number of 4 × 10 5. The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic characteristics of the baseline airfoil were thoroughly verified by comparison with previous numerical and experimental data. The noise reduction effects of continuous and local blowing with different blowing ratios and blowing momentum coefficients were compared. A maximum noise reduction of 20 dB was achieved via trailing-edge blowing and the noise reduction mechanisms of the two blowing methods were discussed. The LES results show a pair of recirculation bubbles in the airfoil wake which are suppressed by trailing-edge blowing. As the blowing vortices convect into the wake, they stretch and stabilize the shear flows from airfoil surfaces. Instantaneous vorticity and root mean square velocity fluctuations are also weakened. There is a decrease in the spanwise coherence and an increase in the phase difference, which contribute to noise reduction. It is concluded that the suppression of turbulence fluctuations in the near wake is the main mechanism of noise reduction for airfoil trailing-edge blowing.

RevDate: 2023-04-19
CmpDate: 2023-04-19

Roggeveen JV, Stone HA, C Kurzthaler (2023)

Transport of a passive scalar in wide channels with surface topography: An asymptotic theory.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal, 35(27):.

We generalize classical dispersion theory for a passive scalar to derive an asymptotic long-time convection-diffusion equation for a solute suspended in a wide, structured channel and subject to a steady low-Reynolds-number shear flow. Our asymptotic theory relies on a domain perturbation approach for small roughness amplitudes of the channel and holds for general surface shapes expandable as a Fourier series. We determine an anisotropic dispersion tensor, which depends on the characteristic wavelengths and amplitude of the surface structure. For surfaces whose corrugations are tilted with respect to the applied flow direction, we find that dispersion along the principal direction (i.e. the principal eigenvector of the dispersion tensor) is at an angle to the main flow direction and becomes enhanced relative to classical Taylor dispersion. In contrast, dispersion perpendicular to it can decrease compared to the short-time diffusivity of the particles. Furthermore, for an arbitrary surface shape represented in terms of a Fourier decomposition, we find that each Fourier mode contributes at leading order a linearly-independent correction to the classical Taylor dispersion diffusion tensor.

RevDate: 2023-04-17

Nyatchouba Nsangue BT, Tang H, Liu W, et al (2023)

Turbulent flow interacting with flexible trawl net structure including simulation catch in flume tank.

Scientific reports, 13(1):6249.

The interaction between fluid and the midwater trawl with stocked catches is extremely complex, but essential to improve the understanding of the drag force acting on the trawl, the behavior of the fishing structure during a trawling process, and to predict its selectivity process. The present study assesses the turbulent characteristics inside and around the midwater trawls with catch and without catch linked to its fluttering motion. The analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic current velocity meter measurements performed in the multiple points inside and outside different parts of a 1/35 scaled midwater trawl model with the aim of access the main turbulent flow structure inside and around the gear. Time-averaged normalized flow velocity fields and turbulent flow parameters were analyzed from the measured flow data. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was conducted by watching the time-frequency Power spectrum content of instantaneous flow velocities fields, the fluttering trawl motions, turbulent kinetic energy, and momentum flux. Based on successive analyzes of mean flow characteristics and turbulent flow parameters, it has been demonstrated that the presence of catch inside the trawl net impacts the evolution of unsteady turbulent flow by creating large trawl fluttering motions that strongly affect the flow passage. The results showed that the time-averaged normalized streamwise and transverse flow velocities inside and around the trawl net with catch were 12.41% lower compared with that obtained inside and around the trawl without catch. The turbulent length scale and turbulent Reynolds number obtained in the different part of the trawl net with catch were about 33.05% greater than those obtained on the trawl net without catch, confirming that the unsteady turbulent flow developing inside and around the midwater trawl is influence by the catch and liner. It is observed that the motions of both the trawl without catch and the trawl with catch are mainly of a low-frequency activity and another component related to unsteady turbulent flow street. A complex fluid-structure interaction is then demonstrated where the fluttering motions of the trawl net affect the fluid flow inside and around trawl net, the fluid force, turbulent pattern, and simultaneously, the periodic unsteady turbulent flow influence the trawl motions.

RevDate: 2023-04-17

Ding Y, Liu Z, Wang X, et al (2023)

Validation of hemodynamic stress calculation in coronary computed tomography angiography versus intravascular ultrasound.

Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery, 13(4):2339-2351.

BACKGROUND: Development in computational fluid dynamics and 3D construction could facilitate the calculation of hemodynamic stresses in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). However, the agreement between CCTA derived stresses and intravascular ultrasound/intravascular coronary angiography (IVUS/ICA)-derived stresses remains undetermined. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate if CCTA can serve as alternative to IVUS/ICA for hemodynamic evaluation.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, 13 patients (14 arteries) with unstable angina who underwent both CCTA and IVUS/ICA at an interval of less than 7 days were consecutively included at the Chinese PLA General Hospital within the year of 2021. Slice-level minimal lumen area (MLA), percent area stenosis, velocity, pressure, Reynolds number, wall shear stress (WSS) and axial plaque stress (APS) were determined by both modalities. The agreement between CCTA and IVUS/ICA was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis.

RESULTS: CCTA overestimated the degree of area stenosis (50.22%±16.15% vs. 36.41%±19.37%, P=0.004) with the MLA showing no significant difference (5.81±2.24 vs. 6.72±2.04 mm[2], P=0.126). No statistical difference was observed in WSS (6.57±6.26 vs. 5.98±5.55 Pa, P=0.420) and APS (16.03±1,159.45 vs. -1.27±890.39 Pa, P=0.691) between CCTA and IVUS. Good correlation was found in velocity (ICC: 0.796, 95% CI: 0.752-0.833), Reynolds number (ICC: 0.810, 95% CI: 0.768-0.844) and WSS (ICC: 0.769, 95% CI: 0.718-0.810), while the ICC of APS was (ICC: 0.341, 95% CI: 0.197-0.458), indicating a relatively poor correlation.

CONCLUSIONS: CCTA can serve as a satisfactory alternative to the reference standard, IVUS/ICA in morphology simulation and hemodynamic stress calculation, especially in the calculation of WSS.

RevDate: 2023-04-17

Fan DL, Zhu FQ, Cammarata RC, et al (2011)

Electric Tweezers.

Nano today, 6(4):339-354.

Electric tweezers utilize DC and AC electric fields through voltages applied on patterned electrodes to manipulate nanoentities suspended in a liquid. Nanowires with a large aspect ratio are particularly suitable for use in electric tweezers for patterning, assembling, and manipulation. Despite operating in the regime of extremely small particle Reynolds number (of order 10[-5]), electric tweezers can manipulate nanowires with high precision to follow any prescribed trajectory, to rotate nanowires with controlled chirality, angular velocity and rotation angle, and to assemble nanowires to fabricate nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) devices such as nanomotors and nano-oscillators. Electric tweezers have also been used to transport in a highly controlled manner drug-carrying functionalized nanowires for cell-specific drug delivery.

RevDate: 2023-04-11

Guastoni L, Rabault J, Schlatter P, et al (2023)

Deep reinforcement learning for turbulent drag reduction in channel flows.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 46(4):27.

We introduce a reinforcement learning (RL) environment to design and benchmark control strategies aimed at reducing drag in turbulent fluid flows enclosed in a channel. The environment provides a framework for computationally efficient, parallelized, high-fidelity fluid simulations, ready to interface with established RL agent programming interfaces. This allows for both testing existing deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms against a challenging task, and advancing our knowledge of a complex, turbulent physical system that has been a major topic of research for over two centuries, and remains, even today, the subject of many unanswered questions. The control is applied in the form of blowing and suction at the wall, while the observable state is configurable, allowing to choose different variables such as velocity and pressure, in different locations of the domain. Given the complex nonlinear nature of turbulent flows, the control strategies proposed so far in the literature are physically grounded, but too simple. DRL, by contrast, enables leveraging the high-dimensional data that can be sampled from flow simulations to design advanced control strategies. In an effort to establish a benchmark for testing data-driven control strategies, we compare opposition control, a state-of-the-art turbulence-control strategy from the literature, and a commonly used DRL algorithm, deep deterministic policy gradient. Our results show that DRL leads to 43% and 30% drag reduction in a minimal and a larger channel (at a friction Reynolds number of 180), respectively, outperforming the classical opposition control by around 20 and 10 percentage points, respectively.

RevDate: 2023-04-10

Wang YH, Lin XY, Cheng Y, et al (2023)

Vibration for enhancement of electrochemical analysis of biomolecules in a droplet on the rough surface of a disposable working electrode.

Analytica chimica acta, 1256:341158.

Although electrochemical detection of microliters-level solutions is attractive for analysis of low-amount biological samples, its performance could be weakened by limited mass transfer due to low Reynolds number and laminar flow. Herein we designed a 3D-printed electroanalytical device to apply vibration for improvement of mass transfer during electrochemical detection. In our approach, the droplet-size sample solution containing Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, as a model) was directly applied on the effective surface of a disposable working electrode. We demonstrated that vibration could enhance electrochemical responses of IAA more on the rough surface than on the smooth surface of the working electrodes. After optimization, the sensitivity for electrochemical detection of a 20-μL droplet under vibration with the voltage of 7 V increased more than 100% compared with the static condition. The enhanced electrochemical responses brought by vibration could be achieved reproducibly, which could be ascribed to improved mass transfer. Our strategy could be practically applied for differentiation of IAA in different tissues of Marchantia polymorpha with enhanced responses. This study suggested that vibration might become a simple and effective method to improve mass transfer in analysis of microliter-volume solutions, which might be extended for more biochemical assays.

RevDate: 2023-04-10

Dyverfeldt P, Trenti C, Ziegler M, et al (2023)

Helical flow in tortuous aortas and its relationship to turbulence: A whole-aorta 4D flow MRI study.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 10:1124604.

BACKGROUND: Increased vascular tortuosity is a hallmark of ageing of the vascular system, including the aorta. However, the impact of tortuosity on aortic blood flow is unknown. We hypothesized that increased tortuosity would be associated with increased blood flow helicity and with decreased degree of blood flow turbulence as measured by the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE).

METHODS: 4D Flow MR images covering the entire aorta from the aortic valve to the iliac bifurcation were acquired in 23 normal volunteers aged 18-30 years ("Young") and 23 normal volunteers aged 66-76 years ("Old") without aortic disease. The aorta was segmented and divided into four regions: the ascending, descending, suprarenal abdominal and infrarenal abdominal aorta. Tortuosity, helicity, TKE, flow velocity, and Reynolds number were computed for the whole aorta and for each section.

RESULTS: Tortuosity and helicity were higher whereas TKE, velocity, and Reynolds number were lower in Old than in Young, for all aortic regions (p < 0.05) except for helicity in the descending aorta. Tortuosity correlated positively with helicity and negatively with TKE for all aortic regions (Spearman rho=±0.45-±0.72, p < =0.002) except for TKE in the ascending aorta. Further, helicity correlated with TKE in the descending, suprarenal abdominal and infrarenal abdominal aorta (Spearman rho=-0.56--0.77).

CONCLUSION: Tortuosity increases with age and blood flow in tortuous aortas is more helical. Increasing helicity, in turn, is associated with decreasing TKE.

RevDate: 2023-04-10

Meng M, Q Yang (2023)

Investigation of the Microscopic Process of the Media Coalescence Treatment of Water-in-Oil Emulsion.

ACS omega, 8(13):11908-11915.

Medium coalescence technology is a research hotspot for the separation of oil-in-water emulsions. However, the coalescence mechanism is still unclear, making it challenging to effectively improve the separation performance. Herein, the microscopic mechanism of medium coalescence was revealed. We found that the effective collision positions under the action of the flow field include the exposed granule surface, adherent droplet surface, and three-phase contact line. Furthermore, a numerical model of the microscopic process of water-in-oil emulsion permeation through a granular bed was established. The effects of different parameters (including the number of medium layers, Reynolds number, and inlet concentration) on the microscopic process of capturing dispersed-phase droplets in the bed and the pressure drop in the coalescence area were studied. The numerical results show that the droplets form the bridging structure between the granules. On the one hand, the bridging structure promotes the capture of the droplets by the bed; on the other hand, it causes pressure-drop fluctuations in the coalescence area and asymmetric distribution of the velocity field.

RevDate: 2023-04-07

Abdelhafez MA, Abd-Alla AM, Abo-Dahab SM, et al (2023)

Influence of an inclined magnetic field and heat and mass transfer on the peristaltic flow of blood in an asymmetric channel.

Scientific reports, 13(1):5749.

This article presents a theoretical study on heat and mass transfer analysis of the peristaltic flow of blood conveying through an asymmetric channel in the presence of inclined to the magnetic field. The effects of ratio of relaxation to retardation times, non-uniform parameter, the non-dimensional amplitude, Hartman number and phase difference have been taken into account. The governing coupled non-linear partial differential equations representing the flow model are transmuted into linear ones by assuming that the wave is very long with a small Reynolds number. The converted mathematical formulations are solved analytically via the Mathematica software. Analytical expressions for the dimensionless velocity profiles of fluid, temperature, concentration, pressure gradient, increase in pressure, heat transfer coefficient and shear stress of the blood are derived. The velocity, temperature, concentration, pressure gradient, increase in pressure, heat transfer coefficient and shear stress were calculated numerically for different values of the parameters, which were represented graphically and find their physical meaning.

RevDate: 2023-04-07

Nishu IZ, MF Samad (2023)

Modeling and simulation of a split and recombination-based passive micromixer with vortex-generating mixing units.

Heliyon, 9(4):e14745.

As a state-of-the-art technology, micromixers are being used in various chemical and biological processes, including polymerization, extraction, crystallization, organic synthesis, biological screening, drug development, drug delivery, etc. The ability of a micromixer to perform efficient mixing while consuming little power is one of its basic needs. In this paper, a passive micromixer having vortex-generating mixing units is proposed which shows effective mixing with a small pressure drop. The micromixer works on the split and recombination (SAR) flow principle. In this study, four micromixers are designed with different arrangements of mixing units, and the effect of the placement of connecting channels is evaluated in terms of mixing index, pressure drop, and mixing performance. The channel width of 200 μm, height of 300 μm, and size of mixing units are maintained constant for all the micromixers throughout the evaluation process. The numerical simulation is performed for the Reynolds number (Re) range of 0.1-100 using Comsol Multiphysics software. By categorizing the flow patterns into three regimes based on the range of Re, the fluid flow throughout the length of the micromixer is visualized. The micromixer with dislocated connecting channels provides a satisfactory result with the mixing index of 0.96 and 0.94, and the pressure drop of 2.5 Pa and 7.8 kPa at Re = 0.1 and Re = 100 respectively. It also outperformed the other models in terms of the mixing performance. The proposed micromixer might very well be used in microfluidic devices for a variety of analytical procedures due to its straightforward construction and outstanding performance.

RevDate: 2023-04-05

Van Impe M, Caboor L, Deleeuw V, et al (2023)

Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of the Aortic Hemodynamics in Adult Zebrafish: a Pilot Study based on Synchrotron X-Ray Tomography.

IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The zebrafish is increasingly used as a small animal model for cardiovascular disease, including vascular disorders. Nevertheless, a comprehensive biomechanical understanding of the zebrafish cardiovascular circulation is still lacking and possibilities for phenotyping the zebrafish heart and vasculature at adult - no longer optically transparent - stages are limited. To improve these aspects, we developed imaging-based 3D models of the cardiovascular system of wild-type adult zebrafish.

METHODS: In vivo high-frequency echocardiography and ex vivo synchrotron x-ray tomography were combined to build fluid-structure interaction finite element models of the fluid dynamics and biomechanics inside the ventral aorta.

RESULTS: We successfully generated a reference model of the circulation in adult zebrafish. The dorsal side of the most proximal branching region was found as the location of highest first principal wall stress and was also a location of low wall shear stress. Reynolds number and oscillatory shear were very low compared to mice and humans.

SIGNIFICANCE: The presented wild-type results provide a first extensive biomechanical reference for adult zebrafish. This framework can be used for advanced cardiovascular phenotyping of adult genetically engineered zebrafish models of cardiovascular disease, showing disruptions of the normal mechano-biology and homeostasis. By providing reference values for key biomechanical stimuli (including wall shear stress and first principal stress) in wild-type animals, and a pipeline for image-based animal-specific computational biomechanical models, this study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the role of altered biomechanics and hemodynamics in heritable cardiovascular pathologies.

RevDate: 2023-04-03

Lee S, Bui-Vinh D, Baek M, et al (2023)

Modeling pressure drop values across ultra-thin nanofiber filters with various ranges of filtration parameters under an aerodynamic slip effect.

Scientific reports, 13(1):5449.

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of fibrous filters with 56 combinations of different fiber sizes, packing densities, face velocities, and thicknesses were conducted for developing models that predict pressure drops across nanofiber filters. The accuracy of the simulation method was confirmed by comparing the numerical pressure drops to the experimental data obtained for polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber filters. In the simulations, an aerodynamic slip effect around the surface of the small nanofibers was considered. The results showed that, unlike in the case of conventional filtration theory, pressure drops across the thin layers of electrospun nanofiber filters are not proportional to the thickness. This might be a critical factor for obtaining precise pressure drops across the electrospun nanofiber filters with extremely thin layers. Finally, we derived the product of drag coefficient and Reynolds number as a function of packing density, Knudsen number, and ratio of thickness to fiber diameter to get the correlation equation for pressure drop prediction. The obtained equation predicted the pressure drops across the nanofiber filters with the maximum relative difference of less than 15%.

RevDate: 2023-04-03

Connor AA, DR Webster (2023)

Hydrodynamics of the fast-start caridoid escape response in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.

Scientific reports, 13(1):5376.

Krill are shrimp-like crustaceans with a high degree of mobility and variety of documented swimming behaviors. The caridoid escape response, a fast-start mechanism unique to crustaceans, occurs when the animal performs a series of rapid abdominal flexions and tail flipping that results in powerful backward strokes. The current results quantify the animal kinematics and three-dimensional flow field around a free-swimming Euphausia superba as it performs the caridoid escape maneuver. The specimen performs a single abdominal flexion-tail flip combination that leads to an acceleration over a 42 ms interval allowing it to reach a maximum speed of 57.0 cm/s (17.3 body lengths/s). The krill's tail flipping during the abdominal closure is a significant contributor to the thrust generation during the maneuver. The krill sheds a complex chain of vortex rings in its wake due to the viscous flow effects while the organism accelerates. The vortex ring structure reveals a strong suction flow in the wake, which suggests that the pressure distribution and form drag play a role in the force balance for this maneuver. Antarctic krill typically swim in a low to intermediate Reynolds number (Re) regime where viscous forces are significant, but as shown by this analysis, its high maneuverability allows it to quickly change its body angle and swimming speed.

RevDate: 2023-04-02

Ozawa K, Nakamura H, Shimamura K, et al (2023)

Capillary-driven horseshoe vortex forming around a micro-pillar.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 642:227-234 pii:S0021-9797(23)00398-3 [Epub ahead of print].

HYPOTHESIS: Horseshoe vortices are known to emerge around large-scale obstacles, such as bridge pillars, due to an inertia-driven adverse pressure gradient forming on the upstream-side of the obstacle. We contend that a similar flow structure can arise in thin-film Stokes flow around micro-obstacles, such as used in textured surfaces to improve wettability. This could be exploited to enhance mixing in microfluidic devices, typically limited to creeping-flow regimes.

EXPERIMENTS: Numerical simulations based on the Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to elucidate the flow structure associated with the wetting dynamics of a liquid film spreading around a 50 μm diameter micro-pillar. The employed multiphase solver, which is based on the volume of fluid method, accurately reproduces the wetting dynamics observed in current and previous (Mu et al., Langmuir, 2019) experiments.

FINDINGS: The flow structure within the liquid meniscus forming at the foot of the micro-pillar evinces a horseshoe vortex wrapping around the obstacle, notwithstanding that the Reynolds number in our system is extremely low. Here, the adverse pressure gradient driving flow reversal near the bounding wall is caused by capillarity instead of inertia. The horseshoe vortex is entangled with other vortical structures, leading to an intricate flow system with high-potential mixing capabilities.

RevDate: 2023-03-30

Monti A, Olivieri S, ME Rosti (2023)

Collective dynamics of dense hairy surfaces in turbulent flow.

Scientific reports, 13(1):5184.

Flexible filamentous beds interacting with a turbulent flow represent a fundamental setting for many environmental phenomena, e.g., aquatic canopies in marine current. Exploiting direct numerical simulations at high Reynolds number where the canopy stems are modelled individually, we provide evidence on the essential features of the honami/monami collective motion experienced by hairy surfaces over a range of different flexibilities, i.e., Cauchy number. Our findings clearly confirm that the collective motion is essentially driven by fluid flow turbulence, with the canopy having in this respect a fully-passive behavior. Instead, some features pertaining to the structural response turn out to manifest in the motion of the individual canopy elements when focusing, in particular, on the spanwise oscillation and/or on sufficiently small Cauchy numbers.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Lei Y, Wang J, Li Y, et al (2023)

In-Hover Aerodynamic Analysis of a Small Rotor with a Thin Circular-Arc Airfoil and a Convex Structure at Low Reynolds Number.

Micromachines, 14(3): pii:mi14030540.

This study focused on the in-hover aerodynamics of a small rotor with a thin circular-arc airfoil and a convex structure at a low Reynolds number. The method combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the blade element momentum theory (BEMT). The former was used for studying the two-dimensional parametric aerodynamics of the airfoil at a low Reynolds number and the latter was used for the prediction of the rotor's hover performance. A novel thin circular-arc airfoil with a convex structure with a high aerodynamic performance, high structural strength, light weight and easy manufacturing process is presented in this paper. A convex curve on the upper surface was adopted to increase the thickness of the airfoil at partial chord, and a stiffener in the airfoil was installed to improve the structural strength of rotor span-wise. The aerodynamic performance of the airfoil was numerically simulated by the two-dimensional steady and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The in-hover performance of the rotor for small-scale vehicles was predicted by an improved version of the blade element momentum theory (BEMT). Finally, a carbon-fiber rotor with the presented airfoil was manufactured that had a diameter of 40 cm and a pitch of 6.2 inches. The analysis results were verified by experiments. It was shown that the maximum calculation errors were below 6%. The improved BEMT can be used in the analysis of in-hover micro-rotor aerodynamics at low Reynolds numbers.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Park JE, Kang TG, H Moon (2023)

The Effect of the Rotating Disk Geometry on the Flow and Flux Enhancement in a Dynamic Filtration System.

Membranes, 13(3): pii:membranes13030291.

A numerical study was conducted to investigate the effect of rotating patterned disks on the flow and permeate flux in a dynamic filtration (DF) system. The DF system consists of a rotating patterned disk and a stationary housing with a circular flat membrane. The feed flow is driven by the rotating disk with the angular velocity ranging from 200 to 1000 rpm and the applied pressure difference between inlet and outlet ports. Wheel-shaped patterns are engraved on the disk surfaces to add perturbation to the flow field and improve the permeate flux in the filtration system. Five disks with varying numbers of patterns were used in numerical simulations to examine the effects of the number of patterns and the angular velocity of the disk on the flow and permeate flux in the DF system. The flow characteristics are studied using the velocity profiles, the cross-sectional velocity vectors, the vortex structures, and the shear stress distribution. The wheel-shaped patterns shift the central core layer in the circumferential velocity profile towards the membrane, leading to higher shear stresses at the membrane and higher flux compared to a plain disk. When the number of patterns on the disk exceeded eight at a fixed Reynolds number, there were significant increases in wall shear stress and permeate flux compared to a plain disk filtration system with no pattern.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Sakib MN, Shuvo MS, Rahman R, et al (2023)

Particle deposition and fluid flow characteristics in turbulent corrugated pipe flow using Eulerian-Lagrangian approach.

Heliyon, 9(3):e14603.

A numerical simulation of aerosol particle deposition in a horizontal circular pipe with a corrugated wall under turbulent flow has been carried out in this research. This paper uses the RNG k-ε turbulence model with Enhanced Wall Treatment to simulate fluid flow. Furthermore, the Lagrangian particle tracking model simulates particle deposition in the corrugated pipe. Air-particle interaction is influenced by Stokes number, surface roughness, flow velocity, particle diameter, and pipe diameter. For the parametric simulation, particle diameter varies from 1 to 30 μm, whereas the Reynolds number ranges from 5000 to 10,000. The effect of corrugation height and pipe diameter on deposition efficiency is also investigated. This study shows that corrugation height significantly increases particle deposition compared to the smooth wall pipe. As the pipe diameter decreases, keeping the corrugation ratio constant, deposition efficiency also increases. Moreover, high flow velocity enhances deposition efficiency for particle diameters lower than 5 μm.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Memon AA, Memon MA, A Fenta (2023)

A laminar forced convection via transport of water-copper-aluminum hybrid nanofluid through heated deep and shallow cavity with Corcione model.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4915.

The article explores how fluid flows and heat transfers in both deep and shallow cavities when using a nanofluid made of water, copper, and aluminum oxide. The study applies the Corcione model to hybrid nanofluids, which considers viscosity, conductivity, and the size of the nanoparticle, temperature, and Reynolds number. The cavity is connected to a rectangular channel, with the cavity's length being half the total length of the enclosure, and the aspect ratio (cavity height divided by height of the channel) is tested from 1 to 3. The study uses the Navier-Stokes equation and energy equation in two dimensions, along with finite element-based software, COMSOL 5.6, to simulate the combination of fluid flow and heat transmission. The results show a circular distribution of temperature in the cavity, and the average temperature drops as the volume fraction of copper upsurges. However, both the Reynolds number and volume fraction of copper improve the average Nusselt number, which shows how well the fluid transfers heat, along the cavity's middle line. The percentage change in the average Nusselt number decreases as the aspect ratio increases, indicating improved conduction.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Xiong J, Zhang J, Zhong Y, et al (2023)

Magnetically-actuated hydrogel-based achiral planar microswimmers for SERS detection: In situ coprecipitation for continuous loading of iron oxide nanoparticles.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1086106.

Ultraviolet lithography is a very promising technology used for the batch fabrication of biomedical microswimmers. However, creating microswimmers that can swim at low Reynolds number using biocompatible materials while retaining strong magnetic properties and excellent biomedical functionality is a great challenge. Most of the previously reported biomedical microswimmers possess either strong magnetic properties by using non-biocompatible nickel coating or good biocompatibility by using iron oxide particle-embedded hydrogel with weak magnetism, but not both. Alternatively, iron oxide nanoparticles can be coated on the surface of microswimmers to improve magnetic properties; however, this method limited the usability of the microswimmers' surfaces. To address these shortcomings, this work utilized an in situ synthesis technique to generate high magnetic content inside hydrogel-based achiral planar microswimmers while leaving their surfaces free to be functionalized for SERS detection. The hydrogel matrices of the magnetically actuated hydrogel-based microswimmers were first prepared by ultraviolet lithography. Then, the high concentration of iron oxide was achieved through multiple continuous in situ coprecipitation cycles. Finally, the SERS detection capability of magnetically actuated hydrogel-based microswimmers was enabled by uniformly growing silver nanoparticles on the surface of the microswimmers. In the motion control tests, the microswimmers showed a high swimming efficiency, high step-out frequency, and consistent synchronized motion. Furthermore, the magnetically actuated hydrogel-based microswimmers were able to improve the detection efficiency of analytes under magnetic guidance.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Liu D, Chen S, X Luo (2023)

Influence factors of channel geometry for separation of circulating tumor cells by four-ring inertial focusing microchannel.

Cell biochemistry and function [Epub ahead of print].

Inertial microfluidics is a high-throughput and high-efficiency cell separation approach to which attention has been progressively paid in recent years. However, research on the influencing factors that compromise the efficiency of cell separation is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cell separation efficiency by changing the influencing factors. A four-ring inertial focusing spiral microchannel was designed to separate two kinds of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. Human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and human epithelial cervical cancer (HeLa) cells enter the four-ring inertial focusing spiral microchannel together with blood cells, and cancer cells and blood cells were separated from each other at the outlet of the channel by inertial force. The cell separation efficiency at the inlet flow rate in the Reynolds number range of 40-52 was studied by changing the influencing factors such as the cross-sectional shape of the microchannel, the average thickness of the cross-section, and the trapezoidal inclination angle. The results showed that the reduction of the channel thickness and the increase of a certain trapezoidal inclination enhanced the cell separation efficiency to a certain extent, the study showed that when the channel inclination was 6 ° and the average channel thickness was 160 μm. The two kinds of CTC cells could be completely separated from the blood and the efficiency could reached 100%.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Kitzinger E, Leclercq T, Marquet O, et al (2023)

Attachment-line, crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities on swept ONERA-D and Joukowski airfoils.

Journal of fluid mechanics, 957: pii:jfm.2023.38.

Linear stability analyses are performed to investigate the boundary layer instabilities developing in an incompressible flow around the whole leading-edge of swept ONERA-D and Joukowski airfoils of infinite span. The stability analyses conducted in our study are global in the chordwise direction and local in the spanwise direction. A neutral curve is drawn at a given leading-edge Reynolds number ReR and several overlapping regions, called "lobes", are identified on a physical basis. A detailed study of the marginal modes reveals the presence of attachment-line and crossflow instabilities, as well as modes whose features do not fall within the standards of a specific type. Connected crossflow/Tollmien-Schlichting modes, that show a dominant spatial structure reminiscent of Tollmien-Schlichting waves but whose destabilization is linked to a crossflow mechanism, have been identified. The comparison of several neutral curves at different ReR values reveals the greater stabilizing effect of the increase of ReR on the crossflow instability compared to the attachment-line instability. The influence of the airfoil shape is also studied by comparing the neutral curves of the ONERA-D with the neutral curves of the Joukowski airfoil. These curves reveal similar characteristics with the presence of distinct lobes and their comparison at constant sweep angle shows that, under the conditions studied, the ONERA-D airfoil is more stable than the Joukowski airfoil, even for crossflow instabilities. The absolutely or convectively unstable nature of the flow in the spanwise direction is also tackled and our results suggest that the flow is only convectively unstable.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Rehman S, Hashim , Hassine SBH, et al (2023)

Investigation of Entropy Production with Thermal Analysis under Soret and Dufour Effects in MHD Flow between Convergent and Divergent Channels.

ACS omega, 8(10):9121-9136.

Hydromagnetic flow and heat transport have sustainable importance in conventional system design along with high-performance thermal equipment and geothermal energy structures. The current computational study investigates the energy transport and entropy production due to the pressure-driven flow of non-Newtonian fluid filled inside the wedge-shaped channel. The nonlinear radiation flux and uniform magnetic field are incorporated into the flow analysis. To be more precise, non-Newtonian fluid initiates from an inlet with the bound of the parabolic profile and leaves at outlet of a convergent/divergent channel. We assume that the channel flow is adiabatic and influenced by the wall friction. The leading flow equations are modeled via the Carreau fluid model using fundamental conservation laws. The thermodynamical aspect of the system is visualized using a two-phase model and analyses of the entropy equation due to fluid friction, ohmic heating, and diffusion of heat and mass fluxes. The modeled system of equations is normalized using a dimensionless variable mechanism. The system was elevated for the significant variation of controlling parameters. The outcomes obtained from the computational investigation are validated with the theoretical results that are available in the literature. An increasing semivertex angle and Reynolds number increase the converging channel flow. In the core flow zone, an increase in the divergent semiangle causes the flow to decelerate, while near and at the channel wall it causes a slight acceleration. Outcomes designate that the main contribution to the irreversibility is due to ohmic loss, frictional loss, and heat loss. The thermal performance and entropy production is dominant for a diverging flow. The outcomes of this research will assist in comprehending the process of entropy minimization in conjunction with the flow of nanomaterials in a nonuniform channel, which is essential in engineering processes such as the creation of micro machines, supersonic Jets, nozzles, and clean energy.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Fan Y, O Cadot (2023)

Reynolds number effect on the bistable dynamic of a blunt-base bluff body.

Physical review. E, 107(2-2):025103.

A three-dimensional blunt-base bluff body in a uniform flow is subjected to long-time stochastic dynamics of switching between two opposite wake states. This dynamic is investigated experimentally within the Reynolds number range Re ≃10^{4}-10^{5}. Long-time statistics coupled to a sensitivity analysis to the body attitude (defined as the pitch angle of the body with respect to the incoming flow) show that the wake switching rate decreases as Re increases. Equipping the body with passive roughness elements (turbulators) modifies the boundary layers before separation, seen as the inlet condition for the wake dynamic. Depending on their location and Re, the viscous sublayer length scale and the turbulent layer thickness can be modified independently. This sensitivity analysis to the inlet condition shows that a decrease of the viscous sublayer length scale at a given turbulent layer thickness leads to a decrease in the switching rate, whereas the modification of the turbulent layer thickness has almost no effect on the switching rate.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Ginzburg I, Silva G, Marson F, et al (2023)

Unified directional parabolic-accurate lattice Boltzmann boundary schemes for grid-rotated narrow gaps and curved walls in creeping and inertial fluid flows.

Physical review. E, 107(2-2):025303.

The goal of this work is to advance the characteristics of existing lattice Boltzmann Dirichlet velocity boundary schemes in terms of the accuracy, locality, stability, and mass conservation for arbitrarily grid-inclined straight walls, curved surfaces, and narrow fluid gaps, for both creeping and inertial flow regimes. We reach this objective with two infinite-member boundary classes: (1) the single-node "Linear Plus" (LI^{+}) and (2) the two-node "Extended Multireflection" (EMR). The LI^{+} unifies all directional rules relying on the linear combinations of up to three pre- or postcollision populations, including their "ghost-node" interpolations and adjustable nonequilibrium approximations. On this basis, we propose three groups of LI^{+} nonequilibrium local corrections: (1) the LI_{1}^{+} is parametrized, meaning that its steady-state solution is physically consistent: the momentum accuracy is viscosity-independent in Stokes flow, and it is fixed by the Reynolds number (Re) in inertial flow; (2) the LI_{3}^{+} is parametrized, exact for arbitrary grid-rotated Poiseuille force-driven Stokes flow and thus most accurate in porous flow; and (3) the LI_{4}^{+} is parametrized, exact for pressure and inertial term gradients, and hence advantageous in very narrow porous gaps and at higher Reynolds range. The directional, two-relaxation-time collision operator plays a crucial role for all these features, but also for efficiency and robustness of the boundary schemes due to a proposed nonequilibrium linear stability criterion which reliably delineates their suitable coefficients and relaxation space. Our methodology allows one to improve any directional rule for Stokes or Navier-Stokes accuracy, but their parametrization is not guaranteed. In this context, the parametrized two-node EMR class enlarges the single-node schemes to match exactness in a grid-rotated linear Couette flow modeled with an equilibrium distribution designed for the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE). However, exactness of a grid-rotated Poiseuille NSE flow requires us to perform (1) the modification of the standard NSE term for exact bulk solvability and (2) the EMR extension towards the third neighbor node. A unique relaxation and equilibrium exact configuration for grid-rotated Poiseuille NSE flow allows us to classify the Galilean invariance characteristics of the boundary schemes without any bulk interference; in turn, its truncated solution suggests how, when increasing the Reynolds number, to avoid a deterioration of the mass-leakage rate and momentum accuracy due to a specific Reynolds scaling of the kinetic relaxation collision rate. The optimal schemes and strategies for creeping and inertial regimes are then singled out through a series of numerical tests, such as grid-rotated channels and rotated Couette flow with wall-normal injection, cylindrical porous array, and Couette flow between concentric cylinders, also comparing them against circular-shape fitted FEM solutions.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Hu T, Wang H, H Gomez (2023)

Direct van der Waals simulation (DVS) of phase-transforming fluids.

Science advances, 9(11):eadg3007.

We present the method of direct van der Waals simulation (DVS) to study computationally flows with liquid-vapor phase transformations. Our approach is based on a discretization of the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations, which couple flow dynamics with van der Waals' nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory of phase transformations, and opens an opportunity for first-principles simulation of a wide range of boiling and cavitating flows. The proposed algorithm enables unprecedented simulations of the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations involving cavitating flows at strongly under-critical conditions and 𝒪(10[5]) Reynolds number. The proposed technique provides a pathway for a fundamental understanding of phase-transforming flows with multiple applications in science, engineering, and medicine.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Sheikhshoaei A, M Rajabi (2023)

Utilizing passive elements to break time reversibility at low Reynolds number: a swimmer with one activated element.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 46(3):15.

In the realm of low Reynolds number, the shape-changing biological and artificial matters need to break time reversibility in the course of their strokes to achieve motility. This necessity is well described in the so-called scallop theorem. In this work, considering low Reynolds number, a novel and versatile swimmer is proposed as an example of a new scheme to break time reversibility kinematically and, in turn, produce net motion. The swimmer consists of one sphere as a cargo or carried body, joined by one activated link with time-varying length, to another perpendicular rigid link, as the support of two passively flapping disks, at its end. The disks are free to rotate between their fixed minimum and maximum angles. The system's motion in two dimensions is simulated, and the maneuverability of the swimmer is discussed. The minimal operating parameters for steering of the swimmer are studied, and the limits of the swimmer are identified. The introduced swimming mechanism can be employed as a simple model system for biological living matters as well as artificial microswimmers.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Spatafora-Salazar A, Kuei S, Cunha LHP, et al (2023)

Coiling of semiflexible paramagnetic colloidal chains.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

Semiflexible filaments deform into a variety of configurations that dictate different phenomena manifesting at low Reynolds number. Harnessing the elasticity of these filaments to perform transport-related processes at the microfluidic scale requires structures that can be directly manipulated to attain controllable geometric features during their deformation. The configuration of semiflexible chains assembled from paramagnetic colloids can be readily controlled upon the application of external time-varying magnetic fields. In circularly rotating magnetic fields, these chains undergo coiling dynamics in which their ends close into loops that wrap inward, analogous to the curling of long nylon filaments under shear. The coiling is promising for the precise loading and targeted transport of small materials, however effective implementation requires an understanding of the role that field parameters and chain properties play on the coiling features. Here, we investigate the formation of coils in semiflexible paramagnetic chains using numerical simulations. We demonstrate that the size and shape of the initial coils are governed by the Mason and elastoviscous numbers, related to the field parameters and the chain bending stiffness. The size of the initial coil follows a nonmonotonic behavior with Mason number from which two regions are identified: (1) an elasticity-dependent nonlinear regime in which the coil size decreases with increasing field strength and for which loop shape tends to be circular, and (2) an elasticity-independent linear regime where the size increases with field strength and the shape become more elliptical. From the time scales associated to these regimes, we identify distinct coiling mechanisms for each case that relate the coiling dynamics to two other configurational dynamics of paramagnetic chains: wagging and folding behaviors.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Lim S, Yadunandan A, M Khalid Jawed (2023)

Bacteria-inspired robotic propulsion from bundling of soft helical filaments at low Reynolds number.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

The bundling of flagella is known to create a "run" phase, where the bacteria moves in a nearly straight line rather than making changes in direction. Historically, mechanical explanations for the bundling phenomenon intrigued many researchers, and significant advances were made in physical models and experimental methods. Contributing to the field of research, we present a bacteria-inspired centimeter-scale soft robotic hardware platform and a computational framework for a physically plausible simulation model of the multi-flagellated robot under low Reynolds number (∼10[-1]). The fluid-structure interaction simulation couples the discrete elastic rods algorithm with the method of regularized Stokeslet segments. Contact between two flagella is handled by a penalty-based method. We present a comparison between our experimental and simulation results and verify that the simulation tool can capture the essential physics of this problem. Preliminary findings on robustness to buckling provided by the bundling phenomenon and the efficiency of a multi-flagellated soft robot are compared with the single-flagellated counterparts. Observations were made on the coupling between geometry and elasticity, which manifests itself in the propulsion of the robot by nonlinear dependency on the rotational speed of the flagella.

RevDate: 2023-03-12

Kang C, P Mirbod (2023)

Transitions in Taylor-Couette flow of concentrated non-colloidal suspensions.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 381(2246):20220126.

Taylor-Couette flow of concentrated non-colloidal suspensions with a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer one is numerically investigated. We consider suspensions of the bulk particle volume fraction ϕb = 0.2, 0.3 with the ratio of annular gap to the particle radius ε = 60 confined in a cylindrical annulus of the radius ratio (i.e. ratio of inner and outer radii) η = 0.877. Numerical simulations are performed by applying suspension-balance model and rheological constitutive laws. To observe flow patterns caused by suspended particles, the Reynolds number of the suspension, based on the bulk particle volume fraction and the rotating velocity of the inner cylinder, is varied up to 180. At high Reynolds number, modulated patterns undiscovered in the flow of a semi-dilute suspension emerge beyond a wavy vortex flow. Thus, a transition occurs from the circular Couette flow via ribbons, spiral vortex flow, wavy spiral vortex flow, wavy vortex flow and modulated wavy vortex flow for the concentrated suspensions. Moreover, friction and torque coefficients for suspensions are estimated. It turns out that suspended particles significantly enhance the torque on the inner cylinder while reducing friction coefficient and the pseudo-Nusselt number. In particular, the coefficients are reduced in the flow of more dense suspensions. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (Part 2)'.

RevDate: 2023-03-12

Nagata M (2023)

Taylor-Couette flow in the narrow-gap limit.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 381(2246):20220134.

A Cartesian representation of the Taylor-Couette system in the vanishing limit of the gap between coaxial cylinders is presented, where the ratio, [Formula: see text], of the angular velocities, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], of the inner and the outer cylinders, respectively, affects its axisymmetric flow structures. Our numerical stability study finds remarkable agreement with previous studies for the critical Taylor number, [Formula: see text], for the onset of axisymmetric instability. The Taylor number [Formula: see text] can be expressed as [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] (the rotation number) and [Formula: see text] (the Reynolds number) in the Cartesian system are related to the average and the difference of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The instability sets in the region [Formula: see text], while the product of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is kept finite. Furthermore, we developed a numerical code to calculate nonlinear axisymmetric flows. It is found that the mean flow distortion of the axisymmetric flow is antisymmetric across the gap when [Formula: see text], while a symmetric part of the mean flow distortion appears additionally when [Formula: see text]. Our analysis also shows that for a finite [Formula: see text] all flows with [Formula: see text] approach the [Formula: see text] axis, so that the plane Couette flow system is recovered in the vanishing gap limit. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (Part 2)'.

RevDate: 2023-03-12

Moazzen M, Lacassagne T, Thomy V, et al (2023)

Friction dynamics of elasto-inertial turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow of viscoelastic fluids.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 381(2246):20220300.

Dynamic properties of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) are studied in a Taylor-Couette geometry. EIT is a chaotic flow state that develops upon both non-negligible inertia and viscoelasticity. A combination of direct flow visualization and torque measurement allows to verify the earlier onset of EIT compared with purely inertial instabilities (and inertial turbulence). The scaling of the pseudo-Nusselt number with inertia and elasticity is discussed here for the first time. Variations in the friction coefficient, temporal frequency spectra and spatial power density spectra highlight that EIT undergoes an intermediate behaviour before transitioning to its fully developed chaotic state that requires both high inertia and elasticity. During this transition, the contribution of secondary flows to the overall friction dynamics is limited. This is expected to be of great interest in the aim of achieving efficiency mixing at low drag and low but finite Reynolds number. This article is part of the theme issue "Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical transactions paper (Part 2)".

RevDate: 2023-03-12

Krivonosova O, Gritsevich M, Zhilenko D, et al (2023)

Noise induced effects in the axisymmetric spherical Couette flow.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 381(2246):20220124.

We study the axisymmetric, wide gap, spherical Couette flow in the presence of noise in numerical simulations and experiments. Such studies are important because most of the flows in nature are subjected to random fluctuations. Noise is introduced into the flow by adding fluctuations to the inner sphere rotation which are random in time with zero mean. Flows of a viscous incompressible fluid are induced either by rotation of the inner sphere only or by the co-rotation of the spheres. Mean flow generation was found to occur under the action of additive noise. A higher relative amplification of meridional kinetic energy compared to the azimuthal component was also observed under certain conditions. Calculated flow velocities were validated by laser Doppler anemometer measurements. A model is proposed to elucidate the rapid growth of meridional kinetic energy for flows induced by varying the co-rotation of the spheres. Our linear stability analysis for flows induced by the rotation of the inner sphere revealed a decrease in the critical Reynolds number, corresponding to the onset of the first instability. Also, in this case, a local minimum of the mean flow generation on approaching the critical Reynolds number was observed, which is consistent with the available theoretical predictions. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (Part 2)'.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Akram S, Athar M, Saeed K, et al (2023)

Mechanism of Double-Diffusive Convection on Peristaltic Transport of Thermally Radiative Williamson Nanomaterials with Slip Boundaries and Induced Magnetic Field: A Bio-Nanoengineering Model.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 13(5): pii:nano13050941.

The present work has mathematically modeled the peristaltic flow in nanofluid by using thermal radiation, induced a magnetic field, double-diffusive convection, and slip boundary conditions in an asymmetric channel. Peristalsis propagates the flow in an asymmetric channel. Using the linear mathematical link, the rheological equations are translated from fixed to wave frames. Next, the rheological equations are converted to nondimensional forms with the help of dimensionless variables. Further, the flow evaluation is determined under two scientific assumptions: a finite Reynolds number and a long wavelength. Mathematica software is used to solve the numerical value of rheological equations. Lastly, the impact of prominent hydromechanical parameters on trapping, velocity, concentration, magnetic force function, nanoparticle volume fraction, temperature, pressure gradient, and pressure rise are evaluated graphically.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Liu C, Wang W, Hu X, et al (2023)

Drag Reduction Technology of Water Flow on Microstructured Surfaces: A Novel Perspective from Vortex Distributions and Densities.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 16(5): pii:ma16051838.

Revealing the turbulent drag reduction mechanism of water flow on microstructured surfaces is beneficial to controlling and using this technology to reduce turbulence losses and save energy during water transportation. Two microstructured samples, including a superhydrophobic and a riblet surface, were fabricated near which the water flow velocity, and the Reynolds shear stress and vortex distribution were investigated using a particle image velocimetry. The dimensionless velocity was introduced to simplify the Ω vortex method. The definition of vortex density in water flow was proposed to quantify the distribution of different strength vortices. Results showed that the velocity of the superhydrophobic surface (SHS) was higher compared with the riblet surface (RS), while the Reynolds shear stress was small. The vortices on microstructured surfaces were weakened within 0.2 times that of water depth when identified by the improved ΩM method. Meanwhile, the vortex density of weak vortices on microstructured surfaces increased, while the vortex density of strong vortices decreased, proving that the reduction mechanism of turbulence resistance on microstructured surfaces was to suppress the development of vortices. When the Reynolds number ranged from 85,900 to 137,440, the drag reduction impact of the superhydrophobic surface was the best, and the drag reduction rate was 9.48%. The reduction mechanism of turbulence resistance on microstructured surfaces was revealed from a novel perspective of vortex distributions and densities. Research on the structure of water flow near the microstructured surface can promote the drag reduction application in the water field.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Suresh Kumar Y, Hussain S, Raghunath K, et al (2023)

Numerical analysis of magnetohydrodynamics Casson nanofluid flow with activation energy, Hall current and thermal radiation.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4021.

In this study we analyzed the flow, heat and mass transfer behavior of Casson nanofluid past an exponentially stretching surface under the impact of activation energy, Hall current, thermal radiation, heat source/sink, Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Transverse magnetic field with the assumption of small Reynolds number is implemented vertically. The governing partial nonlinear differential equations of the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Matlab bvp4c package. The impact of each of the Hall current parameter, thermal radiation parameter, heat source/sink parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, thermophoresis parameter and magnetic parameter on velocity, concentration and temperature, is discussed through graphs. The skin friction coefficient along the x-and z-directions, the local Nusselt number and the Sherwood number are calculated numerically to look into the inside behavior of the emerging parameters. It is witnessed that the flow velocity is a diminishing function of the thermal radiation parameter and the behavior has observed in the case of Hall parameter. Moreover, mounting values of Brownian motion parameter reduce the nanoparticle concentration profile.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Bae AJ, Ahmad R, Bodenschatz E, et al (2023)

Flagellum-driven cargoes: Influence of cargo size and the flagellum-cargo attachment geometry.

PloS one, 18(3):e0279940 pii:PONE-D-22-16482.

The beating of cilia and flagella, which relies on an efficient conversion of energy from ATP-hydrolysis into mechanical work, offers a promising way to propel synthetic cargoes. Recent experimental realizations of such micro-swimmers, in which micron-sized beads are propelled by isolated and demembranated flagella from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii), revealed a variety of propulsion modes, depending in particular on the calcium concentration. Here, we investigate theoretically and numerically the propulsion of a bead as a function of the flagellar waveform and the attachment geometries between the bead and the flagellum. To this end, we take advantage of the low Reynolds number of the fluid flows generated by the micro-swimmer, which allows us to neglect fluid inertia. By describing the flagellar waveform as a superposition of a static component and a propagating wave, and using resistive-force theory, we show that the asymmetric sideways attachment of the flagellum to the bead makes a contribution to the rotational velocity of the micro-swimmer that is comparable to the contribution caused by the static component of the flagellar waveform. Remarkably, our analysis reveals the existence of a counter-intuitive propulsion regime in which an increase in the size of the cargo, and hence its drag, leads to an increase in some components of the velocity of the bead. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the uncovered mechanisms for the fabrication of synthetic, bio-actuated medical micro-robots for targeted drug delivery.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Lei Y, Wang X, Zhou D, et al (2023)

Experimental investigation on high-pressure methane jet characteristic single-hole injector.

Heliyon, 9(3):e13645 pii:S2405-8440(23)00852-6.

High-pressure gas direct injection (DI) technology benefits engines with high efficiency and clean emissions, and the gas jet process causes crucial effects especially inside an mm-size space. This study presents an investigation on the high-pressure methane jet characteristics from a single-hole injector by analysing jet performance parameters including jet impact force, gas jet impulse, and jet mass flow rate. The results show that the methane jet exhibited a two-zone behaviour along the jet direction in the spatial dimension induced by high-speed jet flow from the nozzle: zone 1 near the nozzle-the jet impact force and jet impulse increased consistently except for a fluctuation due to shock wave effects induced by the sonic jet and no entrainment occurs, and zone II farther away from the nozzle-the jet impact force and jet impulse became stable when the shock wave effects became weak and the jet impulse was conserved with a linear conservation boundary. The Mach disk height was exactly the turning point of two zones. Moreover, the methane jet parameters, such as the methane jet mass flow rate, jet initial jet impact force, jet impulse, and Reynolds number had a monotonous and linearly increasing correlation with injection pressure.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Vieira GS, Allshouse MR, A Mahadevan (2023)

Seagrass deformation affects fluid instability and tracer exchange in canopy flow.

Scientific reports, 13(1):3910.

Monami is the synchronous waving of a submerged seagrass bed in response to unidirectional fluid flow. Here we develop a multiphase model for the dynamical instabilities and flow-driven collective motions of buoyant, deformable seagrass. We show that the impedance to flow due to the seagrass results in an unstable velocity shear layer at the canopy interface, leading to a periodic array of vortices that propagate downstream. Our simplified model, configured for unidirectional flow in a channel, provides a better understanding of the interaction between these vortices and the seagrass bed. Each passing vortex locally weakens the along-stream velocity at the canopy top, reducing the drag and allowing the deformed grass to straighten up just beneath it. This causes the grass to oscillate periodically even in the absence of water waves. Crucially, the maximal grass deflection is out of phase with the vortices. A phase diagram for the onset of instability shows its dependence on the fluid Reynolds number and an effective buoyancy parameter. Less buoyant grass is more easily deformed by the flow and forms a weaker shear layer, with smaller vortices and less material exchange across the canopy top. While higher Reynolds number leads to stronger vortices and larger waving amplitudes of the seagrass, waving amplitude is maximized at intermediate grass buoyancy. All together, our theory and computations develop an updated schematic of the instability mechanism consistent with experimental observations.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Zhu Q (2023)

Wall effect on the start maneuver of a jet swimmer.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Inspired by aquatic creatures such as squid, the novel propulsion method based on pulsed jetting is a promising way to achieve high speed and high maneuverability for soft-body robots. Since these robots are often designed to operate in confined space with complicated boundary conditions, it is critical to understand their dynamics in the vicinity of solid boundaries. In this study we numerically examine the start maneuver of an idealized jet swimmer near a wall. Our simulations illustrate three important mechanisms: 1) Due to the blocking effect of the wall the pressure inside the body is affected so that the forward acceleration is increased during deflation and decreased during inflation; 2) The wall affects the internal flow so that the momentum flux at the nozzle and subsequently the thrust generation during the jetting phase are slightly increased; 3) the wall affects the wake so that the refilling phase is influenced, leading to a scenario in which part of the energy expended during jetting is recovered during refilling to increase forward acceleration and reduce power expenditure. In general, the second mechanism is weaker than the other two. The exact effects of these mechanisms depend on physical parameters such as the initial phase of the body deformation, the distance between the swimming body and the wall, and the Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Gao P, Wang Q, T Liu (2023)

Numerical method investigation on the aggregation characteristics of non-spherical particles.

PloS one, 18(3):e0282804 pii:PONE-D-22-32305.

Under the background of the mechanical mechanism research of microfluidic technology for separating and screening pipeline particulate matter, this paper proposes an improved relative motion model by combining the multiple reference frame method and the relative motion model. Worked with a quasi-fixed constant method, this model can numerically calculate the aggregation features of non-spherical particles in the low Reynolds number channels. The results demonstrate that when Re = 40~80, ellipsoids exhibit an aggregation trend similar to circular particles with the same diameter as its largest circumscribed sphere. The aggregation position is affected by the ratio of long and short axes of particles, and the distribution trend is determined by the relative size of these particles. When the channel's Reynolds number is less than the critical Reynolds number, the aggregation position of elliptical particles will be closer to the pipe center with the increase in the Reynolds number, which is contrary to the aggregation tendency of circular particles more proximate to the pipe wall with the increase in the Reynolds number. This finding provides a novel idea and method for further exploring the aggregation rules of non-spherical particles and offers substantial guidance for separating and monitoring pipeline particulate matter via microfluidic technology and other related industrial applications.

RevDate: 2023-03-05

Ram D, Bhandari DS, Sharma K, et al (2023)

Progression of blood-borne viruses through bloodstream: A comparative mathematical study.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 232:107425 pii:S0169-2607(23)00092-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Blood-borne pathogens are contagious microorganisms that can cause life-threatening illnesses, and are found in human blood. It is crucial to examine how these viruses spread through blood flow in the blood vessel. Keeping that in view, this study aims to determine how blood viscosity, and diameter of the viruses can affect the virus transmission through the blood flow in the blood vessel. A comparative study of bloodborne viruses (BBVs) such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and C, has been addressed in the present model. A couple stress fluid model is used to represent blood as a carrying medium for virus transmission. The Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation is taken into account for the simulation of virus transmission.

METHODS: An analytical approach to derive the exact solutions under the assumption of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations is employed. For the computation of the results, a segment (wavelength) of blood vessels about 120 mm with wave velocities in the range of 49 - 190 mm/sec are considered, where the diameter of BBVs ranges from 40-120 nm. The viscosity of the blood varies from 3.5-5.5 × 10[-3]Ns/m[2] which affect the virion motion having a density range 1.03 - 1. 25 g/m[3].

RESULTS: It shows that the Hepatitis B virus is more harmful than other blood-borne viruses considered in the analysis. Patients with high blood pressure are highly susceptible for transmission of BBVs.

CONCLUSIONS: The present fluid dynamics approach for virus spread through blood flow can be helpful in understanding the dynamics of virus propagation inside the human circulatory system.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Ashin K, Girishkumar MS, D'Asaro E, et al (2023)

Observational evidence of salt finger in the diurnal thermocline.

Scientific reports, 13(1):3627.

Due to strong turbulent mixing, the ocean surface boundary layer region is generally not conducive to double diffusion. However, vertical microstructure profiles observations in the northeastern Arabian Sea during May 2019 imply the formation of salt fingers in the diurnal thermocline (DT) region during the daytime. In the DT layer, conditions are favorable for salt fingering: Turner angle values are between 50 and 55° with both temperature and salinity decreasing with depth; shear-driven mixing is weak with a turbulent Reynolds number of about 30. The presence of salt fingering in the DT is confirmed by the presence of staircase-like structures with step sizes larger than the Ozmidov length and by the dissipation ratio that is larger than the mixing coefficient. The unusual daytime salinity maximum in the mixed layer that supports salt fingering is primarily due to a daytime reduction in vertical entrainment of fresh water along with minor contributions from evaporation and horizontal advection and a significant contribution from detrainment processes.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Arif I, Leung RCK, MR Naseer (2023)

A computational study of trailing edge noise suppression with embedded structural compliance.

JASA express letters, 3(2):023602.

A unique concept for suppression of trailing edge noise scattering from a splitter plate in a low Reynolds number flow is proposed. The key idea of the concept is the adoption of a structural compliance system embedded with a finite number of elastic panels. Specific compliance system designs are devised for promotion of panel structural resonance that effectively absorbs broadband flow/acoustic fluctuation energy responsible for noise scattering. The concept is examined using high-fidelity direct aeroacoustic simulation together with spatiotemporal aeroacoustic-structural interaction analysis. The concept is confirmed feasible and outperforms many similar trailing edge noise reduction approaches reported in the literature.

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Stricker M, Littfinski T, Pecher KH, et al (2023)

Hydraulic modeling of a compact stormwater treatment device applying concepts of dynamic similitude.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 87(4):954-968.

The development of compact treatment devices (CTDs) with high removal efficiencies and low space requirements is a key objective of urban stormwater treatment. Thus, many devices utilize a combination of sedimentation and upward-flow filtration in a single system. Here, sedimentation is used before filtration, which makes it difficult to evaluate the individual treatment stages separately. This study determines the removal efficiency by sedimentation and the expected filter load in a specific compact treatment device designed for a catchment area of up to 10,000 m[2]. In contrast to a full-scale investigation, small-scale physical hydraulic modeling is applied as a new cost-saving alternative. To validate upscaling laws, tracer signals and particle-size-specific removal efficiencies are determined for two geometrically similar models at different length scales. Thereby, Reynolds number similarity produces similar flow patterns, while the similarity of Hazen numbers allows to upscale removal efficiencies. Upscaling to the full-scale reveals that the filter in the device is only partly loaded by particulate matter that consists mostly of particles ≤63 μm. Thus, sedimentation upstream of a filter is of relevant importance in CTDs. The proposed dimensionless relationship may be used for particles from different catchments and helps to size the device accordingly.

RevDate: 2023-02-27
CmpDate: 2023-02-27

Lyubimova TP, Fomicheva AA, AO Ivantsov (2023)

Dynamics of a bubble in oscillating viscous liquid.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 381(2245):20220085.

This article is devoted to the investigation of gaseous bubble dynamics in oscillating viscous liquids of different density values. The study is conducted numerically using the level-set method with a non-stationary approach. The bubble is initially located near the upper wall of the container. The effects of the inclusion and host liquid viscosities on interaction of the bubble with the wall are analysed. The calculations show that in the absence of gravity, for low-viscosity fluids the bubble is attracted to the nearest wall, which is consistent with previous analytical and experimental results. With increasing viscosity, the vibrational attraction to the wall becomes weaker and is then replaced by repulsion, which can be explained by the decelerative effect of viscosity in the boundary layer near the rigid surface, where the average flow becomes less intensive. The dependencies of the repulsion force on the parameter values are obtained by using the balance method (investigation of the gravity level needed to attain the quasi-equilibrium state at a certain distance between the bubble and the wall). The calculations show that the repulsion force grows with decreasing Reynolds number (increase of the viscosity). This article is part of the theme issue 'New trends in pattern formation and nonlinear dynamics of extended systems'.

RevDate: 2023-02-26

Abe K, Takabe K, S Nakamura (2023)

Force Measurement of Bacterial Swimming Using Optical Tweezers.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2646:169-179.

Velocity is a physical parameter most commonly used to quantify bacterial swimming. In the steady-state motion at a low Reynolds number, the swimming force can be estimated from the swimming velocity and the drag coefficient based on the assumption that the swimming force balances with the drag force exerted on the bacterium. Though the velocity-force relation provides a significant clue to understand the swimming mechanism, the odd configuration of bacteria could develop problems with the accuracy of the force estimation. This chapter describes the force measurement using optical tweezers. The method uses parameters obtained from the shape and movement of a microsphere attached to the bacteria, improving the quantitativeness of force measurement.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Omrani V, Targhi MZ, Rahbarizadeh F, et al (2023)

High-throughput isolation of cancer cells in spiral microchannel by changing the direction, magnitude and location of the maximum velocity.

Scientific reports, 13(1):3213.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are scarce cancer cells that rarely spread from primary or metastatic tumors inside the patient's bloodstream. Determining the genetic characteristics of these paranormal cells provides significant data to guide cancer staging and treatment. Cell focusing using microfluidic chips has been implemented as an effective method for enriching CTCs. The distinct equilibrium positions of particles with different diameters across the microchannel width in the simulation showed that it was possible to isolate and concentrate breast cancer cells (BCCs) from WBCs at a moderate Reynolds number. Therefore we demonstrate high throughput isolation of BCCs using a passive, size-based, label-free microfluidic method based on hydrodynamic forces by an unconventional (combination of long loops and U-turn) spiral microfluidic device for isolating both CTCs and WBCs with high efficiency and purity (more than 90%) at a flow rate about 1.7 mL/min, which has a high throughput compared to similar ones. At this golden flow rate, up to 92% of CTCs were separated from the cell suspension. Its rapid processing time, simplicity, and potential ability to collect CTCs from large volumes of patient blood allow the practical use of this method in many applications.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Moore CP, Husson J, Boudaoud A, et al (2023)

Clogging of a Rectangular Slit by a Spherical Soft Particle.

Physical review letters, 130(6):064001.

The capture of a soft spherical particle in a rectangular slit leads to a nonmonotonic pressure-flow rate relation at low Reynolds number. Simulations reveal that the flow induced deformations of the trapped particle focus the streamlines and pressure drop to a small region. This increases the resistance to flow by several orders of magnitude as the driving pressure is increased. As a result, two regimes are observed in experiments and simulations: a flow-dominated regime for small particle deformations, where flow rate increases with pressure, and an elastic-dominated regime in which solid deformations block the flow.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Baba YD, Chiacchia M, SV Patwardhan (2023)

A Novel Method for Understanding the Mixing Mechanisms to Enable Sustainable Manufacturing of Bioinspired Silica.

ACS engineering Au, 3(1):17-27.

Bioinspired silica (BIS) has received unmatched attention in recent times owing to its green synthesis, which offers a scalable, sustainable, and economical method to produce high-value silica for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, environmental remediation, biomedical, and energy storage. To scale-up BIS synthesis, it is critically important to understand how mixing affects the reaction at different scales. In particular, successful scale-up can be achieved if mixing time is measured, modeled, and kept constant across different production scales. To this end, a new image analysis technique was developed using pH, as one of the key parameters, to monitor the reaction and the mixing. Specifically, the technique involved image analysis of color (pH) change using a custom-written algorithm to produce a detailed pH map. The degree of mixing and mixing time were determined from this analysis for different impeller speeds and feed injection locations. Cross validation of the mean pH of selected frames with measurements using a pH calibration demonstrated the reliability of the image processing technique. The results suggest that the bioinspired silica formation is controlled by meso- and, to a lesser extent, micromixing. Based on the new data from this investigation, a mixing time correlation is developed as a function of Reynolds number-the first of a kind for green nanomaterials. Further, we correlated the effects of mixing conditions on the reaction and the product. These results provide valuable insights into the scale-up to enable sustainable manufacturing of BIS and other nanomaterials.

RevDate: 2023-02-22

Han F, Zhao Y, Liu M, et al (2023)

Wetting behavior during impacting bituminous coal surface for dust suppression droplets of fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The wetting behavior of droplets during impacting coal surface widely exists in the dust control process. Understanding the effect of surfactants on the diffusion of water droplets on coal surface is critical. To study the effect of fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (AEO) on the dynamic wetting behavior of droplets on bituminous coal surface, a high-speed camera is used to record the impact process of ultrapure water droplets and three different molecular weight AEO solution droplets. A dynamic evaluation index, dimensionless spreading coefficient ([Formula: see text]), is used to evaluate the dynamic wetting process. The research results show that maximum dimensionless spreading coefficient ([Formula: see text]) of AEO-3, AEO-6, and AEO-9 droplets is greater than that of ultrapure water droplets. With the increase of impact velocity, the [Formula: see text] increases, but the required time decreases. Moderately increasing the impact velocity is conducive to promoting the spreading of droplets on the coal surface. Below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the concentration of AEO droplets is positively correlated with the [Formula: see text] and the required time. When the polymerization degree increases, the Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]) and Weber number ([Formula: see text]) of droplets decrease, and the [Formula: see text] decreases. AEO can effectively enhance the spreading of droplets on the coal surface, but the increase in polymerization degree can inhibit this process. Viscous force hinders droplet spreading during droplet interaction with the coal surface, and surface tension promotes droplet retraction. Under the experimental conditions of this paper ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), there is a power exponential relationship between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text].

RevDate: 2023-02-22

Rahimi A, Shahsavari A, Pakzad H, et al (2023)

Laminar drag reduction ability of liquid-infused microchannels by considering different infused lubricants.

The Journal of chemical physics, 158(7):074702.

We numerically investigate the pressure drop reduction (PDR) performance of microchannels equipped with liquid-infused surfaces, along with determining the shape of the interface between the working fluid and lubricant within the microgrooves. The effects of different parameters, such as the Reynolds number of working fluid, density and viscosity ratios between the lubricant and working fluid, the ratio of the thickness of the lubricant layer over the ridges to the depth of the groove, and the Ohnesorge number as a representative of the interfacial tension, on the PDR and interfacial meniscus within the microgrooves are comprehensively studied. The results reveal that the density ratio and Ohnesorge number do not significantly affect the PDR. On the other hand, the viscosity ratio considerably affects the PDR, and a maximum PDR of 62% compared to a smooth non-lubricated microchannel is achieved for a viscosity ratio of 0.01. Interestingly, the higher the Reynolds number of the working fluid, the higher the PDR. The meniscus shape within the microgrooves is strongly affected by the Reynolds number of the working fluid. Despite the insignificant effect of interfacial tension on the PDR, the interface shape within the microgrooves is appreciably influenced by this parameter.

RevDate: 2023-02-22

O'Callaghan F, FO Lehmann (2023)

Flow development and leading edge vorticity in bristled insect wings.

Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Small flying insects such as the tiny thrip Gynaikothrips ficorum have wings with bristles attached to a solid shaft instead of solid membranes. Air passing through the bristle fringe, however, makes bristled insect wings less effective for aerodynamic force production. In this study, we quantified the ability of bristled wings to generate a leading edge vortex (LEV) for lift support during wing flapping, scored its circulation during wing translation, and investigated its behaviour at the stroke reversals. The data were measured in robotic model wings flapping with a generic kinematic pattern at Reynolds number of ~ 3.4, while applying two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. We found that aerodynamic performance due to LEV circulation linearly decreases with increasing bristle spacing. The wings of Gynaikothrips ficorum might thus produce approximately 9% less aerodynamic force for flight than a solid membranous wing. At the stroke reversals, leading and trailing edge vortices dissipate quickly within no more than ~ 2% of the stroke cycle duration. This elevated dissipation makes vortex shedding obsolete during the reversals and allows a quick build-up of counter-vorticity when the wing reverses flapping direction. In sum, our findings highlight the flow conditions associated with bristled wing design in insects and are thus significant for assessing biological fitness and dispersal of insects flying in a viscosity-dominated fluid regime.

RevDate: 2023-02-15

Hamlet CL, Strickland WC, Battista N, et al (2023)

Multiscale flow between the branches and polyps of gorgonians.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:287035 [Epub ahead of print].

Gorgonians, including sea fans, are soft corals well known for their elaborate branching structure and how they sway in the ocean. This branching structure can modify environmental flows to be beneficial for feeding in a particular range of velocities and, presumably, for a particular size of prey. As water moves through the elaborate branches, it is slowed, and recirculation zones can form downstream of the colony. At the smaller scale, individual polyps that emerge from the branches expand their tentacles, further slowing the flow. At the smallest scale, the tentacles are covered in tiny pinnules where exchange occurs. In this paper, we quantify the gap to diameter ratios for various gorgonians at the scale of the branches, the polyp tentacles, and the pinnules. We then use computational fluid dynamics to determine the flow patterns at all three levels of branching. We quantify the leakiness between the branches, tentacles, and pinnules over the biologically relevant range of Reynolds numbers and gap-to-diameter ratios. We find that the branches and tentacles can either act as leaky rakes or solid plates depending upon these dimensionless parameters. The pinnules, on the other hand, mostly impede the flow. Using an agent-based modeling framework, we quantify plankton capture as a function of the gap-to-diameter ratio of the branches and the Reynolds number. We find that the capture rate depends critically on both morphology and Reynolds number. The results of the study have implications for how gorgonians modify ambient flows for efficient feeding and exchange.

RevDate: 2023-02-14
CmpDate: 2023-02-14

Liu W, Yu Z, Duan F, et al (2023)

Robust five-degree-of-freedom measurement system with self-compensation and air turbulence protection.

Optics express, 31(3):4652-4666.

A robust five-degree-of-freedom (5-DOF) measurement system is proposed in this paper. The compact optical configuration with high resolution is designed based on lens combination and multiple reflections. Beam drift and dual-beam parallelism are monitored and compensated by autocollimator units and a polarizer unit respectively. In addition, a protection method is proposed to reduce the intensity of air turbulence by reducing the Reynolds number of the beam path. The performance of the system is verified by experiments. The experimental results show that the self-compensation methods and air turbulence protection can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of the system under the long-term interference of external environments. The proposed system has high precision, desirable robustness, and convenient pre-calibration, which can be used for error measurement of precision machines.

RevDate: 2023-02-13

Millett PC (2023)

Rheology and structure of elastic capsule suspensions within rectangular channels.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

Three-dimensional simulations of the pressure-driven flow dynamics of elastic capsule suspensions within both slit and rectangular cross-section channels are presented. The simulations utilize the Immersed Boundary Method and the Lattice-Boltzmann Method models. The capsule volume fraction is fixed at 0.1 (i.e., a semi-dilute suspension), while the channel Reynolds number (Re), the capillary number (Ca), and the cross-sectional channel dimensions are systematically varied. Comparing results for slit and rectangular channels, it is found that multi-directional confinement hinders inertial focusing due to the capsule-free layers that develop in the two transverse directions. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the capsule-free layers in the two transverse directions differ when the height and width of the channel are not equal. Both the size and aspect ratio of the channel impact the apparent viscosity. It is found that square channels exhibit maximal viscosity and that holding one dimension fixed while increasing or decreasing the other results in a decrease in viscosity. The results therefore represent an expansion of the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect from 1D cylindrical channels to 2D rectangular channels.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Yang G, Yu Z, Baki ABM, et al (2023)

Settling behaviors of microplastic disks in water.

Marine pollution bulletin, 188:114657 pii:S0025-326X(23)00088-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastic (MP) disks have not been studied for settling behaviors in aquatic environments, which affects the transport and fate of MPs. Therefore, settling experiments were conducted on MP disks of three shapes and four common-seen materials. Lighter MP disks (with density ρs = 1.038 g/cm[3] and length l ≤ 5 mm) followed rectilinear vertical trajectories, while heavier MP disks (ρs = 1.161-1.343 g/cm[3] and l = 5 mm) followed zigzag trajectories with oscillations and rotations. The mean terminal settling velocities of MP disks were 19.6-48.8 mm/s. Instantaneous settling velocities of heavier MP disks fluctuated. Existing formulas could not accurately predict the settling velocity of MP disks; thus, a new model was proposed with an error of 15.5 %. Finally, the Red - I* diagram (Red is the disk Reynolds number and I* is the dimensionless moment of inertia) was extended for MP disks to predict settling trajectories.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Fahim T, Laouedj S, Abderrahmane A, et al (2022)

Numerical study of perforated obstacles effects on the performance of solar parabolic trough collector.

Frontiers in chemistry, 10:1089080.

The current work presents and discusses a numerical analysis of improving heat transmission in the receiver of a parabolic trough solar collector by introducing perforated barriers. While the proposed approach to enhance the collector's performance is promising, the use of obstacles results in increased pressure loss. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model analysis is conducted based on the renormalization-group (RNG) k-ɛ turbulent model associated with standard wall function using thermal oil D12 as working fluid The thermo-hydraulic analysis of the receiver tube with perforated obstacles is taken for various configurations and Reynolds number ranging from 18,860 to 81,728. The results are compared with that of the receiver without perforated obstacles. The receiver tube with three holes (PO3) showed better heat transfer characteristics. In addition, the Nusselt number (Nu) increases about 115% with the increase of friction factor 5-6.5 times and the performance evaluation criteria (PEC) changes from 1.22 to 1.24. The temperature of thermal oil fluid attains its maximum value at the exit, and higher temperatures (462.1 K) are found in the absorber tube with perforated obstacles with three holes (PO3). Accordingly, using perforated obstacles receiver for parabolic trough concentrator is highly recommended where significant enhancement of system's performance is achieved.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Chen X, Sun S, Tian X, et al (2023)

A quasi-two-dimensional fluid experimental apparatus based on tank-in-tank configuration.

The Review of scientific instruments, 94(1):015115.

The fluid tank is an essential facility for experimental research on fluid mechanics. However, owing to the hydrostatic fluid pressure, a fine uniformity of the narrow channel is difficult to be maintained in a tall narrow-channel tank. To address this issue, we proposed a quasi-two-dimensional fluid experimental apparatus based on a "tank-in-tank" configuration and built with an outer tank and an inner tank. The outer tank was cuboid-shaped and used to load the fluid medium, while the inner tank, consisting of two parallel glass plates, was embedded into the outer tank and served as the experimental channel. The hydrostatic pressure acting on the channel was balanced so that a high level of uniformity was maintained over the whole channel. The available height and width of the channel were 2800 and 1500 mm, respectively, while its gap distance could be adaptive from 0 to 120 mm. Experimental research on motion characteristics of circular disks falling in the quasi-2D channel was implemented to investigate the effects of the falling environment and disk geometry. Four distinct falling types were observed, and the wake flow fields of the falling disks were visualized. The Reynolds numbers of falling disks ranged from 400 to 63 000 presently. Chaotic motion and regular motion were demarcated at Re ≈ 30 000. An analytical model was established to predict the final average falling velocity and Reynolds number. Finally, potential directions for future research and improvements to the apparatus were suggested.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Niu Z, Wang R, Jiao K, et al (2017)

Direct numerical simulation of low Reynolds number turbulent air-water transport in fuel cell flow channel.

Science bulletin, 62(1):31-39.

With performance improvement of low-temperature fuel cell (FC), high reactant supply and water generation rates may induce air-water turbulence in the FC flow channel. In this research, an air-water turbulent direct numerical simulation (DNS) model is developed to simulate different droplet sizes, locations and interactions in the air-water transport processes comprehensively. It is found that a larger droplet breaks up more easily in turbulence, and a smaller droplet tends to keep lumped. The droplet at corner does not break up because it is away from channel center. The droplet interaction simulations show that the small droplets merge to form slugs, but still keep lumped in turbulence. It is suggested that two conditions need to be satisfied for droplet break up in FC flow channel, one is turbulent flow, and another is that the droplet needs to be large enough and occupy the center region of flow channel to suffer sufficient turbulence fluctuations. The DNS results illustrate some unique phenomena in turbulent flow, and show that the turbulence has significant effect on the air-water flow behavior in FC flow channel.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Misiulia D, Lidén G, S Antonyuk (2023)

Secondary Lip Flow in a Cyclone Separator.

Flow, turbulence and combustion [Epub ahead of print].

Three secondary flows, namely the inward radial flow along the cyclone lid, the downward axial flow along the external surface of the vortex finder, and the radial inward flow below the vortex finder (lip flow) have been studied at a wide range of flow rate 0.22-7.54 LPM using the LES simulations. To evaluate these flows the corresponding methods were originally proposed. The highly significant effect of the Reynolds number on these secondary flows has been described by equations. The main finding is that the magnitude of all secondary flows decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The secondary inward radial flow along the cyclone lid is not constant and reaches its maximum value at the central radial position between the vortex finder external wall and the cyclone wall. The secondary downward axial flow along the external surface of the vortex finder significantly increases at the lowest part of the vortex finder and it is much larger than the secondary flow along the cyclone lid. The lip flow is much larger than the secondary inward radial flow along the cyclone lid, which was assumed in cyclone models to be equal to the lip flow, and the ratio of these two secondary flows is practically independent of the Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Chang R, Davydov A, Jaroenlak P, et al (2023)

Energetics of the Microsporidian Polar Tube Invasion Machinery.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.17.524456.

UNLABELLED: Microsporidia are eukaryotic, obligate intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of hosts, leading to health and economic burdens worldwide. Microsporidia use an un-usual invasion organelle called the polar tube (PT), which is ejected from a dormant spore at ultra-fast speeds, to infect host cells. The mechanics of PT ejection are impressive. Anncaliia algerae microsporidia spores (3-4 μ m in size) shoot out a 100-nm-wide PT at a speed of 300 μ m/sec, creating a shear rate of 3000 sec [- 1] . The infectious cargo, which contains two nuclei, is shot through this narrow tube for a distance of ~60-140 μ m [1] and into the host cell. Considering the large hydraulic resistance in an extremely thin tube and the low-Reynolds-number nature of the process, it is not known how microsporidia can achieve this ultrafast event. In this study, we use Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to capture 3-dimensional snapshots of A. algerae spores in different states of the PT ejection process. Grounded in these data, we propose a theoretical framework starting with a systematic exploration of possible topological connectivity amongst organelles, and assess the energy requirements of the resulting models. We perform PT firing experiments in media of varying viscosity, and use the results to rank our proposed hypotheses based on their predicted energy requirement, pressure and power. We also present a possible mechanism for cargo translocation, and quantitatively compare our predictions to experimental observations. Our study provides a comprehensive biophysical analysis of the energy dissipation of microsporidian infection process and demonstrates the extreme limits of cellular hydraulics.

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming, intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of hosts (including humans). Once triggered, microsporidian spores (3-4 μ m in size) shoot out a specialized organelle called the polar tube (PT) (60-140 μ m long, 100 nm wide) at ultrafast speed (300 μ m/sec), penetrating host cells and acting as a conduit for the transport of infectious cargo. Although this process has fascinated biologists for a century, the biophysical mechanisms underlying PT extrusion are not understood. We thus take a data-driven approach to generate models for the physical basis of PT firing and cargo transport through the PT. Our approach here demonstrates the extreme limits of cellular hydraulics and the potential applications of biophysical approaches to other cellular architectures.

RevDate: 2023-01-29

Jeganathan V, Alba K, R Ostilla-Mónico (2023)

Exploring the origin of turbulent Taylor rolls.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 381(2243):20220130.

Since Taylor's seminal paper, the existence of large-scale quasi-axisymmetric structures has been a matter of interest when studying Taylor-Couette flow. In this article, we probe their formation in the highly turbulent regime by conducting a series of numerical simulations at a fixed Reynolds number [Formula: see text] while varying the Coriolis parameter to analyse the flow characteristics as the structures arise and dissipate. We show how the Coriolis force induces a one-way coupling between the radial and azimuthal velocity fields inside the boundary layer, but in the bulk, there is a two-way coupling that causes competing effects. We discuss how this complicates the analogy of narrow-gap Taylor-Couette to other convective flows. We then compare these statistics with a similar shear flow without no-slip boundary layers, showing how this double coupling causes very different effects. We finish by reflecting on the possible origins of turbulent Taylor rolls. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (part 1)'.

RevDate: 2023-01-29

Baroudi L, Majji MV, Peluso S, et al (2023)

Taylor-Couette flow of hard-sphere suspensions: overview of current understanding.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 381(2243):20220125.

Although inertial particle-laden flows occur in a wide range of industrial and natural processes, there is both a lack of fundamental understanding of these flows and continuum-level governing equations needed to predict transport and particle distribution. Towards this effort, the Taylor-Couette flow (TCF) system has been used recently to study the flow behaviour of particle-laden fluids under inertia. This article provides an overview of experimental, theoretical and computational work related to the TCF of neutrally buoyant non-Brownian suspensions, with an emphasis on the effect of finite-sized particles on the series of flow transitions and flow structures. Particles, depending on their size and concentration, cause several significant deviations from Newtonian fluid behaviour, including shifting the Reynolds number corresponding to transitions in flow structure and changing the possible structures present in the flow. Furthermore, particles may also migrate depending on the flow structure, leading to hysteretic effects that further complicate the flow behaviour. The current state of theoretical and computational modelling efforts to describe the experimental observations is discussed, and suggestions for potential future directions to improve the fundamental understanding of inertial particle-laden flows are provided. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (part 1)'.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Hasan HA, Sherza JS, Abed AM, et al (2022)

Thermal and flow performance analysis of a concentrated linear Fresnel solar collector with transverse ribs.

Frontiers in chemistry, 10:1074581.

This article deals with the impact of including transverse ribs within the absorber tube of the concentrated linear Fresnel collector (CLFRC) system with a secondary compound parabolic collector (CPC) on thermal and flow performance coefficients. The enhancement rates of heat transfer due to varying governing parameters were compared and analyzed parametrically at Reynolds numbers in the range 5,000-13,000, employing water as the heat transfer fluid. Simulations were performed to solve the governing equations using the finite volume method (FVM) under various boundary conditions. For all Reynolds numbers, the average Nusselt number in the circular tube in the CLFRC system with ribs was found to be larger than that of the plain absorber tube. Also, the inclusion of transverse ribs inside the absorber tube increases the average Nusselt number by approximately 115% at Re = 5,000 and 175% at Re = 13,000. For all Reynolds numbers, the skin friction coefficient of the circular tube with ribs in the CLFRC system is larger than that of the plain absorber tube. The coefficient of surface friction reduces as the Reynolds number increases. The performance assessment criterion was found to vary between 1.8 and 1.9 as the Reynolds number increases.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Fuchs M, Lubos N, S Kabelac (2023)

Numerical Calculation of the Irreversible Entropy Production of Additively Manufacturable Off-Set Strip Fin Heat-Transferring Structures.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 25(1): pii:e25010162.

In this manuscript, off-set strip fin structures are presented which are adapted to the possibilities of additive manufacturing. For this purpose, the geometric parameters, including fin height, fin spacing, fin length, and fin longitudinal displacement, are varied, and the Colburn j-factor and the Fanning friction factor are numerically calculated in the Reynolds number range of 80-920. The structures are classified with respect to their entropy production number according to Bejan. This method is compared with the results from partial differential equations for the calculation of the irreversible entropy production rate due to shear stresses and heat conduction. This study reveals that the chosen temperature difference leads to deviation in terms of entropy production due to heat conduction, whereas the dissipation by shear stresses shows only small deviations of less than 2%. It is further shown that the variation in fin height and fin spacing has only a small influence on heat transfer and pressure drop, while a variation in fin length and fin longitudinal displacement shows a larger influence. With respect to the entropy production number, short and long fins, as well as large fin spacing and fin longitudinal displacement, are shown to be beneficial. A detailed examination of a single structure shows that the entropy production rate due to heat conduction is dominated by the entropy production rate in the wall, while the fluid has only a minor influence.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Rajupillai K, Alessa N, Eswaramoorthi S, et al (2022)

Thermal Behavior of the Time-Dependent Radiative Flow of Water-Based CNTs/Au Nanoparticles Past a Riga Plate with Entropy Optimization and Multiple Slip Conditions.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 25(1): pii:e25010076.

This communication deliberates the time-reliant and Darcy-Forchheimer flow of water-based CNTs/gold nanoparticles past a Riga plate. In addition, nonlinear radiation, heat consumption and multiple slip conditions are considered. Entropy generation is computed through various flow parameters. A suitable transformation with symmetry variables is invoked to remodel the governing mathematical flow models into the ODE equations. The homotopy analysis scheme and MATLAB bvp4c method are imposed to solve the reduced ODE equations analytically and numerically. The impact of sundry flow variables on nanofluid velocity, nanofluid temperature, skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, entropy profile and Bejan number are computed and analyzed through graphs and tables. It is found that the nanofluid velocity is reduced by greater porosity and slip factors. The thickness of the thermal boundary layer increases with increasing radiation, temperature ratio, and heat consumption/generation parameters. The surface drag force is reduced when there is a higher Forchheimer number, unsteadiness parameter and porosity parameter. The amount of entropy created is proportional to the radiation parameter, porosity parameter and Reynolds number. The Bejan number profile increases with radiation parameter, heat consumption/generation parameter and the Forchheimer number.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Méry F, D Sebbane (2023)

Aerodynamic characterisation of porous fairings: pressure drop and Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements.

Scientific data, 10(1):39.

Wind tunnel measurements of pressure drop and steady and unsteady velocity field of a flow through fairing samples are described. 10 samples have been tested in pressure drop among which the velocity fields of 3 samples have been characterized by means of laser Doppler velocimetry. The samples are perforated plates, wiremesh plates or complex 3D geometries resulting from additive manufacturing methods. The Reynolds number of the experiments ranges from 55 000 to 117 000.

RevDate: 2023-01-17

Li Y, Pahlavan AA, Chen Y, et al (2023)

Oil-on-water droplets faceted and stabilized by vortex halos in the subphase.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(4):e2214657120.

For almost 200 y, the dominant approach to understand oil-on-water droplet shape and stability has been the thermodynamic expectation of minimized energy, yet parallel literature shows the prominence of Marangoni flow, an adaptive gradient of interfacial tension that produces convection rolls in the water. Our experiments, scaling arguments, and linear stability analysis show that the resulting Marangoni-driven high-Reynolds-number flow in shallow water overcomes radial symmetry of droplet shape otherwise enforced by the Laplace pressure. As a consequence, oil-on-water droplets are sheared to become polygons with distinct edges and corners. Moreover, subphase flows beneath individual droplets can inhibit the coalescence of adjacent droplets, leading to rich many-body dynamics that makes them look alive. The phenomenon of a "vortex halo" in the liquid subphase emerges as a hidden variable.

RevDate: 2023-01-17

Jo BW, T Majid (2023)

Enhanced Range and Endurance Evaluation of a Camber Morphing Wing Aircraft.

Biomimetics (Basel, Switzerland), 8(1): pii:biomimetics8010034.

Flight range, endurance, maneuverability, and agility are the key elements that determine an aircraft's performance. Both conventional and morphing wing aircraft have been well studied and estimated in all aspects of performance. When considering the performance of morphing aircraft, most works address aspects of the aerodynamical performance such as L and D as well as flight envelopes for flight dynamics and control perspectives. However, the actual benefits of adopting morphing technologies in practical aspects such as aircraft operation, mission planning, and sustainability have not been addressed so far. Thus, this paper addresses the practical aspect of the benefits when adopting a camber morphing wing aircraft. Identical geometrical and computational conditions were applied to an already-existing aircraft: the RQ-7a Shadow. The wing structure was switched between a fixed wing and a camber morphing wing to generate conventional and morphing wing geometries. The fixed-wing cases had varying flap deflection angles, and the camber morphing wing cases had varying camber rates from 4% to 8%. Once the CL values of the fixed and morphing wing cases were matched up to two significant figures, the CD and CL/CD were analyzed for these matching cases to calculate the flight endurance, range, and improvement. When NACA 6410 is adopted, a 17% improvement in flight range and endurance average was expected. In the case of NACA 8410, an average 60% improvement was expected.

RevDate: 2023-01-17

Jain PK, Lanjewar A, Chaurasiya PK, et al (2023)

Experimental testing of solar-based air heater roughed with discrete V-down rib and staggered element.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

A rough rectangular channel of solar-based air heater (SBAH) is made and tested. The work consists of an effort to perceive the proportion of heat discharge and frictional behavior of air passing over a roughened rectangular channel. The absorber surface of SBAH is roughed with discrete V-down rib and staggered element roughness having different values of relative rib pitch (P/e) that ranged from 6 to 14. Fixed parameters such as relative gap size (g/e), relative staggered element pitch (P'/P), numeral of gaps (Ng), relative staggered element size (r/g), and relative rib height (e/D) are considered 4, 0.4, 3,1, and 0.0433, respectively, all throughout the study. The flow Reynolds number (Re) changes from 4000 to 14,000; consequently the Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) reach up to 2.16 and 2.73 times, respectively, with respect to plane surface. The optimum rise in terms of thermal-hydraulic performance (THP) is gained analogous to a P/e of 10. The correlation for heat transfer function, R(e[+]), and roughness function, G(e[+]), is given to anticipate the performance of roughness.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Voskoboinick V, Onyshchenko A, Voskoboinyk O, et al (2022)

Junction flow inside and around three-row cylindrical group on rigid flat surface.

Heliyon, 8(12):e12595 pii:S2405-8440(22)03883-X.

Groups of bluff bodies are widespread in nature and technology. These are the supports of bridge crossings, high-rise buildings in cities, offshore drilling and wind platforms, algae and vegetation in the seas and rivers, forests and other objects. The flow of air or water around such structures has a complex vortex and jet character and requires significant efforts in the process of scientific research to improve the environmental situation and reduce material and technical costs in the process of operating such structures. The purpose of the research is study the features of the generation and evolution of vortex and jet flows near and inside the three-row group of cylinders, which are installed on the rigid flat surface. The results of experimental studies showed that the flow around the group of cylinders had a complex unsteady nature, which is due to the interaction of vortex and jet flows typical flow elements with the three-row cylindrical group, which was located installed on the rigid flat surface. The three-row cylindrical group (31 piles with a diameter of 0.027 m) is a model of a bridge support, which was streamlined at a velocity of 0.06 m/s to 0.5 m/s (Reynolds number Red=(1600-6700) and Froude number Fr=(0.04-0.18)). Visual investigations and measurements of the velocity field were carried out inside and around the three-row structure. The features of the formation and evolution of vortex and jet flows inside and near the cylindrical group were established. Integral, spectral and correlation characteristics of the velocity fluctuation field were obtained. Mean, root-mean-square values of velocity and probability density functions of velocity fluctuations integrally displayed the changes in the velocity field in the spatial and temporal domain in the junction area of grillage and plate. The power spectral densities of velocity fluctuations and mutual correlation functions made it possible to study the features of the generation of the velocity fluctuation field in the frequency domain and its interrelationships in space. It was revealed that the velocity field inside the horseshoe vortex structures was multimodal. The spectral levels of velocity fluctuations at the periphery of the quasistable horseshoe vortex structures were higher than in the cores of these structures. The highest levels of the velocity fluctuation spectra were observed in front of the second lateral cylinder where the interaction of the vortex and jet flows took place. Discrete peaks in the spectral levels of velocity fluctuations are found at the frequencies of formation of large-scale wake vortices and the frequencies of formation of small-scale vortex structures of the shear layer, which are due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It has been established that the frequency of formation of shear layer vortices is (10-40) times higher than the frequency of formation of wake vortices.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Munusamy A, Barik D, Sharma P, et al (2023)

Performance analysis of parabolic type solar water heater by using copper-dimpled tube with aluminum coating.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

A solar water heater has been developed to convert solar radiation into heat for use in residential and commercial settings. The collector makes up the bulk of a solar water heating system. The solar energy is captured by the collector and transferred to the tube that delivers the working fluid, water. In addition to the collector's tube, which carries the working fluid, researchers have focused on the design of the collector's tube. This paper examines the performance of a parabolic plate solar water heater that uses a copper dimpled tube with aluminum-coated tube channels. During the test, the flow rate of base fluid was in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 kg/min in steps of 0.5. The performance of the solar water heater was also evaluated and verified using CFD. The test data such as friction factor, Reynolds number, uncertainty analysis, Nusselt number, solar collector efficiency, coefficient of convective heat transfer, linear dimpled tube velocity analysis, achieving maximum energy efficiency and thermal efficiency have been used to generate parametric values for parabolic plate solar water heaters. The results suggest that the best outcomes can be achieved with a mass flow rate of 2.5 kg/min and the overall thermal efficiency was raised to 31.85%, which is 11% greater than that of the plain tube with base fluid. At mass flow rates of 2.5 kg/min, the pressure drop was found to be 6.24% higher than that of 3.0 kg/min. The experimental results were analyzed and compared with the CFD results, and the overall deviation was ± 3.24% which is in the acceptable range.

RevDate: 2023-01-04

Kanies OS, Kremer KR, Mason BM, et al (2023)

A modular microfluidic device that uses magnetically actuatable microposts for enhanced magnetic bead-based workflows.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

Magnetic beads have been widely and successfully used for target enrichment in life science assays. There exists a large variety of commercially available magnetic beads functionalized for specific target capture, as well as options that enable simple surface modifications for custom applications. While magnetic beads are ideal for use in the macrofluidic context of typical laboratory workflows, their performance drops in microfluidic contexts, such as consumables for point-of-care diagnostics. A primary cause is the diffusion-limited analyte transport in these low Reynolds number environments. A new method, BeadPak, uses magnetically actuatable microposts to enhance analyte transport, improving yield of the desired targets. Critical parameters were defined for the operation of this technology and its performance characterized in canonical life-science assays. BeadPak achieved up to 1000× faster capture than a microfluidic chamber relying on diffusion alone, enabled a significant specimen concentration via volume reduction, and demonstrated compatibility with a range of biological specimens. The results shown in this work can be extended to other systems that utilize magnetic beads for target capture, concentration, and/or purification.

RevDate: 2023-01-04

Tingting Q, Jianzhong L, Zhenyu O, et al (2023)

Settling mode of a bottom-heavy squirmer in a narrow vessel.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

The lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary (IB-LB) method is used to numerically simulate the sedimentation motion of a single two-dimensional, bottom-heavy squirmer in a narrow vessel. The effects of the swimming Reynolds number Res = 0.1-3, eccentricity distance l = 0.15d-0.75d, and density ratio of squirmer to fluid γ = 1.1-2.0 on the settlement motion characteristics are investigated and analyzed. The results showed that four settling modes exist: vertical motion, unilateral oscillation, oscillation, and tilt. The bottom-heavy neutral squirmer and puller settle in the vessel during vertical motion when Res is 0.1-1.5. By increasing Res and swimming strength |β|, the bottom-heavy squirmer becomes more self-driven, shifting its settling mode from vertical motion to unilateral oscillation or oscillation. Increasing l or |β| does not affect the bottom-heavy neutral squirmer and puller's vertical settling mode but shifts the bottom-heavy pusher's settling mode from unilateral oscillation to oscillation or oscillation to unilateral oscillation. Similarly, altering γ or |β| has no impact on the eccentric neutral squirmer and puller's settling mode; however, pushers will switch from oscillation mode to attraction mode or from oscillation mode to tilt mode. Additionally, it was found that after the squirmer collided with the bottom wall, the bottom-heavy squirmer settled at the bottom of the vessel in a different state of motion.

RevDate: 2022-12-30

Abed AM, Mouziraji HR, Bakhshi J, et al (2022)

Numerical analysis of the energy-storage performance of a PCM-based triplex-tube containment system equipped with arc-shaped fins.

Frontiers in chemistry, 10:1057196.

This study numerically intends to evaluate the effects of arc-shaped fins on the melting capability of a triplex-tube confinement system filled with phase-change materials (PCMs). In contrast to situations with no fins, where PCM exhibits relatively poor heat response, in this study, the thermal performance is modified using novel arc-shaped fins with various circular angles and orientations compared with traditional rectangular fins. Several inline and staggered layouts are also assessed to maximize the fin's efficacy. The effect of the nearby natural convection is further investigated by adding a fin to the bottom of the heat-storage domain. Additionally, the Reynolds number and temperature of the heat-transfer fluid (HTF) are evaluated. The outcomes showed that the arc-shaped fins could greatly enhance the PCMs' melting rate and the associated heat-storage properties. The melting rate is 17% and 93.1% greater for the case fitted with an inline distribution of the fins with a circular angle of 90° and an upward direction, respectively, than the cases with uniform rectangular fins and no fins, which corresponded to the shorter melting time of 14.5% and 50.4%. For the case with arc-shaped fins with a 90° circular angle, the melting rate increases by 9% using a staggered distribution. Compared to the staggered fin distribution, adding an extra fin to the bottom of the domain indicates adverse effects. The charging time reduces by 5.8% and 9.2% when the Reynolds number (Re) rises from 500 to 1000 and 1500, respectively, while the heat-storage rate increases by 6.3% and 10.3%. When the fluid inlet temperature is 55°C or 50°C, compared with 45°C, the overall charging time increases by 98% and 47%, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-12-29

Issa M, Haupt D, Muddemann T, et al (2022)

Investigation of an electrolysis system with boron-doped diamond anode and gas diffusion cathode to remove water micropollutants.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 86(12):3236-3247.

Using electrolysis systems to degrade organics in wastewater encourages this technique to remove micropollutants (MPs) in different types of water. In this work, a cell consisting of an anode as a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode combined with a gas diffusion (GDE) cathode without a separator showed that MPs degradation can be effectively achieved. Investigating different operating parameters, it was stated that applying a low current density (2 mA/cm[2]) and setting the Reynolds number of the electrolyte flow through the cell at the laminar range raised the treatment time by 3-fold at the same energy demand. This arrangement increased the MPs removal. Some substances like diclofenac were removed up to 84% at a longer treatment time of 180 min coupled with an increase in energy demand. The results at the mentioned parameters indicated an adequate generation rate of radicals needed to remove MPs and the oxidation reactions were promoted. The results show high potential to the investigated electrolysis system in removing MPs in wastewater under considering the need for further reduction of the energy demand.

RevDate: 2022-12-27

Abbas Al-Amshawee SK, MY Bin Mohd Yunus (2022)

Electrodialysis desalination: The impact of solution flowrate (or Reynolds number) on fluid dynamics throughout membrane spacers.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)02442-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The incorporation of a spacer among membranes has a major influence on fluid dynamics and performance metrics. Spacers create feed channels and operate as turbulence promoters to increase mixing and reduce concentration/temperature polarization effects. However, spacer geometry remains unoptimized, and studies continue to investigate a wide range of commercial and custom-made spacer designs. The in-depth discussion of the present systematic review seeks to discover the influence of Reynolds number or solution flowrate on flow hydrodynamics throughout a spacer-filled channel. A fast-flowing solution sweeping one membrane's surface first, then the neighboring membrane's surface produces good mixing action, which does not happen commonly at laminar solution flowrates. A sufficient flowrate can suppress the polarization layer, which may normally require the utilization of a simple feed channel rather than complex spacer configurations. When a recirculation eddy occurs, it disrupts the continuous flow and effectively curves the linear fluid courses. The higher the flowrate, the better the membrane performance, the higher the critical flux (or recovery rate), and the lower the inherent limitations of spacer design, spacer shadow effect, poor channel hydrodynamics, and high concentration polarization. In fact, critical flow achieves an acceptable balance between improving flow dynamics and reducing the related trade-offs, such as pressure losses and the occurrence of concentration polarization throughout the cell. If the necessary technical flowrate is not used, the real concentration potential for transport is relatively limited at low velocities than would be predicted based on bulk concentrations. Electrodialysis stack therefore may suffer from the dissociation of water molecules. Next studies should consider that applying a higher flowrate results in greater process efficiency, increased mass transfer potential at the membrane interface, and reduced stack thermal and electrical resistance, where pressure drop should always be indicated as a consequence of the spacer and circumstances used, rather than a problem.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

de Timary G, Rousseau CJ, Van Melderen L, et al (2022)

Shear-enhanced sorting of ovoid and filamentous bacterial cells using pinch flow fractionation.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

In this paper, we experimentally investigate the influence of the flow rate on the trajectory of ovoid and filamentous bacterial cells of E. coli in a low aspect ratio pinch flow fractionation device. To that aim, we vary the Reynolds number over two orders of magnitude, while monitoring the dynamics of the cells across our device. At low flow rates, filamentous cells adopt several rotational motions in the pinched segment, which are induced both by the shear rate and by their close interactions with the nearest wall. As a result, the geometrical centre of the filamentous cells deviates towards the centre of the channel, which increases their effective sorting diameter depending on the length of their major axis as well as on the rotational mode they adopt in the pinch. As the flow rate increases, particles are forced to align vertically in the pinch, in the direction of the main shear gradient, which reduces the amplitude of the lateral deviation generated by their rotation. The trajectory of the particles in the expansion is directly determined by their position at the pinch outlet. As a consequence, the position of the filamentous cells at the outlet of the device strongly depends on the flow rate as well as on the length of their major axis. Based on these observations we optimized the flow conditions to successfully extract an ultra high purity sample of filamentous cells from a solution containing mainly ovoid cells.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Marnoto S, SM Hashmi (2022)

Application of droplet migration scaling behavior to microchannel flow measurements.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

In confined channels in low Reynolds number flow, droplets drift perpendicular to the flow, moving across streamlines. The phenomenon has proven useful for understanding microfluidic droplet separation, drug delivery vehicle optimization, and single-cell genomic amplification. Particles or droplets undergo several migration mechanisms including wall migration, hydrodynamic diffusion, and migration down gradients of shear. In simple shear flow only wall migration and hydrodynamic diffusion are present. In parabolic flow, droplets also move down gradients of shear. The resulting separation depends on parameters including particle size and stiffness, concentration, and flow rate. Computational methods can incorporate these effects in an exact manner to predict margination phenomena for specific systems, but do not generate a descriptive parametric dependence. In this paper, we present a scaling model that elucidates the parametric dependence of margination on emulsion droplet size, volume fraction, shear rate and suspending fluid viscosity. We experimentally measure the droplet depletion layer of silicone oil droplets and compare the results to theoretical scaling behavior that includes hydrodynamic diffusion and wall migration with and without an added shear-gradient migration. Results demonstrate the viability and limitations of applying a simple scaling behavior to experimental systems to describe parametric dependence. Our conclusions open the possibility for parametric descriptions of migration with broad applicability to particle and droplet systems.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Ayas M, Skočilas J, Štípek J, et al (2022)

An Approximate Method for Predicting the Friction Factor of Viscoplastic Shear-Thinning Fluids in Non-Circular Channels of Regular Cross-Sections.

Polymers, 14(24):.

The objective of this study is to provide a straightforward generalized simple and quick method for the prediction of the friction factor for fully developed laminar flow of viscoplastic shear-thinning fluids in non-circular channels of regular cross-sections. The most frequently represented substances processed under these conditions are polymers in the processing and plastics industry. A generalized approximate method was proposed to express the relationship between the friction factor and the Reynolds number for the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. This method uses the generalized Reynolds number for power-law fluids. Moreover, an additional simplified method for rapid engineering calculations was obtained as well. The suggested method was verified by comparing experimental data for concentric annulus found in the literature and results from simulations for concentric annulus, rectangular, square duct with a central cylindrical core and elliptical cross-sections. The results showed that the suggested methods enable us to estimate the friction factor with high accuracy for the investigated geometries.

RevDate: 2022-12-23
CmpDate: 2022-12-23

Moriconi L, RM Pereira (2022)

Statistics of extreme turbulent circulation events from multifractality breaking.

Physical review. E, 106(5-1):054121.

Recent numerical explorations of extremely intense circulation fluctuations at high Reynolds number flows have brought to light novel aspects of turbulent intermittency. Vortex gas modeling ideas, which are related to a picture of turbulence as a dilute system of vortex tube structures, have been introduced alongside such developments, leading to accurate descriptions of the core and the intermediate tails of circulation probability distribution functions (cPDFs), as well as the scaling exponents associated to statistical moments of circulation. We extend the predictive reach of the vortex gas picture of turbulence by emphasizing that multifractality breaking, one of its salient phenomenological ingredients, is the key concept to disclose the asymptotic form of cPDF tails. A remarkable analytical agreement is found with previous results derived within the framework of the instanton approach to circulation intermittency, a functional formalism devised to single out the statistically dominant velocity configurations associated to extreme circulation events.

RevDate: 2022-12-23
CmpDate: 2022-12-23

Maity R, PS Burada (2022)

Near- and far-field hydrodynamic interaction of two chiral squirmers.

Physical review. E, 106(5-1):054613.

Hydrodynamic interaction strongly influences the collective behavior of microswimmers. With this work, we study the behavior of two hydrodynamically interacting self-propelled chiral swimmers in the low Reynolds number regime, considering both the near- and far-field interactions. We use the chiral squirmer model [see Burada et al., Phys. Rev. E 105, 024603 (2022)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.105.024603], a spherically shaped body with nonaxisymmetric surface slip velocity, which generalizes the well-known squirmer model. The previous work was restricted only to the case, while the far-field hydrodynamic interaction was influential among the swimmers. It did not approach the scenario while both the swimmers are very close and lubrication effects become dominant. We calculate the lubrication force between the swimmers when they are very close. By varying the slip coefficients and the initial configuration of the swimmers, we investigate their hydrodynamic behavior. In the presence of lubrication force, the swimmers either repel each other or exhibit bounded motion where the distance between the swimmers alters periodically. We identify the possible behaviors exhibited by the chiral squirmers, such as monotonic divergence, divergence, and bounded, as was found in the previous study. However, in the current study, we observe that both the monotonic convergence and the convergence states are converted into divergence states due to the arising lubrication effects. The lubrication force favors the bounded motion in some parameter regimes. This study helps to understand the collective behavior of dense suspension of ciliated microorganisms and artificial swimmers.

RevDate: 2022-12-23
CmpDate: 2022-12-23

Lutz T, Richter SK, AM Menzel (2022)

Effect of boundaries on displacements and motion in two-dimensional fluid or elastic films and membranes.

Physical review. E, 106(5-1):054609.

Thin fluid or elastic films and membranes are found in nature and technology, for instance, as confinements of living cells or in loudspeakers. When applying a net force, the resulting flows in an unbounded two-dimensional incompressible low-Reynolds-number fluid or displacements in a two-dimensional linearly elastic solid seem to diverge logarithmically with the distance from the force center, which has led to some debate. Recently, we have demonstrated that such divergences cancel when the total (net) force vanishes. Here, we illustrate that if a net force is present, the boundaries play a prominent role. Already a single no-slip boundary regulates the flow and displacement fields and leads to their decay to leading order inversely in distance from a force center and the boundary. In other words, it is the boundary that stabilizes the system in this situation, unlike the three-dimensional case, where an unbounded medium by itself is able to absorb a net force. We quantify the mobility and displaceability of an inclusion as a function of the distance from the boundary, as well as interactions between different inclusions. In the case of free-slip boundary conditions, a kinked boundary is necessary to achieve stabilization.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Guan X, Xie Z, Nan G, et al (2022)

Thermal-Hydrodynamic Behavior and Design of a Microchannel Pin-Fin Hybrid Heat Sink.

Micromachines, 13(12):.

A three-dimensional convective heat transfer model of a microchannel pin-fin hybrid heat sink was established. Considering the non-uniform heat generation of 3D stacked chips, the splitting distance of pin-fins was optimized by minimizing the maximum heat sink temperature under different heat fluxes in the hotspot, the Reynolds numbers at the entrance of the microchannel, and the proportions of the pin-fin volume. The average pressure drop and the performance evaluation criteria were considered to be the performance indexes to analyze the influence of each parameter on the flow performance and comprehensive performance, respectively. The results showed that the maximum temperature of the hybrid heat sink attained a minimum value with an increase in the splitting distance. The average pressure drop in the center passage of the microchannel first increased and then decreased. Furthermore, the optimal value could not be simultaneously obtained with the maximum temperature. Therefore, it should be comprehensively considered in the optimization design. The heat flux in the hotspot was positively correlated with the maximum heat sink temperature. However, it had no effect on the flow pressure drop. When the Reynolds number and the pin-fin diameter increased, the maximum heat sink temperature decreased and the average pressure drop of the microchannel increased. The comprehensive performance of the hybrid heat sink was not good at small Reynolds numbers, but it significantly improved as the Reynolds number gradually increased. Choosing a bigger pin-fin diameter and the corresponding optimal value of the splitting distance in a given Reynolds number would further improve the comprehensive performance of a hybrid heat sink.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

Salman M, Chauhan R, Singh T, et al (2022)

Experimental investigation and optimization of dimple-roughened impinging jet solar air collector using a novel AHP-MABAC approach.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The effect of the flow and geometric parameters of a dimple-roughened absorber plate on the enactment of solar air collectors (SACs) with air-impinged jets was investigated in this study. The performance-defining criteria (PDCs) of a jet-impinged dimple-roughened SAC (JIDRSAC)-forced convection airflow system are significantly affected by variations in the system's control factors (CFs), such as the arc angle (αaa) ranging from 30° to 75°, dimple pitch ratio (pd/Dh) ranging from 0.269 to 1.08, and dimple height ratio (ed/Dh) ranging from 0.016 to 0.0324. The constant parameters of the jet slot are a stream-wise pitch ratio (Xi/Dhd) is 1.079, a span-wise pitch ratio (Yi/Dhd) is 1.619, and a jet diameter(Di/Dhd) is 0.081. Based on the combined approach of the analytic hierarchy process and multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (AHP-MABAC), the Reynolds number (Re) = 15,000, αaa = 60°, pd/Dh = 0.27, and ed/Dh = 0.027 depicted the best alternative (A-9) set among 16 alternatives to deliver the optimal performance of the JIDRSAC. The jet impingement pass compared to the smooth pass, the Nusselt number increased by 2.16-2.81, and friction factor increased by 3.35-5.95, and JIDRSAC was compared to the jet impingement pass, exhibiting an enhancement in Nusselt number and friction factor in the range of 0.55-0.80 and 0.05-0.15, respectively. In addition, sensitivity analysis is used to examine the ranking's stability and reliability in relation to the PDC weights.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )