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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jun 2020 at 01:52 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: asbestos AND mesothelioma NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Marsh GM, AM Ierardi (2020)

Confidence interval function analysis to evaluate the risk of mesothelioma among an expanded international cohort of cosmetic talc miners and millers.

Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP pii:S0273-2300(20)30122-7 [Epub ahead of print].

We used pooled data from international cosmetic talc miner/miller cohorts to determine whether hypothesized increased mesothelioma risks are consistent with the observed data. We evaluated the confidence interval function for the observed pooled mesothelioma SMRs (observed = 1; expected = 3.17, 3.34, or 3.60), and calculated the value of α for the upper 100(1 - 2α)% confidence limit that equals various SMRs of interest (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0). Using the mid-value estimate of expected number of cases (3.34) the probability (α) that the true mesothelioma SMR is at or above 2.0, or at or above 3.0 is 0.0096 and 0.0005, respectively. Thus, a mesothelioma SMR ≥2.0 is not compatible with the observed pooled data, providing further support for our conclusion that cosmetic talc exposure is not associated with an elevated risk of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Alghamdi ZM, Othman SA, Al-Yousef MJ, et al (2020)

Intrapulmonary location of benign solitary fibrous tumor.

Annals of thoracic medicine, 15(2):98-101.

Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are sporadic mesenchymal neoplasms that typically arise from visceral or parietal pleura. While accounting for <5% of all pleural tumors, SFTs are known to occur in nearly all bodily organs, including nasopharynx, bladder, prostate, soft tissue of neck, buttocks, extremities, and abdominal wall. Such tumors have been previously designated localized fibrous mesothelioma or pleural fibroma. SFTs have no genetic basis and are unrelated to environmental factors such as tobacco smoking or asbestos exposure. Herein, we describe a 24-year-old woman whose clinical presentation mimicked atypical carcinoid tumor. A diagnosis of intrapulmonary SFT was achieved by surgical resection.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Cellai F, Bonassi S, Cristaudo A, et al (2020)

Chromatographic Detection of 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine in Leukocytes of Asbestos Exposed Workers for Assessing Past and Recent Carcinogen Exposures.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(4):.

Asbestos fibers include a group of silicate minerals that occur in the environment and are widely employed in occupational settings. Asbestos exposure has been associated to various chronic diseases; such as pulmonary fibrosis; mesothelioma; and lung cancer; often characterized by a long period of latency. Underlying mechanisms that are behind the carcinogenic effect of asbestos have not been fully clarified. Therefore; we have conducted an epidemiological study to evaluate the relationship between 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), one of the most reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage; and asbestos exposure in the peripheral blood of residents in Tuscany and Liguria regions; Italy; stratified by occupational exposure to this carcinogen. Levels of 8-oxodG were expressed such as relative adduct labeling (RAL); the frequency of 8-oxodG per 105 deoxyguanosine was significantly higher among exposed workers with respect to the controls; i.e., 3.0 ± 0.2 Standard Error (SE) in asbestos workers versus a value of 1.3 ± 0.1 (SE) in unexposed controls (p < 0.001). When the relationship with occupational history was investigated; significant higher levels of 8-oxodG were measured in current and former asbestos workers vs. healthy controls; 3.1 ± 0.3 (SE) and 2.9 ± 0.2 (SE), respectively. After stratification for occupational history; a significant 194% excess of adducts was found in workers with 10 or more years of past asbestos exposure (p < 0.001). 8-oxodG can be used for medical surveillance programs of cohorts of workers with past and recent exposures to carcinogens for the identification of subjects requiring a more intense clinical surveillance.

RevDate: 2020-05-31

Korša L, Lukač A, Kovačević L, et al (2020)

Breast metastasis as the initial presentation of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

The breast journal [Epub ahead of print].

Metastatic involvement of the breast is far less common than primary breast carcinoma, comprising 0.5%-6.6% of all breast malignancies. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive tumor with higher incidence among men, particularly smokers, strongly associated with asbestos exposure. The epithelioid type of MPM can represent a diagnostic pitfall in this setting, as it shows similar histologic features to primary breast carcinoma as well as other metastatic epithelioid malignancies. We report a rare case of breast metastasis of malignant pleural mesothelioma in a 61-year-old female.

RevDate: 2020-05-30

Greimelmaier K, Wohlschläger J, Probst A, et al (2020)

[Mesothelial proliferation of the tunica vaginalis testis].

Der Pathologe pii:10.1007/s00292-020-00797-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Proliferative changes seen in reactive mesothelial hyperplasia of a hydrocele sac may mimic malignant mesothelioma. There is no immunohistochemical staining that reliably separates benign from malignant mesothelial proliferations. However, the combined analysis of BAP1 by immunohistochemistry and CDKN2A by FISH has been reported to yield both a high specificity and sensitivity in this differential diagnosis. In addition, the evaluation of risk factors such as asbestos exposure or prior traumata may be helpful for the correct diagnosis. Exclusion of stromal invasion, which is diagnostic for malign mesothelioma, is of utmost importance. Therefore, extended histological workup is essential.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Bolognesi C, Bruzzone M, Fontana V, et al (2019)

The Role of Micronucleus Assay to Detect Genetic Instability in Respiratory Cancer Patients.

Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer, 38(4):345-352.

Asbestos represents the main risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (PM) even if only a minority of exposed people develop this tumor, suggesting a significant role for genetic susceptibility. This study aims to evaluate micronuclei (MN) frequency as a biomarker of genome instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes of PM and lung cancer (LC) patients when compared with healthy controls (HCs) and patients with nonneoplastic respiratory diseases (RDs). Lymphocyte cytokinesis-block MN assay was carried out on 317 subjects. Mutagen sensitivity, measured by quantifying MN frequency after an in vitro challenge with ionizing radiation, was evaluated in 252 subjects. A significant increase in MN frequency was observed in cancer patients compared to HCs, with a mean ratio (MR) of 1.35 and 1.36 at baseline and 1.43 and 1.38 after irradiation in PM and LC patients, respectively. A positive (synergistic) interaction between asbestos exposure and disease status was observed for MN frequency after irradiation in PM patients with possible exposure to asbestos (MR = 1.62). The evidence of increased genetic damage in cancer cases confirms lymphocyte cytokinesis-block MN assay as a sensitive predictor of the role of genetic instability in carcinogenic processes.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Weber DG, Casjens S, Brik A, et al (2020)

Circulating long non-coding RNA GAS5 (growth arrest-specific transcript 5) as a complement marker for the detection of malignant mesothelioma using liquid biopsies.

Biomarker research, 8:15 pii:194.

Background: For the detection of malignant mesothelioma additional markers are needed besides the established panel consisting of calretinin and mesothelin. The aim of this study was the identification and verification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as complementing circulating markers.

Methods: Candidate lncRNAs were identified in silico using previously published RNA expression profiles and verified using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in mesothelioma cell lines as well as human plasma samples from mesothelioma patients and asbestos-exposed controls.

Results: GAS5 (growth arrest-specific transcript 5) as a single marker is marked by a low sensitivity of 14%, but the combination of GAS5 with calretinin and mesothelin increased the panel's sensitivity from 64 to 73% at a predefined specificity of 97%. Circulating GAS5 is not affected by pleurectomy before blood collection, age, or smoking status.

Conclusions: GAS5 is verified as an appropriate circulating marker for the supplement of calretinin and mesothelin to detect malignant mesothelioma. Although the sensitivity of GAS5 is too low for the use as a single marker, the addition of GAS5 as a third marker improves the performance of the established marker panel. The benefit of GAS5 for the detection of malignant mesothelioma at early stages needs to be validated in a prospective study.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Di Gilio A, Catino A, Lombardi A, et al (2020)

Breath Analysis for Early Detection of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Determination and Possible Biochemical Pathways.

Cancers, 12(5): pii:cancers12051262.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm, mainly caused by asbestos exposure, with a high mortality rate. The management of patients with MPM is controversial due to a long latency period between exposure and diagnosis and because of non-specific symptoms generally appearing at advanced stage of the disease. Breath analysis, aimed at the identification of diagnostic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) pattern in exhaled breath, is believed to improve early detection of MPM. Therefore, in this study, breath samples from 14 MPM patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were collected and analyzed by Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). Nonparametric test allowed to identify the most weighting variables to discriminate between MPM and HC breath samples and multivariate statistics were applied. Considering that MPM is an aggressive neoplasm leading to a late diagnosis and thus the recruitment of patients is very difficult, a promising data mining approach was developed and validated in order to discriminate between MPM patients and healthy controls, even if no large population data are available. Three different machine learning algorithms were applied to perform the classification task with a leave-one-out cross-validation approach, leading to remarkable results (Area Under Curve AUC = 93%). Ten VOCs, such as ketones, alkanes and methylate derivates, as well as hydrocarbons, were able to discriminate between MPM patients and healthy controls and for each compound which resulted diagnostic for MPM, the metabolic pathway was studied in order to identify the link between VOC and the neoplasm. Moreover, five breath samples from asymptomatic asbestos-exposed persons (AEx) were exploratively analyzed, processed and tested by the validated statistical method as blinded samples in order to evaluate the performance for the early recognition of patients affected by MPM among asbestos-exposed persons. Good agreement was found between the information obtained by gold-standard diagnostic methods such as computed tomography CT and model output.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Abbott DM, Bortolotto C, Benvenuti S, et al (2020)

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Genetic and Microenviromental Heterogeneity as an Unexpected Reading Frame and Therapeutic Challenge.

Cancers, 12(5): pii:cancers12051186.

Mesothelioma is a malignancy of serosal membranes including the peritoneum, pleura, pericardium and the tunica vaginalis of the testes. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare disease with a global incidence in countries like Italy of about 1.15 per 100,000 inhabitants. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common form of mesothelioma, accounting for approximately 80% of disease. Although rare in the global population, mesothelioma is linked to industrial pollutants and mineral fiber exposure, with approximately 80% of cases linked to asbestos. Due to the persistent asbestos exposure in many countries, a worldwide progressive increase in MPM incidence is expected for the current and coming years. The tumor grows in a loco-regional pattern, spreading from the parietal to the visceral pleura and invading the surrounding structures that induce the clinical picture of pleural effusion, pain and dyspnea. Distant spreading and metastasis are rarely observed, and most patients die from the burden of the primary tumor. Currently, there are no effective treatments for MPM, and the prognosis is invariably poor. Some studies average the prognosis to be roughly one-year after diagnosis. The uniquely poor mutational landscape which characterizes MPM appears to derive from a selective pressure operated by the environment; thus, inflammation and immune response emerge as key players in driving MPM progression and represent promising therapeutic targets. Here we recapitulate current knowledge on MPM with focus on the emerging network between genetic asset and inflammatory microenvironment which characterize the disease as amenable target for novel therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2020-05-08

Kilitci A, Uygun N, ML Emir (2020)

Sarcomatoid Type of Paratesticular Malignant Mesothelioma in a Dry-Cleaning Worker Exposed to Asbestos and Diagnostic Value of WT-1.

Puerto Rico health sciences journal, 39(1):39-44.

Of the 3 major histologic types of malignant paratesticular mesothelioma (MPM) (epithelial, sarcomatoid, and biphasic), many cases of epithelial and biphasic mesothelioma have been reported in the literature. Pure sarcomatoid MPM is the least common but the most aggressive of the 3 major histologic types of mesothelioma cells. It is limited to only 2 cases in the literature The sarcomatoid type of MPM can be confused clinically and histologically with true sarcomas because it is rarely seen. We present a case who had been exposed to asbestos for years due to his involvement in the dry-cleaning industry and who was diagnosed with the sarcomatoid type of MPM but had a relatively prolonged survival not usually seen with this tumor. This report also emphasizes the significance of an immunohistochemical examination, focusing especially on the diagnostic role of WT-1.

RevDate: 2020-05-08

Zhang G, Yang DL, Zheng G, et al (2020)

Survivin expression as an independent predictor of overall survival in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

Oncology letters, 19(6):3871-3880.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is an incurable cancer strongly associated with asbestos exposure and characterised by poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the prognostic and predictive value of CD146 and survivin expression in MPeM. Diagnostic biopsies from 60 patients with MPeM were collected and analysed for CD146, survivin and Ki-67 expression using immunohistochemistry. Complete clinical and follow-up information was obtained from patients' records. CD146 was expressed in 31/60 MPeM specimens and survivin in 34/60 specimens, with both expression levels being significantly associated with the Ki-67 labelling index (Ki-67LI). Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox regression analyses revealed that a lower peritoneal cancer index (PCI), tumour-directed treatment, stage I, lower Ki-67LI and lower CD146 and survivin expression had a statistically positive effect on overall survival (OS). Cox regression analysis revealed that PCI [hazard ratio (HR)=1.99; 95% CI, 1.04-3.83; P=0.038], survivin (HR=1.47; 95% CI, 1.03-2.10; P=0.034) and treatment protocol including intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HR=0.28; 95% CI, 0.14-0.57; P=0.013) and systemic chemotherapy (HR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.42; P=0.013) retained independent prognostic significance for OS. All of these were included in the nomogram. Calibration curves showed good agreement between nomogram-predicted and observed survival. The C-index of the nomogram for predicting OS was 0.77. A lower PCI, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, systemic chemotherapy and a lower level of survivin were powerful prognostic markers in patients with MPeM. The proposed nomogram provides individual survival prediction for patients with MPeM.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Barbieri PG, Calisti R, Silvestri S, et al (2020)

[About the asbestos and the Position Paper on asbestos of the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine].

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 44(1):73-83.

The SIML Position Paper dedicated to asbestos (PPA) is addressed (mainly) to competent practitioners (CP) for the purposes to provide a guidance about a set of items classified as markedly interesting: the actuality of asbestos exposure and the evaluation of the related risk; the diagnosis of the asbestos related diseases; the shape of the risk functions (namely about mesotheliomas); the causal relationship between exposure and disease; the medical surveillance of the workers currently and previously exposed. The scientific literature doesn't acknowledge the idea that nowadays in Italy the frequency of pleural mesotheliomas deriving from environmental asbestos from outdoor sources exposures is really a relevant item. Inside the SIML PPA the chapter concerning industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring themes shows inaccuracies and deficiencies, so resulting of scarce utility for the CPs that should be called for a more cooperative role in front of the employers. The arguments of the diagnosis of the asbestos related diseases is developed with an undue emphasis upon the differential histological diagnosis of asbestosis and, especially, of pleural mesothelioma: nosographic aspects that hardly are posed to the attention of the CP. A similar emphasis is posed towards the shape of the risk function for pleural mesothelioma, a theme absent from the current practice of the CP such as of other occupational practitioners. In conclusion, next to themes of undoubted interest for the PC, the SIML PPA dwells on the scrutiny of some topics representing critical elements of the current contrast between consultants and valuers in the context of criminal prosecutions: subjects having forensic relevance but far from the "application actuality" for the CP invoked in the PPA. A greater transparency, last but not least, was to have been posed, inside the SIML PPA, in the disclosure of the conflict of interests (COIs) of some Authors, declaring their consultancy in favour of companies.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Marinaccio A, Corfiati M, Binazzi A, et al (2020)

The epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma in Italy (1993-2015): methods, findings, and research perspectives.

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 44(1):23-30.

BACKGROUND: as a legacy of the large asbestos consumption until the definitive ban in 1992, Italy had to tackle a real epidemic of asbestos related diseases. The Italian National Registry of Malignant Mesotheliomas (ReNaM) is a permanent surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, with a regional structure. Aims, assignments and territorial network of ReNaM are described, as well as data collection, recording and coding procedures.

OBJECTIVES: to describe the Italian epidemiological surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, to provide updated data about occurrence of malignant mesothelioma in Italy, and to discuss goals, attainments, and expectations of registering occupational cancer.

DESIGN: analysis of data by malignant mesothelioma incident cases surveillance system.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Italy, network of regional surveillance system, all Italian regions.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: a Regional Operating Centre (COR) is currently established in all the Italian regions, actively searching incident malignant mesothelioma cases from health care institutions. Occupational history, lifestyle habits, and residential history are obtained using a standardized questionnaire, administered to the subject or to the next of kin by a trained interviewer. The extent of dataset, epidemiological parameters, and occupations involved are reported updated at 31.12.2016, and standardized incidence rates are calculated.

RESULTS: at December 2016, ReNaM has collected 27,356 malignant mesothelioma cases, referring to the period of incidence between 1993 and 2015. The modalities of exposure to asbestos have been investigated for 21,387 (78%) and an occupational exposure has been defined for around 70% of defined cases (14,818).

CONCLUSIONS: the Italian experience shows that epidemiological systematic surveillance of asbestos related diseases incidence has a key importance for assessing and monitoring the public health impact of occupational and/or environmental hazards, programming preventive interventions, including remediation plans and information campaigns, and supporting the efficiency of insurance and welfare system. Monitoring the incidence of malignant mesothelioma through a specialized cancer registry is essential to follow-up the health effects of changing modalities and extent of occupational exposures over years and of environmental contamination. Such consolidated surveillance system is recommended also for occupational cancers with low aetiological fraction.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Campanella NC, Silva EC, Dix G, et al (2020)

Mutational Profiling of Driver Tumor Suppressor and Oncogenic Genes in Brazilian Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas.

Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology pii:000507373 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly lethal disease comprising a heterogeneous group of tumors with challenging to predict biological behavior. The diagnosis is complex, and the histologic classification includes 2 major subtypes of MPM: epithelioid (∼60% of cases) and sarcomatous (∼20%). Its identification depends upon pathological investigation supported by clinical and radiological evidence and more recently ancillary molecular testing. Treatment options are currently limited, with no known targeted therapies available.

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the mutation profile of driver tumor suppressor and oncogenic genes in a cohort of Brazilian patients.

METHODS: We sequenced 16 driver genes in a series of 43 Brazilian malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients from 3 distinct Brazilian centers. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue blocks, and the TERT promoter region was amplified by PCR followed by direct capillary sequencing. The Illumina TruSight Tumor 15 was used to evaluate 250 amplicons from 15 genes associated with solid tumors (AKT1, GNA11, NRAS, BRAF, GNAQ, PDGFRA, EGFR, KIT, PIK3CA, ERBB2, KRAS, RET, FOXL2, MET,and TP53). Library preparation with the TruSight Tumor 15 was performed before sequencing at the MiSeq platform. Data analysis was performed using Sophia DDM software.

RESULTS: Out of 43 MPM patients, 38 (88.4%) were epithelioid subtype and 5 (11.6%) were sarcomatoid histotype. Asbestos exposure was present in 15 (39.5%) patients with epithelioid MPM and 3 (60%) patients with sarcomatoid MPM. We found a TERT promoter mutation in 11.6% of MM, and the c.-146C>T mutation was the most common event. The next-generation sequencing was successful in 33 cases. A total of 18 samples showed at least 1 pathogenic, with a median of 1.8 variants, ranging from 1 to 6. The most mutated genes were TP53 and ERBB2 with 7 variants each, followed by NRAS BRAF, PI3KCA, EGFR and PDGFRA with 2 variants each. KIT, AKT1, and FOXL2 genes exhibited 1 variant each. Interestingly, 2 variants observed in the PDGFRA gene are classic imatinib-sensitive therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that Brazilian MPM harbor mutation in classic tumor suppressor and oncogenic genes, which might help in the guidance of personalized treatment of MPM.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Fadel M, Evanoff BA, Andersen JH, et al (2020)

Not just a research method: If used with caution, can job-exposure matrices be a useful tool in the practice of occupational medicine and public health?.

The recent editorial by Dr Susan Peters "Although a valuable method in occupational epidemiology, job-exposure matrices are no magic fix" ably describes the strengths and limitations of job- exposure matrix (JEM) approaches in occupational epidemiology research (1). In addition to their use in research, we would like to add that JEM may also be of use in compensation and surveillance efforts in occupational health. JEM could assist the compensation process by supporting the assessment of relevant exposures related to specific health conditions (2). The potential usefulness of a JEM as a decision tool for compensation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders has been examined (3). Because occupational diseases are often under-recognized, another practical application is using a JEM to screen for occupational exposures as part of health surveillance. Use of JEM to screen for asbestos and wood dust exposure in the clinical setting has shown promising results (4-6). By summarizing multiple exposures at a job level (7), JEM may also assist policy-makers in setting priorities for hazards and controls at work, as well as occupational practitioners to target prevention efforts and direct the conduct of more precise exposure measures to particular jobs. Sharing JEM across different countries may be useful in providing estimates of exposures across larger populations to calculate global burden of disease related to occupational exposure. The JEMINI (JEM InterNatIonal) initiative was launched to explore the possibility of developing international JEM that could be used across countries (8). Beginning with physical (biomechanical) exposures, this open group has started homogenizing job coding systems and comparing some available JEM. Estimating differences in the level of exposure between countries will require much more work, without guaranteed success. As Peters mentioned, many limitations exist in the use of JEM. Users of JEM must consider the source of exposure data - expert assessments, data collected from individual workers, or environmental sampling. The coding of occupations is time consuming and can introduce error (9), and more testing of and comparison with automated job coding systems is needed (10). JEM reflect an "average" level of exposure within a job at the expense of individual variation. At population level, JEM can offer a useful estimate of exposures. If used at an individual level in a clinical or compensation setting, JEM cannot replace the professionals involved in exposure assessment but may help them focus their action more effectively on complex situations that require their expertise. In conclusion, these JEM developed for research might also be used as a public health tool, provided that their limitations are properly taken into account. References 1. Peters S. Although a valuable method in occupational epidemiology, job-exposure matrices are no magic fix. Scand J Work Environ Health 2020;46:2314. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3894 2. Kerbrat J, Descatha A. (The recognition of health consequences of difficult working conditions in France and its evaluation with the use of a job-exposure matrix). Arch Mal Prof Environ. 2018;79:493500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.admp.2017.12.001 3. Fadel M, Valter R, Quignette A, Descatha A. Usefulness of a job-exposure matrix « MADE » as a decision tool for compensation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Eur J Public Health 2019;29:86870. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cky274 4. Lorentz E, Despreaux T, Quignette A, Chinet T, Descatha A. (Screening of occupational exposure to asbestos and silica by job-exposure matrix among patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma). Rev Mal Respir. 2019;36:108895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmr.2019.08.006 5. Imbernon E, Goldberg M, Spyckerell Y, Steinmetz J, Bonenfant S, Fournier B. (Use of a job-exposure matrix for the screening of occupational exposure to asbestos). Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2004;52:717. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0398-7620(04)99018-9 6. Carton M, Bonnaud S, Nachtigal M, Serrano A, Carole C, Bonenfant S, et al. Post-retirement surveillance of workers exposed to asbestos or wood dust: first results of the French national SPIRALE Program. Epidemiol Prev. 2011;35:31523. 7. Guéguen A, Goldberg M, Bonenfant S, Martin JC. Using a representative sample of workers for constructing the SUMEX French general population based job-exposure matrix. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:58693. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2003.010660 8. Descatha A, Evanoff BA, Andersen JH, Fadel M, Ngabirano L, Leclerc A, et al. JEMINI (Job Exposure Matrix InterNatIonal) Initiative: a Utopian Possibility for Helping Occupational Exposure Assessment All Around the World? J Occup Environ Med. 2019;61:e3201. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001631 9. Petersen SB, Flachs EM, Svendsen SW, Marott JL, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Hansen J, et al. Influence of errors in job codes on job exposure matrix-based exposure assessment in the register-based occupational cohort DOC*X. Scand J Work Environ Health 2020;46:25967. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3857 10. Buckner-Petty S, Dale AM, Evanoff BA. Efficiency of autocoding programs for converting job descriptors into standard occupational classification (SOC) codes. Am J Ind Med. 2019;62:5968. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22928.

RevDate: 2020-05-04

Trama A, Proto C, Signorelli D, et al (2020)

Treatment patterns among patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: An Italian, population-based nationwide study.

Thoracic cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. Centralization of rare cancer in dedicated centers is recommended to ensure expertise, multidisciplinarity and access to innovation. In Italy, expert centers for MPM have not been identified in all regions. We aimed to describe the treatment patterns among MPM patients across different Italian regions and to identify factors associated with the treatment patterns across the regions.

METHODS: We performed an observational study on a random sample of 2026 MPM patients diagnosed in 2003-2008. We included 26 population-based registries covering 70% of the Italian population. To identify factors associated with treatment patterns, across the different regions, we fitted a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted by age, sex, stage, histology and hospital with thoracic surgical department.

RESULTS: MPM patients mostly received chemotherapy alone (41%) or no cancer-directed therapy (36%) especially the older patients. The first course of treatment for MPM patients differed across regions. Patients from Piedmont, Liguria and Campania were more likely to receive no cancer-directed therapy; those living in Tuscany and Sicily were more likely to get surgery; patients from Marche and Lazio were more likely to receive chemotherapy. These differences were not explained by age, sex, stage, histology and availability of a thoracic surgery department.

CONCLUSIONS: There is limited expertise available and lack of a network able to maximize the expertise available may contribute to explaining the results of our study. Our findings support the need to ensure the appropriate care of all MPM patients in reorganizing the health care services.

KEY POINTS: Significant findings of the study: MPM patients mostly received chemotherapy alone or no cancer-directed therapy especially the older patients. The first course of treatment for MPM patients differed across Italian regions.

WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Differences in MPM clinical management are not explained by the age, stage, histology nor by the availability of a thoracic surgery department. Limited expertise for MPM contribute to explaining the unequal access to appropriate care for MPM patients in Italy.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Dyer C (2020)

Doctor with mesothelioma wins settlement for asbestos exposure in late 1990s.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 369:m1783.

RevDate: 2020-04-30

Angelini A, Chellini E, Parducci D, et al (2020)

.

La Medicina del lavoro, 111(2):126-132.

BACKGROUND: The Tuscan Regional Operating Center (ROC) of Malignant Mesotheliomas has identified a cluster of 11 cases of malignant mesothelioma occurred in a textile plant manufacturing sewing thread. Using the common research method, the ROC had not previously been able to identify the specific sources of asbestos exposure causing such a large cluster.

OBJECTIVES: The ROC's objective was to review all cases of the cluster and to better identify their occupational asbestos exposures.

METHODS: The cases' occupational histories of asbestos exposure have been reviewed, using information deriving from the annual reports sent to the Tuscany Region since 1988 by all the asbestos removal companies according to the Law no. 257/1992, article 9, and from interviews to former employees of the plant.

RESULTS: The work cycle has been reconstructed and enriched with the new information about the asbestos presence and its uses in the plant. The eleven cases were all reclassified as "certainly occupational exposed" given that the new collected information depicted a widespread asbestos pollution of the workplace during the period of employment of all cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Using different sources of information, in addition to those traditionally collected through questionnaires, to reconstruct past asbestos exposuresallowed us to clarify the existence of the cluster of mesothelioma cases and the highest level of occupational asbestos exposure was attributed to all cases with consequent activation of the medico-legal procedure.

RevDate: 2020-04-29

Lacerenza S, Ciregia F, Giusti L, et al (2020)

Putative Biomarkers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Suggested by Proteomic Analysis of Cell Secretome.

Cancer genomics & proteomics, 17(3):225-236.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) a rare neoplasm linked to asbestos exposure is characterized by a poor prognosis. Soluble mesothelin is currently considered the most specific diagnostic biomarker. The aim of the study was to identify novel biomarkers by proteomic analysis of two MPM cell lines secretome.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protein patterns of MPM cells secretome were examined and compared to a non-malignant mesothelial cell line using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. Serum levels of candidate biomarkers were determined in MPM patients and control subjects.

RESULTS: Two up-regulated proteins involved in cancer biology, prosaposin and quiescin Q6 sulfhydryl oxidase 1, were considered candidate biomarkers. Serum levels of both proteins were significantly higher in MPM patients than control subjects. Combining the data of each receiver-operating characteristic analysis predicted a good diagnostic accuracy.

CONCLUSION: A panel of the putative biomarkers represents a promising tool for MPM diagnosis.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Ahmadzada T, Kao S, Reid G, et al (2020)

Extracellular vesicles as biomarkers in malignant pleural mesothelioma: A review.

Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 150:102949 pii:S1040-8428(20)30087-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted by all cells, including cancer cells, as a mode of intercellular transport and communication. The main types of EV known to date include exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, as well as oncosomes and large oncosomes, which are specific to cancer cells. These different EV populations carry specific cargo from one cell to another to stimulate a specific response. They can be found in all body fluids and can be detected in liquid biopsies. EV released from mesothelioma cells can reveal important information about the molecules and signalling pathways involved in the development and progression of the tumour. The presence of tumour-derived EV in circulating body fluids makes them potential novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognostication and surveillance of cancer. In this review, we explore the characteristics and functional roles of EV reported in the literature, with a focus on their role in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Filetti V, Falzone L, Rapisarda V, et al (2020)

Modulation of microRNA expression levels after naturally occurring asbestiform fibers exposure as a diagnostic biomarker of mesothelial neoplastic transformation.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 198:110640 pii:S0147-6513(20)30479-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a silicate mineral identified in the lava products of Monte Calvario from stone quarries located in the southeast of Biancavilla, a small city of the Etnean volcanic complex (Sicily, Italy). Inhalation of FE fibers has been associated with a higher incidence of Malignant Mesothelioma (MM), a highly aggressive neoplasm of the serosal membranes lining the pleural cavity. Only 5% of MM patients are diagnosed at an early stage and the median survival is approximate 6-12 months. Many diagnostic biomarkers have been proposed for MM. Several studies demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may be used as good non-invasive diagnostics, as well as prognostic biomarkers for various human diseases, including cancer. On these bases, the aim of the present study was to identify a set of miRNAs involved in the development and progression of MM and potentially used as diagnostic biomarkers. For these purposes, in silico analyses were performed on healthy/exposed to asbestos fibers subjects vs. patients with MM. These analyses revealed a set of miRNAs strictly involved in MM by merging the lists of miRNAs found differentially expressed in the three miRNA expression datasets analyzed. The result of these computational evaluations allowed the execution of functional in vitro experiments performed on normal pleural mesothelial cell line (MeT-5A) and MM cell line (JU77) in order to test the carcinogenetic effects and epigenetic modulation induced by FE exposure. The in vitro results showed that the expression levels of hsa-miR-323a-3p vary significantly in both supernatant- and cell-derived miRNAs derived from treated and untreated cells. Secreted and cellular hsa-miR-101-3p in MeT-5A treated with FE fibers and JU77 cells showed different trends of expression. As regard hsa-miR-20b-5p, there was no differential expression between secreted and cellular hsa-miR-20b-5p. This miRNA has been shown a significant up-regulation in JU77 cells vs. control and treated MeT-5A. As a future plan, translational analyses will be performed on a subset of patients chronically exposed to FE fibers to further verify the clinical role of such miRNAs in high-risk individuals and their possible use as biomarkers of FE exposure or MM early onset.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Girardi P, Merler E, Ferrante D, et al (2020)

Factors Affecting Asbestosis Mortality Among Asbestos-Cement Workers in Italy.

Annals of work exposures and health pii:5824475 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed with the aim of investigating the temporal patterns and determinants associated with mortality from asbestosis among 21 cohorts of Asbestos-Cement (AC) workers who were heavily exposed to asbestos fibres.

METHODS: Mortality for asbestosis was analysed for a cohort of 13 076 Italian AC workers (18.1% women). Individual cumulative asbestos exposure index was calculated by factory and period of work weighting by the different composition of asbestos used (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile). Two different approaches to analysis, based on Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Age-Period-Cohort (APC) models were applied.

RESULTS: Among the considered AC facilities, asbestos exposure was extremely high until the end of the 1970s and, due to the long latency, a peak of asbestosis mortality was observed after the 1990s. Mortality for asbestosis reached extremely high SMR values [SMR: males 508, 95% confidence interval (CI): 446-563; females 1027, 95% CI: 771-1336]. SMR increased steeply with the increasing values of cumulative asbestos exposure and with Time Since the First Exposure. APC analysis reported a clear age effect with a mortality peak at 75-80 years; the mortality for asbestosis increased in the last three quintiles of the cumulative exposure; calendar period did not have a significant temporal component while the cohort effect disappeared if we included in the model the cumulative exposure to asbestos.

CONCLUSIONS: Among heaviest exposed workers, mortality risk for asbestosis began to increase before 50 years of age. Mortality for asbestosis was mainly determined by cumulative exposure to asbestos.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Ferrari L, Carugno M, Mensi C, et al (2020)

Circulating Epigenetic Biomarkers in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: State of the Art and critical Evaluation.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:445.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer, which originates from the mesothelial cells of the pleura and is associated with asbestos exposure. In light of its aggressive nature, late diagnosis and dismal prognosis, there is an urgent need for identification of biomarkers in easily accessible samples (such as blood) for early diagnosis of MPM. In the last 10 years, epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs), have gained popularity as possible early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer research. The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the current evidences on circulating epigenetic biomarkers for MPM and on their translational potential to the clinical practice for early diagnosis and for prognosis.

RevDate: 2020-04-20

Sturchio E, Berardinelli MG, Boccia P, et al (2020)

MicroRNAs diagnostic and prognostic value as predictive markers for malignant mesothelioma.

Archives of environmental & occupational health [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor resistant to current therapies with a latency period ranging between 20 and 60 years, caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers, that continues to represent a social and healthcare issue. The high percentage of people exposed to asbestos for professional or environmental reasons is associated with the high biopersistence of its fibers and with its widespread use in the last century. Approximately 20-40% of men report an occupational history that might have caused the workplace exposure (criteria Helsinki, 1997). Some authors are evaluating the possible use of bioindicators as a screening and early diagnosis tool. In this regard, the use of microRNAs has been proposed as powerful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for many tumors and human diseases. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on the key role of microRNAs expression as new malignant mesothelioma biomarkers, in early clinical diagnostic applications.

RevDate: 2020-04-17

Barbarino M, Cesari D, Bottaro M, et al (2020)

PRMT5 silencing selectively affects MTAP-deleted mesothelioma: In vitro evidence of a novel promising approach.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive asbestos-related cancer of the serous membranes. Despite intensive treatment regimens, MM is still a fatal disease, mainly due to the intrinsic resistance to current therapies and the lack of predictive markers and new valuable molecular targets. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) inhibition has recently emerged as a potential therapy against methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP)-deficient cancers, in which the accumulation of the substrate 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) inhibits PRMT5 activity, thus sensitizing the cells to further PRMT5 inhibition. Considering that the MTAP gene is frequently codeleted with the adjacent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) locus in MM, we assessed whether PRMT5 could represent a therapeutic target also for this cancer type. We evaluated PRMT5 expression, the MTAP status and MTA content in normal mesothelial and MM cell lines. We found that both administration of exogenous MTA and stable PRMT5 knock-down, by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), selectively reduced the growth of MTAP-deleted MM cells. We also observed that PRMT5 knock-down in MTAP-deficient MM cells reduced the expression of E2F1 target genes involved in cell cycle progression and of factors implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Therefore, PRMT5 targeting could represent a promising new therapeutic strategy against MTAP-deleted MMs.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Vimercati L, Cavone D, Delfino MC, et al (2020)

Asbestos Air Pollution: Description of a Mesothelioma Cluster Due to Residential Exposure from an Asbestos Cement Factory.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(8): pii:ijerph17082636.

The study describes a cluster of 71 malignant mesothelioma cases among Bari residents without asbestos exposure other than residential exposure. This small cohort, as expected, was composed of a majority of females (56.34%) with a M/F ratio of 0.8, ages ≤ 65 years old (52.11%) and the epithelioid morphological type (78.87%). Sixty-four subjects (90.14%) lived between 10 m and 1000 m from the asbestos cement factory (Fibronit), and the latency length was longer than 55 years for 25 subjects (35.21%). The adjusted risk (adjusted OR) of observing the epithelial form of mesothelioma among subjects living at small distances from Fibronit was high (OR = 1.870 (0.353-9.905)) for people living 550-1000 m from the site and for those living less than 550 m from the site (OR = 1.470 (0.262-8.248)). Additionally, the subjects with a high length of exposure showed a relevant risk of epithelioid mesothelioma both for 21-40 years of exposure (OR = 2.027 (0.521-7.890)) and more than 40 years of exposure (OR = 2.879 (0.651-12.736)). All of the estimates were high but not significant because this transitional study has a typically low power. The adjustment for latency showed the same trend. Using detailed information collected by the regional mesothelioma registry, this study provided evidence of a continuing health impact of the Fibronit asbestos cement factory in Bari on the resident population.

RevDate: 2020-04-13

Metintas S, Ak G, M Metintas (2020)

Potential years of life and productivity loss due to malignant mesothelioma in Turkey.

Archives of environmental & occupational health [Epub ahead of print].

The study aimed to calculate years of life lost (YLL) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to malignant mesothelioma (MM) in Turkey. YLL was computed by estimating the difference between age at death due to MM and the expected death age. To calculate YPLL, all deaths above 65 years (retirement age) were disregarded. Of the 5,617 deaths due to MM in the study period, 3,241 (57.70%) were male and 2,376 (42.30%) were female. The median YLL and YPLL were 16.58 and 25.13 for males and 19.83 and 28.50 years for females. YLL and YPLL were shorter in males than females (p < 0.001). Premature mortality cost per death was $ 45,963.57 (2.23 times higher for males). MM is associated with high YLL, YPLL and economic burden in a country with environmental asbestos exposure in the rural areas.

RevDate: 2020-04-07

Marinaccio A, Consonni D, Mensi C, et al (2020)

Association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis malignant mesothelioma: a case-control study and epidemiological remarks.

Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health pii:3895 [Epub ahead of print].

Objectives The purposes of this study are to describe the epidemiology of pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma and assess the role of asbestos exposure for these rare diseases. Methods Based on incident pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma cases collected from the Italian national mesothelioma registry (ReNaM) in the period 1993-2015, incidence rates, survival median period and prognostic factors have been evaluated. A case-control study has been performed to analyze the association with asbestos exposure (occupational and non-occupational) for these diseases. Results Between 1993 and 2015, 58 pericardial (20 women and 38 men) and 80 tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma cases have been registered with a mean annual standardized (world standard population as reference) incidence rates of 0.049 (per million) in men and 0.023 in women for the pericardial site, and 0.095 for tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma. Occupational exposure to asbestos was significantly associated with the risk of the diseases [odds ratio (OR) 3.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-7.31 and OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.93-6.04 in pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma, respectively]. The median survival was 2.5 months for pericardial and 33.0 months for tunica vaginalis testis mesotheliomas. Age was the main predictive factor for survival for both anatomical sites. Conclusions For the first time in an analytical study, asbestos exposure was associated with pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma risk, supporting the causal role of asbestos for all anatomical sites. The extreme rarity of the diseases, the poor survival and the prognostic role of age have been confirmed based on population and nationwide mesothelioma registry data.

RevDate: 2020-04-06

Lau B, Boyer M, Lee JH, et al (2020)

Clinical Trials Eligibility of Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Use of Novel Therapies and Outcomes.

Clinical lung cancer pii:S1525-7304(20)30007-3 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Studies of bevacizumab and pembrolizumab in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma suggest anticancer efficacy; clinical trial populations are not reflective of real-world patients. We aimed to determine the proportion of real-world patients who would be eligible for trials, identify patients who participated in clinical trials, and examine treatment and outcome data.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma seen at our center from January 2012 to July 2018 were assessed with regards to their eligibility for Mesothelioma Avastin Cisplatin Study (MAPS) and KEYNOTE-028 clinical trials. Prognostic information, treatment use, and overall survival (OS) data were also collected.

RESULTS: A total of 133 patients were included: 50% and 37%, respectively, did not meet trial eligibility for MAPS or KEYNOTE-028, most commonly owing to age ≥75 (23%), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≥2 (21%), concomitant medication (21%), or comorbidity (12%). MAPS eligibility did not correlate with use of bevacizumab (P = .30) or improved OS (P = .87). Eligibility for KEYNOTE-028 correlated with pembrolizumab use (P < .001), but not improved OS (P = .21). Patients who received an investigational anticancer therapy on any clinical trial had improved OS: 32.4 (95% CI, 23.9-40.9) months versus 20.5 (95% CI, 15.8-25.3) months (P = .01).

CONCLUSION: Only ≤63% of our patients were eligible for these trials, highlighting the differences between real-world patients and the highly select trial population. Our patients who participated in clinical trials had superior OS, further emphasizing the selection bias in the trial population.

RevDate: 2020-04-05

Okazaki Y, Chew SH, Nagai H, et al (2020)

Overexpression of miR-199/214 is a distinctive feature of iron- and asbestos-induced sarcomatoid mesothelioma in rats.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is one of the most lethal tumors in humans. The onset of MM is linked to exposure to asbestos, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are believed to be derived from the frustrated phagocytosis and the iron in asbestos. To explore the pathogenesis of MM, peritoneal MM was induced in rats by the repeated intraperitoneal injection of iron saccharate and nitrilotriacetate. In this study, we employed microarray techniques to screen the microRNA (miR) expression profiles of these MMs. We observed that the histological type impacted the hierarchical clustering of miR expression profiles and determined that miR-199/214 is a distinctive feature of iron saccharate-induced sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM). Twist1, a transcriptional regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), has been shown to activate miR-199/214 transcription; thus, the expression level of Twist1 was examined in iron-induced and asbestos-induced mesotheliomas in rats. Twist1 was exclusively expressed in iron saccharete-induced SMs but not in the epithelioid subtype. The Twist1-miR-199/214 axis is activated in iron saccharate- and asbestos-induced SM. The expression levels of miR-214 and Twist1 were correlated in an asbestos-induced MM cell line, suggesting that the Twist1-miR-199/214 axis is preserved. MeT5A, an immortalized human mesothelial cell line, was used for the functional analysis of miR. The overexpression of miR-199/214 promoted cellular proliferation, mobility and phosphorlyration of Akt and ERK in MeT5A cells. These results indicate that miR-199/214 may affect the aggressive biological behavior of SM.

RevDate: 2020-04-03

Ramos-Bonilla JP, Marsili D, P Comba (2020)

Epidemiological research as a driver of prevention: the Sibaté study. Commentary.

Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita, 56(1):6-9.

Although asbestos exposure and risks can be prevented, only five countries in Latin America have banned asbestos, including Colombia. Beginning in 2011, a collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Italy and Universidad de los Andes in Colombia was established, bringing together relevant expertise aiming to improve our understanding of the asbestos problem. An important result of this collaboration was a recently published study conducted in Sibaté, Colombia, a municipality where an asbestos-cement facility has operated since 1942. The evidence collected suggests the presence of a mesothelioma cluster in Sibaté. Landfilled zones with an underground layer of friable asbestos were also discovered in the urban area of the municipality. The importance of this type of collaboration can go beyond understanding the impact of asbestos at the local level, which is crucial, and may also contribute in solving unanswered questions of the problem in countries that banned asbestos decades ago.

RevDate: 2020-03-31

van Zandwijk N, Reid G, AL Frank (2020)

Asbestos-related cancers: the 'Hidden Killer' remains a global threat.

Expert review of anticancer therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: Asbestos, the most frequent cause of occupational cancer, continues to be consumed on a massive scale, with millions of people exposed on a daily basis. This review explains why we have failed in curtailing the silent epidemic of asbestos-related disease and why the numbers of asbestos victims are likely to remain high. Emerging and developed countries have to be reminded that asbestos exposure has yet to become a problem of the past. The worldwide spread of asbestos, followed by the surge of asbestos-related cancers, resembles the lung cancer epidemic caused by smoking and stimulated by manufacturers.Areas covered: Underreporting of malignant mesothelioma and asbestos-induced lung cancer, frequently-used arguments in the amphibole/chrysotile debate and the conclusion from bona-fide research organizations, that all forms of asbestos are carcinogenic, are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the consequences of ubiquitous environmental asbestos and the 'changing face' of malignant mesothelioma in countries with heavy asbestos use in the past.Expert opinion: Experts in oncology, respiratory medicine, occupational and public health, and basic researchers must take responsibility and acknowledge the ongoing silent epidemic of asbestos-related diseases. The call for a world-wide asbestos ban is more urgent than ever.

RevDate: 2020-03-27

Hoon SN, Fyfe K, Peddle-McIntyre CJ, et al (2020)

Randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study examining the role of anamorelin in mesothelioma (The ANTHEM study): rationale and protocol.

BMJ open respiratory research, 7(1):.

INTRODUCTION: Cachexia is common in malignant mesothelioma (MM); half of patients have malnutrition and low skeletal muscle mass. Malnourished patients have worse quality of life (QoL). Weight loss is strongly associated with poor survival. Anamorelin is an oral ghrelin receptor agonist that improves appetite, body weight and QoL in advanced cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of anamorelin in improving appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with MM with cachexia.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A single-centre, phase II, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over pilot study with 28-day treatment periods and 3-day washout. Forty patients will be randomised. Primary outcome is change in ASM relative to height measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at end of period 1. Secondary outcomes include cancer-specific and cachexia-related QoL, objective physical activity, dietary intake and adverse events. Eligible patients will have confirmed MM, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0-2, expected survival >3 months and cachexia (defined as >5% weight loss in 6 months or body mass index <20 kg/m2 with weight loss >2%).

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (U1111-1240-6828).

RevDate: 2020-03-25

Neitzel RL, Sayler SK, Demond AH, et al (2020)

Measurement of asbestos emissions associated with demolition of abandoned residential dwellings.

The Science of the total environment, 722:137891 pii:S0048-9697(20)31404-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Many cities are revitalizing their urban cores through the demolition of abandoned residential dwellings (ARDs). However, data regarding the emissions of asbestos during such an operation are sparse. We measured airborne asbestos emissions from emergency demolitions (demolitions on structures deemed too dangerous to enter and remove asbestos) of ARDs in Detroit. High-flow air sampling was conducted during ARD demolitions. Air samples were analyzed using Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM), and a subset using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). One hundred and one air samples were collected on 25 emergency demolitions. Fifty-four of the 101 PCM samples (53%) exceeded the limit of detection (LOD). However, only 2 of 46 TEM samples (4%) exceeded the LOD for asbestos; these latter samples were from two different demolitions and each contained a single chrysotile asbestos fiber. Using conservative exposure assumptions and commonly-accepted risk estimation formulae, we estimated the lifetime risk of mesothelioma and lung cancer combined to be less than one case per one million people. Emissions of airborne asbestos during emergency (unabated) ARD demolition operations appear to be negligible. As a result, the associated health risk for asbestos-related disease is also negligible. Reconsideration of current regulatory mandates for asbestos abatement in ARDs may be warranted.

RevDate: 2020-03-24

Gray SG, L Mutti (2020)

Immunotherapy for mesothelioma: a critical review of current clinical trials and future perspectives.

Translational lung cancer research, 9(Suppl 1):S100-S119.

At the clinical level the role of immunotherapy in cancer is currently at a pivotal point. Therapies such as checkpoint inhibitors are being approved at many levels in cancers such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Mesothelioma is a rare orphan disease associated with prior exposure to asbestos, with a dismal prognosis. Various clinical trials for checkpoint inhibitors have been conducted in this rare disease, and suggest that such therapies may play a role as a treatment option for a proportion of patients with this cancer. Most recently approved as a salvage therapy in mesothelioma was granted in Japan, regulatory approval for their use in the clinic elsewhere lags. In this article we review the current pertinent clinical trials of immunotherapies in malignant mesothelioma, discuss the current issues that may affect the clinical outcomes of such therapies and further evaluate potential candidate new avenues that may become future targets for immunotherapy in this cancer.

RevDate: 2020-03-24

Yoshikawa Y, Emi M, Nakano T, et al (2020)

Mesothelioma developing in carriers of inherited genetic mutations.

Translational lung cancer research, 9(Suppl 1):S67-S76.

Malignant mesothelioma is associated with the exposure to asbestos fibers. Recent discovery of the BAP1 cancer syndrome, a Mendelian disorder with high-penetrance autosomal dominant inheritance fostered the genotyping for nucleotide-level or larger structural alteration of germline DNA. Inherited heterozygous mutations of the BAP1 gene increase the susceptibility to carcinogenic fibers, leading to a concept of gene x environment interaction (GxE) as a pathogenetic mechanism of mesothelioma. Several studies on cohorts of unselected patients with mesothelioma or on familial/early-onset cohorts of mesothelioma cases converged on BAP1 as the more frequent germline mutated gene, followed by other genes involved in DNA repair and homologous recombination. Evidence has been emerging that patients with mesothelioma carrying germline mutations of BAP1 and of other genes, such as those involved in DNA repair and tumor suppressor genes, have better prognosis and higher chemosensitivity when compared with patients with germline wildtype Bap1. We report here a germline genomic analysis targeted 22 genes in a cohort of 101 Japanese patients irrespective of asbestos exposure, age at diagnosis, or personal or family history of cancer. By comparing the results with the Human Genetic Variation Database (HGVD) and the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) we selected rare germline variants with a Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) >20. We show here that 31 of 101 subjects were carrying 25 rare variants in 14 genes, neither reported in the HGVD nor in the gnomAD database for 14/25 variants. Besides pathogenic variants of BAP1, rare missense variants were found in genes encoding lysine-specific histone methyltransferase SETD2 and SETDB1 and genes encoding subunits of the mSWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The complete scenario of the genetic background consisting of pathogenic germline variants required for the predisposition and GxE for pathogenesis of mesothelioma appears complex, and further large-scale studies are warranted.

RevDate: 2020-03-24

Carbone M, Gazdar A, JS Butel (2020)

SV40 and human mesothelioma.

Translational lung cancer research, 9(Suppl 1):S47-S59.

Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a DNA tumor virus capable of infecting and transforming human mesothelial (HM) cells in vitro. Hamsters injected intracardially to expose most tissue types to SV40 preferentially develop mesotheliomas. In humans, asbestos is the main cause of mesothelioma, and asbestos and SV40 are co-carcinogens in transforming HM cells in tissue culture and in causing mesothelioma in hamsters. Laser microdissection experiments conducted in the laboratory of Adi Gazdar demonstrated that SV40 was present specifically in the malignant mesothelioma cells and not in nearby stromal cells. Further experiments demonstrated that SV40 remains episomal in HM cells and astrocytes because of the production of a long antisense RNA that represses viral capsid protein production. Thus, the potent SV40 oncoprotein, T-antigen (Tag), is expressed, but because the capsid proteins are not produced, the cells are not lysed and, instead, become transformed. Together this evidence suggests that SV40 may contribute to the development of mesotheliomas in humans. However, epidemiological evidence to support this hypothesis is lacking. This chapter also summarizes the introduction of SV40, a monkey virus, into the human population as an unrecognized contaminant of early poliovaccines. In addition to mesotheliomas, SV40 now is linked with brain cancers, osteosarcomas, and lymphomas in humans. Explanations are provided for the apparent geographic variations in SV40 prevalence and for controversies about the role of SV40 in human cancer.

RevDate: 2020-03-24

Gaudino G, Xue J, H Yang (2020)

How asbestos and other fibers cause mesothelioma.

Translational lung cancer research, 9(Suppl 1):S39-S46.

Mesothelioma has long been associated with the exposure to asbestos, which was largely used in manufacturing activities. Toxicology studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that asbestos fibers were carcinogenic, and epidemiology studies revealed that asbestos exposure was paralleled by the increase in the incidence of mesothelioma and related mortality rates. More recently, the role of chronic inflammation and the molecular mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis by mineral fibers were elucidated following the discovery of the roles of HMGB1 and inflammasome. A change of paradigm was the discovery of a prevalence of mesotheliomas attributable to inherited mutations of cancer susceptibility genes. The discovery of BAP1 as a predisposition gene for the development of familial mesothelioma and other cancers implemented genome studies in patients with mesothelioma and routine clinical surveys in individuals at risk to identify germline mutations associated with cancers included in the BAP1 syndrome. A further progress in the approach to asbestos-related malignancy was the adoption of combined genetics and environmental analyses according to the model of gene-environment (GxE) interactions. This review aims at updating on the most recently discovered mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the pivotal role of GxE interactions.

RevDate: 2020-03-24

Alpert N, van Gerwen M, E Taioli (2020)

Epidemiology of mesothelioma in the 21st century in Europe and the United States, 40 years after restricted/banned asbestos use.

Translational lung cancer research, 9(Suppl 1):S28-S38.

Research has established a strong association between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma, a deadly form of cancer. Since the early 1980's many countries have restricted or banned the production of asbestos, leading to a decline of occupational asbestos exposure in many industrialized countries. However, some countries continue to use asbestos, and worldwide rates of mesothelioma are still increasing. Because of the long latency between exposure and mesothelioma occurrence and the persistence of environmental exposure, incidence rates (IR) may decrease very slowly for several years ahead. In this review, we examine estimates of asbestos consumption before widespread asbestos regulations and the trends in incidence and mortality rates, as well as changes over time for the United States and Europe. In some countries with earlier asbestos restrictions, mesothelioma incidence has been in a modest decline over time. However, asbestos exposure is still a burden worldwide and legislative action is needed to obtain a full ban. The pattern of mesothelioma is shifting from a mostly male disease to a disease that affects females as well in substantial numbers. Studies on unknown sources of asbestos exposure, of other sources of natural exposure to asbestos and asbestos-like fibers, as well as of individual genetic susceptibility to asbestos fibers are needed.

RevDate: 2020-03-24

Carbone M (2020)

This special volume of mesothelioma is dedicated to my friend Adi Gazdar.

Translational lung cancer research, 9(Suppl 1):S1-S2.

RevDate: 2020-03-18

Goricar K, Kovac V, Dodic-Fikfak M, et al (2020)

Evaluation of soluble mesothelin-related peptides and MSLN genetic variability in asbestos-related diseases.

Radiology and oncology, 54(1):86-95 pii:/j/raon.2020.54.issue-1/raon-2020-0011/raon-2020-0011.xml.

Background Asbestos exposure is associated with increased risk of several diseases, including malignant mesothelioma (MM). Cell surface glycoprotein mesothelin is overexpressed in MM and serum soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP) were already proposed as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker in MM. However, interindividual variability in serum SMRP levels limits the clinical usefulness. Our primary objective was to investigate the influence of MSLN rs1057147 on serum SMRP levels in asbestos-exposed subjects and patients with asbestos-related diseases as well as on survival in MM. Subjects and methods Among 782 asbestos-exposed subjects and patients with asbestos-related diseases, 154 had MM. Serum SMRP levels were determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All subjects were genotyped for MSLN rs1057147 polymorphism using competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Nonparametric tests, logistic and Cox regression were used in statistical analysis to compare different subject groups. Results MM patients had significantly higher SMRP levels than all other subjects (p < 0.001). Compared to wild-type MSLN rs1057147 genotype, both heterozygotes and carriers of two polymorphic alleles had significantly higher SMRP levels among subjects without MM (p < 0.001), but not in MM patients (p = 0.424). If genotype information was included, specificity of SMRP increased from 88.5% to 92.7% for the optimal cutoff value. Overall survival was significantly shorter in MM patients carrying at least one polymorphic rs1057147 allele (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.15-2.55, p = 0.008). Conclusions MSLN genetic variability affects serum SMRP levels and was associated with shorter survival of MM patients. Combination of genetic and serum factors could therefore serve as a better diagnostic or prognostic biomarker in MM patients.

RevDate: 2020-03-18

Funahashi S, Okazaki Y, Akatsuka S, et al (2020)

Mth1 deficiency provides longer survival upon intraperitoneal crocidolite injection in female mice.

Free radical research [Epub ahead of print].

Exposure to asbestos fiber is central to mesothelial carcinogenesis. Recent sequencing studies on human and rodent malignant mesothelioma (MM) revealed frequently mutated genes, including CDKN2A, BAP1 and NF2. Crocidolite directly or indirectly catalyzes the generation of hydroxyl radicals, which appears to be the major driving force for mesothelial mutations. DNA base modification is an oxidative DNA damage mechanism, where 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is the most abundant modification both physiologically and pathologically. Multiple distinct mechanisms work together to decrease the genomic level of 8-OHdG through the enzymatic activities of Mutyh, Ogg1 and Mth1. Knockout of one or multiple enzymes is not lethal but increases the incidence of tumors. Here, we used single knockout (KO) mice to test whether the deficiency of these three genes affects the incidence and prognosis of asbestos-induced MM. Intraperitoneal injection of 3 mg crocidolite induced MM at a fraction of 14.8% (4/27) in Mth1 KO, 41.4% (12/29) in Mutyh KO and 24.0% (6/25) in Ogg1 KO mice, whereas 31.7% (20/63) induction was observed in C57BL/6 wild-type (Wt) mice. The lifespan of female Mth1 KO mice was longer than that of female Wt mice (p = 0.0468). Whole genome scanning of MM with array-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed rare genomic alterations compared to MM in rats and humans. These results indicate that neither Mutyh deficiency nor Ogg1 deficiency promotes crocidolite-induced MM in mice, but the sanitizing nucleotide pool with Mth1 is advantageous in crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-03-18

Roggli VL, Carney JM, Sporn TA, et al (2020)

Talc and mesothelioma: mineral fiber analysis of 65 cases with clinicopathological correlation.

Ultrastructural pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma is strongly associated with prior asbestos exposure. Recently there has been interest in the role of talc exposure in the pathogenesis of mesothelioma. We have analyzed lung tissue samples from a large series of malignant mesothelioma patients. Asbestos bodies were counted by light microscopy and mineral fiber concentrations for fibers 5 µm or greater in length were determined by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The values were compared with 20 previously published controls. Among 609 patients with mesothelioma, talc fibers were detected in 375 (62%) and exceeded our control values in 65 (11%). Elevated talc levels were found in 48/524 men (9.2%) and 17/85 women (20%). Parietal pleural plaques were identified in 30/51 informative cases (59%) and asbestosis in 5/62 informative cases (8%). Commercial amphiboles (amosite and/or crocidolite) were elevated in 52/65 (80%) and noncommercial amphiboles (tremolite, actinolite or anthophyllite) in 41/65 (63%). Both were elevated in 34/65 (52%). Asbestos body counts by light microscopy were elevated in 53/64 informative cases (83%). A history of working in industries associated with asbestos exposure and increased mesothelioma risk was identified in 36/48 cases in men, and a history of exposure as household contacts of an occupationally exposed individual was identified in 12/17 cases in women. We conclude that among patients with mesothelioma, the vast majority have talc levels indistinguishable from background. Of the remaining 11% with elevated talc levels, the vast majority (80%) have elevated levels of commercial amphibole fibers.

RevDate: 2020-03-17

Emory TS, Maddox JC, RL Kradin (2020)

Malignant mesothelioma following repeated exposures to cosmetic talc: A case series of 75 patients.

American journal of industrial medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Asbestos is the primary known cause of malignant mesothelioma. Some cosmetic talc products have been shown to contain asbestos. Recently, repeated exposures to cosmetic talc have been implicated as a cause of mesothelioma.

METHODS: Seventy-five individuals (64 females; 11 males) with malignant mesothelioma, whose only known exposure to asbestos was repeated exposures to cosmetic talcum powders, were reviewed in medical-legal consultation. Out of the 75 cases, 11 were examined for asbestiform fibers.

RESULTS: All subjects had pathologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma. The mean age at diagnosis was 61 ± 17 years. The mean latency from exposure to diagnosis was 50 ± 13 years. The mean exposure duration was 33 ± 16 years. Four mesotheliomas (5%) occurred in individuals working as barbers/cosmetologists, or in a family member who swept the barber shop. Twelve (16%) occurred in individuals less than 45 years old (10 females; 2 males). Forty-eight mesotheliomas were pleural (40 females; 8 males), 23 were peritoneal (21 females; 2 males). Two presented with concomitant pleural and peritoneal disease. There was one pericardial, and one testicular mesothelioma. The majority (51) were of the epithelioid histological subtype, followed by 13 biphasic, 8 sarcomatoid, 2 lymphohistiocytoid, and 1 poorly differentiated. Of the 11 individuals whose nontumorous tissues were analyzed for the presence of asbestiform fibers, all showed the presence of anthophyllite and/or tremolite asbestos.

CONCLUSIONS: Mesotheliomas can develop following exposures to cosmetic talcum powders. These appear to be attributable to the presence of anthophyllite and tremolite contaminants in cosmetic talcum powder.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Napolitano A, Antoine DJ, Pellegrini L, et al (2020)

Expression of Concern: HMGB1 and Its Hyperacetylated Isoform are Sensitive and Specific Serum Biomarkers to Detect Asbestos Exposure and to Identify Mesothelioma Patients.

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 26(6):1529.

RevDate: 2020-03-11

Viscardi G, Di Liello R, F Morgillo (2020)

How I treat malignant pleural mesothelioma.

ESMO open, 4(Suppl 2):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive malignancy mostly associated with occupational asbestos exposure. Prognosis is poor and only highly selected patients may benefit from aggressive surgical management, also as part of a multimodal approach. In advanced disease, the combination of pemetrexed and platinum remains the only established treatment, while efficacy evidence of second line chemotherapy is lacking. Thus, a deeper knowledge of biology of the disease and more effective treatments are urgently needed. Refer to specialised centres with multidisciplinary expertise is mandatory, as well as inclusion of patients in clinical trials is advisable whenever possible. In all stages of disease focus on symptoms control is paramount.

RevDate: 2020-03-06

Paajanen J, Laaksonen S, Kettunen E, et al (2020)

Histopathological features of epithelioid malignant pleural mesotheliomas in patients with extended survival.

Human pathology pii:S0046-8177(20)30048-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) of the pleura is a rare and aggressive disease, where the long-term survival (LTS) rate is low. The epithelioid subtype is the most prevalent form of DMM with the best prognosis. In order to study prognostic histopathologic factors associated with extended survival in epithelioid DMM, we examined 43 tumors from patients with survival over five years (long-term survivals [LTS]) and compared the findings with 84 tumors from a reference group with average survival (RG). We analyzed the tumors considering previously published histopathological prognostic features and attempted to identify additional morphological features predictive of extended survival. Most of the LTS tumors presented with nuclear grade I (n = 34,90%) and a tubulopapillary growth pattern (n = 30,70%). One LTS tumor had necrosis. In contrast, nuclear grade II (n = 49,61%) and solid growth pattern (n = 59,70%) were more frequent in RG, and necrosis was present in 16 (19%) tumors. We also evaluated the association of asbestos lung tissue fiber burden quantified from autopsy samples with histopathological features and found that elevated asbestos fiber was associated with higher nuclear grade (p < 0.001) and the presence of necrosis (p = 0.021). In univariate survival analysis, we identified the following three novel morphological features associated with survival: exophytic polypoid growth pattern, tumor density, and single mesothelium layered tubular structures. After adjustments, low nuclear grade (p < 0.001) and presence of exophytic polypoid growth (p = 0.024) were associated with prolonged survival. These results may aid in estimating DMM prognosis.

RevDate: 2020-03-05

Nowak AK, Brosseau S, Cook A, et al (2020)

Antiangiogeneic Strategies in Mesothelioma.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:126.

There is a strong rationale for inhibiting angiogenesis in mesothelioma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an autocrine growth factor in mesothelioma and a potent mitogen for mesothelial cells. Further, the abnormal tumor vasculature promotes raised interstitial pressure and hypoxia, which may be detrimental to both penetration and efficacy of anticancer agents. Antiangiogenic agents have been trialed in mesothelioma for close to two decades, with early phase clinical trials testing vascular targeting agents, the VEGF-A targeting monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, and numerous tyrosine kinase inhibitors, many with multiple targets. None of these have shown efficacy which has warranted further development as single agents in any line of therapy. Whilst a randomized phase II trial combining the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib with platinum/pemetrexed chemotherapy was positive, these results were not confirmed in a subsequent phase III study. The combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed with bevacizumab, in appropriately selected patients, remains the only anti-angiogenic combination showing efficacy in mesothelioma. Extensive efforts to identify biomarkers of response have not yet been successful.

RevDate: 2020-03-03

Fan X, McLaughlin C, Robinson C, et al (2019)

Zeolites ameliorate asbestos toxicity in a transgenic model of malignant mesothelioma.

FASEB bioAdvances, 1(9):550-560 pii:FBA21079.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an almost invariably fatal cancer caused by asbestos exposure. The toxicity of asbestos fibers is related to their physicochemical properties and the generation of free radicals. We set up a pilot study to investigate the potential of the zeolite clinoptilolite to counteract the asbestos carcinogenesis by preventing the generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen radicals. In cell culture experiments, clinoptilolite prevented asbestos-induced cell death, reactive oxygen species production, DNA degradation, and overexpression of genes known to be up-regulated by asbestos. In an asbestos-induced transgenic mouse model of MM, mice were injected intraperitoneal injections with blue asbestos, with or without clinoptilolite, and monitored for 30 weeks. By the end of the trial all 13 mice injected with asbestos alone had reached humane end points, whereas only 7 of 29 mice receiving crocidolite and clinoptilolite reached a similar stage of disease. Post-mortem examination revealed pinpoint mesothelioma-like tumors in affected mice, and the absence of tumor formation in surviving mice. Interestingly, the macrophage clearance system, which was largely suppressed in asbestos-treated mice, exhibited evidence of increased phagocytosis in mice treated with asbestos and clinoptilolite. Our study suggests that inhibiting the asbestos-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and stimulating the macrophage system may represent a pathway to amelioration of asbestos-induced toxicity. Additional studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for our observations.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Reid G, Johnson TG, N van Zandwijk (2020)

Manipulating microRNAs for the Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Past, Present and Future.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:105.

microRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of non-coding RNA that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of most protein-coding genes. Their aberrant expression in tumors contributes to each of the hallmarks of cancer. In malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), in common with other tumor types, changes in miRNA expression are characterized by a global downregulation, although elevated levels of some miRNAs are also found. While an increasing number of miRNAs exhibit altered expression in MPM, relatively few have been functionally characterized. Of a growing number with tumor suppressor activity in vitro, miR-16, miR-193a, and miR-215 were also shown to have tumor suppressor activity in vivo. In the case of miR-16, the significant inhibitory effects on tumor growth following targeted delivery of miR-16-based mimics in a xenograft model was the basis for a successful phase I clinical trial. More recently overexpressed miRNAs with oncogenic activity have been described. Many of these changes in miRNA expression are related to the characteristic loss of tumor suppressor pathways in MPM tumors. In this review we will highlight the studies providing evidence for therapeutic effects of modulating microRNA levels in MPM, and discuss these results in the context of emerging approaches to miRNA-based therapy.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Testa JR, A Berns (2020)

Preclinical Models of Malignant Mesothelioma.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:101.

Rodent models of malignant mesothelioma help facilitate the understanding of the biology of this highly lethal cancer and to develop and test new interventions. Introducing the same genetic lesions as found in human mesothelioma in mice results in tumors that show close resemblance with the human disease counterpart. This includes the extensive inflammatory responses that characterize human malignant mesothelioma. The relatively fast development of mesothelioma in mice when the appropriate combination of lesions is introduced, with or without exposure to asbestos, make the autochthonous models particularly useful for testing new treatment strategies in an immunocompetent setting, whereas Patient-Derived Xenograft models are particularly useful to assess effects of inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity and human-specific features of mesothelioma. It is to be expected that new insights obtained by studying these experimental systems will lead to new more effective treatments for this devastating disease.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Kim K, Ko Y, Oh H, et al (2020)

MicroRNA-98 is a prognostic factor for asbestos-induced mesothelioma.

Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a type of cancer characterized by a short survival time and poor prognosis. Malignant pleural mesothelioma is most frequently associated with exposure to asbestos and other elongated mineral fibers. The aim of this study was to examine molecular differences between asbestos-exposed and non-exposed MPM patients and assess prognostic significances of molecular factors. Clinical and genetic data were downloaded from Cancer Genome Atlas. To identify the molecular differences, Significant Analysis of Microarray method was used. Prognostic significances of differentially expressed genes were confirmed by using Kaplan-Meier curve with the Log-Rank test. Although mRNAs did not exhibit any significant differences between the two patient groups, nine miRNAs were found to be down-regulated in the asbestos-exposed group. The top five pathways most relevant to the selected miRNAs were extracted through pathway enrichment analysis. Survival analysis revealed that high expression of only hsa-miR-98 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with asbestos-exposed MPM. Evidence suggests that management of the aggressiveness and progression of asbestos-induced MPM may require high levels of hsa-miR-98 due to its tumor-suppressive role. This study might be helpful in enhancing our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying asbestos-induced MPM and for acquiring greater insights into targeted therapy.Abbreviations: FDR: false discovery rate; MM: malignant mesothelioma; MPM: malignant pleural mesothelioma; mRNA: messenger RNA; miRNA: microRNA; SAM: significance analysis of microarrays; TCGA: the cancer genome atlas.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Drevinskaite M, Patasius A, Kevlicius L, et al (2020)

Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a rare case and review of literature.

BMC cancer, 20(1):162 pii:10.1186/s12885-020-6648-3.

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis is a rare tumour which comprises less than 1% of all mesotheliomas.

CASE PRESENTATION: 69-years old patient with painful hard mass and hydrocele in the right scrotum to whom a right hydrocelectomy was performed. Any history of scrotal trauma or exposure to asbestos was not present. Excisional biopsy revealed a multinodular tumour with focal areas of necrosis and infiltrative growth. According to morphological and immunohistochemical findings, diagnosis of malignant biphasic mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis was made. Two months after hydrocelectomy, right inguinal orchidectomy was performed. Post-surgical whole body CT scan revealed paraaortic and pararenal lymphadenopathy, likely to be metastatic. Adjuvant treatment with 6 cycles of cisplatin and pemetrexed was applied. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, CT scan showed progression and the treatment was changed to gemcitabine 1 month after.

CONCLUSIONS: Although malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis is a rare malignancy, it poses a diagnostic challenge which can mimic common inguinal or scrotal diseases such as hydrocele. Despite aggressive surgical procedures or adjuvant therapies, the prognosis remains poor.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Quetel L, Meiller C, Assié JB, et al (2020)

Genetic alterations of malignant pleural mesothelioma: association to tumor heterogeneity and overall survival.

Molecular oncology [Epub ahead of print].

Development of precision medicine for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) requires a deep knowledge of tumor heterogeneity. Histologic and molecular classifications and histo-molecular gradients have been proposed to describe heterogeneity, but a deeper understanding of gene mutations in the context of MPM heterogeneity is required and the associations between mutations and clinical data need to be refined. We characterized genetic alterations on one of the largest MPM series (266 tumor samples), well-annotated with histologic, molecular and clinical data of patients. Targeted next generation sequencing was performed focusing on the major MPM mutated genes and the TERT promoter. Molecular heterogeneity was characterized using predictors allowing classification of each tumor into the previously described molecular subtypes and the determination of the proportion of epithelioïd-like and sarcomatoïd-like components (E/S.scores). The mutation frequencies are consistent with literature data, but this study emphasized that TERT promoter, not considered by previous large sequencing studies, was the third locus most affected by mutations in MPM. Mutations in TERT promoter, NF2 and LATS2 were more frequent in non-epithelioid MPM and positively associated to the S.score. BAP1, NF2, TERT promoter, TP53 and SETD2 mutations were enriched in some molecular subtypes. NF2 mutation rate was higher in asbestos unexposed patient. TERT promoter, NF2 and TP53 mutations were associated with a poorer overall survival. Our findings lead to a better characterization of MPM heterogeneity by identifying new significant associations between mutational status and histologic and molecular heterogeneity. Strikingly, we highlight the strong association between new mutations and overall survival.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Döngel İ, Akbaş A, Benli İ, et al (2019)

Comparison of serum biochemical markers in patients with mesothelioma and pleural plaques versus healthy individuals exposed to environmental asbestos.

Turk gogus kalp damar cerrahisi dergisi, 27(3):374-380.

Background: In this study, we aimed to compare serum biochemical markers in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and pleural plaques versus healthy individuals exposed to environmental asbestos.

Methods: Between September 01, 2010 and March 31, 2011, a total of 540 participants (354 males, 186 females; mean age 61.4 years; range, 35 to 89 years) were included in the study. The participants were divided into four groups as follows: (1) patients with pleural plaques (n=277); (2) healthy individuals with normal chest X-rays who were exposed to environmental asbestos (n=121); (3) healthy individuals with normal chest X-rays who were not exposed to environmental asbestos (n=118); and (4) patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (n=24). Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 125, 15-3, 19-9, free T3, free T4, thyroidstimulating hormone, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin were measured.

Results: Serum cancer antigen 125, 15-3, folic acid, vitamin B12, and ferritin levels were higher with lower free T3 levels in Group 4 than the other groups. The areas under the curve for cancer antigen 125 and 15-3 were 0.78 and 0.67, respectively in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma from other pathologies (p<0.001 for both). Optimal limits of these biomarkers were 13.63 and 18.43 ng/mL, respectively with 83% and 75% sensitivity and 69% and 48% specificity, respectively.

Conclusion: The combination or individual use of serum cancer antigen 125, 15-3, folic acid, vitamin B12, and ferritin levels may be helpful for early diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Sinha S, Swift AJ, Kamil MA, et al (2020)

The role of imaging in malignant pleural mesothelioma: an update after the 2018 BTS guidelines.

Clinical radiology pii:S0009-9260(19)30675-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a primary malignancy of the pleura and is associated with a poor outcome. The symptoms and signs of malignant mesothelioma present late in the natural history of the disease and are non-specific, making the diagnosis challenging and imaging key. In 2018, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) updated the guideline on diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of patients with MPM. These recommendations are discussed in this review of the current literature on imaging of MPM. It is estimated MPM will continue to cause serious morbidity and mortality in the UK late into the 21st century, and internationally, people continue to be exposed to asbestos. We aim to update the reader on current and future imaging strategies, which could aid early diagnosis of pleural malignancy and provide an update on staging and assessment of tumour response.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Okazaki Y, Misawa N, Akatsuka S, et al (2020)

Frequent homozygous deletion of Cdkn2a/2b in tremolite-induced malignant mesothelioma in rats.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

The onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) is linked to exposure to asbestos fibers. Asbestos fibers are classified as serpentine (chrysotile) or amphibole, which includes the crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite and actinolite types. Although few studies have been conducted, anthophyllite has been shown to be associated with mesothelioma, and tremolite, a contaminant in talc and chrysotile, is a risk factor for carcinogenicity. Here, after characterizing the length and width of these fibers by scanning electron microscopy, we explored the cytotoxicity induced by tremolite and anthophyllite in cells from an immortalized human mesothelial cell line (MeT5A), murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and in a rat model. Tremolite and short anthophyllite fibers were phagocytosed and localized to vacuoles, while the long anthophyllite fibers were caught on the pseudopod of the MeT5A and Raw 264.7 cells, according to transmission electron microscopy. The results from a two-day time-lapse study revealed that tremolite was engulfed and damaged the MeT5A and RAW264.7 cells, while anthophyllite was not cytotoxic to these cells. Intraperitoneal injection of tremolite in rats induced diffuse serosal thickening, while anthophyllite formed focal fibrosis and granulomas on peritoneal serosal surfaces. Further, the loss of Cdkn2a/2b, which are the most frequently lost foci in human MM, were observed in eight cases of rat MM [homozygous deletion (5/8) and loss of heterozygosity (3/8)] by array-based comparative genomic hybridization techniques. These results indicate that tremolite initiates mesothelial injury and persistently frustrates phagocytes, causing subsequent peritoneal fibrosis and MM. The possible mechanisms of carcinogenicity based on fiber diameter/length are discussed.

RevDate: 2020-02-20

Loreto C, Lombardo C, Caltabiano R, et al (2020)

An in vivo immunohistochemical study on MacroH2A.1 in lung and lymph-node tissues exposed to an asbestiform fiber.

Current molecular medicine pii:CMM-EPUB-104697 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate MacroH2A.1 immunoexpression in tissues of sheep exposed to FE.

BACKGROUND: The correlation between asbestiform fibers, lung cancer, pleural mesothelioma and other lung diseases is already well established as the pathophisiological respiratory mechanisms involved by inhalation of Fluoro-edenite (FE). The latter is represented by cell proliferation and inducing release of growth factors, cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrite species, with DNA damage that cause chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. MacroH2A.1, and histone variant, seems to play a role in sensing the metabolic state of the cell and linking it with chromatin. Physiologically, MacroH2A.1 is expressed at low levels in stem cells and it became upregulated during differentiation, preventing reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cells and after nuclear transfer. In particular, MacroH2A.1 has been shown to explicate a potent antitumor mechanism in vivo as it results upregulated in senescent cells determining a permanent growth-arrest.

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the possible role the histone variant in the organism response to deep insight the mechanisms of toxicity and the cellular response to FE.

METHODS: Lung and lymph nodes of exposed sheep were selected. Samples were processed for histological and immunihistochemical evaluations. Densitometric, morphometric and statistical analysis were conducted.

RESULTS: Tissue sections of FE exposed sheep demonstrated an overexpression of MacroH2A.1 vs unexposed samples. The data suggest an involvement of these molecule in the cellular response triggered by FE directed exposure.

CONCLUSION: In this contest, MacroH2A.1 overexpression supports its function as an epigenetic stabilizer that helps to establish and maintain differentiated states.

RevDate: 2020-02-17

Barbieri PG, Somigliana A, Chen Y, et al (2020)

Lung Asbestos Fibre Burden and Pleural Mesothelioma in Women with Non-occupational Exposure.

Annals of work exposures and health pii:5739326 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) due to environmental and familial (domestic) asbestos exposure is well recognized. However, information on cumulative asbestos dose in subjects affected by MPM is limited.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the residual lung asbestos fibre and asbestos body burden in women with MPM with past environmental and/or familial asbestos exposure.

METHODS: We collected lung samples from autopsies regarding 15 non-occupationally asbestos-exposed MPM cases, divided in three groups: (i) familial exposure from the Fincantieri shipyards in Monfalcone (No. 7), (ii) environmental and familial asbestos exposure from the asbestos-cement plant Fibronit in Broni (No. 6), and (iii) environmental exposure from the Fibronit plant (No. 2). Asbestos body (AB) and fibres (AF) per gram of dry lung tissue were counted by optical and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, and expressed as geometric means and standard deviations (GM, GSD).

RESULTS: GM/GSD of AB counts were 6123/9.6 (Group 1), 13 800/10.4 (Group 2), and 8400/1.1 (Group 3); GM/GSD of AF were 0.6/2.1 (Group 1), 7.9/2.1 (Group 2), and 6.0/2.3 (Group 3) million. Pleural plaques were observed in 12 cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive familial exposure to asbestos determined cumulative doses close to those observed in moderate occupational exposure circumstances. Our results also suggest that combined environmental and familial exposures may cause unexpectedly high cumulative fibre doses.

RevDate: 2020-02-14

GBD 2016 Occupational Carcinogens Collaborators (2020)

Global and regional burden of cancer in 2016 arising from occupational exposure to selected carcinogens: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Occupational and environmental medicine, 77(3):151-159.

OBJECTIVES: This study provides a detailed analysis of the global and regional burden of cancer due to occupational carcinogens from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 study.

METHODS: The burden of cancer due to 14 International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 occupational carcinogens was estimated using the population attributable fraction, based on past population exposure prevalence and relative risks from the literature. The results were used to calculate attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

RESULTS: There were an estimated 349 000 (95% Uncertainty Interval 269 000 to 427 000) deaths and 7.2 (5.8 to 8.6) million DALYs in 2016 due to exposure to the included occupational carcinogens-3.9% (3.2% to 4.6%) of all cancer deaths and 3.4% (2.7% to 4.0%) of all cancer DALYs; 79% of deaths were of males and 88% were of people aged 55 -79 years. Lung cancer accounted for 86% of the deaths, mesothelioma for 7.9% and laryngeal cancer for 2.1%. Asbestos was responsible for the largest number of deaths due to occupational carcinogens (63%); other important risk factors were secondhand smoke (14%), silica (14%) and diesel engine exhaust (5%). The highest mortality rates were in high-income regions, largely due to asbestos-related cancers, whereas in other regions cancer deaths from secondhand smoke, silica and diesel engine exhaust were more prominent. From 1990 to 2016, there was a decrease in the rate for deaths (-10%) and DALYs (-15%) due to exposure to occupational carcinogens.

CONCLUSIONS: Work-related carcinogens are responsible for considerable disease burden worldwide. The results provide guidance for prevention and control initiatives.

RevDate: 2020-02-13

Töreyin ZN, Ghosh M, Göksel Ö, et al (2020)

Exhaled Breath Analysis in Diagnosis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Systematic Review.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(3): pii:ijerph17031110.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is mainly related to previous asbestos exposure. There is still dearth of information on non-invasive biomarkers to detect MPM at early stages. Human studies on exhaled breath biomarkers of cancer and asbestos-related diseases show encouraging results. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview on the current knowledge about exhaled breath analysis in MPM diagnosis. A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies. Quality assessment was done by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Six studies were identified, all of which showed fair quality and explored volatile organic compounds (VOC) based breath profile using Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Ion Mobility Spectrometry Coupled to Multi-capillary Columns (IMS-MCC) or pattern-recognition technologies. Sample sizes varied between 39 and 330. Some compounds (i.e, cyclohexane, P3, P5, P50, P71, diethyl ether, limonene, nonanal, VOC IK 1287) that can be indicative of MPM development in asbestos exposed population were identified with high diagnostic accuracy rates. E-nose studies reported breathprints being able to distinguish MPM from asbestos exposed individuals with high sensitivity and a negative predictive value. Small sample sizes and methodological diversities among studies limit the translation of results into clinical practice. More prospective studies with standardized methodologies should be conducted on larger populations.

RevDate: 2020-02-12

Habbel VSA, Mahler EA, Feyerabend B, et al (2020)

[Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) - a rare diagnosis].

Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie, 58(2):146-151.

Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) is a rare diagnosis, found more frequently in men than in women. Symptoms are unspecific abdominal disorders making that diagnosis difficult to set. Causes of DMPM are yet to be discovered in entirety. Asbestos exposure is the reason for approximately 7 % of all peritoneal mesotheliomas. Until the evaluation of systematic cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) DMPM was a fatal diagnosis with a median overall survival (OS) of 4-13 months. The prognosis of DMPM dramatically improved with implementation of CRS and HIPEC to an OS of 30-92 month nowadys. CRS and HIPEC were performed in this case.

RevDate: 2020-02-12

Singh R, Cherrie JW, Rao B, et al (2020)

Assessment of the future mesothelioma disease burden from past exposure to asbestos in ship recycling yards in India.

International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 225:113478 pii:S1438-4639(19)31001-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The recycling of end-of-life vessels is a complex activity that generates an enormous amount of hazardous waste, including asbestos-containing materials (ACM). Efforts by the Government of India to comply with national and international regulations and improved standard operating procedures are expected to lower the exposure risk of the workforce to hazardous substances, including asbestos. The current workers are likely to face lesser risks than did those exposed in the past. The present study assesses the health risks from past exposure of asbestos for those workers engaged in handling and removing ACM in ship recycling yards before environmentally sound recycling of obsolete ships was introduced in the early 2000s. Estimates were made of the number of workers exposed, and the intensity of exposure and these data were used to estimate the likely number of mesothelioma deaths in the future. It was estimated that nearly 15% of the total workforce engaged in ship recycling will suffer from mesothelioma which translates to about 4,513 mesothelioma deaths among the total of 31,000 workers estimated to be ever employed in the yards from 1994 till 2002. Recommendations are made for a practical approach to the safe handling of ACMs in Indian ship recycling yards.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Ahmed ST, Barvo M, Kamath N, et al (2020)

Acute popliteal thrombus workup leads to discovery of primary peritoneal mesothelioma in the absence of any known asbestos exposure.

BMJ case reports, 13(2): pii:13/2/e232812.

A 75-year-old man presented to the emergency department with 1-day history of right lower limb pain and 3-month history of vague abdominal pain. In the emergency department a thrombus was discovered in the right popliteal artery. CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed high-density material in the pelvis, multiple hypodensities on the liver, ascites with omental nodularity, and high-density material along the stomach wall. He underwent thrombectomy and was started on anticoagulation therapy. The core needle biopsy revealed primary omental mesothelioma. There was no history of any known asbestos exposure. He also had to undergo therapeutic paracentesis twice due to abdominal distension. Mesothelioma treatment of carboplatin and pemetrexed was started, and the patient is currently receiving this chemotherapy treatment regimen.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Airoldi C, Ferrante D, Miligi L, et al (2020)

Estimation of Occupational Exposure to Asbestos in Italy by the Linkage of Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) and National Insurance Archives. Methodology and Results.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(3): pii:ijerph17031020.

The identification and monitoring of occupational cancer is an important aspect of occupational health protection. The Italian law on the protection of workers (D. Leg. 81/2008) includes different cancer monitoring systems for high and low etiologic fraction tumors. Record linkage between cancer registries and administrative data is a convenient procedure for occupational cancer monitoring. We aim to: (i) Create a list of industries with asbestos exposure and (ii) identify cancer cases who worked in these industries. The Italian National Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) includes information on occupational asbestos exposure of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases. We developed using data from seven Italian regions a methodology for listing the industries with potential exposure to asbestos linking ReNaM to Italian National Social Security Institute (INPS) data. The methodology is iterative and adjusts for imprecision and inaccuracy in reporting firm names at interview. The list of asbestos exposing firms was applied to the list of cancer cases (all types associated or possibly associated with asbestos according to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monograph 100C) in two Italian regions for the indication of possible asbestos exposure. Eighteen percent of the cancer cases showed at least one work period in firms potentially exposing to asbestos, 48% of which in regions different from where the cases lived at diagnosis. The methodology offers support for the preliminary screening of asbestos exposing firms in the occupational history of cancer cases.

RevDate: 2020-02-10

Wylie AG, Korchevskiy A, Segrave AM, et al (2020)

Modeling mesothelioma risk factors from amphibole fiber dimensionality: mineralogical and epidemiological perspective.

Journal of applied toxicology : JAT [Epub ahead of print].

Amphiboles are common rock-forming minerals but when they form asbestos, they are known carcinogens. Mesothelioma mortality among miners and millers per the unit of asbestiform amphibole exposure varies significantly across cohorts when asbestos exposure measurements are based on the membrane filter method. Because the cohorts were exposed to different occurrences of asbestiform amphibole, variance in mesothelioma potency (RM) among cohorts is likely due to differences in exposure characteristics not reflected by the membrane filter method. In this paper using both linear and nonlinear models we correlate RM from four mining and milling cohorts with two-dimensional parameters of the exposure. The parameters are based on the proportion of elongated minerals that are >5 μm in length from each occurrence that also have either (a) width ≤ 0.15 μm, or (b) width ≤ 0.25 μm. Based on the models we derived, it was possible to quantify RM for the occurrences of asbestiform amphibole associated with mesothelioma excess but for which epidemiologically based RM has not been published. It was demonstrated that modeled RM for amphibole occurrences in nonasbestiform habits are lower (fibrous glaucophane) or not significant (cleavage fragments). The results of the study can be used in a risk assessment of elongated mineral particles and have implications for public policy and regulations.

RevDate: 2020-02-09

Pais A, Pinto N, Cardoso J, et al (2020)

[Diffuse Intraparenchymal Mesothelioma: An Atypical Presentation].

Acta medica portuguesa, 33(2):143-146.

Pleural mesothelioma is a disease associated with exposure to asbestos. Although rare, it is the most common malignant pleural neoplasm. It is difficult to diagnose and it has a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 62-year-old male patient with a history of prolonged occupational exposure to asbestos, with dyspnea for minor exertion and productive cough, for several months. Imaging studies revealed extensive interstitial involvement with marked thickening of the interlobular and centrilobular septa and tenuous pleural involvement. Several differential diagnoses were considered such as, asbestosis, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, pleuropulmonary metastases, and/or bronchopulmonary infection, but the histological and immunohistochemical results were compatible with pleural mesothelioma - a rare malignant neoplasm, with pleural origin, with a high mortality rate.

RevDate: 2020-02-08

Aoki K, N Saito (2020)

Biocompatibility and Carcinogenicity of Carbon Nanotubes as Biomaterials.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2): pii:nano10020264.

With the development of nanotechnology in recent years, there have been concerns about the health effects of nanoparticles. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fibrous nanoparticles with a micro-sized length and nano-sized diameter, which exhibit excellent physical properties and are widely studied for their potential application in medicine. However, asbestos has been historically shown to cause pleural malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer by inhalation exposure. Because carbon nanotubes are also fibrous nanotubes, some have raised concerns about its possible carcinogenicity. We have reported that there is no clear evidence of carcinogenicity by local and intravenous administration of multi-walled CNTs to cancer mice models. We firmly believe that CNTs can be a safe, new, and high-performance biomaterials by controlling its type, site of administration, and dosage.

RevDate: 2020-02-05

Cheng YY, Rath EM, Linton A, et al (2020)

The Current Understanding Of Asbestos-Induced Epigenetic Changes Associated With Lung Cancer.

Lung Cancer (Auckland, N.Z.), 11:1-11 pii:186843.

Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral consisting of extremely fine fibres that can become trapped in the lungs after inhalation. Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos are linked to development of lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma, a cancer of the lining surrounding the lung. This review discusses the factors that are making asbestos-induced lung cancer a continuing problem, including the extensive historic use of asbestos and decades long latency between exposure and disease development. Genomic mutations of DNA nucleotides and gene rearrangements driving lung cancer are well-studied, with biomarkers and targeted therapies already in clinical use for some of these mutations. The genes involved in these mutation biomarkers and targeted therapies are also involved in epigenetic mechanisms and are discussed in this review as it is hoped that identification of epigenetic aberrations in these genes will enable the same gene biomarkers and targeted therapies to be used. Currently, understanding of how asbestos fibres trapped in the lungs leads to epigenetic changes and lung cancer is incomplete. It has been shown that oxidoreduction reactions on fibre surfaces generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn damage DNA, leading to genetic and epigenetic alterations that reduce the activity of tumour suppressor genes. Epigenetic DNA methylation changes associated with lung cancer are summarised in this review, and some of these changes will be due to asbestos exposure. So far, little research has been carried out to separate the asbestos driven epigenetic changes from those due to non-asbestos causes of lung cancer. Asbestos-associated lung cancers exhibit less methylation variability than lung cancers in general, and in a large proportion of samples variability has been found to be restricted to promoter regions. Epigenetic aberrations in cancer are proving to be promising biomarkers for diagnosing cancers. It is hoped that further understanding of epigenetic changes in lung cancer can result in useful asbestos-associated lung cancer biomarkers to guide treatment. Research is ongoing into the detection of lung cancer epigenetic alterations using non-invasive samples of blood and sputum. These efforts hold the promise of non-invasive cancer diagnosis in the future. Efforts to reverse epigenetic aberrations in lung cancer by epigenetic therapies are ongoing but have not yet yielded success.

RevDate: 2020-02-01

Gaetani S, Monaco F, Alessandrini F, et al (2020)

Mechanism of miR-222 and miR-126 regulation and its role in asbestos-induced malignancy.

The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology pii:S1357-2725(20)30017-0 [Epub ahead of print].

MiR-222 and miR-126 are associated with asbestos exposure and the ensuing malignancy, but the mechanism(s) of their regulation remain unclear. We evaluated the mechanism by which asbestos regulates miR-222 and miR-126 expression in the context of cancer etiology. An 'in vitro' model of carcinogen-induced cell transformation was used based on exposing bronchial epithelium BEAS-2B cells to three different carcinogens including asbestos. Involvement of the EGFR pathway and the role of epigenetics have been investigated in carcinogen-transformed cells and in malignant mesothelioma, a neoplastic disease associated with asbestos exposure. Increased expression of miR-222 and miR-126 were found in asbestos-transformed cells, but not in cells exposed to arsenic and chrome. Asbestos-mediated activation of the EGFR pathway and macrophages-induced inflammation resulted in miR-222 upregulation, which was reversed by EGFR inhibition. Conversely, asbestos-induced miR-126 expression was affected neither by EGFR modulation nor inflammation. Rather than methylation of the miR-126 host gene EGFL7, epigenetic mechanism involving DNMT1- and PARP1-mediated chromatin remodeling was found to upregulate of miR-126 in asbestos-exposed cells, while miR-126 was downregulated in malignant cells. Analysis of MM tissue supported the role of PARP1 in miR-126 regulation. Therefore, activation of the EGFR pathway and the PARP1-mediated epigenetic regulation both play a role in asbestos-induced miRNA expression, associated with in asbestos-induced carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

RevDate: 2020-02-01

Fels Elliott DR, KD Jones (2020)

Diagnosis of Mesothelioma.

Surgical pathology clinics, 13(1):73-89.

Mesothelioma is a rare neoplasm that arises from mesothelial cells lining body cavities including the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, and tunica vaginalis. Most malignant mesotheliomas occur in the chest and are frequently associated with a history of asbestos exposure. The diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is challenging and fraught with pitfalls, particularly in small biopsies. This article highlights what the pathologist needs to know regarding the clinical and radiographic presentation of mesothelioma, histologic features including subtypes and variants, and recent advances in immunohistochemical markers and molecular testing.

RevDate: 2020-01-31

Ma S, Chee J, Fear VS, et al (2020)

Pre-treatment tumor neo-antigen responses in draining lymph nodes are infrequent but predict checkpoint blockade therapy outcome.

Oncoimmunology, 9(1):1684714 pii:1684714.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICPB) is a powerfully effective cancer therapy in some patients. Tumor neo-antigens are likely main targets for attack but it is not clear which and how many tumor mutations in individual cancers are actually antigenic, with or without ICPB therapy and their role as neo-antigen vaccines or as predictors of ICPB responses. To examine this, we interrogated the immune response to tumor neo-antigens in a murine model in which the tumor is induced by a natural human carcinogen (i.e. asbestos) and mimics its human counterpart (i.e. mesothelioma). We identified and screened 33 candidate neo-antigens, and found T cell responses against one candidate in tumor-bearing animals, mutant UQCRC2. Interestingly, we found a high degree of inter-animal variation in the magnitude of neo-antigen responses in otherwise identical mice. ICPB therapy with Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA-4) and α-glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family related gene (GITR) in doses that induced tumor regression, increased the magnitude of responses and unmasked functional T cell responses against another neo-antigen, UNC45a. Importantly, the magnitude of the pre-treatment draining lymph node (dLN) response to UNC45a closely corresponded to ICPB therapy outcomes. Surprisingly however, boosting pre-treatment UNC45a-specific T cell numbers did not improve response rates to ICPB. These observations suggest a novel biomarker approach to the clinical prediction of ICPB response and have important implications for the development of neo-antigen vaccines.

RevDate: 2020-01-31

Sneddon S, Rive CM, Ma S, et al (2020)

Identification of a CD8+ T-cell response to a predicted neoantigen in malignant mesothelioma.

Oncoimmunology, 9(1):1684713 pii:1684713.

Neoantigens present unique and specific targets for personalized cancer immunotherapy strategies. Given the low mutational burden yet immunotherapy responsiveness of malignant mesothelioma (MM) when compared to other carcinogen-induced malignancies, identifying candidate neoantigens and T cells that recognize them has been a challenge. We used pleural effusions to gain access to MM tumor cells as well as immune cells in order to characterize the tumor-immune interface in MM. We characterized the landscape of potential neoantigens from SNVs identified in 27 MM patients and performed whole transcriptome sequencing of cell populations from 18 patient-matched pleural effusions. IFNγ ELISpot was performed to detect a CD8+ T cell responses to predicted neoantigens in one patient. We detected a median of 68 (range 7-258) predicted neoantigens across the samples. Wild-type non-binding to mutant binding predicted neoantigens increased risk of death in a model adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, histology and treatment (HR: 33.22, CI: 2.55-433.02, p = .007). Gene expression analysis indicated a dynamic immune environment within the pleural effusions. TCR clonotypes increased with predicted neoantigen burden. A strong activated CD8+ T-cell response was identified for a predicted neoantigen produced by a spontaneous mutation in the ROBO3 gene. Despite the challenges associated with the identification of bonafide neoantigens, there is growing evidence that these molecular changes can provide an actionable target for personalized therapeutics in difficult to treat cancers. Our findings support the existence of candidate neoantigens in MM despite the low mutation burden of the tumor, and may present improved treatment opportunities for patients.

RevDate: 2020-01-28

Consonni D, C Mensi (2019)

Comment on the paper 'Boffetta et al. Validation of the diagnosis of mesothelioma and BAP1 protein expression in a cohort of asbestos textile workers from Northern Italy. Ann Oncol 2018; 29(2): 484-489'.

Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology, 30(2):340-341.

RevDate: 2020-01-28

Boffetta P, Righi L, Ciocan C, et al (2019)

Validation of the diagnosis of mesothelioma and BAP1 protein expression in a cohort of asbestos textile workers from Northern Italy.

Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology, 30(11):1844.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Fernández-Rodríguez P, Martín-Marcuartu JJ, Acevedo Báñez I, et al (2020)

99mTc-HDP Bone Scintigraphy, SPECT/CT, and 18F-FDG PET/CT Diagnosis Imaging of Incidental Pleural Mesothelioma in a Patient With Biochemical Recurrences of Prostate Cancer: Is it Really a Coincidence?.

Clinical nuclear medicine [Epub ahead of print].

We present the case of a 69-year-old man with history of prostate carcinoma treated with prostatectomy and subsequently with external beam radiotherapy and hormone therapy because of biochemical recurrences. More than 10 years after the diagnosis, follow-up Tc-HDP bone scans and SPECT/CT images demonstrated an incidental diagnosis of osteoblastic pleural plaques that quickly evolve to mesothelioma. PET/CT achieved the definitive diagnosis by guiding the biopsy to the highest and most accessible focus of glucidic hypermetabolism. Our case report raises the association between prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy and the development of pleural mesothelioma despite having no history of exposure to asbestos.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Vimercati L, Cavone D, Mansi F, et al (2019)

Health impact of exposure to asbestos in polluted area of Southern Italy.

Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene, 60(4):E407-E418.

The three main sources of asbestos pollution in the city of Bari, Puglia, the former Fibronit asbestos factory, the Torre Quetta beach, the former Rossani barracks and the history of their reclamation are described. The results of cohort studies on factory workers and case-control studies on asbestos exposure to the resident population and the onset of mesothelioma are also reported. Finally, the data of the regional register of mesothelioma related to residents in the city of Bari and four new cases with environmental exposure due to the former Rossani barracks are presented.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Peterson MK, Mohar I, Lam T, et al (2019)

Critical review of the evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and esophageal cancer.

Critical reviews in toxicology, 49(7):597-613.

Esophageal cancers comprise about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the US but are more prevalent in other regions of the world. Several regulatory agencies have classified asbestos as a known human carcinogen, and it is linked to multiple diseases and malignancies, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. In a 2006 review of the epidemiological literature, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) did not find sufficient evidence to demonstrate a causal relationship between asbestos exposure and esophageal cancer. To reevaluate this conclusion, we performed a critical review of the animal toxicological, epidemiological, and mechanism of action literature on esophageal cancer and asbestos, incorporating studies published since 2006. Although there is some evidence in the epidemiological literature for an increased risk of esophageal cancer in asbestos-exposed occupational cohorts, these studies generally did not control for critical esophageal cancer risk factors (e.g. smoking, alcohol consumption). Furthermore, data from animal toxicological studies do not indicate that asbestos exposure increases esophageal cancer risk. Based on our evaluation of the literature, and reaffirming the IOM's findings, we conclude that there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate a causal link between asbestos exposure and esophageal cancer.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Oddone E, Bollon J, Nava CR, et al (2020)

Predictions of Mortality from Pleural Mesothelioma in Italy After the Ban of Asbestos Use.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(2): pii:ijerph17020607.

Even if the epidemic of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is still far from being over worldwide, the health effects of regulations banning asbestos can be evaluated in the countries that implemented them early. Estimates of MPM future burden can be useful to inform and support the implementation of anti-asbestos health policies all around the world. With this aim we described the trends of MPM deaths in Italy (1970-2014) and predicted the future number of cases in both sexes (2015-2039), with consideration of the national asbestos ban that was issued in 1992. The Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT) provided MPM mortality figures. Cases ranging from 25 to 89 years of age were included in the analysis. For each five-year period from 1970 to 2014, mortality rates were calculated and age-period-cohort Poisson models were used to predict future burden of MPM cases until 2039. During the period 1970-2014 a total number of 28,907 MPM deaths were observed. MPM deaths increased constantly over the study period, ranging from 1356 cases in 1970-1974 to 5844 cases in 2010-2014. The peak of MPM cases is expected to be reached in the period 2020-2024 (about 7000 cases). The decrease will be slow: about 26,000 MPM cases are expected to occur in Italy during the next 20 years (2020-2039). The MPM epidemic in Italy is far from being concluded despite the national ban implemented in 1992, and the peak is expected in 2020-2024, in both sexes. Our results are consistent with international literature.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Borchert S, Suckrau PM, Wessolly M, et al (2019)

Screening of Pleural Mesothelioma Cell Lines for Kinase Activity May Identify New Mechanisms of Therapy Resistance in Patients Receiving Platin-Based Chemotherapy.

Journal of oncology, 2019:2902985.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, predominantly asbestos-related and biologically highly aggressive tumor associated with a dismal prognosis. Multimodal therapy consisting of platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. The reasons underlying the rather poor efficacy of platinum compounds remain largely unknown. Kinase activity might influence cellular response to these regimens.

Materials and Methods: For this exploratory study, we screened MPM cell lines (NCI-H2452, NCI-H2052, and MSTO-211H) differing in response to cisplatin and benign control fibroblasts (MRC-5) for overall phosphorylation patterns as well as kinase activity with respect to cellular response to cisplatin-based therapeutics. We analysed the cell lines for cellular kinases in a high-throughput manner using the highly innovative technique PamGene. Cell state analysis including apoptosis, necrosis, and cell viability was performed by using enzyme activity and fluorescent-based assays.

Results: Cisplatin alters cellular phosphorylation patterns affecting cell cycle, migration, adhesion, signal transduction, immune modulation, and apoptosis. In cisplatin-responsive cell lines, phosphorylation of AKT1 and GSK3B was decreased but could not be influenced in cisplatin-resistant NCI-H2452 cells. Cisplatin-responsive cell lines showed increased phosphorylation levels of JNK1/2/3 but decreased phosphorylation in cisplatin-resistant NCI-H2452 cells.

Conclusion: Kinase phosphorylation and activity might play a crucial role in cellular response to cytostatic agents. Cisplatin influences phosphorylation patterns with distinct features in cisplatin-resistant cells. These alterations exert a significant impact on cell cycle, migration, adhesion, signal transduction, immune modulation, and apoptosis of the respective tumor cells. Based on our results, the induction of p38 or JNK1/3, or inhibition of AKT1 by, for example, BIA-6, might offer a positive synergistic effect by induction of an apoptotic response to cisplatin-based treatment, thus potentially enhancing the clinical outcome of MPM patients.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Cox LA (Jr) (2019)

Nonlinear dose-time-response functions and health-protective exposure limits for inflammation-mediated diseases.

Environmental research, 182:109026 pii:S0013-9351(19)30823-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Why have occupational safety regulations in the United States not been more successful in protecting worker health from mesothelioma risks, while apparently succeeding relatively well in reducing silicosis risks? This paper briefly discusses biological bases for thresholds and nonlinearities in exposure-response functions for respirable crystalline silica (RCS) and asbestos, based on modeling a chronic inflammation mode of action (mediated by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, for both RCS and asbestos). It applies previously published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to perform computational experiments illuminating how different time courses of exposure with the same time-weighted average (TWA) concentration affect internal doses in target tissues (lung for RCS and mesothelium for asbestos). Key conclusions are that (i) For RCS, but not asbestos, limiting average (TWA) exposure concentrations also tightly constrains internal doses and ability to trigger chronic inflammation and resulting increases in disease risks (ii) For asbestos, excursions (i.e., spikes in concentrations); and especially the times between them are crucial drivers of internal doses and time until chronic inflammation; and hence (iii) These dynamic aspects of exposure, which are not addressed by current occupational safety regulations, should be constrained to better protect worker health. Adjusting permissible average exposure concentration limits (PELs) and daily excursion limits (ELs) is predicted to have little impact on reducing mesothelioma risks, but increasing the number of days between successive excursions is predicted to be relatively effective in reducing worker risks, even if it has little or no impact on TWA average concentrations.

RevDate: 2020-01-10

Kim MK, Kim HW, Jang M, et al (2020)

LOX family and ZFPM2 as novel diagnostic biomarkers for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Biomarker research, 8:1 pii:180.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer that develops in the pleural and outer layer of tissues surrounding the lungs. MPM is primarily caused by occupational exposure to asbestos and results in a poor prognosis. Effective therapeutics as well as early diagnostics for the MPM are still lacking. To identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for MPM, we performed bioinformatics analysis of public database.

Methods: Utilizing databases from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), we identified several potential candidates that could act as MPM biomarkers. We carried out additional molecular analyses of these potential markers using MPM patient tissue samples via quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: We identified Lysyl oxidase (LOX), Lysyl oxidase homologs 1&2 (LOXL1& LOXL2) Zinc Finger Protein, FOG Family Member 2 (ZFPM2) as potential diagnostic biomarkers for MPM. In this study, we found that the LOX family and ZFPM2 showed comparable diagnostic ability to Fibulin-3 or mesothelin (MSLN) and would be better potential biomarkers than Sulfatase 1 (SULF1), Thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) and Cadherin 11 (CDH11).

Conclusions: LOX family and ZPFM2 were identified as novel MPM diagnostic biomarkers which could strengthen MPM clinical diagnostic capabilities.

RevDate: 2020-01-09

Ugelvig Petersen K, Pukkala E, Martinsen JI, et al (2020)

Cancer incidence among seafarers and fishermen in the Nordic countries.

Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health pii:3879 [Epub ahead of print].

Objectives Maritime workers may be exposed to several occupational hazards at sea. The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence among seafarers and fishermen in the Nordic countries and identify patterns in morbidity in the context of existing studies in this field. Methods A cohort of 81 740 male seafarers and 66 926 male fishermen was established from census data on 15 million citizens in the five Nordic countries. Using personal identity codes, information on vital status and cancer was linked to members of the cohort from the national population and cancer registries for the follow-up period 1961-2005. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated applying national cancer incidence rates for each country and pooling results. Results The overall incidence of cancer was increased among the male seafarers [SIR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.23]. Significant excesses were observed for multiple cancer sites among the seafarers, while results for the fishermen were mixed. Lip cancer incidence was increased among both maritime populations. For mesothelioma (SIR 2.17, 95% CI 1.83-2.56 seafarers) and non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.32 seafarers), incidence was increased among the seafarers. Conclusion In our cohort, seafaring was associated with a higher overall incidence of cancer compared to the general population. While the majority of cancers could not be linked to specific occupational factors, increases in mesothelioma, lip and non-melanoma-skin cancer indicate previous exposure to asbestos, ultraviolet radiation and potentially also chemicals with dermal carcinogenic properties at sea.

RevDate: 2020-01-07

Klebe S, Leigh J, Henderson DW, et al (2019)

Asbestos, Smoking and Lung Cancer: An Update.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(1): pii:ijerph17010258.

This review updates the scientific literature concerning asbestos and lung cancer, emphasizing cumulative exposure and synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, and proposes an evidence-based and equitable approach to compensation for asbestos-related lung cancer cases. This update is based on several earlier reviews written by the second and third authors on asbestos and lung cancer since 1995. We reevaluated the peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies. In addition, selected in vivo and in vitro animal studies and molecular and cellular studies in humans were included. We conclude that the mechanism of lung cancer causation induced by the interdependent coaction of asbestos fibers and tobacco smoke at a biological level is a multistage stochastic process with both agents acting conjointly at all times. The new knowledge gained through this review provides the evidence for synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke in lung cancer causation at a biological level. The evaluated statistical data conform best to a multiplicative model for the interaction effects of asbestos and smoking on the lung cancer risk, with no requirement for asbestosis. Any asbestos exposure, even in a heavy smoker, contributes to causation. Based on this information, we propose criteria for the attribution of lung cancer to asbestos in smokers and non-smokers.

RevDate: 2020-01-06

Cox LA (Jr) (2020)

Dose-response modeling of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated diseases: asbestos, lung cancer, and malignant mesothelioma as examples.

Critical reviews in toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Can a single fiber of amphibole asbestos increase the risk of lung cancer or malignant mesothelioma (MM)? Traditional linear no-threshold (LNT) risk assessment assumptions imply that the answer is yes: there is no safe exposure level. This paper draws on recent scientific progress in inflammation biology, especially elucidation of the activation thresholds for NLRP3 inflammasomes and resulting chronic inflammation, to model dose-response relationships for malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer risks caused by asbestos exposures. The modeling integrates a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) front end with inflammation-driven two-stage clonal expansion (I-TSCE) models of carcinogenesis to describe how exposure leads to chronic inflammation, which in turn promotes carcinogenesis. Together, the combined PBPK and I-TSCE modeling predict that there are practical thresholds for exposure concentration below which asbestos exposure does not cause chronic inflammation in less than a lifetime, and therefore does not increase chronic inflammation-dependent cancer risks. Quantitative examples using model parameter estimates drawn from the literature suggest that practical thresholds may be within about a factor of 2 of some past exposure levels for some workers. The I-TSCE modeling framework explains previous puzzling aspects of asbestos epidemiology, such as why age at first exposure is a better predictor of lifetime MM risk than exposure duration. It may be a valuable tool for risk analysts when LNT assumptions are not justified due to inflammation response thresholds mediating dose-response relationships.

RevDate: 2020-01-06

Colin DJ, Bejuy O, Germain S, et al (2019)

Implantation and Monitoring by PET/CT of an Orthotopic Model of Human Pleural Mesothelioma in Athymic Mice.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive tumor arising in the mesothelium that covers the lungs, the heart, and the thoracic cavity. MPM development is mainly associated with asbestos. Treatments provide only modest survival since the median survival average is 9-18 months from the time of diagnosis. Therefore, more effective treatments must be identified. Most data describing new therapeutic targets were obtained from in vitro experiments and need to be validated in reliable in vivo preclinical models. This article describes one such reliable MPM orthotopic model obtained after injection of a human MPM cell line H2052/484 into the pleural cavity of immunodeficient athymic mice. Transplantation in the orthotopic site allows studying the progression of tumor in the natural in vivo environment. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) molecular imaging using the clinical [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) radiotracer is the diagnosis method of choice for examining patients with MPM. Accordingly, [18F]FDG-PET/CT was used to longitudinally monitor the disease progression of the H2052/484 orthotopic model. This technique has a high 3R potential (Reduce the number of animals, Refine to lessen pain and discomfort, and Replace animal experimentation with alternatives) since the tumor development can be monitored non-invasively and the number of animals required could be significantly reduced. This model displays a high development rate, a rapid tumor growth, is cost-efficient and allows for rapid clinical translation. By using this orthotopic xenograft MPM model, researchers can assess biological responses of a reliable MPM model following therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2020-01-05

Lam WS, Creaney J, Chen FK, et al (2019)

A phase II trial of single oral FGF inhibitor, AZD4547, as second or third line therapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 140:87-92 pii:S0169-5002(19)30786-X [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Currently, there is no optimal salvage therapy for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) who relapse after treatment with first-line chemotherapy. In line with the strong preclinical rationale for targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signalling in malignant mesothelioma, we conducted a phase II study assessing the efficacy of AZD4547, an oral tyrosine multi-kinase FGFR 1-3 inhibitor, as a second or third-line treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, open-label, single-arm phase II study of AZD4547 in eligible patients with confirmed, measurable MPM and radiological progression after first or second-line systemic chemotherapy. Patients received continuous, twice-daily oral AZD4547 on a 3-weekly cycle. The primary end point was 6-month progression free survival (PFS6). Response was assessed with CT scan every 6 weeks according to the modified RECIST criteria for mesothelioma (mRECIST) and toxicities were also assessed. The study used a Simon's two-stage design: 26 patients would be recruited to the first stage and more than 7 (27 %) of 26 patients were required to achieve PFS6 to continue to stage two, for a potential total cohort of 55 patients.

RESULTS: 3 of 24 patients (12 %) were progression-free at 6 months. Hence, the study fulfilled stopping criteria regardless of further recruitment and warranted discontinuation. The most common toxicities (across all grades) were hyperphosphatemia, xerostomia, mucositis, retinopathy, dysgeusia, and fatigue. Maximum toxicities were grade 2 or below for all patients across all cycles. There was no association between tumour BAP1 protein loss and clinical outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: The FGFR 1-3 inhibitor AZD4547 did not demonstrate efficacy in patients with MPM who had progressed after first line treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2020-01-04

Hinkamp CA, Dalal SN, Butt Y, et al (2020)

Diffuse epithelioid malignant mesothelioma of the pleura presenting as a hydropneumothorax and vertebral body invasion.

BMJ case reports, 13(1): pii:13/1/e231987.

Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon form of neoplastic transformation of the mesothelial cells that line the serosal surfaces of the body. It most commonly affects the pleura and is often associated with pleural effusions and pleural-based masses. The annual incidence in the United States is only 3300 cases, representing less than 0.3% of all cancers worldwide, although this is likely underestimated. We present a case of diffuse epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma in a patient with remote, short-term asbestos exposure complicated by recurrent left-sided hydropneumothoraces and pleural-based invasion of the T12 vertebral body, which represent two rare coexisting complications. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining a broad differential for hydropneumothorax, particularly as the risk factors may be decades removed and the degree of asbestos exposure to induce a malignant mesothelioma may be smaller than has been traditionally thought.

RevDate: 2020-01-02

Walters GI (2019)

Occupational exposures and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A recent meta-analysis of data from international case-control studies reports a population attributable fraction of 16% for occupational factors in the cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Smoking, genetic factors and other prevalent diseases only partly explain IPF, and so this review aims to summarize recent progress in establishing which occupational exposures are important in cause.

RECENT FINDINGS: IPF is a rare disease, although it is the commonest idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Epidemiological study suggests that incidence of IPF is increasing, particularly in older men. There are significant associations with IPF and occupational exposures to organic dust, including livestock, birds and animal feed, metal dust, wood dust and silica/minerals. Estimates of effect vary between studies, and are influenced by the distribution of employment, study design and case definition. Inhalation of asbestos fibres is a known cause of usual interstitial pneumonia (as seen histologically in IPF), though there are significant linear relationships between asbestos consumption, and mortality from both IPF and mesothelioma, leading to the hypothesis that low-level asbestos exposure may cause IPF.

SUMMARY: Research must focus on exposure-response relationships between asbestos and other occupational inhaled hazards, and IPF. Funding bodies and policy makers should acknowledge the significant occupational burden on IPF.

RevDate: 2019-12-30

Totaro M, Giorgi S, Filippetti E, et al (2019)

[Asbestos in drinking water and hazards to human health: a narrative synthesis].

Igiene e sanita pubblica, 75(4):303-312.

The term asbestos refers to six unique fibrous minerals mostly used in the production of asbestos cement sheets and pipes. According to the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), there exists at least &quot;sufficient evidence&quot; that all types of asbestos may cause cancer in humans (mesothelioma, lung cancer, laryngeal tumor and ovarian cancer). The only asbestos limit in drinking water is 7 million fiber/liter. This study is a narrative synthesis about the possible hazards to human health related to the presence of asbestos in drinking water. The various scientific studies and epidemiological reports examined highlight that there is an ongoing debate on the possible carcinogenic risk associated with asbestos exposure through ingestion. Nevertheless, considering the latency with which diseases caused by asbestos may emerge, control measures should be adopted.

RevDate: 2019-12-27

Vimercati L, Cavone D, Delfino MC, et al (2019)

Response to the "Letter to the Editor" by Gabor Mezei et al., Comments on Vimercati et al., 2019, "Asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a systematic review and the experience of the Apulia (Southern Italy) mesothelioma register".

Environmental health : a global access science source, 18(1):112 pii:10.1186/s12940-019-0553-8.

RevDate: 2019-12-27

Mezei G, Chang ET, Mowat FS, et al (2019)

Comments on Vimercati et al., 2019, "Asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a systematic review and the experience of the Apulia (southern Italy) mesothelioma register".

Environmental health : a global access science source, 18(1):111 pii:10.1186/s12940-019-0552-9.

RevDate: 2019-12-26

Kodama E, Kodama T, Ichikawa T, et al (2019)

18F-FDG Uptake of Localized Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

Clinical nuclear medicine [Epub ahead of print].

We present 2 cases of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) characterized by a localized solid mass without ascites and showing F-FDG uptake. A 79-year-old man with a history of asbestos exposure suffered from an epithelioid MPM originating from the hepatoduodenal ligament with FDG uptake (SUVmax 16.8). Another 80-year-old man with esophageal cancer showed desmoplastic MPM of the small bowel mesentery with FDG uptake (SUVmax 4.0). Desmoplastic MPM is more aggressive and yields poorer prognosis compared with the epithelioid type. However, the present desmoplastic MPM case showed mild FDG uptake because of rich fibrosis.

RevDate: 2019-12-26

Pavlisko EN, Liu B, Green C, et al (2019)

Malignant Diffuse Mesothelioma in Women: A Study of 354 Cases.

The American journal of surgical pathology [Epub ahead of print].

We reviewed 354 cases of malignant diffuse mesothelioma (MM) in women from a database of 2858 histologically confirmed MM cases. There was a pleural predominance with 78% pleural MM and 22% peritoneal MM. The pleural tumors consisted of 72% epithelioid, 19% biphasic, and 9% sarcomatoid variant. The peritoneal tumors consisted of 82% epithelioid, 13% biphasic, and 5% sarcomatoid. The immunohistochemical profile was typical of what is well-accepted and previously described for MM. When examining tumor subtype and location, there was a trend toward epithelioid subtype and peritoneal location; however, this did not reach statistical significance. Age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 19 to 93 years with a mean of 60 years. The median age at time of diagnosis for pleural MM was 65 years and for peritoneal MM was 52 years. A further look at age and histologic subtype showed no statistically significant difference in age between MM subtypes. Survival was greatest for epithelioid variant, and this was magnified in the peritoneum. A majority of our cases were exposed to asbestos through a household contact. Asbestosis and parietal pleural plaque were present in 5% and 50% of cases with data, respectively. Fiber analysis data was available in 67 cases; 38 cases had elevated asbestos fiber burden, and tremolite was the most common asbestos fiber type detected. Commercial and noncommercial amphibole asbestos fibers were elevated in nearly equal numbers of cases.

RevDate: 2019-12-23

Chu GJ, van Zandwijk N, JEJ Rasko (2019)

The Immune Microenvironment in Mesothelioma: Mechanisms of Resistance to Immunotherapy.

Frontiers in oncology, 9:1366.

Although mesothelioma is the consequence of a protracted immune response to asbestos fibers and characterized by a clear immune infiltrate, novel immunotherapy approaches show less convincing results as compared to those seen in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. The immune suppressive microenvironment in mesothelioma is likely contributing to this therapy resistance. Therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the tumor microenvironment for explanations for this recalcitrant behavior. This review describes the stromal, cytokine, metabolic, and cellular milieu of mesothelioma, and attempts to make connection with the outcome of immunotherapy trials.

RevDate: 2019-12-18

Tomasetti M, Gaetani S, Monaco F, et al (2019)

Epigenetic Regulation of miRNA Expression in Malignant Mesothelioma: miRNAs as Biomarkers of Early Diagnosis and Therapy.

Frontiers in oncology, 9:1293.

Asbestos exposure leads to epigenetic and epigenomic modifications that, in association with ROS-induced DNA damage, contribute to cancer onset. Few miRNAs epigenetically regulated in MM have been described in literature; miR-126, however, is one of them, and its expression is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Asbestos exposure induces early changes in the miRNAs, which are reversibly expressed as protective species, and their inability to reverse reflects the inability of the cells to restore the physiological miRNA levels despite the cessation of carcinogen exposure. Changes in miRNA expression, which results from genetic/epigenetic changes during tumor formation and evolution, can be detected in fluids and used as cancer biomarkers. This article has reviewed the epigenetic mechanisms involved in miRNA expression in MM, focusing on their role as biomarkers of early diagnosis and therapeutic effects.

RevDate: 2019-12-17

Apostoli P, Boffetta P, Bovenzi M, et al (2019)

Position Paper on Asbestos of the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine.

La Medicina del lavoro, 110(6):459-485.

The Position Paper (PP) on asbestos of the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine (SIML) aims at providing a tool to the occupational physician to address current diagnostic criteria and results of epidemiological studies, and their consequences in terms of preventive and evaluation actions for insurance, compensation and litigation. The PP was based on an extensive review of the scientific literature and was compiled by a Working Group comprising researchers who have contributed to the international literature on asbestos-related diseases, as well as occupational physicians with extensive experience in the evaluation of risks and the medical surveillance of workers currently and formerly exposed to asbestos. The PP was drafted and reviewed between 2017 and 2018; its final version was prepared according to the guidelines of AGREE Reporting Checklist. All the members of the Working Group subscribed to the document, which was eventually approved by SIML's Executive Committee. The first section addresses industrial hygiene issues, such as methods for environmental monitoring, advantages and limitations of different microscopy techniques, the potential role of microfibers and approaches for retrospective assessment of exposure, in particular in epidemiological studies. The second section reviews the biological effects of asbestos with particular attention to the diagnostic aspects of asbestosis, pleural changes, mesothelioma and lung cancer. In the following section the criteria of causal attribution are discussed, together with different hypotheses on the form of the risk functions, with a comparison of the opinions prevalent in the literature. In particular, the models of the risk function for mesothelioma were examined, in the light of the hypothesis of an acceleration or anticipation of the events in relation to the dose. The last section discusses topics of immediate relevance for the occupational physician, such as health surveillance of former exposed and of workers currently exposed in remediation activities.

RevDate: 2019-12-17

Vernez D, Duperrex O, Herrera H, et al (2019)

Exposure to Amosite-Containing Ceiling Boards in a Public School in Switzerland: A Case Study.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(24): pii:ijerph16245069.

The measurement of an airborne concentration in Amosite fibers above 5035 F/m3 in a school prompted a retrospective quantitative health risk assessment. Dose estimates were built using air measurements, laboratory experiments, previous exposure data, and interviews. A dose response model was adapted for amosite-only exposure and adjusted for the life expectancy and lung cancer incidence in the Swiss population. The average yearly concentrations found were 52-320 F/m3. The high concentration previously observed was not representative of the average exposure in the building. Overall, the risk estimates for the different populations of the school were low and in the range of 2 × 10-6 to 3 × 10-5 for mesothelioma and 4 × 10-7 to 8 × 10-6 for lung cancer. The results evidenced however that children have to be considered at higher risk when exposed to asbestos, and that the current reference method and target values are of limited use for amphibole-only exposures. This study confirmed that quantitative health risk assessments and participatory approaches are powerful tools to support public decisions and build constructive communication between exposed people, experts, and policy-makers.

RevDate: 2019-12-13

Pellegrini I, Sibille A, Paulus A, et al (2019)

[How I manage... Malignant pleural mesothelioma in 2019].

Revue medicale de Liege, 74(12):627-632.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare disease originating from mesothelial cells of the pleura and is related to asbestos exposure. The tumor is generally extended at the time of diagnosis and the treatment consists of a systemic palliative therapy. Radical approach is limited to very selected patients and is performed in expert centers but without validated schema. Radiotherapy alone is mainly used in palliative intent. Platinum-based chemotherapy in association with pemetrexed is the frontline standard of care and provides a 12-month overall survival. The addition of bevacizumab, an antiangiogenic drug, shows an improvement in median survival. To date, there is no second-line treatment approved for this disease and therefore inclusion in trials is recommended. Currently, various studies are investigating target therapy, immunotherapy and intrapleural perioperative treatment.

RevDate: 2019-12-11

Kishimoto T, Fujimoto N, Ebara T, et al (2019)

Serum levels of the chemokine CCL2 are elevated in malignant pleural mesothelioma patients.

BMC cancer, 19(1):1204 pii:10.1186/s12885-019-6419-1.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a debilitating disease of the pleural cavity. It is primarily associated with previous inhalation of asbestos fibers. These fibers initiate an oxidant coupled inflammatory response. Repeated exposure to asbestos fibers results in a prolonged inflammatory response and cycles of tissue damage and repair. The inflammation-associated cycles of tissue damage and repair are intimately involved in the development of asbestos-associated cancers. Macrophages are a key component of asbestos-associated inflammation and play essential roles in the etiology of a variety of cancers. Macrophages are also a source of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and a variety of tumor-types express CCL2. High levels of CCL2 are present in the pleural effusions of mesothelioma patients, however, CCL2 has not been examined in the serum of mesothelioma patients.

METHODS: The present study was carried out with 50 MPM patients and 356 subjects who were possibly exposed to asbestos but did not have disease symptoms and 41 healthy volunteers without a history of exposure to asbestos. The levels of CCL2 in the serum of the study participants was determined using ELISA.

RESULTS: Levels of CCL2 were significantly elevated in the serum of patients with advanced MPM.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with the premise that the CCL2/CCR2 axis and myeloid-derived cells play an important role in MPM and disease progression. Therapies are being developed that target CCL2/CCR2 and tumor resident myeloid cells, and clinical trials are being pursued that use these therapies as part of the treatment regimen. The results of trials with patients with a similar serum CCL2 pattern as MPM patients will have important implications for the treatment of MPM.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )