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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 Sep 2023 at 02:00 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( asbestos AND mesothelioma ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-20

Schelch K, Emminger D, Zitta B, et al (2023)

Targeting YB-1 via entinostat enhances cisplatin sensitivity of pleural mesothelioma in vitro and in vivo.

Cancer letters pii:S0304-3835(23)00346-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is characterized by poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) was shown to drive growth and migration of PM cells. Here, we evaluated the effect of genetic and pharmacological targeting of YB-1 on PM growth and response to cisplatin and radiation treatment. YB-1 knockdown via siRNA resulted in reduced PM cell growth, which significantly correlated with wt BAP1 and mutant NF2 and P53 status. Entinostat inhibited YB-1 deacetylation and its efficacy correlated with YB-1 knockdown-induced growth inhibition in 20 p.m. cell lines. Tumor growth inhibition by siRNA as well as entinostat was confirmed in mouse xenotransplant models. Furthermore, both YBX1-targeting siRNA and entinostat enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and radiation. In particular, entinostat showed strong synergistic interactions with cisplatin which was linked to significantly increased cellular platinum uptake in all investigated cell models. Importantly, in a mouse model, the combination of cisplatin and entinostat also resulted in stronger growth inhibition than each treatment alone. Our study highlights YB-1 as an attractive target in PM and demonstrates that targeting YB-1 via entinostat is a promising approach to enhance cisplatin and radiation sensitivity.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Suarez JS, Novelli F, Goto K, et al (2023)

HMGB1 released by mesothelial cells drives the development of asbestos-induced mesothelioma.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(39):e2307999120.

Asbestos is the main cause of malignant mesothelioma. Previous studies have linked asbestos-induced mesothelioma to the release of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space. In the cytoplasm, HMGB1 induces autophagy impairing asbestos-induced cell death. Extracellularly, HMGB1 stimulates the secretion of TNFα. Jointly, these two cytokines kick-start a chronic inflammatory process that over time promotes mesothelioma development. Whether the main source of extracellular HMGB1 were the mesothelial cells, the inflammatory cells, or both was unsolved. This information is critical to identify the targets and design preventive/therapeutic strategies to interfere with asbestos-induced mesothelioma. To address this issue, we developed the conditional mesothelial HMGB1-knockout (Hmgb1[ΔpMeso]) and the conditional myelomonocytic-lineage HMGB1-knockout (Hmgb1[ΔMylc]) mouse models. We establish here that HMGB1 is mainly produced and released by the mesothelial cells during the early phases of inflammation following asbestos exposure. The release of HMGB1 from mesothelial cells leads to atypical mesothelial hyperplasia, and in some animals, this evolves over the years into mesothelioma. We found that Hmgb1[ΔpMeso], whose mesothelial cells cannot produce HMGB1, show a greatly reduced inflammatory response to asbestos, and their mesothelial cells express and secrete significantly reduced levels of TNFα. Moreover, the tissue microenvironment in areas of asbestos deposits displays an increased fraction of M1-polarized macrophages compared to M2 macrophages. Supporting the biological significance of these findings, Hmgb1[ΔpMeso] mice showed a delayed and reduced incidence of mesothelioma and an increased mesothelioma-specific survival. Altogether, our study provides a biological explanation for HMGB1 as a driver of asbestos-induced mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Febres-Aldana CA, Fanaroff R, Offin M, et al (2023)

Diffuse Pleural Mesothelioma: Advances in Molecular Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Diffuse pleural mesothelioma (DPM) is a highly aggressive malignant neoplasm arising from the mesothelial cells lining the pleural surfaces. While DPM is a well-recognized disease linked to asbestos exposure, recent advances have expanded our understanding of molecular pathogenesis and transformed our clinical practice. This comprehensive review explores the current concepts and emerging trends in DPM, including risk factors, pathobiology, histologic subtyping, and therapeutic management, with an emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach to this complex disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, Volume 19 is January 2024. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Bruno C, Di Stefano R, Ricceri V, et al (2023)

Fluoro-edenite non-neoplastic diseases in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy): pleural plaques and/or pneumoconiosis?.

Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita, 59(3):187-193.

BACKGROUND: A mesothelioma cluster in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy), drew attention to fluoro-edenite, a fibre classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans. Significant excesses in mortality and morbidity were observed for respiratory diseases and a significant excess of pneumoconiosis hospitalizations was reported.

OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study is to assess the characters of the lung damage in Biancavilla residents hospitalized with pneumoconiosis or asbestosis diagnoses.

METHODOLOGY: Medical records, available radiographs and computed tomography scans were collected. The obtained imaging was reviewed by a panel of three specialists and focused on pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. Cases with an ILO-BIT or ICOERD score equal or greater than 2 were considered positive for a pneumoconiosis-like damage, cases with a score lower than 2 or insufficient quality of imaging were considered inconclusive. If no pneumoconiotic aspects were present the cases were classified as negative.

RESULTS: Out of 38 cases, diagnostic imaging for 25 cases were found. Ten cases out of 25 showed asbestosis-like features, nine subjects were considered negative. In six patients' results were inconclusive.

CONCLUSIONS: Asbestosis-like features were substantiated in Biancavilla residents without known occupational exposure to asbestos. Further studies to estimate population respiratory health are required. Experimental studies on the fibrogenic potential of fluoro-edenite are needed.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Alsalihi Y, C Kandaswamy (2023)

A Worsening Cough: An Unusual Presentation of Malignant Mesothelioma.

Cureus, 15(8):e43205.

Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) is a rare cancer with poor survival rates. Often affecting males with asbestos exposure, we report a case of a 56-year-old female with no history of occupational exposure presenting with a worsening cough. A radiological examination revealed left pleural effusion and pleural thickening. Cytological and pathological reports of pleural samples were consistent with malignant mesothelioma of epithelioid type, with the histological examination via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) consistent with a clear cell epithelioid mesothelioma. We discuss the rapid presentation of the disease with emphasis on considering the disease in young patients with no prior asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2023-09-08

Zwijsen K, Schillebeeckx E, Janssens E, et al (2023)

Determining the clinical utility of a breath test for screening an asbestos-exposed population for Pleural Mesothelioma: Baseline results.

Journal of breath research [Epub ahead of print].

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is an aggressive cancer of the serosal lining of the thoracic cavity, predominantly caused by asbestos exposure. Due to nonspecific symptoms, PM is characterized by an advanced-stage diagnosis, resulting in a dismal prognosis. However, early diagnosis improves patient outcome. Currently, no diagnostic biomarkers or screening tools are available. Therefore, exhaled breath was explored as this can easily be obtained and contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are considered biomarkers for multiple (patho)physiological processes. A breath test, which differentiates asbestos-exposed (AEx) individuals from PM patients with 87% accuracy, was developed. However, before being implemented as a screening tool, the clinical utility of the test must be determined. Methods: Occupational AEx individuals underwent annual breath tests using multicapillary column/ion mobility spectrometry (MCC/IMS). A baseline breath test was taken and their individual risk of PM was estimated. PM patients were included as controls. Results: In total, 112 AEx individuals and 6 PM patients were included in the first of 4 screening rounds. All 6 PM patients were correctly classified as having mesothelioma (100% sensitivity) and out of 112 AEx individuals 78 were classified by the breath-based model as PM patients (30% specificity). Discussion: Given the large false positive outcome, the breath test will be repeated annually for 3 more consecutive years to adhere to the 'test, re-test' principle and improve the false positivity rate. A low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan in those with 2 consecutive positive tests will correlate test positives with radiological findings and the possible growth of a pleural tumor. Finally, the evaluation of the clinical value of a breath-based prediction model may lead to the initiation of a screening program for early detection of PM in Aex individuals, which is currently lacking. This clinical study received approval from the Antwerp University Hospital Ethics Committee (B300201837007).

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Gabelloni M, Faggioni L, Brunese MC, et al (2023)

An overview on multimodal imaging for the diagnostic workup of pleural mesothelioma.

Japanese journal of radiology [Epub ahead of print].

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is an aggressive disease that has a strong causal relationship with asbestos exposure and represents a major challenge from both a diagnostic and therapeutic viewpoint. Despite recent improvements in patient care, PM typically carries a poor outcome, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, a timely and effective diagnosis taking advantage of currently available imaging techniques is essential to perform an accurate staging and dictate the most appropriate treatment strategy. Our aim is to provide a brief, but exhaustive and up-to-date overview of the role of multimodal medical imaging in the management of PM.

RevDate: 2023-09-08
CmpDate: 2023-09-08

Eastwood M, Marc ST, Gao X, et al (2023)

Malignant Mesothelioma subtyping via sampling driven multiple instance prediction on tissue image and cell morphology data.

Artificial intelligence in medicine, 143:102628.

Malignant Mesothelioma is a difficult to diagnose and highly lethal cancer usually associated with asbestos exposure. It can be broadly classified into three subtypes: Epithelioid, Sarcomatoid, and a hybrid Biphasic subtype in which significant components of both of the previous subtypes are present. Early diagnosis and identification of the subtype informs treatment and can help improve patient outcome. However, the subtyping of malignant mesothelioma, and specifically the recognition of transitional features from routine histology slides has a high level of inter-observer variability. In this work, we propose an end-to-end multiple instance learning (MIL) approach for malignant mesothelioma subtyping. This uses an adaptive instance-based sampling scheme for training deep convolutional neural networks on bags of image patches that allows learning on a wider range of relevant instances compared to max or top-N based MIL approaches. We also investigate augmenting the instance representation to include aggregate cellular morphology features from cell segmentation. The proposed MIL approach enables identification of malignant mesothelial subtypes of specific tissue regions. From this a continuous characterisation of a sample according to predominance of sarcomatoid vs epithelioid regions is possible, thus avoiding the arbitrary and highly subjective categorisation by currently used subtypes. Instance scoring also enables studying tumor heterogeneity and identifying patterns associated with different subtypes. We have evaluated the proposed method on a dataset of 234 tissue micro-array cores with an AUROC of 0.89±0.05 for this task. The dataset and developed methodology is available for the community at:

RevDate: 2023-09-06
CmpDate: 2023-09-06

Yang YX, Zhang DK, Lu HY, et al (2023)

[Change trends and related risk factors of disease burden on mesothelioma in Jiangsu Province from 1990 to 2019].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 41(8):594-600.

Objective: To analyze the change trends and risk factors of mesothelioma disease burden in Jiangsu Province from 1990 to 2019. Methods: In January 2022, using the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study Data, the Joinpoint regression model was used to analyze the change trends of incidence, mortality, disable-adjusted life years (DALY) and premature mortality of mesothelioma residents in Jiangsu Province from 1990 to 2019, and the attribution level of mesothelioma risk factors was estimated by population attributing fraction. Results: The standardized incidence rates of mesothelioma in Jiangsu Province from 1990 to 2019 ranged from 0.07/10(5) to 0.09/10(5), with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of -1.1% (t=-13.56, P<0.001). AAPCs in males and females were -0.3% (t=-2.18, P=0.029) and -1.6% (t=-11.39, P<0.001), respectively. The standardized mortality rates of mesothelioma ranged from 0.07/10(5) to 0.09/10(5), the AAPC was -1.1% (t=-12.23, P<0.001), AAPC was -1.6% (t=-14.09, P<0.001) for females, and there was no significant change in males (t=-1.83, P=0.068). The premature mortality was 0.004%-0.006%, the AAPC was -1.0% (t=-4.40, P<0.001), AAPC was -1.7% (t=-13.72, P<0.001) for females, and there was no significant change in males (t=-0.68, P=0.495). The standardized DALY rates ranged from 1.86/10(5) to 2.32/10(5), the AAPC was -0.9% (t=-11.08, P<0.001), AAPC was -1.6% (t=-11.05, P<0.001) for females, and there was no significant change in males (t=-0.95, P=0.343). Both the standardized years of life lost (YLL) rate and the standardized years lived with disability (YLD) rate showed a decreasing trend, and the AAPCs were -0.9% (t=-7.66, P<0.001) and -1.0% (t=-12.88, P<0.001), respectively. The proportion of YLL in DALY was more than 98.5%. Among the risk factors for mesothelioma burden attribution, the AAPC attributed to occupational asbestos exposure of DALY was 1.4% (t=3.43, P=0.001). The AAPC of DALY rate of standardized attribution was -1.7% (t=-12.11, P<0.001) . Conclusion: The overall burden of mesothelioma in Jiangsu Province is decreasing, occupational asbestos exposure is still the main risk factor of mesothelioma in Jiangsu Province, and early diagnosis and treatment should be strengthened.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Sousa B, Silva J, Monteiro N, et al (2023)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Case Report.

Cureus, 15(8):e42902.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumor of the serous membranes of the peritoneum and has been linked to exposure to asbestos and other risk factors. The clinical manifestations are vague, with a wide clinical spectrum, predominantly related to the abdominal involvement of the disease. Localized mesothelioma is an uncommon manifestation of the disease. Common symptoms include abdominal pain or abdominal distention, nausea, anorexia, and weight loss. Rarely, patients present with paraneoplastic syndrome. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, many patients already have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. The authors report a case of a 75-year-old female patient who presented with symptoms of asthenia, anorexia, progressive paleness, and weight loss lasting five months. She reports later new-onset symptoms of diffuse abdominal pain and diarrhea associated with nausea. Laboratory tests showed anemia, mild leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and elevated liver enzymes. An abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan revealed marked tissue thickening of an irregular and striated configuration of the leaflets and peritoneal reflections in an omental cake pattern, and a chest CT scan showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules, suggesting diffuse malignant disease. A CT-guided biopsy of a peritoneal implant was performed, establishing the diagnosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Due to rapid clinical deterioration, the patient did not receive any systemic treatment, surgery, or radiotherapy and was transitioned to comfort care. As in the presented case, most cases of MPM have diffuse peritoneal involvement at the time of diagnosis, although extra-abdominal involvement is very rare. This disease presentation is associated with high morbidity and mortality compared to cases of localized disease. There is no specific imaging diagnostic modality or valuable tumor markers for MPM. Although a CT scan remains important in the diagnostic approach, the changes found are not specific. Radiographically, MPM may present as mesenteric or parietal peritoneal nodules, visceral peritoneal thickening, ascites, or omental masses. Although these features may raise suspicion of MPM, a biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Therefore, due to the rarity of this disease and its nonspecific signs or symptoms, MPM is difficult to diagnose, and the prognosis remains poor.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Qin C, Xia Q, Chen ZJ, et al (2023)

En bloc resection of the recurrent pleural mesothelioma and reconstruction of the chest wall after immunotherapy: A case report.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with previous asbestos exposure, while more clinical insights into this disease have come from other case studies. Maximal cytoreduction is critical in disease control and might help to improve the prognosis. Here, a 41-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of a mass detected in the chest wall following resection of a right pleural mesothelioma 2 years previously. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan showed a right chest wall mass with a blurred boundary 8.9 cm × 3.7 cm in size. The patient had received one cycle of bevacizumab, carboplatin, and pemetrexed, and two cycles of nivolumab, ipilimumab, and gemcitabine 5 months before admission. We subsequently resected the tumor, the involved diaphragm, and the fifth and sixth ribs, and titanium mesh and continuous suture were used to close the thoracic cage. The fixed paraffin-embedded tissues showed epithelioid pleural mesothelioma. The patient received nivolumab and ipilimumab postoperatively, and no recurrence was detected 16 months after surgery. En bloc resection with reconstructive surgery effectively removed the locally advanced malignancy and restored the biological function of the thorax with a favorable prognosis. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy might therefore be conducive to radical resection and perioperative immunotherapy might improve the prognosis.

RevDate: 2023-09-01
CmpDate: 2023-09-01

Endo I, Amatya VJ, Kushitani K, et al (2023)

FOXM1 Promotes Mesothelioma Cell Migration and Invasion via Activation of SMAD Signaling.

Anticancer research, 43(9):3961-3968.

BACKGROUND/AIM: Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a transcription factor closely associated with various human malignancies and is considered an attractive target for cancer therapy. Mesothelioma is a malignancy primarily due to asbestos exposure and certain genetic factors, requiring a better understanding of tumorigenesis for improved treatment. Asbestos-exposed human mesothelial cells have been reported to up-regulate FOXM1 expression in a dose-dependent manner.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: FOXM1 expression was evaluated in mesothelioma tissues and cell lines. FOXM1 small interfering RNA was transfected into mesothelioma cell lines to analyze its biological functions and regulatory mechanisms.

RESULTS: FOXM1 was over-expressed in mesothelioma tissues and cell lines. Knock-down of FOXM1 in mesothelioma cell lines inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. These results suggest that up-regulation of FOXM1 expression promotes mesothelioma tumorigenesis and progression. We previously reported that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of mesothelioma cell lines. In this study, IGF2BP3 knock-down suppressed FOXM1 expression in mesothelioma cell lines. Our results suggest that IGF2BP3, an upstream regulator, contributes to increased FOXM1 expression. Furthermore, IGF2BP3 and FOXM1 knock-down suppressed SMAD signaling by inhibiting SMAD2/3 phosphorylation in mesothelioma cell lines.

CONCLUSION: IGF2BP3/FOXM1 promotes mesothelioma cell migration and invasion via SMAD signaling, highlighting IGF2BP3/FOXM1 as a potential target for mesothelioma treatment.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Zhang C, Sun Q, Zhao J, et al (2023)

JSI-124 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth by inducing autophagy and apoptosis in murine malignant mesothelioma.

Molecular carcinogenesis [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), mainly caused by asbestos exposure, has a poor prognosis and lacks effective treatment compared with other cancer types. The intracellular transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is overexpressed and hyperactivated in most human cancers. In this study, the role of STAT3 in murine MPM was examined. Inhibition of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway with the selective inhibitor JSI-124 has an antitumor effect in murine MPM. Specifically, we demonstrated that JSI-124 inhibits murine MPM cell growth and induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Exposure of RN5 and AB12 cells to JSI-124 resulted in apoptosis via the Bcl-2 family of proteins. JSI-124 triggered autophagosome formation, accumulation, and conversion of LC3I to LC3II. Autophagy inhibitors, Chloroquine (CQ) and Bafilomycin A1 (Baf-A1), inhibited autophagy and sensitized RN5 and AB12 cells to JSI-124-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that JSI-124 is a promising therapeutic agent for MPM treatment.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Deboever N, Zhou N, McGrail DJ, et al (2023)

Radiographic response to neoadjuvant therapy in pleural mesothelioma should serve as a guide for patient selection for cytoreductive operations.

Frontiers in oncology, 13:1216999.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with poor prognosis despite advances in multimodal therapeutic strategies. While patients with resectable disease may benefit from added survival with oncologic resection, patient selection for mesothelioma operations often relies on both objective and subjective evaluation metrics. We sought to evaluate factors associated with improved overall survival (OS) in patients with mesothelioma who underwent macroscopic complete resection (MCR).

METHODS: Patients with MPM who received neoadjuvant therapy and underwent MCR were identified in a prospectively maintained departmental database. Clinicopathologic, blood-based, and radiographic variables were collected and included in a Cox regression analysis (CRA). Response to neoadjuvant therapy was characterized by a change in tumor thickness from pretherapy to preoperative scans using the modified RECIST criteria.

RESULTS: In this study, 99 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median age of the included patients was 64.7 years, who were predominantly men, had smoking and asbestos exposure, and who received neoadjuvant therapy. The median change in tumor thickness following neoadjuvant therapy was -16.5% (interquartile range of -49.7% to +14.2%). CRA demonstrated reduced OS associated with non-epithelioid histology [hazard ratio (HR): 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.62-5.78, p < 0.001] and a response to neoadjuvant therapy inferior to the median (HR: 2.70, CI: 1.55-4.72, p < 0.001). Patients who responded poorly (below median) to neoadjuvant therapy had lower median survival (15.8 months compared to 38.2 months, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Poor response to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with MPM is associated with poor outcomes even following maximum surgical cytoreduction and should warrant a patient-centered discussion regarding goals of care and may therefore help guide further therapeutic decisions.

RevDate: 2023-08-28
CmpDate: 2023-08-28

Ramundo V, Zanirato G, Palazzo ML, et al (2023)

APE-1/Ref-1 Inhibition Blocks Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cell Proliferation and Migration: Crosstalk between Oxidative Stress and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Driving Carcinogenesis and Metastasis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(16):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer associated with asbestos exposure. MPM pathogenesis has been related both to oxidative stress, evoked by and in response to asbestos fibers exposure, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), an event induced by oxidative stress itself and related to cancer proliferation and metastasis. Asbestos-related primary oxidative damage is counteracted in the lungs by various redox-sensitive factors, often hyperactivated in some cancers. Among these redox-sensitive factors, Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE-1)/Redox effector factor 1 (Ref-1) has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in MPM and lung cancer, but the molecular mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Moreover, asbestos exposure has been associated with induced EMT events, via some EMT transcription factors, such as Twist, Zeb-1 and Snail-1, in possible crosstalk with oxidative stress and inflammation events. To demonstrate this hypothesis, we inhibited/silenced Ref-1 in MPM cells; as a consequence, both EMT (Twist, Zeb-1 and Snail-1) markers and cellular migration/proliferation were significantly inhibited. Taken as a whole, these results show, for the first time, crosstalk between oxidative stress and EMT in MPM carcinogenesis and invasiveness, thus improving the knowledge to better address a preventive and therapeutic approach against this aggressive cancer.

RevDate: 2023-08-30
CmpDate: 2023-08-28

Fiorilla I, Martinotti S, Todesco AM, et al (2023)

Chronic Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Plasticity: Three Players Driving the Pro-Tumorigenic Microenvironment in Malignant Mesothelioma.

Cells, 12(16):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a lethal and rare cancer, even if its incidence has continuously increased all over the world. Asbestos exposure leads to the development of mesothelioma through multiple mechanisms, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and persistent aberrant signaling. Together, these processes, over the years, force normal mesothelial cells' transformation. Chronic inflammation supported by "frustrated" macrophages exposed to asbestos fibers is also boosted by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, damage-associated molecular proteins (DAMPs), and the generation of ROS. In addition, the hypoxic microenvironment influences MPM and immune cells' features, leading to a significant rewiring of metabolism and phenotypic plasticity, thereby supporting tumor aggressiveness and modulating infiltrating immune cell responses. This review provides an overview of the complex tumor-host interactions within the MPM tumor microenvironment at different levels, i.e., soluble factors, metabolic crosstalk, and oxidative stress, and explains how these players supporting tumor transformation and progression may become potential and novel therapeutic targets in MPM.

RevDate: 2023-08-24
CmpDate: 2023-08-24

Moitra S, Tabrizi AF, Khadour F, et al (2023)

Exposure to insulating materials and risk of coronary artery diseases: a cross-sectional study.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1235189.

BACKGROUND: Although previous reports link exposure to insulating materials with an increased risk of mesothelioma and chronic respiratory diseases, studies evaluating their associations with the risk of coronary artery diseases (CAD) are lacking.

AIMS: We aimed at evaluating the associations between exposure to insulating materials and the 10-year risk of CAD among insulators.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 643 adults (≥18 years), full-time insulators from the Local 110 Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers Union in Edmonton, Alberta. We obtained demographic information, personal and family history, and job-exposure history, including experience (years) and types of exposure to insulating materials. Clinical profiling including Framingham risk scores (FRS) was assessed.

RESULTS: Of all insulators, 89% were men (mean ± SD age: 47 ± 12 years), 27% had a parental history of cardiac diseases, and 22% had a comorbid chronic respiratory disease. In total, 53% reported exposure to asbestos, while 61, 82, and 94% reported exposure to ceramic fibers, fiberglass, and mineral fibers, respectively. In single-exposure multivariable regression models adjusted for experience, marital status, and body mass index (BMI), asbestos was found to be associated with higher FRS (β: 1.004; 95%CI: 0.003-2.00). The association remained consistent in multi-exposure models and a higher association was found between asbestos exposure and FRS among insulators with comorbid chronic respiratory disease.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that apart from cancer and chronic respiratory diseases, asbestos exposure may also have a cardiac effect, thus warranting the need for systematic surveillance to protect workers from the adverse effects of these materials.

RevDate: 2023-08-24
CmpDate: 2023-08-23

Welch H, Harris J, Pufulete M, et al (2023)

Does previous asbestos exposure increase the risk of a post coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) pleural effusion - a routine data study?.

BMC pulmonary medicine, 23(1):307.

BACKGROUND: Development of pleural effusion (PE) following CABG is common. Post-CABG PE are divided into early- (within 30 days of surgery) and delayed-onset (30 days-1 year) which are likely due to distinct pathological processes. Some experts suggest asbestos exposure may confer an independent risk for late-onset post-CABG PE, however no large studies have explored this potential association.

RESEARCH QUESTION: To explore possible association between asbestos exposure and post-CABG PE using routine data.

METHODS: All patients who underwent CABG 01/04/2013-31/03/2018 were identified from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) Database. This England-wide population was evaluated for evidence of asbestos exposure, pleural plaques or asbestosis and a diagnosis of PE or PE-related procedure from 30 days to 1 year post-CABG. Patients with evidence of PE three months prior to CABG were excluded, as were patients with a new mesothelioma diagnosis.

RESULTS: 68,150 patients were identified, of whom 1,003 (1%) were asbestos exposed and 2,377 (3%) developed late-onset PE. After adjusting for demographic data, Index of Multiple Deprivation and Charlson Co-morbidity Index, asbestos exposed patients had increased odds of PE diagnosis or related procedure such as thoracentesis or drainage (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.76, p = 0.04). In those with evidence of PE requiring procedure alone, the adjusted OR was 1.66 (95% CI 1.14-2.40, p = 0.01). Additional subgroup analysis of the 518 patients coded for pleural plaques and asbestosis alone revealed an adjusted OR of post-CABG PE requiring a procedure of 2.16 (95% CI 1.38-3.37, p = 0.002).

INTERPRETATION: This large-scale study demonstrates prior asbestos exposure is associated with modestly increased risk of post-CABG PE development. The risk association appears higher in patients with assigned clinical codes indicative of radiological evidence of asbestos exposure (pleural plaques or asbestosis). This association may fit with a possible inflammatory co-pathogenesis, with asbestos exposure 'priming' the pleura resulting in greater propensity for PE evolution following the physiological insult of CABG surgery. Further work, including prospective studies and clinicopathological correlation are suggested to explore this further.

RevDate: 2023-08-15
CmpDate: 2023-08-14

Nasirzadeh N, Soltanpour Z, Mohammadian Y, et al (2022)

Lung Cancer and Pleural Mesothelioma Risk Assessment for the General Population Exposed to Asbestos in Different Regions of Tehran, Iran.

Journal of research in health sciences, 22(4):e00563.

BACKGROUND: Asbestos is a natural fiber leading to health risks like chronic lung diseases. The current study aimed to estimate pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risk for population exposure to asbestos in Tehran, Iran.

STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

METHODS: According to the annual report of Air Quality Control Company (AQCC), from 2011-2020, carcinogenic risk and mesothelioma were assessed based on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) method using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The relative risk (RR) of mortality cancer was calculated based on Camus and colleagues' model. Moreover, mesothelioma risk was estimated by Bourgault and colleagues' model.

RESULTS: The mean concentration and health risk of asbestos in ambient air generally reduced from 2011 to 2020. The highest mortality risk for lung cancer was 8.4 per 100000 persons in 2011 and reduced to 1.8 in 2017. For mesothelioma, the corresponding values were 8.96 per 100000 persons in 2011 and reduced to 1.92 in 2017.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this study could be helpful to health policymakers in the management of asbestos risk.

RevDate: 2023-08-17
CmpDate: 2023-08-14

Stella S, Consonni D, Migliore E, et al (2023)

Pleural mesothelioma risk in the construction industry: a case-control study in Italy, 2000-2018.

BMJ open, 13(8):e073480.

OBJECTIVES: Workers in the construction industry have been exposed to asbestos in various occupations. In Italy, a National Mesothelioma Registry has been implemented more than 20 years ago. Using cases selected from this registry and exploiting existing control data sets, we estimated relative risks for pleural mesothelioma (PM) among construction workers.

DESIGN: Case-control study.

SETTING: Cases from the National Mesothelioma Registry (2000-2018), controls from three previous case-control studies.

METHODS: We selected male PM incident cases diagnosed in 2000-2018. Population controls were taken from three studies performed in six Italian regions within two periods (2002-2004 and 2012-2016). Age-adjusted and period-adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios (OR) for occupations in the construction industry. We followed two approaches, one (primary) excluding and the other (secondary) including subjects employed in other non-construction blue collar occupations for >5 years. For both approaches, we performed an overall analysis including all cases and, given the incomplete temporal and geographic overlap of cases and controls, three time or/and space restricted sensitivity analyses.

RESULTS: The whole data set included 15 592 cases and 2210 controls. With the primary approach (4797 cases and 1085 controls), OR was 3.64 (2181 cases) for subjects ever employed in construction. We found elevated risks for blue-collar occupations (1993 cases, OR 4.52), including bricklayers (988 cases, OR 7.05), general construction workers (320 cases, OR 4.66), plumbers and pipe fitters (305 cases, OR 9.13), painters (104 cases, OR 2.17) and several others. Sensitivity analyses yielded very similar findings. Using the secondary approach, we observed similar patterns, but ORs were remarkably lower.

CONCLUSIONS: We found markedly increased PM risks for most occupations in the construction industry. These findings are relevant for compensation of subjects affected with mesothelioma in the construction industry.

RevDate: 2023-08-12
CmpDate: 2023-08-10

Ferguson K, Neilson M, Mercer R, et al (2023)

Results of the Meso-ORIGINS feasibility study regarding collection of matched benign-mesothelioma tissue pairs by longitudinal surveillance.

BMJ open, 13(8):e067780.

OBJECTIVES: To assess key elements of the design for Meso-ORIGINS (Mesothelioma Observational study of RIsk prediction and Generation of paired benign-meso tissue samples, Including a Nested MRI Substudy), an ambitious, UK-wide, prospective study that will collect ≥63 matched benign-mesothelioma tissue pairs through longitudinal surveillance and repeat biopsy of patients with asbestos-associated pleural inflammation (AAPI).

DESIGN: A multicentre, mixed-methods feasibility study, comprising a prospective observational element, evaluating recruitment feasibility, technical feasibility of repeat local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) and patient acceptability, and a retrospective cohort study focused on AAPI-mesothelioma evolution rate, informing sample size.

SETTING: 4 UK pleural disease centres (February 2019-January 2020).

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with AAPI (history or typical imaging plus appropriate pleural histology) were eligible for both elements. In August 2019, eligibility for the prospective element was broadened, including addition of radiological AAPI for technical feasibility and patient acceptability endpoints only. Retrospective cases required ≥2 years follow-up.

OUTCOME MEASURES: A prospective recruitment target was set a priori at 27 histological AAPI cases (or 14 in any 6 months). Technical feasibility and patient acceptability were determined at 6-month follow-up by thoracic ultrasound surrogates and questionnaires, respectively. Retrospective malignant pleural mesothelioma evolution rate was defined by proportion (95% CI). Baseline predictors of evolution were identified using logistic regression.

RESULTS: 296 patients with AAPI (39 prospective, 257 retrospective) were recruited/selected. 21/39 prospective recruits were histologically diagnosed (target n=27). Repeat LAT was technically feasible and acceptable in 13/28 (46%) and 24/36 (67%) cases with complete follow-up data. Mesothelioma evolution was confirmed histologically in 36/257 retrospective cases (14% (95% CI 10.3% to 18.8%)) and associated with malignant CT features (OR 4.78 (95% CI 2.36 to 9.86)) and age (OR 1.06 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.12)).

CONCLUSIONS: Our initial eligibility criteria were too narrow. Meso-ORIGINS will recruit a broader cohort, including prevalent cases, any biopsy type and patients with malignant CT features. A range of rebiopsy techniques will be allowed, accounting for technical and patient factors. The sample size has been reduced to 500.


RevDate: 2023-08-24
CmpDate: 2023-08-08

Damiran N, AL Frank (2023)

Mongolia: Failure of Total Banning of Asbestos.

Annals of global health, 89(1):50.

The primary uses of asbestos in Mongolia are in thermal power plants, construction and at railway companies. There is, however, limited data on both asbestos consumption and asbestos related disease (ARD) in Mongolia. The purpose of this paper is to report on the failure to completely ban asbestos in Mongolia. To write this paper, available asbestos related literature, published nationally and internationally, and legal regulations, national standards and guidelines on asbestos control were reviewed. Mongolia consumed a total of 44,421.9 metric tons of asbestos containing materials (AMCs) between 1996 and 2014. As a key indicator of ARD, 54 cases of mesothelioma were diagnosed at the National Cancer Center by pathological testing of tissue samples between 1994 and 2013. In 2010, The government made the decision to stop all types of asbestos use under the Law on Toxic and Hazardous Substances. However, there was no nationwide action plan to gradually reduce asbestos use, promote substitutes and raise awareness of health hazards and economic burdens in the future from asbestos use. There was also no planning for safe removal of asbestos currently in place. After the banning of asbestos, thermal power plants told the government that they could not produce electricity without insulation of AMCs and substitution materials were economically not feasible. Due to pressure from the energy sector and inadequate awareness of asbestos hazards, the government changed the legal status on asbestos in 2011 as a restricted chemical. Asbestos is still allowed to be used, and workers and the general community are still unnecessarily exposed to this carcinogen.

RevDate: 2023-08-03

Kuramochi M, Muraoka T, Shinonaga M, et al (2023)

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) Presenting as Hydropneumothorax.

Cureus, 15(7):e41243.

An 86-year-old man presented with bilateral lower limb edema and was found to have hydropneumothorax on chest radiography. CT revealed a substantial pleural effusion and plaques. The patient had a history of working in a stone workshop, but the extent of asbestos exposure remained unknown. Thoracic drainage and subsequent thoracoscopic surgery confirmed the presence of biphasic malignant mesothelioma through pathological examination. Hydropneumothorax as a presentation of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is rare, with only a few similar cases reported. Remarkably, despite the coexistence of plural effusion and pneumothorax, the patient did not experience dyspnea. The examination also revealed tumor rupture and disruption of the pleura. Considering the possibility of MPM in patients with asymptomatic hydropneumothorax is essential for early diagnosis and appropriate management.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Frank AL (2023)

Four mesothelioma cases from a single automotive dealership: A case series.

American journal of industrial medicine, 66(10):904-906.

BACKGROUND: Four cases of mesothelioma were noted in a workplace of some 110 persons at a tractor dealership between 2006 and 2023. Each worker had a different job title.

METHODS: Medical-legal case material was reviewed and abstracted from four cases from the same dealership, all supplied via one law firm.

RESULTS: Four mesotheliomas are reported from this single facility that used chrysotile asbestos automotive products. Two of the four cases had no other known exposures to asbestos.

DISCUSSION: Automotive products containing chrysotile do appear capable of causing mesothelioma. Job category is not a good surrogate for exposure.

RevDate: 2023-07-31

Zhang GZ, Zheng GQ, Wei F, et al (2023)

[Pathological classification of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and comparative analysis with peritoneal carcinomatosis].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 41(7):541-546.

Objective: To analyze the pathological classification of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) and screen the immunohistochemical markers that can distinguish MPeM from peritoneal metastatic carcinoma (PC) . Methods: In June 2020, the pathological results of peritoneal biopsy of 158 MPeM and 138 PC patients from Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou People's Hospital, and Cangzhou Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine from May 2011 to July 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, and the pathological classifications of MPeM in Cangzhou were summarized. Immunohistochemical markers of MPeM and PC patients were analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was drawn for differential diagnosis of MPeM and PC. Results: There were 55 male and 103 female MPeM patients in Cangzhou, with an average age of 57.1 years old. The asbestos exposure rate was 91.14% (144/158). The most common pathological classifications were cutaneous type, accounting for 90.51% (143/158). There were significant differences in the expression of calreticulum protein, CK5/6, vimentin, D2-40, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tail type homologous nuclear gene transcription factor 2 (CDX-2) between MPeM and PC (P<0.05). Among the 6 positive markers, the sensitivity of calreticulum protein was the highest (0.905) and CEA was the lowest (0.428) . Conclusion: Calreticulum protein, CK5/6, vimentin, D2-40, CEA and CDX-2 may be used as specific markers to distinguish the diagnosis of MPeM from PC.

RevDate: 2023-08-16

Rouabeh W, Cherif T, Mgarrech I, et al (2023)

Case report and analysis of the literature on sarcomatous mesothelioma of the left atrium.

International journal of surgery case reports, 109:108537.

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Primary intracardiac malignant mesothelioma is an extremely uncommon condition with a terrible prognosis. Because of its rarity, there have been extremely few examples described in the literature.

CASE PRESENTATION: We are reporting the instance of a 44-year-old lady who was referred to the department of cardiology for worsening dyspnea, palpitations, and a recent syncopal episode. On examination, the patient had signs of global heart failure. Cardiac imaging showed a tissue mass infiltrating the atrioventricular sulcus at the mitral valve level, responsible for severe mitral stenosis. Pleural effusion without an intrapleural mass was also noted. Urgent surgery was performed, including excision of the tumor mass, mechanical replacement of the mitral valve, and tricuspid plasty. The anatomo-pathological study concluded in cardiac mesothelioma. The patient was transferred back to the cardiology department 9 months after surgery due to severe left heart failure. TTE and TOE were performed and revealed tumor recurrence responsible for severe mitral stenosis. The course was marked by the onset of cardiogenic shock refractory to treatment, followed by the death of the patient. The case we are reporting seems to be the initial instance documented as exclusively primary intracardiac mesothelioma especially its lack of association with any other pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma or asbestos exposure.

CLINICAL DISCUSSION: In cases where a large atrial tumor is present, prompt surgical intervention is recommended to mitigate the risk of catastrophic embolization or valve orifice obstruction. The objective of surgical intervention is to excise the entire neoplasm with sufficient surrounding tissue, a feat that is infrequently achievable. Palliative debulking may be a beneficial intervention for patients who do not necessitate complete resection, particularly those experiencing relevant or rapidly escalating symptoms. Cardiac transplantation remains a viable option in the event of an unresectable malignant tumor.

CONCLUSION: The short-term prognosis is poor. Surgical treatment remains the best treatment for this type of tumor. Total excision should be considered, but may not be feasible in all cases. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be considered.

RevDate: 2023-07-25

Wang J, Huang X, Ma R, et al (2023)

The incidence of malignancies in asbestosis with chrysotile exposure: a large Chinese prospective cohort study.

Frontiers in oncology, 13:1172496.

BACKGROUND: Asbestos exposure is closely related to the occurrence and development of various malignancies. This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the incidence rate and potential risk factors in a cohort of asbestosis patients in China.

METHODS: The incidence of malignancies was determined in patients who had been exposed to chrysotile asbestos and diagnosed with asbestosis sequentially at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2019. Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the correlations between clinical variables and asbestosis combined with malignancies.

RESULTS: A total of 618 patients with asbestosis were identified, of whom 544 were eligible for analysis. Among them, 89 (16.36%) were diagnosed with various malignancies. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of patients with asbestosis combined with malignancies were 16.61, 175, 5.23, and 8.77 for lung cancer, mesothelioma, breast cancer, and endometrial carcinoma, respectively. The risks of all malignancies and lung cancer increased with initial exposure before 17 years old, longer asbestos exposure, and smoking.

CONCLUSIONS: The SIRs of patients with asbestosis-related malignancies were significantly increased in lung cancer, mesothelioma, breast cancer, and endometrial carcinoma in a hospital-based Chinese cohort. Smoking and the duration of asbestos exposure increased the risk of lung cancer.

RevDate: 2023-07-22

Shi H, Zhang L, Yu TK, et al (2023)

Leptospermum extract (QV0) suppresses pleural mesothelioma tumor growth in vitro and in vivo by mitochondrial dysfunction associated apoptosis.

Frontiers in oncology, 13:1162027.

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is a highly aggressive, fast-growing asbestos-induced cancer with limited effective treatments. There has been interest in using naturally occurring anticancer agents derived from plant materials for the treatment of PM. However, it is unclear if an aqueous extract from Leptospermum polygalifolium (QV0) has activity against PM. Here we investigated the anti-cancer properties of QV0 and Defender[®] (QV0 dietary formula) in vitro and in vivo, respectively. QV0 suppressed the growth of eight PM cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, effective at concentrations as low as 0.02% w/v (equivalent to 0.2 mg/ml). This response was found to be associated with inhibited cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation but without evident cell cycle alteration. We observed mitochondrial dysfunction post-QV0 treatment, as evidenced by significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates. Ten SCID mice were treated with 0.25 mg/g Defender[®] daily and exhibited reduced tumor size over 30 days, which was associated with an average extension of seven days of mouse life. There was no evidence of liver toxicity or increased blood glucose post-treatment in animals treated with Defender[®]. Significantly enhanced tumor apoptosis was observed in the Defender[®]-treated animals, correlating to mitochondrial dysfunction. Lastly, the high levels of polyphenols and antioxidant properties of QV0 and Defender[®] were detected in HPLC analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this study constitutes the first demonstration of an improved host survival (without adverse effects) response in a QV0-treated PM mouse model, associated with evident inhibition of PM cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunction-related enhancement of tumor apoptosis.

RevDate: 2023-07-21

Sahu RK, Ruhi S, Jeppu AK, et al (2023)

Malignant mesothelioma tumours: molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapies accompanying clinical studies.

Frontiers in oncology, 13:1204722.

The pathetic malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a extremely uncommon and confrontational tumor that evolves in the mesothelium layer of the pleural cavities (inner lining- visceral pleura and outer lining- parietal pleura), peritoneum, pericardium, and tunica vaginalis and is highly resistant to standard treatments. In mesothelioma, the predominant pattern of lesions is a loss of genes that limit tumour growth. Despite the worldwide ban on the manufacture and supply of asbestos, the prevalence of mesothelioma continues to increase. Mesothelioma presents and behaves in a variety of ways, making diagnosis challenging. Most treatments available today for MM are ineffective, and the median life expectancy is between 10 and 12 months. However, in recent years, considerable progress has already been made in understanding the genetics and molecular pathophysiology of mesothelioma by addressing hippo signaling pathway. The development and progression of MM are related to many important genetic alterations. This is related to NF2 and/or LATS2 mutations that activate the transcriptional coactivator YAP. The X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, and PET scans are used to diagnose the MM. The MM are treated with surgery, chemotherapy, first-line combination chemotherapy, second-line treatment, radiation therapy, adoptive T-cell treatment, targeted therapy, and cancer vaccines. Recent clinical trials investigating the function of surgery have led to the development of innovative approaches to the treatment of associated pleural effusions as well as the introduction of targeted medications. An interdisciplinary collaborative approach is needed for the effective care of persons who have mesothelioma because of the rising intricacy of mesothelioma treatment. This article highlights the key findings in the molecular pathogenesis of mesothelioma, diagnosis with special emphasis on the management of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2023-07-19

Lombardo C, Broggi G, Vitale E, et al (2023)

Expression of stathmin in asbestos-like fibers-induced mesothelioma: A preliminary report.

Histology and histopathology pii:HH-18-649 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma is strongly associated with exposure to asbestos fibers, however, recent studies have also linked exposure to "naturally occurring asbestos" fibers with this disease. Fluoro-edenite, a silicate mineral found in the southeast of Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy), has been identified as a potential risk factor for mesothelioma. Unfortunately, this cancer often has a poor prognosis, and current diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are inadequate. Histological subtype, gender, and age at diagnosis are the most significant parameters for mesothelioma. Stathmin, a cytosolic protein that regulates cell growth and migration and is overexpressed in many human malignancies, has not yet been linked to mesothelioma survival or clinical-pathological variables.

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of stathmin in ten mesothelioma tissue samples with available clinical and follow-up data.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue samples from ten mesothelioma patients were processed for immunohistochemical analyses to evaluate stathmin expression.

RESULTS: Our findings suggest that stathmin overexpression is associated with shorter overall survival in patients with mesothelioma. Furthermore, stathmin expression was significantly correlated with the survival time of mesothelioma patients.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that stathmin expression may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for mesothelioma. This biomarker could be used to promptly identify patients with poor prognosis and to guide clinicians in the selection of treatment options.

RevDate: 2023-08-01
CmpDate: 2023-07-19

Torricelli F, Donati B, Reggiani F, et al (2023)

Spatially resolved, high-dimensional transcriptomics sorts out the evolution of biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma: new paradigms for immunotherapy.

Molecular cancer, 22(1):114.

BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a dreadful disease escaping the classical genetic model of cancer evolution and characterized by wide heterogeneity and transcriptional plasticity. Clinical evolution of MPM is marked by a progressive transdifferentiation that converts well differentiated epithelioid (E) cells into undifferentiated and pleomorphic sarcomatoid (S) phenotypes. Catching the way this transition takes place is necessary to understand how MPM develops and progresses and it is mandatory to improve patients' management and life expectancy. Bulk transcriptomic approaches, while providing a significant overview, failed to resolve the timing of this evolution and to identify the hierarchy of molecular events through which this transition takes place.

METHODS: We applied a spatially resolved, high-dimensional transcriptomic approach to study MPM morphological evolution. 139 regions across 8 biphasic MPMs (B-MPMs) were profiled using the GeoMx™Digital Spatial Profiler to reconstruct the positional context of transcriptional activities and the spatial topology of MPM cells interactions. Validation was conducted on an independent large cohort of 84 MPMs by targeted digital barcoding analysis.

RESULTS: Our results demonstrated the existence of a complex circular ecosystem in which, within a strong asbestos-driven inflammatory environment, MPM and immune cells affect each other to support S-transdifferentiation. We also showed that TGFB1 polarized M2-Tumor Associated Macrophages foster immune evasion and that TGFB1 expression correlates with reduced survival probability.

CONCLUSIONS: Besides providing crucial insights into the multidimensional interactions governing MPM clinical evolution, these results open new perspectives to improve the use of immunotherapy in this disease.

RevDate: 2023-07-18

Farahmand P, Gyuraszova K, Rooney C, et al (2023)

Asbestos accelerates disease onset in a genetic model of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Frontiers in toxicology, 5:1200650.

Hypothesis: Asbestos-driven inflammation contributes to malignant pleural mesothelioma beyond the acquisition of rate-limiting mutations. Methods: Genetically modified conditional allelic mice that were previously shown to develop mesothelioma in the absence of exposure to asbestos were induced with lentiviral vector expressing Cre recombinase with and without intrapleural injection of amosite asbestos and monitored until symptoms required euthanasia. Resulting tumours were examined histologically and by immunohistochemistry for expression of lineage markers and immune cell infiltration. Results: Injection of asbestos dramatically accelerated disease onset and end-stage tumour burden. Tumours developed in the presence of asbestos showed increased macrophage infiltration. Pharmacological suppression of macrophages in mice with established tumours failed to extend survival or to enhance response to chemotherapy. Conclusion: Asbestos-driven inflammation contributes to the severity of mesothelioma beyond the acquisition of rate-limiting mutations, however, targeted suppression of macrophages in established epithelioid mesothelioma showed no therapeutic benefit.

RevDate: 2023-07-08

Jama M, Zhang M, Poile C, et al (2023)

Gene fusions during the early evolution of mesothelioma correlate with impaired DNA repair and Hippo pathways.

Genes, chromosomes & cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare cancer a long latency period (up to 40 years) between asbestos exposure and disease presentation. The mechanisms coupling asbestos to recurrent somatic alterations are poorly defined. Gene fusions arising through genomic instability may create novel drivers during early MPM evolution. We explored the gene fusions that occurred early in the evolutionary history of the tumor. We conducted multiregional whole exome sequencing (WES) of 106 samples from 20 patients undergoing pleurectomy decortication and identified 24 clonal nonrecurrent gene fusions, three of which were novel (FMO9P-OR2W5, GBA3, and SP9). The number of early gene fusion events detected varied from zero to eight per tumor, and presence of gene fusions was associated with clonal losses involving the Hippo pathway genes and homologous recombination DNA repair genes. Fusions involved known tumor suppressors BAP1, MTAP, and LRP1B, and a clonal oncogenic fusion involving CACNA1D-ERC2, PARD3B-NT5DC2, and STAB2-NT5DC2 fusions were also identified as clonal fusions. Gene fusions events occur early during MPM evolution. Individual fusions are rare as no recurrent truncal fusions event were found. This suggests the importance of early disruption of these pathways in generating genomic rearrangements resulting in potentially oncogenic gene fusions.

RevDate: 2023-08-01
CmpDate: 2023-08-01

Coccè V, Bonelli M, La Monica S, et al (2023)

Mesenchymal stromal cells loaded with Paclitaxel (PacliMES) a potential new therapeutic approach on mesothelioma.

Biochemical pharmacology, 214:115678.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an asbestos-related tumor originating in mesothelial cells of the pleura that poorly responds to chemotherapeutic approaches. Adult mesenchymal stromal cells derived either from bone marrow or from adipose tissue may be considered a good model for cell-based therapy, a treatment which has experienced significant interest in recent years. The present study confirms that Paclitaxel is effective on mesothelioma cell proliferation in 2D and 3D in vitro cultures, and that 80,000 mesenchymal stromal cells loaded with Paclitaxel inhibit tumor growth at a higher extent than Paclitaxel alone. An in vivo approach to treat in situ mesothelioma xenografts using a minimal amount of 10[6] mesenchymal stromal cells loaded with Paclitaxel showed the same efficacy of a systemic administration of 10 mg/kg of Paclitaxel. These data strongly support drug delivery system by mesenchymal stromal cells as a useful approach against many solid tumors. We look with interest at the favourable opinion recently expressed by the Italian Drug Agency on the procedure for the preparation of mesenchymal stromal cells loaded with Paclitaxel in large-scale bioreactor systems and their storage until clinical use. This new Advanced Medicinal Therapy Product, already approved for a Phase I clinical trial on mesothelioma patients, could pave the way for mesenchymal stromal cells use as drug delivery system on other solid tumors for adjuvant therapy associated with surgery and radiotherapy.

RevDate: 2023-07-10
CmpDate: 2023-07-10

Digifico E, Erreni M, Mannarino L, et al (2023)

Important functional role of the protein osteopontin in the progression of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1116430.

BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer of the mesothelial lining associated with exposure to airborne non-degradable asbestos fibers. Its poor response to currently available treatments prompted us to explore the biological mechanisms involved in its progression. MPM is characterized by chronic non-resolving inflammation; in this study we investigated which inflammatory mediators are mostly expressed in biological tumor samples from MPM patients, with a focus on inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix components.

METHODS: Expression and quantification of Osteopontin (OPN) was detected in tumor and plasma samples of MPM patients by mRNA, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The functional role of OPN was investigated in mouse MPM cell lines in vivo using an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model.

RESULTS: In patients with MPM, the protein OPN was significantly more expressed in tumors than in normal pleural tissues and predominantly produced by mesothelioma cells; plasma levels were elevated in patients and associated with poor prognosis. However, modulation of OPN levels was not significantly different in a series of 18 MPM patients receiving immunotherapy with durvalumab alone or with pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy, some of whom achieved a partial clinical response. Two established murine mesothelioma cell lines: AB1 and AB22 of sarcomatoid and epithelioid histology, respectively, spontaneously produced high levels of OPN. Silencing of the OPN gene (Spp1) dramatically inhibited tumor growth in vivo in an orthotopic model, indicating that OPN has an important promoting role in the proliferation of MPM cells. Treatment of mice with anti-CD44 mAb, blocking a major OPN receptor, significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo.

CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that OPN is an endogenous growth factor for mesothelial cells and inhibition of its signaling may be helpful to restrain tumor progression in vivo. These findings have translational potential to improve the therapeutic response of human MPM.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Mishra K, Siddiquee S, AR Mislang (2023)

A rare presentation of malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis managed with immunotherapy and review of the literature.

Clinical case reports, 11(6):e7610.

KEY CLINICAL MESSAGE: We describe the first case in literature of malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis that has shown partial response to systemic immunotherapy (ipilimumab-nivolumab) post orchiectomy, warranting further investigation in a trial setting.

ABSTRACT: We present a case report of an 80-year-old ex-smoker with a rare diagnosis of metastatic mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis, managed with immunotherapy. The patient, with no known history of asbestos exposure, presented with a left scrotal mass and pain. Scrotal ultrasound confirmed a large paratesticular mass, and computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis revealed a bilobed mass in the left scrotal compartment without associated inguinal or abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy, and an indeterminate, subcentimeter, bi-basal subpleural nodules. He underwent a left orchiectomy, and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a paratesticular mesothelioma. Postoperatively, the patient had a positron emission tomography (PET) scan showing a new right pleural effusion as well as increasing size of the lobar and pleural nodules bilaterally, all metabolically active and suggestive of progressive metastatic disease. The patient was commenced on ipilimumab and nivolumab immunotherapy, a regimen indicated for malignant pleural mesothelioma; however, the efficacy on paratesticular mesothelioma is not known. After 6 months of treatment, the patient demonstrated a partial response to immunotherapy, with a reduction in the size of known pleural nodules and effusion.Literature review suggests that diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and patients commonly have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Orchiectomy is a common management modality. However, the role, regimen, and benefits of systemic therapy are unclear, warranting further studies investigating management strategies.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Charlaix Hidalgo AL, Roux A, Charissoux A, et al (2023)

First Case of Abdominal and Tunica Vaginalis Multicystic Benign Mesothelioma: Management and Review of Literature.

Indian journal of surgical oncology, 14(Suppl 1):92-96.

Multicystic benign mesothelioma is a rare tumor that affects the serosa. Most cases present with peritoneal lesions exclusively. Some identified risk factors are chronic abdominal inflammation, woman of childbearing age, and asbestos exposure. The symptomatology is not specific and can delay the diagnosis. There are no guidelines for the treatment of this pathology. We describe one male patient with abdominal and tunica vaginalis localizations of multicystic benign mesothelioma. The diagnosis was suspected on imaging and confirmed with histological examination. The treatment on an expert center was complete cytoreduction surgery and HIPEC, but the patient had two recurrences during the 2-year of follow-up. This is the first case of simultaneous rare localizations of multicystic benign mesothelioma. No new risk factors were identified. The case underlines the importance of regular examination of all serosa localizations.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Singh R, AL Frank (2023)

Analysis of the Indian Government's position on the use of asbestos and its health effects.

Public health action, 13(2):50-52.

Based on WHO guidance, all forms of asbestos are a health risk. In India, the mining of asbestos has been stopped, but chrysotile (a type of asbestos) is still imported and processed in large quantities. Chrysotile is mainly used for asbestos-cement roofing, and the manufacturers claim its use to be safe. We sought to understand the Indian Government's position on the use of asbestos. To do so, we have analysed the replies of the executive wing of the Indian Government to questions on asbestos in the Indian Parliament. This revealed that, despite a mining ban, the government has defended the import, processing and continued use of asbestos.

RevDate: 2023-06-22

Mejia-Garcia A, Bonilla DA, Ramirez CM, et al (2023)

Genes and Pathways Involved in the Progression of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Expression Studies.

Biochemical genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive neoplasm of the pleural tissue that lines the lungs and is mainly associated with long latency from asbestos exposure. This tumor has no effective therapeutic opportunities nowadays and has a very low five-year survival rate. In this sense, identifying molecular events that trigger the development and progression of this tumor is highly important to establish new and potentially effective treatments. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide expression studies publicly available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and ArrayExpress databases. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and we performed functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) to gain insight into the biological mechanisms underlying these genes. Additionally, we constructed survival prediction models for selected DEGs and predicted the minimum drug inhibition concentration of anticancer drugs for MPM. In total, 115 MPM tumor transcriptomes and 26 pleural tissue controls were analyzed. We identified 1046 upregulated DEGs in the MPM samples. Cellular signaling categories in tumor samples were associated with the TNF, PI3K-Akt, and AMPK pathways. The inflammatory response, regulation of cell migration, and regulation of angiogenesis were overrepresented biological processes. Expression of SOX17 and TACC1 were associated with reduced survival rates. This meta-analysis identified a list of DEGs in MPM tumors, cancer-related signaling pathways, and biological processes that were overrepresented in MPM samples. Some therapeutic targets to treat MPM are suggested, and the prognostic potential of key genes is shown.

RevDate: 2023-07-01
CmpDate: 2023-06-14

Vimercati L, Cavone D, De Maria L, et al (2023)

Mesothelioma Risk among Construction Workers According to Job Title: Data from the Italian Mesothelioma Register.

La Medicina del lavoro, 114(3):e2023025.

BACKGROUND: An increased risk of mesothelioma has been reported in various countries for construction workers. The Italian National Mesothelioma Registry, from 1993 to 2018, reported exposure exclusively in the construction sector in 2310 cases. We describe the characteristics of these cases according to job title.

METHODS: We converted into 18 groups the original jobs (N=338) as reported by ISTAT codes ('ATECO 91'). The exposure level was attributed at certain, probable and possible in accordance with the qualitative classification of exposure as reported in the Registry guidelines. Descriptive analysis by jobs highlights the total number of subjects for each single job and certain exposure, in descending order, insulator, plumbing, carpenter, mechanic, bricklayer, electrician, machine operator, plasterer, building contractor, painter and labourer.

RESULTS: The cases grow for plumbing in the incidence periods 1993-2018, while, as expected, it decreases for insulator. Within each period considered the most numerous cases are always among bricklayers and labourers, these data confirm the prevalence of non-specialised "interchangeable" jobs in Italian construction sector in the past.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the 1992 ban, the construction sector still presents an occupational health prevention challenge, circumstances of exposure to asbestos may still occur due to incomplete compliance with prevention and protection measures.

RevDate: 2023-06-21
CmpDate: 2023-06-21

Tamanna MT, C Egbune (2023)

Traditional Treatment Approaches and Role of Immunotherapy in Lung Malignancy and Mesothelioma.

Cancer treatment and research, 185:79-89.

There is no denying that many revolutions took place in the fight against cancer during the last decades. However, cancers have always managed to find new ways to challenge humankinds. Variable genomic epidemiology, socio-economic differences and limitations of widespread screening are the major concerns in cancer diagnosis and early treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is essentially to manage a cancer patient efficiently. Thoracic malignancies including lung cancers and pleural mesothelioma are accountable for little more than 11.6% of the global cancer burden [4]. Mesothelioma is one of the rare cancers, but concern is the incidences are increasing globally. However, the good news is first-line chemotherapy with the combination of immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mesothelioma has showed promising respond and improved overall survival (OS) in pivotal clinical trials [10]. ICIs are commonly referred as immunotherapy are antigens on the cancer cells, and inhibitors are the antibodies produce by the T cell defence system. By inhibiting immune checkpoints, the cancer cells become visible to be identified as abnormal cells and attack by the body's defence system [17]. The programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are commonly used immune checkpoint blockers for anti-cancer treatment. PD-1/PD-L1 are proteins produced by immune cells and mimic by cancer cells that are implicated in inhibiting T cell response to regulate our immune system, which results tumour cells escaping the defence mechanism to achieve immune surveillance. Therefore, inhibiting immune checkpoints as well as monoclonal antibodies can lead to effective apoptosis of tumour cells [17]. Mesothelioma is an industrial disease caused by significant asbestos exposure. It is the cancer of the mesothelial tissue which presents in the lining of the mediastinum of pleura, pericardium and peritoneum, most commonly affected sites are pleura of the lung or chest wall lining [9] as route of asbestos exposure is inhalation. Calretinin is a calcium binding protein, typically over exposed in malignant mesotheliomas and the most useful marker even while initial changes take place [5]. On the other hand, Wilm's tumour 1 (WT-1) gene expression on the tumour cells can be related to prognosis as it can elicit immune response, thereby inhibit cell apoptosis. A systematic review and meta-analysis study conducted by Qi et al. has suggested that expression of WT-1 in a solid tumour is fatal however, it gives the tumour cell a feature of immune sensitivity which then acts positively towards the treatment with immunotherapy. Clinical significance of WT-1 oncogene in treatment is still hugely debatable and needs further attention [21]. Recently, Japan has reinstated Nivolumab in patients with chemo-refractory mesothelioma. According to NCCN guidelines, the salvage therapies include Pembrolizumab in PD-L1 positive patients and Nivolumab alone or with Ipilimumab in cancers irrespective of PD-L1 expression [9]. The checkpoint blockers have taken over the biomarker-based research and demonstrated impressive treatment options in immune sensitive and asbestos-related cancers. It can be expected that in near future the immune checkpoint inhibitors will be considered as approved first-line cancer treatment universally.

RevDate: 2023-06-13

Peña-Castro M, Montero-Acosta M, M Saba (2023)

A critical review of asbestos concentrations in water and air, according to exposure sources.

Heliyon, 9(5):e15730.

Asbestos, a group of minerals with unique physical and chemical properties, has been widely used in various industries. However, extensive exposure to asbestos fibers, present in the environment, has been linked to several types of cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Despite worldwide regulations prohibiting or regulating the use of this material, the uncertainty surrounding the concentrations of asbestos fibers in the environment (air and water) from different sources of exposure persists. The objective of this review paper is to identify the levels of asbestos in air and water reported in the literature based on the source of exposure in diverse contexts to assess conformity with the reference limits for this mineral. Initially, the review delineates various forms of exposure and the origin of fiber generation in the environment, whether direct or indirect. Regarding the presence of asbestos in the environment, high concentrations were identified in natural water bodies known as Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA), and there is a risk in the process of distributing drinking water due to the presence of asbestos-cement pipes. In the air, studies to determine asbestos concentrations vary based on the sources of exposure in each region or city studied. The presence of asbestos mines around the city and the intensity of vehicular traffic are some of the most relevant sources found to be related to high concentrations of asbestos fibers in the air. The present review paper features a critical review section in each chapter to highlight critical points found in the literature and suggest new methodologies/ideas to standardize future research. It emphasizes the necessity to standardize methods for measuring asbestos concentrations in air and water arising from diverse sources of exposure to enable comparisons between different regions and countries.

RevDate: 2023-08-09
CmpDate: 2023-08-07

Torén K, Neitzel RL, Eriksson HP, et al (2023)

Cancer incidence among workers in soft paper mills: A cohort study.

American journal of industrial medicine, 66(9):728-735.

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate whether occupational exposure to soft paper dust increases the incidence of cancer.

METHODS: We studied 7988 workers in Swedish soft paper mills from 1960 to 2008, of whom 3233 (2 187 men and 1046 women) had more than 10 years of employment. They were divided into high exposure (>5 mg/m[3] for >1 year) or lower exposure to soft paper dust based on a validated job-exposure matrix. They were followed from 1960 to 2019, and person-years at risk were stratified according to gender, age, and calendar-year. The expected numbers of incident tumors were calculated using the Swedish population as the reference, and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were assessed.

RESULTS: Among high-exposure workers with more than 10 years of employment, there was an increased incidence of colon cancer (SIR 1.66, 95% CI 1.20-2.31), small intestine cancer (SIR 3.27, 95% CI 1.36-7.86), and thyroid gland cancer (SIR 2.68, 95% CI 1.11-6.43), as well as lung cancer (SIR 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.19). Among the lower-exposed workers there was an increased incidence of connective tissue tumors (sarcomas) (SIR 2.26, 95% CI 1.13-4.51) and pleural mesothelioma (SIR 3.29, 95% CI 1.37-7.91).

CONCLUSION: Workers in soft paper mills with high exposure to soft paper dust have an increased incidence of large and small intestine tumors. Whether the increased risk is caused by paper dust exposure or some unknown associated factors is unclear. The increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma is probably linked to asbestos exposure. The reason for increased incidence of sarcomas is unknown.

RevDate: 2023-06-12
CmpDate: 2023-06-12

Fazzo L, Minelli G, De Santis M, et al (2023)

The Epidemiological Surveillance of Mesothelioma Mortality in Italy as a Tool for the Prevention of Asbestos Exposure.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(11):.

As part of a surveillance plan active since the early 1990s, this study evaluates malignant mesothelioma (MM) mortality for the time-window 2010-2019 in Italy, a country that banned asbestos in 1992. National and regional mortality rates for MM, and municipal standardized mortality ratios (all mesotheliomas, pleural (MPM) and peritoneal (MPeM)), by gender and age group were calculated. A municipal clustering analysis was also performed. There were 15,446 deaths from MM (11,161 males, 3.8 × 100,000; 4285 females, 1.1 × 100,000), of which 12,496 were MPM and 661 were MPeM. In the study period, 266 people ≤50 years died from MM. A slightly decreasing rate among males since 2014 was observed. The areas at major risk hosted asbestos-cement plants, asbestos mines (chrysotile in Balangero), shipyards, petrochemical and chemical plants, and refineries. Female mortality excesses particularly were found in municipalities with a fluoro-edenite-contaminated mine (Biancavilla) and textile facilities. Excesses were also found in a region with the presence of natural asbestos fibres and in males living in two small islands. The Italian National Prevention Plan stated recommendations to eliminate asbestos exposures and to implement health surveillance and healthcare for people exposed to asbestos.

RevDate: 2023-06-12

Rondon L, Fu R, MR Patel (2023)

Success of Checkpoint Blockade Paves the Way for Novel Immune Therapy in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 15(11):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a malignancy associated with asbestos exposure and is typically categorized as an orphan disease. Recent developments in immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, specifically with agents nivolumab and ipilimumab, have demonstrated an improvement in overall survival over the previous standard chemotherapy leading to their FDA-approval as first-line therapy for unresectable disease. For quite some time, it has been known that these proteins are not the only ones that function as immune checkpoints in human biology, and the hypothesis that MPM is an immunogenic disease has led to an expanding number of studies investigating alternative checkpoint inhibitors and novel immunotherapy for this malignancy. Early trials are also supporting the notion that therapies that target biological molecules on T cells, cancer cells, or that trigger the antitumor activity of other immune cells may represent the future of MPM treatment. Moreover, mesothelin-targeted therapies are thriving in the field, with forthcoming results from multiple trials signaling an improvement in overall survival when combined with other immunotherapy agents. The following manuscript will review the current state of immune therapy for MPM, explore the knowledge gaps in the field, and discuss ongoing novel immunotherapeutic research in early clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Schaefer IM, Mariño-Enríquez A, Hammer MM, et al (2023)

Recurrent Tumor Suppressor Alterations in Primary Pericardial Mesothelioma.

Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc, 36(9):100237 pii:S0893-3952(23)00142-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Primary pericardial mesotheliomas are extremely rare, accounting for <1% of all mesotheliomas, and their molecular genetic features and predisposing factors remain to be determined. Here, we report the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic findings of 3 pericardial mesotheliomas without pleural involvement. Three cases diagnosed between 2004 and 2022 were included in the study and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS); corresponding nonneoplastic tissue was sequenced in all cases. Two patients were female and 1 was male, aged between 66 and 75 years. Two patients each had prior asbestos exposure and were smokers. Histologic subtypes were epithelioid in 2 cases and biphasic in 1 case. Immunohistochemical staining identified expression of cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and calretinin in all cases, D2-40 in 2 cases, and WT1 in 1 case. Staining for tumor suppressors revealed loss of p16, MTAP, and Merlin (NF2) expression in 2 cases and loss of BAP1 and p53 in 1 case. Abnormal cytoplasmic BAP1 expression was observed in an additional case. Protein expression abnormalities correlated with NGS results, which showed concurrent complete genomic inactivation of CDKN2A/p16, CDKN2B, MTAP, and NF2 in 2 mesotheliomas and of BAP1 and TP53 in 1 mesothelioma each, respectively. In addition, 1 patient harbored a pathogenic BRCA1 germline mutation, which resulted in biallelic inactivation in the mesothelioma. All mesotheliomas were mismatch repair proficient and showed several chromosomal gains and losses. All patients died from disease. Our study demonstrates that pericardial mesotheliomas share common morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features with pleural mesothelioma, including recurrent genomic inactivation of canonical tumor suppressors. Our study adds new insights into the genetic landscape of primary pericardial mesothelioma and highlights BRCA1 loss as a potential contributing factor in a subset of cases, thereby contributing to refined precision diagnostics for this rare cancer.

RevDate: 2023-06-12

Tagliaferri AR, Melki G, Rezkalla A, et al (2023)

Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma presenting as small bowel obstruction.

Radiology case reports, 18(8):2681-2684.

Mesotheliomas are aggressive malignant tumors which can occur most commonly in the pleural space, however can occur in the peritoneum in those with an extensive history of asbestos exposure. Primary peritoneal mesothelioma is relatively rare and is a fatal diagnosis. The prognosis of primary peritoneal mesothelioma is very poor and individuals are at high risk of developing mesothelioma in another cavity within the first year after initial diagnosis. Herein, we present a case of primary peritoneal mesothelioma, presenting as small bowel obstruction.

RevDate: 2023-06-12

Migliore M, Fiore M, Filippini T, et al (2023)

Comparison of video-assisted pleurectomy/decortication surgery plus hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy with VATS talc pleurodesis for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma: A pilot study.

Heliyon, 9(6):e16685.

Hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC) adjunct to surgery for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) has no definite role. The primary objective of this pilot-trial was to evaluate the feasibility for future large studies. The study design was a prospective randomized three-centric pilot trial. We recruited patients diagnosed with MPM and prospectively assigned them to two groups: Group A: Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) talc pleurodesis or Group B: Video-assisted P/D plus HITHOC. From November-2011 to July-2017 24 males and 3 females, with a median age of 68-years were enrolled (recruitment rate 5 patients/year). Preoperative stage was I-II, and 18 had epithelioid type. 14 patients were in the Group A. Operative mortality was 0. Follow-up ranged 6-80 months. The median overall survival time started to diverge at 20 months, being 19 months (95% CI 12-25) in Group A and 28 months (95% CI 0-56) in Group B. Survival rate for the epithelioid type was 15 months (95% CI 0-34) in Group A and 45 months (95% CI 0-107) in the Group B. These findings suggest that video-assisted P/D plus HITHOC may improve survival time in MPM patients undergoing surgical treatment and support the need for a larger multicenter randomized clinical trial.

RevDate: 2023-06-02
CmpDate: 2023-06-01

Ito F, Kato K, Yanatori I, et al (2023)

Matrigel-based organoid culture of malignant mesothelioma reproduces cisplatin sensitivity through CTR1.

BMC cancer, 23(1):487.

Organoids are a three-dimensional (3D) culture system that simulate actual organs. Therefore, tumor organoids are expected to predict precise response to chemotherapy in patients. However, to date, few studies have studied the drug responses in organoids of malignant mesothelioma (MM). The poor prognosis of MM emphasizes the importance of establishing a protocol for generating MM-organoid for research and clinical use. Here, we established murine MM organoids from p53[+/-] or wild-type C57BL/6 strain by intraperitoneal injection either with crocidolite or carbon nanotube. Established MM-organoids proliferated in Matrigel as spheroids. Subcutaneous injection assays revealed that the MM-organoids mimicked actual tissue architecture and maintained the original histological features of the primary MM. RNA sequencing and pathway analyses revealed that the significant expressional differences between the 2D- and 3D-culture systems were observed in receptor tyrosine kinases, including IGF1R and EGFR, glycosylation and cholesterol/steroid metabolism. MM-organoids exhibited a more sensitive response to cisplatin through stable plasma membrane localization of a major cisplatin transporter, copper transporter 1/Slc31A1 (Ctr1) in comparison to 2D-cultures, presumably through glycosylation and lipidation. The Matrigel culture system facilitated the localization of CTR1 on the plasma membrane, which simulated the original MMs and the subcutaneous xenografts. These results suggest that the newly developed protocol for MM-organoids is useful to study strategies to overcome chemotherapy resistance to cisplatin.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-12

Nash A, Firth Née Phan T, J Creaney (2023)

New Markers for Management of Mesothelioma.

Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine, 44(4):491-501.

In this review, we provide an update on the status of cancer biomarkers for the clinical management of pleural mesothelioma, an aggressive cancer associated with asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma can be difficult to diagnose, and response to treatment is transient, even with recently adopted immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations. Identification of mesothelioma-specific biomarkers could facilitate early diagnosis and tailor treatment strategies. Mesothelioma is characterized by frequent loss or alteration of the tumor suppressor genes cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1). Accumulating data show these genes and/or their related protein products will be valuable tissue-based biomarkers for mesothelioma. Loss of BAP1, CDKN2A, p16, or methylthioadenosine phosphorylase provide pathologists with a reliable means of differentiating between mesothelioma and reactive mesothelial cell proliferations. This can aid diagnosis in difficult cases and is requisite for the identification of the new pathological entity malignant mesothelioma in situ. However, limited progress in identifying clinically useful soluble biomarkers in this cancer type has been made, with mesothelin remaining the benchmark. To date, results from studies to identify predictive biomarkers for ICI response have been disappointing. A recent retrospective study demonstrated BAP1 loss was predictive of improved survival following combination pemetrexed- and platinum-based chemotherapy. Validation of this result could have important clinical implications. Clinical trials aimed at targeting therapy based on biomarker expression are generally in the early phase setting, with overall results being moderate. The identification of biomarkers for mesothelioma remains a key research question due to their potential to improve patient outcomes in this deadly cancer.

RevDate: 2023-05-31
CmpDate: 2023-05-31

Zhao F, Zhang YL, Liu X, et al (2023)

[A case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 41(4):307-309.

Malignant mesothelioma is a highly malignant disease that most often occurs in the pleural cavity, followed by the peritoneum and pericardium. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) accounts for 10%-15% of all mesothelioma. The most important risk factor for MPM is exposure to asbestos. MPM has no specific clinical symptoms, imaging and histopathology are critical for the diagnosis. There are currently no generally accepted guidelines for curative treatment of MPM. The patient mainly presented with abdominal pain, abdominal distension and discomfort. Due to extensive omentum metastasis, no further surgical treatment was performed. Pemetrexed combined with cisplatin chemotherapy was given for 2 cycles, and the patient is still alive.

RevDate: 2023-08-10
CmpDate: 2023-08-10

Ntlailane L, Sebola L, Singo D, et al (2023)

Managing the risks of an asbestos bulk storage facility at a research institute.

Annals of work exposures and health, 67(7):907-911.

The South African National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOH), formerly the Pneumoconiosis Research Unit, has previously milled about 544 kg of anthophyllite, crocidolite, amosite and chrysotile asbestos fibre materials. This endeavour came about in an attempt to address a recommendation, made by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), to make asbestos standard reference samples available for research. Some of these reference samples, as well as the bulk, unprocessed materials are still within the care of the NIOH and can be obtained for the purpose of Public Health research under strict terms and conditions. Considering the hazardous nature of asbestos and regulated prohibitions imposed on this mineral, the NIOH asbestos storage facility is being subjected to various occupational and environmental control measures to ensure that any potential fibre release, and subsequent risk of exposure, are prevented.

RevDate: 2023-05-29
CmpDate: 2023-05-29

Broggi G, Filetti V, Magro G, et al (2023)

Immunohistochemical expression of cAMP in fluoroedenite‑induced malignant pleural mesothelioma: Preliminary results.

Molecular medicine reports, 28(1):.

Despite advances in understanding of the biology of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), the prognosis of this malignancy remains poor. Although asbestos still remains the main pathogenic agent of MPM, other asbestos‑like fibers such as fluoro‑edenite (FE) fibers, induce MPM. Notable incidence and mortality rates of MPM have been found in Biancavilla, Italy, where FE fibers have been extracted from building materials for >50 years. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a secondary messenger that plays a key role in several physiological and pathological mechanisms regulating protein kinase A (PKA) and the CREB pathway. Hyperactivation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway is involved in many neoplastic processes, including tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastatic spread. The present study investigated immunohistochemical expression of cAMP in patients with FE‑induced MPM, which included six males and four females with an age range of 50‑93 years. There was high immunoexpression of cAMP in 5 out of 10 tumors while the remaining 5 cases showed low immunoexpression. In addition, there was a correlation between cAMP overexpression and decreased survival times (mean overall survival times, 7.5 months in high expression group vs. 18 months in low expression group).

RevDate: 2023-05-25
CmpDate: 2023-05-25

Wang D, Zhu J, Li N, et al (2023)

GC-MS-based untargeted metabolic profiling of malignant mesothelioma plasma.

PeerJ, 11:e15302.

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a cancer caused mainly by asbestos exposure, and is aggressive and incurable. This study aimed to identify differential metabolites and metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma.

METHODS: By using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), this study examined the plasma metabolic profile of human malignant mesothelioma. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses and pathway analyses to identify differential metabolites, enriched metabolism pathways, and potential metabolic targets. The area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) criterion was used to identify possible plasma biomarkers.

RESULTS: Using samples from MM (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 22) participants, 20 metabolites were annotated. Seven metabolic pathways were disrupted, involving alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism; arginine and proline metabolism; butanoate and histidine metabolism; beta-alanine metabolism; and pentose phosphate metabolic pathway. The AUC was used to identify potential plasma biomarkers. Using a threshold of AUC = 0.9, five metabolites were identified, including xanthurenic acid, (s)-3,4-hydroxybutyric acid, D-arabinose, gluconic acid, and beta-d-glucopyranuronic acid.

CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a plasma metabolomics analysis using GC-MS analyses of Asian MM patients. Our identification of these metabolic abnormalities is critical for identifying plasma biomarkers in patients with MM. However, additional research using a larger population is needed to validate our findings.

RevDate: 2023-06-22
CmpDate: 2023-06-22

Korchevskiy AA, AG Wylie (2023)

Toxicological and epidemiological approaches to carcinogenic potency modeling for mixed mineral fiber exposure: the case of fibrous balangeroite and chrysotile.

Inhalation toxicology, 35(7-8):185-200.

CONTEXT: Excess mesothelioma risk was observed among chrysotile miners and millers in Balangero, Italy. The mineral balangeroite has been identified in an asbestiform habit from the Balangero chrysotile mine (Italy). Previous studies did not contain a detailed description of the fiber dimensions, thus limiting possible approaches to estimating their carcinogenic potential.

OBJECTIVES: To reconstruct excess mesothelioma risk based on characteristics of mixed fiber exposure.

METHODS: The lengths and widths of particles from a sample of balangeroite were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Statistical analysis and modeling were applied to assess the toxicological potential of balangeroite.

RESULTS: Balangeroite fibers are characterized as asbestiform, with geometric mean length of 10 μm, width of 0.54 μm, aspect ratio of 19, and specific surface area of 13.8 (1/μm). Proximity analysis shows dimensional characteristics of balangeroite close to asbestiform anthophyllite. Modeling estimates the average potency of balangeroite as 0.04% (95% CI 0.0058, 0.16) based on dimensional characteristics and 0.05% (95% CI-0.04, 0.24) based on epidemiological data. The available estimate of the fraction of balangeroite in the Balangero mine is very approximate. There were no data for airborne balangeroite fibers from the Balangero mine and no lung burden data are available. All estimates were performed using weight fractions of balangeroite and chrysotile. However, based on reasonable assumptions, of the seven cases of mesothelioma in the cohort, about three cases (43%) can be attributed to fibrous balangeroite.

CONCLUSION: The presence of different types of mineral fibers in aerosolized materials even in small proportions can explain observed cancer risks.

RevDate: 2023-06-09
CmpDate: 2023-06-09

Zambrano E, Matoso A, M Reyes-Múgica (2023)

Mesotheliomas in Children.

Advances in anatomic pathology, 30(4):275-279.

Mesotheliomas are rare and aggressive tumors that originate from mesothelial cells. Although exceedingly rare, these tumors may occur in children. Different from adult mesotheliomas, however, environmental exposures particularly to asbestos do not appear to play a major role in mesotheliomas in children, in whom specific genetic rearrangements driving these tumors have been identified in recent years. These molecular alterations may increasingly offer opportunities for targeted therapies in the future, which may provide better outcomes for these highly aggressive malignant neoplasms.

RevDate: 2023-05-30
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Carbone M, Yang H, Pass HI, et al (2023)

Did the Ban on Asbestos Reduce the Incidence of Mesothelioma?.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 18(6):694-697.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-10

Giacobbe C, Moliterni A, Di Giuseppe D, et al (2023)

The crystal structure of the killer fibre erionite from Tuzköy (Cappadocia, Turkey).

IUCrJ, 10(Pt 4):397-410.

Erionite is a non-asbestos fibrous zeolite classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen and is considered today similar to or even more carcinogenic than the six regulated asbestos minerals. Exposure to fibrous erionite has been unequivocally linked to cases of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and this killer fibre is assumed to be directly responsible for more than 50% of all deaths in the population of the villages of Karain and Tuzköy in central Anatolia (Turkey). Erionite usually occurs in bundles of thin fibres and very rarely as single acicular or needle-like fibres. For this reason, a crystal structure of this fibre has not been attempted to date although an accurate characterization of its crystal structure is of paramount importance for our understanding of the toxicity and carcinogenicity. In this work, we report on a combined approach of microscopic (SEM, TEM, electron diffraction), spectroscopic (micro-Raman) and chemical techniques with synchrotron nano-single-crystal diffraction that allowed us to obtain the first reliable ab initio crystal structure of this killer zeolite. The refined structure showed regular T-O distances (in the range 1.61-1.65 Å) and extra-framework content in line with the chemical formula (K2.63Ca1.57Mg0.76Na0.13Ba0.01)[Si28.62Al7.35]O72·28.3H2O. The synchrotron nano-diffraction data combined with three-dimensional electron diffraction (3DED) allowed us to unequivocally rule out the presence of offretite. These results are of paramount importance for understanding the mechanisms by which erionite induces toxic damage and for confirming the physical similarities with asbestos fibres.

RevDate: 2023-05-19
CmpDate: 2023-05-18

RanYue W, ChunYan W, Likun H, et al (2023)

Diffuse intrapulmonary mesothelioma mimicking pulmonary lepidic adenocarcinoma: a rare case report and review of the literature.

Diagnostic pathology, 18(1):64.

Mesothelioma, with various clinical manifestations, radiological features, and histomorphological types, can be divided into epithelioid, sarcomatoid, and biphasic types, according to their histomorphological characteristics. There is a rare growth pattern of pleural mesothelioma: diffuse intrapulmonary mesothelioma (DIM), with a distinctive pattern of predominantly intrapulmonary growth, has no or minimal pleural involvement, and simulates interstitial lung disease(ILD) clinically and radiologically. A 59-year-old man presented to the hospital with recurrent pleural effusions for 4 years and a history of asbestos exposure. Computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral pure ground-glass opacity lesions, and the tumor cells showed a lepidic growth pattern pathologically. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CK, WT-1, calretinin, D2-40, CK5/6, and Claudin4, while TTF-1, CEA, EMA, CK7, CK20, and other epithelial markers were negative. BAP1 loss its expression, and MTAP was positive in cytoplasm. CDKN2A was negative tested by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The final diagnosis was DIM. In conclusion, we should recognize this rare disease to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed treatment.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Ahmadzada T, Vijayan A, Vafaee F, et al (2023)

Small and Large Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Pleural Mesothelioma Cell Lines Offer Biomarker Potential.

Cancers, 15(8):.

Pleural mesothelioma, previously known as malignant pleural mesothelioma, is an aggressive and fatal cancer of the pleura, with one of the poorest survival rates. Pleural mesothelioma is in urgent clinical need for biomarkers to aid early diagnosis, improve prognostication, and stratify patients for treatment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have great potential as biomarkers; however, there are limited studies to date on their role in pleural mesothelioma. We conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis on different EV populations derived from five pleural mesothelioma cell lines and an immortalized control cell line. We characterized three subtypes of EVs (10 K, 18 K, and 100 K), and identified a total of 4054 unique proteins. Major differences were found in the cargo between the three EV subtypes. We show that 10 K EVs were enriched in mitochondrial components and metabolic processes, while 18 K and 100 K EVs were enriched in endoplasmic reticulum stress. We found 46 new cancer-associated proteins for pleural mesothelioma, and the presence of mesothelin and PD-L1/PD-L2 enriched in 100 K and 10 K EV, respectively. We demonstrate that different EV populations derived from pleural mesothelioma cells have unique cancer-specific proteomes and carry oncogenic cargo, which could offer a novel means to extract biomarkers of interest for pleural mesothelioma from liquid biopsies.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Collatuzzo G, Turati F, Malvezzi M, et al (2023)

Attributable Fraction of Cancer Related to Occupational Exposure in Italy.

Cancers, 15(8):.

BACKGROUND: Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important and avoidable cause of cancer. We aimed to provide an evidence-based estimate of the burden of occupation-related cancers in Italy.

METHODS: The attributable fraction (AF) was calculated based on the counterfactual scenario of no occupational exposure to carcinogens. We included exposures classified as IARC group 1 and with reliable evidence of exposure in Italy. Relative risk estimates for selected cancers and prevalences of exposure were derived from large-scale studies. Except for mesothelioma, a 15-20-year latency period between exposure and cancer was considered. The data on cancer incidence in 2020 and mortality in 2017 in Italy were obtained from the Italian Association of Cancer Registries.

RESULTS: The most prevalent exposures were UV radiation (5.8%), diesel exhaust (4.3%), wood dust (2.3%) and silica dust (2.1%). Mesothelioma had the largest AF to occupational carcinogens (86.6%), followed by sinonasal cancer (11.8%) and lung cancer (3.8%). We estimated that 0.9% of cancer cases (N~3500) and 1.6% of cancer deaths (N~2800) were attributable to occupational carcinogens in Italy. Of these, about 60% were attributable to asbestos, 17.5% to diesel exhaust, followed by chromium and silica dust (7% and 5%).

CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates provide up-to-date quantification of the low, but persistent, burden of occupational cancers in Italy.

RevDate: 2023-05-17
CmpDate: 2023-05-17

Kauschke V, Philipp-Gehlhaar M, J Schneider (2023)

Expression of microRNAs in leukocytes and serum of asbestosis patients.

European journal of medical research, 28(1):175.

BACKGROUND: Although asbestos use is banned in many countries, long latency of asbestos-related diseases like pleural plaques or asbestosis mean it is still a public health issue. People suffering from these diseases have a higher risk of developing mesothelioma or lung cancer, which can progress quickly and aggressively. MicroRNAs were suggested as potential biomarkers in several diseases. However, in asbestosis, blood microRNAs are less explored. Since miR-32-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146b-5p, miR-204-5p and miR-451a are involved in fibrotic processes and in cancer, expression of these microRNAs was analyzed in leukocytes and serum of asbestosis patients.

METHODS: MicroRNA expression was analyzed in leukocytes and serum of 36 patients (26 affected by pleural plaques and 10 by asbestosis) and 15 healthy controls by real-time RT-PCR. Additionally, data analyses were performed regarding disease severity based on ILO classification.

RESULTS: MicroRNA miR-146b-5p was significantly down-regulated in leukocytes of patients suffering from pleural plaques with a large effect indicated by η[2]p = 0.150 and Cohen's f = 0.42, a value of difference of 0.725 and a 95% confidence interval of 0.070-1.381. In patients suffering from asbestosis miR-146b-5p was not significantly regulated. However, data analyses considering disease severity only, revealed that miR-146b-5p was significantly down-regulated in leukocytes of mildly diseased patients compared to controls with a large effect indicated by η[2]p = 0.178 and Cohen's f = 0.465, a value of difference of 0.848 and a 95% confidence interval of 0.097-1.599. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and an area under the ROC curve value of 0.757 for miR-146b-5p indicated acceptable discrimination ability between patients suffering from pleural plaques and healthy controls. Less microRNAs were detectable in serum than in leukocytes, showing no significant expression differences in all participants of this study. Moreover, miR-145-5p was regulated significantly differently in leukocytes and serum. An R[2] value of 0.004 for miR-145-5p indicated no correlation in microRNA expression between leukocytes and serum.

CONCLUSION: Leukocytes seem more suitable than serum for microRNA analyses regarding disease and potentially cancer risk assessment of patients suffering from asbestos-related pleural plaques or asbestosis. Long-term studies may reveal whether down-regulation of miR-146b-5p in leukocytes might be an early indicator for an increased cancer risk.

RevDate: 2023-05-16

Sekido Y, T Sato (2023)

NF2 alteration in mesothelioma.

Frontiers in toxicology, 5:1161995.

The NF2 tumor suppressor gene is a frequent somatically mutated gene in mesothelioma, with 30%-40% mesotheliomas showing NF2 inactivation. NF2 encodes merlin, a member of the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) family of proteins that regulate cytoskeleton and cell signaling. Recent genome analysis revealed that NF2 alteration may be a late event in mesothelioma development, suggesting that NF2 mutation confers a more aggressive phenotype to mesothelioma cells and may not be directly caused by asbestos exposure. The Hippo tumor-suppressive and mTOR prooncogenic signaling pathways are crucial cell-signaling cascades regulated by merlin. Although the exact role and timing of NF2 inactivation in mesothelioma cells remain to be elucidated, targeting the NF2/merlin-Hippo pathway may be a new therapeutic strategy for patients with mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2023-06-11
CmpDate: 2023-06-09

Brown JS (Jr) (2023)

Comparison of Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressors, and MicroRNAs Between Schizophrenia and Glioma: The Balance of Power.

Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 151:105206.

The risk of cancer in schizophrenia has been controversial. Confounders of the issue are cigarette smoking in schizophrenia, and antiproliferative effects of antipsychotic medications. The author has previously suggested comparison of a specific cancer like glioma to schizophrenia might help determine a more accurate relationship between cancer and schizophrenia. To accomplish this goal, the author performed three comparisons of data; the first a comparison of conventional tumor suppressors and oncogenes between schizophrenia and cancer including glioma. This comparison determined schizophrenia has both tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting characteristics. A second, larger comparison between brain-expressed microRNAs in schizophrenia with their expression in glioma was then performed. This identified a core carcinogenic group of miRNAs in schizophrenia offset by a larger group of tumor-suppressive miRNAs. This proposed "balance of power" between oncogenes and tumor suppressors could cause neuroinflammation. This was assessed by a third comparison between schizophrenia, glioma and inflammation in asbestos-related lung cancer and mesothelioma (ALRCM). This revealed that schizophrenia shares more oncogenic similarity to ALRCM than glioma.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Cugliari G (2023)

FKBP5, a Modulator of Stress Responses Involved in Malignant Mesothelioma: The Link between Stress and Cancer.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(9):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumour characterized by a long latency period after asbestos exposure and poor survival [...].

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Du X, Li X, Zhang B, et al (2023)

The clinicopathological significance of TOP2A expression in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

Annals of diagnostic pathology, 65:152155.

BACKGROUND: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignant tumor with a high mortality rate and extremely poor prognosis. TOP2A expression is associated with cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. We aimed to demonstrate the expression profile of TOP2A in MPM and its correlation with clinicopathological features.

METHODS: Clinicopathological information from 100 MPM cases was collected at Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to evaluate TOP2A levels. The associations between TOP2A levels and clinicopathological features or prognosis were analyzed. Clinical follow-up data were reviewed to determine correlations among the pathological prognostic factors using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and univariate/multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models.

RESULTS: Among the 100 MPM patients, there were 48 males and 52 females, with a median age of 54 years (range: 24-72 years). The cutoff curve was used to find the boundary value of the TOP2A-positive rate. TOP2A positive rate ≥ 11.97 % accounted for 48 % in tumor tissue. The TOP2A-positive rate was not associated with sex, age, asbestos exposure, peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) score, or completeness of cytoreduction (CC) score in MPM. Univariate analysis revealed survival-related pathological parameters, including asbestos exposure, CA125, histological type, PCI score, CC score, Ki-67 index, and TOP2A positive rate. Multivariate analysis identified that asbestos exposure history, PCI score, Ki-67 proliferation index and TOP2A positive rate in tissue are independent prognostic factors.

CONCLUSIONS: High expression of TOP2A is linked to better prognosis of MPM.

RevDate: 2023-05-14

Singh R, AL Frank (2023)

Does the Presence of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings Post-construction and Before Demolition Have an Impact on the Exposure to Occupants in Non-occupational Settings?.

Cureus, 15(4):e37305.

This narrative review aims to determine if asbestos-containing materials in buildings pose a hazard to building occupants in non-occupational settings. This paper is limited to the post-construction and pre-demolition stages of a building. The researchers selected 19 studies from the 126 studies screened, concerning exposure to asbestos fibers in non-occupational building settings, with a focus on post-construction and pre-demolition phases. The literature review found that certain conditions, such as the measurement techniques, standards, and previous data availability, prevent a conclusive answer to the research question. Some studies have pointed towards an effect of asbestos-containing materials on health of occupants in non-occupational settings. But, there are some that do not suggest a positive relationship between non-occupational exposure and the presence of asbestos-containing materials, and therefore these provide scope for further research, as these studies also do not rule out the relationship completely. The present study highlights the gaps in current knowledge and indicates areas for further research. Until conclusive evidence based on revised threshold standards and accurate measurement techniques is available, asbestos-containing materials may be considered unsafe for use in non-occupational settings, especially ones that young people and children occupy.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Hathaway F, Martins R, Sorscher S, et al (2023)

Family Matters: Germline Testing in Thoracic Cancers.

American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Annual Meeting, 43:e389956.

Most thoracic cancers arise via a series of stepwise somatic alterations driven by a well-defined carcinogen (ie, tobacco or asbestos for lung cancer and mesothelioma, respectively). A small proportion can emerge on a background of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs), which have the property of heritability. In general, PGVs may be initially suspected on the basis of the presence of specific clinical features. Such gene × environment interactions significantly increase the risk of developing lung cancer (1.5- to 3.2-fold). PGVs have been discovered involving the actionable driver oncogene, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with an EGFR T790M PGV rate of 0.3%-0.9% in the nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer subtype. Its appearance during routine somatic DNA sequencing in those patients who have not had a previous tyrosine kinase inhibitor should raise suspicion. In patients with sporadic mesothelioma, BAP1 is the most frequently mutated tumor driver, with a PGV rate between 2.8% and 8%, associated with a favorable prognosis. BAP1 PGVs accelerate mesothelioma tumorigenesis after asbestos exposure in preclinical models and may be partly predicted by clinical criteria. At present, routine germline genetic testing for thoracic cancers is not a standard practice. Expert genetic counseling is, therefore, required for patients who carry a PGV. Ongoing studies aim to better understand the natural history of patients harboring PGVs to underpin future cancer prevention, precise counseling, and cancer management with the goal of improving the quality and length of life.

RevDate: 2023-07-05
CmpDate: 2023-07-04

Sato T, Akao K, Sato A, et al (2023)

Aberrant expression of NPPB through YAP1 and TAZ activation in mesothelioma with Hippo pathway gene alterations.

Cancer medicine, 12(12):13586-13598.

BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma is a neoplastic disease associated with asbestos exposure. It is highly malignant and has a poor prognosis; thus, early detection is desirable. Recent whole-genome analysis has revealed that mesothelioma is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in a set of genes involved in the Hippo pathway, such as NF2 and LATS2. However, a rapid, simple, and precise method for finding mesothelioma with these mutations has not yet been established.

METHODS: Clustering of Hippo pathway gene alteration groups and the differential expression of each gene in mesothelioma patients were analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Gene expression levels in various tumors and normal tissues were analyzed using public databases. Knockdown or transient expression of YAP1 or TAZ was performed to evaluate the regulation of gene expression by these genes. NT-proBNP was measured in the pleural effusions of 18 patients and was compared with NF2 expression in five cases where cell lines had been successfully established.

RESULTS: NPPB mRNA expression was markedly higher in the group of mesothelioma patients with Hippo pathway gene mutations than in the group without them. NPPB expression was low in all normal tissues except heart, and was highest in mesothelioma. Mesothelioma patients in the high NPPB expression group had a significantly worse prognosis than those in the low NPPB expression group. NPPB expression was suppressed by knockdown of YAP1 or TAZ. NT-proBNP was abundant in the effusions of mesothelioma patients and was particularly high in those with impaired NF2 expression.

CONCLUSIONS: NPPB, whose levels can be measured in pleural effusions of mesothelioma patients, has the potential to act as a biomarker to detect NF2-Hippo pathway gene alterations and/or predict patient prognosis. Additionally, it may provide useful molecular insights for a better understanding of mesothelioma pathogenesis and for the development of novel therapies.

RevDate: 2023-06-10
CmpDate: 2023-05-11

Moline J (2023)

Response to the Letter to the Editor From Jeffrey Brent, MD, PhD. Re: Mesothelioma Associated With the Use of Cosmetic Talc.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 65(5):e361.

RevDate: 2023-05-25
CmpDate: 2023-05-09

Avramescu ML, Potiszil C, Kunihiro T, et al (2023)

An investigation of the internal morphology of asbestos ferruginous bodies: constraining their role in the onset of malignant mesothelioma.

Particle and fibre toxicology, 20(1):19.

BACKGROUND: Asbestos is a fibrous mineral that was widely used in the past. However, asbestos inhalation is associated with an aggressive type of cancer known as malignant mesothelioma (MM). After inhalation, an iron-rich coat forms around the asbestos fibres, together the coat and fibre are termed an "asbestos ferruginous body" (AFB). AFBs are the main features associated with asbestos-induced MM. Whilst several studies have investigated the external morphology of AFBs, none have characterised the internal morphology. Here, cross-sections of multiple AFBs from two smokers and two non-smokers are compared to investigate the effects of smoking on the onset and growth of AFBs. Morphological and chemical observations of AFBs were undertaken by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and selected area diffraction.

RESULTS: The AFBs of all patients were composed of concentric layers of 2-line or 6-line ferrihydrite, with small spherical features being observed on the outside of the AFBs and within the cross-sections. The spherical components are of a similar size to Fe-rich inclusions found within macrophages from mice injected with asbestos fibres in a previous study. As such, the spherical components composing the AFBs may result from the deposition of Fe-rich inclusions during frustrated phagocytosis. The AFBs were also variable in terms of their Fe, P and Ca abundances, with some layers recording higher Fe concentrations (dense layers), whilst others lower Fe concentrations (porous layers). Furthermore, smokers were found to have smaller and overall denser AFBs than non-smokers.

CONCLUSIONS: The AFBs of smokers and non-smokers show differences in their morphology, indicating they grew in lung environments that experienced disparate conditions. Both the asbestos fibres of smokers and non-smokers were likely subjected to frustrated phagocytosis and accreted mucopolysaccharides, resulting in Fe accumulation and AFB formation. However, smokers' AFBs experienced a more uniform Fe-supply within the lung environment compared to non-smokers, likely due to Fe complexation from cigarette smoke, yielding denser, smaller and more Fe-rich AFBs. Moreover, the lack of any non-ferrihydrite Fe phases in the AFBs may indicate that the ferritin shell was intact, and that ROS may not be the main driver for the onset of MM.

RevDate: 2023-05-08
CmpDate: 2023-05-08

Liang Y, Li C, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Prognostic role of CD74, CD10 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical expression in patients with diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: a retrospective study.

BMC cancer, 23(1):406.

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) are still challenging. The aim of the present study was to explore the correlation between CD74, CD10, Ki-67 and clinicopathological parameters, and identify independent prognostic factors of DMPM.

METHODS: Seventy patients with pathologically proven DMPM were retrospectively reviewed. The expression of CD74, CD10 and Ki-67 in peritoneal tissues was detected by immunohistochemical analysis using standard avidin biotin complex (ABC) immunostaining technique. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess prognostic factors. The nomogram based on the Cox hazards regression model was established. C-index and calibration curve were performed to evaluate the accuracy of nomogram models.

RESULTS: The median age of DMPM was 62.34 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1: 1.80. CD74 expression was identified in 52 (74.29%) of 70 specimens, CD10 in 34 (48.57%) specimens, and higher Ki-67 in 33(47.14%) specimens. CD74 was negatively associated with asbestos exposure(r = -0.278), Ki-67(r = -0.251) and TNM stage(r = -0.313). All patients were effectively followed up in the survival analysis. Univariate analysis revealed that PCI, TNM stage, treatment, Ki-67, CD74 and ECOG PS were associated with DMPM prognosis. CD74 (HR = 0.65, 95%Cl:0.46-0.91, P = 0.014), Ki-67(HR = 2.09, 95%Cl:1.18-3.73, P = 0.012),TNM stage (HR = 1.89, 95%Cl:1.16-3.09, P = 0.011), ECOG PS(HR = 2.12, 95%Cl:1.06-4.25, P = 0.034), systemic chemotherapy (HR = 0.41, 95%Cl:0.21-0.82, P = 0.011) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HR = 0.34, 95%Cl:0.16-0.71, P = 0.004) were independent predictors by multivariate Cox analysis. The C‑index of the nomogram for predicting overall survival (OS) was 0.81. The OS calibration curve showed good agreement between nomogram-predicted and observed survival.

CONCLUSIONS: CD74, Ki-67, TNM stage, ECOG PS and treatment were independent factors affecting prognosis of DMPM. Reasonable chemotherapy treatment might improve the prognosis of patients. The proposed nomogram was a visual tool to effectively predict the OS of DMPM patients.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Yang D, Chen C, Xia H, et al (2023)

Characteristics of transcription profile, adhesion and migration of SETD2-loss Met-5A mesothelial cells exposed with crocidolite.

Journal of applied toxicology : JAT [Epub ahead of print].

Asbestos is a fibrous silicate mineral exhibiting biopersistence and carcinogenic properties and contributes to mesothelioma. Despite the concept of gene-environmental interaction in pathogenesis of mesothelioma, the possible pathophysiological changes of mesothelial cells simultaneously with SET domain containing 2 (SETD2) loss and asbestos exposure remains obscure. Herein, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated SETD2 knockout Met-5A mesothelial cells (Met-5A[SETD2-KO]) were established and exposed with crocidolite, an amphibole asbestos. Cell viability of Met-5A[SETD2-KO] appeared to dramatically decrease with ≥2.5 μg/cm[2] crocidolite exposure as compared with Met-5A, although no cytotoxicity and apoptosis changes of Met-5A[SETD2-KO] and Met-5A was evident with 1.25 μg/cm[2] crocidolite exposure for 48 h. RNA sequencing uncovered top 50 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 1.25 μg/cm[2] crocidolite exposed Met-5A[SETD2-KO] (Cro-Met-5A[SETD2-KO]) and 1.25 μg/cm[2] crocidolite exposed Met-5A (Cro-Met-5A), and ITGA4, THBS2, MYL7, RAC2, CADM1, and CLDN11 appeared to be the primary DEGs involved with adhesion in gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Cro-Met-5A[SETD2-KO] had strong migration but mild adhesion behavior as compared with Cro-Met-5A. Additionally, crocidolite tended to increase migration of Met-5A[SETD2-KO] but inhibited migration of Met-5A when compared with their corresponding cells without crocidolite exposure, although no further adhesion property changes was evident for both cells in response to crocidolite. Therefore, crocidolite may affect adhesion-related gene expression and modify adhesion and migration behavior for SETD2-depleted Met-5A, which could provide preliminary insight regarding the potential role of SETD2 in the cell behavior of asbestos-related malignant mesothelial cell.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Tada A, Minami T, Kitai H, et al (2023)

Combination therapy with anti-programmed cell death 1 antibody plus angiokinase inhibitor exerts synergistic antitumor effect against malignant mesothelioma via tumor microenvironment modulation.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 180:107219.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related fatal malignant neoplasm. Although there has been no reliable chemotherapeutic regimen other than combination therapy of cisplatin and pemetrexed for two decades, combination of ipilimumab plus nivolumab brought about a better outcome in patients with MPM. Thus, cancer immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) is expected to play a central role in the treatment of MPM. To maximize the antitumor effect of ICI, we evaluated whether nintedanib, an antiangiogenic agent, could augment the antitumor effect of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody (Ab). Although nintedanib could not inhibit the proliferation of mesothelioma cells in vitro, it significantly suppressed the growth of mesothelioma allografts in mice. Moreover, combination therapy with anti-PD-1 Ab plus nintedanib reduced tumor burden more dramatically compared with nintedanib monotherapy via inducing remarkable necrosis in MPM allografts. Nintedanib did not promote the infiltration of CD8[+] T cells within the tumor when used alone or in combination with anti-PD-1 Ab but it independently decreased the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis and ex vivo study using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) showed that nintedanib could polarize TAMs from M2 to M1 phenotype. These results indicated that nintedanib had a potential to suppress protumor activity of TAMs both numerically and functionally. On the other hand, ex vivo study revealed that nintedanib upregulated the expression of PD-1 and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in BMDMs and mesothelioma cells, respectively, and exhibited the impairment of phagocytic activity of BMDMs against mesothelioma cells. Co-administration of anti-PD-1 Ab may reactivate phagocytic activity of BMDMs by disrupting nintedanib-induced immunosuppressive signal via binding between PD-1 on BMDMs and PD-L1 on mesothelioma cells. Collectively, combination therapy of anti-PD-1 Ab plus nintedanib enhances the antitumor activity compared with respective monotherapy and can become a novel therapeutic option for patients with MPM.

RevDate: 2023-05-11
CmpDate: 2023-05-08

Orozco Morales ML, Rinaldi CA, de Jong E, et al (2023)

Geldanamycin treatment does not result in anti-cancer activity in a preclinical model of orthotopic mesothelioma.

PloS one, 18(5):e0274364.

Mesothelioma is characterised by its aggressive invasive behaviour, affecting the surrounding tissues of the pleura or peritoneum. We compared an invasive pleural model with a non-invasive subcutaneous model of mesothelioma and performed transcriptomic analyses on the tumour samples. Invasive pleural tumours were characterised by a transcriptomic signature enriched for genes associated with MEF2C and MYOCD signaling, muscle differentiation and myogenesis. Further analysis using the CMap and LINCS databases identified geldanamycin as a potential antagonist of this signature, so we evaluated its potential in vitro and in vivo. Nanomolar concentrations of geldanamycin significantly reduced cell growth, invasion, and migration in vitro. However, administration of geldanamycin in vivo did not result in significant anti-cancer activity. Our findings show that myogenesis and muscle differentiation pathways are upregulated in pleural mesothelioma which may be related to the invasive behaviour. However, geldanamycin as a single agent does not appear to be a viable treatment for mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2023-05-05
CmpDate: 2023-05-05

Ma GY, Shi S, Sang YZ, et al (2023)

High Expression of SMO and GLI1 Genes with Poor Prognosis in Malignant Mesothelioma.

BioMed research international, 2023:6575194.

BACKGROUND: To investigate the value of SMO and GLI1 genes in the hedgehog pathway in malignant mesothelioma specimens. Further study on the expression and prognosis of SMO and GLI1 in malignant mesothelioma tissues and the relationship between the two and the molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma immunity and to further investigate the prognostic value of mesothelioma expression.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR were applied to detect the expression of SMO and GLI1 proteins and mRNA in biopsy specimens and plasma cavity effusion specimens from malignant mesothelioma (n = 130) and benign mesothelial tissues (n = 50) and to analyze the clinicopathological significance and survival risk factors of SMO and GLI1 protein expression in mesothelioma. The mechanisms of mesothelioma cell expression and immune cell infiltration were investigated using bioinformatics methods.

RESULTS: SMO and GLI1 in mesothelioma tissues detected high concordance between the diagnostic results of mesothelioma biopsy specimens and plasma cavity effusion specimens. The expression levels of SMO and GLI1 protein and mRNA in mesothelioma tissues were higher than those in benign mesothelioma tissues. The expression levels of SMO and GLI1 protein were correlated with the age, site, and asbestos exposure history of patients with mesothelioma. The expression levels of SMO and GLI1 protein were correlated with the expressions of ki67 and p53 (P < 0.05). SMO and GLI1 gene expression levels were negatively correlated with good prognosis in mesothelioma patients (P < 0.05). Cox proportional risk model indicated that protein expressions of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, staging, and genes were independent prognostic factors of mesothelioma. The GEPIA database showed the overall survival rate and the disease-free survival rate of mesothelioma patients in the high SMO and GLI1 expression groups; the UALCAN database analysis showed lower SMO expression levels in mesothelioma patients with more pronounced TP53 mutations (P = 0.001); GLI1 gene expression levels were strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis in mesothelioma patients (P = 0.009). Timer database analysis showed that the mechanism of immune cell infiltration was closely related to SMO and GLI1 expression. The degree of immune cell infiltration was strongly correlated with the prognosis of mesothelioma patients (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The expression levels of both SMO and GLI1 proteins were higher than those of normal mesothelial tissues, and the mRNA expression levels also changed in the same direction. SMO and GLI1 gene expressions in mesothelioma were negatively correlated with age, site of occurrence, and history of asbestos exposure. Positive expression of SMO and GLI1 was negatively correlated with patient survival. The Cox proportional risk model showed that gender, history of asbestos exposure, site of occurrence, SMO, and GLI1 were independent prognostic factors for mesothelioma. The mechanism of immune cell infiltration in mesothelioma is closely related to the gene expression of both and the survival prognosis of mesothelioma patients.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Abdelghafar M, Anand K, Paiva-Correia A, et al (2023)

Well-Differentiated Papillary Mesothelial Tumor: An Unusual Radiologic Presentation: A Case Report.

Journal of chest surgery, 56(3):220-223.

Well-differentiated papillary mesothelial tumor (WDPMT) is an uncommon tumor, formerly named well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma in the 2015 World Health Organization classification. It has a characteristic papillary architecture, bland cytologic features, a tendency toward superficial spread without invasion, and a good prognosis due to its clinically indolent behavior with prolonged survival. Rare cases with superficial invasion are termed WDPMT with invasive foci. WDPMT occurs primarily in the peritoneum of reproductive-age women, but also rarely in the pleura. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who developed WDPMT with minimal invasion in the pleura with atypical radiological features and a family history of mesothelioma and indirect asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2023-05-02

Marshall T, Lane J, J Lahorra (2023)

A Rare Presentation of Minimally Invasive Mesothelioma as a Large Tension Pneumothorax.

International journal of surgical pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Development of mesothelioma is associated with asbestos exposure. Common presentations are with pleural-based plaques invading the chest wall and/or pleural effusion on chest imaging. The intent of this case report is to describe a rare presentation of mesothelioma, which presented atypically as a large tension pneumothorax. A 93-year-old male presented with a history of dyspnea that started after a coughing episode. On physical examination he was hemodynamically stable, but was hypoxic requiring 2L of supplemental oxygen. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a large right tension pneumothorax. A chest tube was placed and connected to suction (-20cmH20), but he continued to have an unresolving air leak over the following 2-week period. Upon video-assisted thoracotomy there were no blebs or adhesions seen. Right apical wedge resection and talc pleurodesis were performed. Pathologic examination revealed an atypical mesothelial cell proliferation with minimal, focal invasion into the pulmonary parenchyma. Tumor spread along the visceral pleura was thought to be the underlying cause of the pneumothorax. The surgical margins were uninvolved by the tumor, and the patient was later discharged home in stable condition. This was a rare presentation of what could best be described as minimally invasive mesothelioma arising in a background of probable mesothelioma in situ, which presented atypically as a large tension pneumothorax. This case highlighted the importance of establishing a pathologic diagnosis from pleural effusion cytology and/or pleural biopsy in persons presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax, and the difficulty in confirming a pathologic diagnosis of early mesothelial neoplasia.

RevDate: 2023-06-09
CmpDate: 2023-06-09

Arrossi AV (2023)

Pericardial Mesotheliomas.

Advances in anatomic pathology, 30(4):253-258.

Primary pericardial mesothelioma (PM) is a rare tumor arising from the mesothelial cells of the pericardium. It has an incidence of <0.05% and comprises <2% of all mesotheliomas; however, it is the most common primary malignancy of the pericardium. PM should be distinguished from secondary involvement by the spread of pleural mesothelioma or metastases, which are more common. Although data are controversial, the association between asbestos exposure and PM is less documented than that with other mesotheliomas. Late clinical presentation is common. Symptoms may be nonspecific but are usually related to pericardial constriction or cardiac tamponade, and diagnosis can be challenging usually requiring multiple imaging modalities. Echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance demonstrate heterogeneously enhancing thickened pericardium, usually encasing the heart, with findings of constrictive physiology. Tissue sampling is essential for diagnosis. Histologically, similar to mesotheliomas elsewhere in the body, PM is classified as epithelioid, sarcomatoid, or biphasic, with the biphasic type being the most common. Combined with morphologic assessment, the use of immunohistochemistry and other ancillary studies is helpful for distinguishing mesotheliomas from benign proliferative processes and other neoplastic processes. The prognosis of PM is poor with about 22% 1-year survival. Unfortunately, the rarity of PM poses limitations for comprehensive and prospective studies to gain further insight into the pathobiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PM.

RevDate: 2023-04-29

Vicari K, Ribeiro IM, Aguiar BF, et al (2022)

Occupational characterization of workers exposed to asbestos: an integrative review.

Revista brasileira de medicina do trabalho : publicacao oficial da Associacao Nacional de Medicina do Trabalho-ANAMT, 20(4):650-658.

Asbestos is a mineral fiber abundant in nature and classified as a carcinogen since 1987. The present study aimed to identify, in the scientific literature, what are the occupation and activities developed by sick workers and which categories would be affected with asbestos-related diseases. Through a literature review performed in the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Web of Science, and Regional Portal of the Virtual Health Library, 23 studies published from 2015 to 2020 were selected and evaluated. The occupations that showed greater illness due to exposure to asbestos were general asbestos workers (40%), miners (22%), and textile workers (9%), followed by naval, automotive, carpentry, doll-making, construction, and upholstery workers, as well as workers involved in the rescue, recovery, cleaning, and restoration of the World Trade Center (4%). Of the disease associated with exposure to asbestos, the most described is malignant mesothelioma (43%). Evidence found corroborate pre-existing information in the literature showing that exposure to asbestos may be harmful to health. Moreover, the importance of using personal protective equipment was emphasized, in order to prevent the development of asbestos-related diseases.

RevDate: 2023-04-27
CmpDate: 2023-04-26

Tomasetti M, Monaco F, Strogovets O, et al (2023)

ATG5 as biomarker for early detection of malignant mesothelioma.

BMC research notes, 16(1):61.

OBJECTIVES: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease with grim prognosis due to lack of effective treatment options. Disease prediction in association with early diagnosis may both contribute to improved MPM survival. Inflammation and autophagy are two processes associated with asbestos-induced transformation. We evaluated the level of two autophagic factors ATG5 and HMGB1, microRNAs (miRNAs) such as miR-126 and miR-222, and the specific biomarker of MPM, soluble mesothelin related proteins (Mesothelin) in asbestos-exposed individuals, MPM patients, and healthy subjects. The performance of these markers in detecting MPM was investigated in pre-diagnostic samples of asbestos-subjects who developed MPM during the follow-up and compared for the three groups.

RESULTS: The ATG5 best distinguished the asbestos-exposed subjects with and without MPM, while miR-126 and Mesothelin were found as a significant prognostic biomarker for MPM. ATG5 has been identified as an asbestos-related biomarker that can help to detect MPM with high sensitivity and specificity in pre-diagnostic samples for up to two years before diagnosis. To utilize this approach practically, higher number of cases has to be tested in order to give the combination of the two markers sufficient statistical power. Performance of the biomarkers should be confirmed by testing their combination in an independent cohort with pre-diagnostic samples.

RevDate: 2023-04-25

Razzak AN, Syed A, Procknow ER, et al (2023)

Modern Malignant Mesothelioma Manifestation.

Cureus, 15(3):e36479.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) involves the uncontrolled growth of mesothelial cells that form the lining of pleural serous layers. MPM has been linked with asbestos exposure in mining and manufacturing occupations with an unforgiving prognosis of 4-18 months. In this case report, we present a 56-year-old male with a significant past medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and ulcerative colitis who presented to the emergency department for worsening cough, eight-pound weight loss over the previous year, night sweats, and fatigue. The patient was admitted due to right pleural effusion with lower lobe collapse seen on imaging; upon diagnostic workup including pleural biopsy, results were consistent with malignant mesothelioma of the epithelioid type. Over the course of six months post-diagnosis, the patient underwent multiple hospital admissions due to acute hypoxic respiratory failure from the segmental left upper lobe and subsegmental right upper lobe pulmonary emboli, recurrent pleural effusion, and anemia. Given the aggressive nature of MPM, the patient was determined not to be a surgical candidate and underwent palliative chemotherapy sessions until his passing. As the patient worked in heating/ventilation/air conditioning with asbestos exposure, taking a full occupational history was crucial. MPM is relatively rare; however, the incidence has increased over the last decade due to tumor development lag time post-asbestos exposure and an increase in do-it-yourself projects. There is no cure for MPM. Multimodal treatment approaches with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy have been noted in the literature.

RevDate: 2023-04-25
CmpDate: 2023-04-25

Marsh GM, A Kruchten (2023)

A reevaluation of selected mortality risks in the updated NCI/NIOSH acrylonitrile cohort study.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1122346.

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine whether the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) recent suggestion of associations between acrylonitrile (AN) exposure and mortality in lung and bladder cancer and pneumonitis is robust to alternative methods of data analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Richardson method to indirectly adjust risk ratios (RRs) in relation to AN exposure for potential confounding by smoking and asbestos. We repeated key analyses omitting workers from Plant 4 to account for possible local, historical shipyard-related asbestos exposures.

RESULTS: The adjustment of lung cancer RRs for confounding by both smoking and asbestos and omitting Plant 4 workers yielded mostly decreased RRs and much less evidence of a positive association with cumulative AN exposure.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our reanalysis provided little evidence to support NCI's suggestion of associations between AN exposure and mortality in lung and bladder cancer and pneumonitis.

RevDate: 2023-06-26
CmpDate: 2023-06-26

Barbieri PG, Consonni D, Magnani C, et al (2023)

Is mesothelioma related to "initial dose" rather than to "cumulative dose"? Critical remarks on Maghin et al. Assessment protocol of mesothelioma and relevance of SEM-EDS analysis through a case studies of legal medicine of Brescia (Italy). Legal Medicine 2022;57:102076.

Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 63:102262.

RevDate: 2023-04-27
CmpDate: 2023-04-24

Di Mauro G, Frontini F, Torreggiani E, et al (2023)

Epigenetic investigation into circulating microRNA 197-3p in sera from patients affected by malignant pleural mesothelioma and workers ex-exposed to asbestos.

Scientific reports, 13(1):6501.

The epigenetic role of microRNAs is established at both physiological and pathological levels. Dysregulated miRNAs and their targets appear to be a promising approach for innovative anticancer therapies. In our previous study, circulating miR-197-3p tested dysregulated in workers ex-exposed to asbestos (WEA). Herein, an epigenetic investigation on this circulating miRNA was carried out in sera from malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients. MiR-197-3p was quantified in MPM (n = 75) sera and comparatively analyzed to WEA (n = 75) and healthy subject (n = 75) sera, using ddPCR and RT-qPCR techniques. Clinicopathological characteristics, occupational, non-occupational information and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in correlation studies. MiR-197-3p levels, analyzed by ddPCR, were significantly higher in MPM than in WEA cohort, with a mean copies/µl of 981.7 and 525.01, respectively. Consistently, RT-qPCR showed higher miR-197-3p levels in sera from MPM with a mean copies/µl of 603.7, compared to WEA with 336.1 copies/µl. OS data were significantly associated with histologic subtype and pleurectomy. Circulating miR-197-3p is proposed as a new potential biomarker for an early diagnosis of the MPM onset. Indeed, miR-197-3p epigenetic investigations along with chest X-ray, computed tomography scan and spirometry could provide relevant information useful to reach an early and effective diagnosis for MPM.

RevDate: 2023-05-11
CmpDate: 2023-05-11

Bulutay P, Vatansever D, Taskiran C, et al (2023)

STRN-ALK rearranged malignant peritoneal mesothelioma-Presenting with bilateral extensive pelvic masses in a young woman: Mimicking low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 66(2):392-395.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is an exceptionally rare tumor type. Although some somatic/germline genetic alterations including BAP1 loss have been identified in some cases, the molecular properties of MPMs are remained poorly understood. In recent years, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement was revealed in a subset of (3.4%) MPMs. Low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) are a rare subtype of ovarian carcinoma and have some morphologic and immunophenotypic overlapping features with MPMs and this may cause misdiagnosis in daily practice. Here, we report a case of 18-year-old women with STRN-ALK-rearranged MPM and no previous exposure to asbestos. This case was presented with bilateral pelvic masses and histologically was displaying pure papillary morphology with mild-to-moderate nuclear atypia, psammoma bodies, and diffuse PAX8 expression as LGSCs. With the detection of ALK alteration in some of the MPMs, a targeted treatment option has emerged for these unusual tumor types.

RevDate: 2023-05-31
CmpDate: 2023-05-31

Bolan S, Kempton L, McCarthy T, et al (2023)

Sustainable management of hazardous asbestos-containing materials: Containment, stabilization and inertization.

The Science of the total environment, 881:163456.

Asbestos is a group of six major silicate minerals that belong to the serpentine and amphibole families, and include chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, anthophyllite, tremolite and actinolite. Weathering and human disturbance of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) can lead to the emission of asbestos dust, and the inhalation of respirable asbestos fibrous dust can lead to 'mesothelioma' cancer and other diseases, including the progressive lung disease called 'asbestosis'. There is a considerable legacy of in-situ ACMs in the built environment, and it is not practically or economically possible to safely remove ACMs from the built environment. The aim of the review is to examine the three approaches used for the sustainable management of hazardous ACMs in the built environment: containment, stabilization, and inertization or destruction. Most of the asbestos remaining in the built environment can be contained in a physically secured form so that it does not present a significant health risk of emitting toxic airborne fibres. In settings where safe removal is not practically feasible, stabilization and encapsulation can provide a promising solution, especially in areas where ACMs are exposed to weathering or disturbance. Complete destruction and inertization of asbestos can be achieved by thermal decomposition using plasma and microwave radiation. Bioremediation and chemical treatment (e.g., ultrasound with oxalic acid) have been found to be effective in the inertization of ACMs. Technologies that achieve complete destruction of ACMs are found to be attractive because the treated products can be recycled or safely disposed of in landfills.

RevDate: 2023-07-22
CmpDate: 2023-07-03

Bardelli F, Giacobbe C, Ballirano P, et al (2023)

Closing the knowledge gap on the composition of the asbestos bodies.

Environmental geochemistry and health, 45(7):5039-5051.

Asbestos bodies (AB) form in the lungs as a result of a biomineralization process initiated by the alveolar macrophages in the attempt to remove asbestos. During this process, organic and inorganic material deposit on the foreign fibers forming a Fe-rich coating. The AB start to form in months, thus quickly becoming the actual interface between asbestos and the lung tissue. Therefore, revealing their composition, and, in particular, the chemical form of Fe, which is the major component of the AB, is essential to assess their possible role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related diseases. In this work we report the result of the first x-ray diffraction measurements performed on single AB embedded in the lung tissue samples of former asbestos plant workers. The combination with x-ray absorption spectroscopy data allowed to unambiguously reveal that Fe is present in the AB in the form of two Fe-oxy(hydroxides): ferrihydrite and goethite. The presence of goethite, which can be explained in terms of the transformation of ferrihydrite (a metastable phase) due to the acidic conditions induced by the alveolar macrophages in their attempt to phagocytose the fibers, has toxicological implications that are discussed in the paper.

RevDate: 2023-04-15

Sundaralingam A, Aujayeb A, Jackson KA, et al (2023)

Investigation and outcomes in patients with nonspecific pleuritis: results from the International Collaborative Effusion database.

ERJ open research, 9(2):.

INTRODUCTION: We present findings from the International Collaborative Effusion database, a European Respiratory Society clinical research collaboration. Nonspecific pleuritis (NSP) is a broad term that describes chronic pleural inflammation. Various aetiologies lead to NSP, which poses a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. A significant proportion of patients with this finding eventually develop a malignant diagnosis.

METHODS: 12 sites across nine countries contributed anonymised data on 187 patients. 175 records were suitable for analysis.

RESULTS: The commonest aetiology for NSP was recorded as idiopathic (80 out of 175, 44%). This was followed by pleural infection (15%), benign asbestos disease (12%), malignancy (6%) and cardiac failure (6%). The malignant diagnoses were predominantly mesothelioma (six out of 175, 3.4%) and lung adenocarcinoma (four out of 175, 2.3%). The median time to malignant diagnosis was 12.2 months (range 0.8-32 months). There was a signal towards greater asbestos exposure in the malignant NSP group compared to the benign group (0.63 versus 0.27, p=0.07). Neither recurrence of effusion requiring further therapeutic intervention nor initial biopsy approach were associated with a false-negative biopsy. A computed tomography finding of a mass lesion was the only imaging feature to demonstrate a significant association (0.18 versus 0.01, p=0.02), although sonographic pleural thickening also suggested an association (0.27 versus 0.09, p=0.09).

DISCUSSION: This is the first multicentre study of NSP and its associated outcomes. While some of our findings are reflected by the established body of literature, other findings have highlighted important areas for future research, not previously studied in NSP.

RevDate: 2023-04-17
CmpDate: 2023-04-17

Boumya S, Fallarini S, Siragusa S, et al (2023)

A Selective ALDH1A3 Inhibitor Impairs Mesothelioma 3-D Multicellular Spheroid Growth and Neutrophil Recruitment.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(7):.

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 (ALDH1A3), one of the three members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A subfamily, has been associated with increased progression and drug resistance in various types of solid tumours. Recently, it has been reported that high ALDH1A3 expression is prognostic of poor survival in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an asbestos-associated chemoresistant cancer. We treated MPM cells, cultured as multicellular spheroids, with NR6, a potent and highly selective ALDH1A3 inhibitor. Here we report that NR6 treatment caused the accumulation of toxic aldehydes, induced DNA damage, CDKN2A expression and cell growth arrest. We observed that, in CDKN2A proficient cells, NR6 treatment induced IL6 expression, but abolished CXCL8 expression and IL-8 release, preventing both neutrophil recruitment and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Furthermore, we demonstrate that in response to ALDH1A3 inhibition, CDKN2A loss skewed cell fate from senescence to apoptosis. Dissecting the role of ALDH1A3 isoform in MPM cells and tumour microenvironment can open new fronts in the treatment of this cancer.

RevDate: 2023-04-15
CmpDate: 2023-04-14

Hager T, Borchert S, Wessolly M, et al (2023)

One Third of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Shows High Immunohistochemical Expression of MSLN or CXCR4 Which Indicates Potent Candidates for Endo-Radiotherapy.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(7):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a mainly asbestos-related tumour associated with a very poor prognosis. Therapeutic approaches include multimodal therapy and chemotherapeutics, with cisplatin being the drug of choice, but response rates of only up to 14% indicate very poor outcomes. Effective treatment options are lacking. Besides the diagnostic usage of radioligands in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), the endo-radioligand therapy with Lu177 has been proven as a powerful tool in cancer therapy. Mesothelin (MSLN) and C-XC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) are membrane-bound proteins, expressed in certain cancers, and thus are promising targets for endo-radiotherapy. A significant portion of high MSLN- or CXCR4-expressing tumors within the MPM may open the field for this sophisticated treatment approach in the near future. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour specimens from 105 patients suffering from MPM and treated at the Lung Cancer Centre of Essen and at the Helios Klinikum Emil von Behring Berlin were screened. The tumour samples were arranged in tissue microarrays. We immunohistochemically stained the tumour samples against MSLN and CXCR4. The protein expressions of the stainings were scored by a pathologist by using a semiquantitative method. The data obtained were correlated with the clinical outcome. Overall, 77.1% of the analysed tumours showed CXCR4 protein expression (25.7% of them at high expression level (Score 3)). 48.6% of all samples showed an overall strong staining (Score ≥ 2), 59% of the investigated tumours showed MSLN protein expression (10.5% of them at high expression (Score 3)), and 36.2% of all samples showed an overall strong staining (Score ≥ 2). Our results show significant tissue expression levels, for both CXCR4 and MSLN protein, in a major portion of clinical MPM samples. One-third of patients showed outstanding immunoexpression of at least one of these markers, making them interesting candidates for radioligand-based PET/CT diagnostics and follow-up and furthermore may profit from endo-radiotherapy.

RevDate: 2023-07-23
CmpDate: 2023-07-23

Chu GJ, Linton A, Kao S, et al (2023)

High mesothelin expression by immunohistochemistry predicts improved survival in pleural mesothelioma.

Histopathology, 83(2):202-210.

AIMS: Mesothelin (MSLN) is a cancer-associated antigen that is overexpressed in malignancies such as mesothelioma, pancreatic and ovarian cancer. It is also a target for novel personalised therapies, including antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Immunohistochemistry may predict those who would best respond to anti-mesothelin therapies and guide decisions in therapeutic strategy. This study aimed to assess the intensity and distribution of MSLN immunostaining in mesothelioma, and to determine the prognostic value of MSLN expression by histochemical-score (H-score).

METHODS AND RESULTS: The MN1 anti-MSLN antibody was used to stain a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue microarray of histologically confirmed mesothelioma from 75 consecutive patients who had undergone pleurectomy with or without decortication. MSLN positivity, the staining intensity, distribution of staining and H-score were evaluated. The correlation of H-score with prognosis was investigated. Sixty-six per cent of epithelioid tumours were MSLN-positive (with expression in > 5% tumour cells). Of MSLN-expressing epithelioid tumours, 70.4% had moderate (2+) or strong (3+) intensity MSLN immunostaining, although only 37% of samples had staining in ≥ 50% of tumour cells. In multivariate analysis, MSLN H-score as a continuous variable and an H-score ≥ 33 were independent predictors of improved survival (P = 0.04 and P < 0.001, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: MSLN expression was more heterogenous in epithelioid mesothelioma than reported previously. Therefore, it would be appropriate to perform an immunohistochemical assessment of MSLN expression to stratify and assess patient suitability for mesothelin-targeted personalised therapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

RevDate: 2023-07-31
CmpDate: 2023-07-31

Akarsu M, Ak G, Dündar E, et al (2023)

Genetic analysis of familial predisposition in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology, 149(10):7767-7778.

PURPOSE: Mesothelioma is the primary tumor of the mesothelial cell membrane. The most important etiology is asbestos exposure. The development of malignant mesothelioma in very few of the population exposed to asbestos and its frequent occurrence in some families may be significant in terms of genetic predisposition. Again, the presence of relatives with mesothelioma who did not have asbestos contact strengthens this argument. This disease, which has limited treatment options and has a poor prognosis, revealing a genetic predisposition, if any, may prolong survival with early diagnosis and effective treatment.

METHODS: Based on the genetic predisposition idea, we diagnosed and followed a total of ten individuals of relatives with mesothelioma. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and whole genome sequencing analysis was done. Common gene mutations in ten individuals were filtered using bioinformatics. After this filter, from the remaining variants, very rare in the population and damaging mutations are selected.

RESULTS: Eight thousand six hundred and twenty-two common variants have been identified in ten individuals with this analysis. In total, 120 variants were found on 37 genes in 15 chromosomes. These genes are PIK3R4, SLC25A5, ITGB6, PLK2, RAD17, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, GRM, IL20RA, MAP3K7, RIPK2, and MUC16.

CONCLUSION: Our finding, PIK3R4 gene, is directly associated with mesothelioma development. Twelve genes, which are associated with cancer, were detected in literature. Additional studies, which scan first-degree relatives of individual, are needed to find the specific gene region.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-07

Kitamura Y, Zha L, Liu R, et al (2023)

Association of mesothelioma deaths with neighborhood asbestos exposure due to a large-scale asbestos-cement plant.

Cancer science, 114(7):2973-2985.

A causal relationship between mesothelioma and occupational asbestos exposure is well known, while some studies have shown a relationship to non-occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of mesothelioma death associated with neighborhood asbestos exposure due to a large-scale asbestos-cement (AC) plant in Amagasaki, Japan, adjusting properly risk factors including occupational exposures. We conducted a nested case-control study in which a fixed population of 143,929 residents who had been living in Amagasaki City between 1975 and 2002 were followed from 2002 to 2015. All 133 cases and 403 matched controls were interviewed about their occupational, domestic, household, and neighborhood asbestos exposures. Odds ratios (ORs) for mesothelioma death associated with the neighborhood exposure were estimated by a conditional logistic-regression model. For quantitative assessments for neighborhood exposure, we adopted cumulative indices for individuals' residential histories at each residence-specific asbestos concentration multiplied by the duration during the potential exposure period of 1957-1975 (crocidolite). We observed an increasing, dose-dependent risk of mesothelioma death associated with neighborhood exposure, demonstrating that ORs in the highest quintile category were 21.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8-79.2) for all, 23.7 (95% CI 3.8-147.2) for males, and 26.0 (95% CI 2.8-237.5) for females compared to the lowest quintile, respectively. A quantitative assessment for risk of mesothelioma deaths, adjusting for occupational and non-occupational exposures separately, showed a dose-dependent association with neighborhood exposure and no substantial gender differences in magnitude.

RevDate: 2023-04-19
CmpDate: 2023-03-30

Gaitens JM, Culligan M, Friedberg JS, et al (2023)

Laying the Foundation for a Mesothelioma Patient Registry: Development of Data Collection Tools.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6):.

Mesothelioma, a cancer of mesothelial cells that line the chest, lungs, heart, and abdomen, is a relatively rare disease. In the United States, approximately 3000 individuals are diagnosed with mesothelioma annually. The primary risk factor for mesothelioma is occupational asbestos exposure which can occur decades prior to disease development, though in approximately 20% of cases, known asbestos exposure is lacking. While several other countries have developed mesothelioma registries to collect key clinical and exposure data elements to allow better estimation of incidence, prevalence, and risk factors associated with disease development, no national mesothelioma registry exists in the U.S. Therefore, as part of a larger feasibility study, a patient exposure questionnaire and a clinical data collection tool were created using a series of key informant interviews. Findings suggest that risk factor and clinical data collection via an on-line questionnaire is feasible, but specific concerns related to confidentiality, in the context of employer responsibility for exposure in the unique U.S. legal environment, and timing of enrollment must be addressed. Lessons learned from piloting these tools will inform the design and implementation of a mesothelioma registry of national scope.

RevDate: 2023-04-24
CmpDate: 2023-03-30

Doyle E, Blanchon D, Wells S, et al (2023)

Internal Transcribed Spacer and 16S Amplicon Sequencing Identifies Microbial Species Associated with Asbestos in New Zealand.

Genes, 14(3):.

Inhalation of asbestos fibres can cause lung inflammation and the later development of asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma, and the use of asbestos is banned in many countries. In most countries, large amounts of asbestos exists within building stock, buried in landfills, and in contaminated soil. Mechanical, thermal, and chemical treatment options do exist, but these are expensive, and they are not effective for contaminated soil, where only small numbers of asbestos fibres may be present in a large volume of soil. Research has been underway for the last 20 years into the potential use of microbial action to remove iron and other metal cations from the surface of asbestos fibres to reduce their toxicity. To access sufficient iron for metabolism, many bacteria and fungi produce organic acids, or iron-chelating siderophores, and in a growing number of experiments these have been found to degrade asbestos fibres in vitro. This paper uses the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 16S amplicon sequencing to investigate the fungal and bacterial diversity found on naturally-occurring asbestos minerals, asbestos-containing building materials, and asbestos-contaminated soils with a view to later selectively culturing promising species, screening them for siderophore production, and testing them with asbestos fibres in vitro. After filtering, 895 ITS and 1265 16S amplicon sequencing variants (ASVs) were detected across the 38 samples, corresponding to a range of fungal, bacteria, cyanobacterial, and lichenized fungal species. Samples from Auckland (North Island, New Zealand) asbestos cement, Auckland asbestos-contaminated soils, and raw asbestos rocks from Kahurangi National Park (South Island, New Zealand) were comprised of very different microbial communities. Five of the fungal species detected in this study are known to produce siderophores.

RevDate: 2023-03-31

Mensi C, Stella S, Dallari B, et al (2023)

Second Primary Cancers in a Population-Based Mesothelioma Registry.

Cancers, 15(6):.

BACKGROUND: The presence of a second primary cancer (SPC) in patients with pleural mesothelioma (PM) may impact overall survival and suggest a common mechanism of carcinogenesis or an underlying germline genetic alteration.

METHODS: We evaluated the occurrence of SPCs within PM cases collected from 2000 to 2018 by the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry and their prognostic implications. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate median survival times, together with univariate and multivariate Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of death.

RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) of the entire study population (N = 6646) was 10.9 months (95% CI: 10.4-11.2); patient age and histotype were the strongest prognostic factors. No substantial survival difference was observed by the presence of an SPC (10.5 months in 1000 patients with an SPC vs. 10.9 months in 5646 patients in the non-SPC group, HR 1.03, p = 0.40). Shorter OS in the SPC group was only observed in 150 patients with the non-epithelioid subtype (median OS of 5.4 vs. 7.1 months, HR 1.21, p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of an SPC did not influence the outcome of PM patients in the overall study population but was associated with shorter OS in non-epithelioid cases. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of SPCs as markers of genetic susceptibility in mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2023-06-08
CmpDate: 2023-06-08

Dement JM, D Loomis (2023)

Manufactured doubt and the EPA 2020 chrysotile asbestos risk assessment.

American journal of industrial medicine, 66(7):543-553.

While all forms of asbestos have been determined to be carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as well as other authoritative bodies, the relative carcinogenic potency of chrysotile continues to be argued, largely in the context of toxic tort litigation. Relatively few epidemiologic studies have investigated only a single form of asbestos; however, one study that included an asbestos textile plant located in Marshville, North Carolina that processed chrysotile asbestos was used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2020 to help inform the agency's chrysotile asbestos risk assessment. During the EPA proceedings toxic tort defense consultants submitted comments to the EPA docket and made public presentations asserting that the Marshville plant had processed amphibole asbestos types and should not be used for the chrysotile risk assessment. A detailed evaluation of defense consultant assertions and supporting information and a full assessment of the available information concerning asbestos types used at the Marshville plant was undertaken. The preponderance of evidence continues to support the conclusion that neither amosite nor crocidolite were likely to have been processed in the Marshville textile plant. Defense consultants' assertions about chrysotile use are not supported by the preponderance of evidence and constitute an example of manipulation of information to cast uncertainty and doubt rather than to seek truth and contribute to the body of scientific evidence.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Marcu A, McGregor F, Egan B, et al (2023)

Developing sustainable patient and public involvement in mesothelioma research: multi-method exploration with researchers, patients, carers, and patient organisations.

Research involvement and engagement, 9(1):15.

BACKGROUND: Rare diseases where prognosis is poor provide limited scope for patient and public involvement (PPI). One such disease is mesothelioma, a cancer of the lung pleura or of the peritoneum caused by exposure to asbestos, where PPI is poorly documented. We undertook to explore how PPI could be facilitated in mesothelioma research.

METHODS: An online survey with mesothelioma researchers (n = 23) assessed the perceived benefits and challenges of PPI in mesothelioma. Six online workshops and thirteen in-depth interviews with patients and the public explored their views on how PPI could be increased in mesothelioma and their motivations to become PPI representatives in the future. The survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the interviews, using Thematic Analysis.

RESULTS: In the survey, 26% (n = 6) of the researchers did not include PPI in their research, while 74% (n = 17) did, finding it most beneficial at the stages of applying for funding and dissemination. The main perceived benefits of PPI were clarifying the research question and outcome measures, making research more credible and relevant to patients' needs, and increasing its impact. The main perceived challenges to PPI were the general poor prognosis in mesothelioma, and funding timescales which hindered timely recruitment of PPI representatives. The analysis of the interviews with the patients and public revealed three main themes: "Motivations to become a PPI representative in the future", "Understanding the nature of PPI during the project", and "Perceived challenges to PPI in mesothelioma". Altruism and the need for hope were the main reasons to wish to become involved in PPI in the future. For many participants, the project proved to be a journey of understanding the nature of PPI, a concept that was not easy to grasp from the start. The participants perceived certain barriers to PPI such as high symptom burden in mesothelioma, the abstract concept of PPI, and the use of scientific language.

CONCLUSIONS: The present research provides a detailed picture of the benefits and challenges of PPI in mesothelioma. We recommend long-term engagement with mesothelioma support groups so that researchers achieve meaningful and sustainable PPI in mesothelioma research.

RevDate: 2023-06-01
CmpDate: 2023-05-30

Gao Y, Mazurek JM, Li Y, et al (2023)

Industry, occupation, and exposure history of mesothelioma patients in the U.S. National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank, 2006-2022.

Environmental research, 230:115085.

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma is associated with environmental and occupational exposure to certain mineral fibers, especially asbestos. This study aims to examine work histories of mesothelioma patients and their survival time.

METHOD: Using the NIOSH Industry and Occupation Computerized Coding System, we mapped occupations and industries recorded for 748 of 1444 patients in the U.S. National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank (NMVB) during the period 2006-2022. Descriptive and survival analyses were conducted.

RESULTS: Among the 1023 industries recorded for those having mesothelioma, the most frequent cases were found for those in manufacturing (n = 225, 22.0%), construction (138, 13.5%), and education services (66, 6.5%); among the 924 occupation records, the most frequent cases were found for those in construction and extraction (174, 18.8%), production (145, 15.7%), and management (84, 9.1%). Males (583) or persons aged >40 years (658) at the time of diagnosis tended to have worked in industries traditionally associated with mesothelioma (e.g., construction), while females (163) or persons aged 20-40 years (27) tended to have worked in industries not traditionally associated with mesothelioma (e.g., health care). Asbestos, unknown substances, and chemical solvents were the most frequently reported exposure, with females most often reporting an unknown substance. A multi-variable Cox Hazard Regression analysis showed that significant prognostic factors associated with decreased survival in mesothelioma cases are sex (male) and work experience in utility-related industry, while factor associated with increased survival are epithelial or epithelioid histological type, prior history of surgery and immunotherapy, and industry experience in accommodation and food services.

CONCLUSION: The NMVB has the potential of serving as a sentinel surveillance mechanism for identifying industries and occupations not traditionally associated with mesothelioma. Results indicate the importance of considering all potential sources of asbestos exposures including occupational, environmental, and extra-occupational exposures when evaluating mesothelioma patients and advising family members.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )