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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 22 Jan 2021 at 01:45 Created: 


It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-01-21

Katz-Agranov N, G Zandman-Goddard (2021)

The microbiome links between aging and lupus.

Autoimmunity reviews pii:S1568-9972(21)00024-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many forms of immune dysregulation, which lead to inflammaging and senescence, have been demonstrated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; lupus) and in the aging population. The discovery of the microbiome and its association with human health and pathology has led it to be the center of investigation as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of immunosenescence in both populations. Similar alterations to the microbiome in the form of dysbiosis, that are demonstrated in both aging and in lupus patients, may help explain the significant overlap in clinical manifestations seen in these groups.

METHODS: We performed an extensive literature review, utilizing the Pubmed search engine and Google Scholar for studies evaluating the microbiome in two groups, elderly populations and lupus patients (both murine and human models), between the years 2000-2019. We searched for the terms: microbiome, dysbiosis, lupus, elderly, aging and inflammaging, which yielded hundreds of articles, of which 114 were used for preparation of this paper. We compared the similarities between the populations.

RESULTS: We found that the similar processes of immune dysregulation, in both aging populations and lupus patients, extend to the microbiome, in the form of dysbiosis. Some of these similarities include loss of microbiota biodiversity, increased representation of microbes that are associated with inflammation and disease (i.e Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes), a relative decrease in protective microbes with "anti-inflammatory" properties (i.e Firmicutes) and a subsequent compromise to the intestinal barrier, leading to leakage of proinflammatory microbial components in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there are several similar alterations in the composition and function of the microbiome of lupus patients and aging individuals, leading to immunosenescence, which may also be a contributing mechanism in lupus. It seems in fact that the microbiome of SLE may actually be analogous to immunosenescence. This knowledge may help the continuous efforts in finding a solution for both conditions.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Watanabe N, Mikami K, Hata T, et al (2021)

Effect of gut microbiota early in life on aggressive behavior in mice.

Neuroscience research pii:S0168-0102(21)00019-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent reports have indicated that gut microbiota modulates the responses to stress through the microbiota-gut-brain axis in mice, suggesting a connection between gut microbiota and brain function. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota early in life would have an effect on aggressiveness, and examined how gut microbiota affect aggressive behaviors in mice. BALB/c mice were housed in germ-free (GF) and ex-germ-free (Ex-GF) isolators. An aggression test was performed between castrated and a non-castrated mice at 8 weeks of age; the mice were allowed to confront each other for 10 minutes in strictly contamination-free environments. To evaluate aggressive behavior related to gut microbiota, we orally administered diluted Ex-GF mouse feces to the offspring of GF mice at 0, 6, and 10 weeks. GF mice showed more aggression than Ex-GF mice. Furthermore, GF mice who were administered feces of the Ex-GF group at 0-week-old were less aggressive than the GF mice. These findings suggested that the gut microbiota in the early stages of development was likely to have an effect on aggressiveness. Maintenance of healthy gut microbiota early in life can affect the mitigation of aggressive behavioral characteristics throughout the lifetime.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Brand EC, Klaassen MAY, Gacesa R, et al (2021)

Healthy cotwins share gut microbiome signatures with their inflammatory bowel disease twins and unrelated patients.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(21)00097-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is currently unclear whether reported changes in the gut microbiome are cause or consequence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we studied the gut microbiome of IBD-discordant and -concordant twin pairs, which offers the unique opportunity to assess individuals at increased risk of developing IBD, namely healthy cotwins from IBD-discordant twin pairs.

METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from 99 twins (belonging to 51 twin pairs), 495 healthy age-, sex- and BMI-matched controls, and 99 unrelated IBD patients. Whole-genome metagenomic shotgun sequencing was performed. Taxonomic and functional (pathways) composition was compared between healthy-cotwins, IBD-twins, unrelated IBD patients, and healthy controls with multivariable, i.e. adjusted for potential confounding, generalized linear models.

RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of species and pathways between healthy cotwins and their IBD-twins (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.10). Compared to healthy controls, 13, 19, and 18 species, and 78, 105, and 153 pathways were found to be differentially abundant in healthy-cotwins, IBD-twins and unrelated IBD patients, respectively (FDR<0.10). Of these, 8/19 (42.1%) and 1/18 (5.6%) species, and 37/105 (35.2%) and 30/153 (19.6%) pathways overlapped between healthy cotwins and IBD-twins, and healthy cotwins and unrelated IBD patients respectively. Many of the shared species and pathways have previously been associated with IBD. The shared pathways include potentially inflammation-related pathways, for example: an increase in propionate degradation and L-arginine degradation pathways.

CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiome of healthy cotwins from IBD-discordant twin pairs displays IBD-like signatures. These IBD-like microbiome signatures might precede the onset of IBD. However, longitudinal follow up studies are needed to infer a causal relationship.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Barquero-Orias D, Muñoz Moreno-Arrones O, S Vañó-Galván (2021)

Alopecia and the Microbiome: A Future Therapeutic Target?.

Actas dermo-sifiliograficas pii:S0001-7310(21)00005-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. There is evidence that in addition to microbiome variation in different areas of the body or according to ethnicity and sex, the microbiome specific to the scalp is conditioned by such factors as humidity, protection from UV light, and pH. Although little information has yet been published about the microbiome of hair follicles and its role in the pathogenesis of diseases, interest in this area of research is emerging. Studies have shown that components of the follicular microbiome influence such disorders as androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. A current hypothesis is that interventions that target the microbiome may lead to innovative therapies for many diseases.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Dinh H, Semenec L, Kumar SS, et al (2021)

Microbiology's next top model: Galleria in the molecular age.

Pathogens and disease pii:6105221 [Epub ahead of print].

Galleria mellonella has risen to fame as an invertebrate model organism given its ethical advantages, low maintenance costs, rapid reproduction time, short life cycle, high number of progeny, tolerance for human body temperatures, innate immune system and similarities to mammalian host models. It is increasingly being utilised to evaluate in vivo toxicity and efficacy of chemical compounds and antimicrobials, modelling microbial (bacterial, fungal, viral) pathogenicity and assessing host-pathogen interaction during infection. During this molecular age of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and genetic manipulation approaches, our understanding of microbial pathogenicity and host-pathogen interactions has deepened from high-throughput molecular studies performed in G. mellonella. In this review, we describe the use of G. mellonella in a broad range of studies involving omics, drug resistance, functional analysis and host-microbial community relationships. The future of G. mellonella in the molecular age is bright, with a multitude of new approaches and uses for this model from clinical to biotechnological on the horizon.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Aguiar Martins K, Meirelles MHA, Mota TF, et al (2021)

Effects of larval rearing substrates on some life-table parameters of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 15(1):e0009034 pii:PNTD-D-20-01426 [Epub ahead of print].

Sand flies are the insects responsible for transmitting Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis in humans. However, the effects of sand fly breeding sites on their biology and ecology remain poorly understood. Herein, we studied how larval nutrition associated with putative breeding sites of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis affects their oviposition, development, microbiome, and susceptibility to Leishmania by rearing L. longipalpis on substrates collected from an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Brazil. The results showed that female L. longipalpis select the oviposition site based on its potential to promote larval maturation and while composting cashew leaf litter hindered the development, larvae reared on chicken feces developed rapidly. Typical gut microbial profiles were found in larvae reared upon cashew leaf litter. Adult females from larvae reared on substrate collected in chicken coops were infected with Leishmania infantum, indicating that they were highly susceptible to the parasite. In conclusion, the larval breeding sites can exert an important role in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Mariani N, Borsini A, Cecil CAM, et al (2021)

Identifying causative mechanisms linking early-life stress to psycho-cardio-metabolic multi-morbidity: The EarlyCause project.

PloS one, 16(1):e0245475 pii:PONE-D-20-19577.

INTRODUCTION: Depression, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are among the major non-communicable diseases, leading to significant disability and mortality worldwide. These diseases may share environmental and genetic determinants associated with multimorbid patterns. Stressful early-life events are among the primary factors associated with the development of mental and physical diseases. However, possible causative mechanisms linking early life stress (ELS) with psycho-cardio-metabolic (PCM) multi-morbidity are not well understood. This prevents a full understanding of causal pathways towards the shared risk of these diseases and the development of coordinated preventive and therapeutic interventions.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This paper describes the study protocol for EarlyCause, a large-scale and inter-disciplinary research project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. The project takes advantage of human longitudinal birth cohort data, animal studies and cellular models to test the hypothesis of shared mechanisms and molecular pathways by which ELS shapes an individual's physical and mental health in adulthood. The study will research in detail how ELS converts into biological signals embedded simultaneously or sequentially in the brain, the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. The research will mainly focus on four biological processes including possible alterations of the epigenome, neuroendocrine system, inflammatome, and the gut microbiome. Life-course models will integrate the role of modifying factors as sex, socioeconomics, and lifestyle with the goal to better identify groups at risk as well as inform promising strategies to reverse the possible mechanisms and/or reduce the impact of ELS on multi-morbidity development in high-risk individuals. These strategies will help better manage the impact of multi-morbidity on human health and the associated risk.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Nayor M, Brown KJ, RS Vasan (2021)

The Molecular Basis of Predicting Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

Circulation research, 128(2):287-303.

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) proceeds through a series of stages: initiation, progression (or regression), and complications. By integrating known biology regarding molecular signatures of each stage with recent advances in high-dimensional molecular data acquisition platforms (to assay the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and gut microbiome), snapshots of each phase of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease development can be captured. In this review, we will summarize emerging approaches for assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in humans using peripheral blood molecular signatures and molecular imaging approaches. We will then discuss the potential (and challenges) for these snapshots to be integrated into a personalized movie providing dynamic readouts of an individual's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk status throughout the life course.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Marini RP, Patterson MM, Muthupalani S, et al (2021)

Helicobacter suis and Helicobacter pylori infection in a colony of research macaques: characterization and clinical correlates.

Journal of medical microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction.Helicobacter suis (Helicobacter heilmannii type 1) commonly infects nonhuman primates but its clinical importance is in question.Aim. To characterize H. suis infection in a colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) used in cognitive neuroscience research.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Inquiries into the nature of Helicobacter suis in nonhuman primates are required to further define the organism's virulence and the experimental animal's gastric microbiome.Methodology. Animals with and without clinical signs of vomiting and abdominal pain (n=5 and n=16, respectively) were evaluated by histology, culture, PCR amplification and sequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and serology. Three of the five animals with clinical signs, an index case and two others, were evaluated before and after antimicrobial therapy.Results. The index animal had endoscopically visible ulcers and multifocal, moderate, chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis with intraglandular and luminal spiral bacteria. Antimicrobial therapy in the index animal achieved histologic improvement, elimination of endoscopically visible ulcers, and evident eradication but clinical signs persisted. In the other treated animals, gastritis scores were not consistently altered, gastric bacteria persisted, but vomiting and abdominal discomfort abated.Nineteen of 21 animals were PCR positive for H. suis and five animals were also PCR positive for H. pylori. Organisms were detected by FISH in 17 of 21 animals: 16S rRNA sequences of two of these were shown to be H. suis. Mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis was seen in antrum, body and cardia, with antral gastritis more likely to be moderate than that of the body.Conclusion. No clear association between the bacterial numbers of Helicobacter spp. and the degree of inflammation was observed. H. suis is prevalent in this colony of Macaca mulatta but its clinical importance remains unclear. This study corroborates many of the findings in earlier studies of H. suis infection in macaques but also identifies at least one animal in which gastritis and endoscopically visible gastric ulcers were strongly associated with H. suis infection. In this study, serology was an inadequate biomarker for endoscopic evaluation in diagnosis of H. suis infection.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Scheithauer TPM, Bakker GJ, Winkelmeijer M, et al (2021)

Compensatory intestinal immunoglobulin response after vancomycin treatment in humans.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-14.

Intestinal immunoglobulins (Ig) are abundantly secreted antibodies that bind bacteria and bacterial components in the gut. This binding is considered to accelerate bacterial transit time and prevent the interaction of potentially immunogenic compounds with intestinal immune cells. Ig secretion is regulated by alterations in gut microbiome composition, an event rarely mapped in an intervention setting in humans. Here, we determined the intestinal and systemic Ig response to a major intervention in gut microbiome composition. Healthy humans and humans with metabolic syndrome received oral vancomycin 500 mg four times per day for 7 days. Coinciding with a vancomycin-induced increase in Gram-negative bacteria, fecal levels of the immunogenic bacterial components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin drastically increased. Intestinal antibodies (IgA and IgM) significantly increased, whereas peripheral antibodies (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were mostly unaffected by vancomycin treatment. Bacterial cell sorting followed by 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, including opportunistic pathogens, were IgA-coated after the intervention. We suggest that the intestinal Ig response after vancomycin treatment prevents the intrusion of pathogens and bacterial components into systemic sites.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Bennstein SB, Scherenschlich N, Weinhold S, et al (2021)

Transcriptional and functional characterization of neonatal circulating ILCs.

Stem cells translational medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), comprising ILC1, 2, and 3 subpopulations, play unique roles in maintaining microbiome homeostasis, mucosal tissue integrity, and control of inflammation. So far, their characterization is dominantly based on tissue-resident ILCs, whereas little information is available on circulating ILCs, in particular in newborns. In order to get a deeper understanding of neonatal innate immunity, we analyzed the transcriptomes and effector functions of cord blood (CB) ILCs. By RNAseq analysis, all ILC subsets could be clearly distinguished from each other. CB-derived ILCs were generally closer related to neonatal T than natural killer (NK) cells and several factors shared by all three ILC subsets such as CD28, CCR4, and SLAMF1 are commonly expressed by T cells but lacking in NK cells. Notably, CB ILCs exhibited a unique signature of DNA binding inhibitor (ID) transcription factors (TF) with high ID3 and low ID2 expression distinct from PB- or tonsil-derived ILCs. In vitro stimulation of sorted CB ILCs revealed distinct differences to tissue-resident ILCs in that ILC1-like and ILC3-like cells were nonresponsive to specific cytokine stimulation, indicating functional immaturity. However, CB ILC3-like cells expressed toll-like receptors TLR1 and TLR2 and upon stimulation with the TLR2:1 ligand Pam3 CSK4 , responded with significantly increased proliferation and cytokine secretion. Together, our data provide novel insights into neonatal ILC biology with a unique TF signature of CB ILCs possibly indicating a common developmental pathway and furthermore a role of CB ILC3-like cells in innate host defense.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Kou G, Li P, Hu Y, et al (2021)

Nobiletin activates thermogenesis of brown and white adipose tissue in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice by shaping the gut microbiota.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 35(2):e21267.

Increasing energy expenditure by activating thermogenesis in brown and beige adipocytes is a critical approach to protect against obesity. Here, we investigated the action and mechanism of a natural polymethoxyflavone on adaptive thermogenesis in high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Nobiletin treatment significantly ameliorated obesity, alleviated the whitening of brown adipose tissue, and promoted browning of white adipose tissue in mice fed a high-fat diet. Gut microbiota analysis and metabolomic profiling revealed that nobiletin treatment resulted in a composition shift in the gut microbiota thereby altering fermentation products acetate levels in the host feces and serum. Further, transplantation of the microbiota from nobiletin-treated mice to microbiota-depleted mice activated brown adipose tissue activity, promoted beige adipocytes formation, and improved high-fat diet-induced obesity. Our results indicate that nobiletin could be used as a dietary therapy to prevent HFD-induced obesity, and provide a potential target-specific gut microbial species-driven mechanism for activating thermogenesis in brown and beige adipocytes.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Durr J, Reyt G, Spaepen S, et al (2021)

A novel signaling pathway required for arabidopsis endodermal root organization shapes the rhizosphere microbiome.

Plant & cell physiology pii:6104897 [Epub ahead of print].

The Casparian Strip (CS) constitutes a physical diffusion barrier to water and nutrients in plant roots, which is formed by the polar deposition of lignin polymer in the endodermis tissue. The precise pattern of lignin deposition is determined by the scaffolding activity of membrane-bound Casparian Strip domain proteins (CASPs), but little is known of the mechanism(s) directing this process. Here, we demonstrate that Endodermis-specific Receptor-like Kinase 1 (ERK1)-and to a lesser extent ROP Binding Kinase1 (RBK1)-are also involved in regulating CS formation, with the former playing an essential role in lignin deposition as well as the localization of CASP1. We show that ERK1 is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the endodermis and that together with the circadian clock regulator, Time for Coffee (TIC), forms part of a novel signaling pathway necessary for correct CS organization and suberisation of the endodermis, with their single or combined loss of function resulting in altered root microbiome composition. In addition, we found that other mutants displaying defects in suberin deposition at the CS also display altered root exudates and microbiome composition. Thus, our work reveals a complex network of signaling factors operating within the root endodermis that establish both the CS diffusion barrier and influence the microbial composition of the rhizosphere.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Stern RA, Mahmoudi N, Buckee CO, et al (2021)

The Microbiome of Size-Fractionated Airborne Particles from the Sahara Region.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Diverse airborne microbes affect human health and biodiversity, and the Sahara region of West Africa is a globally important source region for atmospheric dust. We collected size-fractionated (>10, 10-2.5, 2.5-1.0, 1.0-0.5, and <0.5 μm) atmospheric particles in Mali, West Africa and conducted the first cultivation-independent study of airborne microbes in this region using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Abundant and diverse microbes were detected in all particle size fractions at levels higher than those previously hypothesized for desert regions. Average daily abundance was 1.94 × 105 16S rRNA copies/m3. Daily patterns in abundance for particles <0.5 μm differed significantly from other size fractions likely because they form mainly in the atmosphere and have limited surface resuspension. Particles >10 μm contained the greatest fraction of daily abundance (51-62%) and had significantly greater diversity than smaller particles. Greater bacterial abundance of particles >2.5 μm that are bigger than the average bacterium suggests that most airborne bacteria are present as aggregates or attached to particles rather than as free-floating cells. Particles >10 μm have very short atmospheric lifetimes and thus tend to have more localized origins. We confirmed the presence of several potential pathogens using polymerase chain reaction that are candidates for viability and strain testing in future studies. These species were detected on all particle sizes tested, including particles <2.5 μm that are expected to undergo long-range transport. Overall, our results suggest that the composition and sources of airborne microbes can be better discriminated by collecting size-fractionated samples.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Zhou W, Liao Z, Wu Z, et al (2021)

Analysis of the difference between aged and degenerated pit mud microbiome in fermentation cellars for Chinese Luzhou-flavor baijiu by metatranscriptomics.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUD: Chinese Luzhou-flavor baijiu (LFB) was fermented in underground cellar, and the bottom and side of cellar were covered with pit muds (PMs), where the metabolic activity of the microorganisms had a significant effect on the LFB quality. PMs can be divided into aged pit mud (AP) and degenerated pit mud (DP), thus, the qualities of LFB generated from AP and DP were different. In this essay, metatranscriptomics method was applied to illustrate the differences of the two PMs , as well as to search out the pivotal microorganisms and genes influencing the quality of LFB.

RESULTS: Archaea, Clostridium and some thermophilic microorganisms might bring significant effect in AP, while the active Eukaryota and Anaeromyxobacter would cause degeneration in pit mud. Also, the metabolism of carbohydrate and amino acid were more active in AP. What is more, carbohydrate, amino acid and their derivant can produce important organic acids via the microorganisms activity in PMs. There were eight critical enzymes noticed in organic acids metabolic pathway, which were more actively expressed in AP, demonstrating active expression of the critical genes related to organic acid metabolism could have the positive effects on LFB quality.

CONCLUTION: This study identified specific differences in active microorganisms, active expressed genes and the expression levels of key genes in vital metabolic pathway between AP and DP. Which may be the actual reason for the differences in the quality of LFB made from different PMs. Mastering these results will provide great help to improve the quality of LFB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Jaskiw GE, Obrenovich ME, Kundrapu S, et al (2020)

Changes in the Serum Metabolome of Patients Treated With Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics.

Pathogens & immunity, 5(1):382-418 pii:pai.v5i1.394.

Background: The gut microbiome (GMB) generates numerous small chemicals that can be absorbed by the host and variously biotransformed, incorporated, or excreted. The resulting metabolome can provide information about the state of the GMB, of the host, and of their relationship. Exploiting this information in the service of biomarker development is contingent on knowing the GMB-sensitivity of the individual chemicals comprising the metabolome. In this regard, human studies have lagged far behind animal studies. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that serum levels of chemicals unequivocally demonstrated to be GMB-sensitive in rodent models would also be affected in a clinical patient sample treated with broad spectrum antibiotics.

Methods: We collected serum samples from 20 hospitalized patients before, during, and after treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. We also collected samples from 5 control patients admitted to the hospital but not prescribed antibiotics. We submitted the samples for a non-targeted metabolomic analysis and then focused on chemicals known to be affected both by germ-free status and by antibiotic treatment in the mouse and/or rat.

Results: Putative identification was obtained for 499 chemicals in human serum. An aggregate analysis did not show any time x treatment interactions. However, our literature search identified 10 serum chemicals affected both by germ-free status and antibiotic treatment in the mouse or rat. Six of those chemicals were measured in our patient samples and additionally met criteria for inclusion in a focused analysis. Serum levels of 5 chemicals (p-cresol sulfate, phenol sulfate, hippurate, indole propionate, and indoxyl sulfate) declined significantly in our group of antibiotic-treated patients but did not change in our patient control group.

Conclusions: Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment in patients lowered serum levels of selected chemicals previously demonstrated to be GMB-sensitive in rodent models. Interestingly, all those chemicals are known to be uremic solutes that can be derived from aromatic amino acids (L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, or L-tryptophan) by anaerobic bacteria, particularly Clostridial species. We conclude that judiciously selected serum chemicals can reliably detect antibiotic-induced suppression of the GMB in man and thus facilitate further metabolome-based biomarker development.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Finlay BB, Amato KR, Azad M, et al (2021)

The hygiene hypothesis, the COVID pandemic, and consequences for the human microbiome.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(6):.

The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to affect the human microbiome in infected and uninfected individuals, having a substantial impact on human health over the long term. This pandemic intersects with a decades-long decline in microbial diversity and ancestral microbes due to hygiene, antibiotics, and urban living (the hygiene hypothesis). High-risk groups succumbing to COVID-19 include those with preexisting conditions, such as diabetes and obesity, which are also associated with microbiome abnormalities. Current pandemic control measures and practices will have broad, uneven, and potentially long-term effects for the human microbiome across the planet, given the implementation of physical separation, extensive hygiene, travel barriers, and other measures that influence overall microbial loss and inability for reinoculation. Although much remains uncertain or unknown about the virus and its consequences, implementing pandemic control practices could significantly affect the microbiome. In this Perspective, we explore many facets of COVID-19-induced societal changes and their possible effects on the microbiome, and discuss current and future challenges regarding the interplay between this pandemic and the microbiome. Recent recognition of the microbiome's influence on human health makes it critical to consider both how the microbiome, shaped by biosocial processes, affects susceptibility to the coronavirus and, conversely, how COVID-19 disease and prevention measures may affect the microbiome. This knowledge may prove key in prevention and treatment, and long-term biological and social outcomes of this pandemic.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Park JH, Lemons AR, Roseman J, et al (2021)

Bacterial community assemblages in classroom floor dust of 50 public schools in a large city: characterization using 16S rRNA sequences and associations with environmental factors.

Microbiome, 9(1):15.

Characterizing indoor microbial communities using molecular methods provides insight into bacterial assemblages present in environments that can influence occupants' health. We conducted an environmental assessment as part of an epidemiologic study of 50 elementary schools in a large city in the northeastern USA. We vacuumed dust from the edges of the floor in 500 classrooms accounting for 499 processed dust aliquots for 16S Illumina MiSeq sequencing to characterize bacterial assemblages. DNA sequences were organized into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and identified using a database derived from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Bacterial diversity and ecological analyses were performed at the genus level. We identified 29 phyla, 57 classes, 148 orders, 320 families, 1193 genera, and 2045 species in 3073 OTUs. The number of genera per school ranged from 470 to 705. The phylum Proteobacteria was richest of all while Firmicutes was most abundant. The most abundant order included Lactobacillales, Spirulinales, and Clostridiales. Halospirulina was the most abundant genus, which has never been reported from any school studies before. Gram-negative bacteria were more abundant and richer (relative abundance = 0.53; 1632 OTUs) than gram-positive bacteria (0.47; 1441). Outdoor environment-associated genera were identified in greater abundance in the classrooms, in contrast to homes where human-associated bacteria are typically more abundant. Effects of school location, degree of water damage, building condition, number of students, air temperature and humidity, floor material, and classroom's floor level on the bacterial richness or community composition were statistically significant but subtle, indicating relative stability of classroom microbiome from environmental stress. Our study indicates that classroom floor dust had a characteristic bacterial community that is different from typical house dust represented by more gram-positive and human-associated bacteria. Health implications of exposure to the microbiomes in classroom floor dust may be different from those in homes for school staff and students. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Leeming ER, Louca P, Gibson R, et al (2021)

The complexities of the diet-microbiome relationship: advances and perspectives.

Genome medicine, 13(1):10.

Personalised dietary modulation of the gut microbiota may be key to disease management. Current investigations provide a broad understanding of the impact of diet on the composition and activity of the gut microbiota, yet detailed knowledge in applying diet as an actionable tool remains limited. Further to the relative novelty of the field, approaches are yet to be standardised and extremely heterogeneous research outcomes have ensued. This may be related to confounders associated with complexities in capturing an accurate representation of both diet and the gut microbiota. This review discusses the intricacies and current methodologies of diet-microbial relations, the implications and limitations of these investigative approaches, and future considerations that may assist in accelerating applications. New investigations should consider improved collection of dietary data, further characterisation of mechanistic interactions, and an increased focus on -omic technologies such as metabolomics to describe the bacterial and metabolic activity of food degradation, together with its crosstalk with the host. Furthermore, clinical evidence with health outcomes is required before therapeutic dietary strategies for microbial amelioration can be made. The potential to reach detailed understanding of diet-microbiota relations may depend on re-evaluation, progression, and unification of research methodologies, which consider the complexities of these interactions.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Lemas DJ, Wright L, Flood-Grady E, et al (2021)

Perspectives of pregnant and breastfeeding women on longitudinal clinical studies that require non-invasive biospecimen collection - a qualitative study.

BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 21(1):67.

BACKGROUND: Investigation of the microbiome during early life has stimulated an increasing number of cohort studies in pregnant and breastfeeding women that require non-invasive biospecimen collection. The objective of this study was to explore pregnant and breastfeeding women's perspectives on longitudinal clinical studies that require non-invasive biospecimen collection and how they relate to study logistics and research participation.

METHODS: We completed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 40 women who were either pregnant (n = 20) or breastfeeding (n = 20) to identify their understanding of longitudinal clinical research, the motivations and barriers to their participation in such research, and their preferences for providing non-invasive biospecimen samples.

RESULTS: Perspectives on research participation were focused on breastfeeding and perinatal education. Participants cited direct benefits of research participation that included flexible childcare, lactation support, and incentives and compensation. Healthcare providers, physician offices, and social media were cited as credible sources and channels for recruitment. Participants viewed lengthy study visits and child protection as the primary barriers to research participation. The barriers to biospecimen collection were centered on stool sampling, inadequate instructions, and drop-off convenience.

CONCLUSION: Women in this study were interested in participating in clinical studies that require non-invasive biospecimen collection, and motivations to participate center on breastfeeding and the potential to make a scientific contribution that helps others. Effectively recruiting pregnant or breastfeeding participants for longitudinal microbiome studies requires protocols that account for participant interests and consideration for their time.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

D'Avino P, Serena G, Kenyon V, et al (2021)

An updated overview on celiac disease: from immuno-pathogenesis and immuno-genetics to therapeutic implications.

Expert review of clinical immunology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by ingestion of gluten. While presenting many similarities with other autoimmune diseases, celiac disease is unique in that the external trigger, gluten, and the genetic background necessary for disease development (HLA DQ2/DQ8) are well described. The prevalence of celiac disease is dramatically increasing over the years and new epidemiologic data show changes regarding age of onset and symptoms. A better understanding of celiac disease pathogenesis is fundamental to highlight the reasons of this rise of celiac diagnoses.

AREAS COVERED: In this review we describe celiac disease pathogenesis by dissecting all the components necessary to lose tolerance to gluten (ingestion of gluten, genetic predisposition, loss of barrier function and immune response). Additionally, we also highlight the role that microbiome plays in celiac disease as well as new proposed therapies and experimental tools.

EXPERT OPINION: Prevalence of autoimmune diseases is increasing around the world. As a result, modern society is strongly impacted by a social and economic burden. Given the unique characteristics of celiac disease, a better understanding of its pathogenesis and the factors that contribute to it may shed light on other autoimmune diseases for which external trigger and genetic background are not known.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Burke-Furey L, F McNicholas (2021)

Food for thought; the importance of Nutritional wellbeing during COVID-19.

Irish journal of psychological medicine pii:S0790966721000021 [Epub ahead of print].

Individuals with mental illness have poorer physical health, nutritional status and lowered life expectancy. Optimising their physical and nutritional status has become an increasingly important therapeutic goal. Current experience with Covid-19 has further emphasised the susceptibility to physical illness and poorer outcomes among individuals with mental illness and those who are nutritionally compromised. Although life as we knew it has been suspended until the arrival of a vaccine, individuals can take immediate action to improve physical and mental health by attending to and optimising their nutritional wellbeing. Clinicians within mental health services have a crucial role to play in assisting such change, and reminding their patients of the importance of pursuing a healthy and balanced diet.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Aburahma A, Pachhain S, Choudhury SR, et al (2021)

Potential Contribution of the Intestinal Microbiome to Phenethylamine-Induced Hyperthermia.

Brain, behavior and evolution pii:000512098 [Epub ahead of print].

Phenethylamines (e.g., methamphetamine) are a common source of drug toxicity. Phenethylamine-induced hyperthermia (PIH) can activate a cascade of events that may result in rhabdomyolysis, coagulopathy, and even death. Here, we review recent evidence that suggests a potential link between the gut-brain axis and PIH. Within the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, phenethylamines lead to changes in catecholamine levels, that activate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and increase the peripheral levels of norepinephrine (NE), resulting in: (1) the loss of heat dissipation through α1 adrenergic receptor (α1-AR)-mediated vasoconstriction, (2) heat generation through β-AR activation and subsequent free fatty acid (FFA) activation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in brown and white adipose tissue, and (3) alteration of the gut microbiome and its link to the gut-brain axis. Recent studies have shown that phenethylamine derivatives can influence the composition of the gut microbiome and thus its metabolic potential. Phenethylamines increase the relative level of Proteuswhich has been linked to enhanced NE turnover. Bidirectional fecal microbial transplants (FMT) between PIH-tolerant and PIH-naïve rats demonstrated that the transplantation of gut microbiome can confer phenotypic hyperthermic and tolerant responses to phenethylamines. These phenethylamine-mediated changes in the gut microbiome were also associated with epigenetic changes in the mediators of thermogenesis. Given the significant role that the microbiome has been shown to play in the maintenance of body temperature, we outline current studies demonstrating the effects of phenethylamines on the gut microbiome and how these microbiome changes may mechanistically contribute to alterations in body temperature.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Ray LA, EN Grodin (2021)

Clinical Neuroscience of Addiction: What Clinical Psychologists Need to Know and Why.

Annual review of clinical psychology [Epub ahead of print].

The last three decades in psychological research have been marked by interdisciplinary science. Addiction represents a prime example of a disorder marked by a complex interaction among psychosocial and biological factors. This review highlights critical findings in the basic neuroscience of addiction and translates them into clinical language that can inform clinical psychologists in their research, teaching, and practice. From mechanisms of reward processing, learning and memory, allostasis, incentive-sensitization, withdrawal, tolerance, goal-directed decision making, habit learning, genetics, inflammation, and the microbiome, the common theme of this review is to illustrate the clinical utility of basic neuroscience research and to identify opportunities for clinical science. The thoughtful integration of basic and clinical science provides a powerful tool to fulfill the scientific mission of improving health care. Clinical psychologists have a crucial role to play in the translational science of addiction. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Volume 17 is May 2021. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Baumgarth N (2021)

The Shaping of a B Cell Pool Maximally Responsive to Infections.

Annual review of immunology [Epub ahead of print].

B cell subsets differ in development, tissue distribution, and mechanisms of activation. In response to infections, however, all can differentiate into extrafollicular plasmablasts that rapidly provide highly protective antibodies, indicating that these plasmablasts are the main humoral immune response effectors. Yet, the effectiveness of this response type depends on the presence of antigen-specific precursors in the circulating mature B cell pool, a pool that is generated initially through the stochastic processes of B cell receptor assembly. Importantly, germinal centers then mold the repertoire of this B cell pool to be increasingly responsive to pathogens by generating a broad array of antimicrobial memory B cells that act as highly effective precursors of extrafollicular plasmablasts. Such B cell repertoire molding occurs in two ways: continuously via the chronic germinal centers of mucosal lymphoid tissues, driven by the presence of the microbiome, and via de novo generated germinal centers following acute infections. For effectively evaluating humoral immunity as a correlate of immune protection, it might be critical to measure memory B cell pools in addition to antibody titers. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 39 is April 2021. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Shah N, Molloy EK, Pop M, et al (2021)

TIPP2: metagenomic taxonomic profiling using phylogenetic markers.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6104844 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Metagenomics has revolutionized microbiome research by enabling researchers to characterize the composition of complex microbial communities. Taxonomic profiling is one of the critical steps in metagenomic analyses. Marker genes, which are single-copy and universally found across Bacteria and Archaea, can provide accurate estimates of taxon abundances in the sample.

RESULTS: We present TIPP2, a marker gene-based abundance profiling method, that combines phylogenetic placement with statistical techniques to control classification precision and recall. TIPP2 includes an updated set of reference packages and several algorithmic improvements over the original TIPP method. We find that TIPP2 provides comparable or better estimates of abundance than other profiling methods (including Bracken, mOTUsv2, and MetaPhlAn2), and strictly dominates other methods when there are under-represented (novel) genomes present in the dataset.

The code for our method is freely available in open source form at code and procedure to create new reference packages for TIPP2 are available at


RevDate: 2021-01-20

Yu D, Nguyen SM, Yang Y, et al (2021)

Long-term diet quality is associated with gut microbiome diversity and composition among urban Chinese adults.

The American journal of clinical nutrition pii:6104801 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies have evaluated the influence of long-term diet on the gut microbiome, and data among Asian populations are lacking.

OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of long-term diet quality, comprising 8 food groups (fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish/seafood, nuts/legumes, refined grains, red meat, and processed meat), with gut microbiome among Chinese adults.

METHODS: Included were 1920 men and women, enrolled in 2 prospective cohorts (baseline 1996-2006), who remained free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer at stool collection (2015-2018) and had no diarrhea or antibiotic use in the last 7 d before stool collection. Microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Long-term diet was assessed by repeated surveys at baseline and follow-ups (1996-2011), with intervals of 5.2 to 20.5 y between dietary surveys and stool collection. Associations of dietary variables with microbiome diversity and composition were evaluated by linear or negative binomial hurdle models, adjusting for potential confounders. False discovery rate (FDR) <0.1 was considered significant.

RESULTS: The mean ± SD age at stool collection was 68 ± 1.5 y. Diet quality was positively associated with microbiome α-diversity (P = 0.03) and abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and genera/species within these phyla, including Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium/Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium / Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and order RF39 (all FDRs <0.1). Significant associations were also observed for intakes of dairy, fish/seafood, nuts/legumes, refined grains, and processed meat, including a positive association of dairy with Bifidobacterium and inverse associations of processed meat with Roseburia /Roseburia faecis. Most associations were similar, with or without adjustment for BMI and hypertension status or excluding participants with antibiotic use in the past 6 mo.

CONCLUSION: Among apparently healthy Chinese adults, long-term diet quality is positively associated with fecal microbiome diversity and abundance of fiber-fermenting bacteria, although magnitudes are generally small. Future studies are needed to examine if these bacteria may mediate or modify diet-disease relations.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Zinöcker MK, Svendsen K, SN Dankel (2021)

The homeoviscous adaptation to dietary lipids (HADL) model explains controversies over saturated fat, cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease risk.

The American journal of clinical nutrition pii:6104795 [Epub ahead of print].

SFAs play the leading role in 1 of the greatest controversies in nutrition science. Relative to PUFAs, SFAs generally increase circulating concentrations of LDL cholesterol, a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, the purpose of regulatory mechanisms that control the diet-induced lipoprotein cholesterol dynamics is rarely discussed in the context of human adaptive biology. We argue that better mechanistic explanations can help resolve lingering controversies, with the potential to redefine aspects of research, clinical practice, dietary advice, public health management, and food policy. In this paper we propose a novel model, the homeoviscous adaptation to dietary lipids (HADL) model, which explains changes in lipoprotein cholesterol as adaptive homeostatic adjustments that serve to maintain cell membrane fluidity and hence optimal cell function. Due to the highly variable intake of fatty acids in humans and other omnivore species, we propose that circulating lipoproteins serve as a buffer to enable the rapid redistribution of cholesterol molecules between specific cells and tissues that is necessary with changes in dietary fatty acid supply. Hence, circulating levels of LDL cholesterol may change for nonpathological reasons. Accordingly, an SFA-induced raise in LDL cholesterol in healthy individuals could represent a normal rather than a pathologic response. These regulatory mechanisms may become disrupted secondarily to pathogenic processes in association with insulin resistance and the presence of other ASCVD risk factors, as supported by evidence showing diverging lipoprotein responses in healthy individuals as opposed to those with metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and obesity. Corresponding with the model, we suggest alternative contributing factors to the association between elevated LDL cholesterol concentrations and ASCVD, involving dietary factors beyond SFAs, such as an increased endotoxin load from diet-gut microbiome interactions and subsequent chronic low-grade inflammation that interferes with fine-tuned signaling pathways.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Neubert H, Alley SC, Lee A, et al (2021)

2020 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: BMV of Hybrid Assays, Acoustic MS, HRMS, Data Integrity, Endogenous Compounds, Microsampling and Microbiome (Part 1 - Recommendations on Industry/Regulators Consensus on BMV of Biotherapeutics by LCMS, Advanced Application in Hybrid Assays, Regulatory Challenges in Mass Spec, Innovation in Small Molecules, Peptides and Oligos).

Bioanalysis [Epub ahead of print].

The 14th edition of the Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (14th WRIB) was held virtually on June 15-29, 2020 with an attendance of over 1000 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. The 14th WRIB included three Main Workshops, seven Specialized Workshops that together spanned 11 days in order to allow exhaustive and thorough coverage of all major issues in bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity, gene therapy, cell therapy and vaccine. Moreover, a comprehensive vaccine assays track; an enhanced cytometry track and updated Industry/Regulators consensus on BMV of biotherapeutics by Mass Spectrometry (hybrid assays, LCMS and HRMS) were special features in 2020. As in previous years, this year's WRIB continued to gather a wide diversity of international industry opinion leaders and regulatory authority experts working on both small and large molecules to facilitate sharing and discussions focused on improving quality, increasing regulatory compliance and achieving scientific excellence on bioanalytical issues. This 2020 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop and is aimed to provide the Global Bioanalytical Community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2020 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication covers the recommendations on (Part 1) Hybrid Assays, Innovation in Small Molecules, & Regulated Bioanalysis. Part 2A (BAV, PK LBA, Flow Cytometry Validation and Cytometry Innovation), Part 2B (Regulatory Input) and Part 3 (Vaccine, Gene/Cell Therapy, NAb Harmonization and Immunogenicity) are published in volume 13 of Bioanalysis, issues 5, and 6 (2021), respectively.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Harbison JE, Thomson RL, Wentworth JM, et al (2021)

Associations between diet, the gut microbiome and short chain fatty acids in youth with islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.

Pediatric diabetes [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: We aimed to characterise associations between diet and the gut microbiome and short chain fatty acid products in youth with islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes (IA/T1D) in comparison with controls.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 80 participants (25 diagnosed with T1D, 17 with confirmed IA, 38 sibling or unrelated controls) from the Australian Type 1 Diabetes Gut Study cohort were studied [median (IQR) age 11.7 (8.9,14.0) years, 43% female]. A Food Frequency Questionnaire characterised daily macronutrient intake over the preceding 6 months. Plasma and fecal short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography; gut microbiome composition and diversity by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

RESULTS: A 10g increase in daily carbohydrate intake associated with higher plasma acetate in IA/T1D [adjusted estimate +5.2 (95% CI 1.1, 9.2) μmol/L p=0.01] and controls [adjusted estimate +4.1 (95% CI 1.7, 8.5) μmol/L p=0.04]. A 5g increase in total fat intake associated with lower plasma acetate in IA/T1D and controls. A five percent increase in non-core (junk) food intake associated with reduced richness [adjusted estimate -4.09 (95%CI -7.83, -0.35) p=0.03] and evenness [-1.25 (95% CI -2.00, -0.49) p<0.01] of the gut microbiome in IA/T1D. Fiber intake associated with community structure of the microbiome in IA/T1D.

CONCLUSIONS: Modest increments in carbohydrate and fat intake associated with plasma acetate in all youth. Increased junk food intake associated with reduced diversity of the gut microbiome in IA/T1D alone. These associations with the gut microbiome in IA/T1D support future efforts to promote short chain fatty acids by using dietary interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Zhang K, He C, Xu Y, et al (2021)

Taxonomic and functional adaption of the gastrointestinal microbiome of goats kept at high altitude (4800 m) under intensive or extensive rearing conditions.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6104461 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota composition is influenced by the diet as well as the environment in both wild and domestic animals. We studied the effects of two feeding systems on the rumen and hindgut microbiome of semi-feral Tibetan goats kept at high altitude (∼4800 m) using 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Intensive drylot feeding resulted in significantly higher zootechnical performance, narrower ruminal acetate: propionate ratios and a drop in the average rumen pH at slaughter to ∼5.04. Hindgut microbial adaption appeared to be more diverse in the drylot group suggesting a higher influx of undegraded complex non-starch polysaccharides from the rumen. Despite their higher fiber levels in the diet, grazing goats exhibited lower counts of Methanobrevibacter and genes associated with the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway, presumably reflecting the scarce dietary conditions (low energy density) when rearing goats on pasture from extreme alpine environments. These conditions appeared to promote a relevant abundance of bacitracin genes. In parallel, we recognized a significant increase in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the digestive tracts of drylot animals. In summary, this study provides a deeper insight into the metataxonomic and functional adaption of the gastrointestinal microbiome of goats subject to intensive drylot and extensive pasture rearing conditions at high altitude.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Qi R, Qiu X, Du L, et al (2020)

Changes of Gut Microbiota and Its Correlation With Short Chain Fatty Acids and Bioamine in Piglets at the Early Growth Stage.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 7:617259.

The change characteristics of intestinal microbial succession and the correlation with the production of two important types of bacterial metabolites (short chain fatty acids and bioamine) in piglets during the early stage were fully explored in this study. Six piglets from different litters with the same birth time were selected, weighted and euthanized at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of age. During this stage, the piglets grew quickly with gradual increases in blood levels of growth hormone and insulin, and in the intestinal developmental index and immunity. 16s rRNA analysis indicated the alpha diversity of colonic microbiome community was higher than ileum. However, the composition change in the ileal microbiota was more dramatic over time. Lactobacillus genus was the dominant bacteria in piglets' ileum while Prevotella and Ruminococcaceae genera were the dominant bacteria in colon up to weaning. Gut bacterial community of the piglets showed obvious differences between the three different phases: newborn, before weaning, and post weaning. This was similar to the morphological change pattern of pigs' gut. Total SCFA content in the colon of pigs showed almost a 20-fold increase at day 42 compared to the value at day 1. The percentage of acetic acid among the total SCFAs dropped quickly from 74.5% at day 1 to 36.5% at day 42, while butyric acid and propionic acid showed significant increases at the stage. The histamine level increased and putrescine level decreased markedly in the colon with time while the amounts of total bioamines, tyramine and spermidine were devoid of changes. Dozens bacteria taxa showed highly correlations with SCFAs and bioamines. These findings provide an expanded view of the dynamic pig gut and gut microbiome at the important early growth stage.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Emery DC, Cerajewska TL, Seong J, et al (2020)

Comparison of Blood Bacterial Communities in Periodontal Health and Periodontal Disease.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:577485.

The use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques has generated a wide variety of blood microbiome data. Due to the large variation in bacterial DNA profiles between studies and the likely high concentrations of cell-free bacterial DNA in the blood, it is still not clear how such microbiome data relates to viable microbiota. For these reasons much remains to be understood about the true nature of any possible healthy blood microbiota and of bacteraemic events associated with disease. The gut, reproductive tracts, skin, and oral cavity are all likely sources of blood-borne bacteria. Oral bacteria, especially those associated with periodontal diseases, are also commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases such as infective endocarditis, and also have been linked to rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. Periodontal treatment, dental probing, and toothbrushing have been shown to cause transient bacteraemia and oral bacteria from the phyla Firmicutes (e.g. Streptococci) and Bacteroidetes (e.g. Porphyromonas) are found in cardiovascular lesions (CVD). Many studies of blood bacterial DNA content however, find Proteobacteria DNA to be the dominant microbiome component, suggesting a gut origin. Most studies of this type use total DNA extracted from either whole blood or blood fractions, such as buffy coat. Here, using a method that purifies DNA from intact bacterial cells only, we examined blood donated by those with active, severe periodontitis and periodontally healthy controls and show that 43-52% of bacterial species in blood are classified as oral. Firmicutes, consisting largely of members of the Streptococcus mitis group and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were predominant at 63.5% of all bacterial sequences detected in periodontal health and, little changed at 66.7% in periodontitis. Compared to studies using total DNA Proteobacteria were found here at relatively low levels in blood at 13.3% in periodontitis and 17.6% in health. This study reveals significant phylogenetic differences in blood bacterial population profiles when comparing periodontal health to periodontal disease cohorts.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Wakefield D, Clarke D, P McCluskey (2020)

Recent Developments in HLA B27 Anterior Uveitis.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:608134.

There has been steady progress in understanding the pathogenesis, clinical features, and effective treatment of acute anterior uveitis (AU) over the past 5 years. Large gene wide association studies have confirmed that AU is a polygenic disease, with overlaps with the seronegative arthropathies and inflammatory bowel diseases, associations that have been repeatedly confirmed in clinical studies. The role of the microbiome in AU has received increased research attention, with recent evidence indicating that human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA B27) may influence the composition of the gut microbiome in experimental animals. Extensive clinical investigations have confirmed the typical features of acute AU (AAU) and its response to topical, regional and systemic immunosuppressive treatment. Increased understanding of the role of cytokines has resulted in studies confirming the value of anti-cytokine therapy [anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) therapy] in severe and recurrent cases of AAU, particularly in subjects with an associated spondyloarthopathy (SpA) and in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated AAU.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Zhou H, Zeng X, Sun D, et al (2020)

Monosexual Cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum Infection Protects Against DSS-Induced Colitis by Shifting the Th1/Th2 Balance and Modulating the Gut Microbiota.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:606605.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related inflammation is closely associated with the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. IBD is generally treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid and immune-modulating medication, but side effects and limitations of these therapies are emerging. Thus, the development of novel preventative or therapeutic approaches is imperative. Here, we constructed a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced IBD mouse model that was infected with monosexual Schistosoma japonicum cercariae (mSjci) at day 1 or administered dexamethasone (DXM) from days 3 to 5 as a positive control. The protective effect of mSjci on IBD mice was evaluated through their assessments of their clinical signs, histopathological lesions and intestinal permeability. To uncover the underlying mechanism, the Th1/Th2 balance and Treg cell population were also examined. Additionally, the alterations in the gut microbiota were assessed to investigate the interaction between the mSjci-modulated immune response and pathogenic microbiome. Mice treated with DSS and mSjci showed fewer IBD clinical signs and less impaired intestinal permeability than DSS-treated mice. Mechanistically, mSjci modulated the Th1/Th2 balance by repressing IFN-γ production, promoting IL-10 expression and enhancing the Treg subset population. Moreover, mSjci notably reshaped the structure, diversity and richness of the gut microbiota community and subsequently exerted immune-modulating effects. Our findings provide evidence showing that mSjci might serve as a novel and effective protective strategy and that the gut microbiota might be a new therapeutic target in IBD.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Barua N, Herken AM, Stern KR, et al (2020)

Simultaneous Discovery of Positive and Negative Interactions Among Rhizosphere Bacteria Using Microwell Recovery Arrays.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:601788.

Understanding microbe-microbe interactions is critical to predict microbiome function and to construct communities for desired outcomes. Investigation of these interactions poses a significant challenge due to the lack of suitable experimental tools available. Here we present the microwell recovery array (MRA), a new technology platform that screens interactions across a microbiome to uncover higher-order strain combinations that inhibit or promote the function of a focal species. One experimental trial generates 104 microbial communities that contain the focal species and a distinct random sample of uncharacterized cells from plant rhizosphere. Cells are sequentially recovered from individual wells that display highest or lowest levels of focal species growth using a high-resolution photopolymer extraction system. Interacting species are then identified and putative interactions are validated. Using this approach, we screen the poplar rhizosphere for strains affecting the growth of Pantoea sp. YR343, a plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides rhizosphere. In one screen, we montiored 3,600 microwells within the array to uncover multiple antagonistic Stenotrophomonas strains and a set of Enterobacter strains that promoted YR343 growth. The later demonstrates the unique ability of the platform to discover multi-membered consortia that generate emergent outcomes, thereby expanding the range of phenotypes that can be characterized from microbiomes. This knowledge will aid in the development of consortia for Populus production, while the platform offers a new approach for screening and discovery of microbial interactions, applicable to any microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Foxx CL, Heinze JD, González A, et al (2020)

Effects of Immunization With the Soil-Derived Bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae on Stress Coping Behaviors and Cognitive Performance in a "Two Hit" Stressor Model.

Frontiers in physiology, 11:524833.

Previous studies demonstrate that Mycobacterium vaccae NCTC 11659 (M. vaccae), a soil-derived bacterium with anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties, is a potentially useful countermeasure against negative outcomes to stressors. Here we used male C57BL/6NCrl mice to determine if repeated immunization with M. vaccae is an effective countermeasure in a "two hit" stress exposure model of chronic disruption of rhythms (CDR) followed by acute social defeat (SD). On day -28, mice received implants of biotelemetric recording devices to monitor 24-h rhythms of locomotor activity. Mice were subsequently treated with a heat-killed preparation of M. vaccae (0.1 mg, administered subcutaneously on days -21, -14, -7, and 27) or borate-buffered saline vehicle. Mice were then exposed to 8 consecutive weeks of either stable normal 12:12 h light:dark (LD) conditions or CDR, consisting of 12-h reversals of the LD cycle every 7 days (days 0-56). Finally, mice were exposed to either a 10-min SD or a home cage control condition on day 54. All mice were exposed to object location memory testing 24 h following SD. The gut microbiome and metabolome were assessed in fecal samples collected on days -1, 48, and 62 using 16S rRNA gene sequence and LC-MS/MS spectral data, respectively; the plasma metabolome was additionally measured on day 64. Among mice exposed to normal LD conditions, immunization with M. vaccae induced a shift toward a more proactive behavioral coping response to SD as measured by increases in scouting and avoiding an approaching male CD-1 aggressor, and decreases in submissive upright defensive postures. In the object location memory test, exposure to SD increased cognitive function in CDR mice previously immunized with M. vaccae. Immunization with M. vaccae stabilized the gut microbiome, attenuating CDR-induced reductions in alpha diversity and decreasing within-group measures of beta diversity. Immunization with M. vaccae also increased the relative abundance of 1-heptadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, a lysophospholipid, in plasma. Together, these data support the hypothesis that immunization with M. vaccae stabilizes the gut microbiome, induces a shift toward a more proactive response to stress exposure, and promotes stress resilience.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Robbins SJ, Song W, Engelberts JP, et al (2021)

A genomic view of the microbiome of coral reef demosponges.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Sponges underpin the productivity of coral reefs, yet few of their microbial symbionts have been functionally characterised. Here we present an analysis of ~1200 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) spanning seven sponge species and 25 microbial phyla. Compared to MAGs derived from reef seawater, sponge-associated MAGs were enriched in glycosyl hydrolases targeting components of sponge tissue, coral mucus and macroalgae, revealing a critical role for sponge symbionts in cycling reef organic matter. Further, visualisation of the distribution of these genes amongst symbiont taxa uncovered functional guilds for reef organic matter degradation. Genes for the utilisation of sialic acids and glycosaminoglycans present in sponge tissue were found in specific microbial lineages that also encoded genes for attachment to sponge-derived fibronectins and cadherins, suggesting these lineages can utilise specific structural elements of sponge tissue. Further, genes encoding CRISPR and restriction-modification systems used in defence against mobile genetic elements were enriched in sponge symbionts, along with eukaryote-like gene motifs thought to be involved in maintaining host association. Finally, we provide evidence that many of these sponge-enriched genes are laterally transferred between microbial taxa, suggesting they confer a selective advantage within the sponge niche and therefore play a critical role in host ecology and evolution.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Zha H, Liu F, Ling Z, et al (2021)

Multiple bacteria associated with the more dysbiotic genitourinary microbiomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Scientific reports, 11(1):1824.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) influences the human health and can cause significant illnesses. The genitourinary microbiome profiles in the T2DM patients remain poorly understood. In the current study, a series of bioinformatic and statistical analyses were carried out to determine the multiple bacteria associated with the more dysbiotic genitourinary microbiomes (i.e., those with lower dysbiosis ratio) in T2DM patients, which were sequenced by Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. All the genitourinary microbiomes from 70 patients with T2DM were clustered into three clusters of microbiome profiles, i.e., Cluster_1_T2DM, Cluster_2_T2DM and Cluster_3_T2DM, with Cluster_3_T2DM at the most dysbiotic genitourinary microbial status. The three clustered T2DM microbiomes were determined with different levels of alpha diversity indices, and driven by distinct urinalysis variables. OTU12_Clostridiales and OTU28_Oscillospira were likely to drive the T2DM microbiomes to more dysbiotic status, while OTU34_Finegoldia could play a vital role in maintaining the least dysbiotic T2DM microbiome (i.e., Cluster_1_T2DM). The functional metabolites K08300_ribonuclease E, K01223_6-phospho-beta-glucosidase and K00029_malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+) were most associated with Cluster_1_T2DM, Cluster_2_T2DM and Cluster_3_T2DM, respectively. The characteristics and multiple bacteria associated with the more dysbiotic genitourinary microbiomes in T2DM patients may help with the better diagnosis and management of genitourinary dysbiosis in T2DM patients.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Jing G, Liu L, Wang Z, et al (2021)

Microbiome Search Engine 2: a Platform for Taxonomic and Functional Search of Global Microbiomes on the Whole-Microbiome Level.

mSystems, 6(1):.

Metagenomic data sets from diverse environments have been growing rapidly. To ensure accessibility and reusability, tools that quickly and informatively correlate new microbiomes with existing ones are in demand. Here, we introduce Microbiome Search Engine 2 (MSE 2), a microbiome database platform for searching query microbiomes in the global metagenome data space based on the taxonomic or functional similarity of a whole microbiome to those in the database. MSE 2 consists of (i) a well-organized and regularly updated microbiome database that currently contains over 250,000 metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene amplicon samples associated with unified metadata collected from 798 studies, (ii) an enhanced search engine that enables real-time and fast (<0.5 s per query) searches against the entire database for best-matched microbiomes using overall taxonomic or functional profiles, and (iii) a Web-based graphical user interface for user-friendly searching, data browsing, and tutoring. MSE 2 is freely accessible via For standalone searches of customized microbiome databases, the kernel of the MSE 2 search engine is provided at GitHub ( A search-based strategy is useful for large-scale mining of microbiome data sets, such as a bird's-eye view of the microbiome data space and disease diagnosis via microbiome big data. Here, we introduce Microbiome Search Engine 2 (MSE 2), a microbiome database platform for searching query microbiomes against the existing microbiome data sets on the basis of their similarity in taxonomic structure or functional profile. Key improvements include database extension, data compatibility, a search engine kernel, and a user interface. The new ability to search the microbiome space via functional similarity greatly expands the scope of search-based mining of the microbiome big data.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Beilsmith K, Perisin M, J Bergelson (2021)

Natural Bacterial Assemblages in Arabidopsis thaliana Tissues Become More Distinguishable and Diverse during Host Development.

mBio, 12(1):.

To study the spatial and temporal dynamics of bacterial colonization under field conditions, we planted and sampled Arabidopsis thaliana during 2 years at two Michigan sites and surveyed colonists by sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Mosaic and dynamic assemblages revealed the plant as a patchwork of tissue habitats that differentiated with age. Although assemblages primarily varied between roots and shoots, amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) also differentiated phyllosphere tissues. Increasing assemblage diversity indicated that variants dispersed more widely over time, decreasing the importance of stochastic variation in early colonization relative to tissue differences. As tissues underwent developmental transitions, the root and phyllosphere assemblages became more distinct. This pattern was driven by common variants rather than those restricted to a particular tissue or transiently present at one developmental stage. Patterns also depended critically on fine phylogenetic resolution: when ASVs were grouped at coarse taxonomic levels, their associations with host tissue and age weakened. Thus, the observed spatial and temporal variation in colonization depended upon bacterial traits that were not broadly shared at the family level. Some colonists were consistently more successful at entering specific tissues, as evidenced by their repeatable spatial prevalence distributions across sites and years. However, these variants did not overtake plant assemblages, which instead became more even over time. Together, these results suggested that the increasing effect of tissue type was related to colonization bottlenecks for specific ASVs rather than to their ability to dominate other colonists once established.IMPORTANCE Developing synthetic microbial communities that can increase plant yield or deter pathogens requires basic research on several fronts, including the efficiency with which microbes colonize plant tissues, how plant genes shape the microbiome, and the microbe-microbe interactions involved in community assembly. Findings on each of these fronts depend upon the spatial and temporal scales at which plant microbiomes are surveyed. In our study, phyllosphere tissues housed increasingly distinct microbial assemblages as plants aged, indicating that plants can be considered collections of tissue habitats in which microbial colonists-natural or synthetic-are established with differing success. Relationships between host genes and community diversity might vary depending on when samples are collected, given that assemblages grew more diverse as plants aged. Both spatial and temporal trends weakened when colonists were grouped by family, suggesting that functional rather than taxonomic profiling will be necessary to understand the basis for differences in colonization success.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Nhu NTQ, Lee JS, Wang HJ, et al (2021)

Alkaline pH increases swimming speed and facilitates mucus penetration for Vibrio cholerae.

Journal of bacteriology pii:JB.00607-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Intestinal mucus is the first line of defense against intestinal pathogens. It acts as a physical barrier between epithelial tissues and the lumen that enteropathogens must overcome to establish a successful infection. We investigated the motile behavior of two V. cholerae strains (El Tor C6706 and Classical O395) in mucus using single cell tracking in unprocessed porcine intestinal mucus. We determined that V. cholerae is able to penetrate mucus using flagellar motility and that alkaline pH increases swimming speed, and consequently, improves mucus penetration. Microrheological measurements indicate that changes in pH between 6 and 8 (the physiological range for the human small intestine) had little effect on the viscoelastic properties of mucus. Finally, we determined that acidic pH promotes surface attachment by activating the mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MshA) pilus in V. cholerae El Tor C6706 without a measurable change in the total cellular concentration of the secondary messenger cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Overall, our results support that pH is an important factor affecting the motile behavior of V. cholerae and its ability to penetrate mucus. Therefore, changes in pH along the human small intestine may play a role in determining the preferred site for V. cholerae during infection.IMPORTANCE The diarrheal disease cholera is still a burden for populations in developing countries with poor sanitation. To develop effective vaccines and prevention strategies against Vibrio cholerae, we must understand the initial steps of infection leading to the colonization of the small intestine. To infect the host and deliver the cholera toxin, V. cholerae has to penetrate the mucus layer protecting the intestinal tissues. However, the interaction of V. cholerae with intestinal mucus has not been extensively investigated. In this report, we demonstrated using single cell tracking that V. cholerae is able to penetrate intestinal mucus using flagellar motility. In addition, we observed that alkaline pH improves the ability of V. cholerae to penetrate mucus. This finding has important implications for understanding the dynamics of infection because pH varies significantly along the small intestine, between individuals, and between species. Blocking mucus penetration by interfering with flagellar motility in V. cholerae, reinforcing the mucosa, controlling intestinal pH, or manipulating the intestinal microbiome, will offer new strategies to fight cholera.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Swaney MH, LR Kalan (2021)

Living in your Skin: Microbes, Molecules and Mechanisms.

Infection and immunity pii:IAI.00695-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Human skin functions as a physical, chemical, and immune barrier against the external environment, while also providing a protective niche for its resident microbiota, known as the skin microbiome. Cooperation between the microbiota, host skin cells, and the immune system is responsible for maintenance of skin health, and a disruption to this delicate balance, such as by pathogen invasion or a breach in the skin barrier, may lead to impaired skin function. In this minireview, we describe the role of the microbiome in microbe, host, and immune interactions under distinct skin states, including homeostasis, tissue repair, and wound infection. Furthermore, we highlight the growing number of diverse microbial metabolites and products that have been identified to mediate these interactions, particularly those involved in host-microbe communication and defensive symbiosis. We also address the contextual pathogenicity exhibited by many skin commensals and provide insight into future directions in the skin microbiome field.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Toresson L, Steiner JM, JS Suchodolski (2021)

Cholestyramine treatment in two dogs with presumptive bile acid diarrhoea: a case report.

Canine medicine and genetics, 8(1):1.

BACKGROUND: In people, bile acid diarrhoea is a prevalent complication of Crohn's disease and diarrhoea-associated irritable bowel syndrome. Affected patients typically respond to bile acid sequestrants, such as cholestyramine, but human gastroenterologists often fail to recognize bile acid diarrhoea. Consequently, bile acid diarrhoea is regarded as an underrecognized and undertreated condition in human medicine. Due to lack of diagnostic tools, clinical response to bile acid sequestrants is often used to confirm a diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea in people. Several recent studies have shown that bile acid dysmetabolism also occurs in dogs with chronic enteropathies. It has further been shown that dogs with chronic enteropathies have significantly decreased expression of a bile acid transport protein in the ileum compared to healthy dogs, which correlates with faecal bile acid dysmetabolism. Consequently, in spite of the lack of reports in the literature, bile acid diarrhoea is likely to exist in dogs as well.

CASE DESCRIPTIONS: Two dogs, an 8-year old Rottweiler and a 4.5-year old Siberian Husky were evaluated for chronic watery diarrhoea. Neither dog responded to dietary trials, probiotics, cyclosporine, faecal microbial transplantations or metronidazole. One of the dogs responded to high daily doses of corticosteroids, which were however associated with unacceptable side effects. The other dog was refractory to all standard treatment protocols, including cyclosporine and corticosteroids. Since none of the dogs responded satisfactorily to standard treatment or modulation of the intestinal microbiome, a suspicion of possible bile acid diarrhoea was raised. Treatment with cholestyramine, a bile acid sequestrant was initiated and resulted in marked improvement of faecal consistency, frequency of defecation and activity level in both dogs.

CONCLUSION: This report presents two dogs with presumed bile acid diarrhoea that were successfully treated with cholestyramine. Therefore, bile acid diarrhoea should be considered as a possible diagnosis in dogs with treatment-refractory chronic diarrhoea.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Xu C, Zhou M, Xie Z, et al (2021)

LightCUD: a program for diagnosing IBD based on human gut microbiome data.

BioData mining, 14(1):2.

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and discrimination between the types of IBD are clinically important. IBD is associated with marked changes in the intestinal microbiota. Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and the improved hospital bioinformatics analysis ability motivated us to develop a diagnostic method based on the gut microbiome.

RESULTS: Using a set of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from 349 human gut microbiota samples with two types of IBD and healthy controls, we assembled and aligned WGS short reads to obtain feature profiles of strains and genera. The genus and strain profiles were used for the 16S-based and WGS-based diagnostic modules construction respectively. We designed a novel feature selection procedure to select those case-specific features. With these features, we built discrimination models using different machine learning algorithms. The machine learning algorithm LightGBM outperformed other algorithms in this study and thus was chosen as the core algorithm. Specially, we identified two small sets of biomarkers (strains) separately for the WGS-based health vs IBD module and ulcerative colitis vs Crohn's disease module, which contributed to the optimization of model performance during pre-training. We released LightCUD as an IBD diagnostic program built with LightGBM. The high performance has been validated through five-fold cross-validation and using an independent test data set. LightCUD was implemented in Python and packaged free for installation with customized databases. With WGS data or 16S rRNA sequencing data of gut microbiome samples as the input, LightCUD can discriminate IBD from healthy controls with high accuracy and further identify the specific type of IBD. The executable program LightCUD was released in open source with instructions at the webpage . The identified strain biomarkers could be used to study the critical factors for disease development and recommend treatments regarding changes in the gut microbial community.

CONCLUSIONS: As the first released human gut microbiome-based IBD diagnostic tool, LightCUD demonstrates a high-performance for both WGS and 16S sequencing data. The strains that either identify healthy controls from IBD patients or distinguish the specific type of IBD are expected to be clinically important to serve as biomarkers.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Chen H, Mozzicafreddo M, Pierella E, et al (2021)

Dissection of the gut microbiota in mothers and children with chronic Trichuris trichiura infection in Pemba Island, Tanzania.

Parasites & vectors, 14(1):62.

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiases are important neglected tropical diseases that result in a notably high number of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Characterizing the interactions between the human intestinal microbiome and helminths is of interest in the development of alternative treatments that do not rely on chemotherapeutics and do not lead to drug resistance.

METHODS: We recruited and obtained fecal samples from 32 pairs of mothers and children on Pemba Island and monitored their intestinal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

RESULTS: We observed that microbial changes occur in the gut microbiota of infected mothers and children. Some short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria and carbohydrate-degrading bacteria exhibited lower abundance in the infected individuals. Potentially pathogenic Campylobacter and proinflammatory Methanobrevibacter in infected mothers and opportunistic Enterococcus in infected children exhibited greater abundance.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could reveal the microbiota profiling in T. trichiura-infected individuals, indicate the potential roles of key microbiota in the host and aid to the development of novel strategies to control T. trichiura infection.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Beard D, Stannard HJ, JM Old (2021)

Morphological identification of ticks and molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens from bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus).

Parasites & vectors, 14(1):60.

BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrate hosts and transmit the widest range of pathogenic organisms of any arthropod vector. Seven tick species are known to feed on bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus), in addition to the highly prevalent Sarcoptes scabiei mite which causes fatal sarcoptic mange in most bare-nosed wombat populations. Little is known about the pathogens carried by most wombat ticks or how they may impact wombats and wombat handlers.

METHODS: Wombat ticks were sourced from wildlife hospitals and sanctuaries across Australia and identified to species level using taxonomic keys. Genomic DNA was extracted from a subsample, and following the amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 hypervariable region, next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the Illumina MiSeq platform was used to assess the microbial composition.

RESULTS: A total of 447 tick specimens were collected from 47 bare-nosed wombats between January 2019 and January 2020. Five species of ticks were identified comprising wombat tick Bothriocroton auruginans (n = 420), wallaby tick Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 8), bush tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (n = 3), common marsupial tick Ixodes tasmani (n = 12), and Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus (n = 4). Tick infestations ranged from one to 73 ticks per wombat. The wombat tick was the most prevalent tick species comprising 94% of the total number of samples and was present on 97.9% (46/47) of wombat hosts. NGS results revealed the 16S rRNA gene diversity profile was predominantly Proteobacteria (55.1%) followed by Firmicutes (21.9%) and Actinobacteria (18.4%). A species of Coxiella sharing closest sequence identity to Coxiella burnetii (99.07%), was detected in 72% of B. auruginans and a Rickettsiella endosymbiont dominated the bacterial profile for I. tasmani.

CONCLUSIONS: A new host record for H. longicornis is the bare-nosed wombat. One adult male and two engorged adult female specimens were found on an adult male wombat from Coolagolite in New South Wales, and more specimens should be collected to confirm this host record. The most prevalent tick found on bare-nosed wombats was B. auruginans, confirming previous records. Analysis of alpha-diversity showed high variability across both sample locations and instars, similar to previous studies. The detection of various Proteobacteria in this study highlights the high bacterial diversity in native Australian ticks.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Boddy SL, Giovannelli I, Sassani M, et al (2021)

The gut microbiome: a key player in the complexity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

BMC medicine, 19(1):13.

BACKGROUND: Much progress has been made in mapping genetic abnormalities linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the majority of cases still present with no known underlying cause. Furthermore, even in families with a shared genetic abnormality there is significant phenotypic variability, suggesting that non-genetic elements may modify pathogenesis. Identification of such disease-modifiers is important as they might represent new therapeutic targets. A growing body of research has begun to shed light on the role played by the gut microbiome in health and disease with a number of studies linking abnormalities to ALS.

MAIN BODY: The microbiome refers to the genes belonging to the myriad different microorganisms that live within and upon us, collectively known as the microbiota. Most of these microbes are found in the intestines, where they play important roles in digestion and the generation of key metabolites including neurotransmitters. The gut microbiota is an important aspect of the environment in which our bodies operate and inter-individual differences may be key to explaining the different disease outcomes seen in ALS. Work has begun to investigate animal models of the disease, and the gut microbiomes of people living with ALS, revealing changes in the microbial communities of these groups. The current body of knowledge will be summarised in this review. Advances in microbiome sequencing methods will be highlighted, as their improved resolution now enables researchers to further explore differences at a functional level. Proposed mechanisms connecting the gut microbiome to neurodegeneration will also be considered, including direct effects via metabolites released into the host circulation and indirect effects on bioavailability of nutrients and even medications.

CONCLUSION: Profiling of the gut microbiome has the potential to add an environmental component to rapidly advancing studies of ALS genetics and move research a step further towards personalised medicine for this disease. Moreover, should compelling evidence of upstream neurotoxicity or neuroprotection initiated by gut microbiota emerge, modification of the microbiome will represent a potential new avenue for disease modifying therapies. For an intractable condition with few current therapeutic options, further research into the ALS microbiome is of crucial importance.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Zaidi SSA, Kayani MUR, Zhang X, et al (2021)

Prediction and analysis of metagenomic operons via MetaRon: a pipeline for prediction of Metagenome and whole-genome opeRons.

BMC genomics, 22(1):60.

BACKGROUND: Efficient regulation of bacterial genes in response to the environmental stimulus results in unique gene clusters known as operons. Lack of complete operonic reference and functional information makes the prediction of metagenomic operons a challenging task; thus, opening new perspectives on the interpretation of the host-microbe interactions.

RESULTS: In this work, we identified whole-genome and metagenomic operons via MetaRon (Metagenome and whole-genome opeRon prediction pipeline). MetaRon identifies operons without any experimental or functional information. MetaRon was implemented on datasets with different levels of complexity and information. Starting from its application on whole-genome to simulated mixture of three whole-genomes (E. coli MG1655, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Bacillus subtilis str. 16), E. coli c20 draft genome extracted from chicken gut and finally on 145 whole-metagenome data samples from human gut. MetaRon consistently achieved high operon prediction sensitivity, specificity and accuracy across E. coli whole-genome (97.8, 94.1 and 92.4%), simulated genome (93.7, 75.5 and 88.1%) and E. coli c20 (87, 91 and 88%,), respectively. Finally, we identified 1,232,407 unique operons from 145 paired-end human gut metagenome samples. We also report strong association of type 2 diabetes with Maltose phosphorylase (K00691), 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate 9-phosphate synthase (K21279) and an uncharacterized protein (K07101).

CONCLUSION: With MetaRon, we were able to remove two notable limitations of existing whole-genome operon prediction methods: (1) generalizability (ability to predict operons in unrelated bacterial genomes), and (2) whole-genome and metagenomic data management. We also demonstrate the use of operons as a subset to represent the trends of secondary metabolites in whole-metagenome data and the role of secondary metabolites in the occurrence of disease condition. Using operonic data from metagenome to study secondary metabolic trends will significantly reduce the data volume to more precise data. Furthermore, the identification of metabolic pathways associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) also presents another dimension of analyzing the human gut metagenome. Presumably, this study is the first organized effort to predict metagenomic operons and perform a detailed analysis in association with a disease, in this case type 2 diabetes. The application of MetaRon to metagenomic data at diverse scale will be beneficial to understand the gene regulation and therapeutic metagenomics.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Hasebe K, Kendig MD, MJ Morris (2021)

Mechanisms Underlying the Cognitive and Behavioural Effects of Maternal Obesity.

Nutrients, 13(1): pii:nu13010240.

The widespread consumption of 'western'-style diets along with sedentary lifestyles has led to a global epidemic of obesity. Epidemiological, clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that maternal obesity, overnutrition and unhealthy dietary patterns programs have lasting adverse effects on the physical and mental health of offspring. We review currently available preclinical and clinical evidence and summarise possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which maternal overnutrition may perturb offspring cognitive function, affective state and psychosocial behaviour, with a focus on (1) neuroinflammation; (2) disrupted neuronal circuities and connectivity; and (3) dysregulated brain hormones. We briefly summarise research implicating the gut microbiota in maternal obesity-induced changes to offspring behaviour. In animal models, maternal obesogenic diet consumption disrupts CNS homeostasis in offspring, which is critical for healthy neurodevelopment, by altering hypothalamic and hippocampal development and recruitment of glial cells, which subsequently dysregulates dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. The adverse effects of maternal obesogenic diets are also conferred through changes to hormones including leptin, insulin and oxytocin which interact with these brain regions and neuronal circuits. Furthermore, accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiome may directly and indirectly contribute to these maternal diet effects in both human and animal studies. As the specific pathways shaping abnormal behaviour in offspring in the context of maternal obesogenic diet exposure remain unknown, further investigations are needed to address this knowledge gap. Use of animal models permits investigation of changes in neuroinflammation, neurotransmitter activity and hormones across global brain network and sex differences, which could be directly and indirectly modulated by the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Lamichhane S, Sen P, Alves MA, et al (2021)

Linking Gut Microbiome and Lipid Metabolism: Moving beyond Associations.

Metabolites, 11(1): pii:metabo11010055.

Various studies aiming to elucidate the role of the gut microbiome-metabolome co-axis in health and disease have primarily focused on water-soluble polar metabolites, whilst non-polar microbial lipids have received less attention. The concept of microbiota-dependent lipid biotransformation is over a century old. However, only recently, several studies have shown how microbial lipids alter intestinal and circulating lipid concentrations in the host, thus impacting human lipid homeostasis. There is emerging evidence that gut microbial communities play a particularly significant role in the regulation of host cholesterol and sphingolipid homeostasis. Here, we review and discuss recent research focusing on microbe-host-lipid co-metabolism. We also discuss the interplay of human gut microbiota and molecular lipids entering host systemic circulation, and its role in health and disease.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Sharpton TJ, Stagaman K, Sieler MJ, et al (2021)

Phylogenetic Integration Reveals the Zebrafish Core Microbiome and Its Sensitivity to Environmental Exposures.

Toxics, 9(1): pii:toxics9010010.

Zebrafish are increasingly used to study how environmental exposures impact vertebrate gut microbes. However, we understand little about which microbial taxa are common to the zebrafish gut across studies and facilities. Here, we define the zebrafish core gut microbiome to resolve microbiota that are both relatively robust to study or facility effects and likely to drive proper microbiome assembly and functioning due to their conservation. To do so, we integrated publicly available gut microbiome 16S gene sequence data from eight studies into a phylogeny and identified monophyletic clades of gut bacteria that are unexpectedly prevalent across individuals. Doing so revealed 585 core clades of bacteria in the zebrafish gut, including clades within Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Cetobacterium, Shewanella, Chitinibacter, Fluviicola, Flectobacillus, and Paucibacter. We then applied linear regression to discern which of these core clades are sensitive to an array of different environmental exposures. We found that 200 core clades were insensitive to any exposure we assessed, while 134 core clades were sensitive to more than two exposures. Overall, our analysis defines the zebrafish core gut microbiome and its sensitivity to exposure, which helps future studies to assess the robustness of their results and prioritize taxa for empirical assessments of how gut microbiota mediate the effects of exposure on the zebrafish host.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Fajardo C, Blánquez A, Domínguez G, et al (2021)

Assessment of Sustainability of Bio Treated Lignocellulose-Based Oleogels.

Polymers, 13(2): pii:polym13020267.

The development of biological strategies to obtain new high-added value biopolymers from lignocellulosic biomass is a current challenge for scientific community. This study evaluates the biodegradability and ecotoxicity of new formulated oleogels obtained from fermented agricultural residues with Streptomyces, previously reported to show improved rheological and tribological characteristics compared to commercial mineral lubricants. Both new oleogels exhibited higher biodegradation rates than the commercial grease. Classical ecotoxicological bioassays using eukaryotic organisms (Lactuca sativa, Caenorhabditis elegans) showed that the toxic impact of the produced bio-lubricants was almost negligible and comparable to the commercial grease for the target organisms. In addition, high throughput molecular techniques using emerging next-generation DNA-sequencing technologies (NGS) were applied to study the structural changes of lubricant-exposed microbial populations of a standard soil. Results obtained showed that disposal of biomass-based lubricants in the soil environment did not substantially modify the structure and phylogenetic composition of the microbiome. These findings point out the feasibility and sustainability, in terms of biodegradability and eco-safety, of the new bio-lubricants in comparison with commercial mineral greases. This technology entails a promising biological strategy to replace fossil and non-renewable raw materials as well as to obtain useful biopolymers from agricultural residues with potential for large-scale applications.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Pickering C, J Kiely (2019)

The Development of a Personalised Training Framework: Implementation of Emerging Technologies for Performance.

Journal of functional morphology and kinesiology, 4(2): pii:jfmk4020025.

Over the last decade, there has been considerable interest in the individualisation of athlete training, including the use of genetic information, alongside more advanced data capture and analysis techniques. Here, we explore the evidence for, and practical use of, a number of these emerging technologies, including the measurement and quantification of epigenetic changes, microbiome analysis and the use of cell-free DNA, along with data mining and machine learning. In doing so, we develop a theoretical model for the use of these technologies in an elite sport setting, allowing the coach to better answer six key questions: (1) To what training will my athlete best respond? (2) How well is my athlete adapting to training? (3) When should I change the training stimulus (i.e., has the athlete reached their adaptive ceiling for this training modality)? (4) How long will it take for a certain adaptation to occur? (5) How well is my athlete tolerating the current training load? (6) What load can my athlete handle today? Special consideration is given to whether such an individualised training framework will outperform current methods as well as the challenges in implementing this approach.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Kedves O, Shahab D, Champramary S, et al (2021)

Epidemiology, Biotic Interactions and Biological Control of Armillarioids in the Northern Hemisphere.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(1): pii:pathogens10010076.

Armillarioids, including the genera Armillaria, Desarmillaria and Guyanagaster, represent white-rot specific fungal saprotrophs with soilborne pathogenic potentials on woody hosts. They propagate in the soil by root-like rhizomorphs, connecting between susceptible root sections of their hosts, and often forming extended colonies in native forests. Pathogenic abilities of Armillaria and Desarmillaria genets can readily manifest in compromised hosts, or hosts with full vigour can be invaded by virulent mycelia when exposed to a larger number of newly formed genets. Armillaria root rot-related symptoms are indicators of ecological imbalances in native forests and plantations at the rhizosphere levels, often related to abiotic environmental threats, and most likely unfavourable changes in the microbiome compositions in the interactive zone of the roots. The less-studied biotic impacts that contribute to armillarioid host infection include fungi and insects, as well as forest conditions. On the other hand, negative biotic impactors, like bacterial communities, antagonistic fungi, nematodes and plant-derived substances may find applications in the environment-friendly, biological control of armillarioid root diseases, which can be used instead of, or in combination with the classical, but frequently problematic silvicultural and chemical control measures.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Checa-Ros A, Jeréz-Calero A, Molina-Carballo A, et al (2021)

Current Evidence on the Role of the Gut Microbiome in ADHD Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Implications.

Nutrients, 13(1): pii:nu13010249.

Studies suggest that the bidirectional relationship existent between the gut microbiome (GM) and the central nervous system (CNS), or so-called the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA), is involved in diverse neuropsychiatric diseases in children and adults. In pediatric age, most studies have focused on patients with autism. However, evidence of the role played by the MGBA in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood, is still scanty and heterogeneous. This review aims to provide the current evidence on the functioning of the MGBA in pediatric patients with ADHD and the specific role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in this interaction, as well as the potential of the GM as a therapeutic target for ADHD. We will explore: (1) the diverse communication pathways between the GM and the CNS; (2) changes in the GM composition in children and adolescents with ADHD and association with ADHD pathophysiology; (3) influence of the GM on the ω-3 PUFA imbalance characteristically found in ADHD; (4) interaction between the GM and circadian rhythm regulation, as sleep disorders are frequently comorbid with ADHD; (5) finally, we will evaluate the most recent studies on the use of probiotics in pediatric patients with ADHD.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Schaid MD, Zhu Y, Richardson NE, et al (2021)

Systemic Metabolic Alterations Correlate with Islet-Level Prostaglandin E2 Production and Signaling Mechanisms That Predict β-Cell Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

Metabolites, 11(1): pii:metabo11010058.

The transition from β-cell compensation to β-cell failure is not well understood. Previous works by our group and others have demonstrated a role for Prostaglandin EP3 receptor (EP3), encoded by the Ptger3 gene, in the loss of functional β-cell mass in Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The primary endogenous EP3 ligand is the arachidonic acid metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Expression of the pancreatic islet EP3 and PGE2 synthetic enzymes and/or PGE2 excretion itself have all been shown to be upregulated in primary mouse and human islets isolated from animals or human organ donors with established T2D compared to nondiabetic controls. In this study, we took advantage of a rare and fleeting phenotype in which a subset of Black and Tan BRachyury (BTBR) mice homozygous for the Leptinob/ob mutation-a strong genetic model of T2D-were entirely protected from fasting hyperglycemia even with equal obesity and insulin resistance as their hyperglycemic littermates. Utilizing this model, we found numerous alterations in full-body metabolic parameters in T2D-protected mice (e.g., gut microbiome composition, circulating pancreatic and incretin hormones, and markers of systemic inflammation) that correlate with improvements in EP3-mediated β-cell dysfunction.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Wu L, Han Y, Zheng Z, et al (2021)

Altered Gut Microbial Metabolites in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: Signals in Host-Microbe Interplay.

Nutrients, 13(1): pii:nu13010228.

Intimate metabolic host-microbiome crosstalk regulates immune, metabolic, and neuronal response in health and disease, yet remains untapped for biomarkers or intervention for disease. Our recent study identified an altered microbiome in patients with pre-onset amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we aimed to characterize the gut microbial metabolites among AD, aMCI, and healthy controls (HC). Here, a cohort of 77 individuals (22 aMCI, 27 AD, and 28 HC) was recruited. With the use of liquid-chromatography/gas chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics profiling, we identified significant differences between AD and HC for tryptophan metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and lithocholic acid, the majority of which correlated with altered microbiota and cognitive impairment. Notably, tryptophan disorders presented in aMCI and SCFAs decreased progressively from aMCI to AD. Importantly, indole-3-pyruvic acid, a metabolite from tryptophan, was identified as a signature for discrimination and prediction of AD, and five SCFAs for pre-onset and progression of AD. This study showed fecal-based gut microbial signatures were associated with the presence and progression of AD, providing a potential target for microbiota or dietary intervention in AD prevention and support for the host-microbe crosstalk signals in AD pathophysiology.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Fu SC, Lee CH, H Wang (2021)

Exploring the Association of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Constipation through Analysis of the Gut Microbiome.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(2): pii:ijerph18020667.

Over the past two decades, research into the role of the gut microbiome in regulating the central nervous system has rapidly increased. Several neurodevelopmental diseases have been linked to the unbalance of gut microbiota, including autism. Children on the autism spectrum often suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms, including constipation, which is four times more prevalent than it is in children without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although studies in animals have shown the crucial role of the microbiota in key aspects of neurodevelopment, there is currently no consensus on how the alteration of microbial composition affects the pathogenesis of ASD, let alone how it exerts an impact on the following comorbidities. In our study, we were able to control the effects of constipation on gut dysbiosis and distinguish neuropathological-related and gastrointestinal-related bacteria in ASD patients separately. By analyzing published data, eight additional bacteria significantly altered in autistic individuals were identified in our study. All of them had a decreased relative abundance in ASD patients, except Lactobacillaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae. Eighteen and eleven bacteria were significantly correlated with ASD symptoms and constipation, respectively. Among those, six bacteria were overlapped between the groups. We have found another six bacteria highly associated with constipation status in ASD patients only. By conducting Welch's t-test, we were able to demonstrate the critical roles of microbes in ASD core and gastrointestinal symptoms and raised the hypotheses of their confounding and mediating effects on the relationship between the two symptoms.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Singh AK, WK Kim (2021)

Effects of Dietary Fiber on Nutrients Utilization and Gut Health of Poultry: A Review of Challenges and Opportunities.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(1): pii:ani11010181.

Many fibrous ingredients incorporated in poultry feed to reduce production costs have low digestibility and cause poor growth in poultry. However, all plant-based fibers are not equal, and thus exert variable physiological effects on the birds, including but not limited to, digestibility, growth performance, and microbial fermentation. Several types of fibers, especially oligosaccharides, when supplemented in poultry diets in isolated form, exhibit prebiotic effects by enhancing beneficial gut microbiota, modulating gut immunity, boosting intestinal mucosal health, and increasing the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the gut. Recently, poultry producers are also facing the challenge of limiting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feed. In addition to other alternatives in use, exogenous non-starch polysaccharides digesting enzymes (NSPase) and prebiotics are being used to provide substrates to support the gut microbiome. We also conducted a meta-analysis of different studies conducted in similar experimental conditions to evaluate the variability and conclusiveness in effects of NSPase on growth performance of broilers fed fibrous ingredients. This review presents a holistic approach in discussing the existing challenges of incorporating high-fiber ingredients in poultry feed, as well as strategies to fully utilize the potential of such ingredients in improving feed efficiency and gut health of poultry.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Chu AHY, KM Godfrey (2021)

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Developmental Programming.

Annals of nutrition & metabolism pii:000509902 [Epub ahead of print].

During normal pregnancy, increased insulin resistance acts as an adaptation to enhance materno-foetal nutrient transfer and meet the nutritional needs of the developing foetus, particularly in relation to glucose requirements. However, about 1 in 6 pregnancies worldwide is affected by the inability of the mother's metabolism to maintain normoglycaemia, with the combination of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion resulting in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A growing body of epidemiologic work demonstrates long-term implications for adverse offspring health resulting from exposure to GDM in utero. The effect of GDM on offspring obesity and cardiometabolic health may be partly influenced by maternal obesity; this suggests that improving glucose and weight control during early pregnancy, or better still before conception, has the potential to lessen the risk to the offspring. The consequences of GDM for microbiome modification in the offspring and the impact upon offspring immune dysregulation are actively developing research areas. Some studies have suggested that GDM impacts offspring neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcomes; confirmatory studies will need to separate the effect of GDM exposure from the complex interplay of social and environmental factors. Animal and human studies have demonstrated the role of epigenetic modifications in underpinning the predisposition to adverse health in offspring exposed to suboptimal hyperglycaemic in utero environment. To date, several epigenome-wide association studies in human have extended our knowledge on linking maternal diabetes-related DNA methylation marks with childhood adiposity-related outcomes. Identification of such epigenetic marks can help guide future research to develop candidate diagnostic biomarkers and preventive or therapeutic strategies. Longer-term interventions and longitudinal studies will be needed to better understand the causality, underlying mechanisms, or impact of GDM treatments to optimize the health of future generations.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Wang ST, Meng XZ, Dai YF, et al (2021)

Characterization of the intestinal digesta and mucosal microbiome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part D, Genomics & proteomics, 37:100789 pii:S1744-117X(21)00001-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The intestinal microbiome plays a pivotal role in the nutritional digestion and metabolism of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Here, we characterized the digesta and mucosal microbiome of the anterior, middle, and posterior intestine of the grass carp, using 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing. Based on 16S rRNA amplicon data, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroides were the dominant phyla in the intestine of grass carp. Our results also showed that microbial communities of the middle intestine exhibited higher alpha diversity indices compared with the anterior and posterior intestine. The clustering of microbial communities that had either colonized in the digesta or were attached to the mucosa, were significantly tighter in the posterior intestine, based on average unweighted Unifrac distances (P < 0.05). The digesta or mucosa of the anterior and middle intestines were similar in microbial composition, but were significantly different to the posterior intestine (P < 0.05). In digesta and mucosa samples from the posterior intestine, we observed a significantly increased abundance of cellulose-degrading microbiomes, such as Bacteroides, Clostridiales and Spirochaetia (P < 0.05). Our results suggested that the microbiomes of the posterior intestine, either attached to the mucosa or colonized in the digesta, were distinct from the microbiomes of the anterior and middle intestine in grass carp.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Wu Q, Liu J, Wu S, et al (2021)

The impact of antibiotics on efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in malignancies: A study based on 44 cohorts.

International immunopharmacology, 92:107303 pii:S1567-5769(20)33770-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical and clinical data had revealed the gut microbiome plays a critical role in immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) efficacy. This study was designed to investigate whether antibiotics (ATBs) affect the prognosis of malignancies treated with ICIs.

METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials that evaluated the impact of ATBs on ICIs efficacy. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) measured by HRs with corresponding 95%CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed based on cancer type, study design, ICIs agent, and time of ATBs administration.

RESULTS: Totally, 12,492 individuals in the 44 cohorts were recruited. Pooled results showed that ATBs administration was significantly correlated with a worse objective remission rate (ORR) (OR = 0.61, 95%CI (0.42-0.90), P = 0.0128), PFS (HR = 1.18, 95%CI (1.11-1.25), P < 0.0001), and OS (HR = 1.20, 95%CI (1.15-1.25), P < 0.0001) in patients treated with ICIs. In subgroup analyses, patients treated with ICIs exposed to ATBs suffered an evidently worse ORR in arms of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (OR = 0.30, 95%CI (0.14-0.67), P = 0.0034), multiple (OR = 0.44, 95%CI (0.27-0.73), P = 0.0016), and before ICIs initiation (OR = 0.47, 95%CI (0.32-0.71), P = 0.0003) without heterogeneity; experienced a worse PFS and OS in arms of non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, RCC, urothelial carcinoma, multiple, prospective, retrospective, PD-(L)1 alone, PD-(L)1 plus CTLA-4, before ICIs initiation, before ICIs initiation and concurrent, and before or after ICIs within 1 month, while a better PFS and OS in concurrent with ICIs arm.

CONCLUSIONS: ATBs administration was negatively associated with ORR, PFS and OS in malignancies treated with ICIs, while the time of ATBs exposure might impact ICIs efficacy.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Hernandez BY, Zhu X, Sotto P, et al (2021)

Oral exposure to environmental cyanobacteria toxins: Implications for cancer risk.

Environment international, 148:106381 pii:S0160-4120(21)00005-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Areca nut/betel quid (AN/BQ) chewing, a prevalent practice in parts of the Pacific and Asia, is an independent cause of cancers of the oral cavity and esophagus and may be linked to liver cancer. The mechanisms of AN/BQ-associated carcinogenesis are unclear. In a Guam population, we previously demonstrated that AN/BQ chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including in chewers with oral premalignant lesions. Enrichment of specific taxa, including Cyanobacteria, was observed.

OBJECTIVES: We undertook an investigation to evaluate Areca catechu and/or Piper betle plants as potential sources of Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in AN/BQ chewers in Guam.

METHODS: We evaluated bacterial 16S rRNA with Illumina MiSeq in 122 oral samples and 30 Areca catechu nut and Piper betle leaf samples. Cyanobacteria sequences were interrogated using the NCBI database to identify candidate species and their reference sequences were evaluated for secondary metabolite toxins using AntiSMASH 5.0. Selected toxins were measured by ELISA in extracts from 30 plant samples and in a subset of 25 saliva samples.

RESULTS: Cyanobacteria was the predominant taxa in Areca catechu and Piper betle plants, comprising 75% of sequences. Cyanobacteria was detected at low levels in oral samples but 90-fold higher in current AN/BQ chewers compared to former/never chewers (p = 0.001). Microcystin/nodularin was detected in saliva (15 of 25 samples) and Piper betle leaves (6 of 10 samples). Cylindrospermopsin was detected in all saliva and leaf samples and 7 of 10 nut/husks. Salivary cylindrospermopsin levels were significantly higher in current chewers of betel quid (i.e., crushed Areca catechu nut wrapped in Piper betle leaf) compared to those chewing Areca nut alone. Anabaenopeptin was detected in saliva (10 of 25 samples), all leaf samples, and 7 of 10 nut/husks. Salivary anabaenopeptin concentration was weakly, albeit significantly, correlated with oral Cyanobacteria relative abundance.

DISCUSSION: Our study demonstrates that Cyanobacteria can contaminate AN/BQ plants and expose chewers to potent hepatotoxins. With worldwide increases in climate-related overgrowth of Cyanobacteria, our findings have broad implications for cancer risk across populations.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Wu N, Wang X, Yan Z, et al (2021)

Transformation of pig manure by passage through the gut of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens): Metal speciation, potential pathogens and metal-related functional profiling.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 211:111925 pii:S0147-6513(21)00036-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have great potential in livestock manure disposal. However, the changes in metal speciation, microbial communities, potential pathogens during the manure transformation process by BSFL is still largely uncharacterized, as well as the underlying metal tolerance mechanism of larval gut microbiome. Here we used BSFL to convert pig manure (PM) into larval feces (BF), and investigated the metal and microbial changes in the conversion process. Physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium) in PM were significantly altered compared to BF. After conversion, less than 10% of Cu and Zn were accumulated in larval bodies. The bioavailable fraction of Cu (88.3%-86.2%) and Zn (80.6%-82.3%) occupied as the primary form in PM and BF. Genera Enterococcus, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Terrisporobacter and Romboutsia were substantially enriched in the final BSFL gut (GF) compared with initial gut (GI). BSFL transformation substantially reduced pathogen abundances (decreased by 89%) derived from pig manure. Functional genes involved in metal homeostasis and resistance (e.g. CutC, pcoC, cusR, zurR and zntB) were obviously strengthened (by 2.3-7.7 folds) in GF than in GI, which might partly explain the metal tolerance ability of BSFL during the livestock manure transformation process.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Nikoloudaki O, Lemos Junior WJF, Campanaro S, et al (2021)

Role prediction of Gram-negative species in the resistome of raw cow's milk.

International journal of food microbiology, 340:109045 pii:S0168-1605(21)00004-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Extended use of antibiotics in dairy farming for therapeutic and prophylactic reasons, but also the higher prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in the farm environment raised the concern of consuming raw cow's milk and its derived products. The aim of this study was to predict by shotgun metagenomic analyses the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) mainly correlated with Gram-negative bacteria in antibiotic residue free raw cow's milk derived exclusively from healthy animal from South Tyrol (Northern Italy), chosen as a model system. Assessment of shotgun metagenomic data of reconstructed scaffolds, revealed the existence of Pseudomonas spp. as the most abundant Gram-negative species in the raw cow's milk samples bearing ARGs. Besides, ARGs also linked to lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus sp. and Lactobacillus sp. ARGs correlated to microbiome found in milk samples conferred resistance towards aminoglycoside-streptothricin, beta-lactamase, macrolide, tetracycline, carbapenem, cephalosporin, penam, peptide, penem, fluoroquinolone, chloramphenicol and elfamycin antibiotics. Further bioinformatic processing included de-novo reassembly of all metagenomic sequences from all milk samples in one, to reconstruct metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs), which were further used to investigate mobile genetic elements (MGE). Analyses of the reconstructed MAGs showed that, MAG 9 (Pseudomonas sp1.) contained the oriT gene (origin of transfer gene) needed for transferring virulent factors. Although the presence of Pseudomonas is common in raw cow's milk, pasteurization treatment reduces their survivability. Nevertheless, attention should be paid on Pseudomonas spp. due to their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and their capability of transferring virulent factors to other bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Shareefdeen H, AP Hynes (2021)

Does over a century of aerobic phage work provide a solid framework for the study of phages in the gut?.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(21)00002-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages, phages) of the gut have increasingly become a focus in microbiome studies, with an understanding that they are likely key players in health and disease. However, characterization of the virome remains largely based on bioinformatic approaches, with the impact of these viromes inferred based on a century of knowledge from aerobic phage work. Studying the phages infecting anaerobes is difficult, as they are often technically demanding to isolate and propagate. In this review, we primarily discuss the phages infecting three well-studied anaerobes in the gut: Bifidobacterium, Clostridia and Bacteroides, with a particular focus on the challenges in isolating and characterizing these phages. We contrast the lessons learned from these to other anaerobic work on phages infecting facultative anaerobes of the gut: Enterococcus and Lactobacillus. Phages from the gut do appear to adhere to the lessons learned from aerobic work, but the additional challenges of working on them has required ingenious new approaches to enable their study. This, in turn, has uncovered remarkable biology likely underpinning phage-host relationships in many stable environments.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Senga SS, RP Grose (2021)

Hallmarks of cancer-the new testament.

Open biology, 11(1):200358.

Diagnosis and treatment of disease demand a sound understanding of the underlying mechanisms, determining any Achilles' heel that can be targeted in effective therapies. Throughout history, this endeavour to decipher the origin and mechanism of transformation of a normal cell into cancer has led to various theories-from cancer as a curse to an understanding at the level of single-cell heterogeneity, meaning even among a single sub-type of cancer there are myriad molecular challenges to overcome. With increasing insight into cancer genetics and biology, the disease has become ever more complex to understand. The complexity of cancer as a disease was distilled into key traits by Hanahan and Weinberg in their seminal 'Hallmarks of Cancer' reviews. This lucid conceptualization of complex cancer biology is widely accepted and has helped advance cancer therapeutics by targeting the various hallmarks but, with the advancement in technologies, there is greater granularity in how we view cancer as a disease, and the additional understanding over the past decade requires us to revisit the hallmarks of cancer. Based on extensive study of the cancer research literature, we propose four novel hallmarks of cancer, namely, the ability of cells to regress from a specific specialized functional state, epigenetic changes that can affect gene expression, the role of microorganisms and neuronal signalling, to be included in the hallmark conceptualization along with evidence of various means to exploit them therapeutically.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Cho J, Park YJ, Gonzales-Portillo B, et al (2021)

Gut dysbiosis in stroke and its implications on Alzheimer's disease-like cognitive dysfunction.

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

Various neurological disorders, such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD), involve neuroinflammatory responses. The advent of the gut-brain axis enhances our understanding of neurological disease progression and secondary cell death. Gut microbiomes, especially those associated with inflammation, may reflect the dysbiosis of both the brain and the gut, opening the possibility to utilize inflammatory microbiomes as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The gut-brain axis may serve as a contributing factor to disease pathology and offer innovative approaches in cell-based regenerative medicine for the treatment of neurological diseases. In reviewing the pathogenesis of stroke and AD, we also discuss the effects of gut microbiota on cognitive decline and brain pathology. Although the underlying mechanism of primary cell death from either disease is clearly distinct, both may be linked to gut-microbial dysfunction as a consequential aberration that is unique to each disease. Targeting peripheral cell death pathways that exacerbate disease symptoms, such as those arising from the gut, coupled with conventional central therapeutic approach, may improve stroke and AD outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Vielot NA, González F, Reyes Y, et al (2021)

Risk Factors and Clinical Profile of Sapovirus-associated Acute Gastroenteritis in Early Childhood: A Nicaraguan Birth Cohort Study.

The Pediatric infectious disease journal pii:00006454-900000000-95903 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Sapovirus is increasingly recognized as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. We identified risk factors and characterized the clinical profile of sapovirus AGE in a birth cohort in León, Nicaragua.

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within a birth cohort (n = 444). Fieldworkers conducted weekly household AGE surveillance. AGE stools were tested for sapovirus by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For each first sapovirus episode, we selected 2 healthy age-matched controls and estimated independent risk factors of sapovirus AGE using conditional logistic regression. We compared clinical characteristics of sapovirus AGE episodes with episodes associated with other etiologies and identified co-infections with other enteric pathogens.

RESULTS: From June 2017 to July 2019, we identified 63 first sapovirus AGE episodes and selected 126 controls. Having contact with an individual with AGE symptoms and vaginal delivery were independent risk factors for sapovirus AGE. All cases experienced diarrhea, lasting a median 6 days; 23% experienced vomiting. Compared to children with AGE due to another etiology, sapovirus AGE was similar in severity, with less reported fever. Most cases experienced co-infections and were more likely than controls to be infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli or astrovirus.

CONCLUSIONS: Sapovirus was a commonly identified AGE etiology in this Central American setting, and symptoms were similar to AGE associated with other etiologies. The association between vaginal delivery and sapovirus is a novel finding. Gut microbiome composition might mediate this relationship, or vaginal delivery might be a proxy for other risk factors. Further investigation into more specific biological mechanisms is warranted.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Riffelmacher T, M Kronenberg (2020)

Metabolic Triggers of Invariant Natural Killer T-Cell Activation during Sterile Autoinflammatory Disease.

Critical reviews in immunology, 40(5):367-378.

Ample evidence exists for activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in a sterile manner by endogenous ligands or microbial antigens from the commensal flora, indicating that iNKT cells are not truly self-tolerant. Their controlled autoreactivity state is disturbed in many types of sterile inflammatory disease, resulting in their central role in modulating autoimmune responses. This review focuses on sterile iNKT-cell responses that are initiated by metabolic triggers, such as obesity-associated inflammation and fatty liver disease, as a manifestation of metabolic disease and dyslipidemia, as well as ischemia reperfusion injuries and sickle cell disease, characterized by acute lack of oxygen and oxidative stress response on reperfusion. In the intestine, inflammation and iNKT-cell response type are shaped by the microbiome as an extended "self". Disease- and organ-specific differences in iNKT-cell response type are summarized and help to define common pathways that shape iNKT-cell responses in the absence of exogenous antigen.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Bao R, Hesser LA, He Z, et al (2021)

Fecal microbiome and metabolome differ in healthy and food-allergic twins.

The Journal of clinical investigation, 131(2):.

BACKGROUNDThere has been a striking generational increase in the prevalence of food allergies. We have proposed that this increase can be explained, in part, by alterations in the commensal microbiome.METHODSTo identify bacterial signatures and metabolic pathways that may influence the expression of this disease, we collected fecal samples from a unique, well-controlled cohort of twins concordant or discordant for food allergy. Samples were analyzed by integrating 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolite profiling.RESULTSA bacterial signature of 64 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) distinguished healthy from allergic twins; the OTUs enriched in the healthy twins were largely taxa from the Clostridia class. We detected significant enrichment in distinct metabolite pathways in each group. The enrichment of diacylglycerol in healthy twins is of particular interest for its potential as a readily measurable fecal biomarker of health. In addition, an integrated microbial-metabolomic analysis identified a significant association between healthy twins and Phascolarctobacterium faecium and Ruminococcus bromii, suggesting new possibilities for the development of live microbiome-modulating biotherapeutics.CONCLUSIONTwin pairs exhibited significant differences in their fecal microbiomes and metabolomes through adulthood, suggesting that the gut microbiota may play a protective role in patients with food allergies beyond the infant stage.TRIAL REGISTRATIONParticipants in this study were recruited as part of an observational study ( NCT01613885) at multiple sites from 2014 to 2018.FUNDINGThis work was supported by the Sunshine Charitable Foundation; the Moss Family Foundation; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (R56AI134923 and R01AI 140134); the Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01 HL 118612); the Orsak family; the Kepner family; and the Stanford Institute for Immunity, Transplant and Infection.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Floden AM, Sohrabi M, Nookala S, et al (2021)

Salivary Aβ Secretion and Altered Oral Microbiome in Mouse Models of AD.

Current Alzheimer research pii:CAR-EPUB-113441 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide containing plaque aggregations in the brain are a hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, Aβ is produced by cell types outside of the brain suggesting that the peptide may serve a broad physiologic purpose.

OBJECTIVE: Based upon our prior work documenting expression of amyloid β precursor protein (APP) in intestinal epithelium we hypothesized that salivary epithelium might also express APP and be a source of Aβ.

METHODS: To begin testing this idea, we compared human age-matched control and AD salivary glands to C57BL/6 wild type, App NL-G-F , and APP/PS1 mice.

RESULTS: Both male and female AD, App NL-G-F , and APP/PS1 glands demonstrated robust APP and Aβ immunoreactivity. Female App NL-G-F mice had significantly higher levels of pilocarpine stimulated Aβ 1-42 compared to both wild type and APP/PS1 mice. No differences in male salivary Aβ levels were detected. No significant differences in total pilocarpine stimulated saliva volumes were observed in any group. Both male and female App NL-G-F but not APP/PS1 mice demonstrated significant differences in oral microbiome phylum and genus abundance compared to wild type mice. Male, but not female, APP/PS1 and App NL-G-F mice had significantly thinner molar enamel compared to their wild type counterparts.

CONCLUSION: These data support the idea that oral microbiome changes exist during AD in addition to changes in salivary Aβ and oral health.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Pestana-Oliveira N, Nahey DB, Hartson R, et al (2021)

DOCA-salt hypertension and the role of the OVLT-sympathetic-gut microbiome axis.

Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Hypertension is a multifaceted condition influenced by genetic and environmental factors and estimated to cause 9.4 million deaths globally every year. Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding the gut microbe-host interaction in the maintenance of health or disease states, but relatively few studies have shown an association between the gut microbiome and specific types of hypertension. The deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt model of hypertension in rats is known to have a neurogenic component linked to increased sympathetic nervous system activity. As such, our lab has recently shown the hypertensive response in DOCA treated rats requires an intact organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), a central hypothalamic circumventricular organ. Currently, we hypothesize the OVLT mediates changes in the gut microbiome associated with concomitant hypertension. Herein, we report that the hypertensive effects of DOCA-salt treatment were significantly attenuated throughout the 24-hour day/night cycle in OLVT lesioned rats on days 1, 3, and 9-21 of DOCA treatment compared with sham rats. Increased blood pressure (BP) in DOCA-salt treated rats was accompanied by specific changes in regional gut microbial populations yet was mitigated and offset by lesion of the OVLT. Furthermore, bacterial populations in OVLT-lesioned rats with attenuated hypertension more closely resembled those in normal control rats. We conclude that DOCA-salt hypertension is associated with specific microbiome changes in the gut, and the attenuated hypertensive effects of DOCA-salt in OVLT-lesioned rats is mediated in part through counteracting changes in these bacterial populations.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Moroenyane I, Mendes L, Tremblay J, et al (2021)

Plant Compartments and Developmental Stages Modulate the Balance between Niche-Based and Neutral Processes in Soybean Microbiome.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the dynamics of plant-associated microbial communities within agriculture is well documented. However, the ecological processes that assemble the plant microbiome are not well understood. This study elucidates the relative dominance of assembly processes across plant compartments (root, stem, and leaves) and developmental stages (emergence, growth, flowering, and maturation). Bacterial community composition and assembly processes were assessed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Null models that couple phylogenetic community composition and species distribution models were used to evaluate ecological assembly processes of bacterial communities. All models highlighted that the balance between the assembly process was modulated by compartments and developmental stages. Dispersal limitation dominated amongst the epiphytic communities and at the maturation stage. Homogeneous selection dominated assembly across plant compartments and development stages. Overall, both sets of models were mostly in agreement in predicting the prevailing assembly processes. Our results show, for the first time, that even though niche-based processes dominate in the plant environment, the relative influence of dispersal limitation in community assembly is important.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Pietzner M, Budde K, Rühlemann M, et al (2021)

Exocrine Pancreatic Function Modulates Plasma Metabolites Through Changes in Gut Microbiota Composition.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism pii:6104228 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Exocrine pancreatic function is critically involved in regulating the gut microbiota composition. At the same time, its impairment acutely affects human metabolism. How these 2 roles are connected is unknown. We studied how the exocrine pancreas contributes to metabolism via modulation of gut microbiota.

DESIGN: Fecal samples were collected in 2226 participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP/SHIP-TREND) to determine exocrine pancreatic function (pancreatic elastase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and intestinal microbiota profiles (16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing). Plasma metabolite levels were determined by mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: Exocrine pancreatic function was associated with changes in the abundance of 28 taxa and, simultaneously, with those of 16 plasma metabolites. Mediation pathway analysis revealed that a significant component of how exocrine pancreatic function affects the blood metabolome is mediated via gut microbiota abundance changes, most prominently, circulating serotonin and lysophosphatidylcholines.

CONCLUSION: These results imply that the effect of exocrine pancreatic function on intestinal microbiota composition alters the availability of microbial-derived metabolites in the blood and thus directly contributes to the host metabolic changes associated with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Kurilshikov A, Medina-Gomez C, Bacigalupe R, et al (2021)

Large-scale association analyses identify host factors influencing human gut microbiome composition.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10-20), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10-10 < P < 5 × 10-8) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Rühlemann MC, Hermes BM, Bang C, et al (2021)

Genome-wide association study in 8,956 German individuals identifies influence of ABO histo-blood groups on gut microbiome.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

The intestinal microbiome is implicated as an important modulating factor in multiple inflammatory1,2, neurologic3 and neoplastic diseases4. Recent genome-wide association studies yielded inconsistent, underpowered and rarely replicated results such that the role of human host genetics as a contributing factor to microbiome assembly and structure remains uncertain5-11. Nevertheless, twin studies clearly suggest host genetics as a driver of microbiome composition11. In a genome-wide association analysis of 8,956 German individuals, we identified 38 genetic loci to be associated with single bacteria and overall microbiome composition. Further analyses confirm the identified associations of ABO histo-blood groups and FUT2 secretor status with Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium spp. Mendelian randomization analysis suggests causative and protective effects of gut microbes, with clade-specific effects on inflammatory bowel disease. This holistic investigative approach of the host, its genetics and its associated microbial communities as a 'metaorganism' broaden our understanding of disease etiology, and emphasize the potential for implementing microbiota in disease treatment and management.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Jeong J, Yun K, Mun S, et al (2021)

The effect of taxonomic classification by full-length 16S rRNA sequencing with a synthetic long-read technology.

Scientific reports, 11(1):1727.

Characterizing the microbial communities inhabiting specimens is one of the primary objectives of microbiome studies. A short-read sequencing platform for reading partial regions of the 16S rRNA gene is most commonly used by reducing the cost burden of next-generation sequencing (NGS), but misclassification at the species level due to its length being too short to consider sequence similarity remains a challenge. Loop Genomics recently proposed a new 16S full-length-based synthetic long-read sequencing technology (sFL16S). We compared a 16S full-length-based synthetic long-read (sFL16S) and V3-V4 short-read (V3V4) methods using 24 human GUT microbiota samples. Our comparison analyses of sFL16S and V3V4 sequencing data showed that they were highly similar at all classification resolutions except the species level. At the species level, we confirmed that sFL16S showed better resolutions than V3V4 in analyses of alpha-diversity, relative abundance frequency and identification accuracy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sFL16S could overcome the microbial misidentification caused by different sequence similarity in each 16S variable region through comparison the identification accuracy of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Alistipes strains classified from both methods. Therefore, this study suggests that the new sFL16S method is a suitable tool to overcome the weakness of the V3V4 method.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Townsend JR, Vantrease WC, Jones MD, et al (2020)

Plasma Amino Acid Response to Whey Protein Ingestion Following 28 Days of Probiotic (Bacillus subtilis DE111) Supplementation in Active Men and Women.

Journal of functional morphology and kinesiology, 6(1): pii:jfmk6010001.

We sought to determine if 28 days of probiotic supplementation influenced the plasma amino acid (AA) response to acute whey protein feeding.

METHODS: Twenty-two recreationally active men (n = 11; 24.3 ± 3.2 yrs; 89.3 ± 7.2 kg) and women (n = 11; 23.0 ± 2.8 yrs; 70.2 ± 15.2 kg) participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Before (PRE) and after 28 days of supplementation (POST), participants reported to the lab following a 10-hr fast and provided a resting blood draw (0 min), then subsequently consumed 25 g of whey protein. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 2 h post-consumption (15-120 min) and later analyzed for plasma leucine, branched-chain AA (BCAA), essential AA (EAA), and total AA (TAA). Participants received a probiotic (PROB) consisting of 1 x10-9 colony forming units (CFU) Bacillus subtilis DE111 (n = 11) or a maltodextrin placebo (PL) (n = 11) for 28 days. Plasma AA response and area under the curve (AUC) values were analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance.

RESULTS: Our analysis indicated no significant (p < 0.05) differential responses for plasma leucine, BCAA, EAA, or TAA between PROB and PL from PRE to POST. AUC analysis revealed no group × time interaction for plasma leucine (p = 0.524), BCAA (p = 0.345), EAA (p = 0.512), and TAA (p = 0.712).

CONCLUSION: These data indicate that 28 days of Bacillus subtilis DE111 does not affect plasma AA appearance following acute whey protein ingestion.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Yaskolka Meir A, Rinott E, Tsaban G, et al (2021)

Effect of green-Mediterranean diet on intrahepatic fat: the DIRECT PLUS randomised controlled trial.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2020-323106 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of green-Mediterranean (MED) diet, further restricted in red/processed meat, and enriched with green plants and polyphenols on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), reflected by intrahepatic fat (IHF) loss.

DESIGN: For the DIRECT-PLUS 18-month randomized clinical trial, we assigned 294 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidaemia into healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), MED and green-MED weight-loss diet groups, all accompanied by physical activity. Both isocaloric MED groups consumed 28 g/day walnuts (+440 mg/day polyphenols provided). The green-MED group further consumed green tea (3-4 cups/day) and Mankai (a Wolffia globosa aquatic plant strain; 100 g/day frozen cubes) green shake (+1240 mg/day total polyphenols provided). IHF% 18-month changes were quantified continuously by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).

RESULTS: Participants (age=51 years; 88% men; body mass index=31.3 kg/m2; median IHF%=6.6%; mean=10.2%; 62% with NAFLD) had 89.8% 18-month retention-rate, and 78% had eligible follow-up MRS. Overall, NAFLD prevalence declined to: 54.8% (HDG), 47.9% (MED) and 31.5% (green-MED), p=0.012 between groups. Despite similar moderate weight-loss in both MED groups, green-MED group achieved almost double IHF% loss (-38.9% proportionally), as compared with MED (-19.6% proportionally; p=0.035 weight loss adjusted) and HDG (-12.2% proportionally; p<0.001). After 18 months, both MED groups had significantly higher total plasma polyphenol levels versus HDG, with higher detection of Naringenin and 2-5-dihydroxybenzoic-acid in green-MED. Greater IHF% loss was independently associated with increased Mankai and walnuts intake, decreased red/processed meat consumption, improved serum folate and adipokines/lipids biomarkers, changes in microbiome composition (beta-diversity) and specific bacteria (p<0.05 for all).

CONCLUSION: The new suggested strategy of green-Mediterranean diet, amplified with green plant-based proteins/polyphenols as Mankai, green tea, and walnuts, and restricted in red/processed meat can double IHF loss than other healthy nutritional strategies and reduce NAFLD in half.


RevDate: 2021-01-19

Urban L, Holzer A, Baronas JJ, et al (2021)

Freshwater monitoring by nanopore sequencing.

eLife, 10: pii:61504.

While traditional microbiological freshwater tests focus on the detection of specific bacterial indicator species, including pathogens, direct tracing of all aquatic DNA through metagenomics poses a profound alternative. Yet, in situ metagenomic water surveys face substantial challenges in cost and logistics. Here, we present a simple, fast, cost-effective and remotely accessible freshwater diagnostics workflow centred around the portable nanopore sequencing technology. Using defined compositions and spatiotemporal microbiota from surface water of an example river in Cambridge (UK), we provide optimised experimental and bioinformatics guidelines, including a benchmark with twelve taxonomic classification tools for nanopore sequences. We find that nanopore metagenomics can depict the hydrological core microbiome and fine temporal gradients in line with complementary physicochemical measurements. In a public health context, these data feature relevant sewage signals and pathogen maps at species level resolution. We anticipate that this framework will gather momentum for new environmental monitoring initiatives using portable devices.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Dhungel E, Mreyoud Y, Gwak HJ, et al (2021)

MegaR: an interactive R package for rapid sample classification and phenotype prediction using metagenome profiles and machine learning.

BMC bioinformatics, 22(1):25.

BACKGROUND: Diverse microbiome communities drive biogeochemical processes and evolution of animals in their ecosystems. Many microbiome projects have demonstrated the power of using metagenomics to understand the structures and factors influencing the function of the microbiomes in their environments. In order to characterize the effects from microbiome composition for human health, diseases, and even ecosystems, one must first understand the relationship of microbes and their environment in different samples. Running machine learning model with metagenomic sequencing data is encouraged for this purpose, but it is not an easy task to make an appropriate machine learning model for all diverse metagenomic datasets.

RESULTS: We introduce MegaR, an R Shiny package and web application, to build an unbiased machine learning model effortlessly with interactive visual analysis. The MegaR employs taxonomic profiles from either whole metagenome sequencing or 16S rRNA sequencing data to develop machine learning models and classify the samples into two or more categories. It provides various options for model fine tuning throughout the analysis pipeline such as data processing, multiple machine learning techniques, model validation, and unknown sample prediction that can be used to achieve the highest prediction accuracy possible for any given dataset while still maintaining a user-friendly experience.

CONCLUSIONS: Metagenomic sample classification and phenotype prediction is important particularly when it applies to a diagnostic method for identifying and predicting microbe-related human diseases. MegaR provides various interactive visualizations for user to build an accurate machine-learning model without difficulty. Unknown sample prediction with a properly trained model using MegaR will enhance researchers to identify the sample property in a fast turnaround time.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Stephenson T, Lee K, Griffith JE, et al (2021)

Pulmonary Actinomycosis in South Australian Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

Veterinary pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Pneumonia has been reported in both free-ranging and captive koalas and a number of causative agents have been described. Between 2016 and 2019, 16 free-ranging and 1 captive koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) from the Mount Lofty Ranges of South Australia were identified with pyogranulomatous lobar pneumonia, which involved the left caudal lobe in 14/17 (82%) cases. Within lesions, numerous gram-positive or gram-variable, non-acid-fast filamentous bacteria were observed in association with Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. Culture yielded growth of anaerobic bacteria, which were unidentifiable by MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) analysis in 5/5 cases. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene identified a novel Actinomyces species in 4 samples, confirming a diagnosis of pulmonary actinomycosis. Concurrent examination of resin lung casts from healthy koalas suggested greater laminar flow of air to the left caudal lung lobe in koalas. Actinomyces spp. have been reported as commensals of the oral microbiome in other species, and an association with similar pulmonary lesions in other species. Considering the predilection for involvement of the left caudal lung lobe, aspiration is suggested as the likely cause in some cases of pulmonary actinomycosis in koalas. Pulmonary actinomycosis has not been previously described in koalas and further work needs to be undertaken in order to classify this organism within the Actinomyces genus.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Ahmed I, S Umar (2018)

Microbiome and Colorectal Cancer.

Current colorectal cancer reports, 14(6):217-225.

Purpose of Review: The trillions of microbes collectively referred to as the human microbiota, inhabit the human body and establish a beneficial relationship with the host. It is clear however that dysbiosis impacting microbial diversity in the gut, may lead to development of inflammatory and malignant gastrointestinal diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). We provide a literature review of the recent influx of information related to the alterations in gut microbiota composition that influences CRC incidence and progression.

Recent Findings: A growing body of evidence implicates altered gut microbiota in the development of CRC. Profiles of CRC associated microbiota have been shown to differ from those in healthy subjects and bacterial phylotypes vary depending on the primary tumor location. The compositional variation in the microbial profile is not restricted to cancerous tissue however and is different between cancers of the proximal and distal colons, respectively. More recently, studies have shed light on the "driver-passenger" model for CRC wherein, driver bacteria cause inflammation, increased cell proliferation and production of genotoxic substances to contribute towards mutational acquisition associated with adenoma-carcinoma sequence. These changes facilitate gradual replacement of driver bacteria by passengers that either promote or suppress tumor progression. Significant advances have also been made in associating individual bacterial species to consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) of CRC and this remarkable development is expected to galvanize scientific community into advancing therapeutic strategies for CRC.

Summary: Increasing evidence suggests a link between the intestinal microbiota and CRC development although the mechanisms through which the bacterial constituents of the microbiome contribute towards CRC are complex and yet to be fully fathomed. Thus, more exhaustive and mechanistic studies are needed to identify key interactions amongst diet, microbial community and metabolites that help facilitate the adenoma-carcinoma sequence evolution in CRC. It is expected that development of therapeutics based on microbial association with CMS will likely facilitate the translation of molecular subtypes into the clinic for CRCs and potentially other malignancies.

RevDate: 2021-01-17

Feng ZP, Xin HY, Zhang ZW, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota homeostasis restoration may become a novel therapy for breast cancer.

Investigational new drugs [Epub ahead of print].

Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women. It significantly impairs a patient's physical and mental health. Gut microbiota comprise the bacteria residing in a host's gastrointestinal tract. Through studies over the last decade, we now know that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome are associated with protection against colonization by pathogens and other diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. This review focuses on how gut microbiota can affect breast cancer development through estrogen activity and discusses the types of bacteria that may be involved in the onset and the progression of breast cancer. We also describe potential therapies to curtail the risk of breast cancer by restoring gut microbiota homeostasis and reducing systemic estrogen levels. This review will further explore the relationship between intestinal microbes and breast cancer and propose a method to treat breast cancer by improving intestinal microbes. We aimed at discovering new methods to prevent or treat BC by changing intestinal microorganisms.

RevDate: 2021-01-17

Druzhinin VG, Matskova LV, Demenkov PS, et al (2021)

Genetic damage in lymphocytes of lung cancer patients is correlated to the composition of the respiratory tract microbiome.

Mutagenesis pii:6102875 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent findings indicate that the microbiome may have significant impact on the development of lung cancer by its effects on inflammation, dysbiosis or genome damage. The aim of this study was to compare the sputum microbiome of lung cancer (LC) patients with the chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the study, the taxonomic composition of the sputum microbiome of 66 men with untreated LC were compared to 62 control subjects with respect to CA and MN frequency and centromere FISH analysis. Results showed a significant increase in CA (4.11 ± 2.48% vs 2.08 ± 1.18%) and MN (1.53 ± 0.67% vs 0.87 ± 0.49%) frequencies respectively in LC patients as compared to control subjects. The higher frequency of centromeric positive MN of LC patients was mainly due to aneuploidy. A significant increase in Streptococcus, Bacillus, Gemella and Haemophilus in LC patients, in comparison to the control subjects while 18 bacterial genera were significantly reduced, which indicates a decrease in the beta diversity in the microbiome of LC patients. Although, the CA frequency in LC patients is significantly associated with an increased presence of the genera Bacteroides, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Porphiromonas, Mycoplasma and Fusobacterium in their sputum, and a decrease for the genus Granulicatella after application of false discovery rate (FDR) correction significance was not any more present. The decrease of MN frequency of LC patients is significantly associated with a increase in Megasphaera genera and Selenonomas bovis. In conclusion, a significant difference in beta diversity of microbiome between LC and control subjects and association between the sputum microbiome composition and genome damage of LC patients was detected, thus supporting previous studies suggesting an etiological connection between the airway microbiome and LC.

RevDate: 2021-01-17

Lee AH, Vidal S, Oba PM, et al (2021)

Evaluation of a novel animal milk oligosaccharide biosimilar: Macronutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal tolerance, fecal metabolites, and fecal microbiota of healthy adult dogs and in vitro genotoxicity assays.

Journal of animal science pii:6102879 [Epub ahead of print].

Milk oligosaccharides (MO) are bioactive compounds in mammalian milk that provide health benefits to neonates beyond essential nutrients. GNU100, a novel animal MO biosimilar, was recently tested in vitro, with results showing beneficial shifts in microbiota and increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, but other effects of GNU100 were unknown. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, palatability and gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of GNU100. In Study 1, the mutagenic potential of GNU100 was tested using a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a mammalian cell micronucleus test. In Study 2, palatability was assessed by comparing diets containing 0% vs. 1% GNU100 in 20 adult dogs. In Study 3, 32 adult dogs were used in a completely randomized design to assess the safety and GI tolerance of GNU100 and explore utility. Following a 2-wk baseline, dogs were assigned to one of four treatments and fed for 26 wk: 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% GNU100. On wk 2, 4 and 26, fresh fecal samples were collected to measure stool quality, immunoglobulin A, and calprotectin, and blood samples were collected to measure serum chemistry and inflammatory markers and hematology. On wk 2 and 4, fresh fecal samples were collected to measure metabolites and microbiota. On wk 4, total feces were collected to assess apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility. Although revertant numbers were greater compared to the solvent control in WP2uvrA(pKM101) in presence of metabolic activation (S9) in the initial experiment, they remained below the threshold for a positive mutagenic response in follow-up confirmatory tests, supporting that GNU100 is not mutagenic. Similarly, no cytotoxicity or chromosome damage were observed in the cell micronucleus test. The palatability test showed that 1% GNU100 was strongly preferred (P < 0.05; 3.6:1 consumption ratio) over to the control. In Study 3, all dogs were healthy and had no signs of GI intolerance or illness. All diets were well-accepted and food intake, fecal characteristics and metabolite concentrations and macronutrient digestibilities were not altered. GNU100 modulated fecal microbiota, increasing evenness and Catenibacterium, Megamonas, and Prevotella (SCFA producers) and reducing Collinsella. Overall, results suggest that GNU100 is palatable and well-tolerated, causes no genotoxicity or adverse effects on health, and beneficially shifts the fecal microbiota, supporting the safety of GNU100 for inclusion in canine diets.

RevDate: 2021-01-17

Balty C, Guillot A, Fradale L, et al (2020)

Biosynthesis of the sactipeptide Ruminococcin C by the human microbiome: Mechanistic insights into thioether bond formation by radical SAM enzymes.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 295(49):16665-16677.

Despite its major importance in human health, the metabolic potential of the human gut microbiota is still poorly understood. We have recently shown that biosynthesis of Ruminococcin C (RumC), a novel ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) produced by the commensal bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus, requires two radical SAM enzymes (RumMC1 and RumMC2) catalyzing the formation of four Cα-thioether bridges. These bridges, which are essential for RumC's antibiotic properties against human pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens, define two hairpin domains giving this sactipeptide (sulfur-to-α-carbon thioether-containing peptide) an unusual architecture among natural products. We report here the biochemical and spectroscopic characterizations of RumMC2. EPR spectroscopy and mutagenesis data support that RumMC2 is a member of the large family of SPASM domain radical SAM enzymes characterized by the presence of three [4Fe-4S] clusters. We also demonstrate that this enzyme initiates its reaction by Cα H-atom abstraction and is able to catalyze the formation of nonnatural thioether bonds in engineered peptide substrates. Unexpectedly, our data support the formation of a ketoimine rather than an α,β-dehydro-amino acid intermediate during Cα-thioether bridge LC-MS/MS fragmentation. Finally, we explored the roles of the leader peptide and of the RiPP precursor peptide recognition element, present in myriad RiPP-modifying enzymes. Collectively, our data support a more complex role for the peptide recognition element and the core peptide for the installation of posttranslational modifications in RiPPs than previously anticipated and suggest a possible reaction intermediate for thioether bond formation.

RevDate: 2021-01-17

Duan CJ, Baslé A, Liberato MV, et al (2020)

Ascertaining the biochemical function of an essential pectin methylesterase in the gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 295(52):18625-18637.

Pectins are a major dietary nutrient source for the human gut microbiota. The prominent gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron was recently shown to encode the founding member (BT1017) of a new family of pectin methylesterases essential for the metabolism of the complex pectin rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). However, biochemical and structural knowledge of this family is lacking. Here, we showed that BT1017 is critical for the metabolism of an RG-II-derived oligosaccharide ΔBT1017oligoB generated by a BT1017 deletion mutant (ΔBT1017) during growth on carbohydrate extract from apple juice. Structural analyses of ΔBT1017oligoB using a combination of enzymatic, mass spectrometric, and NMR approaches revealed that it is a bimethylated nonaoligosaccharide (GlcA-β1,4-(2-O-Me-Xyl-α1,3)-Fuc-α1,4-(GalA-β1,3)-Rha-α1,3-Api-β1,2-(Araf-α1,3)-(GalA-α1,4)-GalA) containing components of the RG-II backbone and its side chains. We showed that the catalytic module of BT1017 adopts an α/β-hydrolase fold, consisting of a central twisted 10-stranded β-sheet sandwiched by several α-helices. This constitutes a new fold for pectin methylesterases, which are predominantly right-handed β-helical proteins. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the family is dominated by sequences from prominent genera of the human gut microbiota, including Bacteroides and Prevotella. Our re-sults not only highlight the critical role played by this family of enzymes in pectin metabolism but also provide new insights into the molecular basis of the adaptation of B. thetaiotaomicron to the human gut.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Oz M, DE Lorke (2021)

Multifunctional angiotensin converting enzyme 2, the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor, and critical appraisal of its role in acute lung injury.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 136:111193 pii:S0753-3322(20)31386-X [Epub ahead of print].

The recent emergence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic affecting millions of individuals has raised great concern throughout the world, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the causative agent for COVID-19. The multifunctional protein angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is accepted as its primary target for entry into host cells. In its enzymatic function, ACE2, like its homologue ACE, regulates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) critical for cardiovascular and renal homeostasis in mammals. Unlike ACE, however, ACE2 drives an alternative RAS pathway by degrading Ang-II and thus operates to balance RAS homeostasis in the context of hypertension, heart failure, and cardiovascular as well as renal complications of diabetes. Outside the RAS, ACE2 hydrolyzes key peptides, such as amyloid-β, apelin, and [des-Arg9]-bradykinin. In addition to its enzymatic functions, ACE2 is found to regulate intestinal amino acid homeostasis and the gut microbiome. Although the non-enzymatic function of ACE2 as the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 has been well established, the contribution of enzymatic functions of ACE2 to the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related lung injury has been a matter of debate. A complete understanding of this central enzyme may begin to explain the various symptoms and pathologies seen in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, and may aid in the development of novel treatments for COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Zhang J, Cook J, Nearing JT, et al (2021)

Harnessing the plant microbiome to promote the growth of agricultural crops.

Microbiological research, 245:126690 pii:S0944-5013(20)30558-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The rhizosphere microbiome is composed of diverse microbial organisms, including archaea, viruses, fungi, bacteria as well as eukaryotic microorganisms, which occupy a narrow region of soil directly associated with plant roots. The interactions between these microorganisms and the plant can be commensal, beneficial or pathogenic. These microorganisms can also interact with each other, either competitively or synergistically. Promoting plant growth by harnessing the soil microbiome holds tremendous potential for providing an environmentally friendly solution to the increasing food demands of the world's rapidly growing population, while also helping to alleviate the associated environmental and societal issues of large-scale food production. There recently have been many studies on the disease suppression and plant growth promoting abilities of the rhizosphere microbiome; however, these findings largely have not been translated into the field. Therefore, additional research into the dynamic interactions between crop plants, the rhizosphere microbiome and the environment are necessary to better guide the harnessing of the microbiome to increase crop yield and quality. This review explores the biotic and abiotic interactions that occur within the plant's rhizosphere as well as current agricultural practices, and how these biotic and abiotic factors, as well as human practices, impact the plant microbiome. Additionally, some limitations, safety considerations, and future directions to the study of the plant microbiome are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Higgins MA, KS Ryan (2021)

Generating a fucose permease deletion mutant in Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis ATCC 15697.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(21)00003-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 has emerged as a model for infant gut-associated bifidobacterial strains. Here we present a genetic system for B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 using its own DNA restriction-modification systems and create a fucose permease deletion mutant lacking the ability to use free fucose as a carbon source.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Combs MP, Wheeler DS, Luth JE, et al (2021)

Lung microbiota predict chronic rejection in healthy lung transplant recipients: a prospective cohort study.

The Lancet. Respiratory medicine pii:S2213-2600(20)30405-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Alterations in the respiratory microbiome are common in chronic lung diseases, correlate with decreased lung function, and have been associated with disease progression. The clinical significance of changes in the respiratory microbiome after lung transplant, specifically those related to development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lung microbiome characteristics in healthy lung transplant recipients on subsequent CLAD-free survival.

METHODS: We prospectively studied a cohort of lung transplant recipients at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA). We analysed characteristics of the respiratory microbiome in acellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from asymptomatic patients during per-protocol surveillance bronchoscopy 1 year after lung transplantation. For our primary endpoint, we evaluated a composite of development of CLAD or death at 500 days after the 1-year surveillance bronchoscopy. Our primary microbiome predictor variables were bacterial DNA burden (total 16S rRNA gene copies per mL of BALF, quantified via droplet digital PCR) and bacterial community composition (determined by bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing). Patients' lung function was followed serially at least every 3 months by spirometry, and CLAD was diagnosed according to International Society of Heart and Lung Transplant 2019 guidelines.

FINDINGS: We analysed BALF from 134 patients, collected during 1-year post-transplant surveillance bronchoscopy between Oct 21, 2005, and Aug 25, 2017. Within 500 days of follow-up from the time of BALF sampling, 24 (18%) patients developed CLAD, five (4%) died before confirmed development of CLAD, and 105 (78%) patients remained CLAD-free with complete follow-up. Lung bacterial burden was predictive of CLAD development or death within 500 days of the surveillance bronchoscopy, after controlling for demographic and clinical factors, including immunosuppression and bacterial culture results, in a multivariable survival model. This relationship was evident when burden was analysed as a continuous variable (per log10 increase in burden, HR 2·49 [95% CI 1·38-4·48], p=0·0024) or by tertiles (middle vs lowest bacterial burden tertile, HR 4·94 [1·25-19·42], p=0·022; and highest vs lowest, HR 10·56 [2·53-44·08], p=0·0012). In patients who developed CLAD or died, composition of the lung bacterial community significantly differed to that in patients who survived and remained CLAD-free (on permutational multivariate analysis of variance, p=0·047 at the taxonomic level of family), although differences in community composition were associated with bacterial burden. No individual bacterial taxa were definitively associated with CLAD development or death.

INTERPRETATION: Among asymptomatic lung transplant recipients at 1-year post-transplant, increased lung bacterial burden is predictive of chronic rejection and death. The lung microbiome represents an understudied and potentially modifiable risk factor for lung allograft dysfunction.

FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Brian and Mary Campbell and Elizabeth Campbell Carr research gift fund.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Byrd DA, Vogtmann E, Wu Z, et al (2021)

Associations of fecal microbial profiles with breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease in the Ghana Breast Health Study.

International journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota may play a role in breast cancer etiology by regulating hormonal, metabolic, and immunologic pathways. We investigated associations of fecal bacteria with breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease in a case-control study conducted in Ghana, a country with rising breast cancer incidence and mortality. To do this, we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize bacteria in fecal samples collected at the time of breast biopsy (N = 379 breast cancer cases, N = 102 non-malignant breast disease cases, N = 414 population-based controls). We estimated associations of alpha diversity (observed amplicon sequence variants [ASVs], Shannon index, and Faith's phylogenetic diversity), beta diversity (Bray Curtis and unweighted/weighted UniFrac distance), and presence and relative abundance of select taxa with breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease using multivariable unconditional polytomous logistic regression. All alpha diversity metrics were strongly, inversely associated with odds of breast cancer and for those in the highest relative to lowest tertile of observed ASVs, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.21 (0.13-0.36; Ptrend < 0.001). Alpha diversity associations were similar for non-malignant breast disease and breast cancer grade/molecular subtype. All beta diversity distance matrices and multiple taxa with possible estrogen-conjugating and immune-related functions were strongly associated with breast cancer (all P's < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease cases in any microbiota metric. In conclusion, fecal bacteria characteristics were strongly and similarly associated with breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease. Our findings provide novel insight into potential microbially-mediated mechanisms of breast disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Rehan M, Al-Bahadly I, Thomas DG, et al (2020)

Capsule robot for gut microbiota sampling using shape memory alloy spring.

The international journal of medical robotics + computer assisted surgery : MRCAS, 16(5):1-14.

BACKGROUND: Human gut microbiota can provide lifelong health information and even influence mood and behaviour. We currently lack the tools to obtain a microbial sample, directly from the small intestine, without contamination.

METHODS: Shape memory alloy springs are used in concentric configuration to develop an axial actuator. A novel design of sampling mechanism is fabricated for collecting the sample from the gut. Storage chamber (500 µl) is used to protect the sample from downstream contamination.

RESULTS: The developed actuator occupies a small space (5 × Ø5.75 mm) and produces sufficient output force (1.75 N) to operate the sampling mechanism. A non-invasive capsule robot was tested ex vivo on the animal intestine, and it captured an average of 134 µl content which was sufficient for microbiome assessment.

CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory testing revealed that the collected sample had an amino acid signature indicative of microbiota, mucus and digesta, which provided a proof of concept for the proposed design.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Martin C, Stebbins B, Ajmani A, et al (2021)

Nanopore-based metagenomics analysis reveals prevalence of mobile antibiotic and heavy metal resistome in wastewater.

Ecotoxicology (London, England) [Epub ahead of print].

In-depth studies of the microbiome and mobile resistome profile of different environments is central to understanding the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which is one of the urgent threats to global public health. In this study, we demonstrated the use of a rapid (and easily portable) sequencing approach coupled with user-friendly bioinformatics tools, the MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technologies), on the evaluation of the microbial as well as mobile metal and antibiotic resistome profile of semi-rural wastewater. A total of 20 unique phyla, 43 classes, 227 genera, and 469 species were identified in samples collected from the Amherst Wastewater Treatment Plant, both from primary and secondary treated wastewater. Alpha diversity indices indicated that primary samples were significantly richer and more microbially diverse than secondary samples. A total of 1041 ARGs, 68 MRGs, and 17 MGEs were detected in this study. There were more classes of AMR genes in primary than secondary wastewater, but in both cases multidrug, beta-lactam and peptide AMR predominated. Of note, OXA β-lactamases, some of which are also carbapenemases, were enriched in secondary samples. Metal resistance genes against arsenic, copper, zinc and molybdenum were the dominant MRGs in the majority of the samples. A larger proportion of resistome genes were located in chromosome-derived sequences except for mobilome genes, which were predominantly located in plasmid-derived sequences. Genetic elements related to transposase were the most common MGEs in all samples. Mobile or MGE/plasmid-associated resistome genes that confer resistance to last resort antimicrobials such as carbapenems and colistin were detected in most samples. Worryingly, several of these potentially transferable genes were found to be carried by clinically-relevant hosts including pathogenic bacterial species in the orders Aeromonadales, Clostridiales, Enterobacterales and Pseudomonadales. This study demonstrated that the MinION can be used as a metagenomics approach to evaluate the microbiome, resistome, and mobilome profile of primary and secondary wastewater.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Balasubramanian VK, Dampanaboina L, Cobos CJ, et al (2021)

Induced secretion system mutation alters rhizosphere bacterial composition in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

Planta, 253(2):33.

MAIN CONCLUSION: A novel inducible secretion system mutation in Sorghum named Red root has been identified. The mutant plant root exudes pigmented compounds that enriches Actinobacteria in its rhizosphere compared to BTx623. Favorable plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere positively influence plant growth and stress tolerance. Sorghum bicolor, a staple biomass and food crop, has been shown to selectively recruit Gram-positive bacteria (Actinobacteria) in its rhizosphere under drought conditions to enhance stress tolerance. However, the genetic/biochemical mechanism underlying the selective enrichment of specific microbial phyla in the sorghum rhizosphere is poorly known due to the lack of available mutants with altered root secretion systems. Using a subset of sorghum ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant lines, we have isolated a novel Red root (RR) mutant with an increased accumulation and secretion of phenolic compounds in roots. Genetic analysis showed that RR is a single dominant mutation. We further investigated the effect of root-specific phenolic compounds on rhizosphere microbiome composition under well-watered and water-deficit conditions. The microbiome diversity analysis of the RR rhizosphere showed that Actinobacteria were enriched significantly under the well-watered condition but showed no significant change under the water-deficit condition. BTx623 rhizosphere showed a significant increase in Actinobacteria under the water-deficit condition. Overall, the rhizosphere of RR genotype retained a higher bacterial diversity and richness relative to the rhizosphere of BTx623, especially under water-deficit condition. Therefore, the RR mutant provides an excellent genetic resource for rhizosphere-microbiome interaction studies as well as to develop drought-tolerant lines. Identification of the RR gene and the molecular mechanism through which the mutant selectively enriches microbial populations in the rhizosphere will be useful in designing strategies for improving sorghum productivity and stress tolerance.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Pan HB, Li MY, Wu W, et al (2021)

Host-Plant Induced Shifts in Microbial Community Structure in Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

Journal of economic entomology pii:6103869 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiome associated with insects play vital roles in host ecology and physiology. The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, is a polyphagous insect pest that caused enormous damage to a wide range of cereal crops. Previous studies have assessed the effects of environmental factors, such as antibiotics, insecticide, and geographical habitat on the bacterial composition of SBPH. However, the influence of host plants on the microbial community in SBPH still unclear. Here, we characterized and compared the microbial community in three SBPH populations feeding on rice, barley, and wheat, respectively, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Our observations revealed that the microbiome harbored by SBPH was abundant and diverse. Ten phyla comprising 141 genera of bacteria were annotated, and four fungal phyla consisting of 47 genera were assigned. The bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria were the most prevalent and the fungi with the highest abundance were from the order Hypocreales. Comparative analysis showed that host plants could significantly induce structural changes of SBPH microbiome. Significant differences in abundance were observed in two main bacterial orders (Rickettsiales and Rhodospirillales) and three fungal classes (Sordariomycetes, an unclassified class in Ascomycota and Eurotiomycetes) among three host-adapted SBPH populations. Our results could broaden our understanding of interactions among SBPH, its microbial associates and host plants, and also represented the basis of future SBPH biological management.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Cuñé Castellana J (2021)

[Microbioma and lithiasis.].

Archivos espanoles de urologia, 74(1):157-170.

Human microbiome understanding and its relationship with health has represented a revolution in biomedicine, facilitated by the emergence of new molecular microbiology techniques. Lithiasic pathology has not been alien to this new approach to etiological knowledge. As a result of this research activity, it has been possible to elucidate the importance of the intestine-kidney axis, understood as the impact of the intestinal microbiota on nephrourinary health. In this regard the ability to use oxalate as an energy source by certain intestinal microorganisms has been used as a target form odulators of the intestinal microbiota in order to correcthyperoxaluria, both primary and secondary. However,the importance of the microbiome configuration, and its role in oxalocalcic lithiasis, transcends the existence of certain trophic networks. In particular, intestinal microbiome has the ability to promote tubular lesions resulting from oxidative stress caused by chronic low-grade inflammation, closely linked to the composition of the microbiota and the dialogue established with the immune system at the intestinal level. The importance of the urobiome, a stable microbia lstructure residing in the urinary tract, allowed to calibrate the importance of urinary microorganisms in lithiasic pathology, breaking with the paradigm of urine sterility in healthy conditions. Thus, recent studies suggest that the composition and structure of the urobiome have a crucial impact on infectious but also non-infectious lithiasis, since certain microorganisms can act as nucleants and promoters of the lithogenic process. Associated with the advances in the study of binomial microbiota and lithiasic pathology, new ways are opened for patient management, in terms of prevention and treatment, based on intervention on the microbiome. Future therapeutic arsenal, in addition to probiotics and prebiotics, will integrate consortia of different microbial groups and microbiota transplantation, both urinary and intestinal.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )