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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jun 2020 at 01:45 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Wang CZ, Wan JY, Wan J, et al (2020)

Human intestinal microbiota derived metabolism signature from a North American native botanical Oplopanax horridus with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis.

Biomedical chromatography : BMC [Epub ahead of print].

Oplopanax horridus, distributed in North America, is an herbal medicine traditionally used by Pacific indigenous peoples for various medical conditions. After oral ingestion, constituents in O. horridus extract (OhE) could be converted to their metabolites by enteric microbiome before absorption. In this study, in order to mimic gut environment, the OhE was biotransformed by using the enteric microbiome of healthy human subjects. For accurate and reliable data collection with optimized approaches in sample preparation and analytical conditions, ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) were used to characterize parent constituents and their metabolites. In the extract, 20 parent compounds were identified including polyynes, sesquiterpenes, monoterpeondids, phenylpropanoids, and phenolic acids. After the biotransformation, a total of 78 metabolites were identified, of which 37 of them belong to polyynes metabolites. The common biotransformation pathways are hydroxylation, acetylization, methylation, and demethylation. Based on the pathway distributions, the metabolism signature of OhE has been explored. The metabolism pathways of OhE compounds are dependent on their structural classifications and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties. In summary, with comprehensive analysis, we systematically investigated human microbiome-derived OhE metabolites. The enteric microbial metabolism signature provides novel information for future effective use of Oplopanax horridus.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Gascon M, Harrall KK, Beavers AW, et al (2020)

Feasibility of collection and analysis of microbiome data in a longitudinal randomized trial of community gardening.

Future microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: We explored the feasibility of collecting and analyzing human microbiome data in a longitudinal randomized controlled trial of community gardening. Methods & materials: Participants were randomly assigned to gardening (N = 8) or control (N = 8). Participants provided stool, mouth, hand and forehead microbiome samples at six timepoints. Analyses combined mixed models with Qiita output. Results: Participant satisfaction was high, with 75% of participants completing evaluations. While no microbial effects were statistically significant due to small sample size, the analysis pipeline utility was tested. Conclusion: Longitudinal collection and analysis of microbiome data in a community gardening randomized controlled trial is feasible. The analysis pipeline will be useful in larger studies for assessment of the pathway between microbiota, gardening and health outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Rasmussen MA, Thorsen J, Dominguez-Bello MG, et al (2020)

Ecological succession in the vaginal microbiota during pregnancy and birth.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-020-0686-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The mother's vaginal microbiota represents the first microbes to which a child is exposed when delivered vaginally. However, little is known about the composition and development of the vaginal microbiota during pregnancy and birth. Here, we analyzed the vaginal microbiota of 57 women in pregnancy week 24, 36 and at birth after rupture of membranes but before delivery, and further compared the composition with that of the gut and airways of the 1-week-old child. The vaginal community structure had dramatic changes in bacterial diversity and taxonomic distribution, yet carried an individual-specific signature. The relative abundance of most bacterial taxa increased stepwise from week 24 of pregnancy until birth, with a gradual decline of Lactobacillus. Mother-to-child vertical transfer, as suggested by sharing, was modest, with the strongest transfer being for Clostridiales followed by Lactobacillales and Enterobacteriales. In conclusion, late gestation is associated with an increase in maternal vaginal microbiota diversity, and vaginal bacteria at birth only modestly predict the composition of the neonatal microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Brenes LR, Lohse MB, Hartooni N, et al (2020)

A Set of Diverse Genes Influence the Frequency of White-Opaque Switching in Candida albicans.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:g3.120.401249 [Epub ahead of print].

The fungal species Candida albicans is both a member of the human microbiome and a fungal pathogen. C. albicans undergoes several different morphological transitions, including one called white-opaque switching. Here, cells reversibly switch between two states, "white" and "opaque," and each state is heritable through many cell generations. Each cell type has a distinct cellular and colony morphology and they differ in many other properties including mating, nutritional specialization, and interactions with the innate immune system. Previous genetic screens to gain insight into white-opaque switching have focused on certain classes of genes (for example transcriptional regulators or chromatin modifying enzymes). In this paper, we examined 172 deletion mutants covering a broad range of cell functions. We identified 28 deletion mutants with at least a five-fold effect on switching frequencies; these cover a wide variety of functions ranging from membrane sensors to kinases to proteins of unknown function. In agreement with previous reports, we found that components of the pheromone signaling cascade affect white-to-opaque switching; however, our results suggest that the major effect of Cek1 on white-opaque switching occurs through the cell wall damage response pathway. Most of the genes we identified have not been previously implicated in white-opaque switching and serve as entry points to understand new aspects of this morphological transition.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Badawy S, Pajunen MI, Haiko J, et al (2020)

Identification and Functional Analysis of Temperate Siphoviridae Bacteriophages of Acinetobacter baumannii.

Viruses, 12(6): pii:v12060604.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that presents a serious clinical challenge due to its increasing resistance to all available antibiotics. Phage therapy has been introduced recently to treat antibiotic-incurable A. baumannii infections. In search for new A. baumannii specific bacteriophages, 20 clinical A. baumannii strains were used in two pools in an attempt to enrich phages from sewage. The enrichment resulted in induction of resident prophage(s) and three temperate bacteriophages, named vB_AbaS_fEg-Aba01, vB_AbaS_fLi-Aba02 and vB_AbaS_fLi-Aba03, all able to infect only one strain (#6597) of the 20 clinical strains, were isolated. Morphological characteristics obtained by transmission electron microscopy together with the genomic information revealed that the phages belong to the family Siphoviridae. The ca. 35 kb genomic sequences of the phages were >99% identical to each other. The linear ds DNA genomes of the phages contained 10 nt cohesive end termini, 52-54 predicted genes, an attP site and one tRNA gene each. A database search revealed an >99% identical prophage in the genome of A.baumannii strain AbPK1 (acc. no. CP024576.1). Over 99% identical prophages were also identified from two of the original 20 clinical strains (#5707 and #5920) and both were shown to be spontaneously inducible, thus very likely being the origins of the isolated phages. The phage vB_AbaS_fEg-Aba01 was also able to lysogenize the susceptible strain #6597 demonstrating that it was fully functional. The phages showed a very narrow host range infecting only two A.baumannii strains. In conclusion, we have isolated and characterized three novel temperate Siphoviridae phages that infect A.baumannii.

RevDate: 2020-06-01

Singh A, Nayak N, Rathi P, et al (2020)

Microbiome and host crosstalk: A new paradigm to cancer therapy.

Seminars in cancer biology pii:S1044-579X(20)30110-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The commensal microbiome of humans has co-evolved for thousands of years. The microbiome regulates human health and is also linked to several diseases, including cancer. The advances in next-generation sequencing have significantly contributed to our understanding of the microbiome and its association with cancer and cancer therapy. Recent studies have highlighted a close relationship of the microbiome to the pharmacological effect of chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The chemo-drugs usually interfere with the host immune system and reduces the microbiome diversity inside the body, which in turn leads to decreased efficacy of these drugs. The human microbiome, specifically the gut microbiome, increases the potency of chemo-drugs through metabolism, enzymatic degradation, ecological differences, and immunomodulation. Recent research exploits the involvement of microbiome to shape the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of these chemo-drugs. In this review, we have highlighted the recent development in understanding the relationship of the human microbiome with cancer and also emphasize on various roles of the microbiome in the modulation of cancer therapy. Additionally, we also summarize the ongoing research focussed on the improved efficacy of chemotherapy and immunotherapy using the host microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-06-01

Dahl WJ, Rivero Mendoza D, JM Lambert (2020)

Diet, nutrients and the microbiome.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 171:237-263.

Although there is associative evidence linking fecal microbiome profile to health and disease, many studies have not considered the confounding effects of dietary intake. Consuming food provides fermentable substrate which sustains the microbial ecosystem that resides with most abundance in the colon. Western, Mediterranean and vegetarian dietary patterns have a role in modulating the gut microbiota, as do trending restrictive diets such the paleolithic and ketogenic. Altering the amount or ratio of carbohydrate, protein and fat, particularly at the extremes of intake, impacts the microbiome. Diets high in fermentable carbohydrates support the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Dorea and Roseburia, among others, capable of degrading polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugars. Conversely, very high fat diets increase bile-resistant organisms such as Bilophila and Bacteroides. Food form, whole foods vs. ultra-processed, alters the provision of macronutrient substrate to the colon due to differing digestibility, and thereby may impact the microbiota and its metabolic activity. In addition, phytochemicals in plant-based foods have specific and possibly prebiotic effects on the microbiome. Further, food ingredients such as certain low-calorie sweeteners enhance Bifidobacterium spp. The weight of evidence to date suggests a high level of interindividual variability in the human microbiome vs. clearly defined, dietary-induced profiles. Healthful dietary patterns, emphasizing plant foods high in microbial-available carbohydrate, support favorable microbiome profiles active in saccharolytic fermentation. Future research into diet and microbiome should consider the balance of gut microbial-generated metabolites, an important link between microbiome profile and human health.

RevDate: 2020-05-31

Prescott SL (2020)

A Butterfly Flaps its Wings: Extinction of Biological Experience and the Origins of Allergy.

Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology pii:S1081-1206(20)30388-4 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The grand global challenges of the Anthropocene are interdependent with ample evidence that reduced early-life 'experience' of biodiversity primes for immune dysregulation and a higher propensity low-grade inflammation, increasing the risk of allergy many other later-onset NCDs -also now implicated in the susceptibility to acute inflammation in COVID-19 infection. The objective of this review is to explore links between biodiversity on all scales and allergic disease as a measure of immune dysregulation.

DATA SOURCES: Were identified from PubMed and Web of Science using search terms pertaining to biodiversity, nature-relatedness, allergic disease, microbiome, NCDs, COVID-19 and associated terms.

STUDY SELECTIONS: Studies were selected based on relevance to human health and biodiversity.

RESULTS: Contact with natural environments enriches the human microbiome, promotes regulated immune responses, and protects from allergy and both acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. These important links to eco-psychological constructs of the 'extinction of experience' which indicates that loss of direct, personal contact with biodiversity-wildlife and the more visible elements of the natural world-might lead to emotional apathy and irresponsible behaviors toward the environment.

CONCLUSION: The immune system is a useful early barometer of environmental impacts, and via the microbiome, a measure of the way in which our current experiences differ from our ancestral past. While we would benefit from further research, efforts to increase direct, personal contact with biodiversity have clear benefits for multiple aspect of physical and mental health, the skin and gut microbiome, immune function, food choices, sleep, physical activity, and promotes environmental responsibility.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Wu AH, Tseng C, Vigen C, et al (2020)

Gut microbiome associations with breast cancer risk factors and tumor characteristics: a pilot study.

Breast cancer research and treatment pii:10.1007/s10549-020-05702-6 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between gut microbiome with breast tumor characteristics (receptor status, stage and grade) and known breast cancer risk factors.

METHODS: In a pilot cross-sectional study of 37 incident breast cancer patients, fecal samples collected prior to chemotherapy were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based sequencing protocol. Alpha diversity and specific taxa by tumor characteristics and breast cancer risk factors were tested by Wilcoxon rank sum test, and by differential abundance analysis, using a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model with adjustment for total counts, age and race/ethnicity.

RESULTS: There were no significant alpha diversity or phyla differences by estrogen/progesterone receptor status, tumor grade, stage, parity and body mass index. However, women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) (n = 12) compared to HER2- (n = 25) breast cancer showed 12-23% lower alpha diversity [number of species (OTU) p = 0.033, Shannon index p = 0.034], lower abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.005) and higher abundance of Bacteroidetes (p = 0.089). Early menarche (ages ≤ 11) (n = 11) compared with later menarche (ages ≥ 12) (n = 26) was associated with lower OTU (p = 0.036), Chao1 index (p = 0.020) and lower abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.048). High total body fat (TBF) (> 46%) (n = 12) compared to lower (≤ 46%) TBF was also associated with lower Chao 1 index (p = 0.011). There were other significant taxa abundance differences by HER2 status, menarche age, as well as other tumor and breast cancer risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Further studies are needed to identify characteristics of the human microbiome and the interrelationships between breast cancer hormone receptor status and established breast cancer risk factors.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Vernocchi P, Del Chierico F, L Putignani (2020)

Gut Microbiota Metabolism and Interaction with Food Components.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(10): pii:ijms21103688.

The human gut contains trillions of microbes that play a central role in host biology, including the provision of key nutrients from the diet. Food is a major source of precursors for metabolite production; in fact, diet modulates the gut microbiota (GM) as the nutrients, derived from dietary intake, reach the GM, affecting both the ecosystem and microbial metabolic profile. GM metabolic ability has an impact on human nutritional status from childhood. However, there is a wide variability of dietary patterns that exist among individuals. The study of interactions with the host via GM metabolic pathways is an interesting field of research in medicine, as microbiota members produce myriads of molecules with many bioactive properties. Indeed, much evidence has demonstrated the importance of metabolites produced by the bacterial metabolism from foods at the gut level that dynamically participate in various biochemical mechanisms of a cell as a reaction to environmental stimuli. Hence, the GM modulate homeostasis at the gut level, and the alteration in their composition can concur in disease onset or progression, including immunological, inflammatory, and metabolic disorders, as well as cancer. Understanding the gut microbe-nutrient interactions will increase our knowledge of how diet affects host health and disease, thus enabling personalized therapeutics and nutrition.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Thapa S, Runge JK, Venkatachalam A, et al (2020)

The Nasopharyngeal and Gut Microbiota in Children in a Pediatric Otolaryngology Practice.

The Pediatric infectious disease journal [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome evolves rapidly in early life with contributions from various factors such as diet, delivery mode, medical history, antibiotics exposure, genetics, immunomodulators and the environment. A high use of antibiotics in pediatric outpatient settings has been well documented, and improvement in antibiotic selection is required to reduce the risks of antibiotic resistance and disruption of the microbiome.

METHODS: We performed an exploratory study using 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing to characterize the gut and nasopharyngeal microbiome of children (n = 50) age 1-6 years of age in a pediatric otolaryngology practice.

RESULTS: Relative abundance of Haemophilus and Moraxella were higher in nasopharyngeal swabs, while Prevotella, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas and Faecalibacterium were highly abundant in rectal swabs. The gut microbiome composition in children <2 years old was different compared with children ≥2 years age. Gut bacterial diversity increased with an increase in age of the children. Children taking probiotics had a notable increase in abundance of potentially beneficial gut bacteria such as Bacteroides and Akkermansia. The nasopharyngeal microbiome differed between children who received antibiotics in the 3 months before sample collection compared with those that did not. Haemophilus spp. was highly abundant in children who received antibiotics 3 months before sampling.

CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric nasopharyngeal and rectal microbiomes differ in bacterial composition and diversity. The increased abundance of Haemophilus spp. in the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who received antibiotics during the 3 months before sampling suggests a potential impact of antibiotics in colonization with the otopathogen and may be relevant to clinical practice.

RevDate: 2020-05-25

Sharma D, Paterson AD, W Xu (2020)

TaxoNN: Ensemble of Neural Networks on Stratified Microbiome Data for Disease Prediction.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5843784 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Research supports the potential use of microbiome as a predictor of some diseases. Motivated by the findings that microbiome data is complex in nature and there is an inherent correlation due to hierarchical taxonomy of microbial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), we propose a novel machine learning method incorporating a stratified approach to group OTUs into phylum clusters. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) were used to train within each of the clusters individually. Further, through an ensemble learning approach, features obtained from each cluster were then concatenated to improve prediction accuracy. Our two-step approach comprising of stratification prior to combining multiple CNNs, aided in capturing the relationships between OTUs sharing a phylum efficiently, as compared to using a single CNN ignoring OTU correlations.

RESULTS: We used simulated datasets containing 168 OTUs in 200 cases and 200 controls for model testing. Thirty-two OTUs, potentially associated with risk of disease were randomly selected and interactions between three OTUs were used to introduce non-linearity. We also implemented this novel method in two human microbiome studies: (i) cirrhosis with 118 cases, 114 controls; (ii) type 2 diabetes with 170 cases, 174 controls; to demonstrate the model's effectiveness. Extensive experimentation and comparison against conventional machine learning techniques yielded encouraging results. We obtained mean AUC values of 0.88, 0.92, 0.75, showing a consistent increment (5%, 3%, 7%) in simulations, cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes data respectively, against the next best performing method, Random Forest.


RevDate: 2020-05-24

Dannenberg L, Zikeli D, Benkhoff M, et al (2020)

Targeting the human microbiome and its metabolite TMAO in cardiovascular prevention and therapy.

Pharmacology & therapeutics pii:S0163-7258(20)30112-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The human gut microbiota is the most important active part of the intestinal micro-ecosystem. Lifestyle modification, drug intake and nutrition have an impact on the composition of the gut microbiota and its metabolites. This review focuses on the effects of changes in the gut microbiota as well as the important metabolite Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Furthermore, relevant therapeutic options to target the human microbiome in patients with cardiovascular disease are presented.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Ang QY, Alexander M, Newman JC, et al (2020)

Ketogenic Diets Alter the Gut Microbiome Resulting in Decreased Intestinal Th17 Cells.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(20)30490-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Very low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KDs) induce a pronounced shift in metabolic fuel utilization that elevates circulating ketone bodies; however, the consequences of these compounds for host-microbiome interactions remain unknown. Here, we show that KDs alter the human and mouse gut microbiota in a manner distinct from high-fat diets (HFDs). Metagenomic and metabolomic analyses of stool samples from an 8-week inpatient study revealed marked shifts in gut microbial community structure and function during the KD. Gradient diet experiments in mice confirmed the unique impact of KDs relative to HFDs with a reproducible depletion of bifidobacteria. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that ketone bodies selectively inhibited bifidobacterial growth. Finally, mono-colonizations and human microbiome transplantations into germ-free mice revealed that the KD-associated gut microbiota reduces the levels of intestinal pro-inflammatory Th17 cells. Together, these results highlight the importance of trans-kingdom chemical dialogs for mediating the host response to dietary interventions.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Ma ZS (2020)

Assessing and Interpreting the Metagenome Heterogeneity With Power Law.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:648.

There are two major sequencing technologies for investigating the microbiome: the amplicon sequencing that generates the OTU (operational taxonomic unit) tables of marker genes (e.g., bacterial 16S-rRNA), and the metagenomic shotgun sequencing that generates metagenomic gene abundance (MGA) tables. The OTU table is the counterpart of species abundance tables in macrobial ecology of plants and animals, and has been the target of numerous ecological and network analyses in recent gold rush for microbiome research and in great efforts for establishing an inclusive theoretical ecology. Nevertheless, MGA analyses have been largely limited to bioinformatics pipelines and ad hoc statistical methods, and systematic approaches to MGAs guided by classic ecological theories are still few. Here, we argue that, the difference between "gene kinds" and "gene species" are nominal, and the metagenome that a microbiota carries is essentially a 'community' of metagenomic genes (MGs). Each row of a MGA table represents a metagenome of a microbiota, and the whole MGA table represents a 'meta-metagenome' (or an assemblage of metagenomes) of N microbiotas (microbiome samples). Consequently, the same ecological/network analyses used in OTU analyses should be equally applicable to MGA tables. Here we choose to analyze the heterogeneity of metagenome by introducing classic Taylor's power law (TPL) and its recent extensions in community ecology. Heterogeneity is a fundamental property of metagenome, particularly in the context of human microbiomes. Recent studies have shown that the heterogeneity of human metagenomes is far more significant than that of human genomes. Therefore, without deep understanding of the human metagenome heterogeneity, personalized medicine of the human microbiome-associated diseases is hardly feasible. The TPL extensions have been successfully applied to measure the heterogeneity of human microbiome based on amplicon-sequencing reads of marker genes (e.g., 16s-rRNA). In this article, we demonstrate the analysis of the metagenomic heterogeneity of human gut microbiome at whole metagenome scale (with type-I power law extension) and metagenomic gene scale (type-III), as well as the heterogeneity of gene clusters, respectively. We further examine the influences of obesity, IBD and diabetes on the heterogeneity, which is of important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of human microbiome-associated diseases.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Sewall JM, Oliver A, Denaro K, et al (2020)

Fiber Force: A Fiber Diet Intervention in an Advanced Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) Course.

Journal of microbiology & biology education, 21(1): pii:jmbe-21-40.

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are an effective way to introduce students to contemporary scientific research. Research experiences have been shown to promote critical thinking, improve understanding and proper use of the scientific method, and help students learn practical skills including writing and oral communication. We aimed to improve scientific training by engaging students enrolled in an upper division elective course in a human microbiome CURE. The "Fiber Force" course is aimed at studying the effect of a wholesome high-fiber diet (40 to 50 g/day for two weeks) on the students' gut microbiomes. Enrolled students participated in a noninvasive diet intervention, designed health surveys, tested hypotheses on the effect of a diet intervention on the gut microbiome, and analyzed their own samples (as anonymized aggregates). The course involved learning laboratory techniques (e.g., DNA extraction, PCR, and 16S sequencing) and the incorporation of computational techniques to analyze microbiome data with QIIME2 and within the R software environment. In addition, the learning objectives focused on effective student performance in writing, data analysis, and oral communication. Enrolled students showed high performance grades on writing, data analysis and oral communication assignments. Pre- and post-course surveys indicate that the students found the experience favorable, increased their interest in science, and heightened awareness of their diet habits. Fiber Force constitutes a validated case of a research experience on microbiology with the capacity to improve research training and promote healthy dietary habits.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Gosens R, Hiemstra PS, Adcock IM, et al (2020)

Host-microbe cross-talk in the lung microenvironment: implications for understanding and treating chronic lung disease.

The European respiratory journal pii:13993003.02320-2019 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic respiratory diseases are highly prevalent worldwide and will continue to rise in the foreseeable future. Despite intensive efforts over the recent decades, the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches has been slow. There is however new and increasing evidence that communities of microorganisms in our body, the human microbiome, are crucially involved in the development and progression of chronic respiratory diseases. Understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying this cross-talk between host and microbiota is critical for development of microbiome- or host-targeted therapeutics and prevention strategies. Here we review and discuss the most recent knowledge on the continuous reciprocal interaction between the host and microbes in health and respiratory disease. Furthermore, we highlight promising developments in microbiome-based therapies and discuss the need to employ more holistic approaches of restoring both the pulmonary niche and the microbial community.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Spruit CM, Wicklund A, Wan X, et al (2020)

Discovery of Three Toxic Proteins of Klebsiella Phage fHe-Kpn01.

Viruses, 12(5): pii:v12050544.

The lytic phage, fHe-Kpn01 was isolated from sewage water using an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae as a host. The genome is 43,329 bp in size and contains direct terminal repeats of 222 bp. The genome contains 56 predicted genes, of which proteomics analysis detected 29 different proteins in purified phage particles. Comparison of fHe-Kpn01 to other phages, both morphologically and genetically, indicated that the phage belongs to the family Podoviridae and genus Drulisvirus. Because fHe-Kpn01 is strictly lytic and does not carry any known resistance or virulence genes, it is suitable for phage therapy. It has, however, a narrow host range since it infected only three of the 72 tested K. pneumoniae strains, two of which were of capsule type KL62. After annotation of the predicted genes based on the similarity to genes of known function and proteomics results on the virion-associated proteins, 22 gene products remained annotated as hypothetical proteins of unknown function (HPUF). These fHe-Kpn01 HPUFs were screened for their toxicity in Escherichia coli. Three of the HPUFs, encoded by the genes g10, g22, and g38, were confirmed to be toxic.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Herman RA (2020)

Increasing allergy: are antibiotics the elephant in the room?.

Allergy, asthma, and clinical immunology : official journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 16:35 pii:432.

Antibiotics cause dramatic changes to the human microbiome. The composition of the microbiome has been associated with changes in the immune system and these changes are beginning to be linked to immune diseases. Thus, antibiotics have been implicated as a significant contributor to the continual rise of allergies and autoimmune disease in developed countries. This recognition will hopefully result in the development of post-antibiotic therapies that restore a healthy microbiome and reduce immune system disorders.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Lambring CB, Siraj S, Patel K, et al (2019)

Impact of the Microbiome on the Immune System.

Critical reviews in immunology, 39(5):313-328.

Higher organisms are all born with general immunity as well as with, increasingly, more specific immune systems. All immune mechanisms function with the intent of aiding the body in defense against infection. Internal and external factors alike have varying effects on the immune system, and the immune response is tailored specifically to each one. Accompanying the components of the human innate and adaptive immune systems are the other intermingling systems of the human body. Increasing understanding of the body's immune interactions with other systems has opened new avenues of study, including that of the microbiome. The microbiome has become a highly active area of research over the last 10 to 20 years since the NIH began funding the Human Microbiome Project (HMP), which was established in 2007. Several publications have focused on the characterization, functions, and complex interplay of the microbiome as it relates to the rest of the body. A dysfunction between the microbiome and the host has been linked to various diseases including cancers, metabolic deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. Further understanding of the microbiome and its interaction with the host in relation to diseases is needed in order to understand the implications of microbiome dysfunction and the possible use of microbiota in the prevention of disease. In this review, we have summarized information on the immune system, the microbiome, the microbiome's interplay with other systems, and the association of the immune system and the microbiome in diseases such as diabetes and colorectal cancer.

RevDate: 2020-05-16

Chipollini J, Wright JR, Nwanosike H, et al (2020)

Characterization of urinary microbiome in patients with bladder cancer: Results from a single-institution, feasibility study.

Urologic oncology pii:S1078-1439(20)30139-3 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The human microbiome has been linked to the development of several malignancies, but there is scarcity of data on the microbiome of bladder cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed microbial composition and diversity among patients with and without bladder cancer.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples were collected from 38 urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients and 10 noncancer controls from August 2018 to May 2019. DNA was extracted and processed for 16 S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Alpha diversity community characteristics including evenness and richness as well as beta diversity metrics were obtained. Linear discriminant analysis effect size was used to identify microbial components whose sequences were more abundant. Pairwise statistics provided quantitative assessment of significant distributions among groups.

RESULTS: Thirty seven total samples contained high quality sequence data for subsequent analyses and divided into 3 cohorts: control (n = 10), muscle-invasive (n = 15) and superficial UC (n = 12). Control samples had significantly higher species evenness when compared to invasive (P = 0.031) and superficial tumors (P = 0.002). In addition, higher species richness was observed in noncancer versus cancer samples (Faith phylogenetic diversity, P < 0.05). Significantly enriched taxa were found in both control (Bacteroides, Lachnoclostridium, Burkholderiaceae) and cancer samples (Bacteroides and Faecalbacterium).

CONCLUSION: Significantly decreased microbial community diversity was seen in the urine of patients with bladder cancer when compared to a noncancer group. Distinct taxa were noted suggesting unique microbial communities in the urine of bladder cancer patients.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Pinto D, Calabrese FM, De Angelis M, et al (2020)

Predictive Metagenomic Profiling, Urine Metabolomics, and Human Marker Gene Expression as an Integrated Approach to Study Alopecia Areata.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:146.

Involvement of the microbiome in many different scalp conditions has been investigated over the years. Studies on the role of the scalp microbiome in specific diseases, such as those involving hair growth alterations like non-cicatricial [androgenetic alopecia (AGA), alopecia areata (AA)] and cicatricial alopecia lichen planopilaris, are of major importance. In the present work, we highlighted the differences in microbial populations inhabiting the scalp of AA subjects and a healthy sample cohort by using an integrated approach relying on metagenomic targeted 16S sequencing analysis, urine metabolomics, and human marker gene expression. Significant differences in genera abundances (p < 0.05) were found in the hypodermis and especially the dermis layer. Based on 16S sequencing data, we explored the differences in predicted KEGG pathways and identified some significant differences in predicted pathways related to the AA pathologic condition such as flagellar, assembly, bacterial chemotaxis, mineral absorption, ABC transporters, cellular antigens, glycosaminoglycan degradation, lysosome, sphingolipid metabolism, cell division, protein digestion and absorption, and energy metabolism. All predicted pathways were significantly enhanced in AA samples compared to expression in healthy samples, with the exceptions of mineral absorption, and ABC transporters. We also determined the expression of TNF-α, FAS, KCNA3, NOD-2, and SOD-2 genes and explored the relationships between human gene expression levels and microbiome composition by Pearson's correlation analysis; here, significant correlations both positive (SOD vs. Staphylococcus, Candidatus Aquiluna) and negative (FAS and SOD2 vs. Anaerococcus, Neisseria, and Acinetobacter) were highlighted. Finally, we inspected volatile organic metabolite profiles in urinary samples and detected statistically significant differences (menthol, methanethiol, dihydrodehydro-beta-ionone, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 1,2,3,4, tetrahydro-1,5,7-trimethylnapthalene) when comparing AA and healthy subject groups. This multiple comparison approach highlighted potential traits associated with AA and their relationship with the microbiota inhabiting the scalp, opening up novel therapeutic interventions in such kind of hair growth disorders mainly by means of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Qureshi SS, Kedo M, ST Berthrong (2020)

Gender-neutral bathroom surfaces recolonized by microbes more quickly than single gender bathrooms.

Letters in applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

As humans become increasingly urban and spend more time inside the built environment, there will be increased interactions between the humans and shared public surface microbiomes. Recent cultural changes in the United States have led to increases gender-neutral bathrooms. Given that bathroom surfaces are frequently sanitized, we used this increased availability of gender-neutral bathrooms to examine how single or gender-neutral surfaces are recolonized with microbes. Given that male and female microbiomes vary, we hypothesized that rates of recolonization would differ between male, female, and gender-neutral bathroom surfaces. We collected swabs from common hand contacted surfaces in bathrooms and cultured microbes on selective and rich media to determine microbial abundance after cleaning. Recolonization was dominated by gram positive bacteria and was slowest on male, intermediate on female, and fastest on gender-neutral surfaces. These results imply that gender-neutral surfaces approach normal climax microbial communities more quickly than single gender bathrooms.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Whitmont RD (2020)

The Human Microbiome, Conventional Medicine, and Homeopathy.

Homeopathy : the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy [Epub ahead of print].

Human health is intimately linked to the ecology and diversity of the human microbiome. Together, the human organism and the human microbiome work as a complex super-organism throughout the human life cycle. Microbiome science provides direct evidence and substantiation of the fundamental principles of homeopathy, including holism, psychosomatics, direction of cure, the Law of Similars, individuality and susceptibility, minimum dose, and homeostasis. Whilst many conventional (allopathic) medical treatments irreversibly damage the ecology of the microbiome and trigger chronic immune dysfunction and inflammation, the future sustainability of the entire field of medicine depends on the ability to recognize these inconvenient biological truths and to embrace a safer approach based on this evidence. Fortunately, one of the oldest forms of clinically verifiable, evidence-based, and ecologically sustainable medicine, that does not harm the microbiome, already exists in the form of homeopathy.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Ma ZS (2020)

Heterogeneity-Disease relationship in the human microbiome associated diseases.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:5837078 [Epub ahead of print].

Space is a critical and also challenging frontier in human microbiome research. It has been found that lack of consideration of scales beyond individual and ignoring of microbe dispersal are two crucial roadblocks in preventing deep understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of human microbiome. Assessing and interpreting the heterogeneity and dispersal in microbiomes explicitly are particularly challenging, but implicit approaches such as Taylor's power law (TPL) can be rather effective. Based on TPL, which achieved a rare status of ecological laws, we introduce a general methodology for characterizing the spatial heterogeneity of microbiome (i.e. characterization of microbial spatial distribution) and further apply it for investigating the heterogeneity-disease relationship (HDR) via analyzing a big dataset of 26 MAD (microbiome-associated disease) studies covering nearly all high-profile MADs including obesity, diabetes and gout. It was found that in majority of the MAD cases, the microbiome was sufficiently resilient to endure the disease disturbances. Specifically, in approximately 10%-16% cases, disease effects were significant-the healthy and diseased cohorts exhibited statistically significant differences in the TPL heterogeneity parameters. We further compared HDR with classic diversity-disease relationship (DDR) and explained their mechanistic differences. Both HDR and DDR cross-verified remarkable resilience of the human microbiomes against MADs.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Wang Y, Bhattacharya T, Jiang Y, et al (2020)

A novel deep learning method for predictive modeling of microbiome data.

Briefings in bioinformatics pii:5835556 [Epub ahead of print].

With the development and decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing technologies, the study of the human microbiome has become a rapid expanding research field, which provides an unprecedented opportunity in various clinical applications such as drug response predictions and disease diagnosis. It is thus essential and desirable to build a prediction model for clinical outcomes based on microbiome data that usually consist of taxon abundance and a phylogenetic tree. Importantly, all microbial species are not uniformly distributed in the phylogenetic tree but tend to be clustered at different phylogenetic depths. Therefore, the phylogenetic tree represents a unique correlation structure of microbiome, which can be an important prior to improve the prediction performance. However, prediction methods that consider the phylogenetic tree in an efficient and rigorous way are under-developed. Here, we develop a novel deep learning prediction method MDeep (microbiome-based deep learning method) to predict both continuous and binary outcomes. Conceptually, MDeep designs convolutional layers to mimic taxonomic ranks with multiple convolutional filters on each convolutional layer to capture the phylogenetic correlation among microbial species in a local receptive field and maintain the correlation structure across different convolutional layers via feature mapping. Taken together, the convolutional layers with its built-in convolutional filters capture microbial signals at different taxonomic levels while encouraging local smoothing and preserving local connectivity induced by the phylogenetic tree. We use both simulation studies and real data applications to demonstrate that MDeep outperforms competing methods in both regression and binary classifications. Availability and Implementation: MDeep software is available at

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Salehi B, Dimitrijević M, Aleksić A, et al (2020)

Human microbiome and homeostasis: insights into the key role of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

The interest in the study of the gut microbiome has grown exponentially. Indeed, its impact on health and disease has been increasingly reported, and the importance of keeping gut microbiome homeostasis clearly highlighted. However, and despite many advances, there are still some gaps, as well as the real discernment on the contribution of some species falls far short of what is needed. Anyway, it is already more than a solid fact of its importance in maintaining health and preventing disease, as well as in the treatment of some pathologies. In this sense, and given the existence of some ambiguous opinions, the present review aims to discuss the importance of gut microbiome in homeostasis maintenance, and even the role of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics in both health promotion and disease prevention.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Satokari R (2020)

High Intake of Sugar and the Balance between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Gut Bacteria.

Nutrients, 12(5): pii:nu12051348.

The so-called Western diet is rich in saturated fat and sugars and poor in plant-derived fibers, and it is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as chronic (low grade) inflammation. The detrimental effects of poor diet are in part mediated by gut microbiota, whose composition, functionality and metabolic end products respond to dietary changes. Recent studies have shown that high intake of sugars increase the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the gut, while simultaneously decreasing the abundance of Bacteroidetes, which can mitigate the effects of endotoxin, as well as reinforce gut barrier function. Thus, a high sugar intake may stagger the balance of microbiota to have increased pro-inflammatory properties and decreased the capacity to regulate epithelial integrity and mucosal immunity. Consequently, high dietary sugar can, through the modulation of microbiota, promote metabolic endotoxemia, systemic (low grade) inflammation and the development of metabolic dysregulation and thereby, high dietary sugar may have many-fold deleterious health effects, in addition to providing excess energy.

RevDate: 2020-05-13

Bangayan NJ, Shi B, Trinh J, et al (2020)

MG-MLST: Characterizing the Microbiome at the Strain Level in Metagenomic Data.

Microorganisms, 8(5): pii:microorganisms8050684.

The microbiome plays an important role in human physiology. The composition of the human microbiome has been described at the phylum, class, genus, and species levels, however, it is largely unknown at the strain level. The importance of strain-level differences in microbial communities has been increasingly recognized in understanding disease associations. Current methods for identifying strain populations often require deep metagenomic sequencing and a comprehensive set of reference genomes. In this study, we developed a method, metagenomic multi-locus sequence typing (MG-MLST), to determine strain-level composition in a microbial community by combining high-throughput sequencing with multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). We used a commensal bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes, as an example to test the ability of MG-MLST in identifying the strain composition. Using simulated communities, MG-MLST accurately predicted the strain populations in all samples. We further validated the method using MLST gene amplicon libraries and metagenomic shotgun sequencing data of clinical skin samples. MG-MLST yielded consistent results of the strain composition to those obtained from nearly full-length 16S rRNA clone libraries and metagenomic shotgun sequencing analysis. When comparing strain-level differences between acne and healthy skin microbiomes, we demonstrated that strains of RT2/6 were highly associated with healthy skin, consistent with previous findings. In summary, MG-MLST provides a quantitative analysis of the strain populations in the microbiome with diversity and richness. It can be applied to microbiome studies to reveal strain-level differences between groups, which are critical in many microorganism-related diseases.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Koh H, N Zhao (2020)

A powerful microbial group association test based on the higher criticism analysis for sparse microbial association signals.

Microbiome, 8(1):63 pii:10.1186/s40168-020-00834-9.

BACKGROUND: In human microbiome studies, it is crucial to evaluate the association between microbial group (e.g., community or clade) composition and a host phenotype of interest. In response, a number of microbial group association tests have been proposed, which account for the unique features of the microbiome data (e.g., high-dimensionality, compositionality, phylogenetic relationship). These tests generally fall in the class of aggregation tests which amplify the overall group association by combining all the underlying microbial association signals, and, therefore, they are powerful when many microbial species are associated with a given host phenotype (i.e., low sparsity). However, in practice, the microbial association signals can be highly sparse, and this is especially the situation where we have a difficulty to discover the microbial group association.

METHODS: Here, we introduce a powerful microbial group association test for sparse microbial association signals, namely, microbiome higher criticism analysis (MiHC). MiHC is a data-driven omnibus test taken in a search space spanned by tailoring the higher criticism test to incorporate phylogenetic information and/or modulate sparsity levels and including the Simes test for excessively high sparsity levels. Therefore, MiHC robustly adapts to diverse phylogenetic relevance and sparsity levels.

RESULTS: Our simulations show that MiHC maintains a high power at different phylogenetic relevance and sparsity levels with correct type I error controls. We also apply MiHC to four real microbiome datasets to test the association between respiratory tract microbiome and smoking status, the association between the infant's gut microbiome and delivery mode, the association between the gut microbiome and type 1 diabetes status, and the association between the gut microbiome and human immunodeficiency virus status.

CONCLUSIONS: In practice, the true underlying association pattern on the extent of phylogenetic relevance and sparsity is usually unknown. Therefore, MiHC can be a useful analytic tool because of its high adaptivity to diverse phylogenetic relevance and sparsity levels. MiHC can be implemented in the R computing environment using our software package freely available at

RevDate: 2020-05-11

Thomas G, Bain JM, Budge S, et al (2020)

Identifying Candida albicans Gene Networks Involved in Pathogenicity.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:375.

Candida albicans is a normal member of the human microbiome. It is also an opportunistic pathogen, which can cause life-threatening systemic infections in severely immunocompromized individuals. Despite the availability of antifungal drugs, mortality rates of systemic infections are high and new drugs are needed to overcome therapeutic challenges including the emergence of drug resistance. Targeting known disease pathways has been suggested as a promising avenue for the development of new antifungals. However, <30% of C. albicans genes are verified with experimental evidence of a gene product, and the full complement of genes involved in important disease processes is currently unknown. Tools to predict the function of partially or uncharacterized genes and generate testable hypotheses will, therefore, help to identify potential targets for new antifungal development. Here, we employ a network-extracted ontology to leverage publicly available transcriptomics data and identify potential candidate genes involved in disease processes. A subset of these genes has been phenotypically screened using available deletion strains and we present preliminary data that one candidate, PEP8, is involved in hyphal development and immune evasion. This work demonstrates the utility of network-extracted ontologies in predicting gene function to generate testable hypotheses that can be applied to pathogenic systems. This could represent a novel first step to identifying targets for new antifungal therapies.

RevDate: 2020-05-11

Peroni DG, Nuzzi G, Trambusti I, et al (2020)

Microbiome Composition and Its Impact on the Development of Allergic Diseases.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:700.

Allergic diseases, such as food allergy (FA), atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma, are heterogeneous inflammatory immune-mediated disorders that currently constitute a public health issue in many developed countries worldwide. The significant increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases reported over the last few years has closely paralleled substantial environmental changes both on a macro and micro scale, which have led to reduced microbial exposure in early life and perturbation of the human microbiome composition. Increasing evidence shows that early life interactions between the human microbiome and the immune cells play a pivotal role in the development of the immune system. Therefore, the process of early colonization by a "healthy" microbiome is emerging as a key determinant of life-long health. In stark contrast, the perturbation of such a process, which results in changes in the host-microbiome biodiversity and metabolic activities, has been associated with greater susceptibility to immune-mediated disorders later in life, including allergic diseases. Here, we outline recent findings on the potential contribution of the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and airways to the development of FA, AD, and asthma. Furthermore, we address how the modulation of the microbiome composition in these different body districts could be a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.

RevDate: 2020-05-11

Jiang T, Chen W, Cao L, et al (2020)

Abundance, Functional, and Evolutionary Analysis of Oxalyl-Coenzyme A Decarboxylase in Human Microbiota.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:672.

Oxalic acid and its oxalate salts have been linked to kidney stones and other health problems and about 80% kidney stones are made up of calcium oxalate. Oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase (OXC) is a key enzyme in the catabolism of oxalate. In this study, we performed bioinformatic and biochemical analysis of OXC. First, we mined the OXC sequences from a public protein database and collected 1396 putative OXC sequences. These sequences were widely spread and mainly distributed in Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria and classified into seven clusters. The phylogenetic relationship and evolutionary rate of the 7 clusters showed that OXC are highly conserved. Second, the abundance of the different clusters of OXC was explored in 380 human microbiome datasets, which showed that OXCs in Cluster 1 were relatively high in the gut while OXCs in Clusters 2-4 were relatively enriched in the vagina. Third, we measured the activity of one OXC from Mycobacterium mageritense (OXCmm) in Cluster 3, in which there was no experimentally characterized enzymes. Mutation analysis showed that OXCmm shared the same active sites with the OXC from Oxalobacter formigenes. Taken together, this analysis provides a better insight into the distribution and catalysis of OXC and further potential alternative application of OXC active bacteria as probiotics in the management of kidney stone disease.

RevDate: 2020-05-09

Caparrós-Martín JA, Flynn S, Reen FJ, et al (2020)

The Detection of Bile Acids in the Lungs of Paediatric Cystic Fibrosis Patients Is Associated with Altered Inflammatory Patterns.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(5): pii:diagnostics10050282.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disorder in which persistent unresolved inflammation and recurrent airway infections play major roles in the initiation and progression of the disease. Little is known about triggering factors modulating the transition to chronic microbial infection and inflammation particularly in young children. Cystic fibrosis respiratory disease starts early in life, with the detection of inflammatory markers and infection evident even before respiratory symptoms arise. Thus, identifying factors that dysregulate immune responsiveness at the earliest stages of the disease will provide novel targets for early therapeutic intervention. Methods: We evaluated the clinical significance of bile acid detection in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of clinically stable preschool-aged children diagnosed with CF. Results: We applied an unbiased classification strategy to categorize these specimens based on bile acid profiles. We provide clear associations linking the presence of bile acids in the lungs with alterations in the expression of inflammatory markers. Using multiple regression analysis, we also demonstrate that clustering based on bile acid profiles is a meaningful predictor of the progression of structural lung disease. Conclusions: Altogether, our work has identified a clinically relevant host-derived factor that may participate in shaping early events in the aetiology of CF respiratory disease.

RevDate: 2020-05-07

Price TK, Lin H, Gao X, et al (2020)

Bladder Bacterial Diversity Differs In Continent and Incontinent Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology pii:S0002-9378(20)30512-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of the bladder microbiome (urobiome), interest has grown in learning whether urobiome characteristics have a role in clinical phenotyping and/or provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches for women with common forms of urinary incontinence (UI).

OBJECTIVES: To test our hypothesis that the bladder urobiome differs between continent women and women affected by UI by assessing associations between UI status and the cultured urobiome.

STUDY DESIGN: With IRB oversight, transurethral catheterized urine specimens were collected from 309 adult women, who were categorized into three groups using response to the validated Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI): Continent Controls (N=150) and 2 Urinary Incontinence (UI cohorts) - Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) (N=50) and Urgency Urinary Incontinence (UUI) (N=109). Symptom severity was assessed with the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI) subscale score of the PFDI. Microbes were assessed by the Expanded Quantitative Urine Culture protocol, which detects the most common bladder microbes (bacteria and yeast). Microbes were identified to the species level by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Alpha diversity indices were calculated for culture-positive samples and compared across the three groups. The association between UDI scores versus alpha diversity indices and species abundance were estimated.

RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 53 years (range 22-90); most were Caucasian (65%). Women with UI were slightly older (Control=47, SUI=54, UUI=61). By design, UDI symptom scores differed (Control = 8.43 (10.1), SUI = 97.95 (55.36), UUI = 93.71 (49.12), p<0.001). While most participants (216, 70%) had Expanded Quantitative Urine Culture-detected bacteria, the UI cohorts had a higher detection frequency than did the Control cohort (Control=57%, SUI 86%, UUI 81%, p<0.001). The most frequently detected species were as follows: Controls, Lactobacillus iners (12.7%), Streptococcus anginosus (12.7%), L. crispatus (10.7%), and L. gasseri (10%); SUI, S. anginosus (26%), L. iners (18%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (18%), and L. jensenii (16%); UUI, S. anginosus (30.3%), L. gasseri (22%), Aerococcus urinae (18.3%), and Gardnerella vaginalis (17.4%). However, only Actinotignum (formerly Actinobaculum) schaalii, A. urinae, A. sanguinicola, and Corynebacterium lipophile group were found at significantly higher mean abundances in at least one of the UI cohorts when compared to the Control cohort (Wilcoxon p<0.02), and no individual genus differed significantly between the two UI cohorts. Both UI cohorts had increased alpha diversity relative to continent controls with indices of species richness, but not evenness, strongly associated with UI.

CONCLUSIONS: In adult women, the composition of the culturable bladder urobiome is associated with UI, regardless of common incontinence subtype. Detection of more unique living microbes was associated with worse incontinence severity. Culturable species richness is significantly greater in the UI cohorts than continent controls.

RevDate: 2020-05-07

Liu S, Wang Y, Zhao L, et al (2020)

Microbiome succession with increasing age in three oral sites.

Aging, 12: pii:103108 [Epub ahead of print].

The incidence of oral diseases is remarkably increased with age, and it may be related to oral microbiota. In this study, we systematically investigated the microbiota of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), tongue back (TB) and saliva (SAL) from various age groups in healthy populations. The microbial diversity results indicated that the α-diversity of bacteria had a tendency to decrease in aging mouth, whereas the β-diversity showed an opposite increasing trend in all three sites. Next, the microbial structure exploration revealed a divergence in bacterial profile in three sites in response to aging, but the intersite differential bacteria demonstrated a uniform bell-shaped variation trend with age. Meanwhile, several age-differentiated genera were shared by GCF, SAL and TB sites, and the bacterial correlation analysis demonstrated a clear shift in the pattern of bacterial correlations with age. Moreover, both the intra- and intersite "core microbiome" showed significantly decreased bacterial diversities with age. Finally, the trending differential bacteria species were used as a biomarker to distinguish the different age groups, and the prediction accuracies in GCF were 0.998, 0.809, 0.668, 0.675 and 0.956. Our results revealed the characteristics of intra- and intersite bacterial succession with age, providing novel insights into senile oral diseases.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Bartolomaeus TUP, Birkner T, Bartolomaeus H, et al (2020)

Quantifying Technical Confounders in Microbiome Studies.

Cardiovascular research pii:5831292 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Recent technical developments have allowed the study of the human microbiome to accelerate at an unprecedented pace. Methodological differences may have considerable impact on the results obtained. Thus, we investigated how different storage, isolation and DNA extraction methods can influence the characterization of the intestinal microbiome, compared to the impact of true biological signals such as intraindividual variability, nutrition, health and demographics.

METHODS AND RESULTS: An observative cohort study in 27 healthy subjects was performed. Participants were instructed to collect stool samples twice spaced by a week, using six different methods (naive and Zymo DNA/RNA Shield on dry ice, OMNIgene GUT, RNALater, 95% ethanol, Zymo DNA/RNA Shield at room temperature). DNA extraction from all samples was performed comparatively using QIAamp Power Fecal and ZymoBIOMICS DNA kits. 16S rRNA sequencing of the gut microbiota as well as qPCRs were performed on the isolated DNA. Metrics included alpha diversity as well as multivariate and univariate comparisons of samples, controlling for covariate patterns computationally. Interindividual differences explained 7.4% of overall microbiome variability, whereas the choice of DNA extraction method explained a further 5.7%. At phylum level, the tested kits differed in their recovery of gram-positive bacteria, which is reflected in a significantly skewed enterotype distribution.

CONCLUSIONS: DNA extraction methods had the highest impact on observed microbiome variability, and were comparable to interindividual differences, thus may spuriously mimic the microbiome signatures of various health and nutrition factors. Conversely, collection methods had a relatively small influence on microbiome composition. The present study provides necessary insight into the technical variables which can lead to divergent results from seemingly similar study designs. We anticipate that these results will contribute to future efforts towards standardization of microbiome quantification procedures in clinical research.

TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: By applying a framework which is typical for the investigation of the microbiome in cardiovascular disease patients, we assess the role of these confounders under realistic circumstances. Our work allows quality control and design improvement for upcoming translational microbiome studies such as the search for disease biomarkers or efficacy predictors for personalized treatment regimes.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Zhu C, Yuan C, Wei FQ, et al (2020)

Intraindividual Variation and Personal Specificity of Salivary Microbiota.

Journal of dental research [Epub ahead of print].

Salivary microbiota is a typical habitat of the human microbiome. This study intended to use salivary microbiota as a model aiming to systematically address the influence of collection methods and temporal dynamics on the human microbiota compared to personal specificity. We carried out a supervised short-term longitudinal study to evaluate the influence of the change of collection methods and sampling time point on salivary microbiota in 10 systemically and orally healthy individuals with certain confounding factors (sex, oral and general health state, medication history, physical exercise, diet, and oral hygiene behavior) controlled before and during the sampling period. The microbial profiles were analyzed by 16S rDNA V3 to V4 hypervariable region amplicon sequencing. The taxonomic structure represented by the dominant species and the weighted UniFrac distance algorithm were used to demonstrate the individual specificity and the intraindividual variation introduced by the change of collection method and sampling time point. The findings suggested individual specificity existed in salivary microbiota from individuals with similar oral and general health status. The intraindividual variation brought by the change of collection method or sampling time point might introduce remarkable perturbation with the personal specificity. Insights into the intraindividual variation and personal specificity of salivary microbiota will enhance our understanding in salivary microbiota-related research. We recommend keeping collection conditions consistent within a study to avoid interference brought by the sampling. The strategy of repeated sampling at multiple time points as representative samples, as well as thorough interpretation of the complex relationships and causality between microbiome composition and disease without the interference of temporal dynamics, is optimal for research exploring the relationship between the salivary microbiome and disease.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Woods DF, Kozak IM, F O'Gara (2020)

Microbiome and Functional Analysis of a Traditional Food Process: Isolation of a Novel Species (Vibrio hibernica) With Industrial Potential.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:647.

Traditional food preservation processes are vital for the food industry. They not only preserve a high-quality protein and nutrient source but can also provide important value-added organoleptic properties. The Wiltshire process is a traditional food curing method applied to meat, and special recognition is given to the maintenance of a live rich microflora within the curing brine. We have previously analyzed a curing brine from this traditional meat process and characterized a unique microbial core signature. The characteristic microbial community is actively maintained and includes the genera, Marinilactibacillus, Carnobacterium, Leuconostoc, and Vibrio. The bacteria present are vital for Wiltshire curing compliance. However, the exact function of this microflora is largely unknown. A microbiome profiling of three curing brines was conducted and investigated for functional traits by the robust bioinformatic tool, Tax4Fun. The key objective was to uncover putative metabolic functions associated with the live brine and to identify changes over time. The functional bioinformatic analysis revealed metabolic enrichments over time, with many of the pathways identified as being involved in organoleptic development. The core bacteria present in the brine are Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), with the exception of the Vibrio genus. LAB are known for their positive contribution to food processing, however, little work has been conducted on the use of Vibrio species for beneficial processes. The Vibrio genome was sequenced by Illumina MiSeq technologies and annotated in RAST. A phylogenetic reconstruction was completed using both the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes, gapA, ftsZ, mreB, topA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, and rpoA. The isolated Vibrio species was defined as a unique novel species, named Vibrio hibernica strain B1.19. Metabolic profiling revealed that the bacterium has a unique substrate scope in comparison to other closely related Vibrio species tested. The possible function and industrial potential of the strain was investigated using carbohydrate metabolizing profiling under food processing relevant conditions. Vibrio hibernica is capable of metabolizing a unique carbohydrate profile at low temperatures. This characteristic provides new application options for use in the industrial food sector, as well as highlighting the key role of this bacterium in the Wiltshire curing process.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Abdelsalam NA, Ramadan AT, ElRakaiby MT, et al (2020)

Toxicomicrobiomics: The Human Microbiome vs. Pharmaceutical, Dietary, and Environmental Xenobiotics.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 11:390.

The harmful impact of xenobiotics on the environment and human health is being more widely recognized; yet, inter- and intraindividual genetic variations among humans modulate the extent of harm, mostly through modulating the outcome of xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. As the Human Genome Project revealed that host genetic, epigenetic, and regulatory variations could not sufficiently explain the complexity of interindividual variability in xenobiotics metabolism, its sequel, the Human Microbiome Project, is investigating how this variability may be influenced by human-associated microbial communities. Xenobiotic-microbiome relationships are mutual and dynamic. Not only does the human microbiome have a direct metabolizing potential on xenobiotics, but it can also influence the expression of the host metabolizing genes and the activity of host enzymes. On the other hand, xenobiotics may alter the microbiome composition, leading to a state of dysbiosis, which is linked to multiple diseases and adverse health outcomes, including increased toxicity of some xenobiotics. Toxicomicrobiomics studies these mutual influences between the ever-changing microbiome cloud and xenobiotics of various origins, with emphasis on their fate and toxicity, as well the various classes of microbial xenobiotic-modifying enzymes. This review article discusses classic and recent findings in toxicomicrobiomics, with examples of interactions between gut, skin, urogenital, and oral microbiomes with pharmaceutical, food-derived, and environmental xenobiotics. The current state and future prospects of toxicomicrobiomic research are discussed, and the tools and strategies for performing such studies are thoroughly and critically compared.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Lee-Sarwar KA, Lasky-Su J, Kelly RS, et al (2020)

Metabolome-Microbiome Crosstalk and Human Disease.

Metabolites, 10(5): pii:metabo10050181.

In this review, we discuss the growing literature demonstrating robust and pervasive associations between the microbiome and metabolome. We focus on the gut microbiome, which harbors the taxonomically most diverse and the largest collection of microorganisms in the human body. Methods for integrative analysis of these "omics" are under active investigation and we discuss the advances and challenges in the combined use of metabolomics and microbiome data. Findings from large consortia, including the Human Microbiome Project and Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHIT) and others demonstrate the impact of microbiome-metabolome interactions on human health. Mechanisms whereby the microbes residing in the human body interact with metabolites to impact disease risk are beginning to be elucidated, and discoveries in this area will likely be harnessed to develop preventive and treatment strategies for complex diseases.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Zhou X, Johnson JS, Spakowicz D, et al (2020)

Longitudinal Analysis of Serum Cytokine Levels and Gut Microbial Abundance Links IL-17/IL-22 with Clostridia and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans.

Diabetes pii:db19-0592 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies using mouse models suggest that interaction between the gut microbiome and IL-17/IL-22 producing cells plays a role in the development of metabolic diseases. We investigated this relationship in humans using data from the prediabetes study of the Integrated Human Microbiome Project (iHMP). Specifically, we addressed the hypothesis that early in the onset of metabolic diseases there is a decline in serum levels of IL-17/IL-22, with concomitant changes in the gut microbiome. Clustering iHMP study participants on the basis of longitudinal IL-17/IL-22 profiles identified discrete groups. Individuals distinguished by low levels of IL-17/IL-22 were linked to established markers of metabolic disease, including insulin sensitivity. These individuals also displayed gut microbiome dysbiosis, characterized by decreased diversity, and IL-17/IL-22-related declines in the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, and order Clostridiales. This ancillary analysis of the iHMP data therefore supports a link between the gut microbiome, IL-17/IL-22 and the onset of metabolic diseases. This raises the possibility for novel, microbiome-related therapeutic targets that may effectively alleviate metabolic diseases in humans as they do in animal models.

RevDate: 2020-05-03

Piggott DA, S Tuddenham (2020)

The Gut Microbiome and Frailty.

Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine pii:S1931-5244(20)30062-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome is constituted by an extensive network of organisms that lie at the host/environment interface and transduce signals that play vital roles in human health and disease across the lifespan. Frailty is a critical aging-related syndrome marked by diminished physiologic reserve and heightened vulnerability to stress, predictive of major adverse clinical outcomes including death. While recent studies suggest the microbiome may impact key pathways critical to frailty pathophysiology, direct evaluation of the microbiome-frailty relationship remains limited. In this article, we review the complex interplay of biological, behavioral and environmental factors that may influence shifts in gut microbiome composition and function in aging populations and the putative implications of such shifts for progression to frailty. We discuss HIV infection as a key prototype for elucidating the complex pathways via which the microbiome may precipitate frailty. Finally, we review considerations for future research efforts.

RevDate: 2020-04-30

Ndika J, Ilves M, Kooter IM, et al (2020)

Mechanistic Similarities between 3D Human Bronchial Epithelium and Mice Lung, Exposed to Copper Oxide Nanoparticles, Support Non-Animal Methods for Hazard Assessment.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

The diversity and increasing prevalence of products derived from engineered nanomaterials (ENM), warrants implementation of non-animal approaches to health hazard assessment for ethical and practical reasons. Although non-animal approaches are becoming increasingly popular, there are almost no studies of side-by-side comparisons with traditional in vivo assays. Here, transcriptomics is used to investigate mechanistic similarities between healthy/asthmatic models of 3D air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of donor-derived human bronchial epithelia cells, and mouse lung tissue, following exposure to copper oxide ENM. Only 19% of mouse lung genes with human orthologues are not expressed in the human 3D ALI model. Despite differences in taxonomy and cellular complexity between the systems, a core subset of matching genes cluster mouse and human samples strictly based on ENM dose (exposure severity). Overlapping gene orthologue pairs are highly enriched for innate immune functions, suggesting an important and maybe underestimated role of epithelial cells. In conclusion, 3D ALI models based on epithelial cells, are primed to bridge the gap between traditional 2D in vitro assays and animal models of airway exposure, and transcriptomics appears to be a unifying dose metric that links in vivo and in vitro test systems.

RevDate: 2020-04-30

Xiao J, Fiscella KA, SR Gill (2020)

Oral microbiome: possible harbinger for children's health.

International journal of oral science, 12(1):12 pii:10.1038/s41368-020-0082-x.

The human microbiome functions as an intricate and coordinated microbial network, residing throughout the mucosal surfaces of the skin, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and reproductive system. The oral microbiome encompasses a highly diverse microbiota, consisting of over 700 microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. As our understanding of the relationship between the oral microbiome and human health has evolved, we have identified a diverse array of oral and systemic diseases associated with this microbial community, including but not limited to caries, periodontal diseases, oral cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The potential predictive relationship between the oral microbiota and these human diseases suggests that the oral cavity is an ideal site for disease diagnosis and development of rapid point-of-care tests. The oral cavity is easily accessible with a non-invasive collection of biological samples. We can envision a future where early life salivary diagnostic tools will be used to predict and prevent future disease via analyzing and shaping the infant's oral microbiome. In this review, we present evidence for the establishment of the oral microbiome during early childhood, the capability of using childhood oral microbiome to predict future oral and systemic diseases, and the limitations of the current evidence.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Lahtinen P, Jalanka J, Hartikainen A, et al (2020)

Randomised clinical trial: faecal microbiota transplantation versus autologous placebo administered via colonoscopy in irritable bowel syndrome.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with microbial dysbiosis.

AIM: To investigate the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of IBS.

METHODS: Forty-nine IBS patients were randomised to receive autologous or allogenic FMT via colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was a sustained, minimum of 50-point, reduction in the IBS Symptom Severity Score. The secondary outcomes were levels of anxiety and depression, changes in quality of life, gut microbiota and faecal water content as assessed with validated questionnaires, intestinal microbiota composition and stool dry weight.

RESULTS: The primary endpoint was not achieved in either group. However, there was a transient reduction in the mean IBS Symptom Severity Score in the FMT group at 12 weeks after treatment as compared to baseline (P = 0.01). The groups did not differ in the number of patients achieving clinical response at 12 weeks. In the FMT-treated patients, microbial composition had changed to resemble that of the donor and the stool water content decreased significantly compared to baseline. The depression score decreased in patients with a reduction in IBS symptoms after FMT, but not in those placebo-treated patients who experienced a reduction in IBS symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: FMT provided only a transient relief of symptoms, although it induced a sustained alteration in the microbiota of IBS patients. Therefore, FMT delivered by a single infusion via colonoscopy cannot be recommended as a treatment for IBS in clinical practice. ClinicalTrials.Org, Trial registration number: NCT03561519.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Gotschlich EC, Colbert RA, T Gill (2020)

Methods in microbiome research: Past, present, and future.

Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology pii:S1521-6942(20)30015-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome is impressively immense and participates in many aspects of our health and wellness, particularly involving the development and maintenance of a healthy immune system. Not only do our microbes teach the immune system to fight infection, they also teach immune tolerance and help maintain homeostasis. From this knowledge, we have learned that the loss of tolerance to microbiota in both innate and adaptive processes plays an important role in immune-mediated and autoimmune disease. In this chapter, we will be discussing about methods used to study the microbiome, both old and new methods, fundamental concepts that have taken hold within the field, and how these principles relate to rheumatology, including thoughts on how microbiome research may be focused in the next decade.

RevDate: 2020-04-27

Shaw LP, NC Sugden (2018)

Portable sequencing, genomic data, and scale in global emerging infectious disease surveillance.

Geo : geography and environment, 5(2):e00066.

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) occur when pathogens unpredictably spread into new contexts. EID surveillance systems seek to rapidly identify EID outbreaks to contain spread and improve public health outcomes. Sequencing data has historically not been integrated into real-time responses, but portable DNA sequencing technology has prompted optimism among epidemiologists. Specifically, attention has focused on the goal of a "sequencing singularity": the integration of portable sequencers in a worldwide event-based surveillance network with other digital data (Gardy & Loman, Nature Reviews Genetics, 19, 2018, p. 9). The sequencing singularity vision is a powerful socio-technical imaginary, shaping the discourse around the future of portable sequencing. Ethical and practical issues are bound by the vision in two ways: they are framed only as obstacles, and they are formulated only at the scales made visible by its implicit geography. This geography privileges two extremes of scale - the genomic and the global - and leaves intermediate scales comparatively unmapped. We explore how widespread portable sequencing could challenge this geography. Portable sequencers put the ability to produce genomic data in the hands of the individual. The explicit assertion of rights over data may therefore become a matter disputed more at an interpersonal scale than an international one. Portable sequencers also promise ubiquitous, indiscriminate sequencing of the total metagenomic content of samples, raising the question of what (or who) is under surveillance and inviting consideration of the human microbiome and more-than-human geographies. We call into question a conception of a globally integrated stream of sequencing data as composed mostly of "noise," within which signals of pathogen "emergence" are "hidden," considering it instead from the perspective of recent work into more-than-human geographies. Our work highlights a practical need for researchers to consider both the alternative possibilities they foreclose as well as the exciting opportunities they move towards when they deploy their visions of the future.

RevDate: 2020-04-25

Zhou J, Sun T, Kang W, et al (2020)

Pathogenic and antimicrobial resistance genes in Streptococcus oralis strains revealed by comparative genome analysis.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(19)30957-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Streptococcus oralis is an early colonizer bacterium in dental plaques and is considered a potential pathogen of infective endocarditis (IE) disease. In this study, we built a complete genome map of Streptococcus oralis strain SOT, Streptococcus oralis strain SOD and Streptococcus infantis strain SO and performed comparative genomic analysis among these three strains. The results showed that there are five genomic islands (GIs) in strain SOT and one CRISPR in strain SOD. Each genome harbors various pathogenic genes related to diseases and drug resistance, while the antibiotic resistance genes in strains SOT and SOD were quite similar but different from those in strain SO. In addition, we identified 17 main virulence factors and capsule-related genes in three strains. These results suggest the pathogenic potential of Streptococcus strains, which lay a foundation for the prevention and treatment of a Streptococcus oralis infection.

RevDate: 2020-04-25

Manasson J, Blank RB, JU Scher (2020)

The microbiome in rheumatology: Where are we and where should we go?.

Annals of the rheumatic diseases pii:annrheumdis-2019-216631 [Epub ahead of print].

From birth, humans coexist and coevolve with trillions of micro-organisms inhabiting most body surfaces and cavities, referred to as the human microbiome. Advances in sequencing technologies and computational methods have propelled the exploration of the microbiome's contribution to human health and disease, spearheaded by massive efforts such as the Human Microbiome Project and the Europe-based MetaHit Consortium. Yet, despite the accumulated body of literature and a growing awareness among patients, microbiome research in rheumatology has not had a key impact on clinical practice. Herein, we describe some of the landmark microbiome studies in autoimmunity and rheumatology, the challenges and opportunities of microbiome research and how to navigate them, advances in related fields that have overcome these pitfalls, and future directions of harnessing the microbiome for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Jia B, Park D, Hahn Y, et al (2020)

Metagenomic analysis of the human microbiome reveals the association between the abundance of gut bile salt hydrolases and host health.

Gut microbes [Epub ahead of print].

Bile acid metabolism by the gut microbiome exerts both beneficial and harmful effects on host health. Microbial bile salt hydrolases (BSHs), which initiate bile acid metabolism, exhibit both positive and negative effects on host physiology. In this study, 5,790 BSH homologs were collected and classified into seven clusters based on a sequence similarity network. Next, the abundance and distribution of BSH in 380 metagenomes from healthy participants were analyzed. It was observed that different clusters occupied diverse ecological niches in the human microbiome and that the clusters with signal peptides were relatively abundant in the gut. Then, the association between BSH clusters and 12 human diseases was analyzed by comparing the abundances of BSH genes in patients (n = 1,605) and healthy controls (n = 1,540). The analysis identified a significant association between BSH gene abundance and 10 human diseases, including gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. The associations were further validated by separate cohorts with inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. These large-scale studies of enzyme sequences combined with metagenomic data provide a reproducible assessment of the association between gut BSHs and human diseases. This information can contribute to future diagnostic and therapeutic applications of BSH-active bacteria for improving human health.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Yang H, Zhang J, Xue Z, et al (2020)

Potential Pathogenic Bacteria in Seminal Microbiota of Patients with Different Types of Dysspermatism.

Scientific reports, 10(1):6876 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-63787-x.

Human microbiota play an important role in the health of their human hosts. Recent studies have demonstrated that microbiota exist in seminal plasma. The current study aims to elucidate whether seminal microbiota exist in patients with different types of dysspermatism and whether bacterial biomarkers can be identified for them. A total of 159 study participants were recruited, including 22 patients with oligoasthenospermia, 58 patients with asthenospermia, 8 patients with azoospermia, 13 patients with oligospermia, and 58 matched healthy controls. Seminal microbiota composition was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing. The results showed that the composition of seminal microbiota of patients with dysspermatism differed from those of healthy controls. Comparison of the microbiota composition in semen samples from patients with different types of dysspermatism showed that microbiota in patients with asthenospermia and oligoasthenospermia were distinct from healthy controls in beta diversity (P < 0.05). Characteristic biomarkers, including Ureaplasma, Bacteroides, Anaerococcus, Finegoldia, Lactobacillus and Acinetobacter lwoffii, were identified based on LEfSe analysis. Inferred functional analysis based on seminal microbiome data further indicated the presence of potential pathogenic biomarkers in patients with asthenospermia and oligoasthenospermia. These results provided profiles of seminal microbiota exhibited in different types of dysspermatism, thus providing new insights into their pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Garcia-Mazcorro JF, Minamoto Y, Kawas JR, et al (2020)

Akkermansia and Microbial Degradation of Mucus in Cats and Dogs: Implications to the Growing Worldwide Epidemic of Pet Obesity.

Veterinary sciences, 7(2): pii:vetsci7020044.

Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucin-degrading bacterium that has shown the potential to provide anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects in mouse and man. We here focus on companion animals, specifically cats and dogs, and evaluate the microbial degradation of mucus and its health impact in the context of the worldwide epidemic of pet obesity. A literature survey revealed that the two presently known Akkermansia spp., A. muciniphila and A. glycaniphila, as well as other members of the phylum of Verrucomicrobia seem to be neither very prevalent nor abundant in the digestive tract of cats and dog. While this may be due to methodological aspects, it suggests that bacteria related to Akkermansia are not the major mucus degraders in these pets and hence other mucus-utilizing taxa may deserve attention. Hence, we will discuss the potential of these endogenous mucus utilizers and dietary interventions to boost these as well as the use of Akkermansia spp. related bacteria or their components as strategies to target feline and canine obesity.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Adams LA, Wang Z, Liddle C, et al (2020)

Bile acids associate with specific gut microbiota, low-level alcohol consumption and liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) are synthesized by the liver and modified by gut bacteria, and may play an intermediary role between the gut microbiome and liver in promoting fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the associations between serum and faecal BAs, gut microbiome and fibrosis in patients with and without NAFLD and examined the impact of diet and alcohol consumption on these relationships.

METHODS: Adult patients (n = 122) underwent liver biopsy and BAs characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Gut microbiome composition was analysed using next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing. Diet and alcohol intake were determined by 3-day food diary.

RESULTS: Serum and faecal BA concentrations increased progressively among non-NAFLD controls (n = 55), NAFLD patients with no/mild fibrosis (F0-2, n = 58) and NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (F3/4, n = 9). Progressive increases in serum BAs were driven by primary conjugated BAs including glycocholic acid [GCA] and secondary conjugated BAs. In contrast, faecal BA increase was driven by secondary unconjugated BAs (predominately deoxycholic acid [DCA]). Serum GCA levels and faecal DCA levels correlated with the abundance of Bacteroidaceae and Lachnospiraceae, and stool secondary BAs with an unclassifiable family of the order Bacteroidales (Bacteroidales;other). These bacterial taxa were also associated with advanced fibrosis. Modest alcohol consumption was positively correlated with faecal DCA levels and relative abundance of Lachnospiracaea and Bacteroidales;other.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum and faecal BA levels are associated with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. Specific gut bacteria link alterations in BA profiles and advanced fibrosis, and may be influenced by low-level alcohol consumption.

RevDate: 2020-04-23

Samples RM, MJ Balunas (2020)

Bridging the Gap: Plant-Endophyte Interactions as a Roadmap to Understanding Small Molecule Communication in Marine Microbiomes.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology [Epub ahead of print].

Probing the composition of the microbiome and its association with health and disease states is more accessible than ever due to the rise of affordable sequencing technology. Despite advances in our ability to identify members of symbiont communities, untangling the chemical signaling that they use to communicate with host organisms remains challenging. In order to gain a greater mechanistic understanding of how the microbiome impacts health, and how chemical ecology can be leveraged to advance small molecule drug discovery from microorganisms, the principals governing communication between host and symbiont must be elucidated. Herein, we review common modes of interkingdom small molecule communication in terrestrial and marine environments, describe the differences between these environments, and detail the advantages and disadvantages for studies focused on the marine environment. Finally, we propose the use of plant-endophyte interactions as a stepping stone to a greater understanding of similar interactions in marine invertebrates, and ultimately in humans.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Vangoitsenhoven R, GAM Cresci (2020)

Role of Microbiome and Antibiotics in Autoimmune Diseases.

Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

The global rise in the incidence of autoimmune diseases has paralleled the widespread use of antibiotics. Recently, the gut microbiome has been shown to be key in the development and maturation of a normal immune system, and a range of microbial disturbances have been associated with the development and activity of several autoimmune diseases. Here, we aim to provide an overview of the mechanistic crosstalk between the human microbiome, the immune system, and antibiotics. The disease-associated microbial gut dysbiosis, the potential role of antibiotics in the development and treatment of autoimmune diseases, and the manipulation of the gut microbiome with prebiotics and probiotics is discussed using 2 key autoimmune diseases as an example: inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes. Although some data suggest that widespread use of antibiotics may facilitate autoimmunity through gut dysbiosis, there are also data to suggest antibiotics may hold the potential to improve disease activity. Currently, the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on several autoimmune diseases is being studied in clinical trials, and several preclinical studies are revealing promising results with probiotic and prebiotic therapies.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Eetemadi A, Rai N, Pereira BMP, et al (2020)

The Computational Diet: A Review of Computational Methods Across Diet, Microbiome, and Health.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:393.

Food and human health are inextricably linked. As such, revolutionary impacts on health have been derived from advances in the production and distribution of food relating to food safety and fortification with micronutrients. During the past two decades, it has become apparent that the human microbiome has the potential to modulate health, including in ways that may be related to diet and the composition of specific foods. Despite the excitement and potential surrounding this area, the complexity of the gut microbiome, the chemical composition of food, and their interplay in situ remains a daunting task to fully understand. However, recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, metabolomics profiling, compositional analysis of food, and the emergence of electronic health records provide new sources of data that can contribute to addressing this challenge. Computational science will play an essential role in this effort as it will provide the foundation to integrate these data layers and derive insights capable of revealing and understanding the complex interactions between diet, gut microbiome, and health. Here, we review the current knowledge on diet-health-gut microbiota, relevant data sources, bioinformatics tools, machine learning capabilities, as well as the intellectual property and legislative regulatory landscape. We provide guidance on employing machine learning and data analytics, identify gaps in current methods, and describe new scenarios to be unlocked in the next few years in the context of current knowledge.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Koliada A, Moseiko V, Romanenko M, et al (2020)

Seasonal variation in gut microbiota composition: cross-sectional evidence from Ukrainian population.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):100 pii:10.1186/s12866-020-01786-8.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota composition is known to depend on environmental (diet, day length, infections, xenobiotic exposure) and lifestyle (alcohol/drug intake, physical activity) factors. All these factors fluctuate seasonally, especially in areas with highly variable climatic conditions between seasons. Seasonal microbiota changes were reported in several previous studies. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether there is a seasonal variability in the gut microbiota composition in Ukrainian population. In contrast to previous studies performed on small-size samples using a longitudinal design, we used cross-sectional design with a large sample size (n = 769). Determination of microbial composition at the level of major microbial phyla was performed by qRT-PCR.

RESULTS: The relative abundance of major taxonomic groups of gut microbiota was found to be affected by month of sampling. Actinobacteria were more abundant and Bacteroidetes were less abundant in summer-derived samples compared to those obtained during other seasons, whereas Firmicutes content was seasonally independent. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio was significantly higher in summer-derived samples than in winter-derived ones. Odds to have F/B > 1 were 3.3 times higher in summer samples and 1.9 times higher in autumn samples than in winter ones; neither age, nor sex were significant confounding factors.

CONCLUSIONS: Seasonality of sampling could influence results of human microbiome research, thereby potentially biasing estimates. This factor must be taken into consideration in further microbiome research.

RevDate: 2020-04-19

Ma ZS (2020)

Testing the Anna Karenina Principle in Human Microbiome-Associated Diseases.

iScience, 23(4):101007 pii:S2589-0042(20)30191-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The AKP (Anna Karenina principle), which refers to observations inspired by the opening line of Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina, "all happy families are all alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way," predicts that all "healthy" microbiomes are alike and each disease-associated microbiome is "sick" in its own way in human microbiome-associated diseases (MADs). The AKP hypothesis predicts the rise of heterogeneity/stochasticity in human microbiomes associated with dysbiosis due to MADs. We used the beta-diversity in Hill numbers and stochasticity analysis to detect AKP and anti-AKP effects. We tested the AKP with 27 human MAD studies and discovered that the AKP, anti-AKP, and non-AKP effects were exhibited in approximately 50%, 25%, and 25% of the MAD cases, respectively. Mechanistically, AKP effects are primarily influenced by highly dominant microbial species and less influenced by rare species. In contrast, all species appear to play equal roles in influencing anti-AKP effects.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Otto M (2020)

Staphylococci in the human microbiome: the role of host and interbacterial interactions.

Current opinion in microbiology, 53:71-77 pii:S1369-5274(20)30035-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococci are common commensals on human epithelial surfaces. Some species, most notably Staphylococcus aureus, have considerable pathogenic potential and can cause severe and sometimes fatal infections. Despite the long-known fact that staphylococcal infection arises from colonizing isolates, research on staphylococcal colonization has been limited, in particular regarding interactions with the colonizing microbiota. However, several recent studies are beginning to decipher such interactions, which range from bacteriocin-based or signaling interference-mediated inhibitory interactions to cooperation with host defenses to outcompete co-colonizers. This review will give an outline of recent research on the mechanistic underpinnings of staphylococcal interference with other members of the colonizing microbiota, some of which suggest new avenues for the development of novel anti-infectives or decolonization strategies.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Ligthart K, Belzer C, de Vos WM, et al (2020)

Bridging Bacteria and the Gut: Functional Aspects of Type IV Pili.

Trends in microbiology, 28(5):340-348.

Cell-surface-located proteinaceous appendages, such as flagella and fimbriae or pili, are ubiquitous in bacterial communities. Here, we focus on conserved type IV pili (T4P) produced by bacteria in the intestinal tract, one of the most densely populated human ecosystems. Computational analysis revealed that approximately 30% of known intestinal bacteria are predicted to produce T4P. To rationalize how T4P allow intestinal bacteria to interact with their environment, other microbiota members, and host cells, we review their established role in gut commensals and pathogens with respect to adherence, motility, and biofilm formation, as well as protein secretion and DNA uptake. This work indicates that T4P are widely spread among the known members of the intestinal microbiota and that their contribution to human health might be underestimated.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Tomaiuolo R, Veneruso I, Cariati F, et al (2020)

Microbiota and Human Reproduction: The Case of Male Infertility.

High-throughput, 9(2): pii:ht9020010.

The increasing interest in metagenomics is enhancing our knowledge regarding the composition and role of the microbiota in human physiology and pathology. Indeed, microbes have been reported to play a role in several diseases, including infertility. In particular, the male seminal microbiota has been suggested as an important factor able to influence couple's health and pregnancy outcomes, as well as offspring health. Nevertheless, few studies have been carried out to date to deeper investigate semen microbiome origins and functions, and its correlations with the partner's reproductive tract microbiome. Here, we report the state of the art regarding the male reproductive system microbiome and its alterations in infertility.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Wu K, Yuan Y, Yu H, et al (2020)

Gut microbial metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide aggravates GVHD by inducing M1 macrophage polarization in mice.

Blood pii:454386 [Epub ahead of print].

The diversity of human microbiome heralds the difference of impact that gut microbial metabolites exert on allogenic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), even though short-chain fatty acids and indole were demonstrated to reduce its severity. In this study, we dissected the role of choline-metabolized trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in GVHD process. Either TMAO or high choline diet enhanced allogenic GVH reaction, while the analog of choline, 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol reversed TMAO-induced GVHD severity. Interestingly, TMAO-induced alloreactive T cell proliferation and differentiation into T helper (Th) subtypes was seen in GVHD mice but not in in vitro cultures. We thus investigated the role of macrophage polarization which was absent from in vitro culture system. F4/80+CD11b+CD16/32+ M1 macrophage and signature genes, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were increased in TMAO-induced GVHD tissues and in TMAO-cultured bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammosome reversed TMAO-stimulated M1 features, indicating that NLRP3 is the key proteolytic activator involved in macrophage's response to TMAO stimulation. Consistently, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and enhanced NF-κB nuclear re-localization were investigated in TMAO-stimulated BMDMs. In vivo depletion of NLRP3 in GVHD recipients not only blocked M1 polarization but also reversed GVHD severity in the presence of TMAO treatment. In conclusion, our data revealed that TMAO-induced GVHD progression is resulted from Th1 and Th17 differentiation, which is mediated by polarized M1 macrophage requiring NLRP3 inflammasome activation. It provides the link among the host choline diet, microbial metabolites and GVH reaction, shedding light on alleviating GVHD by controlling choline diet.

RevDate: 2020-04-11

O'Mahony L (2020)

Short Chain Fatty Acids Modulate Mast Cell Activation.

Allergy [Epub ahead of print].

Humans have evolved in an environmental and social context that enabled reliable transmissiosn and dispersal of symbionts, accompanied by appropriate nutritional support. However, recent changes in lifestyles, diet and social interactions have altered these metacommunity processes, disrupted the human microbiome and, as a consequence, increased risk of immune-mediated diseases such as allergy and asthma.

RevDate: 2020-04-11

Meng X, Zhang G, Cao H, et al (2020)

Gut Dysbacteriosis and Intestinal Disease: Mechanism and Treatment.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, enzymes or small molecules that can impact host physiology. Gut dysbacteriosis is associated with many intestinal diseases including (but not limited to) IBD, PSC-IBD, IBS, chronic constipation, osmotic diarrhea and colorectal cancer. The potential pathogenic mechanism of gut dysbacteriosis associated with intestinal diseases includes the alteration of composition of gut microbiota as well as the gut microbiota-derived signaling molecules. The many correlations between the latter and the susceptibility for intestinal diseases has placed a spotlight on the gut microbiome as a potential novel target for therapeutics. Currently, fecal microbial transplantation, dietary interventions, use of probiotics, prebiotics and drugs are the major therapeutic tools utilized to impact dysbacteriosis and associated intestinal diseases. In this review, we systematically summarized the role of intestinal microbiome in the occurrence and development of intestinal diseases. The potential mechanism of the complex interplay between gut dysbacteriosis and intestinal diseases, and the treatment methods are also highlighted.

RevDate: 2020-04-09

Elmassry MM, B Piechulla (2020)

Volatilomes of Bacterial Infections in Humans.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 14:257.

Sense of smell in humans has the capacity to detect certain volatiles from bacterial infections. Our olfactory senses were used in ancient medicine to diagnose diseases in patients. As humans are considered holobionts, each person's unique odor consists of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, volatilome) produced not only by the humans themselves but also by their beneficial and pathogenic micro-habitants. In the past decade it has been well documented that microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) are able to emit a broad range of olfactory active VOCs [summarized in the mVOC database (]. During microbial infection, the equilibrium between the human and its microbiome is altered, followed by a change in the volatilome. For several decades, physicians have been trying to utilize these changes in smell composition to develop fast and efficient diagnostic tools, particularly because volatiles detection is non-invasive and non-destructive, which would be a breakthrough in many therapies. Within this review, we discuss bacterial infections including gastrointestinal, respiratory or lung, and blood infections, focusing on the pathogens and their known corresponding volatile biomarkers. Furthermore, we cover the potential role of the human microbiota and their volatilome in certain diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases. We also report on discrete mVOCs that affect humans.

RevDate: 2020-04-08

Xu J, Peng JJ, Yang W, et al (2020)

Vaginal microbiomes and ovarian cancer: a review.

American journal of cancer research, 10(3):743-756.

The human microbiome, often termed as "the forgotten organ", is an aggregation of microorganisms and their genomes that forms a mutualistic complex with the host. Recent research has shown the symbiotic merits of a microbiome ecosystem and its crucial role in the hosts' physiological functions. Disruption of this symbiotic relationship is prone to cause a broad spectrum of ailments, including cancer. The compositional and environmental factors that tip the scales from beneficial co-existence to the development of malignancy is actively investigated. Herein we review the latest research in knowledge regarding the association between the vaginal microbiomes and oncogenesis, with a particular focus on ovarian carcinoma.

RevDate: 2020-04-07

Fernández de Ullivarri M, Arbulu S, Garcia-Gutierrez E, et al (2020)

Antifungal Peptides as Therapeutic Agents.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:105.

Fungi have been used since ancient times in food and beverage-making processes and, more recently, have been harnessed for the production of antibiotics and in processes of relevance to the bioeconomy. Moreover, they are starting to gain attention as a key component of the human microbiome. However, fungi are also responsible for human infections. The incidence of community-acquired and nosocomial fungal infections has increased considerably in recent decades. Antibiotic resistance development, the increasing number of immunodeficiency- and/or immunosuppression-related diseases and limited therapeutic options available are triggering the search for novel alternatives. These new antifungals should be less toxic for the host, with targeted or broader antimicrobial spectra (for diseases of known and unknown etiology, respectively) and modes of actions that limit the potential for the emergence of resistance among pathogenic fungi. Given these criteria, antimicrobial peptides with antifungal properties, i.e., antifungal peptides (AFPs), have emerged as powerful candidates due to their efficacy and high selectivity. In this review, we provide an overview of the bioactivity and classification of AFPs (natural and synthetic) as well as their mode of action and advantages over current antifungal drugs. Additionally, natural, heterologous and synthetic production of AFPs with a view to greater levels of exploitation is discussed. Finally, we evaluate the current and potential applications of these peptides, along with the future challenges relating to antifungal treatments.

RevDate: 2020-04-07

Yu B, Yu B, L Yu (2020)

Commentary: Reconciling Hygiene and Cleanliness: A New Perspective from Human Microbiome.

Indian journal of microbiology, 60(2):259-261.

Human beings have co-evolved with the microorganisms in our environment for millions of years, and have developed into a symbiosis in a mutually beneficial/defensive way. Human beings have significant multifaceted relationships with the diverse microbial community. Apart from the important protective role of microbial community exposure in development of early immunity, millions of inimitable bacterial genes of the diverse microbial community are the indispensable source of essential nutrients like essential amino acids and essential fatty acids for human body. The essential nutrition from microbiome is harvested through xenophagy. As an immune effector, xenophagy will capture any microorganisms that touch the epithelial cells of our gastrointestinal tract, degrade them and turn them into nutrients for the use of our body.

RevDate: 2020-04-05

Keshavarzian A, Engen P, Bonvegna S, et al (2020)

The gut microbiome in Parkinson's disease: A culprit or a bystander?.

Progress in brain research, 252:357-450.

In recent years, large-scale metagenomics projects such as the Human Microbiome Project placed the gut microbiota under the spotlight of research on its role in health and in the pathogenesis several diseases, as it can be a target for novel therapeutical approaches. The emerging concept of a microbiota modulation of the gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders has been explored in several studies in animal models, as well as in human subjects. Particularly, research on changes in the composition of gut microbiota as a potential trigger for alpha-synuclein (α-syn) pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD) has gained increasing interest. In the present review, we first provide the basis to the understanding of the role of gut microbiota in healthy subjects and the molecular basis of the gut-brain interaction, focusing on metabolic and neuroinflammatory factors that could trigger the alpha-synuclein conformational changes and aggregation. Then, we critically explored preclinical and clinical studies reporting on the changes in gut microbiota in PD, as compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between the gut microbiota and PD clinical features, discussing data consistently reported across studies, as well as the potential sources of inconsistencies. As a further step toward understanding the effects of gut microbiota on PD, we discussed the relationship between dysbiosis and response to dopamine replacement therapy, focusing on Levodopa metabolism. We conclude that further studies are needed to determine whether the gut microbiota changes observed so far in PD patients is the cause or, instead, it is merely a consequence of lifestyle changes associated with the disease. Regardless, studies so far strongly suggest that changes in microbiota appears to be impactful in pathogenesis of neuroinflammation. Thus, dysbiotic microbiota in PD could influence the disease course and response to medication, especially Levodopa. Future research will assess the impact of microbiota-directed therapeutic intervention in PD patients.

RevDate: 2020-04-04

Chen B, Wang Z, Wang J, et al (2020)

The oral microbiome profile and biomarker in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Endocrine pii:10.1007/s12020-020-02269-6 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Oral microbiota maintains a dynamic ecological balance with the host. However, a disruption in this balance can lead to oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. Several studies suggest differences in microbial composition in the oral cavity between patients with T2DM and nondiabetic patients. However, there is inadequate oral microbiome-related data from Chinese patients with T2DM, and the difference in microbiome profile between Chinese patients with T2DM and other ethnicities needs to be investigated further.

METHOD: Oral swab samples were collected from 280 adult patients with T2DM and 162 healthy controls. Illumina sequencing was performed on oral samples targeting V1-V2 region of 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis was carried in the QIIME.

RESULTS: Patients with T2DM and healthy cohorts exhibited distinct oral microbial clusters based on principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio increased in T2DM and T2DM patients presented significantly higher numbers of Neisseria, Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Pseudomonas genera, and lower numbers of Acinetobacteria compared with healthy controls. When compared with the available published data of oral and gut microbiome associated with T2DM patients, we found the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the abundance of Haemophilus could be a specific microbial biomarker in Chinese patients with T2DM.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a significant difference in the oral microbiota between T2DM patients and healthy individuals. We identified 25 taxa, including 6 genera, with significant difference in abundance between T2DM and healthy controls.

RevDate: 2020-04-04

Swann JR, Rajilic-Stojanovic M, Salonen A, et al (2020)

Considerations for the design and conduct of human gut microbiota intervention studies relating to foods.

European journal of nutrition pii:10.1007/s00394-020-02232-1 [Epub ahead of print].

With the growing appreciation for the influence of the intestinal microbiota on human health, there is increasing motivation to design and refine interventions to promote favorable shifts in the microbiota and their interactions with the host. Technological advances have improved our understanding and ability to measure this indigenous population and the impact of such interventions. However, the rapid growth and evolution of the field, as well as the diversity of methods used, parameters measured and populations studied, make it difficult to interpret the significance of the findings and translate their outcomes to the wider population. This can prevent comparisons across studies and hinder the drawing of appropriate conclusions. This review outlines considerations to facilitate the design, implementation and interpretation of human gut microbiota intervention studies relating to foods based upon our current understanding of the intestinal microbiota, its functionality and interactions with the human host. This includes parameters associated with study design, eligibility criteria, statistical considerations, characterization of products and the measurement of compliance. Methodologies and markers to assess compositional and functional changes in the microbiota, following interventions are discussed in addition to approaches to assess changes in microbiota-host interactions and host responses. Last, EU legislative aspects in relation to foods and health claims are presented. While it is appreciated that the field of gastrointestinal microbiology is rapidly evolving, such guidance will assist in the design and interpretation of human gut microbiota interventional studies relating to foods.

RevDate: 2020-04-02

Yan Y, Drew DA, Markowitz A, et al (2020)

Structure of the Mucosal and Stool Microbiome in Lynch Syndrome.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(20)30169-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but causal alterations preceding CRC have not been elucidated. To prospectively assess microbiome changes prior to colorectal neoplasia, we investigated samples from 100 Lynch syndrome patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colon biopsies, coupled with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing of feces. Colectomy and CRC history represented the largest effects on microbiome profiles. A subset of Clostridiaceae were depleted in stool corresponding with baseline adenomas, while Desulfovibrio was enriched both in stool and in mucosal biopsies. A classifier leveraging stool metatranscriptomes resulted in modest power to predict interval development of preneoplastic colonic adenoma. Predictive transcripts corresponded with a shift in flagellin contributors and oxidative metabolic microenvironment, potentially factors in local CRC pathogenesis. This suggests that the effectiveness of prospective microbiome monitoring for adenomas may be limited but supports the potential causality of these consistent, early microbial changes in colonic neoplasia.

RevDate: 2020-04-02

Kim MH, JH Choi (2020)

An Update on Sepsis Biomarkers.

Infection & chemotherapy, 52(1):1-18.

Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic reaction to a common infection, that can cause life-threatening organ dysfunction. Over the last decade, the mortality rate of patients with sepsis has decreased as long as patients are treated according to the recommendations of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, but is still unacceptably high. Patients at risk of sepsis should therefore be identified prior to the onset of organ dysfunction and this requires a rapid diagnosis and a prompt initiation of treatment. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of sepsis and traditional standard culture methods are time-consuming. Recently, in order to overcome these limitations, biomarkers which could help in predicting the diagnosis and prognosis of sepsis, as well as being useful for monitoring the response to treatments, have been identified. In addition, recent advances have led to the development of newly identified classes of biomarkers such as microRNAs, long-non-coding RNAs, and the human microbiome. This review focuses on the latest information on biomarkers that can be used to predict the diagnosis and prognosis of sepsis.

RevDate: 2020-04-02

Bruessow F, H Brüssow (2020)

Our Extended Genotype- an argument for the study of domesticated microbes.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

We interpret the domesticated organisms- plants, animals and the domesticated microbes used for food fermentation- as an extended genotype of humans due to their close relationship with our species. We propose to analyze the role of microbes in traditionally fermented food with the approaches used in the human microbiome project, and we expect to find associations with ethnic groups, explaining part of human (culinary) culture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-04-02

Stennett CA, Dyer TV, He X, et al (2020)

A cross-sectional pilot study of birth mode and vaginal microbiota in reproductive-age women.

PloS one, 15(4):e0228574 pii:PONE-D-19-22430.

Recent studies suggest that birth mode (Cesarean section [C-section] or vaginal delivery) is an important event in the initial colonization of the human microbiome and may be associated with long-term health outcomes. We sought to determine the association between a woman's birth mode and her vaginal microbiota in adulthood. We re-contacted 144 adult women from two U.S. studies and administered a brief survey. Vaginal microbiota was characterized on a single sample by amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and clustered into community state types (CSTs). We evaluated the association between birth mode and a CST with low relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. ("molecular bacterial vaginosis" [Molecular-BV]) compared to Lactobacillus-dominated CSTs in logistic regression modeling which adjusted for body mass index, a confounder in this analysis. Twenty-seven women (19%) reported C-section. Overall, C-section showed a non-significant trend towards increased odds of Molecular-BV (aOR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.32), and Prevotella bivia was the strongest single taxa associated with C-section. However, because the two archived studies had different inclusion criteria (interaction p = 0.048), we stratified the analysis by study site. In the study with a larger sample size (n = 88), women born by C-section had 3-fold higher odds of Molecular-BV compared to vaginally-delivered women (aOR = 3.55, p = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.97-13.02). No association was found in the smaller study (n = 56, aOR = 0.19, p = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.02-1.71). This pilot cross-sectional study suggests a possible association between C-section and Molecular-BV in adulthood. However, the analysis is limited by small sample size and lack of comparability in participant age and other characteristics between the study sites. Future longitudinal studies could recruit larger samples of women, address the temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota, and explore other confounders, including maternal factors, breastfeeding history, and socioeconomic status, which may affect the relationship between birth mode and vaginal microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-04-02

Lundy SD, Vij SC, Rezk AH, et al (2020)

The microbiome of the infertile male.

Current opinion in urology, 30(3):355-362.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Contrary to historic dogma, many tissues and organs in the human body contain a resident population of bacteria, fungi, and viruses collectively known as the microbiome. The microbiome plays a role in both homeostatic symbiosis and also pathogenic dysbiosis in a wide array of diseases. Our understanding of the relationship between the microbiome and male factor infertility is in its infancy but is slowly evolving.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature indicates that semen (and likely the testis) is not sterile and contains a distinct microbiome, and these changes in its composition are associated with alterations in semen quality and fertility status. Preliminary investigation indicates that manipulating the human microbiome may have implications in improving semen parameters and fertility.

SUMMARY: In this review, we describe relationships between the microbiome and the genitourinary system, discuss the prior work on the relationship among bacteriospermia, leukocytospermia and male factor infertility, and summarize the current literature utilizing 16s rRNA-based next-generation sequencing on the seminal and testicular microbiome. We explore the specific microbial taxa implicated in various aspects of spermatic dysfunction and introduce preliminary evidence for therapeutic approaches to alter the microbiome and improve fertility status.

RevDate: 2020-04-01

Carter KM, Lu M, Jiang H, et al (2020)

An Information-Based Approach for Mediation Analysis on High-Dimensional Metagenomic Data.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:148.

The human microbiome plays a critical role in the development of gut-related illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease and clinical pouchitis. A mediation model can be used to describe the interaction between host gene expression, the gut microbiome, and clinical/health situation (e.g., diseased or not, inflammation level) and may provide insights into underlying disease mechanisms. Current mediation regression methodology cannot adequately model high-dimensional exposures and mediators or mixed data types. Additionally, regression based mediation models require some assumptions for the model parameters, and the relationships are usually assumed to be linear and additive. With the microbiome being the mediators, these assumptions are violated. We propose two novel nonparametric procedures utilizing information theory to detect significant mediation effects with high-dimensional exposures and mediators and varying data types while avoiding standard regression assumptions. Compared with available methods through comprehensive simulation studies, the proposed method shows higher power and lower error. The innovative method is applied to clinical pouchitis data as well and interesting results are obtained.

RevDate: 2020-04-01

Al-Nasiry S, Ambrosino E, Schlaepfer M, et al (2020)

The Interplay Between Reproductive Tract Microbiota and Immunological System in Human Reproduction.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:378.

In the last decade, the microbiota, i.e., combined populations of microorganisms living inside and on the surface of the human body, has increasingly attracted attention of researchers in the medical field. Indeed, since the completion of the Human Microbiome Project, insight and interest in the role of microbiota in health and disease, also through study of its combined genomes, the microbiome, has been steadily expanding. One less explored field of microbiome research has been the female reproductive tract. Research mainly from the past decade suggests that microbial communities residing in the reproductive tract represent a large proportion of the female microbial network and appear to be involved in reproductive failure and pregnancy complications. Microbiome research is facing technological and methodological challenges, as detection techniques and analysis methods are far from being standardized. A further hurdle is understanding the complex host-microbiota interaction and the confounding effect of a multitude of constitutional and environmental factors. A key regulator of this interaction is the maternal immune system that, during the peri-conceptional stage and even more so during pregnancy, undergoes considerable modulation. This review aims to summarize the current literature on reproductive tract microbiota describing the composition of microbiota in different anatomical locations (vagina, cervix, endometrium, and placenta). We also discuss putative mechanisms of interaction between such microbial communities and various aspects of the immune system, with a focus on the characteristic immunological changes during normal pregnancy. Furthermore, we discuss how abnormal microbiota composition, "dysbiosis," is linked to a spectrum of clinical disorders related to the female reproductive system and how the maternal immune system is involved. Finally, based on the data presented in this review, the future perspectives in diagnostic approaches, research directions and therapeutic opportunities are explored.

RevDate: 2020-04-01

Chaudhari DS, Dhotre DP, Agarwal DM, et al (2020)

Gut, oral and skin microbiome of Indian patrilineal families reveal perceptible association with age.

Scientific reports, 10(1):5685 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-62195-5.

The human microbiome plays a key role in maintaining host homeostasis and is influenced by age, geography, diet, and other factors. Traditionally, India has an established convention of extended family arrangements wherein three or more generations, bound by genetic relatedness, stay in the same household. In the present study, we have utilized this unique family arrangement to understand the association of age with the microbiome. We characterized stool, oral and skin microbiome of 54 healthy individuals from six joint families by 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomics. In total, 69 (1.03%), 293 (2.68%) and 190 (8.66%) differentially abundant OTUs were detected across three generations in the gut, skin and oral microbiome, respectively. Age-associated changes in the gut and oral microbiome of patrilineal families showed positive correlations in the abundance of phyla Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria, respectively. Genera Treponema and Fusobacterium showed a positive correlation with age while Granulicatella and Streptococcus showed a negative correlation with age in the oral microbiome. Members of genus Prevotella illustrated high abundance and prevalence as a core OTUs in the gut and oral microbiome. In conclusion, this study highlights that precise and perceptible association of age with microbiome can be drawn when other causal factors are kept constant.

RevDate: 2020-04-01

Hiippala K, Kainulainen V, Suutarinen M, et al (2020)

Isolation of Anti-Inflammatory and Epithelium Reinforcing Bacteroides and Parabacteroides Spp. from A Healthy Fecal Donor.

Nutrients, 12(4): pii:nu12040935.

Altered intestinal microbiota is associated with systemic and intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dysbiotic microbiota with enhanced proinflammatory capacity is characterized by depletion of anaerobic commensals, increased proportion of facultatively anaerobic bacteria, as well as reduced diversity and stability. In this study, we developed a high-throughput in vitro screening assay to isolate intestinal commensal bacteria with anti-inflammatory capacity from a healthy fecal microbiota transplantation donor. Freshly isolated gut bacteria were screened for their capacity to attenuate Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) release from HT-29 cells. The screen yielded a number of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides isolates, which were identified as P.distasonis, B.caccae, B. intestinalis, B.uniformis, B. fragilis, B.vulgatus and B.ovatus using whole genome sequencing. We observed that a cell-cell contact with the epithelium was not necessary to alleviate in vitro inflammation as spent culture media from the isolates were also effective and the anti-inflammatory action did not correlate with the enterocyte adherence capacity of the isolates. The anti-inflammatory isolates also exerted enterocyte monolayer reinforcing action and lacked essential genes to synthetize hexa-acylated, proinflammatory lipid A, part of LPS. Yet, the anti-inflammatory effector molecules remain to be identified. The Bacteroides strains isolated and characterized in this study have potential to be used as so-called next-generation probiotics.

RevDate: 2020-04-01

Zheng JS, ML Wahlqvist (2020)

Regulobiosis: A regulatory and food system-sensitive role for fungal symbionts in human evolution and ecobiology.

Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 29(1):9-15.

The role of microbiomes in human biology and health are being extensively investigated, yet how the fungal community or mycobiome contributes to an integral microbiome is unclear and probably underestimated. We review the roles of fungi from the perspectives of their functionality in human biology, their cross-kingdom talk with other human microbial organisms, their dependence on diet and their involvement in human health and diseases. We hypothesize that members of the fungal community may interact as necessary symbionts with members of other human microbiome communities, and play a key role in human biology, yet to be fully understood. We propose further that "regulobiosis", whereby fungi play a regulatory role in human ecobiology, is operative in humans as probably obtains in other forms of life. Fungally-dependent regulobiosis would characterise, at first, microbiomes which include, but are not limited to, bacteria, archaea, and viruses; then, their human host; and, next, provide ecological connectedness.

RevDate: 2020-03-29

Gilijamse PW, Hartstra AV, Levin E, et al (2020)

Treatment with Anaerobutyricum soehngenii: a pilot study of safety and dose-response effects on glucose metabolism in human subjects with metabolic syndrome.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 6(1):16 pii:10.1038/s41522-020-0127-0.

Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We performed a phase I/II dose-finding and safety study on the effect of oral intake of the anaerobic butyrogenic strain Anaerobutyricum soehngenii on glucose metabolism in 24 subjects with metabolic syndrome. We found that treatment with A. soehngenii was safe and observed a significant correlation between the measured fecal abundance of administered A. soehngenii and improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity after 4 weeks of treatment. This was accompanied by an altered microbiota composition and a change in bile acid metabolism. Finally, we show that metabolic response upon administration of A. soehngenii (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 4 weeks after A. soehngenii intake) is dependent on microbiota composition at baseline. These data in humans are promising, but additional studies are needed to reproduce our findings and to investigate long-term effects, as well as other modes of delivery.

RevDate: 2020-03-28

Kyrgyzov O, Prost V, Gazut S, et al (2020)

Binning unassembled short reads based on k-mer abundance covariance using sparse coding.

GigaScience, 9(4):.

BACKGROUND: Sequence-binning techniques enable the recovery of an increasing number of genomes from complex microbial metagenomes and typically require prior metagenome assembly, incurring the computational cost and drawbacks of the latter, e.g., biases against low-abundance genomes and inability to conveniently assemble multi-terabyte datasets.

RESULTS: We present here a scalable pre-assembly binning scheme (i.e., operating on unassembled short reads) enabling latent genome recovery by leveraging sparse dictionary learning and elastic-net regularization, and its use to recover hundreds of metagenome-assembled genomes, including very low-abundance genomes, from a joint analysis of microbiomes from the LifeLines DEEP population cohort (n = 1,135, >1010 reads).

CONCLUSION: We showed that sparse coding techniques can be leveraged to carry out read-level binning at large scale and that, despite lower genome reconstruction yields compared to assembly-based approaches, bin-first strategies can complement the more widely used assembly-first protocols by targeting distinct genome segregation profiles. Read enrichment levels across 6 orders of magnitude in relative abundance were observed, indicating that the method has the power to recover genomes consistently segregating at low levels.

RevDate: 2020-03-27

Kummen M, Solberg OG, Storm-Larsen C, et al (2020)

Rosuvastatin alters the genetic composition of the human gut microbiome.

Scientific reports, 10(1):5397 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-62261-y.

The gut microbiome contributes to the variation of blood lipid levels, and secondary bile acids are associated with the effect of statins. Yet, our knowledge of how statins, one of our most common drug groups, affect the human microbiome is scarce. We aimed to characterize the effect of rosuvastatin on gut microbiome composition and inferred genetic content in stool samples from a randomized controlled trial (n = 66). No taxa were significantly altered by rosuvastatin during the study. However, rosuvastatin-treated participants showed a reduction in the collective genetic potential to transport and metabolize precursors of the pro-atherogenic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO, p < 0.01), and an increase of related metabolites betaine and γ-butyrobetaine in plasma (p < 0.01). Exploratory analyses in the rosuvastatin group showed that participants with the least favorable treatment response (defined as < median change in high-density/low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) ratio) showed a marked increase in TMAO-levels compared to those with a more favorable response (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that while rosuvastatin has a limited effect on gut microbiome composition, it could exert broader collective effects on the microbiome relevant to their function, providing a rationale for further studies of the influence of statins on the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-03-22

Ben Y, Hu M, Zhang X, et al (2020)

Efficient detection and assessment of human exposure to trace antibiotic residues in drinking water.

Water research, 175:115699 pii:S0043-1354(20)30235-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Human exposure to antibiotic residues in drinking water has not been well evaluated. This study is the first attempt to simultaneously and efficiently identify and quantify 92 antibiotic residues in filtered tap water (multistage filtration at the tap) (n = 36) collected from 10 areas of a large city in southern China, 10 Chinese brands of bottled/barreled water (n = 30) and six foreign brands of bottled water (n = 18) obtained from the Chinese market. The average and median concentrations of all the detected antibiotic compounds was 182 and 92 ng/L in filtered tap water, 180 and 105 ng/L in Chinese brands of bottled/barreled water, and 666 and 146 ng/L in foreign brands of bottled water, respectively. A total of 58 antibiotics were detected in the filtered tap water, and 45 and 36 antibiotics were detected in the Chinese and foreign brands of bottled water, respectively. More types of antibiotics were detected in Chinese brands of bottled water than in the other bottled waters. In addition, Chinese waters had high roxithromycin concentrations, while the foreign brands of bottled water had high concentrations of dicloxacillin. The average and median values of the estimated overall daily intake of all the detected antibiotics were 4.3 and 2.3 ng/kg/day when only filtered tap water was drunk, 4.0 and 2.5 ng/kg/day when Chinese brands of bottled water was drunk, and 16.0 and 4.9 ng/kg/day when foreign brands of bottled water was drunk. Further study is needed to develop a more comprehensive estimation of human exposure to antibiotic residues in the environment and a more in-depth understanding of the potential hazard of ingested antibiotic residues to the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-03-21

Puhlmann ML, WM de Vos (2020)

Back to the Roots: Revisiting the Use of the Fiber-Rich Cichorium intybusL. Taproots.

Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) pii:5810887 [Epub ahead of print].

Fibers are increasingly recognized as an indispensable part of our diet and vital for maintaining health. Notably, complex mixtures of fibers have been found to improve metabolic health. Following an analysis of the fiber content of plant-based products, we found the taproot of the chicory plant (Cichorium intybusL.) to be 1 of the vegetables with the highest fiber content, comprising nearly 90% of its dry weight. Chicory roots consist of a mixture of inulin, pectin, and (hemi-)cellulose and also contain complex phytochemicals, such as sesquiterpene lactones that have been characterized in detail. Nowaday, chicory roots are mainly applied as a source for the extraction of inulin, which is used as prebiotic fiber and food ingredient. Chicory roots, however, have long been consumed as a vegetable by humans. The whole root has been used for thousands of years for nutritional, medicinal, and other purposes, and it is still used in traditional dishes in various parts of the world. Here, we summarize the composition of chicory roots to explain their historic success in the human diet. We revisit the intake of chicory roots by humans and describe the different types of use along with their various methods of preparation. Hereby, we focus on the whole root in its complex, natural form, as well as in relation to its constituents, and discuss aspects regarding legal regulation and the safety of chicory root extracts for human consumption. Finally, we provide an overview of the current and future applications of chicory roots and their contribution to a fiber-rich diet.

RevDate: 2020-03-20

Jensen CS, Norsigian CJ, Fang X, et al (2020)

Reconstruction and Validation of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Streptococcus oralis (iCJ415), a Human Commensal and Opportunistic Pathogen.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:116.

The mitis group of streptococci (MGS) is a member of the healthy human microbiome in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. Troublingly, some MGS are able to escape this niche and cause infective endocarditis, a severe and devastating disease. Genome-scale models have been shown to be valuable in investigating metabolism of bacteria. Here we present the first genome-scale model, iCJ415, for Streptococcus oralis SK141. We validated the model using gene essentiality and amino acid auxotrophy data from closely related species. iCJ415 has 71-76% accuracy in predicting gene essentiality and 85% accuracy in predicting amino acid auxotrophy. Further, the phenotype of S. oralis was tested using the Biolog Phenotype microarrays, giving iCJ415 a 82% accuracy in predicting carbon sources. iCJ415 can be used to explore the metabolic differences within the MGS, and to explore the complicated metabolic interactions between different species in the human oral cavity.

RevDate: 2020-03-18

Fragiadakis GK, Wastyk HC, Robinson JL, et al (2020)

Long-term dietary intervention reveals resilience of the gut microbiota despite changes in diet and weight.

The American journal of clinical nutrition pii:5809430 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: With the rising rates of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, there is a growing need for effective long-term weight-loss strategies, coupled with an understanding of how they interface with human physiology. Interest is growing in the potential role of gut microbes as they pertain to responses to different weight-loss diets; however, the ways that diet, the gut microbiota, and long-term weight loss influence one another is not well understood.

OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to determine if baseline microbiota composition or diversity was associated with weight-loss success. A secondary objective was to track the longitudinal associations of changes to lower-carbohydrate or lower-fat diets and concomitant weight loss with the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota.

METHODS: We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to profile microbiota composition over a 12-mo period in 49 participants as part of a larger randomized dietary intervention study of participants consuming either a healthy low-carbohydrate or a healthy low-fat diet.

RESULTS: While baseline microbiota composition was not predictive of weight loss, each diet resulted in substantial changes in the microbiota 3-mo after the start of the intervention; some of these changes were diet specific (14 taxonomic changes specific to the healthy low-carbohydrate diet, 12 taxonomic changes specific to the healthy low-fat diet) and others tracked with weight loss (7 taxonomic changes in both diets). After these initial shifts, the microbiota returned near its original baseline state for the remainder of the intervention, despite participants maintaining their diet and weight loss for the entire study.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a resilience to perturbation of the microbiota's starting profile. When considering the established contribution of obesity-associated microbiotas to weight gain in animal models, microbiota resilience may need to be overcome for long-term alterations to human physiology. This trial was registered at as NCT01826591.

RevDate: 2020-03-17

Zou Y, Wu L, Xu W, et al (2020)

Correlation between antibiotic use in childhood and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Antibiotic use leads to a cascade of inflammatory reaction in the gastrointestinal tract due to its association with a temporary disruption of human microbiome.Objectives: To explore the undetermined correlation between antibiotic use in childhood and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Methods: PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify related articles. We extracted and pooled the (adjusted) odds ratio (OR) and (adjusted) risk ratio (RR).Results: This systematic review and meta-analysis included 11 studies. The pooled OR of all 11 studies was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-1.85). The pooled ORs of the subsequent Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis after antibiotic use in childhood were 1.59 (95% CI: 1.06-2.4) and 1.22 (95% CI: 0.82-1.8). The sensitivity analysis showed no change. The meta-regression showed there was not statistical significance for the publication year, research area and research methods. Egger's test showed publication bias in the IBD studies (p = .006 < .05) but no publication bias for the CD (p = .275>.05) and UC studies (p = .537>.05).Conclusions: There was a positive association between antibiotic use in childhood and the subsequently risk of Crohn's disease in non-European countries in the west during 2010-2013. Children in the United States taking antibiotics will have a higher risk of subsequently IBD than Europe, Asia and Australia. Registration number: CRD42019147648 (PROSPERO).

RevDate: 2020-03-17

El-Awady A, de Sousa Rabelo M, Meghil MM, et al (2019)

Polymicrobial synergy within oral biofilm promotes invasion of dendritic cells and survival of consortia members.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 5(1):11 pii:10.1038/s41522-019-0084-7.

Years of human microbiome research have confirmed that microbes rarely live or function alone, favoring diverse communities. Yet most experimental host-pathogen studies employ single species models of infection. Here, the influence of three-species oral microbial consortium on growth, virulence, invasion and persistence in dendritic cells (DCs) was examined experimentally in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and in patients with periodontitis (PD). Cooperative biofilm formation by Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis was documented in vitro using growth models and scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of growth rates by species-specific 16s rRNA probes revealed distinct, early advantages to consortium growth for S. gordonii and F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis, while P. gingivalis upregulated its short mfa1 fimbriae, leading to increased invasion of DCs. F. nucleatum was only taken up by DCs when in consortium with P. gingivalis. Mature consortium regressed DC maturation upon uptake, as determined by flow cytometry. Analysis of dental plaques of PD and healthy subjects by 16s rRNA confirmed oral colonization with consortium members, but DC hematogenous spread was limited to P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. Expression of P. gingivalis mfa1 fimbriae was increased in dental plaques and hematogenous DCs of PD patients. P. gingivalis in the consortium correlated with an adverse clinical response in the gingiva of PD subjects. In conclusion, we have identified polymicrobial synergy in a three-species oral consortium that may have negative consequences for the host, including microbial dissemination and adverse peripheral inflammatory responses.

RevDate: 2020-03-17

Tuompo R, Lääveri T, Hannu T, et al (2020)

Reactive arthritis and other musculoskeletal symptoms associated with acquisition of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC).

Annals of the rheumatic diseases pii:annrheumdis-2019-216736 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Using a prospective research design, we evaluated the association between acquisition of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and development of reactive arthritis (ReA) and other reactive musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms among international travellers.

METHODS: A total of 526 study participants were asked to provide pretravel and post-travel stool samples and fill in questionnaires (pretravel, post-travel and 3-week follow-up). A multiplex quantitative PCR assay was deployed to detect five DEC comprising enteroaggregative E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli and Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Vibrio cholerae. Multivariate analysis was employed to identify factors predisposing to MSK symptoms. New post-travel MSK symptoms reported by participants with DEC were assessed by phone interviews and, if needed, clinically confirmed.

RESULTS: From among the total of 224 volunteers who returned all questionnaires and stool specimens, 38 (17.0%) reported MSK symptoms. Multivariate analysis revealed that acquisition of DEC was associated with MSK symptoms (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 13.3). Of the 151 with only-DEC, four (2.6%) had ReA, two (1.3%) reactive tendinitis and three (2.0%) reactive arthralgia. ReA was mostly mild, and all patients with ReA were negative for human leucocyte antigen B27. Antibiotic treatment of travellers' diarrhoea did not prevent development of MSK symptoms.

CONCLUSION: A total of 17% of volunteers reported post-travel MSK symptoms. DEC acquisition was associated with an increased risk of developing them, yet the ReA incidence remained low and the clinical picture mild. Antibiotic treatment did not protect against development of MSK symptoms.

RevDate: 2020-03-16

Sarra A, Celluzzi A, Bruno SP, et al (2020)

Biophysical Characterization of Membrane Phase Transition Profiles for the Discrimination of Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) From Escherichia coli Grown at Different Temperatures.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:290.

Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) are physical techniques widely employed to characterize the morphology and the structure of vesicles such as liposomes or human extracellular vesicles (exosomes). Bacterial extracellular vesicles are similar in size to human exosomes, although their function and membrane properties have not been elucidated in such detail as in the case of exosomes. Here, we applied the above cited techniques, in synergy with the thermotropic characterization of the vesicles lipid membrane using a turbidimetric technique to the study of vesicles produced by Gram-negative bacteria (Outer Membrane Vesicles, OMVs) grown at different temperatures. This study demonstrated that our combined approach is useful to discriminate vesicles of different origin or coming from bacteria cultured under different experimental conditions. We envisage that in a near future the techniques employed in our work will be further implemented to discriminate complex mixtures of bacterial vesicles, thus showing great promises for biomedical or diagnostic applications.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Bhatt AP, Pellock SJ, Biernat KA, et al (2020)

Targeted inhibition of gut bacterial β-glucuronidase activity enhances anticancer drug efficacy.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1918095117 [Epub ahead of print].

Irinotecan treats a range of solid tumors, but its effectiveness is severely limited by gastrointestinal (GI) tract toxicity caused by gut bacterial β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes. Targeted bacterial GUS inhibitors have been shown to partially alleviate irinotecan-induced GI tract damage and resultant diarrhea in mice. Here, we unravel the mechanistic basis for GI protection by gut microbial GUS inhibitors using in vivo models. We use in vitro, in fimo, and in vivo models to determine whether GUS inhibition alters the anticancer efficacy of irinotecan. We demonstrate that a single dose of irinotecan increases GI bacterial GUS activity in 1 d and reduces intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in 5 d, both blocked by a single dose of a GUS inhibitor. In a tumor xenograft model, GUS inhibition prevents intestinal toxicity and maintains the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan. Remarkably, GUS inhibitor also effectively blocks the striking irinotecan-induced bloom of Enterobacteriaceae in immune-deficient mice. In a genetically engineered mouse model of cancer, GUS inhibition alleviates gut damage, improves survival, and does not alter gut microbial composition; however, by allowing dose intensification, it dramatically improves irinotecan's effectiveness, reducing tumors to a fraction of that achieved by irinotecan alone, while simultaneously promoting epithelial regeneration. These results indicate that targeted gut microbial enzyme inhibitors can improve cancer chemotherapeutic outcomes by protecting the gut epithelium from microbial dysbiosis and proliferative crypt damage.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Murugesan S, Al Ahmad SF, Singh P, et al (2020)

Profiling the Salivary microbiome of the Qatari population.

Journal of translational medicine, 18(1):127 pii:10.1186/s12967-020-02291-2.

BACKGROUND: The role of the human microbiome in human health and disease has been studied in various body sites. However, compared to the gut microbiome, where most of the research focus is, the salivary microbiome still bears a vast amount of information that needs to be revealed. This study aims to characterize the salivary microbiome composition in the Qatari population, and to explore specific microbial signatures that can be associated with various lifestyles and different oral conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We characterized the salivary microbiome of 997 Qatari adults using high-throughput sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS: In this study, we have characterized the salivary microbiome of 997 Qatari participants. Our data show that Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are the common phyla isolated from the saliva samples, with Bacteroidetes being the most predominant phylum. Bacteroidetes was also more predominant in males versus females in the study cohort, although differences in the microbial diversity were not statistically significant. We also show that, a lower diversity of the salivary microbiome is observed in the elderly participants, with Prevotella and Treponema being the most significant genera. In participants with oral conditions such as mouth ulcers, bleeding or painful gum, our data show that Prevotella and Capnocytophaga are the most dominant genera as compared to the controls. Similar patterns were observed in participants with various smoking habits as compared to the non-smoking participants. Our data show that Streptococcus and Neisseria are more dominant among denture users, as compared to the non-denture users. Our data also show that, abnormal oral conditions are associated with a reduced microbial diversity and microbial richness. Moreover, in this study we show that frequent coffee drinkers have higher microbial diversity compared to the non-drinkers, indicating that coffee may cause changes to the salivary microbiome. Furthermore, tea drinkers show higher microbial richness as compared to the non-tea drinkers.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study to assess the salivary microbiome in an Arab population, and one of the largest population-based studies aiming to the characterize the salivary microbiome composition and its association with age, oral health, denture use, smoking and coffee-tea consumption.

RevDate: 2020-03-13

Belmok A, de Cena JA, Kyaw CM, et al (2020)

The Oral Archaeome: A Scoping Review.

Journal of dental research [Epub ahead of print].

The Archaea domain was recognized as a separate phylogenetic lineage in the tree of life nearly 3 decades ago. It is now known as part of the human microbiome; however, given that its roles in oral sites are still poorly understood, this review aimed to establish the current level of evidence regarding archaea in the oral cavity to guide future research, providing insights on the present knowledge about the human oral archaeome. A scoping review was conducted with the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. Five electronic databases were searched, as well as gray literature. Two independent reviewers performed the selection and characterization of the studies. Clinical studies were included when the target population consisted of humans of any age who were donors of samples from the oral cavity. A qualitative analysis was performed, based on the type of oral site and by considering the methods employed for archaeal identification and taxonomy, including the DNA extraction protocols, primers, and probes used. Fifty articles were included in the final scoping review, published from 1987 to 2019. Most studies sampled periodontal sites. Methanogens were the most abundant archaea in those sites, and their presence could be associated with other periodontal pathogens. No consistent relationship with different disease conditions was observed in studies that evaluated the microbiota surviving in endodontic sites. Few articles analyzed the presence of archaea in dental caries, saliva, or tongue microbiota, as well as in archaeologic samples, also showing a relationship with healthy microbiota. Archaea have been detected in different oral niches of individuals from diverse geographic locations and clinical conditions, suggesting potential roles in oral diseases. Methodological limitations may hamper our current knowledge about archaeal diversity and prevalence in oral samples, and future research with diversified methodological approaches may lead to a better comprehension of the human oral archaeome.

RevDate: 2020-03-13

Depommier C, Van Hul M, Everard A, et al (2020)

Pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila increases whole-body energy expenditure and fecal energy excretion in diet-induced obese mice.

Gut microbes [Epub ahead of print].

Accumulating evidence points to Akkermansia muciniphila as a novel candidate to prevent or treat obesity-related metabolic disorders. We recently observed, in mice and in humans, that pasteurization of A. muciniphila increases its beneficial effects on metabolism. However, it is currently unknown if the observed beneficial effects on body weight and fat mass gain are due to specific changes in energy expenditure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of pasteurized A. muciniphila on whole-body energy metabolism during high-fat diet feeding by using metabolic chambers. We confirmed that daily oral administration of pasteurized A. muciniphila alleviated diet-induced obesity and decreased food energy efficiency. We found that this effect was associated with an increase in energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity. Strikingly, we discovered that energy expenditure was enhanced independently from changes in markers of thermogenesis or beiging of the white adipose tissue. However, we found in brown and white adipose tissues that perilipin2, a factor associated with lipid droplet and known to be altered in obesity, was decreased in expression by pasteurized A. muciniphila. Finally, we observed that treatment with pasteurized A. muciniphila increased energy excretion in the feces. Interestingly, we demonstrated that this effect was not due to the modulation of intestinal lipid absorption or chylomicron synthesis but likely involved a reduction of carbohydrates absorption and enhanced intestinal epithelial turnover.In conclusion, this study further dissects the mechanisms by which pasteurized A. muciniphila reduces body weight and fat mass gain. These data also further support the impact of targeting the gut microbiota by using specific bacteria to control whole-body energy metabolism.

RevDate: 2020-03-13

Antosca K, Hoen AG, Palys T, et al (2020)

Reliability of stool microbiome methods for DNA yields and sequencing among infants and young children.

MicrobiologyOpen [Epub ahead of print].

With the emergence of large-scale epidemiologic human microbiome studies, there is a need to understand the reproducibility of microbial DNA sequencing and the impact of specimen collection and processing methods on measures of microbial community composition and structure, with reproducibility studies in infants and young children particularly lacking. Here, we examined batch-to-batch variability and reliability of collection, handling, and processing protocols, testing replicate stool samples from infants and young children using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene V4-V5 hypervariable region, evaluating 33 conditions with different protocols and extraction methods. We detected no evidence of batch effects in replicate DNA samples or extractions from the same stool sample. Variability in DNA yield and alpha diversity was observed between the different collection, handling, and processing protocols. However, across all protocols, subject variability was the dominant contributor to microbiome structure, with comparatively little impact of the protocol used. While collection method and DNA extraction kit may affect DNA yield, and correspondingly alpha diversity, our findings suggest that characterization of the structure and composition of the fecal microbiome of infants and young children are reliably measurable by standardized collection, handling, and processing protocols and DNA extraction methods within an individual longitudinal study.

RevDate: 2020-03-11

Romani L, Del Chierico F, Chiriaco M, et al (2020)

Gut Mucosal and Fecal Microbiota Profiling Combined to Intestinal Immune System in Neonates Affected by Intestinal Ischemic Injuries.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:59.

Background and Purpose: Early life microbiota plays a crucial role in human health by acting as a barrier from pathogens' invasion and maintaining the intestinal immune homoeostasis. Altered fecal microbiota (FM) ecology was reported in newborns affected by intestinal ischemia. Our purpose was to describe, in these patients, the FM, the mucosal microbiota (MM) and the mucosal immunity. Methods: Fourteen newborns underwent intestinal resection because of intestinal ischemia. FM and MM were determined through targeted-metagenomics, diversity assignment and Kruskal-Wallis analyses of Operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The mucosal immune cells were analyzed through cytofluorimetry. Results and Conclusion: Based on the severity intestinal injueris we identified two groups: extensive (EII) and focal intestinal ischemia (FII). FM and MM varied in EII and FII groups, showing in the EII group the predominance of Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and the reduction of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia for both microbiota. The MM was characterized by a statistically significant reduction of Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and by a higher diversity in the EII compared to FII group. FM showed a prevalence of Proteobacteria, while the Shannon index was lower in the EII compared to FII group. An overall increment in B- and T-lymphocytes and Natural killer (NK) T-like cells was found for EII mucosal samples associated to an increment of TNF-α and INF-γ expressing cells, compared to FII group. FM and MM carry specific signatures of intestinal ischemic lesions. Further research may be crucial to address the role of specific taxa in EII, expecially with reference to inflammation grade and ischemia extension.

RevDate: 2020-03-11

Pan S, Hullar MAJ, Lai LA, et al (2020)

Gut Microbial Protein Expression in Response to Dietary Patterns in a Controlled Feeding Study: A Metaproteomic Approach.

Microorganisms, 8(3): pii:microorganisms8030379.

Although the gut microbiome has been associated with dietary patterns linked to health, microbial metabolism is not well characterized. This ancillary study was a proof of principle analysis for a novel application of metaproteomics to study microbial protein expression in a controlled dietary intervention. We measured the response of the microbiome to diet in a randomized crossover dietary intervention of a whole-grain, low glycemic load diet (WG) and a refined-grain, high glycemic load diet (RG). Total proteins in stools from 9 participants at the end of each diet period (n = 18) were analyzed by LC MS/MS and proteins were identified using the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) human gut microbiome database and UniProt human protein databases. T-tests, controlling for false discovery rate (FDR) <10%, were used to compare the Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and bacterial enzymes between the two interventions. Using shotgun proteomics, more than 53,000 unique peptides were identified including microbial (89%) and human peptides (11%). Forty-eight bacterial enzymes were statistically different between the diets, including those implicated in SCFA production and degradation of fatty acids. Enzymes associated with degradation of human mucin were significantly enriched in the RG diet. These results illustrate that the metaproteomic approach is a valuable tool to study the microbial metabolism of diets that may influence host health.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )