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Bibliography on: Evolution of Multicelluarity

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2023 at 01:40 Created: 

Evolution of Multicelluarity

Created with PubMed® Query: ( (evolution OR origin) AND (multicellularity OR multicellular) NOT 33634751[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-05-27

Kozlov AP (2023)

Carcino-Evo-Devo, A Theory of the Evolutionary Role of Hereditary Tumors.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108611.

A theory of the evolutionary role of hereditary tumors, or the carcino-evo-devo theory, is being developed. The main hypothesis of the theory, the hypothesis of evolution by tumor neofunctionalization, posits that hereditary tumors provided additional cell masses during the evolution of multicellular organisms for the expression of evolutionarily novel genes. The carcino-evo-devo theory has formulated several nontrivial predictions that have been confirmed in the laboratory of the author. It also suggests several nontrivial explanations of biological phenomena previously unexplained by the existing theories or incompletely understood. By considering three major types of biological development-individual, evolutionary, and neoplastic development-within one theoretical framework, the carcino-evo-devo theory has the potential to become a unifying biological theory.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Wu N, Wei L, Zhu Z, et al (2023)

Innovative insights into extrachromosomal circular DNAs in gynecologic tumors and reproduction.

Protein & cell pii:7180341 [Epub ahead of print].

Originating but free from chromosomal DNA, extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are organized in circular form and have long been found in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Their biogenesis and function are poorly understood as they are characterized by sequence homology with linear DNA, for which few detection methods are available. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revealed that eccDNAs play crucial roles in tumor formation, evolution, and drug resistance as well as aging, genomic diversity, and other biological processes, bringing it back to the research hotspot. Several mechanisms of eccDNA formation have been proposed, including the breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) and translocation-deletion-amplification models. Gynecologic tumors and disorders of embryonic and fetal development are major threats to human reproductive health. The roles of eccDNAs in these pathological processes have been partially elucidated since the first discovery of eccDNA in pig sperm and the double minutes in ovarian cancer ascites. The present review summarized the research history, biogenesis, and currently available detection and analytical methods for eccDNAs and clarified their functions in gynecologic tumors and reproduction. We also proposed the application of eccDNAs as drug targets and liquid biopsy markers for prenatal diagnosis and the early detection, prognosis, and treatment of gynecologic tumors. This review lays theoretical foundations for future investigations into the complex regulatory networks of eccDNAs in vital physiological and pathological processes.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Wang X, Zhang Y, Xie M, et al (2023)

Temperature-Promoted Giant Unilamellar Vesicle (GUV) Aggregation: A Way of Multicellular Formation.

Current issues in molecular biology, 45(5):3757-3771 pii:cimb45050242.

The evolution of unicellular to multicellular life is considered to be an important step in the origin of life, and it is crucial to study the influence of environmental factors on this process through cell models in the laboratory. In this paper, we used giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) as a cell model to investigate the relationship between environmental temperature changes and the evolution of unicellular to multicellular life. The zeta potential of GUVs and the conformation of the headgroup of phospholipid molecules at different temperatures were examined using phase analysis light scattering (PALS) and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. In addition, the effect of increasing temperature on the aggregation of GUVs was further investigated in ionic solutions, and the possible mechanisms involved were explored. The results showed that increasing temperature reduced the repulsive forces between cells models and promoted their aggregation. This study could effectively contribute to our understanding of the evolution of primitive unicellular to multicellular life.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Hengge R, Pruteanu M, Stülke J, et al (2023)

Recent advances and perspectives in nucleotide second messenger signaling in bacteria.

microLife, 4:uqad015.

Nucleotide second messengers act as intracellular 'secondary' signals that represent environmental or cellular cues, i.e. the 'primary' signals. As such, they are linking sensory input with regulatory output in all living cells. The amazing physiological versatility, the mechanistic diversity of second messenger synthesis, degradation, and action as well as the high level of integration of second messenger pathways and networks in prokaryotes has only recently become apparent. In these networks, specific second messengers play conserved general roles. Thus, (p)ppGpp coordinates growth and survival in response to nutrient availability and various stresses, while c-di-GMP is the nucleotide signaling molecule to orchestrate bacterial adhesion and multicellularity. c-di-AMP links osmotic balance and metabolism and that it does so even in Archaea may suggest a very early evolutionary origin of second messenger signaling. Many of the enzymes that make or break second messengers show complex sensory domain architectures, which allow multisignal integration. The multiplicity of c-di-GMP-related enzymes in many species has led to the discovery that bacterial cells are even able to use the same freely diffusible second messenger in local signaling pathways that can act in parallel without cross-talking. On the other hand, signaling pathways operating with different nucleotides can intersect in elaborate signaling networks. Apart from the small number of common signaling nucleotides that bacteria use for controlling their cellular "business," diverse nucleotides were recently found to play very specific roles in phage defense. Furthermore, these systems represent the phylogenetic ancestors of cyclic nucleotide-activated immune signaling in eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Lipińska-Zubrycka L, Grochowski M, Bähler J, et al (2023)

Pervasive mRNA uridylation in fission yeast is catalysed by both Cid1 and Cid16 terminal uridyltransferases.

PloS one, 18(5):e0285576 pii:PONE-D-23-03513.

Messenger RNA uridylation is pervasive and conserved among eukaryotes, but the consequences of this modification for mRNA fate are still under debate. Utilising a simple model organism to study uridylation may facilitate efforts to understand the cellular function of this process. Here we demonstrate that uridylation can be detected using simple bioinformatics approach. We utilise it to unravel widespread transcript uridylation in fission yeast and demonstrate the contribution of both Cid1 and Cid16, the only two annotated terminal uridyltransferases (TUT-ases) in this yeast. To detect uridylation in transcriptome data, we used a RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) library preparation protocol involving initial linker ligation to fragmented RNA-an approach borrowed from small RNA sequencing that was commonly used in older RNA-seq protocols. We next explored the data to detect uridylation marks. Our analysis show that uridylation in yeast is pervasive, similarly to the one in multicellular organisms. Importantly, our results confirm the role of the cytoplasmic uridyltransferase Cid1 as the primary uridylation catalyst. However, we also observed an auxiliary role of the second uridyltransferase, Cid16. Thus both fission yeast uridyltransferases are involved in mRNA uridylation. Intriguingly, we found no physiological phenotype of the single and double deletion mutants of cid1 and cid16 and only minimal impact of uridylation on steady-state mRNA levels. Our work establishes fission yeast as a potent model to study uridylation in a simple eukaryote, and we demonstrate that it is possible to detect uridylation marks in RNA-seq data without the need for specific methodologies.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Gmiter D, Pacak I, Nawrot S, et al (2023)

Genomes comparison of two Proteus mirabilis clones showing varied swarming ability.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacteria most noted for its involvement with catheter-associated urinary tract infections. It is also known for its multicellular migration over solid surfaces, referred to as 'swarming motility'. Here we analyzed the genomic sequences of two P. mirabilis isolates, designated K38 and K39, which exhibit varied swarming ability.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The isolates genomes were sequenced using Illumina NextSeq sequencer, resulting in about 3.94 Mbp, with a GC content of 38.6%, genomes. Genomes were subjected for in silico comparative investigation. We revealed that, despite a difference in swarming motility, the isolates showed high genomic relatedness (up to 100% ANI similarity), suggesting that one of the isolates probably originated from the other.

CONCLUSIONS: The genomic sequences will allow us to investigate the mechanism driving this intriguing phenotypic heterogeneity between closely related P. mirabilis isolates. Phenotypic heterogeneity is an adaptive strategy of bacterial cells to several environmental pressures. It is also an important factor related to their pathogenesis. Therefore, the availability of these genomic sequences will facilitate studies that focus on the host-pathogen interactions during catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Fields C, M Levin (2023)

Regulative development as a model for origin of life and artificial life studies.

Bio Systems pii:S0303-2647(23)00102-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Using the formal framework of the Free Energy Principle, we show how generic thermodynamic requirements on bidirectional information exchange between a system and its environment can generate complexity. This leads to the emergence of hierarchical computational architectures in systems that operate sufficiently far from thermal equilibrium. In this setting, the environment of any system increases its ability to predict system behavior by "engineering" the system towards increased morphological complexity and hence larger-scale, more macroscopic behaviors. When seen in this light, regulative development becomes an environmentally-driven process in which "parts" are assembled to produce a system with predictable behavior. We suggest on this basis that life is thermodynamically favorable and that, when designing artificial living systems, human engineers are acting like a generic "environment".

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Hu K, Le Vo KL, Wang F, et al (2023)

Single Exosome Amperometric Measurements Reveal Encapsulation of Chemical Messengers for Intercellular Communication.

Journal of the American Chemical Society [Epub ahead of print].

In multicellular organisms, cells typically communicate by sending and receiving chemical signals. Chemical messengers involved in the exocytosis of neuroendocrine cells or neurons are generally assumed to only originate from the fusing of intracellular large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) or synaptic vesicles with the cellular membrane following stimulation. Accumulated evidence suggests that exosomes─one of the main extracellular vesicles (EVs)─carrying cell-dependent DNA, mRNA, proteins, etc., play an essential role in cellular communication. Due to experimental limitations, it has been difficult to monitor the real-time release of individual exosomes; this restricts a comprehensive understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms and the functions of exosomes. In this work, we introduce amperometry with microelectrodes to capture the dynamic release of single exosomes from a single living cell, distinguish them from other EVs, and differentiate the molecules inside exosomes and those secreted from LDCVs. We show that, similar to many LDCVs and synaptic vesicles, exosomes released by neuroendocrine cells also contain catecholamine transmitters. This finding reveals a different mode of chemical communication via exosome-encapsulated chemical messengers and a potential interconnection between the two release pathways, changing the canonical view of exocytosis of neuroendocrine cells and possibly neurons. This defines a new mechanism for chemical communication at the fundamental level and opens new avenues in the research of the molecular biology of exosomes in the neuroendocrine and central nervous systems.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Sobala ŁF (2023)

Evolution and phylogenetic distribution of endo-α-mannosidase.

Glycobiology pii:7171919 [Epub ahead of print].

While glycans underlie many biological processes, such as protein folding, cell adhesion and cell-cell recognition, deep evolution of glycosylation machinery remains an understudied topic. N-linked glycosylation is a conserved process in which mannosidases are key trimming enzymes. One of them is the glycoprotein endo-α-1,2-mannosidase which participates in the initial trimming of mannose moieties from an N-linked glycan inside the cis-Golgi. It is unique as the only endo-acting mannosidase found in this organelle. Relatively little is known about its origins and evolutionary history; so far it was reported to occur only in vertebrates. In this work, a taxon-rich bioinformatic survey to unravel the evolutionary history of this enzyme, including all major eukaryotic clades and a wide representation of animals, is presented. The endomannosidase was found to be more widely distributed in animals and other eukaryotes. The protein motif changes in context of the canonical animal enzyme were tracked. Additionally, the data show the two canonical vertebrate endomannosidase genes, MANEA and MANEAL, arose at the second round of the two vertebrate genome duplications and one more vertebrate paralog, CMANEAL, is uncovered. Finally, a framework where N-glycosylation co-evolved with complex multicellularity is described. A better understanding of the evolution of core glycosylation pathways is pivotal to understanding biology of eukaryotes in general, and the Golgi apparatus in particular. This systematic analysis of the endomannosidase evolution is one step towards this goal.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Fernandes J (2023)

Virus-Induced Lysis of Tumor and Other Pathogenic Unicellular Entities and Its Potential to Treat Leishmaniasis.

DNA and cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

This article is focused on the main pathways used by viruses to achieve infection and lysis of unicellular eukaryotes described as pathogenic for multicellular organisms. In light of the recent discussions on how tumor cells exhibit unicellular behavior, highly malignant cells can be considered as another unicellular pathogenic entity, but with endogenous origin. Thus, a comparative panel of viral lysis of exogenous pathogenic unicellular eukaryotes such as Acanthamoeba sp., yeast, and tumors is presented. The important intracellular parasite Leishmania sp is also presented, which, in contrast, has its virulence improved by viral infections. The possible exploitation of viral-mediated eukaryotic cell lysis to overcome infections of Leishmania sp is discussed.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Mawaribuchi S, Shimomura O, Oda T, et al (2023)

rBC2LCN-reactive SERPINA3 is a glycobiomarker candidate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Glycobiology, 33(4):342-352.

Early detection is urgently needed to improve the patient's pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) survival. Previously, we identified a novel tumor-associated glycan, H-type3, which is expressed on PDAC cells and is detected by rBC2LCN (recombinant N-terminal domain of BC2L-C identified from Burkholderia cenocepacia) lectin. Here, we identified that SERPINA3 is an rBC2LCN-reactive glycoprotein (BC2-S3) secreted from PDAC cells into the blood in patients with PDAC by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and lectin blotting. In immune staining, BC2-S3 was detected specifically in the tumor but not in normal tissues of PDAC. Lectin-ELISA was then developed to measure the serum level of BC2-S3 in healthy control (HC, n = 99) and patients with PDAC (n = 88). BC2-S3 exhibited higher in patients with PDAC than in those with HC. BC2-S3 showed similar diagnostic performance in all stages of PDAC (stages IA-IV, true positive rate = 76.1%, true negative rate = 81.8%) to CA19-9 (72.7%, 75.8%). Remarkably, BC2-S3 showed a significantly higher detection rate (89.7%) for early stage PDAC (IA-IIA) than CA19-9 (62.1%, P = 0.029). The combination of BC2-S3 and CA19-9 further improved the diagnostic ability for all stages of PDAC (81.8%, 87.9%). In conclusion, BC2-S3 is a glycobiomarker candidate for PDAC.

RevDate: 2023-05-16
CmpDate: 2023-05-16

Kaucka M (2023)

Cis-regulatory landscapes in the evolution and development of the mammalian skull.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1880):20220079.

Extensive morphological variation found in mammals reflects the wide spectrum of their ecological adaptations. The highest morphological diversity is present in the craniofacial region, where geometry is mainly dictated by the bony skull. Mammalian craniofacial development represents complex multistep processes governed by numerous conserved genes that require precise spatio-temporal control. A central question in contemporary evolutionary biology is how a defined set of conserved genes can orchestrate formation of fundamentally different structures, and therefore how morphological variability arises. In principle, differential gene expression patterns during development are the source of morphological variation. With the emergence of multicellular organisms, precise regulation of gene expression in time and space is attributed to cis-regulatory elements. These elements contribute to higher-order chromatin structure and together with trans-acting factors control transcriptional landscapes that underlie intricate morphogenetic processes. Consequently, divergence in cis-regulation is believed to rewire existing gene regulatory networks and form the core of morphological evolution. This review outlines the fundamental principles of the genetic code and genomic regulation interplay during development. Recent work that deepened our comprehension of cis-regulatory element origin, divergence and function is presented here to illustrate the state-of-the-art research that uncovered the principles of morphological novelty. This article is part of the theme issue 'The mammalian skull: development, structure and function'.

RevDate: 2023-05-13

Suwannachuen N, Leetanasaksakul K, Roytrakul S, et al (2023)

Palmelloid Formation and Cell Aggregation Are Essential Mechanisms for High Light Tolerance in a Natural Strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(9): pii:ijms24098374.

Photosynthetic organisms, such as higher plants and algae, require light to survive. However, an excessive amount of light can be harmful due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause cell damage and, if it is not effectively regulated, cell death. The study of plants' responses to light can aid in the development of methods to improve plants' growth and productivity. Due to the multicellular nature of plants, there may be variations in the results based on plant age and tissue type. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, has also been used as a model organism to study photosynthesis and photoprotection. Nonetheless, the majority of the research has been conducted with strains that have been consistently utilized in laboratories and originated from the same source. Despite the availability of many field isolates of this species, very few studies have compared the light responses of field isolates. This study examined the responses of two field isolates of Chlamydomonas to high light stress. The light-tolerant strain, CC-4414, managed reactive oxygen species (ROS) slightly better than the sensitive strain, CC-2344, did. The proteomic data of cells subjected to high light revealed cellular modifications of the light-tolerant strain toward membrane proteins. The morphology of cells under light stress revealed that this strain utilized the formation of palmelloid structures and cell aggregation to shield cells from excessive light. As indicated by proteome data, morphological modifications occur simultaneously with the increase in protein degradation and autophagy. By protecting cells from stress, cells are able to continue to upregulate ROS management mechanisms and prevent cell death. This is the first report of palmelloid formation in Chlamydomonas under high light stress.

RevDate: 2023-05-12

Foo YZ, Lagisz M, O'Dea RE, et al (2023)

The influence of immune challenges on the mean and variance in reproductive investment: a meta-analysis of the terminal investment hypothesis.

BMC biology, 21(1):107.

Finding the optimal balance between survival and reproduction is a central puzzle in life-history theory. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that when individuals encounter a survival threat that compromises future reproductive potential, they will increase immediate reproductive investment to maximise fitness. Despite decades of research on the terminal investment hypothesis, findings remain mixed. We examined the terminal investment hypothesis with a meta-analysis of studies that measured reproductive investment of multicellular iteroparous animals after a non-lethal immune challenge. We had two main aims. The first was to investigate whether individuals, on average, increase reproductive investment in response to an immune threat, as predicted by the terminal investment hypothesis. We also examined whether such responses vary adaptively on factors associated with the amount of reproductive opportunities left (residual reproductive value) in the individuals, as predicted by the terminal investment hypothesis. The second was to provide a quantitative test of a novel prediction based on the dynamic threshold model: that an immune threat increases between-individual variance in reproductive investment. Our results provided some support for our hypotheses. Older individuals, who are expected to have lower residual reproductive values, showed stronger mean terminal investment response than younger individuals. In terms of variance, individuals showed a divergence in responses, leading to an increase in variance. This increase in variance was especially amplified in longer-living species, which was consistent with our prediction that individuals in longer-living species should respond with greater individual variation due to increased phenotypic plasticity. We find little statistical evidence of publication bias. Together, our results highlight the need for a more nuanced view on the terminal investment hypothesis and a greater focus on the factors that drive individual responses.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Bozdag GO, Zamani-Dahaj SA, Day TC, et al (2023)

De novo evolution of macroscopic multicellularity.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

While early multicellular lineages necessarily started out as relatively simple groups of cells, little is known about how they became Darwinian entities capable of sustained multicellular evolution[1-3]. Here we investigate this with a multicellularity long-term evolution experiment, selecting for larger group size in the snowflake yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) model system. Given the historical importance of oxygen limitation[4], our ongoing experiment consists of three metabolic treatments[5]-anaerobic, obligately aerobic and mixotrophic yeast. After 600 rounds of selection, snowflake yeast in the anaerobic treatment group evolved to be macroscopic, becoming around 2 × 10[4] times larger (approximately mm scale) and about 10[4]-fold more biophysically tough, while retaining a clonal multicellular life cycle. This occurred through biophysical adaptation-evolution of increasingly elongate cells that initially reduced the strain of cellular packing and then facilitated branch entanglements that enabled groups of cells to stay together even after many cellular bonds fracture. By contrast, snowflake yeast competing for low oxygen[5] remained microscopic, evolving to be only around sixfold larger, underscoring the critical role of oxygen levels in the evolution of multicellular size. Together, this research provides unique insights into an ongoing evolutionary transition in individuality, showing how simple groups of cells overcome fundamental biophysical limitations through gradual, yet sustained, multicellular evolution.

RevDate: 2023-05-09

Conlin PL, WC Ratcliff (2023)

Evolution: Understanding the origins of facultative multicellular life cycles.

Current biology : CB, 33(9):R356-R358.

Multicellular organisms exhibit a fascinating diversity of life cycles, but little is known about the factors governing life-cycle evolution. New studies of wild yeast and cyanobacteria provide insight into how and why facultative multicellular life cycles arise.

RevDate: 2023-05-09

Pradeu T, Daignan-Fornier B, Ewald A, et al (2023)

Reuniting philosophy and science to advance cancer research.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Cancers rely on multiple, heterogeneous processes at different scales, pertaining to many biomedical fields. Therefore, understanding cancer is necessarily an interdisciplinary task that requires placing specialised experimental and clinical research into a broader conceptual, theoretical, and methodological framework. Without such a framework, oncology will collect piecemeal results, with scant dialogue between the different scientific communities studying cancer. We argue that one important way forward in service of a more successful dialogue is through greater integration of applied sciences (experimental and clinical) with conceptual and theoretical approaches, informed by philosophical methods. By way of illustration, we explore six central themes: (i) the role of mutations in cancer; (ii) the clonal evolution of cancer cells; (iii) the relationship between cancer and multicellularity; (iv) the tumour microenvironment; (v) the immune system; and (vi) stem cells. In each case, we examine open questions in the scientific literature through a philosophical methodology and show the benefit of such a synergy for the scientific and medical understanding of cancer.

RevDate: 2023-05-08

Levin M (2023)

Darwin's agential materials: evolutionary implications of multiscale competency in developmental biology.

Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 80(6):142.

A critical aspect of evolution is the layer of developmental physiology that operates between the genotype and the anatomical phenotype. While much work has addressed the evolution of developmental mechanisms and the evolvability of specific genetic architectures with emergent complexity, one aspect has not been sufficiently explored: the implications of morphogenetic problem-solving competencies for the evolutionary process itself. The cells that evolution works with are not passive components: rather, they have numerous capabilities for behavior because they derive from ancestral unicellular organisms with rich repertoires. In multicellular organisms, these capabilities must be tamed, and can be exploited, by the evolutionary process. Specifically, biological structures have a multiscale competency architecture where cells, tissues, and organs exhibit regulative plasticity-the ability to adjust to perturbations such as external injury or internal modifications and still accomplish specific adaptive tasks across metabolic, transcriptional, physiological, and anatomical problem spaces. Here, I review examples illustrating how physiological circuits guiding cellular collective behavior impart computational properties to the agential material that serves as substrate for the evolutionary process. I then explore the ways in which the collective intelligence of cells during morphogenesis affect evolution, providing a new perspective on the evolutionary search process. This key feature of the physiological software of life helps explain the remarkable speed and robustness of biological evolution, and sheds new light on the relationship between genomes and functional anatomical phenotypes.

RevDate: 2023-05-08

Cooney DB, Levin SA, Mori Y, et al (2023)

Evolutionary dynamics within and among competing groups.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(20):e2216186120.

Biological and social systems are structured at multiple scales, and the incentives of individuals who interact in a group may diverge from the collective incentive of the group as a whole. Mechanisms to resolve this tension are responsible for profound transitions in evolutionary history, including the origin of cellular life, multicellular life, and even societies. Here, we synthesize a growing literature that extends evolutionary game theory to describe multilevel evolutionary dynamics, using nested birth-death processes and partial differential equations to model natural selection acting on competition within and among groups of individuals. We analyze how mechanisms known to promote cooperation within a single group-including assortment, reciprocity, and population structure-alter evolutionary outcomes in the presence of competition among groups. We find that population structures most conducive to cooperation in multiscale systems can differ from those most conducive within a single group. Likewise, for competitive interactions with a continuous range of strategies we find that among-group selection may fail to produce socially optimal outcomes, but it can nonetheless produce second-best solutions that balance individual incentives to defect with the collective incentives for cooperation. We conclude by describing the broad applicability of multiscale evolutionary models to problems ranging from the production of diffusible metabolites in microbes to the management of common-pool resources in human societies.

RevDate: 2023-05-08

W B M, A S R, P M, et al (2023)

Cellular and Natural Viral Engineering in Cognition-Based Evolution.

Communicative & integrative biology, 16(1):2196145.

Neo-Darwinism conceptualizes evolution as the continuous succession of predominately random genetic variations disciplined by natural selection. In that frame, the primary interaction between cells and the virome is relegated to host-parasite dynamics governed by selective influences. Cognition-Based Evolution regards biological and evolutionary development as a reciprocating cognition-based informational interactome for the protection of self-referential cells. To sustain cellular homeorhesis, cognitive cells collaborate to assess the validity of ambiguous biological information. That collective interaction involves coordinate measurement, communication, and active deployment of resources as Natural Cellular Engineering. These coordinated activities drive multicellularity, biological development, and evolutionary change. The virome participates as the vital intercessory among the cellular domains to ensure their shared permanent perpetuation. The interactions between the virome and the cellular domains represent active virocellular cross-communications for the continual exchange of resources. Modular genetic transfers between viruses and cells carry bioactive potentials. Those exchanges are deployed as nonrandom flexible tools among the domains in their continuous confrontation with environmental stresses. This alternative framework fundamentally shifts our perspective on viral-cellular interactions, strengthening established principles of viral symbiogenesis. Pathogenesis can now be properly appraised as one expression of a range of outcomes between cells and viruses within a larger conceptual framework of Natural Viral Engineering as a co-engineering participant with cells. It is proposed that Natural Viral Engineering should be viewed as a co-existent facet of Natural Cellular Engineering within Cognition-Based Evolution.

RevDate: 2023-05-04

Tsai HH, Wang J, Geldner N, et al (2023)

Spatiotemporal control of root immune responses during microbial colonization.

Current opinion in plant biology, 74:102369 pii:S1369-5266(23)00034-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The entire evolutionary trajectory of plants towards large and complex multi-cellular organisms has been accompanied by incessant interactions with omnipresent unicellular microbes. This led to the evolution of highly complex microbial communities, whose members display the entire spectrum of pathogenic to mutualistic behaviors. Plant roots are dynamic, fractally growing organs and even small Arabidopsis roots harbor millions of individual microbes of diverse taxa. It is evident that microbes at different positions on a root surface could experience fundamentally different environments, which, moreover, rapidly change over time. Differences in spatial scales between microbes and roots compares to humans and the cities they inhabit. Such considerations make it evident that mechanisms of root-microbe interactions can only be understood if analyzed at relevant spatial and temporal scales. This review attempts to provide an overview of the rapid recent progress that has been made in mapping and manipulating plant damage and immune responses at cellular resolution, as well as in visualizing bacterial communities and their transcriptional activities. We further discuss the impact that such approaches will have for a more predictive understanding of root-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2023-05-04

Krasovec M, Hoshino M, Zheng M, et al (2023)

Low spontaneous mutation rate in complex multicellular eukaryotes with a haploid-diploid life cycle.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:7151258 [Epub ahead of print].

The spontaneous mutation rate µ is a crucial parameter to understand evolution and biodiversity. Mutation rates are highly variable across species, suggesting that µ is susceptible to selection and drift and that species life cycle and life history may impact its evolution. In particular, asexual reproduction and haploid selection are expected to affect mutation rate, but very little empirical data is available to test this expectation. Here, we sequence 30 genomes of a parent-offspring pedigree in the model brown alga Ectocarpus sp.7, and 137 genomes of an interspecific cross of the closely related brown alga Scytosiphon to have access to the spontaneous mutation rate of representative organisms of a complex multicellular eukaryotic lineage outside animals and plants, and to evaluate the potential impact of life cycle on mutation rate. Brown algae alternate between a haploid and a diploid stage, both multicellular and free living, and utilize both sexual and asexual reproduction. They are therefore excellent models to empirically test expectations of the effect of asexual reproduction and haploid selection on mutation rate evolution. We estimate that Ectocarpus has a base substitution rate of µbs = 4.07 × 10-10 per site per generation, whereas the Scytosiphon interspecific cross had µbs =1.22 × 10-9. Overall, our estimations suggest that these brown algae, despite being multicellular complex eukaryotes, have unusually low mutation rates. In Ectocarpus, effective population size (Ne) could not entirely explain the low µb. We propose that the haploid-diploid life cycle, combined with extensive asexual reproduction may be additional key drivers of mutation rate.

RevDate: 2023-05-01

Nikitin MA, Romanova DY, Borman SI, et al (2023)

Amino acids integrate behaviors in nerveless placozoans.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 17:1125624.

Placozoans are the simplest known free-living animals without recognized neurons and muscles but a complex behavioral repertoire. However, mechanisms and cellular bases of behavioral coordination are unknown. Here, using Trichoplax adhaerens as a model, we described 0.02-0.002 Hz oscillations in locomotory and feeding patterns as evidence of complex multicellular integration; and showed their dependence on the endogenous secretion of signal molecules. Evolutionary conserved low-molecular-weight transmitters (glutamate, aspartate, glycine, GABA, and ATP) acted as coordinators of distinct locomotory and feeding patterns. Specifically, L-glutamate induced and partially mimicked endogenous feeding cycles, whereas glycine and GABA suppressed feeding. ATP-modified feeding is complex, first causing feeding-like cycles and then suppressing feeding. Trichoplax locomotion was modulated by glycine, GABA, and, surprisingly, by animals' own mucus trails. Mucus triples locomotory speed compared to clean substrates. Glycine and GABA increased the frequency of turns. The effects of the amino acids are likely mediated by numerous receptors (R), including those from ionotropic GluRs, metabotropic GluRs, and GABA-BR families. Eighty-five of these receptors are encoded in the Trichoplax genome, more than in any other animal sequenced. Phylogenetic reconstructions illuminate massive lineage-specific expansions of amino acid receptors in Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Porifera and parallel evolution of nutritional sensing. Furthermore, we view the integration of feeding behaviors in nerveless animals by amino acids as ancestral exaptations that pave the way for co-options of glutamate, glycine, GABA, and ATP as classical neurotransmitters in eumetazoans.

RevDate: 2023-04-28

Grochau-Wright ZI, Nedelcu AM, RE Michod (2023)

The Genetics of Fitness Reorganization during the Transition to Multicellularity: The Volvocine regA-like Family as a Model.

Genes, 14(4): pii:genes14040941.

The evolutionary transition from single-celled to multicellular individuality requires organismal fitness to shift from the cell level to a cell group. This reorganization of fitness occurs by re-allocating the two components of fitness, survival and reproduction, between two specialized cell types in the multicellular group: soma and germ, respectively. How does the genetic basis for such fitness reorganization evolve? One possible mechanism is the co-option of life history genes present in the unicellular ancestors of a multicellular lineage. For instance, single-celled organisms must regulate their investment in survival and reproduction in response to environmental changes, particularly decreasing reproduction to ensure survival under stress. Such stress response life history genes can provide the genetic basis for the evolution of cellular differentiation in multicellular lineages. The regA-like gene family in the volvocine green algal lineage provides an excellent model system to study how this co-option can occur. We discuss the origin and evolution of the volvocine regA-like gene family, including regA-the gene that controls somatic cell development in the model organism Volvox carteri. We hypothesize that the co-option of life history trade-off genes is a general mechanism involved in the transition to multicellular individuality, making volvocine algae and the regA-like family a useful template for similar investigations in other lineages.

RevDate: 2023-04-28

Casotti MC, Meira DD, Zetum ASS, et al (2023)

Computational Biology Helps Understand How Polyploid Giant Cancer Cells Drive Tumor Success.

Genes, 14(4): pii:genes14040801.

Precision and organization govern the cell cycle, ensuring normal proliferation. However, some cells may undergo abnormal cell divisions (neosis) or variations of mitotic cycles (endopolyploidy). Consequently, the formation of polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs), critical for tumor survival, resistance, and immortalization, can occur. Newly formed cells end up accessing numerous multicellular and unicellular programs that enable metastasis, drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and self-renewal or diverse clone formation. An integrative literature review was carried out, searching articles in several sites, including: PUBMED, NCBI-PMC, and Google Academic, published in English, indexed in referenced databases and without a publication time filter, but prioritizing articles from the last 3 years, to answer the following questions: (i) "What is the current knowledge about polyploidy in tumors?"; (ii) "What are the applications of computational studies for the understanding of cancer polyploidy?"; and (iii) "How do PGCCs contribute to tumorigenesis?"

RevDate: 2023-04-25

Colgren J, P Burkhardt (2023)

Evolution: Was the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio a key factor in the origin of animal multicellularity?.

Current biology : CB, 33(8):R298-R300.

The ichthyosporean Sphaeroforma arctica, a protist closely related to animals, displays coenocytic development followed by cellularization and cell release. A new study reveals that the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio drives cellularization in these fascinating organisms.

RevDate: 2023-04-25

Stéger A, M Palmgren (2023)

Hypothesis paper: the development of a regulatory layer in P2B autoinhibited Ca[2+]-ATPases may have facilitated plant terrestrialization and animal multicellularization.

Plant signaling & behavior, 18(1):2204284.

With the appearance of plants and animals, new challenges emerged. These multicellular eukaryotes had to solve for example the difficulties of multifaceted communication between cells and adaptation to new habitats. In this paper, we are looking for one piece of the puzzle that made the development of complex multicellular eukaryotes possible with a focus on regulation of P2B autoinhibited Ca[2+]-ATPases. P2B ATPases pump Ca[2+] out of the cytosol at the expense of ATP hydrolysis, and thereby maintain a steep gradient between the extra- and intracytosolic compartments which is utilized for Ca[2+]-mediated rapid cell signaling. The activity of these enzymes is regulated by a calmodulin (CaM)-responsive autoinhibitory region, which can be located in either termini of the protein, at the C-terminus in animals and at the N-terminus in plants. When the cytoplasmic Ca[2+] level reaches a threshold, the CaM/Ca[2+] complex binds to a calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) in the autoinhibitor, which leads to the upregulation of pump activity. In animals, protein activity is also controlled by acidic phospholipids that bind to a cytosolic portion of the pump. Here, we analyze the appearance of CaMBDs and the phospholipid-activating sequence and show that their evolution in animals and plants was independent. Furthermore, we hypothesize that different causes may have initiated the appearance of these regulatory layers: in animals, it is linked to the appearance of multicellularity, while in plants it co-occurs with their water-to-land transition.

RevDate: 2023-04-24

Ros-Rocher N, Kidner RQ, Gerdt C, et al (2023)

Chemical factors induce aggregative multicellularity in a close unicellular relative of animals.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(18):e2216668120.

Regulated cellular aggregation is an essential process for development and healing in many animal tissues. In some animals and a few distantly related unicellular species, cellular aggregation is regulated by diffusible chemical cues. However, it is unclear whether regulated cellular aggregation was part of the life cycles of the first multicellular animals and/or their unicellular ancestors. To fill this gap, we investigated the triggers of cellular aggregation in one of animals' closest unicellular living relatives-the filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki. We discovered that Capsaspora aggregation is induced by chemical cues, as observed in some of the earliest branching animals and other unicellular species. Specifically, we found that calcium ions and lipids present in lipoproteins function together to induce aggregation of viable Capsaspora cells. We also found that this multicellular stage is reversible as depletion of the cues triggers disaggregation, which can be overcome upon reinduction. Our finding demonstrates that chemically regulated aggregation is important across diverse members of the holozoan clade. Therefore, this phenotype was plausibly integral to the life cycles of the unicellular ancestors of animals.

RevDate: 2023-04-24

Kumar T, Sethuraman R, Mitra S, et al (2023)

MultiCens: Multilayer network centrality measures to uncover molecular mediators of tissue-tissue communication.

PLoS computational biology, 19(4):e1011022 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-22-01422 [Epub ahead of print].

With the evolution of multicellularity, communication among cells in different tissues and organs became pivotal to life. Molecular basis of such communication has long been studied, but genome-wide screens for genes and other biomolecules mediating tissue-tissue signaling are lacking. To systematically identify inter-tissue mediators, we present a novel computational approach MultiCens (Multilayer/Multi-tissue network Centrality measures). Unlike single-layer network methods, MultiCens can distinguish within- vs. across-layer connectivity to quantify the "influence" of any gene in a tissue on a query set of genes of interest in another tissue. MultiCens enjoys theoretical guarantees on convergence and decomposability, and performs well on synthetic benchmarks. On human multi-tissue datasets, MultiCens predicts known and novel genes linked to hormones. MultiCens further reveals shifts in gene network architecture among four brain regions in Alzheimer's disease. MultiCens-prioritized hypotheses from these two diverse applications, and potential future ones like "Multi-tissue-expanded Gene Ontology" analysis, can enable whole-body yet molecular-level systems investigations in humans.

RevDate: 2023-04-22

Hashimoto A, Kawamura N, Tarusawa E, et al (2023)

Microglia enable cross-modal plasticity by removing inhibitory synapses.

Cell reports pii:S2211-1247(23)00394-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Cross-modal plasticity is the repurposing of brain regions associated with deprived sensory inputs to improve the capacity of other sensory modalities. The functional mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity can indicate how the brain recovers from various forms of injury and how different sensory modalities are integrated. Here, we demonstrate that rewiring of the microglia-mediated local circuit synapse is crucial for cross-modal plasticity induced by visual deprivation (monocular deprivation [MD]). MD relieves the usual inhibition of functional connectivity between the somatosensory cortex and secondary lateral visual cortex (V2L). This results in enhanced excitatory responses in V2L neurons during whisker stimulation and a greater capacity for vibrissae sensory discrimination. The enhanced cross-modal response is mediated by selective removal of inhibitory synapse terminals on pyramidal neurons by the microglia in the V2L via matrix metalloproteinase 9 signaling. Our results provide insights into how cortical circuits integrate different inputs to functionally compensate for neuronal damage.

RevDate: 2023-04-21

Isaksson H, Brännström Å, E Libby (2023)

Minor variations in multicellular life cycles have major effects on adaptation.

PLoS computational biology, 19(4):e1010698 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-22-01593 [Epub ahead of print].

Multicellularity has evolved several independent times over the past hundreds of millions of years and given rise to a wide diversity of complex life. Recent studies have found that large differences in the fundamental structure of early multicellular life cycles can affect fitness and influence multicellular adaptation. Yet, there is an underlying assumption that at some scale or categorization multicellular life cycles are similar in terms of their adaptive potential. Here, we consider this possibility by exploring adaptation in a class of simple multicellular life cycles of filamentous organisms that only differ in one respect, how many daughter filaments are produced. We use mathematical models and evolutionary simulations to show that despite the similarities, qualitatively different mutations fix. In particular, we find that mutations with a tradeoff between cell growth and group survival, i.e. "selfish" or "altruistic" traits, spread differently. Specifically, altruistic mutations more readily spread in life cycles that produce few daughters while in life cycles producing many daughters either type of mutation can spread depending on the environment. Our results show that subtle changes in multicellular life cycles can fundamentally alter adaptation.

RevDate: 2023-04-20

Cornwallis CK, Svensson-Coelho M, Lindh M, et al (2023)

Single-cell adaptations shape evolutionary transitions to multicellularity in green algae.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

The evolution of multicellular life has played a pivotal role in shaping biological diversity. However, we know surprisingly little about the natural environmental conditions that favour the formation of multicellular groups. Here we experimentally examine how key environmental factors (predation, nitrogen and water turbulence) combine to influence multicellular group formation in 35 wild unicellular green algae strains (19 Chlorophyta species). All environmental factors induced the formation of multicellular groups (more than four cells), but there was no evidence this was adaptive, as multicellularity (% cells in groups) was not related to population growth rate under any condition. Instead, population growth was related to extracellular matrix (ECM) around single cells and palmelloid formation, a unicellular life-cycle stage where two to four cells are retained within a mother-cell wall after mitosis. ECM production increased with nitrogen levels resulting in more cells being in palmelloids and higher rates of multicellular group formation. Examining the distribution of 332 algae species across 478 lakes monitored over 55 years, showed that ECM and nitrogen availability also predicted patterns of obligate multicellularity in nature. Our results highlight that adaptations of unicellular organisms to cope with environmental challenges may be key to understanding evolutionary routes to multicellular life.

RevDate: 2023-04-20

Cadart C, Bartz J, Oaks G, et al (2023)

Polyploidy in Xenopus lowers metabolic rate by decreasing total cell surface area.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(23)00391-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Although polyploidization is frequent in development, cancer, and evolution, impacts on animal metabolism are poorly understood. In Xenopus frogs, the number of genome copies (ploidy) varies across species and can be manipulated within a species. Here, we show that triploid tadpoles contain fewer, larger cells than diploids and consume oxygen at a lower rate. Drug treatments revealed that the major processes accounting for tadpole energy expenditure include cell proliferation, biosynthesis, and maintenance of plasma membrane potential. While inhibiting cell proliferation did not abolish the oxygen consumption difference between diploids and triploids, treatments that altered cellular biosynthesis or electrical potential did. Combining these results with a simple mathematical framework, we propose that the decrease in total cell surface area lowered production and activity of plasma membrane components including the Na[+]/K[+] ATPase, reducing energy consumption in triploids. Comparison of Xenopus species that evolved through polyploidization revealed that metabolic differences emerged during development when cell size scaled with genome size. Thus, ploidy affects metabolism by altering the cell surface area to volume ratio in a multicellular organism.

RevDate: 2023-04-19

Chen H, Li DH, Jiang AJ, et al (2022)

Metagenomic analysis reveals wide distribution of phototrophic bacteria in hydrothermal vents on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge.

Marine life science & technology, 4(2):255-267.

UNLABELLED: Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are known as chemosynthetic ecosystems. However, high temperature vents emit light that hypothetically can drive photosynthesis in this habitat. Metagenomic studies have sporadically reported the occurrence of phototrophic populations such as cyanobacteria in hydrothermal vents. To determine how geographically and taxonomically widespread phototrophs are in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, we collected samples from three niches in a hydrothermal vent on the Southwest Indian Ridge and carried out an integrated metagenomic analysis. We determined the typical community structures of microorganisms found in active venting fields and identified populations of known potential chlorophototrophs and retinalophototrophs. Complete chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways were identified in all samples. By contrast, proteorhodopsins were only found in active beehive smoker diffusers. Taxonomic groups possessing potential phototrophy dependent on semiconductors present in hydrothermal vents were also found in these samples. This systematic comparative metagenomic study reveals the widespread distribution of phototrophic bacteria in hydrothermal vent fields. Our results support the hypothesis that the ocean is a seed bank of diverse microorganisms. Geothermal vent light may provide energy and confer a competitive advantage on phototrophs to proliferate in hydrothermal vent ecosystems.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42995-021-00121-y.

RevDate: 2023-04-17

Xiao K, Wang Y, Dong K, et al (2023)

SmartGate is a spatial metabolomics tool for resolving tissue structures.

Briefings in bioinformatics pii:7126351 [Epub ahead of print].

Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is one of the powerful tools in spatial metabolomics for obtaining metabolite data and probing the internal microenvironment of organisms. It has dramatically advanced the understanding of the structure of biological tissues and the drug treatment of diseases. However, the complexity of IMS data hinders the further acquisition of biomarkers and the study of certain specific activities of organisms. To this end, we introduce an artificial intelligence tool, SmartGate, to enable automatic peak selection and spatial structure identification in an iterative manner. SmartGate selects discriminative m/z features from the previous iteration by differential analysis and employs a graph attention autoencoder model to perform spatial clustering for tissue segmentation using the selected features. We applied SmartGate to diverse IMS data at multicellular or subcellular spatial resolutions and compared it with four competing methods to demonstrate its effectiveness. SmartGate can significantly improve the accuracy of spatial segmentation and identify biomarker metabolites based on tissue structure-guided differential analysis. For multiple consecutive IMS data, SmartGate can effectively identify structures with spatial heterogeneity by introducing three-dimensional spatial neighbor information.

RevDate: 2023-04-17

Ros-Rocher N, T Brunet (2023)

What is it like to be a choanoflagellate? Sensation, processing and behavior in the closest unicellular relatives of animals.

Animal cognition [Epub ahead of print].

All animals evolved from a single lineage of unicellular precursors more than 600 million years ago. Thus, the biological and genetic foundations for animal sensation, cognition and behavior must necessarily have arisen by modifications of pre-existing features in their unicellular ancestors. Given that the single-celled ancestors of the animal kingdom are extinct, the only way to reconstruct how these features evolved is by comparing the biology and genomic content of extant animals to their closest living relatives. Here, we reconstruct the Umwelt (the subjective, perceptive world) inhabited by choanoflagellates, a group of unicellular (or facultatively multicellular) aquatic microeukaryotes that are the closest living relatives of animals. Although behavioral research on choanoflagellates remains patchy, existing evidence shows that they are capable of chemosensation, photosensation and mechanosensation. These processes often involve specialized sensorimotor cellular appendages (cilia, microvilli, and/or filopodia) that resemble those that underlie perception in most animal sensory cells. Furthermore, comparative genomics predicts an extensive "sensory molecular toolkit" in choanoflagellates, which both provides a potential basis for known behaviors and suggests the existence of a largely undescribed behavioral complexity that presents exciting avenues for future research. Finally, we discuss how facultative multicellularity in choanoflagellates might help us understand how evolution displaced the locus of decision-making from a single cell to a collective, and how a new space of behavioral complexity might have become accessible in the process.

RevDate: 2023-04-13

Leitner N, Ertl R, Gabner S, et al (2023)

Isolation and Characterization of Novel Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines from Chemotherapy-Naïve Patients.

Cells, 12(7): pii:cells12071026.

The present study aimed to establish novel canine osteosarcoma cell lines (COS3600, COS3600B, COS4074) and characterize the recently described COS4288 cells. The established D-17 cell line served as a reference. Analyzed cell lines differed notably in their biological characteristics. Calculated doubling times were between 22 h for COS3600B and 426 h for COS4074 cells. COS3600B and COS4288 cells produced visible colonies after anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. COS4288 cells were identified as cells with the highest migratory capacity. All cells displayed the ability to invade through an artificial basement membrane matrix. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the mesenchymal origin of all COS cell lines as well as positive staining for the osteosarcoma-relevant proteins alkaline phosphatase and karyopherin α2. Expression of p53 was confirmed in all tested cell lines. Gene expression analyses of selected genes linked to cellular immune checkpoints (CD270, CD274, CD276), kinase activity (MET, ERBB2), and metastatic potential (MMP-2, MMP-9) as well as selected long non-coding RNA (MALAT1) and microRNAs (miR-9, miR-34a, miR-93) are provided. All tested cell lines were able to grow as multicellular spheroids. In all spheroids except COS4288, calcium deposition was detected by von Kossa staining. We believe that these new cell lines serve as useful biological models for future studies.

RevDate: 2023-04-13

Vinogradov AE, OV Anatskaya (2023)

Systemic Alterations of Cancer Cells and Their Boost by Polyploidization: Unicellular Attractor (UCA) Model.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(7): pii:ijms24076196.

Using meta-analyses, we introduce a unicellular attractor (UCA) model integrating essential features of the 'atavistic reversal', 'cancer attractor', 'somatic mutation', 'genome chaos', and 'tissue organization field' theories. The 'atavistic reversal' theory is taken as a keystone. We propose a possible mechanism of this reversal, its refinement called 'gradual atavism', and evidence for the 'serial atavism' model. We showed the gradual core-to-periphery evolutionary growth of the human interactome resulting in the higher protein interaction density and global interactome centrality in the UC center. In addition, we revealed that UC genes are more actively expressed even in normal cells. The modeling of random walk along protein interaction trajectories demonstrated that random alterations in cellular networks, caused by genetic and epigenetic changes, can result in a further gradual activation of the UC center. These changes can be induced and accelerated by cellular stress that additionally activates UC genes (especially during cell proliferation), because the genes involved in cellular stress response and cell cycle are mostly of UC origin. The functional enrichment analysis showed that cancer cells demonstrate the hyperactivation of energetics and the suppression of multicellular genes involved in communication with the extracellular environment (especially immune surveillance). Collectively, these events can unleash selfish cell behavior aimed at survival at all means. All these changes are boosted by polyploidization. The UCA model may facilitate an understanding of oncogenesis and promote the development of therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-04-12

Li G, Chen L, Pang K, et al (2023)

Tonian carbonaceous compressions indicate that Horodyskia is one of the oldest multicellular and coenocytic macro-organisms.

Communications biology, 6(1):399.

Macrofossils with unambiguous biogenic origin and predating the one-billion-year-old multicellular fossils Bangiomorpha and Proterocladus interpreted as crown-group eukaryotes are quite rare. Horodyskia is one of these few macrofossils, and it extends from the early Mesoproterozoic Era to the terminal Ediacaran Period. The biological interpretation of this enigmatic fossil, however, has been a matter of controversy since its discovery in 1982, largely because there was no evidence for the preservation of organic walls. Here we report new carbonaceous compressions of Horodyskia from the Tonian successions (~950-720 Ma) in North China. The macrofossils herein with bona fide organic walls reinforce the biogenicity of Horodyskia. Aided by the new material, we reconstruct Horodyskia as a colonial organism composed of a chain of organic-walled vesicles that likely represent multinucleated (coenocytic) cells of early eukaryotes. Two species of Horodyskia are differentiated on the basis of vesicle sizes, and their co-existence in the Tonian assemblage provides a link between the Mesoproterozoic (H. moniliformis) and the Ediacaran (H. minor) species. Our study thus provides evidence that eukaryotes have acquired macroscopic size through the combination of coenocytism and colonial multicellularity at least ~1.48 Ga, and highlights an exceptionally long range and morphological stasis of this Proterozoic macrofossils.

RevDate: 2023-04-08

Varilla González JD, Macedo Alves F, Bagnatori Sartori ÂL, et al (2023)

Diversity and evolution of leaflet anatomical characters in the Pterocarpus clade (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae).

Journal of plant research [Epub ahead of print].

The Pterocarpus clade includes 23 genera previously attributed to different Fabaceae tribes. The recent rearrangements of many genera in the clade do not recognize morphological synapomorphies. This study aimed to identify new synapomorphies for the Pterocarpus clade, to identify characters supporting inter-generic relationships currently resolved only by molecular data and to identify diagnostic characters at the genus and species levels. Subterminal leaflets of the studied genera were selected and analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy. Ancestral reconstruction was performed using morphological and anatomical characters of 16 genera of the Pterocarpus clade. The convex epidermal relief in the region of the main vein indicated the relationship among all genera of the group. Anchor-like multicellular trichomes are features shared by Brya and Cranocarpus, which are the sister group to the other genera of the clade. Subepidermal layers are features shared by the Centrolobium, Etaballia, Paramachaerium, Pterocarpus and Tipuana genera, and the sclerenchyma sheath in the leaflet margin is reported in the Discolobium, Riedeliella and Platymiscium genera. Bulbous based glandular trichomes and vesicular glandular trichomes are diagnostic at the species level in Centrolobium and Pterocarpus, respectively. The leaflet characters investigated can be useful for the taxonomic delimitation at both the genus and species levels of the Pterocarpus clade. Our dataset provides new synapomorphies, elucidates the inter-generic relationships and reinforces the phylogenetic classification of the Pterocarpus clade resolved by molecular data.

RevDate: 2023-04-10
CmpDate: 2023-04-10

Darras H, Berney C, Hasin S, et al (2023)

Obligate chimerism in male yellow crazy ants.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 380(6640):55-58.

Multicellular organisms typically develop from a single fertilized egg and therefore consist of clonal cells. We report an extraordinary reproductive system in the yellow crazy ant. Males are chimeras of haploid cells from two divergent lineages: R and W. R cells are overrepresented in the males' somatic tissues, whereas W cells are overrepresented in their sperm. Chimerism occurs when parental nuclei bypass syngamy and divide separately within the same egg. When syngamy takes place, the diploid offspring either develops into a queen when the oocyte is fertilized by an R sperm or into a worker when fertilized by a W sperm. This study reveals a mode of reproduction that may be associated with a conflict between lineages to preferentially enter the germ line.

RevDate: 2023-04-05

Barrere J, Nanda P, AW Murray (2023)

Alternating selection for dispersal and multicellularity favors regulated life cycles.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(23)00319-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The evolution of complex multicellularity opened paths to increased morphological diversity and organizational novelty. This transition involved three processes: cells remained attached to one another to form groups, cells within these groups differentiated to perform different tasks, and the groups evolved new reproductive strategies.[1][,][2][,][3][,][4][,][5] Recent experiments identified selective pressures and mutations that can drive the emergence of simple multicellularity and cell differentiation,[6][,][7][,][8][,][9][,][10][,][11] but the evolution of life cycles, particularly how simple multicellular forms reproduce, has been understudied. The selective pressure and mechanisms that produced a regular alternation between single cells and multicellular collectives are still unclear.[12] To probe the factors regulating simple multicellular life cycles, we examined a collection of wild isolates of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae.[12][,][13] We found that all these strains can exist as multicellular clusters, a phenotype that is controlled by the mating-type locus and strongly influenced by the nutritional environment. Inspired by this variation, we engineered inducible dispersal in a multicellular laboratory strain and demonstrated that a regulated life cycle has an advantage over constitutively single-celled or constitutively multicellular life cycles when the environment alternates between favoring intercellular cooperation (a low sucrose concentration) and dispersal (a patchy environment generated by emulsion). Our results suggest that the separation of mother and daughter cells is under selection in wild isolates and is regulated by their genetic composition and the environments they encounter and that alternating patterns of resource availability may have played a role in the evolution of life cycles.

RevDate: 2023-04-03

Morehouse BR (2023)

Phage defense origin of animal immunity.

Current opinion in microbiology, 73:102295 pii:S1369-5274(23)00032-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The innate immune system is the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. Many of the features of eukaryotic innate immunity have long been viewed as lineage-specific innovations, evolved to deal with the challenges and peculiarities of multicellular life. However, it has become increasingly apparent that in addition to evolving their own unique antiviral immune strategies, all lifeforms have some shared defense strategies in common. Indeed, critical fixtures of animal innate immunity bear striking resemblance in both structure and function to the multitude of diverse bacteriophage (phage) defense pathways discovered hidden in plain sight within the genomes of bacteria and archaea. This review will highlight many surprising examples of the recently revealed connections between prokaryotic and eukaryotic antiviral immune systems.

RevDate: 2023-04-05
CmpDate: 2023-04-04

Guan X, Zhang L, Lai S, et al (2023)

Green synthesis of glyco-CuInS2 QDs with visible/NIR dual emission for 3D multicellular tumor spheroid and in vivo imaging.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 21(1):118.

Glyco-quantum dots (glyco-QDs) have attracted significant interest in bioimaging applications, notably in cancer imaging, because they effectively combine the glycocluster effect with the exceptional optical properties of QDs. The key challenge now lies in how to eliminate the high heavy metal toxicity originating from traditional toxic Cd-based QDs for in vivo bioimaging. Herein, we report an eco-friendly pathway to prepare nontoxic Cd-free glyco-QDs in water by the "direct" reaction of thiol-ending monosaccharides with metal salts precursors. The formation of glyco-CuInS2 QDs could be explained by a nucleation-growth mechanism following the LaMer model. As-prepared four glyco-CuInS2 QDs were water-soluble, monodispersed, spherical in shape and exhibited size range of 3.0-4.0 nm. They exhibited well-separated dual emission in the visible region (500-590 nm) and near-infrared range (~ 827 nm), which may be attributable to visible excitonic emission and near-infrared surface defect emission. Meanwhile, the cell imaging displayed the reversibly distinct dual-color (green and red) fluorescence in tumor cells (HeLa, A549, MKN-45) and excellent membrane-targeting properties of glyco-CuInS2 QDs based on their good biorecognition ability. Importantly, these QDs succeed in penetrating uniformly into the interior (the necrotic zone) of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) due to their high negative charge (zeta potential values ranging from - 23.9 to - 30.1 mV), which overcame the problem of poor penetration depth of existing QDs in in vitro spheroid models. So, confocal analysis confirmed their excellent ability to penetrate and label tumors. Thus, the successful application in in vivo bioimaging of these glyco-QDs verified that this design strategy is an effective, low cost and simple procedure for developing green nanoparticles as cheap and promising fluorescent bioprobes.

RevDate: 2023-04-05
CmpDate: 2023-04-04

Tang SK, Zhi XY, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

Cellular differentiation into hyphae and spores in halophilic archaea.

Nature communications, 14(1):1827.

Several groups of bacteria have complex life cycles involving cellular differentiation and multicellular structures. For example, actinobacteria of the genus Streptomyces form multicellular vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae, and spores. However, similar life cycles have not yet been described for archaea. Here, we show that several haloarchaea of the family Halobacteriaceae display a life cycle resembling that of Streptomyces bacteria. Strain YIM 93972 (isolated from a salt marsh) undergoes cellular differentiation into mycelia and spores. Other closely related strains are also able to form mycelia, and comparative genomic analyses point to gene signatures (apparent gain or loss of certain genes) that are shared by members of this clade within the Halobacteriaceae. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of non-differentiating mutants suggest that a Cdc48-family ATPase might be involved in cellular differentiation in strain YIM 93972. Additionally, a gene encoding a putative oligopeptide transporter from YIM 93972 can restore the ability to form hyphae in a Streptomyces coelicolor mutant that carries a deletion in a homologous gene cluster (bldKA-bldKE), suggesting functional equivalence. We propose strain YIM 93972 as representative of a new species in a new genus within the family Halobacteriaceae, for which the name Actinoarchaeum halophilum gen. nov., sp. nov. is herewith proposed. Our demonstration of a complex life cycle in a group of haloarchaea adds a new dimension to our understanding of the biological diversity and environmental adaptation of archaea.

RevDate: 2023-04-01

LeBleu VS, Dai J, Tsutakawa S, et al (2023)

Identification of unique α4 chain structure and conserved anti-angiogenic activity of α3NC1 type IV collagen in zebrafish.

Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Type IV collagen is an abundant component of basement membranes in all multicellular species and is essential for the extracellular scaffold supporting tissue architecture and function. Lower organisms typically have two type IV collagen genes, encoding α1 and α2 chains, in contrast with the six genes in humans, encoding α1 to α6 chains. The α chains assemble into trimeric protomers, the building blocks of the type IV collagen network. The detailed evolutionary conservation of type IV collagen network remains to be studied.

RESULTS: We report on the molecular evolution of type IV collagen genes. The zebrafish α4 non-collagenous (NC1) domain, in contrast with its human ortholog, contains an additional cysteine residue and lacks the M93 and K211 residues involved in sulfilimine bond formation between adjacent protomers. This may alter α4 chain interactions with other α chains, as supported by temporal and anatomic expression patterns of collagen IV chains during zebrafish development. Despite the divergence between zebrafish and human α3 NC1 domain (endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, Tumstatin), the zebrafish α3 NC1 domain exhibits conserved anti-angiogenic activity in human endothelial cells.

CONCLUSIONS: Our work supports type IV collagen is largely conserved between zebrafish and humans, with a possible difference involving the α4 chain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-04-04
CmpDate: 2023-04-04

Jiménez-Marín B, Rakijas JB, Tyagi A, et al (2023)

Gene loss during a transition to multicellularity.

Scientific reports, 13(1):5268.

Multicellular evolution is a major transition associated with momentous diversification of multiple lineages and increased developmental complexity. The volvocine algae comprise a valuable system for the study of this transition, as they span from unicellular to undifferentiated and differentiated multicellular morphologies despite their genomes being similar, suggesting multicellular evolution requires few genetic changes to undergo dramatic shifts in developmental complexity. Here, the evolutionary dynamics of six volvocine genomes were examined, where a gradual loss of genes was observed in parallel to the co-option of a few key genes. Protein complexes in the six species exhibited novel interactions, suggesting that gene loss could play a role in evolutionary novelty. This finding was supported by gene network modeling, where gene loss outpaces gene gain in generating novel stable network states. These results suggest gene loss, in addition to gene gain and co-option, may be important for the evolution developmental complexity.

RevDate: 2023-04-11

Little JC, Kaaronen RO, Hukkinen JI, et al (2023)

Earth Systems to Anthropocene Systems: An Evolutionary, System-of-Systems, Convergence Paradigm for Interdependent Societal Challenges.

Environmental science & technology, 57(14):5504-5520.

Humans have made profound changes to the Earth. The resulting societal challenges of the Anthropocene (e.g., climate change and impacts, renewable energy, adaptive infrastructure, disasters, pandemics, food insecurity, and biodiversity loss) are complex and systemic, with causes, interactions, and consequences that cascade across a globally connected system of systems. In this Critical Review, we turn to our "origin story" for insight, briefly tracing the formation of the Universe and the Earth, the emergence of life, the evolution of multicellular organisms, mammals, primates, and humans, as well as the more recent societal transitions involving agriculture, urbanization, industrialization, and computerization. Focusing on the evolution of the Earth, genetic evolution, the evolution of the brain, and cultural evolution, which includes technological evolution, we identify a nested evolutionary sequence of geophysical, biophysical, sociocultural, and sociotechnical systems, emphasizing the causal mechanisms that first formed, and then transformed, Earth systems into Anthropocene systems. Describing how the Anthropocene systems coevolved, and briefly illustrating how the ensuing societal challenges became tightly integrated across multiple spatial, temporal, and organizational scales, we conclude by proposing an evolutionary, system-of-systems, convergence paradigm for the entire family of interdependent societal challenges of the Anthropocene.

RevDate: 2023-03-30

Olivetta M, O Dudin (2023)

The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio drives cellularization in the close animal relative Sphaeroforma arctica.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(23)00307-X [Epub ahead of print].

The ratio of nuclear content to cytoplasmic volume (N/C ratio) is a key regulator driving the maternal-to-zygotic transition in most animal embryos. Altering this ratio often impacts zygotic genome activation and deregulates the timing and outcome of embryogenesis.[1][,][2][,][3] Despite being ubiquitous across animals, little is known about when the N/C ratio evolved to control multicellular development. Such capacity either originated with the emergence of animal multicellularity or was co-opted from the mechanisms present in unicellular organisms.[4] An effective strategy to tackle this question is to investigate the close relatives of animals exhibiting life cycles with transient multicellular stages.[5] Among these are ichthyosporeans, a lineage of protists undergoing coenocytic development followed by cellularization and cell release.[6][,][7][,][8] During cellularization, a transient multicellular stage resembling animal epithelia is generated, offering a unique opportunity to examine whether the N/C ratio regulates multicellular development. Here, we use time-lapse microscopy to characterize how the N/C ratio affects the life cycle of the best-studied ichthyosporean model, Sphaeroforma arctica. We uncover that the last stages of cellularization coincide with a significant increase in the N/C ratio. Increasing the N/C ratio by reducing the coenocytic volume accelerates cellularization, whereas decreasing the N/C ratio by lowering the nuclear content halts it. Moreover, centrifugation and pharmacological inhibitor experiments suggest that the N/C ratio is locally sensed at the cortex and relies on phosphatase activity. Altogether, our results show that the N/C ratio drives cellularization in S. arctica, suggesting that its capacity to control multicellular development predates animal emergence.

RevDate: 2023-03-30

Herold J, Behle E, Rosenbauer J, et al (2023)

Development of a scoring function for comparing simulated and experimental tumor spheroids.

PLoS computational biology, 19(3):e1010471 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-22-01213 [Epub ahead of print].

Progress continues in the field of cancer biology, yet much remains to be unveiled regarding the mechanisms of cancer invasion. In particular, complex biophysical mechanisms enable a tumor to remodel the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), allowing cells to invade alone or collectively. Tumor spheroids cultured in collagen represent a simplified, reproducible 3D model system, which is sufficiently complex to recapitulate the evolving organization of cells and interaction with the ECM that occur during invasion. Recent experimental approaches enable high resolution imaging and quantification of the internal structure of invading tumor spheroids. Concurrently, computational modeling enables simulations of complex multicellular aggregates based on first principles. The comparison between real and simulated spheroids represents a way to fully exploit both data sources, but remains a challenge. We hypothesize that comparing any two spheroids requires first the extraction of basic features from the raw data, and second the definition of key metrics to match such features. Here, we present a novel method to compare spatial features of spheroids in 3D. To do so, we define and extract features from spheroid point cloud data, which we simulated using Cells in Silico (CiS), a high-performance framework for large-scale tissue modeling previously developed by us. We then define metrics to compare features between individual spheroids, and combine all metrics into an overall deviation score. Finally, we use our features to compare experimental data on invading spheroids in increasing collagen densities. We propose that our approach represents the basis for defining improved metrics to compare large 3D data sets. Moving forward, this approach will enable the detailed analysis of spheroids of any origin, one application of which is informing in silico spheroids based on their in vitro counterparts. This will enable both basic and applied researchers to close the loop between modeling and experiments in cancer research.

RevDate: 2023-03-30

Östmans R, Cortes Ruiz MF, Rostami J, et al (2023)

Elastoplastic behavior of anisotropic, physically crosslinked hydrogel networks comprising stiff, charged fibrils in an electrolyte.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

Fibrillar hydrogels are remarkably stiff, low-density networks that can hold vast amounts of water. These hydrogels can easily be made anisotropic by orienting the fibrils using different methods. Unlike the detailed and established descriptions of polymer gels, there is no coherent theoretical framework describing the elastoplastic behavior of fibrillar gels, especially concerning anisotropy. In this work, the swelling pressures of anisotropic fibrillar hydrogels made from cellulose nanofibrils were measured in the direction perpendicular to the fibril alignment. This experimental data was used to develop a model comprising three mechanical elements representing the network and the osmotic pressure due to non-ionic and ionic surface groups on the fibrils. At low solidity, the stiffness of the hydrogels was dominated by the ionic swelling pressure governed by the osmotic ingress of water. Fibrils with different functionality show the influence of aspect ratio, chemical functionality, and the remaining amount of hemicelluloses. This general model describes physically crosslinked hydrogels comprising fibrils with high flexural rigidity - that is, with a persistence length larger than the mesh size. The experimental technique is a framework to study and understand the importance of fibrillar networks for the evolution of multicellular organisms, like plants, and the influence of different components in plant cell walls.

RevDate: 2023-03-31

Li AQ, Zhang WJ, Li XG, et al (2023)

Piezophilic Phenotype Is Growth Condition Dependent and Correlated with the Regulation of Two Sets of ATPase in Deep-Sea Piezophilic Bacterium Photobacterium profundum SS9.

Microorganisms, 11(3):.

Alteration of respiratory components as a function of pressure is a common strategy developed in deep-sea microorganisms, presumably to adapt to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). While the electron transport chain and terminal reductases have been extensively studied in deep-sea bacteria, little is known about their adaptations for ATP generation. In this study, we showed that the deep-sea bacterium Photobacterium profundum SS9 exhibits a more pronounced piezophilic phenotype when grown in minimal medium supplemented with glucose (MG) than in the routinely used MB2216 complex medium. The intracellular ATP level varied with pressure, but with opposite trends in the two culture media. Between the two ATPase systems encoded in SS9, ATPase-I played a dominant role when cultivated in MB2216, whereas ATPase-II was more abundant in the MG medium, especially at elevated pressure when cells had the lowest ATP level among all conditions tested. Further analyses of the ΔatpI, ΔatpE1 and ΔatpE2 mutants showed that disrupting ATPase-I induced expression of ATPase-II and that the two systems are functionally redundant in MB2216. Collectively, we provide the first examination of the differences and relationships between two ATPase systems in a piezophilic bacterium, and expanded our understanding of the involvement of energy metabolism in pressure adaptation.

RevDate: 2023-03-31
CmpDate: 2023-03-30

Han M, Ren J, Guo H, et al (2023)

Mutation Rate and Spectrum of the Silkworm in Normal and Temperature Stress Conditions.

Genes, 14(3):.

Mutation rate is a crucial parameter in evolutionary genetics. However, the mutation rate of most species as well as the extent to which the environment can alter the genome of multicellular organisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used parents-progeny sequencing to investigate the mutation rate and spectrum of the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) among normal and two temperature stress conditions (32 °C and 0 °C). The rate of single-nucleotide mutations in the normal temperature rearing condition was 0.41 × 10[-8] (95% confidence interval, 0.33 × 10[-8]-0.49 × 10[-8]) per site per generation, which was up to 1.5-fold higher than in four previously studied insects. Moreover, the mutation rates of the silkworm under the stresses are significantly higher than in normal conditions. Furthermore, the mutation rate varies less in gene regions under normal and temperature stresses. Together, these findings expand the known diversity of the mutation rate among eukaryotes but also have implications for evolutionary analysis that assumes a constant mutation rate among species and environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-31
CmpDate: 2023-03-30

Merino MM, JA Garcia-Sanz (2023)

Stemming Tumoral Growth: A Matter of Grotesque Organogenesis.

Cells, 12(6):.

The earliest metazoans probably evolved from single-celled organisms which found the colonial system to be a beneficial organization. Over the course of their evolution, these primary colonial organisms increased in size, and division of labour among the cells became a remarkable feature, leading to a higher level of organization: the biological organs. Primitive metazoans were the first organisms in evolution to show organ-type structures, which set the grounds for complex organs to evolve. Throughout evolution, and concomitant with organogenesis, is the appearance of tissue-specific stem cells. Tissue-specific stem cells gave rise to multicellular living systems with distinct organs which perform specific physiological functions. This setting is a constructive role of evolution; however, rebel cells can take over the molecular mechanisms for other purposes: nowadays we know that cancer stem cells, which generate aberrant organ-like structures, are at the top of a hierarchy. Furthermore, cancer stem cells are the root of metastasis, therapy resistance, and relapse. At present, most therapeutic drugs are unable to target cancer stem cells and therefore, treatment becomes a challenging issue. We expect that future research will uncover the mechanistic "forces" driving organ growth, paving the way to the implementation of new strategies to impair human tumorigenesis.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Barrera-Redondo J, Lotharukpong JS, Drost HG, et al (2023)

Uncovering gene-family founder events during major evolutionary transitions in animals, plants and fungi using GenEra.

Genome biology, 24(1):54.

We present GenEra (, a DIAMOND-fueled gene-family founder inference framework that addresses previously raised limitations and biases in genomic phylostratigraphy, such as homology detection failure. GenEra also reduces computational time from several months to a few days for any genome of interest. We analyze the emergence of taxonomically restricted gene families during major evolutionary transitions in plants, animals, and fungi. Our results indicate that the impact of homology detection failure on inferred patterns of gene emergence is lineage-dependent, suggesting that plants are more prone to evolve novelty through the emergence of new genes compared to animals and fungi.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-27

Nofech-Mozes I, Soave D, Awadalla P, et al (2023)

Pan-cancer classification of single cells in the tumour microenvironment.

Nature communications, 14(1):1615.

Single-cell RNA sequencing can reveal valuable insights into cellular heterogeneity within tumour microenvironments (TMEs), paving the way for a deep understanding of cellular mechanisms contributing to cancer. However, high heterogeneity among the same cancer types and low transcriptomic variation in immune cell subsets present challenges for accurate, high-resolution confirmation of cells' identities. Here we present scATOMIC; a modular annotation tool for malignant and non-malignant cells. We trained scATOMIC on >300,000 cancer, immune, and stromal cells defining a pan-cancer reference across 19 common cancers and employ a hierarchical approach, outperforming current classification methods. We extensively confirm scATOMIC's accuracy on 225 tumour biopsies encompassing >350,000 cancer and a variety of TME cells. Lastly, we demonstrate scATOMIC's practical significance to accurately subset breast cancers into clinically relevant subtypes and predict tumours' primary origin across metastatic cancers. Our approach represents a broadly applicable strategy to analyse multicellular cancer TMEs.

RevDate: 2023-03-27
CmpDate: 2023-03-27

Jiao ZX, Li XG, Zhang HH, et al (2023)

Crassaminicella indica sp. nov., a novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 73(3):.

A novel moderately thermophilic heterotrophic bacterium, designated strain 143-21[T], was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney sample collected from the Central Indian Ridge at a depth of 2 440 m. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain 143-21[T] belongs to the genus Crassaminicella. It was most closely related to Crassaminicella thermophila SY095[T] (96.79 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Crassaminicella profunda Ra1766H[T] (96.52 %). Genomic analysis showed that strain 143-21[T] shares 79.79-84.45 % average nucleotide identity and 23.50-29.20 % digital DNA-DNA hybridization with the species of the genus Crassaminicella, respectively. Cells were rod-shaped, non-motile, Gram-positive-staining. Terminal endospores were observed in stationary-phase cells when strain 143-21[T] was grown on Thermococcales rich medium. Strain 143-21[T] was able to grow at 30-60 °C (optimum, 50 °C), pH 6.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in 1.0-7.0 % NaCl (w/v; optimum 2.0 %, w/v). Strain 143-21[T] utilized fructose, glucose, maltose, mannose, ribose, N-acetyl-d-(+)-glucosamine and casamino acids, as well as amino acids including glutamate, lysine, histidine and cysteine. The main fermentation products from glucose were acetate (2.07 mM), H2 and CO2. It did not reduce elemental sulphur, sulphate, thiosulphate, sulphite, fumarate, nitrate, nitrite and Fe (III). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14 : 0 (48.8 %), C16 : 0 (12.9 %), and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c; 10.2 %). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, as well as two unidentified phospholipids and four unidentified aminolipids. No respiratory quinones were detected. Based on its phylogenetic analysis and physiological characteristics, strain 143-21[T] is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Crassaminicella, for which the name Crassaminicella indica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 143-21[T] (=DSM 114408[T]= MCCC 1K06400[T]).

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Li Y, Kim EJ, Voshall A, et al (2023)

Small RNAs >26 nt in length associate with AGO1 and are upregulated by nutrient deprivation in the alga Chlamydomonas.

The Plant cell pii:7083138 [Epub ahead of print].

Small RNAs (sRNAs) associate with ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins forming effector complexes with key roles in gene regulation and defense responses against molecular parasites. In multicellular eukaryotes, extensive duplication and diversification of RNA interference (RNAi) components have resulted in intricate pathways for epigenetic control of gene expression. The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii also has a complex RNAi machinery, including three AGOs and three DICER-like (DCL) proteins. However, little is known about the biogenesis and function of most endogenous sRNAs. We demonstrate here that Chlamydomonas contains uncommonly long (>26 nt) sRNAs that associate preferentially with AGO1. Somewhat reminiscent of animal PIWI-interacting RNAs, these >26 nt sRNAs are derived from moderately repetitive genomic clusters and their biogenesis is DICER-independent. Interestingly, the sequences generating these >26-nt sRNAs have been conserved and amplified in several Chlamydomonas species. Moreover, expression of these longer sRNAs increases substantially under nitrogen or sulfur deprivation, concurrently with the downregulation of predicted target transcripts. We hypothesize that the transposon-like sequences from which >26-nt sRNAs are produced might have been ancestrally targeted for silencing by the RNAi machinery but, during evolution, certain sRNAs might have fortuitously acquired endogenous target genes and become integrated into gene regulatory networks.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Prieto I, Barbáchano A, Rodríguez-Salas N, et al (2023)

Tailored chemotherapy for colorectal cancer peritoneal metastases based on a drug-screening platform in patient-derived organoids: a case report.

Journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 14(1):442-449.

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC) has limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy combined with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) have yielded initial promising results. However, standard local therapies with oxaliplatin and mitomycin are not optimal and a better individualized management of these patients remains as an unmet clinical need. Patient-derived organoid (PDO) technology allows to culture in three dimensions normal and cancer stem cells (CSC) that self-organize in multicellular structures that recapitulates some of the features of the particular organ or tumor of origin, emerging as a promising tool for drug-testing and precision medicine. This technology could improve the efficacy of systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy and avoid unnecessary treatments and side effects to the patient.

CASE DESCRIPTION: Here we report a case of a 45-year-old man with a rectal adenocarcinoma with liver, lymph node and peritoneal metastases. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy (FOLFOXIRI plus Bevacizumab) and was subjected to mitomycin-based PIPAC. We generated patient-derived peritoneal carcinomatosis organoids in order to screen the activity of drugs for a personalized treatment. Both 5-FU and SN-38, the active irinotecan derivative, displayed strong cytotoxicity, while the response to oxaliplatin was much lower. Although the development of a colo-cutaneous fistulae prevented from further PIPAC, the patient continued with fluoropirimidine maintenance treatment based on standard clinical practice and the drug-screening test performed on organoids.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the peritoneal implant shows chemoresistance to oxaliplatin, while it might still be sensitive to irinotecan and 5-FU, which supports a potential benefit of these two drugs in the local and/or systemic treatment of our patient. This study shows the strength of the utility of the establishment of organoids for drug response assays and thus, for the personalized treatment of colorectal carcinomatosis patients.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Ebinghaus M, Dos Santos MDM, Tonelli GSSS, et al (2023)

Raveneliopsis, a new genus of ravenelioid rust fungi on Cenostigma (Caesalpinioideae) from the Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga.

Mycologia, 115(2):263-276.

The multicellular discoid convex teliospore heads represent a prominent generic feature of the genus Ravenelia. However, recent molecular phylogenetic work has shown that this is a convergent trait, and that this genus does not represent a natural group. In 2000, a rust fungus infecting the Caesalpinioid species Cenostigma macrophyllum (= C. gardnerianum) was described as Ravenelia cenostigmatis. This species shows some rare features, such as an extra layer of sterile cells between the cysts and the fertile teliospores, spirally ornamented urediniospores, as well as strongly incurved paraphyses giving the telia and uredinia a basket-like appearance. Using freshly collected specimens of Rav. cenostigmatis and Rav. spiralis on C. macrophyllum, our phylogenetic analyses based on the nuc 28S, nuc 18S, and mt CO3 (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3) gene sequences demonstrated that these two rust fungi belong in a lineage within the Raveneliineae that is distinct from Ravenelia s. str. Besides proposing their recombination into the new genus Raveneliopsis (type species R. cenostigmatis) and briefly discussing their potentially close phylogenetic affiliations, we suggest that five other Ravenelia species that are morphologically and ecologically close to the type species of Raveneliopsis, i.e., Rav. corbula, Rav. corbuloides, Rav. parahybana, Rav. pileolarioides, and Rav. Striatiformis, may be recombined pending new collections and confirmation through molecular phylogenetic analyses.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Bajgar A, G Krejčová (2023)

On the origin of the functional versatility of macrophages.

Frontiers in physiology, 14:1128984.

Macrophages represent the most functionally versatile cells in the animal body. In addition to recognizing and destroying pathogens, macrophages remove senescent and exhausted cells, promote wound healing, and govern tissue and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, many specialized populations of tissue-resident macrophages exhibit highly specialized functions essential for the function of specific organs. Sometimes, however, macrophages cease to perform their protective function and their seemingly incomprehensible response to certain stimuli leads to pathology. In this study, we address the question of the origin of the functional versatility of macrophages. To this end, we have searched for the evolutionary origin of macrophages themselves and for the emergence of their characteristic properties. We hypothesize that many of the characteristic features of proinflammatory macrophages evolved in the unicellular ancestors of animals, and that the functional repertoire of macrophage-like amoebocytes further expanded with the evolution of multicellularity and the increasing complexity of tissues and organ systems. We suggest that the entire repertoire of macrophage functions evolved by repurposing and diversification of basic functions that evolved early in the evolution of metazoans under conditions barely comparable to that in tissues of multicellular organisms. We believe that by applying this perspective, we may find an explanation for the otherwise counterintuitive behavior of macrophages in many human pathologies.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Lu B, Hu X, Warren A, et al (2023)

From oral structure to molecular evidence: new insights into the evolutionary phylogeny of the ciliate order Sessilida (Protista, Ciliophora), with the establishment of two new families and new contributions to the poorly studied family Vaginicolidae.

Science China. Life sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Ciliated protists represent one of the most primitive and diverse lineages of eukaryotes, with nuclear dimorphism, a distinctive sexual process (conjugation), and extensive genome rearrangements. Among divergent ciliate lineages, the peritrich order Sessilida includes members with a colonial lifestyle, which may hint to an independent evolutionary attempt for multicellularity, although they are still single-celled organisms. To date, the evolution and phylogeny of this group are still far from clear, in part due to the paucity of molecular and/or morphological data for many taxa. In this study, we extend taxon sampling of a loricate group of sessilids by obtaining 69 new rDNA (SSU rDNA, ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2, and LSU rDNA) sequences from 20 well-characterized representative species and analyze the phylogenetic relationships within Sessilida. The main findings are: (i) the genera Rhabdostyla and Campanella each represents a unique taxon at family level, supporting the establishment of two new families, i.e., Rhabdostylidae n. fam. and Campanellidae n. fam., respectively, the former being sister to a morphologically heterogeneous clade comprising Astylozoidae and several incertae sedis species and the latter occupying the basal position within the Sessilida clade; (ii) the structure of infundibular polykinety 3 is likely to be a phylogenetically informative character for resolving evolutionary relationships among sessilids; (iii) differences between sparsely and the densely arranged silverline systems could be a suprageneric taxonomic character; (iv) the monophyly of Vaginicolidae is confirmed, which is consistent with its specialized morphology, i.e., the possession of a typical peritrich lorica which might be an apomorphy for this group; (v) within Vaginicolidae, the monotypic Cothurniopsis sensu Stokes, 1893 is a synonym of Cothurnia Ehrenberg, 1831, and a new combination is created, i.e., Cothurnia valvata nov. comb.; (vi) Vaginicola sensu lato comprises at least two distinctly divergent clades, one affiliated with Thuricola and the other with a systematically puzzling clade represented by Vaginicola tincta.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Ouyang X, Wu B, Yu H, et al (2023)

DYRK1-mediated phosphorylation of endocytic components is required for extracellular lumen expansion in ascidian notochord.

Biological research, 56(1):10.

BACKGROUND: The biological tube is a basal biology structure distributed in all multicellular animals, from worms to humans, and has diverse biological functions. Formation of tubular system is crucial for embryogenesis and adult metabolism. Ascidian Ciona notochord lumen is an excellent in vivo model for tubulogenesis. Exocytosis has been known to be essential for tubular lumen formation and expansion. The roles of endocytosis in tubular lumen expansion remain largely unclear.

RESULTS: In this study, we first identified a dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1 (DYRK1), the protein kinase, which was upregulated and required for ascidian notochord extracellular lumen expansion. We demonstrated that DYRK1 interacted with and phosphorylated one of the endocytic components endophilin at Ser263 that was essential for notochord lumen expansion. Moreover, through phosphoproteomic sequencing, we revealed that in addition to endophilin, the phosphorylation of other endocytic components was also regulated by DYRK1. The loss of function of DYRK1 disturbed endocytosis. Then, we demonstrated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis existed and was required for notochord lumen expansion. In the meantime, the results showed that the secretion of notochord cells is vigorous in the apical membrane.

CONCLUSIONS: We found the co-existence of endocytosis and exocytosis activities in apical membrane during lumen formation and expansion in Ciona notochord. A novel signaling pathway is revealed that DYRK1 regulates the endocytosis by phosphorylation that is required for lumen expansion. Our finding thus indicates a dynamic balance between endocytosis and exocytosis is crucial to maintain apical membrane homeostasis that is essential for lumen growth and expansion in tubular organogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-03-30
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Davidescu MR, Romanczuk P, Gregor T, et al (2023)

Growth produces coordination trade-offs in Trichoplax adhaerens, an animal lacking a central nervous system.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(11):e2206163120.

How collectives remain coordinated as they grow in size is a fundamental challenge affecting systems ranging from biofilms to governments. This challenge is particularly apparent in multicellular organisms, where coordination among a vast number of cells is vital for coherent animal behavior. However, the earliest multicellular organisms were decentralized, with indeterminate sizes and morphologies, as exemplified by Trichoplax adhaerens, arguably the earliest-diverged and simplest motile animal. We investigated coordination among cells in T. adhaerens by observing the degree of collective order in locomotion across animals of differing sizes and found that larger individuals exhibit increasingly disordered locomotion. We reproduced this effect of size on order through a simulation model of active elastic cellular sheets and demonstrate that this relationship is best recapitulated across all body sizes when the simulation parameters are tuned to a critical point in the parameter space. We quantify the trade-off between increasing size and coordination in a multicellular animal with a decentralized anatomy that shows evidence of criticality and hypothesize as to the implications of this on the evolution hierarchical structures such as nervous systems in larger organisms.

RevDate: 2023-03-27
CmpDate: 2023-03-27

Garg A, Nam W, Wang W, et al (2023)

In Situ Spatiotemporal SERS Measurements and Multivariate Analysis of Virally Infected Bacterial Biofilms Using Nanolaminated Plasmonic Crystals.

ACS sensors, 8(3):1132-1142.

In situ spatiotemporal biochemical characterization of the activity of living multicellular biofilms under external stimuli remains a significant challenge. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), combining the molecular fingerprint specificity of vibrational spectroscopy with the hotspot sensitivity of plasmonic nanostructures, has emerged as a promising noninvasive bioanalysis technique for living systems. However, most SERS devices do not allow reliable long-term spatiotemporal SERS measurements of multicellular systems because of challenges in producing spatially uniform and mechanically stable SERS hotspot arrays to interface with large cellular networks. Furthermore, very few studies have been conducted for multivariable analysis of spatiotemporal SERS datasets to extract spatially and temporally correlated biological information from multicellular systems. Here, we demonstrate in situ label-free spatiotemporal SERS measurements and multivariate analysis of Pseudomonas syringae biofilms during development and upon infection by bacteriophage virus Phi6 by employing nanolaminate plasmonic crystal SERS devices to interface mechanically stable, uniform, and spatially dense hotspot arrays with the P. syringae biofilms. We exploited unsupervised multivariate machine learning methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), to resolve the spatiotemporal evolution and Phi6 dose-dependent changes of major Raman peaks originating from biochemical components in P. syringae biofilms, including cellular components, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), metabolite molecules, and cell lysate-enriched extracellular media. We then employed supervised multivariate analysis using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the multiclass classification of Phi6 dose-dependent biofilm responses, demonstrating the potential for viral infection diagnosis. We envision extending the in situ spatiotemporal SERS method to monitor dynamic, heterogeneous interactions between viruses and bacterial networks for applications such as phage-based anti-biofilm therapy development and continuous pathogenic virus detection.

RevDate: 2023-04-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-21

Luque LM, Carlevaro CM, Llamoza Torres CJ, et al (2023)

Physics-based tissue simulator to model multicellular systems: A study of liver regeneration and hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

PLoS computational biology, 19(3):e1010920.

We present a multiagent-based model that captures the interactions between different types of cells with their microenvironment, and enables the analysis of the emergent global behavior during tissue regeneration and tumor development. Using this model, we are able to reproduce the temporal dynamics of regular healthy cells and cancer cells, as well as the evolution of their three-dimensional spatial distributions. By tuning the system with the characteristics of the individual patients, our model reproduces a variety of spatial patterns of tissue regeneration and tumor growth, resembling those found in clinical imaging or biopsies. In order to calibrate and validate our model we study the process of liver regeneration after surgical hepatectomy in different degrees. In the clinical context, our model is able to predict the recurrence of a hepatocellular carcinoma after a 70% partial hepatectomy. The outcomes of our simulations are in agreement with experimental and clinical observations. By fitting the model parameters to specific patient factors, it might well become a useful platform for hypotheses testing in treatments protocols.

RevDate: 2023-03-08
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Bernardo N, Crespo I, Cuppari A, et al (2023)

A tetramerization domain in prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription regulators homologous to p53.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Structural biology, 79(Pt 3):259-267.

Transcriptional regulation usually requires the action of several proteins that either repress or activate a promotor of an open reading frame. These proteins can counteract each other, thus allowing tight regulation of the transcription of the corresponding genes, where tight repression is often linked to DNA looping or cross-linking. Here, the tetramerization domain of the bacterial gene repressor Rco from Bacillus subtilis plasmid pLS20 (RcopLS20) has been identified and its structure is shown to share high similarity to the tetramerization domain of the well known p53 family of human tumor suppressors, despite lacking clear sequence homology. In RcopLS20, this tetramerization domain is responsible for inducing DNA looping, a process that involves multiple tetramers. In accordance, it is shown that RcopLS20 can form octamers. This domain was named TetDloop and its occurrence was identified in other Bacillus species. The TetDloop fold was also found in the structure of a transcriptional repressor from Salmonella phage SPC32H. It is proposed that the TetDloop fold has evolved through divergent evolution and that the TetDloop originates from a common ancestor predating the occurrence of multicellular life.

RevDate: 2023-03-04

Du Q, P Schaap (2022)

Autophagy of the somatic stalk cells likely nurses the propagating spores of Dictyostelid social amoebas [version 2; peer review: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations].

Open research Europe, 2:104.

BACKGROUND: Autophagy (self-feeding) assists survival of starving cells by partial self-digestion, while dormancy as cysts, spores or seeds enables long-term survival. Starving Dictyostelium amoebas construct multicellular fruiting bodies with spores and stalk cells, with many Dictyostelia still able to encyst individually like their single-celled ancestors. While autophagy mostly occurs in the somatic stalk cells, autophagy gene knock-outs in Dictyostelium discoideum (D. discoideum) formed no spores and lacked cAMP induction of prespore gene expression.

METHODS: To investigate whether autophagy also prevents encystation, we knocked-out autophagy genes atg5 and atg7 in the dictyostelid Polysphondylium pallidum, which forms both spores and cysts. We measured spore and cyst differentiation and viability in the knock-out as well as stalk and spore gene expression and its regulation by cAMP. We tested a hypothesis that spores require materials derived from autophagy in stalk cells. Sporulation requires secreted cAMP acting on receptors and intracellular cAMP acting on PKA. We compared the morphology and viability of spores developed in fruiting bodies with spores induced from single cells by stimulation with cAMP and 8Br-cAMP, a membrane-permeant PKA agonist.

RESULTS: Loss of autophagy in P. pallidum reduced but did not prevent encystation. Stalk cells still differentiated but stalks were disorganised. However, no spores were formed at all and cAMP-induced prespore gene expression was lost. D. discoideum spores induced in vitro by cAMP and 8Br-cAMP were smaller and rounder than spores formed multicellularly and while they were not lysed by detergent they germinated not (strain Ax2) or poorly (strain NC4), unlike spores formed in fruiting bodies.

CONCLUSIONS: The stringent requirement of sporulation on both multicellularity and autophagy, which occurs mostly in stalk cells, suggests that stalk cells nurse the spores through autophagy. This highlights autophagy as a major cause for somatic cell evolution in early multicellularity.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Takeuchi K, Senda M, Ikeda Y, et al (2023)

Functional molecular evolution of a GTP sensing kinase: PI5P4Kβ.

The FEBS journal [Epub ahead of print].

Over 4 billion years of evolution, multiple mutations, including nucleotide substitutions, gene and genome duplications and recombination, have established de novo genes that translate into proteins with novel properties essential for high-order cellular functions. However, molecular processes through which a protein evolutionarily acquires a novel function are mostly speculative. Recently, we have provided evidence for a potential evolutionary mechanism underlying how, in mammalian cells, phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase β (PI5P4Kβ) evolved into a GTP sensor from ATP-utilizing kinase. Mechanistically, PI5P4Kβ has acquired the guanine efficient association (GEA) motif by mutating its nucleotide base recognition sequence, enabling the evolutionary transition from an ATP-dependent kinase to a distinct GTP/ATP dual kinase with its KM for GTP falling into physiological GTP concentrations-the genesis of GTP sensing activity. Importantly, the GTP sensing activity of PI5P4Kβ is critical for the manifestation of cellular metabolism and tumourigenic activity in the multicellular organism. The combination of structural, biochemical and biophysical analyses used in our study provides a novel framework for analysing how a protein can evolutionarily acquire a novel activity, which potentially introduces a critical function to the cell.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Duan J, Y Wang (2023)

Modeling nervous system tumors with human stem cells and organoids.

Cell regeneration (London, England), 12(1):4.

Nervous system cancers are the 10th leading cause of death worldwide, many of which are difficult to diagnose and exhibit varying degrees of treatment resistance. The limitations of existing cancer models, such as patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, call for the development of novel preclinical cancer models to more faithfully mimic the patient's cancer and offer additional insights. Recent advances in human stem cell biology, organoid, and genome-editing techniques allow us to model nervous system tumors in three types of next-generation tumor models: cell-of-origin models, tumor organoids, and 3D multicellular coculture models. In this review, we introduced and compared different human stem cell/organoid-derived models, and comprehensively summarized and discussed the recently developed models for various primary tumors in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including glioblastoma (GBM), H3K27M-mutant Diffuse Midline Glioma (DMG) and H3G34R-mutant High-grade Glioma (HGG), Low-grade Glioma (LGG), Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2), Medulloblastoma (MB), Atypical Teratoid/rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT), and meningioma. We further compared these models with PDX and GEM models, and discussed the opportunities and challenges of precision nervous cancer modeling with human stem cells and organoids.

RevDate: 2023-03-19
CmpDate: 2023-03-02

Tang S, Pichugin Y, K Hammerschmidt (2023)

An environmentally induced multicellular life cycle of a unicellular cyanobacterium.

Current biology : CB, 33(4):764-769.e5.

Understanding the evolutionary transition to multicellularity is a key problem in biology.[1][,][2][,][3][,][4] Nevertheless, the ecological conditions driving such transitions are not well understood. The first known transition to multicellularity occurred 2.5 billion years ago in cyanobacteria,[5][,][6][,][7] and today's cyanobacteria are characterized by enormous morphological diversity. They range from unicellular species; unicellular cyanobacteria with packet-like phenotypes, e.g., tetrads; and simple filamentous species to highly differentiated filamentous species.[8][,][9][,][10] The cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, an isolate from the intertidal zone of the U.S. Gulf Coast,[11] was classified as a unicellular species.[12] We report a facultative life cycle of Cyanothece sp. in which multicellular filaments alternate with unicellular stages. In a series of experiments, we identified salinity and population density as environmental factors triggering the phenotypic switch between the two morphologies. Then, we used numerical models to test hypotheses regarding the nature of the environmental cues and the mechanisms underlying filament dissolution. While the results predict that the observed response is likely caused by an excreted compound in the medium, we cannot fully exclude changes in nutrient availability (as in Tuomi et al.[13] and Matz and Jürgens[14]). The best-fit modeling results show a nonlinear effect of the compound, which is characteristic of density-dependent sensing systems.[15][,][16] Furthermore, filament fragmentation is predicted to occur by connection cleavage rather than cell death of each alternating cell, which is supported by fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy results. The switch between unicellular and multicellular morphology constitutes an environmentally dependent life cycle that is likely an important step en route to permanent multicellularity.

RevDate: 2023-03-02
CmpDate: 2023-03-01

Göbel T, Goebel B, Hyprath M, et al (2023)

Three-dimensional growth reveals fine-tuning of 5-lipoxygenase by proliferative pathways in cancer.

Life science alliance, 6(5):.

The leukotriene (LT) pathway is positively correlated with the progression of solid malignancies, but the factors that control the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the central enzyme in LT biosynthesis, in tumors are poorly understood. Here, we report that 5-LO along with other members of the LT pathway is up-regulated in multicellular colon tumor spheroids. This up-regulation was inversely correlated with cell proliferation and activation of PI3K/mTORC-2- and MEK-1/ERK-dependent pathways. Furthermore, we found that E2F1 and its target gene MYBL2 were involved in the repression of 5-LO during cell proliferation. Importantly, we found that this PI3K/mTORC-2- and MEK-1/ERK-dependent suppression of 5-LO is also existent in tumor cells from other origins, suggesting that this mechanism is widely applicable to other tumor entities. Our data show that tumor cells fine-tune 5-LO and LT biosynthesis in response to environmental changes repressing the enzyme during proliferation while making use of the enzyme under cell stress conditions, implying that tumor-derived 5-LO plays a role in the manipulation of the tumor stroma to quickly restore cell proliferation.

RevDate: 2023-03-10
CmpDate: 2023-02-28

van Oosten-Hawle P (2023)

Organismal Roles of Hsp90.

Biomolecules, 13(2):.

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that assists in the maturation of many client proteins involved in cellular signal transduction. As a regulator of cellular signaling processes, it is vital for the maintenance of cellular proteostasis and adaptation to environmental stresses. Emerging research shows that Hsp90 function in an organism goes well beyond intracellular proteostasis. In metazoans, Hsp90, as an environmentally responsive chaperone, is involved in inter-tissue stress signaling responses that coordinate and safeguard cell nonautonomous proteostasis and organismal health. In this way, Hsp90 has the capacity to influence evolution and aging, and effect behavioral responses to facilitate tissue-defense systems that ensure organismal survival. In this review, I summarize the literature on the organismal roles of Hsp90 uncovered in multicellular organisms, from plants to invertebrates and mammals.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Compton Z, Harris V, Mellon W, et al (2023)

Cancer Prevalence Across Vertebrates.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.02.15.527881.

Cancer is pervasive across multicellular species. Are there any patterns that can explain differences in cancer prevalence across species? Using 16,049 necropsy records for 292 species spanning three clades (amphibians, sauropsids and mammals) we found that neoplasia and malignancy prevalence increases with adult weight and decreases with gestation time, contrary to Peto’s Paradox. Evolution of cancer susceptibility appears to have undergone sudden shifts followed by stabilizing selection. Outliers for neoplasia prevalence include the common porpoise (<1.3%), the Rodrigues fruit bat (<1.6%) the black-footed penguin (<0.4%), ferrets (63%) and opossums (35%). Discovering why some species have particularly high or low levels of cancer may lead to a better understanding of cancer syndromes and novel strategies for the management and prevention of cancer.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Wang S, Chan SY, Deng Y, et al (2023)

Oxidative stress induced by Etoposide anti-cancer chemotherapy drives the emergence of tumor-associated bacteria resistance to fluoroquinolones.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(23)00062-0 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, are prevalent in lung cancer patients, resulting in poor clinical outcomes and high mortality. Etoposide (ETO) is an FDA-approved chemotherapy drug that kills cancer cells by damaging DNA through oxidative stress. However, it is unclear if ETO can cause unintentional side effects on tumor-associated microbial pathogens, such as inducing antibiotic resistance.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to show that prolonged ETO treatment could unintendedly confer fluoroquinolone antibiotic resistance to P. aeruginosa, and evaluate the effect of tumor-associated P. aeruginosa on tumor progression.

METHODS: We employed experimental evolution assay to treat P. aeruginosa with prolonged ETO exposure, evaluated the ciprofloxacin resistance, and elucidated the gene mutations by DNA sequencing. We also established a lung tumor-P. aeruginosa bacterial model to study the role of ETO-evolved intra-tumoral bacteria in tumor progression using immunostaining and confocal microscopy.

RESULTS: ETO could generate oxidative stress and lead to gene mutations in P. aeruginosa, especially the gyrase (gyrA) gene, resulting in acquired fluoroquinolone resistance. We further demonstrated using a microfluidic-based lung tumor-P. aeruginosa coculture model that bacteria can evolve ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistance in a tumor microenvironment. Moreover, ETO-induced CIP-resistant (EICR) mutants could form multicellular biofilms which protected tumor cells from ETO killing and enabled tumor progression.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our preclinical proof-of-concept provides insights into how anti-cancer chemotherapy could inadvertently allow tumor-associated bacteria to acquire antibiotic resistance mutations and shed new light on the development of novel anti-cancer treatments based on anti-bacterial strategies.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Baselga-Cervera B, Jacobsen KA, Denison RF, et al (2023)

Experimental evolution in the cyanobacterium Trichormus variabilis: increases in size and morphological diversity.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution pii:7055285 [Epub ahead of print].

Cyanobacteria morphology has apparently remained almost unchanged for billions of years, exhibiting remarkable evolutionary stasis. Cyanobacteria appear to have reached their maximum morphological complexity in terms of size, modes of multicellularity, and cellular types by ~2 Ga. This contrasts with the increased complexity observed in other multicellular lineages, such as plants. Using experimental evolution, we show that morphological diversity can rapidly evolve in a species of filamentous cyanobacteria. Since size has such significance with regard to organismal complexity, we subjected the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Trichornus variabilis (syn. Anabaena variabilis) to selection for larger size. We observed increases in size of more than 30-fold, relative to the ancestral population, after 45 cycles of selection. Two distinguishable nascent morphological elaborations were identified in all the selected populations: Tangle (long, tangled filaments) and Cluster (clusters of short filaments) morphology. Growth from single cells indicates heritability of the evolved Tangle and Cluster morphological phenotypes. Cyanobacteria evolutionary conservatism is ascribed to developmental constraints, slow evolution rates, or ecological flexibility. These results open opportunities to study possibilities and constraints for the evolution of higher integrated biological levels of organization within this lineage.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Horjales S, Li Calzi M, Francia ME, et al (2023)

piRNA pathway evolution beyond gonad context: Perspectives from apicomplexa and trypanosomatids.

Frontiers in genetics, 14:1129194.

piRNAs function as genome defense mechanisms against transposable elements insertions within germ line cells. Recent studies have unraveled that piRNA pathways are not limited to germ cells as initially reckoned, but are instead also found in non-gonadal somatic contexts. Moreover, these pathways have also been reported in bacteria, mollusks and arthropods, associated with safeguard of genomes against transposable elements, regulation of gene expression and with direct consequences in axon regeneration and memory formation. In this Perspective we draw attention to early branching parasitic protozoa, whose genome preservation is an essential function as in late eukaryotes. However, little is known about the defense mechanisms of these genomes. We and others have described the presence of putative PIWI-related machinery members in protozoan parasites. We have described the presence of a PIWI-like protein in Trypanosoma cruzi, bound to small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) as cargo of secreted extracellular vesicles relevant in intercellular communication and host infection. Herein, we put forward the presence of members related to Argonaute pathways in both Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of PIWI-like machinery in Trypansomatids and Apicomplexa, respectively, could be evidence of an ancestral piRNA machinery that evolved to become more sophisticated and complex in multicellular eukaryotes. We propose a model in which ancient PIWI proteins were expressed broadly and had functions independent of germline maintenance. A better understanding of current and ancestral PIWI/piRNAs will be relevant to better understand key mechanisms of genome integrity conservation during cell cycle progression and modulation of host defense mechanisms by protozoan parasites.

RevDate: 2023-03-11
CmpDate: 2023-02-24

Samuel V, Rajeev T, Ramesh L, et al (2023)

Integrin receptor trafficking in health and disease.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 196:271-302.

Integrins are a family of 24 different heterodimers that are indispensable for multicellular life. Cell polarity, adhesion and migration are controlled by integrins delivered to the cell surface which in turn is regulated by the exo- and endocytic trafficking of integrins. The deep integration between trafficking and cell signaling determines the spatial and temporal output from any biochemical cue. Integrin trafficking plays a key role in development and many pathological conditions, especially cancer. Several novel regulators of integrin traffic have been discovered in recent times, including a novel class of integrin carrying vesicles, the intracellular nanovesicles (INVs). The tight regulation of trafficking pathways by cell signaling, where kinases phosphorylate key small GTPases in the trafficking pathway enable coordination of cell response to the extracellular milieu. Integrin heterodimer expression and trafficking differ in different tissues and contexts. In this Chapter, we discuss recent studies on integrin trafficking and its contribution to normal physiological and pathophysiological states.

RevDate: 2023-03-31
CmpDate: 2023-03-31

Furumizu C, RB Aalen (2023)

Peptide signaling through leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases: insight into land plant evolution.

The New phytologist, 238(3):977-982.

Multicellular organisms need mechanisms for communication between cells so that they can fulfill their purpose in the organism as a whole. Over the last two decades, several small post-translationally modified peptides (PTMPs) have been identified as components of cell-to-cell signaling modules in flowering plants. Such peptides most often influence growth and development of organs not universally conserved among land plants. PTMPs have been matched to subfamily XI leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases with > 20 repeats. Phylogenetic analyses, facilitated by recently published genomic sequences of non-flowering plants, have identified seven clades of such receptors with a history back to the common ancestor of bryophytes and vascular plants. This raises a number of questions: When did peptide signaling arise during land plant evolution? Have orthologous peptide-receptor pairs preserved their biological functions? Has peptide signaling contributed to major innovations, such as stomata, vasculature, roots, seeds, and flowers? Using genomic, genetic, biochemical, and structural data and non-angiosperm model species, it is now possible to address these questions. The vast number of peptides that have not yet found their partners suggests furthermore that we have far more to learn about peptide signaling in the coming decades.

RevDate: 2023-04-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Lambros M, Sella Y, A Bergman (2023)

Phenotypic pliancy and the breakdown of epigenetic polycomb mechanisms.

PLoS computational biology, 19(2):e1010889.

Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms allow multicellular organisms to develop distinct specialized cell identities despite having the same total genome. Cell-fate choices are based on gene expression programs and environmental cues that cells experience during embryonic development, and are usually maintained throughout the life of the organism despite new environmental cues. The evolutionarily conserved Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form Polycomb Repressive Complexes that help orchestrate these developmental choices. Post-development, these complexes actively maintain the resulting cell fate, even in the face of environmental perturbations. Given the crucial role of these polycomb mechanisms in providing phenotypic fidelity (i.e. maintenance of cell fate), we hypothesize that their dysregulation after development will lead to decreased phenotypic fidelity allowing dysregulated cells to sustainably switch their phenotype in response to environmental changes. We call this abnormal phenotypic switching phenotypic pliancy. We introduce a general computational evolutionary model that allows us to test our systems-level phenotypic pliancy hypothesis in-silico and in a context-independent manner. We find that 1) phenotypic fidelity is an emergent systems-level property of PcG-like mechanism evolution, and 2) phenotypic pliancy is an emergent systems-level property resulting from this mechanism's dysregulation. Since there is evidence that metastatic cells behave in a phenotypically pliant manner, we hypothesize that progression to metastasis is driven by the emergence of phenotypic pliancy in cancer cells as a result of PcG mechanism dysregulation. We corroborate our hypothesis using single-cell RNA-sequencing data from metastatic cancers. We find that metastatic cancer cells are phenotypically pliant in the same manner as predicted by our model.

RevDate: 2023-02-24
CmpDate: 2023-02-23

Kuang X, Guan G, Tang C, et al (2023)

MorphoSim: an efficient and scalable phase-field framework for accurately simulating multicellular morphologies.

NPJ systems biology and applications, 9(1):6.

The phase field model can accurately simulate the evolution of microstructures with complex morphologies, and it has been widely used for cell modeling in the last two decades. However, compared to other cellular models such as the coarse-grained model and the vertex model, its high computational cost caused by three-dimensional spatial discretization hampered its application and scalability, especially for multicellular organisms. Recently, we built a phase field model coupled with in vivo imaging data to accurately reconstruct the embryonic morphogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans from 1- to 8-cell stages. In this work, we propose an improved phase field model by using the stabilized numerical scheme and modified volume constriction. Then we present a scalable phase-field framework, MorphoSim, which is 100 times more efficient than the previous one and can simulate over 100 mechanically interacting cells. Finally, we demonstrate how MorphoSim can be successfully applied to reproduce the assembly, self-repairing, and dissociation of a synthetic artificial multicellular system - the synNotch system.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-02-22

Leptos KC, Chioccioli M, Furlan S, et al (2023)

Phototaxis of Chlamydomonas arises from a tuned adaptive photoresponse shared with multicellular Volvocine green algae.

Physical review. E, 107(1-1):014404.

A fundamental issue in biology is the nature of evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Volvocine algae are models for this transition, as they span from the unicellular biflagellate Chlamydomonas to multicellular species of Volvox with up to 50,000 Chlamydomonas-like cells on the surface of a spherical extracellular matrix. The mechanism of phototaxis in these species is of particular interest since they lack a nervous system and intercellular connections; steering is a consequence of the response of individual cells to light. Studies of Volvox and Gonium, a 16-cell organism with a plate-like structure, have shown that the flagellar response to changing illumination of the cellular photosensor is adaptive, with a recovery time tuned to the rotation period of the colony around its primary axis. Here, combining high-resolution studies of the flagellar photoresponse of micropipette-held Chlamydomonas with 3D tracking of freely swimming cells, we show that such tuning also underlies its phototaxis. A mathematical model is developed based on the rotations around an axis perpendicular to the flagellar beat plane that occur through the adaptive response to oscillating light levels as the organism spins. Exploiting a separation of timescales between the flagellar photoresponse and phototurning, we develop an equation of motion that accurately describes the observed photoalignment. In showing that the adaptive timescales in Volvocine algae are tuned to the organisms' rotational periods across three orders of magnitude in cell number, our results suggest a unified picture of phototaxis in green algae in which the asymmetry in torques that produce phototurns arise from the individual flagella of Chlamydomonas, the flagellated edges of Gonium, and the flagellated hemispheres of Volvox.

RevDate: 2023-04-04
CmpDate: 2023-03-22

Rusin LY (2023)

Evolution of homology: From archetype towards a holistic concept of cell type.

Journal of morphology, 284(4):e21569.

The concept of homology lies in the heart of comparative biological science. The distinction between homology as structure and analogy as function has shaped the evolutionary paradigm for a century and formed the axis of comparative anatomy and embryology, which accept the identity of structure as a ground measure of relatedness. The advent of single-cell genomics overturned the classical view of cell homology by establishing a backbone regulatory identity of cell types, the basic biological units bridging the molecular and phenotypic dimensions, to reveal that the cell is the most flexible unit of living matter and that many approaches of classical biology need to be revised to understand evolution and diversity at the cellular level. The emerging theory of cell types explicitly decouples cell identity from phenotype, essentially allowing for the divergence of evolutionarily related morphotypes beyond recognition, as well as it decouples ontogenetic cell lineage from cell-type phylogeny, whereby explicating that cell types can share common descent regardless of their structure, function or developmental origin. The article succinctly summarizes current progress and opinion in this field and formulates a more generalistic view of biological cell types as avatars, transient or terminal cell states deployed in a continuum of states by the developmental programme of one and the same omnipotent cell, capable of changing or combining identities with distinct evolutionary histories or inventing ad hoc identities that never existed in evolution or development. It highlights how the new logic grounded in the regulatory nature of cell identity transforms the concepts of cell homology and phenotypic stability, suggesting that cellular evolution is inherently and massively network-like, with one-to-one homologies being rather uncommon and restricted to shallower levels of the animal tree of life.

RevDate: 2023-02-14

Cont A, Vermeil J, A Persat (2023)

Material Substrate Physical Properties Control Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Architecture.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

In the wild, bacteria are most frequently found in the form of multicellular structures called biofilms. Biofilms grow at the surface of abiotic and living materials with wide-ranging mechanical properties. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices and on soft tissues, including burn wounds and the airway mucosa. Despite the critical role of substrates in the foundation of biofilms, we still lack a clear understanding of how material mechanics regulate their architecture and the physiology of resident bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that physical properties of hydrogel material substrates define P. aeruginosa biofilm architecture. We show that hydrogel mesh size regulates twitching motility, a surface exploration mechanism priming biofilms, ultimately controlling the organization of single cells in the multicellular community. The resulting architectural transitions increase P. aeruginosa's tolerance to colistin, a last-resort antibiotic. In addition, mechanical regulation of twitching motility affects P. aeruginosa clonal lineages, so that biofilms are more mixed on relatively denser materials. Our results thereby establish material properties as a factor that dramatically affects biofilm architecture, antibiotic efficacy, and evolution of the resident population. IMPORTANCE The biofilm lifestyle is the most widespread survival strategy in the bacterial world. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms cause chronic infections and are highly recalcitrant to antimicrobials. The genetic requirements allowing P. aeruginosa to grow into biofilms are known, but not the physical stimuli that regulate their formation. Despite colonizing biological tissues, investigations of biofilms on soft materials are limited. In this work, we show that biofilms take unexpected forms when growing on soft substrates. The physical properties of the material shape P. aeruginosa biofilms by regulating surface-specific twitching motility. Physical control of biofilm morphogenesis ultimately influences the resilience of biofilms to antimicrobials, linking physical environment with tolerance to treatment. Altogether, our work established that the physical properties of a surface are a critical environmental regulator of biofilm biogenesis and evolution.

RevDate: 2023-03-22
CmpDate: 2023-02-15

Godfroy O, Zheng M, Yao H, et al (2023)

The baseless mutant links protein phosphatase 2A with basal cell identity in the brown alga Ectocarpus.

Development (Cambridge, England), 150(4):.

The first mitotic division of the initial cell is a key event in all multicellular organisms and is associated with the establishment of major developmental axes and cell fates. The brown alga Ectocarpus has a haploid-diploid life cycle that involves the development of two multicellular generations: the sporophyte and the gametophyte. Each generation deploys a distinct developmental programme autonomously from an initial cell, the first cell division of which sets up the future body pattern. Here, we show that mutations in the BASELESS (BAS) gene result in multiple cellular defects during the first cell division and subsequent failure to produce basal structures during both generations. BAS encodes a type B″ regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and transcriptomic analysis identified potential effector genes that may be involved in determining basal cell fate. The bas mutant phenotype is very similar to that observed in distag (dis) mutants, which lack a functional Tubulin-binding co-factor Cd1 (TBCCd1) protein, indicating that TBCCd1 and PP2A are two essential components of the cellular machinery that regulates the first cell division and mediates basal cell fate determination.

RevDate: 2023-03-31
CmpDate: 2023-03-31

Brown Y, Hua S, PS Tanwar (2023)

Extracellular matrix in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: Advances in understanding of carcinogenesis and cancer biology.

Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology, 118:16-46.

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is notoriously known as the "silent killer" of post-menopausal women as it has an insidious progression and is the deadliest gynaecological cancer. Although a dual origin of HGSOC is now widely accepted, there is growing evidence that most cases of HGSOC originate from the fallopian tube epithelium. In this review, we will address the fallopian tube origin and involvement of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in HGSOC development. There is limited research on the role of ECM at the earliest stages of HGSOC carcinogenesis. Here we aim to synthesise current understanding of the contribution of ECM to each stage of HGSOC development and progression, beginning at serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) precursor lesions and proceeding across key events including dissemination of tumourigenic fallopian tube epithelial cells to the ovary, survival of these cells in peritoneal fluid as multicellular aggregates, and colonisation of the ovary. Likewise, as part of the metastatic series of events, serous ovarian cancer cells survive travel in peritoneal fluid, attach to, migrate across the mesothelium and invade into the sub-mesothelial matrix of secondary sites in the peritoneal cavity. Halting cancer at the pre-metastatic stage and finding ways to stop the dissemination of ovarian cancer cells from the primary site is critical for improving patient survival. The development of drug resistance also contributes to poor survival statistics in HGSOC. In this review, we provide an update on the involvement of the ECM in metastasis and drug resistance in HGSOC. Interplay between different cell-types, growth factor gradients as well as evolving ECM composition and organisation, creates microenvironment conditions that promote metastatic progression and drug resistance of ovarian cancer cells. By understanding ECM involvement in the carcinogenesis and chemoresistance of HGSOC, this may prompt ideas for further research for developing new early diagnostic tests and therapeutic strategies for HGSOC with the end goal of improving patient health outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-02-13

Mitchell RL, Kenrick P, Pressel S, et al (2023)

Terrestrial surface stabilisation by modern analogues of the earliest land plants: A multi-dimensional imaging study.

Geobiology [Epub ahead of print].

The evolution of the first plant-based terrestrial ecosystems in the early Palaeozoic had a profound effect on the development of soils, the architecture of sedimentary systems, and shifts in global biogeochemical cycles. In part, this was due to the evolution of complex below-ground (root-like) anchorage systems in plants, which expanded and promoted plant-mineral interactions, weathering, and resulting surface sediment stabilisation. However, little is understood about how these micro-scale processes occurred, because of a lack of in situ plant fossils in sedimentary rocks/palaeosols that exhibit these interactions. Some modern plants (e.g., liverworts, mosses, lycophytes) share key features with the earliest land plants; these include uni- or multicellular rhizoid-like anchorage systems or simple roots, and the ability to develop below-ground networks through prostrate axes, and intimate associations with fungi, making them suitable analogues. Here, we investigated cryptogamic ground covers in Iceland and New Zealand to better understand these interactions, and how they initiate the sediment stabilisation process. We employed multi-dimensional and multi-scale imaging, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Computed Tomography (μCT) of non-vascular liverworts (Haplomitriopsida and complex thalloids) and mosses, with additional imaging of vascular lycopods. We find that plants interact with their substrate in multiple ways, including: (1) through the development of extensive surface coverings as mats; (2) entrapment of sediment grains within and between networks of rhizoids; (3) grain entwining and adherence by rhizoids, through mucilage secretions, biofilm-like envelopment of thalli on surface grains; and (4) through grain entrapment within upright 'leafy' structures. Significantly, μCT imaging allows us to ascertain that rhizoids are the main method for entrapment and stabilisation of soil grains in the thalloid liverworts. This information provides us with details of how the earliest land plants may have significantly influenced early Palaeozoic sedimentary system architectures, promoted in situ weathering and proto-soil development, and how these interactions diversified over time with the evolution of new plant organ systems. Further, this study highlights the importance of cryptogamic organisms in the early stages of sediment stabilisation and soil formation today.

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Feng X, Zheng J, Irisarri I, et al (2023)

Chromosome-level genomes of multicellular algal sisters to land plants illuminate signaling network evolution.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

UNLABELLED: The filamentous and unicellular algae of the class Zygnematophyceae are the closest algal relatives of land plants. Inferring the properties of the last common ancestor shared by these algae and land plants allows us to identify decisive traits that enabled the conquest of land by plants. We sequenced four genomes of filamentous Zygnematophyceae (three strains of Zygnema circumcarinatum and one strain of Z. cylindricum) and generated chromosome-scale assemblies for all strains of the emerging model system Z. circumcarinatum . Comparative genomic analyses reveal expanded genes for signaling cascades, environmental response, and intracellular trafficking that we associate with multicellularity. Gene family analyses suggest that Zygnematophyceae share all the major enzymes with land plants for cell wall polysaccharide synthesis, degradation, and modifications; most of the enzymes for cell wall innovations, especially for polysaccharide backbone synthesis, were gained more than 700 million years ago. In Zygnematophyceae, these enzyme families expanded, forming co-expressed modules. Transcriptomic profiling of over 19 growth conditions combined with co-expression network analyses uncover cohorts of genes that unite environmental signaling with multicellular developmental programs. Our data shed light on a molecular chassis that balances environmental response and growth modulation across more than 600 million years of streptophyte evolution.

HIGHLIGHTS: Genomes of four filamentous algae (Zygnema) sisters to land plants Zygnema are rich in genes for multicellular growth and environmental acclimation: signaling, lipid modification, and transport Cell wall innovations: diversification of hexameric rosette cellulose synthase in ZygnematophyceaeCo-expression networks reveal conserved modules for balancing growth and acclimation.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-02-14

Debit A, Charton F, Pierre-Elies P, et al (2023)

Differential expression patterns of long noncoding RNAs in a pleiomorphic diatom and relation to hyposalinity.

Scientific reports, 13(1):2440.

Long non-coding (lnc)RNAs have been shown to have central roles in stress responses, cell identity and developmental processes in multicellular organisms as well as in unicellular fungi. Previous works have shown the occurrence of lncRNAs in diatoms, namely in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, many of which being expressed under specific stress conditions. Interestingly, P. tricornutum is the only known diatom that has a demonstrated morphological plasticity, occurring in three distinct morphotypes: fusiform, triradiate and oval. Although the morphotypes are interchangeable, the fusiform is the dominant one while both the triradiate and the oval forms are less common, the latter often being associated with stress conditions such as low salinity and solid culture media, amongst others. Nonetheless, the molecular basis underpinning morphotype identity in P. tricornutum remains elusive. Using twelve previously published transcriptomic datasets originating from the three morphotypes of P. tricornutum, we sought to investigate the expression patterns of lncRNAs (lincRNAs and NATs) in these distinct morphotypes, using pairwise comparisons, in order to explore the putative involvement of these noncoding molecules in morphotype identity. We found that differentially expressed lncRNAs cluster according to morphotype, indicating that lncRNAs are not randomly expressed, but rather seem to provide a specific (noncoding) transcriptomic signature of the morphotype. We also present evidence to suggest that the major differences in DE genes (both noncoding and coding) between the stress related oval morphotype and the most common fusiform morphotype could be due, to a large extent, to the hyposaline culture conditions rather than to the morphotype itself. However, several lncRNAs associated to each one of the three morphotypes were identified, which could have a potential role in morphotype (or cell) identity in P. tricornutum, similar to what has been found in both animals and plant development.

RevDate: 2023-02-10

Yang Q, Sharif Y, Zhuang Y, et al (2022)

Genome-wide identification of germin-like proteins in peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and expression analysis under different abiotic stresses.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1044144.

Peanut is an important food and feed crop, providing oil and protein nutrients. Germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are ubiquitously present in plants playing numerous roles in defense, growth and development, and different signaling pathways. However, the GLP members have not been comprehensively studied in peanut at the genome-wide scale. We carried out a genome-wide identification of the GLP genes in peanut genome. GLP members were identified comprehensively, and gene structure, genomic positions, motifs/domains distribution patterns, and phylogenetic history were studied in detail. Promoter Cis-elements, gene duplication, collinearity, miRNAs, protein-protein interactions, and expression were determined. A total of 84 GLPs (AhGLPs) were found in the genome of cultivated peanut. These GLP genes were clustered into six groups. Segmental duplication events played a key role in the evolution of AhGLPs, and purifying selection pressure was underlying the duplication process. Most AhGLPs possessed a well-maintained gene structure and motif organization within the same group. The promoter regions of AhGLPs contained several key cis-elements responsive to 'phytohormones', 'growth and development', defense, and 'light induction'. Seven microRNAs (miRNAs) from six families were found targeting 25 AhGLPs. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that AhGLPs are highly enriched in nutrient reservoir activity, aleurone grain, external encapsulating structure, multicellular organismal reproductive process, and response to acid chemicals, indicating their important biological roles. AhGLP14, AhGLP38, AhGLP54, and AhGLP76 were expressed in most tissues, while AhGLP26, AhGLP29, and AhGLP62 showed abundant expression in the pericarp. AhGLP7, AhGLP20, and AhGLP21, etc., showed specifically high expression in embryo, while AhGLP12, AhGLP18, AhGLP40, AhGLP78, and AhGLP82 were highly expressed under different hormones, water, and temperature stress. The qRT-PCR results were in accordance with the transcriptome expression data. In short, these findings provided a foundation for future functional investigations on the AhGLPs for peanut breeding programs.

RevDate: 2023-02-10
CmpDate: 2023-02-10

Zhang X, Chen S, Zhao Z, et al (2023)

Investigation of B-atp6-orfH79 distributing in Chinese populations of Oryza rufipogon and analysis of its chimeric structure.

BMC plant biology, 23(1):81.

BACKGROUND: The cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of rice is caused by chimeric mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that is maternally inherited in the majority of multicellular organisms. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) has been regarded as the ancestral progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). To investigate the distribution of original CMS source, and explore the origin of gametophytic CMS gene, a total of 427 individuals with seventeen representative populations of O. rufipogon were collected in from Dongxiang of Jiangxi Province to Sanya of Hainan Province, China, for the PCR amplification of atp6, orfH79 and B-atp6-orfH79, respectively.

RESULTS: The B-atp6-orfH79 and its variants (B-atp6-GSV) were detected in five among seventeen populations (i.e. HK, GZ, PS, TL and YJ) through PCR amplification, which could be divided into three haplotypes, i.e., BH1, BH2, and BH3. The BH2 haplotype was identical to B-atp6-orfH79, while the BH1 and BH3 were the novel haplotypes of B-atp6-GSV. Combined with the high-homology sequences in GenBank, a total of eighteen haplotypes have been revealed, only with ten haplotypes in orfH79 and its variants (GSV) that belong to three species (i.e. O. rufipogon, Oryza nivara and Oryza sativa). Enough haplotypes clearly demonstrated the uniform structural characteristics of the B-atp6-orfH79 as follows: except for the conserved sequence (671 bp) composed of B-atp6 (619 bp) and the downstream followed the B-atp6 (52 bp, DS), and GSV sequence, a rich variable sequence (VS, 176 bp) lies between the DS and GSV with five insertion or deletion and more than 30 single nucleotide polymorphism. Maximum likelihood analysis showed that eighteen haplotypes formed three clades with high support rate. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated the occurrence of variation among all populations (FST = 1; P < 0.001), which implied that the chimeric structure occurred independently. Three haplotypes (i.e., H1, H2 and H3) were detected by the primer of orfH79, which were identical to the GVS in B-atp6-GVS structure, respectively. All seventeen haplotypes of the orfH79, belonged to six species based on our results and the existing references. Seven existed single nucleotide polymorphism in GSV section can be translated into eleven various amino acid sequences.

CONCLUSIONS: Generally, this study, indicating that orfH79 was always accompanied by the B-atp6, not only provide two original CMS sources for rice breeding, but also confirm the uniform structure of B-atp-orfH79, which contribute to revealing the origin of rice gametophytic CMS genes, and the reason about frequent recombination of mitochondrial DNA.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Liu J, Xing WY, Liu B, et al (2023)

Three-dimensional coordination of cell-division site positioning in a filamentous cyanobacterium.

PNAS nexus, 2(2):pgac307.

Bacterial cells mostly divide symmetrically. In the filamentous, multicellular cyanobacterium Anabaena, cell-division planes are aligned vertically relative to the long axis of every single cell. This observation suggests that both the placement and the angle of the division planes are controlled in every single cell so that the filament can grow in one single dimension along the long axis. In this study, we showed that inactivation of patU3 encoding a cell-division inhibitor led cells to divide asymmetrically in two dimensions leading to twisted filaments, indicating that PatU3 controls not only the position but also the angle of the division planes. Deletion of the conserved minC and minD genes affected cell division symmetry, but not the angle of the division planes. Remarkably, when both patU3 and minCD were inactivated, cells could divide asymmetrically over 360° angles in three dimensions across different cellular sections, producing not only cells with irregular sizes, but also branching filaments. This study demonstrated the existence of a system operating in a three-dimensional manner for the control of cell division in Anabaena. Such a regulation may have been evolved to accommodate multicellular behaviors, a hallmark in evolution.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Piccinini G, L Milani (2023)

Germline-related molecular phenotype in Metazoa: conservation and innovation highlighted by comparative transcriptomics.

EvoDevo, 14(1):2.

BACKGROUND: In Metazoa, the germline represents the cell lineage devoted to the transmission of genetic heredity across generations. Its functions intuitively evoke the crucial roles that it plays in organism development and species evolution, and its establishment is tightly tied to animal multicellularity itself. The molecular toolkit expressed in germ cells has a high degree of conservation between species, and it also shares many components with the molecular phenotype of some animal totipotent cell lineages, like planarian neoblasts and sponge archaeocytes. The present study stems from these observations and represents a transcriptome-wide comparative analysis between germline-related samples of 9 animal species (7 phyla), comprehending also totipotent lineages classically considered somatic.

RESULTS: Differential expression analyses were performed for each species between germline-related and control somatic tissues. We then compared the different germline-related transcriptional profiles across the species without the need for an a priori set of genes. Through a phylostratigraphic analysis, we observed that the proportion of phylum- and Metazoa-specific genes among germline-related upregulated transcripts was lower than expected by chance for almost all species. Moreover, homologous genes related to proper DNA replication resulted the most common when comparing the considered species, while the regulation of transcription and post-transcriptional mechanisms appeared more variable, showing shared upregulated functions and domains, but very few homologous whole-length sequences.

CONCLUSIONS: Our wide-scale comparative analysis mostly confirmed previous molecular characterizations of specific germline-related lineages. Additionally, we observed a consistent signal throughout the whole data set, therefore comprehending both canonically defined germline samples (germ cells), and totipotent cell lineages classically considered somatic (neoblasts and archaeocytes). The phylostratigraphic analysis supported the less probable involvement of novel molecular factors in the germline-related transcriptional phenotype and highlighted the early origin of such cell programming and its conservation throughout evolution. Moreover, the fact that the mostly shared molecular factors were involved in DNA replication and repair suggests how fidelity in genetic material inheritance is a strong and conserved driver of germline-related molecular phenotype, while transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations appear differently tuned among the lineages.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-01

Pandey T, DK Ma (2022)

Stress-Induced Phenoptosis: Mechanistic Insights and Evolutionary Implications.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 87(12):1504-1511.

Evolution by natural selection results in biological traits that enable organismic adaptation and survival under various stressful environments. External stresses can be sometimes too severe to overcome, leading to organismic death either because of failure in adapting to such stress, or alternatively, through a regulated form of organismic death (phenoptosis). While regulated cell deaths, including apoptosis, have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying phenoptosis and its evolutionary significance for multicellular organisms. In this article, we review documented phenomena and mechanistic evidence emerging from studies of stress-induced phenoptosis in the multicellular organism C. elegans and stress-induced deaths at cellular levels in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals, focusing on abiotic and pathogen stresses. Genes and signaling pathways involved in phenoptosis appear to promote organismic death during severe stress and aging, while conferring fitness and immune defense during mild stress and early life, consistent with their antagonistic pleiotropy actions. As cell apoptosis during development can shape tissues and organs, stress-induced phenoptosis may also contribute to possible benefits at the population level, through mechanisms including kin selection, abortive infection, and soma-to-germline resource allocation. Current models can generate experimentally testable predictions and conceptual frameworks with implications for understanding both stress-induced phenoptosis and natural aging.

RevDate: 2023-04-06
CmpDate: 2023-04-04

Klure DM, Greenhalgh R, Parchman TL, et al (2023)

Hybridization in the absence of an ecotone favors hybrid success in woodrats (Neotoma spp.).

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 77(4):959-970.

Hybridization is a common process that has broadly impacted the evolution of multicellular eukaryotes; however, how ecological factors influence this process remains poorly understood. Here, we report the findings of a 3-year recapture study of the Bryant's woodrat (Neotoma bryanti) and desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), two species that hybridize within a creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) shrubland in Whitewater, CA, USA. We used a genotype-by-sequencing approach to characterize the ancestry distribution of individuals across this hybrid zone coupled with Cormack-Jolly-Seber modeling to describe demography. We identified a high frequency of hybridization at this site with ~40% of individuals possessing admixed ancestry, which is the result of multigenerational backcrossing and advanced hybrid-hybrid crossing. F1, F2, and advanced generation hybrids had apparent survival rates similar to parental N. bryanti, while parental and backcross N. lepida had lower apparent survival rates and were far less abundant. Compared to bimodal hybrid zones where hybrids are often rare and selected against, we find that hybrids at Whitewater are common and have comparable survival to the dominant parental species, N. bryanti. The frequency of hybridization at Whitewater is therefore likely limited by the abundance of the less common parental species, N. lepida, rather than selection against hybrids.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Shekhar S, Guo H, Colin SP, et al (2023)

Cooperative hydrodynamics accompany multicellular-like colonial organization in the unicellular ciliate Stentor.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

Evolution of multicellularity from early unicellular ancestors is arguably one of the most important transitions since the origin of life [1,2] . Multicellularity is often associated with higher nutrient uptake [3] , better defense against predation, cell specialization and better division of labor [4] . While many single-celled organisms exhibit both solitary and colonial existence [3,5,6] , the organizing principles governing the transition and the benefits endowed are less clear. Using the suspension-feeding unicellular protist Stentor coeruleus , we show that hydrodynamic coupling between proximal neighbors results in faster feeding flows that depend on the separation between individuals. Moreover, we find that the accrued benefits in feeding current enhancement are typically asymmetricâ€" individuals with slower solitary currents gain more from partnering than those with faster currents. We find that colony-formation is ephemeral in Stentor and individuals in colonies are highly dynamic unlike other colony-forming organisms like Volvox carteri [3] . Our results demonstrate benefits endowed by the colonial organization in a simple unicellular organism and can potentially provide fundamental insights into the selective forces favoring early evolution of multicellular organization.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Pineau RM, Demory D, Libby E, et al (2023)

Emergence and maintenance of stable coexistence during a long-term multicellular evolution experiment.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.19.524803.

The evolution of multicellular life spurred evolutionary radiations, fundamentally changing many of Earth’s ecosystems. Yet little is known about how early steps in the evolution of multicellularity transform eco-evolutionary dynamics, e.g., via niche expansion processes that may facilitate coexistence. Using long-term experimental evolution in the snowflake yeast model system, we show that the evolution of multicellularity drove niche partitioning and the adaptive divergence of two distinct, specialized lineages from a single multicellular ancestor. Over 715 daily transfers, snowflake yeast were subject to selection for rapid growth in rich media, followed by selection favoring larger group size. Both small and large cluster-forming lineages evolved from a monomorphic ancestor, coexisting for over ~4,300 generations. These small and large sized snowflake yeast lineages specialized on divergent aspects of a trade-off between growth rate and survival, mirroring predictions from ecological theory. Through modeling and experimentation, we demonstrate that coexistence is maintained by a trade-off between organismal size and competitiveness for dissolved oxygen. Taken together, this work shows how the evolution of a new level of biological individuality can rapidly drive adaptive diversification and the expansion of a nascent multicellular niche, one of the most historically-impactful emergent properties of this evolutionary transition.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Moriel A, Wolfenson H, E Bouchbinder (2023)

Characteristic energy scales of active fluctuations in adherent cells.

Biophysical reports, 3(1):100099.

Cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion play important roles in a wide variety of physiological processes, from the single-cell level to the large scale, multicellular organization of tissues. Cells actively apply forces to their environment, either extracellular matrix or neighboring cells, as well as sense its biophysical properties. The fluctuations associated with these active processes occur on an energy scale much larger than that of ordinary thermal equilibrium fluctuations, yet their statistical properties and characteristic scales are not fully understood. Here, we compare measurements of the energy scale of active cellular fluctuations-an effective cellular temperature-in four different biophysical settings, involving both single-cell and cell-aggregate experiments under various control conditions, different cell types, and various biophysical observables. The results indicate that a similar energy scale of active fluctuations might characterize the same cell type in different settings, though it may vary among different cell types, being approximately six to eight orders of magnitude larger than the ordinary thermal energy at room temperature. These findings call for extracting the energy scale of active fluctuations over a broader range of cell types, experimental settings, and biophysical observables and for understanding the biophysical origin and significance of such cellular energy scales.

RevDate: 2023-04-11
CmpDate: 2023-04-11

Trivedi DD, Dalai SK, SR Bakshi (2023)

The Mystery of Cancer Resistance: A Revelation Within Nature.

Journal of molecular evolution, 91(2):133-155.

Cancer, a disease due to uncontrolled cell proliferation is as ancient as multicellular organisms. A 255-million-years-old fossilized forerunner mammal gorgonopsian is probably the oldest evidence of cancer, to date. Cancer seems to have evolved by adapting to the microenvironment occupied by immune sentinel, modulating the cellular behavior from cytotoxic to regulatory, acquiring resistance to chemotherapy and surviving hypoxia. The interaction of genes with environmental carcinogens is central to cancer onset, seen as a spectrum of cancer susceptibility among human population. Cancer occurs in life forms other than human also, although their exposure to environmental carcinogens can be different. Role of genetic etiology in cancer in multiple species can be interesting with regard to not only cancer susceptibility, but also genetic conservation and adaptation in speciation. The widely used model organisms for cancer research are mouse and rat which are short-lived and reproduce rapidly. Research in these cancer prone animal models has been valuable as these have led to cancer therapy. However, another rewarding area of cancer research can be the cancer-resistant animal species. The Peto's paradox and G-value paradox are evident when natural cancer resistance is observed in large mammals, like elephant and whale, small rodents viz. Naked Mole Rat and Blind Mole Rat, and Bat. The cancer resistance remains to be explored in other small or large and long-living animals like giraffe, camel, rhinoceros, water buffalo, Indian bison, Shire horse, polar bear, manatee, elephant seal, walrus, hippopotamus, turtle and tortoise, sloth, and squirrel. Indeed, understanding the molecular mechanisms of avoiding neoplastic transformation across various life forms can be potentially having translational value for human cancer management. Adapted and Modified from (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011).

RevDate: 2023-02-01
CmpDate: 2023-01-26

Forterre P, M Gaïa (2022)

[Viruses and the evolution of modern eukaryotic cells].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 38(12):990-998.

It is now well accepted that viruses have played an important role in the evolution of modern eukaryotes. In this review, we suggest that interactions between ancient eukaryoviruses and proto-eukaryotes also played a major role in eukaryogenesis. We discuss phylogenetic analyses that highlight the viral origin of several key proteins in the molecular biology of eukaryotes. We also discuss recent observations that, by analogy, could suggest a viral origin of the cellular nucleus. Finally, we hypothesize that mechanisms of cell differentiation in multicellular organisms might have originated from mechanisms implemented by viruses to transform infected cells into virocells.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )