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Bibliography on: Brain-Computer Interface

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Jun 2024 at 01:40 Created: 

Brain-Computer Interface

Wikipedia: A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural control interface (NCI), mind–machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at researching, mapping, assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions. Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) under a grant from the National Science Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA. The papers published after this research also mark the first appearance of the expression brain–computer interface in scientific literature. BCI-effected sensory input: Due to the cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels. Following years of animal experimentation, the first neuroprosthetic devices implanted in humans appeared in the mid-1990s. BCI-effected motor output: When artificial intelligence is used to decode neural activity, then send that decoded information to some kind of effector device, BCIs have the potential to restore communication to people who have lost the ability to move or speak. To date, the focus has largely been on motor skills such as reaching or grasping. However, in May of 2021 a study showed that an AI/BCI system could be use to translate thoughts about handwriting into the output of legible characters at a usable rate (90 characters per minute with 94% accuracy).

Created with PubMed® Query: (bci OR (brain-computer OR brain-machine OR mind-machine OR neural-control interface) NOT 26799652[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Kosnoff J, Yu K, Liu C, et al (2024)

Transcranial focused ultrasound to V5 enhances human visual motion brain-computer interface by modulating feature-based attention.

Nature communications, 15(1):4382.

A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables users to control devices with their minds. Despite advancements, non-invasive BCIs still exhibit high error rates, prompting investigation into the potential reduction through concurrent targeted neuromodulation. Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technology with high spatiotemporal precision. This study examines whether tFUS neuromodulation can improve BCI outcomes, and explores the underlying mechanism of action using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging (ESI). As a result, V5-targeted tFUS significantly reduced the error in a BCI speller task. Source analyses revealed a significantly increase in theta and alpha activities in the tFUS condition at both V5 and downstream in the dorsal visual processing pathway. Correlation analysis indicated that the connection within the dorsal processing pathway was preserved during tFUS stimulation, while the ventral connection was weakened. These findings suggest that V5-targeted tFUS enhances feature-based attention to visual motion.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Wang XQ, Sun HQ, Si JY, et al (2024)

Challenges and Suggestions of Ethical Review on Clinical Research Involving Brain-Computer Interfaces.

Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih pii:1718156312215-185991493 [Epub ahead of print].

Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is rapidly advancing in medical research and application. As an emerging biomedical engineering technology, it has garnered significant attention in the clinical research of brain disease diagnosis and treatment, neurological rehabilitation, and mental health. However, BCI also raises several challenges and ethical concerns in clinical research. In this article, the authors investigate and discuss three aspects of BCI in medicine and healthcare: the state of ethical governance, multidimensional ethical challenges pertaining to BCI in clinical research, and suggestive concerns for ethical review. Despite the great potentials of frontier BCI research and development in the field of medical care, the ethical challenges induced by itself, clinical research and complexity of brain function has put forward new special fields for ethics on BCI. To ensure "responsible innovation" BCI research in healthcare and medicine, the creation of an ethical global governance framework and system, along with special guidelines for cutting-edge BCI research in medicine are suggested.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Hore A, Bandyopadhyay S, S Chakrabarti (2024)

Persistent spiking activity in neuromorphic circuits incorporating post-inhibitory rebound excitation.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to introduce a novel approach for integrating the post-inhibitory rebound excitation (PIRE) phenomenon into a neuronal circuit. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses are designed to establish a connection between two such hardware neurons, effectively forming a network. The model demonstrates the occurrence of PIRE under strong inhibitory input. Emphasizing the significance of incorporating PIRE in neuromorphic circuits, the study showcases the generation of persistent activity within cyclic and recurrent spiking neuronal networks.

APPROACH: The neuronal and synaptic circuits are designed and simulated in Cadence Virtuoso using TSMC 180 nm technology. The operating mechanism of the PIRE phenomenon integrated into a hardware neuron is discussed. The proposed circuit encompasses several parameters for effectively controlling different electrophysiological features of a neuron. Main results. The neuronal circuit has been tuned to match the response of a biological neuron. The efficiency of this circuit is evaluated by computing the average power dissipation and energy consumption per spike through simulation. The sustained firing of neural spikes is observed till 1.7 seconds using the two neuronal networks. Significance. Persistent activity has significant implications for various cognitive functions such as working memory, decision-making, and attention. Further, functions like attention are used in the recent development of neural networks and algorithms. Therefore, hardware implementation of these functions will require our PIRE-integrated model. Such energy-efficient neuromorphic systems are useful in many artificial intelligence applications, including human-machine interaction, IoT devices, autonomous systems, and brain-computer interfaces. .

RevDate: 2024-06-11

T JR, M Ramasubba Reddy (2024)

Narrow Band-Pass Filtered Canonical Correlation Analysis for Frequency Identification in SSVEP Signals.

Biomedical physics & engineering express [Epub ahead of print].

Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are generated in the parieto-occipital regions, accompanied by background noise and artifacts. A strong pre-processing method is required to reduce this background noise and artifacts. This study proposed a narrow band-pass filtered canonical correlation analysis (NBPFCCA) to recognise frequency components in SSVEP signals. The proposed method is tested on the publicly available 40 stimulus frequencies dataset recorded from 35 subjects and 4 class in-house dataset acquired from 10 subjects. The performance of the proposed NBPFCCA method is compared with the standard canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and the filter bank CCA (FBCCA). The mean frequency detection accuracy of the standard CCA is 86.21 \% for the benchmark dataset, and it is improved to 95.58 % in the proposed method. Results indicate that the proposed method significantly outperforms the standard canonical correlation analysis with an increase of 9.37 % and 17 % in frequency recognition accuracy of the benchmark and in-house datasets, respectively.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Leng J, Li H, Shi W, et al (2024)

Time-frequency-space EEG decoding model based on dense graph convolutional network for stroke.

IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Stroke, a sudden cerebrovascular ailment resulting from brain tissue damage, has prompted the use of motor imagery (MI)-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems in stroke rehabilitation. However, analyzing EEG signals from stroke patients is challenging because of their low signal-to-noise ratio and high variability. Therefore, we propose a novel approach that combines the modified S-transform (MST) and a dense graph convolutional network (DenseGCN) algorithm to enhance the MI-BCI performance across time, frequency, and space domains. MST is a time-frequency analysis method that efficiently concentrates energy in EEG signals, while DenseGCN is a deep learning model that uses EEG feature maps from each layer as inputs for subsequent layers, facilitating feature reuse and hyper-parameters optimization. Our approach outperforms conventional networks, achieving a peak classification accuracy of 90.22% and an average information transfer rate (ITR) of 68.52 bits per minute. Moreover, we conduct an in-depth analysis of the event-related desynchronization/event-related synchronization (ERD/ERS) phenomenon in the deep-level EEG features of stroke patients. Our experimental results confirm the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed approach for MI-BCI rehabilitation systems.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Ladouceur F, Al Abed A, Lehmann T, et al (2024)

All optical neural interfaces.

Applied optics, 63(14):D21-D27.

Brain/computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on the concurrent recording of many channels of electrical activity from excitable tissue. Traditionally such neural interfacing has been performed using cumbersome, channel-limited multielectrode arrays. We believe that BCIs can greatly benefit from using an optical approach based on simple yet powerful liquid-crystal based transducer technology. This approach potentially offers a technology platform that can sustain the necessary bandwidth, density of channels, responsivity, and conformability that are required for the long-term viability of such interfaces. In this paper we review the overall architecture of this approach, the challenges it faces, and the solutions that are being developed at UNSW Sydney.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Pang R, Sang H, Yi L, et al (2024)

Working memory load recognition with deep learning time series classification.

Biomedical optics express, 15(5):2780-2797.

Working memory load (WML) is one of the widely applied signals in the areas of human-machine interaction. The precise evaluation of the WML is crucial for this kind of application. This study aims to propose a deep learning (DL) time series classification (TSC) model for inter-subject WML decoding. We used fNIRS to record the hemodynamic signals of 27 participants during visual working memory tasks. Traditional machine learning and deep time series classification algorithms were respectively used for intra-subject and inter-subject WML decoding from the collected blood oxygen signals. The intra-subject classification accuracy of LDA and SVM were 94.6% and 79.1%. Our proposed TAResnet-BiLSTM model had the highest inter-subject WML decoding accuracy, reaching 92.4%. This study provides a new idea and method for the brain-computer interface application of fNIRS in real-time WML detection.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Okamoto Y, Matsui K, Ando T, et al (2024)

Pilot study of the relation between various dynamics of avatar experience and perceptual characteristics.

PeerJ. Computer science, 10:e2042.

In recent years, due to the prevalence of virtual reality (VR) and human-computer interaction (HCI) research, along with the expectation that understanding the process of establishing sense of ownership, sense of agency, and limb heaviness (in this study, limb heaviness is replaced with comfort level) will contribute to the development of various medical rehabilitation, various studies have been actively conducted in these fields. Previous studies have indicated that each perceptual characteristics decrease in response to positive delay. However, it is still unclear how each perceptual characteristic changes in response to negative delay. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to deduce how changes occur in the perceptual characteristics when certain settings are manipulated using the avatar developed in this study. This study conducted experiments using an avatar system developed for this research that uses electromyography as the interface. Two separate experiments involved twelve participants: a preliminary experiment and a main experiment. As observed in the previous study, it was confirmed that each perceptual characteristics decreased for positive delay. In addition, the range of the preliminary experiment was insufficient for the purpose of this study, which was to confirm the perceptual characteristics for negative delay, thus confirming the validity of conducting this experiment. Meanwhile, the main experiment showed that the sense of ownership, sense of agency, and comfort level decreased gradually as delay time decreased, (i.e., this event is prior to action with intention, which could not be examined in the previous study). This suggests that control by the brain-machine interface is difficult to use when it is too fast. In addition, the distribution of the most strongly perceived settings in human perceptual characteristics was wider in regions with larger delays, suggesting this may lead to the evaluation of an internal model believed to exist in the human cerebellum. The avatar developed for this study may have the potential to create a new experimental paradigm for perceptual characteristics.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Belleflamme M, Hommes J, Dervisoglu R, et al (2024)

Catalytic Upgrading of Acetaldehyde to Acetoin using a Supported N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalyst.

ChemSusChem [Epub ahead of print].

We report the catalytic synthesis of 3-hydroxy-2-butanon (acetoin) from acetaldehyde as a key step in the synthesis of C4-molecules from ethanol. Facile C-C-bond formation at the α-carbon of the C2 building block is achieved using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyst. The immobilization of the catalyst on a Merrifield's peptide resin and its spectroscopic characterisation using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is described herein. The immobilization of the NHC catalyst allows for process intensification steps and the reported catalytic system was subjected to batch recycling as well as continuous flow experiments. The robustness of the catalytic system was shown over a maximum of 10 h time-on-stream. Overall, high selectivity S > 90% was observed. The observed deactivation of the catalyst with increasing time-on-stream is explained by ex-situ1H solution-state, as well as 13C and 15N solid-state NMR spectra allowing us to develop a deeper understanding of the underlying decomposition mechanism of the catalyst.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Jiang Y, Dong Y, H Hu (2024)

The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor hypothesis of ketamine's antidepressant action: evidence and controversies.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 379(1906):20230225.

Substantial clinical evidence has unravelled the superior antidepressant efficacy of ketamine: in comparison to traditional antidepressants targeting the monoamine systems, ketamine, as an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, acts much faster and more potently. Surrounding the antidepressant mechanisms of ketamine, there is ample evidence supporting an NMDAR-antagonism-based hypothesis. However, alternative arguments also exist, mostly derived from the controversial clinical results of other NMDAR inhibitors. In this article, we first summarize the historical development of the NMDAR-centred hypothesis of rapid antidepressants. We then classify different NMDAR inhibitors based on their mechanisms of inhibition and evaluate preclinical as well as clinical evidence of their antidepressant effects. Finally, we critically analyse controversies and arguments surrounding ketamine's NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent antidepressant action. A better understanding of ketamine's molecular targets and antidepressant mechanisms should shed light on the future development of better treatment for depression. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Long-term potentiation: 50 years on'.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Pilz da Cunha G, Coupé VMH, Zonderhuis BM, et al (2024)

Healthcare cost expenditure for robotic versus laparoscopic liver resection: a bottom-up economic evaluation.

HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association pii:S1365-182X(24)01743-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive liver surgery (MILS) is increasingly performed via the robot-assisted approach but may be associated with increased costs. This study is a post-hoc comparison of healthcare cost expenditure for robotic liver resection (RLR) and laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) in a high-volume center.

METHODS: In-hospital and 30-day postoperative healthcare costs were calculated per patient in a retrospective series (October 2015-December 2022).

RESULTS: Overall, 298 patients were included (143 RLR and 155 LLR). Benefits of RLR were lower conversion rate (2.8% vs 12.3%, p = 0.002), shorter operating time (167 min vs 198 min, p = 0.044), and less blood loss (50 mL vs 200 mL, p < 0.001). Total per-procedure costs of RLR (€10260) and LLR (€9931) were not significantly different (mean difference €329 [95% bootstrapped confidence interval (BCI) €-1179-€2120]). Lower costs with RLR due to shorter surgical and operating room time were offset by higher disposable instrumentation costs resulting in comparable intraoperative costs (€5559 vs €5247, mean difference €312 [95% BCI €-25-€648]). Postoperative costs were similar for RLR (€4701) and LLR (€4684), mean difference €17 [95% BCI €-1357-€1727]. When also considering purchase and maintenance costs, RLR resulted in higher total per-procedure costs.

DISCUSSION: In a high-volume center, RLR can have similar per-procedure cost expenditure as LLR when disregarding capital investment.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Cao B, Xu Q, Shi Y, et al (2024)

Pathology of pain and its implications for therapeutic interventions.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 9(1):155.

Pain is estimated to affect more than 20% of the global population, imposing incalculable health and economic burdens. Effective pain management is crucial for individuals suffering from pain. However, the current methods for pain assessment and treatment fall short of clinical needs. Benefiting from advances in neuroscience and biotechnology, the neuronal circuits and molecular mechanisms critically involved in pain modulation have been elucidated. These research achievements have incited progress in identifying new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. In this review, we first introduce fundamental knowledge about pain, setting the stage for the subsequent contents. The review next delves into the molecular mechanisms underlying pain disorders, including gene mutation, epigenetic modification, posttranslational modification, inflammasome, signaling pathways and microbiota. To better present a comprehensive view of pain research, two prominent issues, sexual dimorphism and pain comorbidities, are discussed in detail based on current findings. The status quo of pain evaluation and manipulation is summarized. A series of improved and innovative pain management strategies, such as gene therapy, monoclonal antibody, brain-computer interface and microbial intervention, are making strides towards clinical application. We highlight existing limitations and future directions for enhancing the quality of preclinical and clinical research. Efforts to decipher the complexities of pain pathology will be instrumental in translating scientific discoveries into clinical practice, thereby improving pain management from bench to bedside.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

McAloon CI, McAloon CG, Barrett D, et al (2024)

Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of bulk tank milk PCR and 2 antibody ELISA tests for herd-level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis infection using Bayesian latent class analysis.

Journal of dairy science pii:S0022-0302(24)00893-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Mycoplasmosis (due to infection with Mycoplasma bovis) is a serious disease of beef and dairy cattle that can adversely impact health, welfare and productivity (Maunsell et al. (2011)). Mycoplasmosis can lead to a range of often severe, clinical presentations. Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) infection can present either clinically or subclinically, with the potential for recrudescence of shedding in association with stressful periods. Infection can be maintained within herds because of intermittent shedding (Calcutt et al., 2018, Hazelton et al., 2018). M. bovis is recognized as poorly responsive to treatment which represents a major challenge for control in infected herds. Given this, particular focus is needed on biosecurity measures to prevent introduction into uninfected herds in the first place. A robust and reliable laboratory test for surveillance is important both for herd-level prevention and control. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of 3 diagnostic tests (one PCR and 2 ELISA tests) on bulk tank milk, for the herd-level detection of M. bovis using Bayesian latent class analysis. In autumn 2018, bulk tank milk samples from 11,807 herds, covering the majority of the main dairy regions in Ireland had been submitted to the Department of Agriculture testing laboratory for routine surveillance were made available. A stratified random sample approach was used to select a cohort of herds for testing from this larger sample set. A final study population of 728 herds had bulk tank milk samples analyzed using a Bio-X ELISA (ELISA 1), an IDvet ELISA (ELISA 2) and a PCR test. A Bayesian latent class analysis (BLCA) was conducted to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the 3 diagnostic tests applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) for the detection of the herd-level infection. An overall LCA was conducted on all herds within a single population (a 3-test, 1-population model). The herds were also split into 2 populations based on herd size (small herds had < 82 cattle) (a 3-test, 2-population model) and separately into 3 regions in Ireland (Leinster, Munster and Connacht/Ulster) (a 3-test, 3-population model). The latent variable of interest was the herd-level M. bovis infection status. In total, 363/728 (50%) were large herds, 7 (1.0%) were positive on PCR, 88 (12%) positive on ELISA 1, and 406 (56%) positive on ELISA 2. Based on the 2-population model, the sensitivity (95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI) was 0.03 (0.02, 0.05), 0.22 (0.18, 0.27), 0.94 (0.88, 0.98) for PCR, ELISA 1 and ELISA 2 respectively. The specificity (95% BCI) was 0.99 (0.99, 1.0), 0.97 (0.95, 0.99), and 0.92 (0.86, 0.97) for PCR, ELISA 1 and ELISA 2 respectively. The herd-level true prevalence was estimated at 0.43 (BCI 0.35, 0.5) for smaller herds. The true prevalence was estimated at 0.62 (BCI 0.55, 0.69) for larger herds. The true prevalence was estimated at 0.56 (BCI 0.49, 0.463) in the 1-population model. For the 3-population model, the sensitivity (95% BCI) was 0.03 (0.02, 0.05), 0.24 (0.18, 0.29), 0.95 (0.9, 0.98) for PCR, ELISA 1 and ELISA 2 respectively. The specificity (95% BCI) was 0.99 (0.99, 1.0), 0.98 (0.96, 0.99), and 0.88 (0.79, 0.95) for PCR, ELISA 1 and ELISA 2 respectively. The herd-level true prevalence (95% BCI) was estimated at 0.65 (0.56, 0.73), 0.38 (0.28, 0.46) and 0.53 (0.4, 0.65) for population 1, 2, 3 respectively. Across all 3 models, the range in true prevalence was 38% to 65% of Irish dairy herds infected with M. bovis. The operating characteristics vary substantially between tests. The IDvet ELISA had a relatively high Se (the highest Se of the 3 tests studied) but it was estimated at 0.95 at its highest in 3-test, 3-population model. This test may be an appropriate test for herd-level screening or prevalence estimation within the context of the endemically infected Irish dairy cattle population. Further work is required to optimize this test and its interpretation when applied at herd-level to offset concerns related to the lower than optimal test Sp.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Qian SX, Bao YF, Li XY, et al (2024)

Multi-omics Analysis Reveals Key Gut Microbiota and Metabolites Closely Associated with Huntington's Disease.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is closely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD). Gut microbiome-derived metabolites are key factors in host-microbiome interactions. This study aimed to investigate the crucial gut microbiome and metabolites in HD and their correlations. Fecal and serum samples from 11 to 26 patients with HD, respectively, and 16 and 23 healthy controls, respectively, were collected. The fecal samples were used for shotgun metagenomics while the serum samples for metabolomics analysis. Integrated analysis of the metagenomics and metabolomics data was also conducted. Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Proteobacteria, Uroviricota, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were the dominant phyla. At the genus level, the presence of Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Parabacteroides, Alistipes, Dialister, and Christensenella was higher in HD patients, while the abundance of Lachnospira, Roseburia, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Blautia, Butyricicoccus, Agathobaculum, Phocaeicola, Coprococcus, and Fusicatenibacter decreased. A total of 244 differential metabolites were identified and found to be enriched in the glycerophospholipid, nucleotide, biotin, galactose, and alpha-linolenic acid metabolic pathways. The AUC value from the integrated analysis (1) was higher than that from the analysis of the gut microbiota (0.8632). No significant differences were found in the ACE, Simpson, Shannon, Sobs, and Chao indexes between HD patients and controls. Our study determined crucial functional gut microbiota and potential biomarkers associated with HD pathogenesis, providing new insights into the role of the gut microbiota-brain axis in HD occurrence and development.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

El Khoury MA, Kastler EC, Parra J, et al (2024)

Continent Cutaneous Diversion: Unveiling the Interplay of Neuro-urology and Oncological Challenges.

The French journal of urology pii:S2950-3930(24)00122-0 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study is to demonstrate the practical application of continent cutaneous urinary diversion (CCUD) in oncological patients, with a focus on various aspects of the procedure: surgical challenges, functional outcomes, and quality of life.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the perioperative and follow-up data of patients who underwent cystectomy for cancer associated with CCUD (Mitrofanoff, Monti or Casale). We retrospectively analyzed complications within 30 days and beyond 30 days post-surgery. We evaluated oncological outcomes. Patients' quality of life was assessed using the Bladder Cancer Index (BCI) questionnaire. Results are given on an intention-to-treat basis.

RESULTS: A total of 24 patients were included in the study (July 2001 and May 2022), with a median follow-up of 62.5 months. We report three deaths due to neoplasic recurrence. 46% had an early postoperative complication, two of whom required revision surgery. Overall, the medium-term complication rate was 83% and the reoperation rate was 62%. There were 8 stomal cutaneous stenoses (33%) and 3 uretero-ileal stenoses (12.5%). Overall satisfaction was rated at 9.2/10 on average, and body image was unaltered or slightly altered in 62.5% of patients. Of the patients who responded to the BCI, 75% had complete continence.

DISCUSSION: The experience gained with continent stomas in neuro-urology has allowed, in carefully selected cases, to offer patients an alternative that can improve their quality of life in a context already burdened by the shadow of cancer. CCUD can be proposed as an alternative to Bricker diversion in cases of urethral invasion or a high risk of neobladder incontinence, in selected patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Zhao X, Xu R, Xu R, et al (2024)

A auto-segmented multi-time window dual-scale neural network for brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Event-related potentials (ERPs) are cerebral responses to cognitive processes, also referred to as cognitive potentials. Accurately decoding ERPs can help to advance research on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). The spatial pattern of ERP varies with time. In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promising results in electroencephalography (EEG) classification, specifically for ERP-based BCIs.

APPROACH: This study proposes an auto-segmented multi-time window dual-scale neural network (AWDSNet). The combination of a multi-window design and a lightweight base network gives AWDSNet good performance at an acceptable cost of computing. For each individual, we create a time window set by calculating the correlation of signed R-squared values, which enables us to determine the length and number of windows automatically. The signal data are segmented based on the obtained window sets in sub-plus-global mode. Then, the multi-window data are fed into a dual-scale CNN model, where the sizes of the convolution kernels are determined by the window sizes. The use of dual-scale spatiotemporal convolution focuses on feature details while also having a large enough receptive length, and the grouping parallelism undermines the increase in the number of parameters that come with dual scaling.

MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the performance of AWDSNet on a public dataset and a self-collected dataset. A comparison was made with four popular methods including EEGNet, DeepConvNet, EEG-Inception, and PPNN. The experimental results show that AWDSNet has excellent classification performance with acceptable computational complexity.

SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that AWDSNet has great potential for applications in ERP decoding.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Kantawala B, Emir Hamitoglu A, Nohra L, et al (2024)

Microengineered neuronal networks: enhancing brain-machine interfaces.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 86(6):3535-3542.

The brain-machine interface (BMI), a crucial conduit between the human brain and computers, holds transformative potential for various applications in neuroscience. This manuscript explores the role of micro-engineered neuronal networks (MNNs) in advancing BMI technologies and their therapeutic applications. As the interdisciplinary collaboration intensifies, the need for innovative and user-friendly BMI technologies becomes paramount. A comprehensive literature review sourced from reputable databases (PubMed Central, Medline, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar) aided in the foundation of the manuscript, emphasizing the pivotal role of MNNs. This study aims to synthesize and analyze the diverse facets of MNNs in the context of BMI technologies, contributing insights into neural processes, technological advancements, therapeutic potentials, and ethical considerations surrounding BMIs. MNNs, exemplified by dual-mode neural microelectrodes, offer a controlled platform for understanding complex neural processes. Through case studies, we showcase the pivotal role of MNNs in BMI innovation, addressing challenges, and paving the way for therapeutic applications. The integration of MNNs with BMI technologies marks a revolutionary stride in neuroscience, refining brain-computer interactions and offering therapeutic avenues for neurological disorders. Challenges, ethical considerations, and future trends in BMI research necessitate a balanced approach, leveraging interdisciplinary collaboration to ensure responsible and ethical advancements. Embracing the potential of MNNs is paramount for the betterment of individuals with neurological conditions and the broader community.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Saito Y, Kamagata K, Akashi T, et al (2023)

Review of Performance Improvement of a Noninvasive Brain-computer Interface in Communication and Motor Control for Clinical Applications.

Juntendo Iji zasshi = Juntendo medical journal, 69(4):319-326.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) enable direct communication between the brain and a computer or other external devices. They can extend a person's degree of freedom by either strengthening or substituting the human peripheral working capacity. Moreover, their potential clinical applications in medical fields include rehabilitation, affective computing, communication, and control. Over the last decade, noninvasive BCI systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG) have progressed from simple statistical models to deep learning models, with performance improvement over time and enhanced computational power. However, numerous challenges pertaining to the clinical use of BCI systems remain, e.g., the lack of sufficient data to learn more possible features for robust and reliable classification. However, compared with fields such as computer vision and speech recognition, the training samples in the medical BCI field are limited as they target patients who face difficulty generating EEG data compared with healthy control. Because deep learning models incorporate several parameters, they require considerably more data than other conventional methods. Thus, deep learning models have not been thoroughly leveraged in medical BCI. This study summarizes the state-of-the-art progress of the BCI system over the last decade, highlighting critical challenges and solutions.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Guo X, Chen Y, Huang H, et al (2024)

Serum signature of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, and cytomegalovirus in females with bipolar disorder: A cross-sectional study.

Journal of affective disorders, 361:82-90 pii:S0165-0327(24)00930-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Immunity alterations have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). However, whether serum positivity of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii), rubella, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) shared clinical relevance with BD, remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate this association.

METHODS: Antibody seropositivity of IgM and IgG to T gondii, rubella virus, and CMV of females with BD and controls was extracted based on medical records from January 2018 to January 2023. Family history, type of BD, onset age, and psychotic symptom history were also collected.

RESULTS: 585 individuals with BD and 800 healthy controls were involved. Individuals with BD revealed a lower positive rate of T gondii IgG in the 10-20 aged group (OR = 0.10), and a higher positive rate of rubella IgG in the 10-20 (OR = 5.44) and 20-30 aged group (OR = 3.15). BD with family history preferred a higher positive rate of T gondii IgG (OR = 24.00). Type-I BD owned a decreased positive rate of rubella IgG (OR = 0.37) and an elevated positive rate of CMV IgG (OR = 2.12) compared to type-II BD, while BD with early onset showed contrast results compared to BD without early onset (Rubella IgG, OR = 2.54; CMV IgG, OR = 0.26). BD with psychotic symptom history displayed a lower positive rate of rubella IgG (OR = 0.50).

LIMITATIONS: Absence of male evidence and control of socioeconomic status and environmental exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: Differential antibody seropositive rates of T gondii, rubella, and cytomegalovirus in BD were observed.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Kilmarx J, Tashev I, Millan JDR, et al (2024)

Evaluating the Feasibility of Visual Imagery for an EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Visual imagery, or the mental simulation of visual information from memory, could serve as an effective control paradigm for a brain-computer interface (BCI) due to its ability to directly convey the user's intention with many natural ways of envisioning an intended action. However, multiple initial investigations into using visual imagery as a BCI control strategies have been unable to fully evaluate the capabilities of true spontaneous visual mental imagery. One major limitation in these prior works is that the target image is typically displayed immediately preceding the imagery period. This paradigm does not capture spontaneous mental imagery as would be necessary in an actual BCI application but something more akin to short-term retention in visual working memory. Results from the present study show that short-term visual imagery following the presentation of a specific target image provides a stronger, more easily classifiable neural signature in EEG than spontaneous visual imagery from long-term memory following an auditory cue for the image. We also show that short-term visual imagery and visual perception share commonalities in the most predictive electrodes and spectral features. However, visual imagery received greater influence from frontal electrodes whereas perception was mostly confined to occipital electrodes. This suggests that visual perception is primarily driven by sensory information whereas visual imagery has greater contributions from areas associated with memory and attention. This work provides the first direct comparison of short-term and long-term visual imagery tasks and provides greater insight into the feasibility of using visual imagery as a BCI control strategy.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Luo Y, Mu W, Wang L, et al (2024)

An EEG channel selection method for motor imagery based on Fisher score and local optimization.

Journal of neural engineering, 21(3):.

Objective. Multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) technology in brain-computer interface (BCI) research offers the advantage of enhanced spatial resolution and system performance. However, this also implies that more time is needed in the data processing stage, which is not conducive to the rapid response of BCI. Hence, it is a necessary and challenging task to reduce the number of EEG channels while maintaining decoding effectiveness.Approach. In this paper, we propose a local optimization method based on the Fisher score for within-subject EEG channel selection. Initially, we extract the common spatial pattern characteristics of EEG signals in different bands, calculate Fisher scores for each channel based on these characteristics, and rank them accordingly. Subsequently, we employ a local optimization method to finalize the channel selection.Main results. On the BCI Competition IV Dataset IIa, our method selects an average of 11 channels across four bands, achieving an average accuracy of 79.37%. This represents a 6.52% improvement compared to using the full set of 22 channels. On our self-collected dataset, our method similarly achieves a significant improvement of 24.20% with less than half of the channels, resulting in an average accuracy of 76.95%.Significance. This research explores the importance of channel combinations in channel selection tasks and reveals that appropriately combining channels can further enhance the quality of channel selection. The results indicate that the model selected a small number of channels with higher accuracy in two-class motor imagery EEG classification tasks. Additionally, it improves the portability of BCI systems through channel selection and combinations, offering the potential for the development of portable BCI systems.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Liu T, Wu Y, Ye A, et al (2024)

Two-stage sparse multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for channel selection optimization in BCIs.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 18:1400077.

BACKGROUND: Channel selection has become the pivotal issue affecting the widespread application of non-invasive brain-computer interface systems in the real world. However, constructing suitable multi-objective problem models alongside effective search strategies stands out as a critical factor that impacts the performance of multi-objective channel selection algorithms. This paper presents a two-stage sparse multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (TS-MOEA) to address channel selection problems in brain-computer interface systems.

METHODS: In TS-MOEA, a two-stage framework, which consists of the early and late stages, is adopted to prevent the algorithm from stagnating. Furthermore, The two stages concentrate on different multi-objective problem models, thereby balancing convergence and population diversity in TS-MOEA. Inspired by the sparsity of the correlation matrix of channels, a sparse initialization operator, which uses a domain-knowledge-based score assignment strategy for decision variables, is introduced to generate the initial population. Moreover, a Score-based mutation operator is utilized to enhance the search efficiency of TS-MOEA.

RESULTS: The performance of TS-MOEA and five other state-of-the-art multi-objective algorithms has been evaluated using a 62-channel EEG-based brain-computer interface system for fatigue detection tasks, and the results demonstrated the effectiveness of TS-MOEA.

CONCLUSION: The proposed two-stage framework can help TS-MOEA escape stagnation and facilitate a balance between diversity and convergence. Integrating the sparsity of the correlation matrix of channels and the problem-domain knowledge can effectively reduce the computational complexity of TS-MOEA while enhancing its optimization efficiency.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Yu S, Mao B, Zhou Y, et al (2024)

Large-scale cortical network analysis and classification of MI-BCI tasks based on Bayesian nonnegative matrix factorization.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Motor imagery (MI) is a high-level cognitive process that has been widely applied to clinical rehabilitation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, the decoding of MI tasks still faces challenges, and the neural mechanisms underlying its application are unclear, which seriously hinders the development of MI-based clinical applications and BCIs. Here, we combined EEG source reconstruction and Bayesian nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) methods to construct large-scale cortical networks of left-hand and right-hand MI tasks. Compared to right-hand MI, the results showed that the significantly increased functional network connectivities (FNCs) mainly located among the visual network (VN), sensorimotor network (SMN), right temporal network, right central executive network, and right parietal network in the left-hand MI at the β (13-30Hz) and all (8-30Hz) frequency bands. For the network properties analysis, we found that the clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency were significantly increased and characteristic path length was significantly decreased in left-hand MI compared to right-hand MI at the β and all frequency bands. These network pattern differences indicated that the left-hand MI may need more modulation of multiple large-scale networks (i.e., VN and SMN) mainly located in the right hemisphere. Finally, based on the spatial pattern network of FNC and network properties, we propose a classification model. The proposed model achieves a top classification accuracy of 78.2% in cross-subject two-class MI-BCI tasks. Overall, our findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of MI and a potential network biomarker to identify MI-BCI tasks.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Khondakar MFK, Sarowar MH, Chowdhury MH, et al (2024)

A systematic review on EEG-based neuromarketing: recent trends and analyzing techniques.

Brain informatics, 11(1):17.

Neuromarketing is an emerging research field that aims to understand consumers' decision-making processes when choosing which product to buy. This information is highly sought after by businesses looking to improve their marketing strategies by understanding what leaves a positive or negative impression on consumers. It has the potential to revolutionize the marketing industry by enabling companies to offer engaging experiences, create more effective advertisements, avoid the wrong marketing strategies, and ultimately save millions of dollars for businesses. Therefore, good documentation is necessary to capture the current research situation in this vital sector. In this article, we present a systematic review of EEG-based Neuromarketing. We aim to shed light on the research trends, technical scopes, and potential opportunities in this field. We reviewed recent publications from valid databases and divided the popular research topics in Neuromarketing into five clusters to present the current research trend in this field. We also discuss the brain regions that are activated when making purchase decisions and their relevance to Neuromarketing applications. The article provides appropriate illustrations of marketing stimuli that can elicit authentic impressions from consumers' minds, the techniques used to process and analyze recorded brain data, and the current strategies employed to interpret the data. Finally, we offer recommendations to upcoming researchers to help them investigate the possibilities in this area more efficiently in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Bhavsar P, Shah P, Sinha S, et al (2024)

Musical Neurofeedback Advancements, Feedback Modalities, and Applications: A Systematic Review.

Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback [Epub ahead of print].

The field of EEG-Neurofeedback (EEG-NF) training has showcased significant promise in treating various mental disorders, while also emerging as a cognitive enhancer across diverse applications. The core principle of EEG-NF involves consciously guiding the brain in desired directions, necessitating active engagement in neurofeedback (NF) tasks over an extended period. Music listening tasks have proven to be effective stimuli for such training, influencing emotions, mood, and brainwave patterns. This has spurred the development of musical NF systems and training protocols. Despite these advancements, there exists a gap in systematic literature that comprehensively explores and discusses the various modalities of feedback mechanisms, its benefits, and the emerging applications. Addressing this gap, our review article presents a thorough literature survey encompassing studies on musical NF conducted over the past decade. This review highlights the several benefits and applications ranging from neurorehabilitation to therapeutic interventions, stress management, diagnostics of neurological disorders, and sports performance enhancement. While acknowledged for advantages and popularity of musical NF, there is an opportunity for growth in the literature in terms of the need for systematic randomized controlled trials to compare its effectiveness with other modalities across different tasks. Addressing this gap will involve developing standardized methodologies for studying protocols and optimizing parameters, presenting an exciting prospect for advancing the field.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Zhang X, Zhang S, Wang R, et al (2024)

Impact of Detrusor Muscle Activity on Short-term Prognosis Following 1470 nm Semiconductor Laser Surgery in Elderly Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

Alternative therapies in health and medicine pii:AT10554 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of preoperative detrusor muscle activity on the short-term prognosis of elderly patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) undergoing 1470 nm semiconductor laser surgery.

METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on clinical data from 165 elderly BPH patients who underwent 1470 nm semiconductor laser surgery between May 2019 and April 2023. Patients were stratified based on preoperative urodynamic study findings, specifically their bladder contractility index (BCI). Patients with a BCI ≤100 constituted the detrusor underactivity (DU) group (n=64), while those with a BCI >100 formed the non-DU group (n=101). Surgical parameters, including duration, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, bladder irrigation, and catheterization duration, were compared. Additionally, changes in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Quality of Life (QOL) score, residual urine volume, and peak urinary flow rate (Qmax) were assessed before and three months after surgery in both groups.

RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences observed between the DU and non-DU groups concerning surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospitalization duration, bladder irrigation duration, and postoperative catheterization duration (P > .05). Similarly, no significant disparities were noted in the IPSS and QOL scores preoperatively and at the three-month follow-up in both groups (P > .05). Both cohorts exhibited no significant differences in residual urine volume before surgery and at the three-month mark postoperatively (P > .05). However, the postoperative Qmax was significantly reduced in the DU group compared to the non-DU group (P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Detrusor muscle activity does not exert a significant impact on clinical symptom improvement and quality of life in elderly BPH patients treated with 1470 nm semiconductor laser surgery. However, patients with DU exhibited inferior postoperative recovery in Qmax, underscoring the importance of preoperative urodynamic studies for early intervention and enhanced surgical outcomes in this patient population.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Gangadharan SK, Ramakrishnan S, Paek A, et al (2024)

Characterization of Event Related Desynchronization in Chronic Stroke Using Motor Imagery Based Brain Computer Interface for Upper Limb Rehabilitation.

Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology pii:02223306-990000000-00200 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) is a promising novel mode of stroke rehabilitation. The current study aims to investigate the feasibility of MI-BCI in upper limb rehabilitation of chronic stroke survivors and also to study the early event-related desynchronization after MI-BCI intervention.

METHODS: Changes in the characteristics of sensorimotor rhythm modulations in response to a short brain-computer interface (BCI) intervention for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke-disabled hand and normal hand were examined. The participants were trained to modulate their brain rhythms through motor imagery or execution during calibration, and they played a virtual marble game during the feedback session, where the movement of the marble was controlled by their sensorimotor rhythm.

RESULTS: Ipsilesional and contralesional activities were observed in the brain during the upper limb rehabilitation using BCI intervention. All the participants were able to successfully control the position of the virtual marble using their sensorimotor rhythm.

CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results support the feasibility of BCI in upper limb rehabilitation and unveil the capability of MI-BCI as a promising medical intervention. This study provides a strong platform for clinicians to build upon new strategies for stroke rehabilitation by integrating MI-BCI with various therapeutic options to induce neural plasticity and recovery.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Harlow TJ, Marquez SM, Bressler S, et al (2024)

Individualized closed-loop acoustic stimulation suggests an alpha phase-dependence of sound-evoked and induced brain activity measured with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings.

eNeuro pii:ENEURO.0511-23.2024 [Epub ahead of print].

Following repetitive visual stimulation, post-hoc phase analysis finds that visual evoked response magnitudes vary with the cortical alpha oscillation phase that temporally coincides with sensory stimulus. In the auditory system, this approach has not successfully revealed an alpha phase-dependence of auditory evoked or induced responses. Here, we test feasibility to track alpha with scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and play sounds phase-locked to individualized alpha phases in real-time using a novel end-point corrected Hilbert transform (ecHT) algorithm implemented on a research device. Based on prior work, we hypothesize that sound evoked and induced responses vary with the alpha phase at sound onset and the alpha phase that coincides with the early sound evoked response potential (ERP) measured with EEG. Thus, we use each subject's individualized alpha frequency (IAF) and individual auditory ERP latency to define target trough and peak alpha phases that allow an early component of the auditory ERP to align to estimated post-stimulus peak and trough phases, respectively. With this closed-loop and individualized approach, we find opposing alpha phase-dependent effects on the auditory ERP and alpha oscillations that follow stimulus onset. Trough and peak phase-locked sounds result in distinct evoked and induced modulations of post-stimulus alpha levels and frequency. Though additional studies are needed to localize the sources underlying these phase-dependent effects, these results suggest a general principle for alpha phase-dependence of sensory processing that includes the auditory system. Moreover, this study demonstrates feasibility to use individualized neurophysiological indices to deliver automated, closed-loop, phase-locked auditory stimulation.Significance statement Healthy adult brains generate alpha oscillations and individual subjects have different alpha oscillation frequencies, which impacts how they dynamically process and attend to sensory information. Yet, little is known about the fine scale temporal dynamics between sensory events and alpha phase and corresponding neuromodulation of auditory input processing. Here we use a novel closed-loop technology and individualized approach to play sounds at specific frontal alpha phases. We demonstrate novel alpha phase-dependent effects on auditory evoked responses, alpha levels, alpha phase-coherence and frequency. This individually tailored closed-loop approach has potential applications for research and health applications for a variety of neurological, developmental and clinical disorders.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Roebben A, Heintz N, Geirnaert S, et al (2024)

'Are you even listening?' - EEG-based decoding of absolute auditory attention to natural speech.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we use electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to determine whether a subject is actively listening to a presented speech stimulus. More precisely, we aim to discriminate between an active listening condition, and a distractor condition where subjects focus on an unrelated distractor task while being exposed to a speech stimulus. We refer to this task as absolute auditory attention decoding.

APPROACH: We re-use an existing EEG dataset where the subjects watch a silent movie as a distractor condition, and introduce a new dataset with two distractor conditions (silently reading a text and performing arithmetic exercises). We focus on two EEG features, namely neural envelope tracking (NET) and spectral entropy (SE). Additionally, we investigate whether the detection of such an active listening condition can be combined with a selective auditory attention decoding task, where the goal is to decide to which of multiple competing speakers the subject is attending. The latter is a key task in so-called neuro-steered hearing devices that aim to suppress unattended audio, while preserving the attended speaker.

MAIN RESULTS: Contrary to a previous hypothesis of higher SE being related with actively listening rather than passively listening (without any distractors), we find significantly lower SE in the active listening condition compared to the distractor conditions. Nevertheless, the NET is consistently significantly higher when actively listening. Similarly, we show that the accuracy of a selective auditory attention decoding task improves when evaluating the accuracy only on the highest NET segments. However, the reverse is observed when evaluating the accuracy only on the lowest SE segments.

SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the NET is more reliable for decoding absolute auditory attention as it is consistently higher when actively listening, whereas the relation of the SE between actively and passively listening seems to depend on the nature of the distractor.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Fang H, Berman S, Wang Y, et al (2024)

Robust adaptive deep brain stimulation control of in-silico non-stationary Parkinsonian neural oscillatory dynamics.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) that works by adjusting DBS patterns in real time from the guidance of feedback neural activity. Current closed-loop DBS mainly uses threshold-crossing on-off controllers or linear time-invariant (LTI) controllers to regulate the basal ganglia (BG) Parkinsonian beta band oscillation power. However, the critical cortex-BG-thalamus network dynamics underlying PD are nonlinear, non-stationary, and noisy, hindering accurate and robust control of Parkinsonian neural oscillatory dynamics.

APPROACH: Here, we develop a new robust adaptive closed-loop DBS method for regulating the Parkinsonian beta oscillatory dynamics of the cortex-BG-thalamus network. We first build an adaptive state-space model to quantify the dynamic, nonlinear, and non-stationary neural activity. We then construct an adaptive estimator to track the nonlinearity and non-stationarity in real time. We next design a robust controller to automatically determine the DBS frequency based on the estimated Parkinsonian neural state while reducing the system's sensitivity to high-frequency noise. We adopt and tune a biophysical cortex-BG-thalamus network model as an in-silico simulation testbed to generate nonlinear and non-stationary Parkinsonian neural dynamics for evaluating DBS methods.

MAIN RESULTS: We find that under different nonlinear and non-stationary neural dynamics, our robust adaptive DBS method achieved accurate regulation of the BG Parkinsonian beta band oscillation power with small control error, bias, and deviation. Moreover, the accurate regulation generalizes across different therapeutic targets and consistently outperforms current on-off and LTI DBS methods.

SIGNIFICANCE: These results have implications for future designs of closed-loop DBS systems to treat PD.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Yang K, Wang J, Yang L, et al (2024)

A diagonal masking self-attention-based multi-scale network for motor imagery classification.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Electroencephalography (EEG)-based motor imagery (MI) is a promising paradigm for brain-computer interface (BCI), but the non-stationarity and low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG signals make it a challenging task. To achieve high-precision motor imagery classification, we propose a Diagonal Masking Self-Attention-based Multi-Scale Network (DMSA-MSNet) to fully develop, extract, and emphasize features from different scales. First, for local features, a multi-scale temporal-spatial block is proposed to extract features from different receptive fields. Second, an adaptive branch fusion block is specifically designed to bridge the semantic gap between these coded features from different scales. Finally, in order to analyze global information over long ranges, adiagonal masking self-attentionblock is introduced, whichhighlightsthe most valuable features in the data. The proposed DMSA-MSNet outperforms state-of-the-art models on the BCI Competition IV 2a and the BCI Competition IV 2b datasets. Our study achieves rich information extraction from EEG signals and provides an effective solution for motor imagery classification. The code is available at .

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Dubiel M, Barghouti Y, Kudryavtseva K, et al (2024)

On-device query intent prediction with lightweight LLMs to support ubiquitous conversations.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12731.

Conversational Agents (CAs) have made their way to providing interactive assistance to users. However, the current dialogue modelling techniques for CAs are predominantly based on hard-coded rules and rigid interaction flows, which negatively affects their flexibility and scalability. Large Language Models (LLMs) can be used as an alternative, but unfortunately they do not always provide good levels of privacy protection for end-users since most of them are running on cloud services. To address these problems, we leverage the potential of transfer learning and study how to best fine-tune lightweight pre-trained LLMs to predict the intent of user queries. Importantly, our LLMs allow for on-device deployment, making them suitable for personalised, ubiquitous, and privacy-preserving scenarios. Our experiments suggest that RoBERTa and XLNet offer the best trade-off considering these constraints. We also show that, after fine-tuning, these models perform on par with ChatGPT. We also discuss the implications of this research for relevant stakeholders, including researchers and practitioners. Taken together, this paper provides insights into LLM suitability for on-device CAs and highlights the middle ground between LLM performance and memory footprint while also considering privacy implications.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Xing L, AJ Casson (2024)

Deep Autoencoder for Real-time Single-channel EEG Cleaning and its Smartphone Implementation using TensorFlow Lite with Hardware/software Acceleration.

IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To remove signal contamination in electroencephalogram (EEG) traces coming from ocular, motion, and muscular artifacts which degrade signal quality. To do this in real-time, with low computational overhead, on a mobile platform in a channel count independent manner to enable portable Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) applications.

METHODS: We propose a Deep AutoEncoder (DAE) neural network for single-channel EEG artifact removal, and implement it on a smartphone via TensorFlow Lite. Delegate based acceleration is employed to allow real-time, low computational resource operation. Artifact removal performance is quantified by comparing corrupted and ground-truth clean EEG data from public datasets for a range of artifact types. The on-phone computational resources required are also measured when processing pre-saved data.

RESULTS: DAE cleaned EEG shows high correlations with ground-truth clean EEG, with average Correlation Coefficients of 0.96, 0.85, 0.70 and 0.79 for clean EEG reconstruction, and EOG, motion, and EMG artifact removal respectively. On-smartphone tests show the model processes a 4 s EEG window within 5 ms, substantially outperforming a comparison FastICA artifact removal algorithm.

CONCLUSION: The proposed DAE model shows effectiveness in single-channel EEG artifact removal. This is the first demonstration of a low-computational resource deep learning model for mobile EEG in smartphones with hardware/software acceleration.

SIGNIFICANCE: This work enables portable BCIs which require low latency real-time artifact removal, and potentially operation with a small number of EEG channels for wearability. It makes use of the artificial intelligence accelerators found in modern smartphones to improve computational performance compared to previous artifact removal approaches.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Zhou W, Wu L, Gao Y, et al (2024)

A Dynamic Window Method Based on Reinforcement Learning for SSVEP Recognition.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 32:2114-2123.

Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is one of the most used brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms. Conventional methods analyze SSVEPs at a fixed window length. Compared with these methods, dynamic window methods can achieve a higher information transfer rate (ITR) by selecting an appropriate window length. These methods dynamically evaluate the credibility of the result by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Bayesian estimation and extend the window length until credible results are obtained. However, the hypotheses introduced by LDA and Bayesian estimation may not align with the collected real-world SSVEPs, which leads to an inappropriate window length. To address the issue, we propose a novel dynamic window method based on reinforcement learning (RL). The proposed method optimizes the decision of whether to extend the window length based on the impact of decisions on the ITR, without additional hypotheses. The decision model can automatically learn a strategy that maximizes the ITR through trial and error. In addition, compared with traditional methods that manually extract features, the proposed method uses neural networks to automatically extract features for the dynamic selection of window length. Therefore, the proposed method can more accurately decide whether to extend the window length and select an appropriate window length. To verify the performance, we compared the novel method with other dynamic window methods on two public SSVEP datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that the novel method achieves the highest performance by using RL.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Jin J, Zheng Q, Liu H, et al (2024)

Musical experience enhances time discrimination: Evidence from cortical responses.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Time discrimination, a critical aspect of auditory perception, is influenced by numerous factors. Previous research has suggested that musical experience can restructure the brain, thereby enhancing time discrimination. However, this phenomenon remains underexplored. In this study, we seek to elucidate the enhancing effect of musical experience on time discrimination, utilizing both behavioral and electroencephalogram methodologies. Additionally, we aim to explore, through brain connectivity analysis, the role of increased connectivity in brain regions associated with auditory perception as a potential contributory factor to time discrimination induced by musical experience. The results show that the music-experienced group demonstrated higher behavioral accuracy, shorter reaction time, and shorter P3 and mismatch response latencies as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the music-experienced group had higher connectivity in the left temporal lobe. In summary, our research underscores the positive impact of musical experience on time discrimination and suggests that enhanced connectivity in brain regions linked to auditory perception may be responsible for this enhancement.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Kaya E, I Saritas (2024)

Identifying optimal channels and features for multi-participant motor imagery experiments across a participant's multi-day multi-class EEG data.

Cognitive neurodynamics, 18(3):987-1003.

The concept of the brain-computer interface (BCI) has become one of the popular research topics of recent times because it allows people to express their thoughts and control different applications and devices without actual movement. The communication between the brain and the computer or a machine is generally provided through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals because they are cost-effective and easy to implement in normal life, not just in healthcare facilities. On the other hand, they are hard to process efficiently due to their nonlinearity and noisy nature. Thus, the field of BCI and EEG needs constant work and improvement. This paper focuses on generalizing the most efficient EEG channels and the most significant features of motor imagery (MI) signals by analyzing the recordings of one participant obtained over 20 different days. Because the classification performance usually decreases with an increasing number of class labels, we have realized the study by analyzing the signals through a new paradigm consisting of multi-class directional labels: right, left, forward, and backward. Afterward, the results are tested on EEG data obtained from 5 participants to see if the results are consistent with each other. The average accuracy of binary and multi-class classification using the Ensemble Subspace Discriminant classifier was found as 87.39 and 61.44%, respectively, with the most efficient 3-channel combination for daily BCI evaluation of one participant. On the other hand, the average accuracy of binary and multi-class classification was found as 71.84 and 50.42%, respectively, for 5 participants, with the most efficient channel combination of 4, where the first three are the same as the daily performance of one participant. During signal processing, the outliers of the signals were discarded by considering the channels separately. An algorithm was developed to dismiss the inconsistent samples within the classes. A novel adaptive filtering approach, correlation-based adaptive variational mode decomposition (CBAVMD), was proposed. The feature selection was realized based on the standard deviation values of the features between the classes. The paradigm based on the direction movements was found to be most effective, especially for binary classification of right and left directions. The generalization of effective channels and features was found to be generally successful.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Liu D, Cui J, Pan Z, et al (2024)

Machine to brain: facial expression recognition using brain machine generative adversarial networks.

Cognitive neurodynamics, 18(3):863-875.

The human brain can effectively perform Facial Expression Recognition (FER) with a few samples by utilizing its cognitive ability. However, unlike the human brain, even the well-trained deep neural network is data-dependent and lacks cognitive ability. To tackle this challenge, this paper proposes a novel framework, Brain Machine Generative Adversarial Networks (BM-GAN), which utilizes the concept of brain's cognitive ability to guide a Convolutional Neural Network to generate LIKE-electroencephalograph (EEG) features. More specifically, we firstly obtain EEG signals triggered from facial emotion images, then we adopt BM-GAN to carry out the mutual generation of image visual features and EEG cognitive features. BM-GAN intends to use the cognitive knowledge learnt from EEG signals to instruct the model to perceive LIKE-EEG features. Thereby, BM-GAN has a superior performance for FER like the human brain. The proposed model consists of VisualNet, EEGNet, and BM-GAN. More specifically, VisualNet can obtain image visual features from facial emotion images and EEGNet can obtain EEG cognitive features from EEG signals. Subsequently, the BM-GAN completes the mutual generation of image visual features and EEG cognitive features. Finally, the predicted LIKE-EEG features of test images are used for FER. After learning, without the participation of the EEG signals, an average classification accuracy of 96.6 % is obtained on Chinese Facial Affective Picture System dataset using LIKE-EEG features for FER. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can produce an excellent performance for FER.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Taghi Zadeh Makouei S, C Uyulan (2024)

Deep learning classification of EEG-based BCI monitoring of the attempted arm and hand movements.

Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this research is to improve the average classification performance for specific movements in patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI).

METHODS: The study utilizes a low-frequency multi-class electroencephalography (EEG) dataset from Graz University of Technology. The research combines convolutional neural network (CNN) and long-short-term memory (LSTM) architectures to uncover neural correlations between temporal and spatial aspects of the EEG signals associated with attempted arm and hand movements. To achieve this, three different methods are used to select relevant features, and the proposed model's robustness against variations in the data is validated using 10-fold cross-validation (CV). The research also investigates subject-specific adaptation in an online paradigm, extending movement classification proof-of-concept.

RESULTS: The combined CNN-LSTM model, enhanced by three feature selection methods, demonstrates robustness with a mean accuracy of 75.75 % and low standard deviation (+/- 0.74 %) in 10-fold cross-validation, confirming its reliability.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this research aims to make valuable contributions to the field of neuro-technology by developing EEG-controlled assistive devices using a generalized brain-computer interface (BCI) and deep learning (DL) framework. The focus is on capturing high-level spatiotemporal features and latent dependencies to enhance the performance and usability of EEG-based assistive technologies.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Meenakshinathan J, Gupta V, Reddy TK, et al (2024)

Session-independent subject-adaptive mental imagery BCI using selective filter-bank adaptive Riemannian features.

Medical & biological engineering & computing [Epub ahead of print].

The brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) facilitate the users to exploit information encoded in neural signals, specifically electroencephalogram (EEG), to control devices and for neural rehabilitation. Mental imagery (MI)-driven BCI predicts the user's pre-meditated mental objectives, which could be deployed as command signals. This paper presents a novel learning-based framework for classifying MI tasks using EEG-based BCI. In particular, our work focuses on the variation in inter-session data and the extraction of multi-spectral user-tailored features for robust performance. Thus, the goal is to create a calibration-free subject-adaptive learning framework for various mental imagery tasks not restricted to motor imagery alone. In this regard, critical spectral bands and the best temporal window are first selected from the EEG training trials of the subject based on the Riemannian user learning distance metric (Dscore) that checks for distinct and stable patterns. The filtered covariance matrices of the EEG trials in each spectral band are then transformed towards a reference covariance matrix using the Riemannian transfer learning, enabling the different sessions to be comparable. The evaluation of our proposed Selective Time-window and Multi-scale Filter-Bank with Adaptive Riemannian (STFB-AR) features on four public datasets, including disabled subjects, showed around 15% and 8% improvement in mean accuracy over baseline and fixed filter-bank models, respectively.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

He Y, Ding Y, Gong C, et al (2024)

The tail segments are required by the performance but not the accomplishment of various modes of Drosophila larval locomotion.

Behavioural brain research pii:S0166-4328(24)00230-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The tail plays important roles in locomotion control in many animals. But in animals with multiple body segments, the roles of the hind body segments and corresponding innervating neurons in locomotion control are not clear. Here, using the Drosophila larva as the model animal, we investigated the roles of the posterior terminal segments in various modes of locomotion and found that they participate in all of them. In forward crawling, paralysis of the larval tail by blocking the Abdb-Gal4 labeled neurons in the posterior segments of VNC led to a slower locomotion speed but did not prevent the initiation of forward peristalsis. In backward crawling, larvae with the Abdb-Gal4 neurons inhibited were unable to generate effective displacement although waves of backward peristalsis could be initiated and persist. In head swing where the movement of the tail is not obvious, disabling the larval tail by blocking Abdb-Gal4 neurons led to increased bending amplitude upon touching the head. In the case of larval lateral rolling, larval tail paralysis by inhibition of Abdb-Gal4 neurons did not prevent the accomplishment of rolling, but resulted in slower rolling speed. Our work reveals that the contribution of Drosophila larval posterior VNC segments and corresponding body segments in the tail to locomotion is comprehensive but could be compensated at least partially by other body segments. We suggest that the decentralization in locomotion control with respect to animal body parts helps to maintain the robustness of locomotion in multi-segment animals.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Guetarni B, Windal F, Benhabiles H, et al (2024)

A Vision Transformer-Based Framework for Knowledge Transfer From Multi-Modal to Mono-Modal Lymphoma Subtyping Models.

IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Determining lymphoma subtypes is a crucial step for better patient treatment targeting to potentially increase their survival chances. In this context, the existing gold standard diagnosis method, which relies on gene expression technology, is highly expensive and time-consuming, making it less accessibility. Although alternative diagnosis methods based on IHC (immunohistochemistry) technologies exist (recommended by the WHO), they still suffer from similar limitations and are less accurate. Whole Slide Image (WSI) analysis using deep learning models has shown promising potential for cancer diagnosis, that could offer cost-effective and faster alternatives to existing methods. In this work, we propose a vision transformer-based framework for distinguishing DLBCL (Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma) cancer subtypes from high-resolution WSIs. To this end, we introduce a multi-modal architecture to train a classifier model from various WSI modalities. We then leverage this model through a knowledge distillation process to efficiently guide the learning of a mono-modal classifier. Our experimental study conducted on a lymphoma dataset of 157 patients shows the promising performance of our mono-modal classification model, outperforming six recent state-of-the-art methods. In addition, the power-law curve, estimated on our experimental data, suggests that with more training data from a reasonable number of additional patients, our model could achieve competitive diagnosis accuracy with IHC technologies. Furthermore, the efficiency of our framework is confirmed through an additional experimental study on an external breast cancer dataset (BCI dataset).

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Li M, Yang L, Liu Y, et al (2024)

Dynamic temporal neural patterns based on multichannel LFPs Identify different brain states during anesthesia in pigeons: comparison of three anesthetics.

Medical & biological engineering & computing [Epub ahead of print].

Anesthetic-induced brain activity study is crucial in avian cognitive-, consciousness-, and sleep-related research. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the generation of brain rhythms and specific connectivity of birds during anesthesia are poorly understood. Although different kinds of anesthetics can be used to induce an anesthesia state, a comparison study of these drugs focusing on the neural pattern evolution during anesthesia is lacking. Here, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) using a multi-channel micro-electrode array inserted into the nidopallium caudolateral (NCL) of adult pigeons (Columba livia) anesthetized with chloral hydrate, pelltobarbitalum natricum or urethane. Power spectral density (PSD) and functional connectivity analyses were used to measure the dynamic temporal neural patterns in NCL during anesthesia. Neural decoding analysis was adopted to calculate the probability of the pigeon's brain state and the kind of injected anesthetic. In the NCL during anesthesia, we found elevated power activity and functional connectivity at low-frequency bands and depressed power activity and connectivity at high-frequency bands. Decoding results based on the spectral and functional connectivity features indicated that the pigeon's brain states during anesthesia and the injected anesthetics can be effectively decoded. These findings provide an important foundation for future investigations on how different anesthetics induce the generation of specific neural patterns.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Liao L, Lu J, Wang L, et al (2024)

CT-Net: an interpretable CNN-Transformer fusion network for fNIRS classification.

Medical & biological engineering & computing [Epub ahead of print].

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an optical neuroimaging technique, has been widely used in the field of brain activity recognition and brain-computer interface. Existing works have proposed deep learning-based algorithms for the fNIRS classification problem. In this paper, a novel approach based on convolutional neural network and Transformer, named CT-Net, is established to guide the deep modeling for the classification of mental arithmetic (MA) tasks. We explore the effect of data representations, and design a temporal-level combination of two raw chromophore signals to improve the data utilization and enrich the feature learning of the model. We evaluate our model on two open-access datasets and achieve the classification accuracy of 98.05% and 77.61%, respectively. Moreover, we explain our model by the gradient-weighted class activation mapping, which presents a high consistent between the contributing value of features learned by the model and the mapping of brain activity in the MA task. The results suggest the feasibility and interpretability of CT-Net for decoding MA tasks.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Li J, Wang L, Zhang Z, et al (2024)

Analysis and recognition of a novel experimental paradigm for musical emotion brain-computer interface.

Brain research, 1839:149039 pii:S0006-8993(24)00293-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Musical emotions have received increasing attention over the years. To better recognize the emotions by brain-computer interface (BCI), the random music-playing and sequential music-playing experimental paradigms are proposed and compared in this paper. Two experimental paradigms consist of three positive pieces, three neutral pieces and three negative pieces of music. Ten subjects participate in two experimental paradigms. The features of electroencephalography (EEG) signals are firstly analyzed in the time, frequency and spatial domains. To improve the effect of emotion recognition, a recognition model is proposed with the optimal channels selecting by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the feature fusion combining differential entropy and wavelet packet energy. According to the analysis results, the features of sequential music-playing experimental paradigm are more different among three emotions. The classification results of sequential music-playing experimental paradigm are also better, and its average results of positive, neutral and negative emotions are 78.53%, 72.81% and 77.35%, respectively. The more obvious the changes of EEG induced by the emotions, the higher the classification accuracy will be. After analyzing two experimental paradigms, a better way for music to induce the emotions can be explored. Therefore, our research offers a novel perspective on affective BCIs.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Becker ER, Price AD, Whitrock JN, et al (2024)

Re-Evaluating the Use of High Sensitivity Troponin to Diagnose Blunt Cardiac Injury.

The Journal of surgical research, 300:150-156 pii:S0022-4804(24)00243-9 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Blunt cardiac injury (BCI) can be challenging diagnostically, and if misdiagnosed, can lead to life-threatening complications. Our institution previously evaluated BCI screening with troponin and electrocardiogram (EKG) during a transition from troponin I to high sensitivity troponin (hsTnI), a more sensitive troponin I assay. The previous study found an hsTnI of 76 ng/L had the highest capability of accurately diagnosing a clinically significant BCI. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the newly implemented protocol.

METHODS: Patients diagnosed with a sternal fracture from March 2022 to April 2023 at our urban level-1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed for EKG findings, hsTnI trend, echocardiogram changes, and clinical outcomes. The BCI cohort and non-BCI cohort ordinal measures were compared using Wilcoxon's two-tailed rank sum test and categorical measures were compared with Fisher's exact test. Youden indices were used to evaluate hsTnI sensitivity and specificity.

RESULTS: Sternal fractures were identified in 206 patients, of which 183 underwent BCI screening. Of those screened, 103 underwent echocardiogram, 28 were diagnosed with clinically significant BCIs, and 15 received intervention. The peak hsTnI threshold of 76 ng/L was found to have a Youden index of 0.31. Rather, the Youden index was highest at 0.50 at 40 ng/L (sensitivity 0.79 and specificity 0.71) for clinically significant BCI.

CONCLUSIONS: Screening patients with sternal fractures for BCI using hsTnI and EKG remains effective. To optimize the hsTnI threshold, this study determined the hsTnI threshold should be lowered to 40 ng/L. Further improvements to the institutional protocol may be derived from multicenter analysis.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Pan Y, Zander TO, M Klug (2024)

Advancing passive BCIs: a feasibility study of two temporal derivative features and effect size-based feature selection in continuous online EEG-based machine error detection.

Frontiers in neuroergonomics, 5:1346791.

The emerging integration of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) in human-robot collaboration holds promise for dynamic adaptive interaction. The use of electroencephalogram (EEG)-measured error-related potentials (ErrPs) for online error detection in assistive devices offers a practical method for improving the reliability of such devices. However, continuous online error detection faces challenges such as developing efficient and lightweight classification techniques for quick predictions, reducing false alarms from artifacts, and dealing with the non-stationarity of EEG signals. Further research is essential to address the complexities of continuous classification in online sessions. With this study, we demonstrated a comprehensive approach for continuous online EEG-based machine error detection, which emerged as the winner of a competition at the 32nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The competition consisted of two stages: an offline stage for model development using pre-recorded, labeled EEG data, and an online stage 3 months after the offline stage, where these models were tested live on continuously streamed EEG data to detect errors in orthosis movements in real time. Our approach incorporates two temporal-derivative features with an effect size-based feature selection technique for model training, together with a lightweight noise filtering method for online sessions without recalibration of the model. The model trained in the offline stage not only resulted in a high average cross-validation accuracy of 89.9% across all participants, but also demonstrated remarkable performance during the online session 3 months after the initial data collection without further calibration, maintaining a low overall false alarm rate of 1.7% and swift response capabilities. Our research makes two significant contributions to the field. Firstly, it demonstrates the feasibility of integrating two temporal derivative features with an effect size-based feature selection strategy, particularly in online EEG-based BCIs. Secondly, our work introduces an innovative approach designed for continuous online error prediction, which includes a straightforward noise rejection technique to reduce false alarms. This study serves as a feasibility investigation into a methodology for seamless error detection that promises to transform practical applications in the domain of neuroadaptive technology and human-robot interaction.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Ji D, Xiao X, Wu J, et al (2024)

A user-friendly visual brain-computer interface based on high-frequency steady-state visual evoked fields recorded by OPM-MEG.

Journal of neural engineering, 21(3):.

Objective. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) shares a comparable time resolution with electroencephalography. However, MEG excels in spatial resolution, enabling it to capture even the subtlest and weakest brain signals for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Leveraging MEG's capabilities, specifically with optically pumped magnetometers (OPM-MEG), proves to be a promising avenue for advancing MEG-BCIs, owing to its exceptional sensitivity and portability. This study harnesses the power of high-frequency steady-state visual evoked fields (SSVEFs) to build an MEG-BCI system that is flickering-imperceptible, user-friendly, and highly accurate.Approach.We have constructed a nine-command BCI that operates on high-frequency SSVEF (58-62 Hz with a 0.5 Hz interval) stimulation. We achieved this by placing the light source inside and outside the magnetic shielding room, ensuring compliance with non-magnetic and visual stimulus presentation requirements. Five participants took part in offline experiments, during which we collected six-channel multi-dimensional MEG signals along both the vertical (Z-axis) and tangential (Y-axis) components. Our approach leveraged the ensemble task-related component analysis algorithm for SSVEF identification and system performance evaluation.Main Results.The offline average accuracy of our proposed system reached an impressive 92.98% when considering multi-dimensional conjoint analysis using data from both theZandYaxes. Our method achieved a theoretical average information transfer rate (ITR) of 58.36 bits min[-1]with a data length of 0.7 s, and the highest individual ITR reached an impressive 63.75 bits min[-1].Significance.This study marks the first exploration of high-frequency SSVEF-BCI based on OPM-MEG. These results underscore the potential and feasibility of MEG in detecting subtle brain signals, offering both theoretical insights and practical value in advancing the development and application of MEG in BCI systems.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Kılınç Bülbül D, B Güçlü (2024)

Predicting lever press in a vibrotactile yes/no detection task from S1 cortex of freely behaving rats by µECoG arrays.

Somatosensory & motor research [Epub ahead of print].

AIM OF THE STUDY: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) may help patients with severe neurological deficits communicate with the external world. Based on microelectrocorticography (µECoG) data recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of unrestrained behaving rats, this study attempts to decode lever presses in a psychophysical detection task by using machine learning algorithms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 16-channel Pt-Ir microelectrode arrays were implanted on the S1 of two rats, and µECoG was recorded during a vibrotactile yes/no detection task. For this task, the rats were trained to press the right lever when they detected the vibrotactile stimulus and the left lever when they did not. The multichannel µECoG data was analysed offline by time-frequency methods and its features were used for binary classification of the lever press at each trial. Several machine learning algorithms were tested as such.

RESULTS: The psychophysical sensitivities (A') were similar and low for both rats (0.58). Rat 2 (B'': -0.11) had higher bias for the right lever than Rat 1 (B'': - 0.01). The lever presses could be predicted with accuracies over 66% with all the tested algorithms, and the highest average accuracy (78%) was with the support vector machine.

CONCLUSION: According to the recent studies, sensory feedback increases the benefit of the BCIs. The current proof-of-concept study shows that lever presses can be decoded from the S1; therefore, this area may be utilised for a bidirectional BCI in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Ma ZZ, Wu JJ, Cao Z, et al (2024)

Motor imagery-based brain-computer interface rehabilitation programs enhance upper extremity performance and cortical activation in stroke patients.

Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 21(1):91.

BACKGROUND: The most challenging aspect of rehabilitation is the repurposing of residual functional plasticity in stroke patients. To achieve this, numerous plasticity-based clinical rehabilitation programs have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) rehabilitation programs on upper extremity hand function in patients with chronic hemiplegia.

DESIGN: A 2010 Consolidated Standards for Test Reports (CONSORT)-compliant randomized controlled trial.

METHODS: Forty-six eligible stroke patients with upper limb motor dysfunction participated in the study, six of whom dropped out. The patients were randomly divided into a BCI group and a control group. The BCI group received BCI therapy and conventional rehabilitation therapy, while the control group received conventional rehabilitation only. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) score was used as the primary outcome to evaluate upper extremity motor function. Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were performed on all patients before and after treatment, in both the resting and task states. We measured the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), z conversion of ALFF (zALFF), and z conversion of ReHo (ReHo) in the resting state. The task state was divided into four tasks: left-hand grasping, right-hand grasping, imagining left-hand grasping, and imagining right-hand grasping. Finally, meaningful differences were assessed using correlation analysis of the clinical assessments and functional measures.

RESULTS: A total of 40 patients completed the study, 20 in the BCI group and 20 in the control group. Task-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) analysis showed that when performing the motor grasping task with the affected hand, the BCI group exhibited significant activation in the ipsilateral middle cingulate gyrus, precuneus, inferior parietal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and contralateral middle cingulate gyrus. When imagining a grasping task with the affected hand, the BCI group exhibited greater activation in the ipsilateral superior frontal gyrus (medial) and middle frontal gyrus after treatment. However, the activation of the contralateral superior frontal gyrus decreased in the BCI group relative to the control group. Resting-state fMRI revealed increased zALFF in multiple cerebral regions, including the contralateral precentral gyrus and calcarine and the ipsilateral middle occipital gyrus and cuneus, and decreased zALFF in the ipsilateral superior temporal gyrus in the BCI group relative to the control group. Increased zReHo in the ipsilateral cuneus and contralateral calcarine and decreased zReHo in the contralateral middle temporal gyrus, temporal pole, and superior temporal gyrus were observed post-intervention. According to the subsequent correlation analysis, the increase in the FMA-UE score showed a positive correlation with the mean zALFF of the contralateral precentral gyrus (r = 0.425, P < 0.05), the mean zReHo of the right cuneus (r = 0.399, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, BCI therapy is effective and safe for arm rehabilitation after severe poststroke hemiparesis. The correlation of the zALFF of the contralateral precentral gyrus and the zReHo of the ipsilateral cuneus with motor improvements suggested that these values can be used as prognostic measures for BCI-based stroke rehabilitation. We found that motor function was related to visual and spatial processing, suggesting potential avenues for refining treatment strategies for stroke patients.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (number ChiCTR2000034848, registered July 21, 2020).

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Mou X, He C, Tan L, et al (2024)

ChineseEEG: A Chinese Linguistic Corpora EEG Dataset for Semantic Alignment and Neural Decoding.

Scientific data, 11(1):550.

An Electroencephalography (EEG) dataset utilizing rich text stimuli can advance the understanding of how the brain encodes semantic information and contribute to semantic decoding in brain-computer interface (BCI). Addressing the scarcity of EEG datasets featuring Chinese linguistic stimuli, we present the ChineseEEG dataset, a high-density EEG dataset complemented by simultaneous eye-tracking recordings. This dataset was compiled while 10 participants silently read approximately 13 hours of Chinese text from two well-known novels. This dataset provides long-duration EEG recordings, along with pre-processed EEG sensor-level data and semantic embeddings of reading materials extracted by a pre-trained natural language processing (NLP) model. As a pilot EEG dataset derived from natural Chinese linguistic stimuli, ChineseEEG can significantly support research across neuroscience, NLP, and linguistics. It establishes a benchmark dataset for Chinese semantic decoding, aids in the development of BCIs, and facilitates the exploration of alignment between large language models and human cognitive processes. It can also aid research into the brain's mechanisms of language processing within the context of the Chinese natural language.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Rabut C, Norman SL, Griggs WS, et al (2024)

Functional ultrasound imaging of human brain activity through an acoustically transparent cranial window.

Science translational medicine, 16(749):eadj3143.

Visualization of human brain activity is crucial for understanding normal and aberrant brain function. Currently available neural activity recording methods are highly invasive, have low sensitivity, and cannot be conducted outside of an operating room. Functional ultrasound imaging (fUSI) is an emerging technique that offers sensitive, large-scale, high-resolution neural imaging; however, fUSI cannot be performed through the adult human skull. Here, we used a polymeric skull replacement material to create an acoustic window compatible with fUSI to monitor adult human brain activity in a single individual. Using an in vitro cerebrovascular phantom to mimic brain vasculature and an in vivo rodent cranial defect model, first, we evaluated the fUSI signal intensity and signal-to-noise ratio through polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cranial implants of different thicknesses or a titanium mesh implant. We found that rat brain neural activity could be recorded with high sensitivity through a PMMA implant using a dedicated fUSI pulse sequence. We then designed a custom ultrasound-transparent cranial window implant for an adult patient undergoing reconstructive skull surgery after traumatic brain injury. We showed that fUSI could record brain activity in an awake human outside of the operating room. In a video game "connect the dots" task, we demonstrated mapping and decoding of task-modulated cortical activity in this individual. In a guitar-strumming task, we mapped additional task-specific cortical responses. Our proof-of-principle study shows that fUSI can be used as a high-resolution (200 μm) functional imaging modality for measuring adult human brain activity through an acoustically transparent cranial window.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Liu S, Liu M, Zhang D, et al (2024)

Brain-Controlled Hand Exoskeleton Based on Augmented Reality-Fused Stimulus Paradigm.

IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Advancements in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have led to the development of novel rehabilitation training methods for people with impaired hand function. However, contemporary hand exoskeleton systems predominantly adopt passive control methods, leading to low system performance. In this work, an active brain-controlled hand exoskeleton system is proposed that uses a novel augmented reality-fused stimulus (AR-FS) paradigm as a human-machine interface, which enables users to actively control their fingers to move. Considering that the proposed AR-FS paradigm generates movement artifacts during hand movements, an enhanced decoding algorithm is designed to improve the decoding accuracy and robustness of the system. In online experiments, participants performed online control tasks using the proposed system, with an average task time cost of 16.27 s, an average output latency of 1.54 s, and an average correlation instantaneous rate (CIR) of 0.0321. The proposed system shows 35.37% better efficiency, 8.03% reduced system delay, and 35.28% better stability than the traditional system. This study not only provides an efficient rehabilitation solution for people with impaired hand function but also expands the application prospects of brain-control technology in areas such as human augmentation, patient monitoring, and remote robotic interaction. The video in Graphical Abstract Video demonstrates the user's process of operating the proposed brain-controlled hand exoskeleton system.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Pitt KM, Spoor A, J Zosky (2024)

Considering preferences, speed and the animation of multiple symbols in developing P300 brain-computer interface for children.

Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Prior research has begun establishing the efficacy of animation in brain-computer interfaces access to augmentative and alternative communication (BCI-AAC). However, the use of animation in P300-BCI-AAC for children is in the early stages and largely limited to single item highlighting of extended durations. In pursuit of practical application, the present study aims to evaluate children's event-related potential (ERP) characteristics and user experience during a task involving an animated P300-BCI-AAC system.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The system utilizes multi-item zoom animations to access a 28-pictorial symbols. Participants completed a fast (100 ms) and slow (200 ms) zoom animation highlighting conditions wherein four pictorial symbols were highlighted concurrently.

RESULTS: The proposed display appears feasible, eliciting all targeted ERPs. However, ERP amplitudes may be reduced in comparison to single-item animation highlighting, possibly due to distraction. Ratings of mental effort were significantly higher for the 100 ms condition, though differences in the frontal P200/P300 ERP did not achieve significance. Most participants identified a preference for the 100 ms condition, though age may impact preference.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings support the preliminary feasibility of a proposed 28-item interface that utilises group zoom animation highlighting of pictorial symbols. Further research is needed evaluating ERP characteristics and outcomes from online (real-time) use of animation-based P300-BCI-AAC for children with severe speech and physical impairments across multiple training sessions.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Xie X, Shi R, Yu H, et al (2024)

Executive function rehabilitation and evaluation based on brain-computer interface and virtual reality: our opinion.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1377097.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Zhang X, Wang Q, Li J, et al (2024)

An fNIRS dataset for driving risk cognition of passengers in highly automated driving scenarios.

Scientific data, 11(1):546.

For highly autonomous vehicles, human does not need to operate continuously vehicles. The brain-computer interface system in autonomous vehicles will highly depend on the brain states of passengers rather than those of human drivers. It is a meaningful and vital choice to translate the mental activities of human beings, essentially playing the role of advanced sensors, into safe driving. Quantifying the driving risk cognition of passengers is a basic step toward this end. This study reports the creation of an fNIRS dataset focusing on the prefrontal cortex activity in fourteen types of highly automated driving scenarios. This dataset considers age, sex and driving experience factors and contains the data collected from an 8-channel fNIRS device and the data of driving scenarios. The dataset provides data support for distinguishing the driving risk in highly automated driving scenarios via brain-computer interface systems, and it also provides the possibility of preventing potential hazards in some scenarios, in which risk remains at a high value for an extended period, before hazard occurs.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Zhang Y, Li M, Wang HL, et al (2024)

Preparatory movement state enhances premovement EEG representations for brain-computer interfaces.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Motor-related brain-computer interface (BCI) have a broad range of applications, with the detection of premovement intentions being a prominent use case. However, the electroencephalography (EEG) features during the premovement phase are not distinctly evident and are susceptible to attentional influences. These limitations impede the enhancement of performance in motor-based BCI. The objective of this study is to establish a premovement BCI encoding paradigm that integrates the preparatory movement state and validates its feasibility in improving the detection of movement intentions. Methods. Two button tasks were designed to induce subjects into a preparation state for two movement intentions (left and right) based on visual guidance, in contrast to spontaneous premovement. The low frequency movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) and high frequency event-related desynchronization (ERD) EEG data of 14 subjects were recorded. Extracted features were fused and classified using task‑related common spatial patterns (TR-CSP) and common spatial patterns (CSP) algorithms. Differences between prepared premovement and spontaneous premovement were compared in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and classification accuracy.

RESULTS: In the time domain, MRCPs features reveal that prepared premovement induce lower amplitude and earlier latency on both contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortex compared to spontaneous premovement, with susceptibility to the dominant hand's influence. Frequency domain ERD features indicate that prepared premovement induce lower ERD values bilaterally, and the ERD recovery speed after button press is the fastest. By using the fusion approach, the classification accuracy increased from 78.92% for spontaneous premovement to 83.59% for prepared premovement (p<0.05). Along with the 4.67% improvement in classification accuracy, the standard deviation decreased by 0.95. Significance. The research findings confirm that incorporating a preparatory state into premovement enhances neural representations related to movement. This encoding enhancement paradigm effectively improves the performance of motor-based BCI. Additionally, this concept has the potential to broaden the range of decodable movement intentions and related information in motor-related BCI.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Ruiz-Mateos Serrano R, Aguzin A, Mitoudi-Vagourdi E, et al (2024)

3D printed PEDOT:PSS-based conducting and patternable eutectogel electrodes for machine learning on textiles.

Biomaterials, 310:122624 pii:S0142-9612(24)00158-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The proliferation of medical wearables necessitates the development of novel electrodes for cutaneous electrophysiology. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is combined with a deep eutectic solvent (DES) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) to develop printable and biocompatible electrodes for long-term cutaneous electrophysiology recordings. The impact of printing parameters on the conducting properties, morphological characteristics, mechanical stability and biocompatibility of the material were investigated. The optimised eutectogel formulations were fabricated in four different patterns -flat, pyramidal, striped and wavy- to explore the influence of electrode geometry on skin conformability and mechanical contact. These electrodes were employed for impedance and forearm EMG measurements. Furthermore, arrays of twenty electrodes were embedded into a textile and used to generate body surface potential maps (BSPMs) of the forearm, where different finger movements were recorded and analysed. Finally, BSPMs for three different letters (B, I, O) in sign-language were recorded and used to train a logistic regressor classifier able to reliably identify each letter. This novel cutaneous electrode fabrication approach offers new opportunities for long-term electrophysiological recordings, online sign-language translation and brain-machine interfaces.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Wang J, Bi L, Fei W, et al (2024)

Neural Correlate and Movement Decoding of Simultaneous-and-Sequential Bimanual Movements Using EEG Signals.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 32:2087-2095.

Bimanual coordination is important for developing a natural motor brain-computer interface (BCI) from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, covering the aspects of bilateral arm training for rehabilitation, bimanual coordination for daily-life assistance, and also improving the multidimensional control of BCIs. For the same task targets of both hands, simultaneous and sequential bimanual movements are two different bimanual coordination manners. Planning and performing motor sequences are the fundamental abilities of humans, and it is more natural to execute sequential movements compared to simultaneous movements in many complex tasks. However, to date, for these two different manners in which two hands coordinated to reach the same task targets, the differences in the neural correlate and also the feasibility of movement discrimination have not been explored. In this study, we aimed to investigate these two issues based on a bimanual reaching task for the first time. Finally, neural correlates in the view of the movement-related cortical potentials, event-related oscillations, and source imaging showed unique neural encoding patterns of sequential movements. Besides, for the same task targets of both hands, the simultaneous and sequential bimanual movements were successfully discriminated in both pre-movement and movement execution periods. This study revealed the neural encoding patterns of sequential bimanual movements and presented its values in developing a more natural and good-performance motor BCI.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Li X, Zuo Y, Lin X, et al (2024)

Develop targeted protein drug carriers through a high-throughput screening platform and rational design.

Advanced healthcare materials [Epub ahead of print].

Protein-based drugs offer advantages such as high specificity, low toxicity, and minimal side effects compared to small molecule drugs. However, delivery of proteins to target tissues or cells remains challenging due to the instability, diverse structures, charges, and molecular weights of proteins. Polymers have emerged as a leading choice for designing effective protein delivery systems, but identifying a suitable polymer for a given protein is complicated by the complexity of both proteins and polymers. To address this challenge, we developed a fluorescence-based high-throughput screening platform called ProMatch to efficiently collect data on protein-polymer interactions, followed by in vivo and in vitro experiments with rational design. Using this approach to streamline polymer selection for targeted protein delivery, we identified candidate polymers from commercially available options and developed a polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB)-based system for delivering proteins to white adipose tissue as a treatment for obesity. We also developed a branched polyethylenimine (bPEI)-based system for neuron-specific protein delivery to stimulate optic nerve regeneration. Our high-throughput screening methodology expedites identification of promising polymer candidates for tissue-specific protein delivery systems, thereby providing a platform to develop innovative protein-based therapeutics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Jahangir TN, Abdel-Azeim S, TA Kandiel (2024)

BiVO4 Photoanode with NiV2O6 Back Contact Interfacial Layer for Improved Hole-Diffusion Length and Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation Activity.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

The short hole diffusion length (HDL) and high interfacial recombination are among the main drawbacks of semiconductor-based solar energy systems. Surface passivation and introducing an interfacial layer are recognized for enhancing HDL and charge carrier separation. Herein, we introduced a facile recipe to design a pinholes-free BiVO4 photoanode with a NiV2O6 back contact interfacial (BCI) layer, marking a significant advancement in the HDL and photoelectrochemical activity. The fabricated BiVO4 photoanode with NiV2O6 BCI layer exhibits a 2-fold increase in the HDL compared to pristine BiVO4. Despite this improvement, we found that the front surface recombination still hinders the water oxidation process, as revealed by photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies employing Na2SO3 electron donors and by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy measurements. To address this limitation, the surface of the NiV2O6/BiVO4 photoanode was passivated with a cobalt phosphate electrocatalyst, resulting in a dramatic enhancement in the PEC performance. The optimized photoanode achieved a stable photocurrent density of 4.8 mA cm[-2] at 1.23 VRHE, which is 12-fold higher than that of the pristine BiVO4 photoanode. Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations revealed an abrupt electrostatic potential transition at the NiV2O6/BiVO4 interface with BiVO4 being more negative than NiV2O6. A strong built-in electric field is thus generated at the interface and drifts photogenerated electrons toward the NiV2O6 BCI layer and photogenerated holes toward the BiVO4 top layer. As a result, the back-surface recombination is minimized, and ultimately, the HDL is extended in agreement with the experimental findings.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-27

Lakshminarayanan K, Shah R, Ramu V, et al (2024)

Motor Imagery Performance through Embodied Digital Twins in a Virtual Reality-Enabled Brain-Computer Interface Environment.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

This study introduces an innovative framework for neurological rehabilitation by integrating brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and virtual reality (VR) technologies with the customization of three-dimensional (3D) avatars. Traditional approaches to rehabilitation often fail to fully engage patients, primarily due to their inability to provide a deeply immersive and interactive experience. This research endeavors to fill this gap by utilizing motor imagery (MI) techniques, where participants visualize physical movements without actual execution. This method capitalizes on the brain's neural mechanisms, activating areas involved in movement execution when imagining movements, thereby facilitating the recovery process. The integration of VR's immersive capabilities with the precision of electroencephalography (EEG) to capture and interpret brain activity associated with imagined movements forms the core of this system. Digital Twins in the form of personalized 3D avatars are employed to significantly enhance the sense of immersion within the virtual environment. This heightened sense of embodiment is crucial for effective rehabilitation, aiming to bolster the connection between the patient and their virtual counterpart. By doing so, the system not only aims to improve motor imagery performance but also seeks to provide a more engaging and efficacious rehabilitation experience. Through the real-time application of BCI, the system allows for the direct translation of imagined movements into virtual actions performed by the 3D avatar, offering immediate feedback to the user. This feedback loop is essential for reinforcing the neural pathways involved in motor control and recovery. The ultimate goal of the developed system is to significantly enhance the effectiveness of motor imagery exercises by making them more interactive and responsive to the user's cognitive processes, thereby paving a new path in the field of neurological rehabilitation.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Zhu Y, Jiang D, Qiu Y, et al (2024)

Dynamic microphysiological system chip platform for high-throughput, customizable, and multi-dimensional drug screening.

Bioactive materials, 39:59-73.

Spheroids and organoids have attracted significant attention as innovative models for disease modeling and drug screening. By employing diverse types of spheroids or organoids, it is feasible to establish microphysiological systems that enhance the precision of disease modeling and offer more dependable and comprehensive drug screening. High-throughput microphysiological systems that support optional, parallel testing of multiple drugs have promising applications in personalized medical treatment and drug research. However, establishing such a system is highly challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach. This study introduces a dynamic Microphysiological System Chip Platform (MSCP) with multiple functional microstructures that encompass the mentioned advantages. We developed a high-throughput lung cancer spheroids model and an intestine-liver-heart-lung cancer microphysiological system for conducting parallel testing on four anti-lung cancer drugs, demonstrating the feasibility of the MSCP. This microphysiological system combines microscale and macroscale biomimetics to enable a comprehensive assessment of drug efficacy and side effects. Moreover, the microphysiological system enables evaluation of the real pharmacological effect of drug molecules reaching the target lesion after absorption by normal organs through fluid-based physiological communication. The MSCP could serves as a valuable platform for microphysiological system research, making significant contributions to disease modeling, drug development, and personalized medical treatment.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Fu P, Liu Y, Zhu L, et al (2024)

Two-photon imaging of excitatory and inhibitory neural response to infrared neural stimulation.

Neurophotonics, 11(2):025003.

SIGNIFICANCE: Pulsed infrared neural stimulation (INS, 1875 nm) is an emerging neurostimulation technology that delivers focal pulsed heat to activate functionally specific mesoscale networks and holds promise for clinical application. However, little is known about its effect on excitatory and inhibitory cell types in cerebral cortex.

AIM: Estimates of summed population neuronal response time courses provide a potential basis for neural and hemodynamic signals described in other studies.

APPROACH: Using two-photon calcium imaging in mouse somatosensory cortex, we have examined the effect of INS pulse train application on hSyn neurons and mDlx neurons tagged with GCaMP6s.

RESULTS: We find that, in anesthetized mice, each INS pulse train reliably induces robust response in hSyn neurons exhibiting positive going responses. Surprisingly, mDlx neurons exhibit negative going responses. Quantification using the index of correlation illustrates responses are reproducible, intensity-dependent, and focal. Also, a contralateral activation is observed when INS applied.

CONCLUSIONS: In sum, the population of neurons stimulated by INS includes both hSyn and mDlx neurons; within a range of stimulation intensities, this leads to overall excitation in the stimulated population, leading to the previously observed activations at distant post-synaptic sites.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Vafopoulou E, Christodoulou N, IV Papathanasiou (2024)

Treatment Adherence and Quality of Life Among Elderly Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Registered in the Community.

Cureus, 16(4):e58986.

Background This study investigates the association between medication adherence and health-related quality of life among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the Health Center of Tyrnavos community level. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study involved 125 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 60 years and older, who were visiting community healthcare facilities. The research was conducted with a structured questionnaire that included 34 questions related to socio-demographic data, self-reported compliance, and stress. The DQOL-BCI (Diabetes Quality of Life - Brief Clinical Inventory) scale was used to measure health-related quality of life. Results A total of 125 patients with a mean (SD) age of 69.2 (8.1) years were included in the study (64 women and 61 men). Based on the results of the descriptive analysis, 88.0% reported high medication adherence. However, 66% of the participants reported having high anxiety levels, with 33.6% having difficulty controlling their anxiety. Quality of life was negatively correlated with lower medication adherence (P < 0.05). Conclusions Older age and low medication adherence are associated with lower quality of life among diabetic patients. Interventions to improve the quality of life in elderly diabetic patients should consider the effect of age and medication adherence.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Wang L, Zhang J, Zhang W, et al (2024)

The inhibitory effect of adenosine on tumor adaptive immunity and intervention strategies.

Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B, 14(5):1951-1964.

Adenosine (Ado) is significantly elevated in the tumor microenvironment (TME) compared to normal tissues. It binds to adenosine receptors (AdoRs), suppressing tumor antigen presentation and immune cell activation, thereby inhibiting tumor adaptive immunity. Ado downregulates major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) and co-stimulatory factors on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, inhibiting antigen presentation. It suppresses anti-tumor cytokine secretion and T cell activation by disrupting T cell receptor (TCR) binding and signal transduction. Ado also inhibits chemokine secretion and KCa3.1 channel activity, impeding effector T cell trafficking and infiltration into the tumor site. Furthermore, Ado diminishes T cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells by promoting immune-suppressive cytokine secretion, upregulating immune checkpoint proteins, and enhancing immune-suppressive cell activity. Reducing Ado production in the TME can significantly enhance anti-tumor immune responses and improve the efficacy of other immunotherapies. Preclinical and clinical development of inhibitors targeting Ado generation or AdoRs is underway. Therefore, this article will summarize and analyze the inhibitory effects and molecular mechanisms of Ado on tumor adaptive immunity, as well as provide an overview of the latest advancements in targeting Ado pathways in anti-tumor immune responses.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Wider W, Mutang JA, Chua BS, et al (2024)

Mapping the evolution of neurofeedback research: a bibliometric analysis of trends and future directions.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 18:1339444.

INTRODUCTION: This study conducts a bibliometric analysis on neurofeedback research to assess its current state and potential future developments.

METHODS: It examined 3,626 journal articles from the Web of Science (WoS) using co-citation and co-word methods.

RESULTS: The co-citation analysis identified three major clusters: "Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback and Self-Regulation of Brain Activity," "EEG Neurofeedback and Cognitive Performance Enhancement," and "Treatment of ADHD Using Neurofeedback." The co-word analysis highlighted four key clusters: "Neurofeedback in Mental Health Research," "Brain-Computer Interfaces for Stroke Rehabilitation," "Neurofeedback for ADHD in Youth," and "Neural Mechanisms of Emotion and Self-Regulation with Advanced Neuroimaging.

DISCUSSION: This in-depth bibliometric study significantly enhances our understanding of the dynamic field of neurofeedback, indicating its potential in treating ADHD and improving performance. It offers non-invasive, ethical alternatives to conventional psychopharmacology and aligns with the trend toward personalized medicine, suggesting specialized solutions for mental health and rehabilitation as a growing focus in medical practice.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Jung T, Zeng N, Fabbri JD, et al (2024)

Stable, chronic in-vivo recordings from a fully wireless subdural-contained 65,536-electrode brain-computer interface device.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.17.594333.

Minimally invasive, high-bandwidth brain-computer-interface (BCI) devices can revolutionize human applications. With orders-of-magnitude improvements in volumetric efficiency over other BCI technologies, we developed a 50-μm-thick, mechanically flexible micro-electrocorticography (μECoG) BCI, integrating 256×256 electrodes, signal processing, data telemetry, and wireless powering on a single complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) substrate containing 65,536 recording and 16,384 stimulation channels, from which we can simultaneously record up to 1024 channels at a given time. Fully implanted below the dura, our chip is wirelessly powered, communicating bi-directionally with an external relay station outside the body. We demonstrated chronic, reliable recordings for up to two weeks in pigs and up to two months in behaving non-human primates from somatosensory, motor, and visual cortices, decoding brain signals at high spatiotemporal resolution.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Rosenthal IA, Bashford L, Bjånes D, et al (2024)

Visual context affects the perceived timing of tactile sensations elicited through intra-cortical microstimulation.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.13.593529.

Intra-cortical microstimulation (ICMS) is a technique to provide tactile sensations for a somatosensory brain-machine interface (BMI). A viable BMI must function within the rich, multisensory environment of the real world, but how ICMS is integrated with other sensory modalities is poorly understood. To investigate how ICMS percepts are integrated with visual information, ICMS and visual stimuli were delivered at varying times relative to one another. Both visual context and ICMS current amplitude were found to bias the qualitative experience of ICMS. In two tetraplegic participants, ICMS and visual stimuli were more likely to be experienced as occurring simultaneously when visual stimuli were more realistic, demonstrating an effect of visual context on the temporal binding window. The peak of the temporal binding window varied but was consistently offset from zero, suggesting that multisensory integration with ICMS can suffer from temporal misalignment. Recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) during catch trials where visual stimuli were delivered without ICMS demonstrated that S1 represents visual information related to ICMS across visual contexts.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Mathewson KE, Kuziek JP, Scanlon JEM, et al (2024)

The moving wave: Applications of the mobile EEG approach to study human attention.

Psychophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

Although historically confined to traditional research laboratories, electroencephalography (EEG) paradigms are now being applied to study a wide array of behaviors, from daily activities to specialized tasks in diverse fields such as sports science, neurorehabilitation, and education. This transition from traditional to real-world mobile research can provide new tools for understanding attentional processes as they occur naturally. Early mobile EEG research has made progress, despite the large size and wired connections. Recent developments in hardware and software have expanded the possibilities of mobile EEG, enabling a broader range of applications. Despite these advancements, limitations influencing mobile EEG remain that must be overcome to achieve adequate reliability and validity. In this review, we first assess the feasibility of mobile paradigms, including electrode selection, artifact correction techniques, and methodological considerations. This review underscores the importance of ecological, construct, and predictive validity in ensuring the trustworthiness and applicability of mobile EEG findings. Second, we explore studies on attention in naturalistic settings, focusing on replicating classic P3 component studies in mobile paradigms like stationary biking in our lab, and activities such as walking, cycling, and dual-tasking outside of the lab. We emphasize how the mobile approach complements traditional laboratory paradigms and the types of insights gained in naturalistic research settings. Third, we discuss promising applications of portable EEG in workplace safety and other areas including road safety, rehabilitation medicine, and brain-computer interfaces. In summary, this review explores the expanding possibilities of mobile EEG while recognizing the existing challenges in fully realizing its potential.

RevDate: 2024-05-26

Chen A, Sun D, Gao X, et al (2024)

A novel feature extraction method PSS-CSP for binary motor imagery - based brain-computer interfaces.

Computers in biology and medicine, 177:108619 pii:S0010-4825(24)00704-2 [Epub ahead of print].

In order to improve the performance of binary motor imagery (MI) - based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using electroencephalography (EEG), a novel method (PSS-CSP) is proposed, which combines spectral subtraction with common spatial pattern. Spectral subtraction is an effective denoising method which is initially adopted to process MI-based EEG signals for binary BCIs in this work. On this basis, we proposed a novel feature extraction method called power spectral subtraction-based common spatial pattern (PSS-CSP) , which calculates the differences in power spectrum between binary classes of EEG signals and uses the differences in the feature extraction process. Additionally, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used for signal classification. Results show the proposed method (PSS-CSP) outperforms certain existing methods, achieving a classification accuracy of 76.8% on the BCIIV dataset 2b, and 76.25% and 77.38% on the OpenBMI dataset session 1 and session 2, respectively.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-26

Tao Q, Xu Y, He Y, et al (2024)

Benchmarking mapping algorithms for cell-type annotating in mouse brain by integrating single-nucleus RNA-seq and Stereo-seq data.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 25(4):.

Limited gene capture efficiency and spot size of spatial transcriptome (ST) data pose significant challenges in cell-type characterization. The heterogeneity and complexity of cell composition in the mammalian brain make it more challenging to accurately annotate ST data from brain. Many algorithms attempt to characterize subtypes of neuron by integrating ST data with single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) or single-cell RNA sequencing. However, assessing the accuracy of these algorithms on Stereo-seq ST data remains unresolved. Here, we benchmarked 9 mapping algorithms using 10 ST datasets from four mouse brain regions in two different resolutions and 24 pseudo-ST datasets from snRNA-seq. Both actual ST data and pseudo-ST data were mapped using snRNA-seq datasets from the corresponding brain regions as reference data. After comparing the performance across different areas and resolutions of the mouse brain, we have reached the conclusion that both robust cell-type decomposition and SpatialDWLS demonstrated superior robustness and accuracy in cell-type annotation. Testing with publicly available snRNA-seq data from another sequencing platform in the cortex region further validated our conclusions. Altogether, we developed a workflow for assessing suitability of mapping algorithm that fits for ST datasets, which can improve the efficiency and accuracy of spatial data annotation.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Bhatt MW, S Sharma (2024)

Multi-Scale Self-Attention Approach for Analysing Motor Imagery Signals in Brain-Computer Interfaces.

Journal of neuroscience methods pii:S0165-0270(24)00127-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Motor imagery-based electroencephalogram (EEG) brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has seen tremendous advancements in the past several years. Deep learning has outperformed more traditional approaches, such next-gen neuro-technologies, in terms of productivity. It is still challenging to develop and train an end-to-end network that can sufficiently extract the possible characteristics from EEG data used in motor imaging. Brain-computer interface research is largely reliant on the fundamental problem of accurately classifying EEG data. There are still many challenges in the field of MI classification even after researchers have proposed a variety of methods, such as deep learning and machine learning techniques.

METHODOLOGY: We provide a model for four-class categorization of motor imagery EEG signals using attention mechanisms: left hand, right hand, foot, and tongue/rest. The model is built on multi-scale spatiotemporal self-attention networks. To determine the most effective channels, self-attention networks are implemented spatially to assign greater weight to channels associated with motion and lesser weight to channels unrelated to motion. To eliminate noise in the temporal domain, parallel multi-scale Temporal Convolutional Network (TCN) layers are utilized to extract temporal domain features at various scales.

RESULT: On the IV-2b dataset from the BCI Competition, the suggested model achieved an accuracy of 85.09%; on the IV-2a and IV-2b datasets from the HGD datasets, it was 96.26%.

In single-subject classification, this approach demonstrates superior accuracy when compared to existing methods.

CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that this approach exhibits commendable performance, resilience, and capacity for transfer learning.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Han G, Jiao B, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

Arterial pulsation dependence of perivascular cerebrospinal fluid flow measured by dynamic diffusion tensor imaging in the human brain.

NeuroImage pii:S1053-8119(24)00148-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Perivascular cerebrospinal fluid (pCSF) flow is a key component of the glymphatic system. Arterial pulsation has been proposed as the main driving force of pCSF influx along the superficial and penetrating arteries; however, evidence of this mechanism in humans is limited. We proposed an experimental framework of dynamic diffusion tensor imaging with low b-values and ultra-long echo time (dynDTIlow-b) to capture pCSF flow properties during the cardiac cycle in human brains. Healthy adult volunteers (aged 17-28 years; seven men, one woman) underwent dynDTIlow-b using a clinical 3T scanner (MAGNETOM Prisma, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) with simultaneously recorded cardiac output. The results showed that diffusion tensors reconstructed from pCSF were mainly oriented in the direction of the neighboring arterial flow. When switching from vasoconstriction to vasodilation, the axial and radial diffusivities of the pCSF increased by 5.7% and 4.94%, respectively, suggesting that arterial pulsation alters the pCSF flow both parallel and perpendicular to the arterial wall. DynDTIlow-b signal intensity at b=0 s/mm[2] (i.e., T2-weighted, [S(b=0 s/mm[2])]) decreased in systole, but this change was ∼7.5% of a cardiac cycle slower than the changes in apparent diffusivity, suggesting that changes in S(b=0 s/mm[2]) and apparent diffusivity arise from distinct physiological processes and potential biomarkers associated with perivascular space volume and pCSF flow, respectively. Additionally, the mean diffusivities of white matter showed cardiac-cycle dependencies similar to pCSF, although a delay relative to the peak time of S(b=0 s/mm[2]) was present, suggesting that dynDTIlow-b could potentially reveal the dynamics of magnetic resonance imaging-invisible pCSF surrounding small arteries and arterioles in white matter; this delay may result from pulse wave propagation along penetrating arteries. In conclusion, the vasodilation-induced increases in axial and radial diffusivities of pCSF and mean diffusivities of white matter are consistent with the notion that arterial pulsation can accelerate pCSF flow in human brain. Furthermore, the proposed dynDTIlow-b technique can capture various pCSF dynamics in artery pulsation.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Khabti J, AlAhmadi S, A Soudani (2024)

Optimal Channel Selection of Multiclass Motor Imagery Classification Based on Fusion Convolutional Neural Network with Attention Blocks.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 24(10):.

The widely adopted paradigm in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) involves motor imagery (MI), enabling improved communication between humans and machines. EEG signals derived from MI present several challenges due to their inherent characteristics, which lead to a complex process of classifying and finding the potential tasks of a specific participant. Another issue is that BCI systems can result in noisy data and redundant channels, which in turn can lead to increased equipment and computational costs. To address these problems, the optimal channel selection of a multiclass MI classification based on a Fusion convolutional neural network with Attention blocks (FCNNA) is proposed. In this study, we developed a CNN model consisting of layers of convolutional blocks with multiple spatial and temporal filters. These filters are designed specifically to capture the distribution and relationships of signal features across different electrode locations, as well as to analyze the evolution of these features over time. Following these layers, a Convolutional Block Attention Module (CBAM) is used to, further, enhance EEG signal feature extraction. In the process of channel selection, the genetic algorithm is used to select the optimal set of channels using a new technique to deliver fixed as well as variable channels for all participants. The proposed methodology is validated showing 6.41% improvement in multiclass classification compared to most baseline models. Notably, we achieved the highest results of 93.09% for binary classes involving left-hand and right-hand movements. In addition, the cross-subject strategy for multiclass classification yielded an impressive accuracy of 68.87%. Following channel selection, multiclass classification accuracy was enhanced, reaching 84.53%. Overall, our experiments illustrated the efficiency of the proposed EEG MI model in both channel selection and classification, showing superior results with either a full channel set or a reduced number of channels.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Akhter J, Naseer N, Nazeer H, et al (2024)

Enhancing Classification Accuracy with Integrated Contextual Gate Network: Deep Learning Approach for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Brain-Computer Interface Application.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 24(10):.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems include signal acquisition, preprocessing, feature extraction, classification, and an application phase. In fNIRS-BCI systems, deep learning (DL) algorithms play a crucial role in enhancing accuracy. Unlike traditional machine learning (ML) classifiers, DL algorithms eliminate the need for manual feature extraction. DL neural networks automatically extract hidden patterns/features within a dataset to classify the data. In this study, a hand-gripping (closing and opening) two-class motor activity dataset from twenty healthy participants is acquired, and an integrated contextual gate network (ICGN) algorithm (proposed) is applied to that dataset to enhance the classification accuracy. The proposed algorithm extracts the features from the filtered data and generates the patterns based on the information from the previous cells within the network. Accordingly, classification is performed based on the similar generated patterns within the dataset. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is compared with the long short-term memory (LSTM) and bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM). The proposed ICGN algorithm yielded a classification accuracy of 91.23 ± 1.60%, which is significantly (p < 0.025) higher than the 84.89 ± 3.91 and 88.82 ± 1.96 achieved by LSTM and Bi-LSTM, respectively. An open access, three-class (right- and left-hand finger tapping and dominant foot tapping) dataset of 30 subjects is used to validate the proposed algorithm. The results show that ICGN can be efficiently used for the classification of two- and three-class problems in fNIRS-based BCI applications.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Zhang X, Li J, Zhang R, et al (2024)

A Brain-Controlled and User-Centered Intelligent Wheelchair: A Feasibility Study.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 24(10):.

Recently, due to physical aging, diseases, accidents, and other factors, the population with lower limb disabilities has been increasing, and there is consequently a growing demand for wheelchair products. Modern product design tends to be more intelligent and multi-functional than in the past, with the popularization of intelligent concepts. This supports the design of a new, fully functional, intelligent wheelchair that can assist people with lower limb disabilities in their day-to-day life. Based on the UCD (user-centered design) concept, this study focused on the needs of people with lower limb disabilities. Accordingly, the demand for different functions of intelligent wheelchair products was studied through a questionnaire survey, interview survey, literature review, expert consultation, etc., and the function and appearance of the intelligent wheelchair were then defined. A brain-machine interface system was developed for controlling the motion of the intelligent wheelchair, catering to the needs of disabled individuals. Furthermore, ergonomics theory was used as a guide to determine the size of the intelligent wheelchair seat, and eventually, a new intelligent wheelchair with the features of climbing stairs, posture adjustment, seat elevation, easy interaction, etc., was developed. This paper provides a reference for the design upgrade of the subsequently developed intelligent wheelchair products.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Wang S, Yan X, Jiao X, et al (2024)

Experimental Study of the Implantation Process for Array Electrodes into Highly Transparent Agarose Gel.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 17(10):.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is currently a cutting-edge exploratory problem in the field of human-computer interaction. However, in experiments involving the implantation of electrodes into brain tissue, particularly high-speed or array implants, existing technologies find it challenging to observe the damage in real time. Considering the difficulties in obtaining biological brain tissue and the challenges associated with real-time observation of damage during the implantation process, we have prepared a transparent agarose gel that closely mimics the mechanical properties of biological brain tissue for use in electrode implantation experiments. Subsequently, we developed an experimental setup for synchronized observation of the electrode implantation process, utilizing the Digital Gradient Sensing (DGS) method. In the single electrode implantation experiments, with the increase in implantation speed, the implantation load increases progressively, and the tissue damage region around the electrode tip gradually diminishes. In the array electrode implantation experiments, compared to a single electrode, the degree of tissue indentation is more severe due to the coupling effect between adjacent electrodes. As the array spacing increases, the coupling effect gradually diminishes. The experimental results indicate that appropriately increasing the velocity and array spacing of the electrodes can enhance the likelihood of successful implantation. The research findings of this article provide valuable guidance for the damage assessment and selection of implantation parameters during the process of electrode implantation into real brain tissue.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Barbruni GL, Cordara C, Carminati M, et al (2024)

A Frequency-Switching Inductive Power Transfer System for Wireless, Miniaturised and Large-Scale Neural Interfaces.

IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems, 18(3):679-690.

Three-coil inductive power transfer is the state-of-the-art solution to power multiple miniaturised neural implants. However, the maximum delivered power is limited by the efficiency of the powering link and safety constrains. Here we propose a frequency-switching inductive link, where the passive resonator normally used in a three-coil link is replaced by an active resonator. It receives power from the external transmitter via a two-coil inductive link at the low frequency of 13.56 MHz. Then, it switches the operating frequency to the higher frequency of 433.92 MHz through a dedicated circuitry. Last, it transmits power to 1024 miniaturised implants via a three-coil inductive link using an array of 37 focusing resonators for a brain coverage of 163.84 mm [2]. Our simulations reported a power transfer efficiency of 0.013 % and a maximum power delivered to the load of 1970 μW under safety-constrains, which are respectively two orders of magnitude and more than six decades higher compared to an equivalent passive three-coil link. The frequency-switching inductive system is a scalable and highly versatile solution for wireless, miniaturised and large-scale neural interfaces.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Bi M, Zhang H, Ma Y, et al (2024)

Modulation Steering Motion by Quantitative Electrical Stimulation in Pigeon Robots.

Micromachines, 15(5):.

The pigeon robot has attracted significant attention in the field of animal robotics thanks to its outstanding mobility and adaptive capability in complex environments. However, research on pigeon robots is currently facing bottlenecks, and achieving fine control over the motion behavior of pigeon robots through brain-machine interfaces remains challenging. Here, we systematically quantify the relationship between electrical stimulation and stimulus-induced motion behaviors, and provide an analytical method to demonstrate the effectiveness of pigeon robots based on electrical stimulation. In this study, we investigated the influence of gradient voltage intensity (1.2-3.0 V) on the indoor steering motion control of pigeon robots. Additionally, we discussed the response time of electrical stimulation and the effective period of the brain-machine interface. The results indicate that pigeon robots typically exhibit noticeable behavioral responses at a 2.0 V voltage stimulus. Increasing the stimulation intensity significantly controls the steering angle and turning radius (p < 0.05), enabling precise control of pigeon robot steering motion through stimulation intensity regulation. When the threshold voltage is reached, the average response time of a pigeon robot to the electrical stimulation is 220 ms. This study quantifies the role of each stimulation parameter in controlling pigeon robot steering behavior, providing valuable reference information for the precise steering control of pigeon robots. Based on these findings, we offer a solution for achieving precise control of pigeon robot steering motion and contribute to solving the problem of encoding complex trajectory motion in pigeon robots.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Jiang C, Dai Y, Ding Y, et al (2024)

TSANN-TG: Temporal-Spatial Attention Neural Networks with Task-Specific Graph for EEG Emotion Recognition.

Brain sciences, 14(5):.

Electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion recognition is increasingly pivotal in the realm of affective brain-computer interfaces. In this paper, we propose TSANN-TG (temporal-spatial attention neural network with a task-specific graph), a novel neural network architecture tailored for enhancing feature extraction and effectively integrating temporal-spatial features. TSANN-TG comprises three primary components: a node-feature-encoding-and-adjacency-matrices-construction block, a graph-aggregation block, and a graph-feature-fusion-and-classification block. Leveraging the distinct temporal scales of features from EEG signals, TSANN-TG incorporates attention mechanisms for efficient feature extraction. By constructing task-specific adjacency matrices, the graph convolutional network with an attention mechanism captures the dynamic changes in dependency information between EEG channels. Additionally, TSANN-TG emphasizes feature integration at multiple levels, leading to improved performance in emotion-recognition tasks. Our proposed TSANN-TG is applied to both our FTEHD dataset and the publicly available DEAP dataset. Comparative experiments and ablation studies highlight the excellent recognition results achieved. Compared to the baseline algorithms, TSANN-TG demonstrates significant enhancements in accuracy and F1 score on the two benchmark datasets for four types of cognitive tasks. These results underscore the significant potential of the TSANN-TG method to advance EEG-based emotion recognition.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Huang D, Wang Y, Fan L, et al (2024)

Decoding Subject-Driven Cognitive States from EEG Signals for Cognitive Brain-Computer Interface.

Brain sciences, 14(5):.

In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to differentiate between four distinct subject-driven cognitive states: resting state, narrative memory, music, and subtraction tasks. EEG data were collected from seven healthy male participants while performing these cognitive tasks, and the raw EEG signals were transformed into time-frequency maps using continuous wavelet transform. Based on these time-frequency maps, we developed a convolutional neural network model (TF-CNN-CFA) with a channel and frequency attention mechanism to automatically distinguish between these cognitive states. The experimental results demonstrated that the model achieved an average classification accuracy of 76.14% in identifying these four cognitive states, significantly outperforming traditional EEG signal processing methods and other classical image classification algorithms. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of varying lengths of EEG signals on classification performance and found that TF-CNN-CFA demonstrates consistent performance across different window lengths, indicating its strong generalization capability. This study validates the ability of EEG to differentiate higher cognitive states, which could potentially offer a novel BCI paradigm.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Yang G, J Liu (2024)

A New Framework Combining Diffusion Models and the Convolution Classifier for Generating Images from EEG Signals.

Brain sciences, 14(5):.

The generation of images from electroencephalography (EEG) signals has become a popular research topic in recent research because it can bridge the gap between brain signals and visual stimuli and has wide application prospects in neuroscience and computer vision. However, due to the high complexity of EEG signals, the reconstruction of visual stimuli through EEG signals continues to pose a challenge. In this work, we propose an EEG-ConDiffusion framework that involves three stages: feature extraction, fine-tuning of the pretrained model, and image generation. In the EEG-ConDiffusion framework, classification features of EEG signals are first obtained through the feature extraction block. Then, the classification features are taken as conditions to fine-tune the stable diffusion model in the image generation block to generate images with corresponding semantics. This framework combines EEG classification and image generation means to enhance the quality of generated images. Our proposed framework was tested on an EEG-based visual classification dataset. The performance of our framework is measured by classification accuracy, 50-way top-k accuracy, and inception score. The results indicate that the proposed EEG-Condiffusion framework can extract effective classification features and generate high-quality images from EEG signals to realize EEG-to-image conversion.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Shiam AA, Hassan KM, Islam MR, et al (2024)

Motor Imagery Classification Using Effective Channel Selection of Multichannel EEG.

Brain sciences, 14(5):.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is effectively employed to describe cognitive patterns corresponding to different tasks of motor functions for brain-computer interface (BCI) implementation. Explicit information processing is necessary to reduce the computational complexity of practical BCI systems. This paper presents an entropy-based approach to select effective EEG channels for motor imagery (MI) classification in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. The method identifies channels with higher entropy scores, which is an indication of greater information content. It discards redundant or noisy channels leading to reduced computational complexity and improved classification accuracy. High entropy means a more disordered pattern, whereas low entropy means a less disordered pattern with less information. The entropy of each channel for individual trials is calculated. The weight of each channel is represented by the mean entropy of the channel over all the trials. A set of channels with higher mean entropy are selected as effective channels for MI classification. A limited number of sub-band signals are created by decomposing the selected channels. To extract the spatial features, the common spatial pattern (CSP) is applied to each sub-band space of EEG signals. The CSP-based features are used to classify the right-hand and right-foot MI tasks using a support vector machine (SVM). The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated using two publicly available EEG datasets, known as BCI competition III-IV(A) and BCI competition IV-I. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach surpasses cutting-edge techniques.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Polo-Hortigüela C, Maximo M, Jara CA, et al (2024)

A Comparison of Myoelectric Control Modes for an Assistive Robotic Virtual Platform.

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 11(5):.

In this paper, we propose a daily living situation where objects in a kitchen can be grasped and stored in specific containers using a virtual robot arm operated by different myoelectric control modes. The main goal of this study is to prove the feasibility of providing virtual environments controlled through surface electromyography that can be used for the future training of people using prosthetics or with upper limb motor impairments. We propose that simple control algorithms can be a more natural and robust way to interact with prostheses and assistive robotics in general than complex multipurpose machine learning approaches. Additionally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of adding intelligence to the setup to automatically assist grasping activities. The results show very good performance across all participants who share similar opinions regarding the execution of each of the proposed control modes.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Awuah WA, Ahluwalia A, Darko K, et al (2024)

Bridging Minds and Machines: The Recent Advances of Brain-Computer Interfaces in Neurological and Neurosurgical Applications.

World neurosurgery pii:S1878-8750(24)00867-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), a remarkable technological advancement in neurology and neurosurgery, mark a significant leap since the inception of electroencephalography (EEG) in 1924. These interfaces effectively convert central nervous system signals into commands for external devices, offering revolutionary benefits to patients with severe communication and motor impairments due to a myriad of neurological conditions like stroke, spinal cord injuries, and neurodegenerative disorders. BCIs enable these individuals to communicate and interact with their environment, using their brain signals to operate interfaces for communication and environmental control. This technology is especially crucial for those completely locked in, providing a communication lifeline where other methods fall short. The advantages of BCIs are profound, offering autonomy and an improved quality of life for patients with severe disabilities. They allow for direct interaction with various devices and prostheses, bypassing damaged or non-functional neural pathways. However, challenges persist, including the complexity of accurately interpreting brain signals, the need for individual calibration, and ensuring reliable, long-term use. Additionally, ethical considerations arise regarding autonomy, consent, and the potential for dependence on technology. Despite these challenges, BCIs represent a transformative development in neurotechnology, promising enhanced patient outcomes and a deeper understanding of brain-machine interfaces.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Denis-Robichaud J, Barbeau-Grégoire N, Gauthier ML, et al (2024)

Validity of luminometry and bacteriological tests for diagnosing intramammary infection at dry-off in dairy cows.

Journal of dairy science pii:S0022-0302(24)00823-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the validity of laboratory culture, Petrifilm and Tri-Plate on-farm culture systems, and luminometry to correctly identify IMI at dry-off in dairy cows, considering all tests as imperfect. From September 2020 until December 2021, we collected composite milk samples from cows before dry-off and divided them into 4 aliquots for the luminometry test, the Petrifilm (aerobic count), the Tri-Plate, and the laboratory culture. While we assessed multiple thresholds of relative light units (RLU) for the luminometry, we used thresholds of ≥100 cfu/mL for the laboratory culture, ≥ 50 cfu/mL for the Petrifilm, and ≥1 cfu for the Tri-Plate. We fitted Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) models to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for each test to identify IMI, with 95% credibility interval (BCI). Using different prevalence measures (0.30, 0.50, and 0.70), we calculated the predictive values (PV) and misclassification cost terms (MCT) at different false-negative to false-positive ratios (FN:FP). A total of 333 cows were enrolled in the study from one commercial Holstein herd. The validity of the luminometry was poor for all thresholds, with Se of 0.51 (95% BCI = 0.43-0.59) and Sp of 0.38 (95% BCI = 0.26-0.50) when using a threshold of ≥150 RLU. The laboratory culture had Se of 0.93 (95% BCI = 0.85-0.98) and Sp of 0.69 (95% BCI = 0.49-0.89), the Petrifilm had Se of 0.91 (95% BCI = 0.80-0.98) and Sp of 0.71 (95% BCI = 0.51-0.90), and the Tri-Plate had Se of 0.65 (95% BCI = 0.53-0.82) and Sp of 0.85 (95% BCI = 0.66-0.97). Bacteriological tests had good PVs, with comparable positive PV for all 3 tests, but lower negative PV for the Tri-Plate compared with the laboratory culture and the Petrifilm. For a prevalence of IMI of 0.30, all 3 tests had similar MCT, but for prevalence of 0.50 and 0.70, the Tri-Plate had higher MCT in scenarios where leaving a cow with IMI untreated is considered to have greater detrimental impacts than treating a healthy cow (i.e., FN:FP of 3:1). Our results showed that the bacteriological tests have adequate validity to diagnose IMI at dry-off, but the luminometry does not. We concluded that, while luminometry is not useful to identify IMI at dry-off, the Petrifilm and Tri-Plate tests performed similarly to the laboratory culture, depending on the prevalence and the importance of the FP and FN results.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Denis-Robichaud J, Oliveira AP, Sica A, et al (2024)

Is prolonged luteal phase a problem in lactating Holstein cows?.

Journal of dairy science pii:S0022-0302(24)00825-7 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, the main objective was to assess if long luteal phases could have other causes than pregnancy losses. We enrolled Holstein dairy cows ≥50 d in milk (DIM) from a commercial herd in Brazil from October 2016 to August 2017. All cows received an estradiol-based synchronization protocol, and, on the day of insemination (d 0), were randomly assigned either an artificial insemination (AI) or a placebo insemination (PBO) in a 3:1 ratio. An ultrasound was used to assess the presence of a CL on d17, 24, and 31, which, combined to the information from patches for the detection of estrus, was used to determine the length of the luteal phase following AI or PBO. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasound on d 31 and cows that were pregnant were excluded from the analyses. The length of the estrous cycles was categorized as short (<17 d), normal (17-23 d), long (24-30 d), and very long (≥31 d). We compared the proportion of cows in each category between the AI and PBO groups using a cumulative ordinal mixed model. We define prolonged luteal phase as estrous cycles ≥24 d and tested its association with potential risk factors (parity, season, DIM, uterine size and position score, milk production, body condition score, and the presence of a corpus luteum (CL) at enrollment to the synchronization protocol) using mixed logistic regression models. Results are presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% credible intervals (BCI). Data from 876 inseminations (AI: n = 616, PBO: n = 260) was collected. Overall, 12% of estrous cycles were short, 31% were normal, 19% were long, and 38% were very long. There was no difference in the odds of being in longer estrous cycle categories for the AI compared with the PBO group (OR = 0.92, 95% BCI = 0.76-1.10). Season and presence of a CL at enrollment were associated with prolonged luteal phase. In the AI group, there was a possible effect of early pregnancy losses on the lifespan of the CL, but not the PBO group, which led us to conclude that long and very long estrous cycles were not all caused by the embryonic loss. In fact, the high prevalence of cows with an extended CL lifespan in the present study suggests this could be an under- or miss-reported characteristic of high-producing lactating Holstein cows. This finding may have important repercussions in the understanding of the CL function physiology of lactating Holstein cows.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Semeraro F, Schnaubelt S, Malta Hansen C, et al (2024)

Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the next decade: Predicting and shaping the impact of technological innovations.

Resuscitation pii:S0300-9572(24)00143-6 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrest (CA) is the third leading cause of death, with persistently low survival rates despite medical advancements. This article evaluates the potential of emerging technologies to enhance CA management over the next decade, using predictions from the AI tools ChatGPT-4 and Gemini Advanced.

METHODS: We conducted an exploratory literature review to envision the future of cardiopulmonary arrest (CA) management. Utilizing ChatGPT-4 and Gemini Advanced, we predicted implementation timelines for innovations in early recognition, CPR, defibrillation, and post-resuscitation care. We also consulted the AI to assess the consistency and reproducibility of the predictions.

RESULTS: We extrapolate that healthcare may embrace new technologies, such as comprehensive monitoring of vital signs to activate the emergency system (wireless detectors, smart speakers, and wearable devices), use new innovative early CPR and early AED devices (robot CPR, wearable AEDs, and immersive reality), and post-resuscitation care monitoring (brain-computer interface). These technologies could enhance timely life-saving interventions for cardiac arrest. However, there are many ethical and practical challenges, particularly in maintaining patient privacy and equity. The two AI tools made different predictions, with a horizon for implementation ranging between three and eight years.

CONCLUSION: Integrating advanced monitoring technologies and AI-driven tools offers hope in improving CA management. A balanced approach involving rigorous scientific validation and ethical oversight is necessary. Collaboration among technologists, medical professionals, ethicists, and policymakers is crucial to use these innovations ethically to reduce CA incidence and enhance outcomes. Further research is needed to enhance the reliability of AI predictive capabilities.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-27

Zheng B, Li Y, Xu G, et al (2024)

Prediction of Dexterous Finger Forces With Forearm Rotation Using Motoneuron Discharges.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 32:1994-2004.

Motor unit (MU) discharge information obtained via electromyogram (EMG) decomposition can be used to decode dexterous multi-finger movement intention for neural-machine interfaces (NMI). However, the variation of the motor unit action potential (MUAP) shape resulted from forearm rotation leads to the decreased performance of EMG decomposition, especially under the real-time condition and then the degradation of motion decoding accuracy. The object of this study was to develop a method to realize the accurate extraction of MU discharge information across forearm pronated/supinated positions in the real-time condition for dexterous multi-finger force prediction. The FastICA-based EMG decomposition technique was used and the proposed method obtained multiple separation vectors for each MU at different forearm positions in the initialization phase. Under the real-time condition, the MU discharge information was extracted adaptively using the separation vector extracted at the nearest forearm position. As comparison, the previous method that utilized a single constant separation vector to extract MU discharges across forearm positions and the conventional method that utilized the EMG amplitude information were also performed. The results showed that the proposed method obtained a significantly better performance compared with the other two methods, manifested in a larger coefficient of determination ([Formula: see text] and a smaller root mean squared error (RMSE) between the predicted and recorded force. Our results demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method to extract MU discharge information during forearm rotation for dexterous force prediction under the real-time conditions. Further development of the proposed method could potentially promote the application of the EMG decomposition technique for continuous dexterous motion decoding in a realistic NMI application scenario.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Chen K, Forrest A, Gonzalez Burgos G, et al (2024)

Neuronal functional connectivity is impaired in a layer dependent manner near chronically implanted intracortical microelectrodes in C57BL6 wildtype mice.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to reveal longitudinal changes in functional network connectivity within and across different brain structures near chronically implanted microelectrodes. While it is well established that the foreign-body response (FBR) contributes to the gradual decline of the signals recorded from brain implants over time, how the FBR affects the functional stability of neural circuits near implanted Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) remains unknown. This research aims to illuminate how the chronic FBR can alter local neural circuit function and the implications for BCI decoders.

APPROACH: This study utilized single-shank, 16-channel,100 µm site-spacing Michigan-style microelectrodes (3mm length, 703 µm2 site area) that span all cortical layers and the hippocampal CA1 region. Sex balanced C57BL6 wildtype mice (11-13 weeks old) received perpendicularly implanted microelectrode in left primary visual cortex. Electrophysiological recordings were performed during both spontaneous activity and visual sensory stimulation. Alterations in neuronal activity near the microelectrode were tested assessing cross-frequency synchronization of LFP and spike entrainment to LFP oscillatory activity throughout 16 weeks after microelectrode implantation.

MAIN RESULTS: The study found that cortical layer 4, the input-receiving layer, maintained activity over the implantation time. However, layers 2/3 rapidly experienced severe impairment, leading to a loss of proper intralaminar connectivity in the downstream output layers 5/6. Furthermore, the impairment of interlaminar connectivity near the microelectrode was unidirectional, showing decreased connectivity from Layers 2/3 to Layers 5/6 but not the reverse direction. In the hippocampus, CA1 neurons gradually became unable to properly entrain to the surrounding LFP oscillations.

SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides a detailed characterization of network connectivity dysfunction over long-term microelectrode implantation periods. This new knowledge could contribute to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at improving the health of the tissue surrounding brain implants and potentially inform engineering of adaptive decoders as the FBR progresses. Our study's understanding of the dynamic changes in the functional network over time opens the door to developing interventions for improving the long-term stability and performance of intracortical microelectrodes.

RevDate: 2024-05-26

Pan Y, Wang H, Geng Y, et al (2024)

Latent Profile Analysis of Suicidal Ideation in Chinese Individuals with Bipolar Disorder.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 14(5):.

Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have a greater suicide risk than the general population. In this study, we employed latent profile analysis (LPA) to explore whether Chinese individuals with different phases of BD differed at the levels of suicidal ideation. We recruited 517 patients. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-24), and manic symptoms were evaluated using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). The extent of suicidal thoughts was determined through the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI). The scores of HAMD and YMRS were used to perform LPA. LPA categorized participants into three classes: one exhibiting severe depressive and mild manic symptomatology, another showing severe depressive and severe manic symptomatology, and the third one displaying severe depressive and intermediate manic symptomatology. Suicidal ideation levels were found to be remarkably elevated across all three classes. Additionally, the three classes showed no significant differences in terms of suicidal ideation. Our research confirms the link between depressive symptoms and suicide, independent of the manic symptoms. These findings carry meaning as they provide insight into the suicide risk profiles within different phases of BD.

RevDate: 2024-05-26
CmpDate: 2024-05-24

Kong X, Wu C, Chen S, et al (2024)

Efficient Feature Learning Model of Motor Imagery EEG Signals with L1-Norm and Weighted Fusion.

Biosensors, 14(5):.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) for motor imagery is an advanced technology used in the field of medical rehabilitation. However, due to the poor accuracy of electroencephalogram feature classification, BCI systems often misrecognize user commands. Although many state-of-the-art feature selection methods aim to enhance classification accuracy, they usually overlook the interrelationships between individual features, indirectly impacting the accuracy of feature classification. To overcome this issue, we propose an adaptive feature learning model that employs a Riemannian geometric approach to generate a feature matrix from electroencephalogram signals, serving as the model's input. By integrating the enhanced adaptive L1 penalty and weighted fusion penalty into the sparse learning model, we select the most informative features from the matrix. Specifically, we measure the importance of features using mutual information and introduce an adaptive weight construction strategy to penalize regression coefficients corresponding to each variable adaptively. Moreover, the weighted fusion penalty balances weight differences among correlated variables, reducing the model's overreliance on specific variables and enhancing accuracy. The performance of the proposed method was validated on BCI Competition IV datasets IIa and IIb using the support vector machine. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed model compared to the existing models.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Zhang Y, Hua W, Zhou Z, et al (2024)

A novel acupuncture technique at the Zusanli point based on virtual reality and EEG: a pilot study.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1269903.

INTRODUCTION: Acupuncture is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) method that achieves therapeutic effects through the interaction of neurotransmitters and neural regulation. It is generally carried out manually, making the related process expert-biased. Meanwhile, the neural stimulation effect of acupuncture is difficult to track objectively. In recent years, virtual reality (VR) in medicine has been on the fast lane to widespread use, especially in therapeutic stimulation. However, the use of related technologies in acupuncture has not been reported.

METHODS: In this work, a novel acupuncture stimulation technique using VR is proposed. To track the stimulation effect, the electroencephalogram (EEG) is used as the marker to validate brain activities under acupuncture.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: After statistically analyzing the data of 24 subjects during acupuncture at the "Zusanli (ST36)" acupoint, it has been determined that Virtual Acupuncture (VA) has at least a 63.54% probability of inducing similar EEG activities as in Manual Acupuncture (MA). This work may provide a new solution for researchers and clinical practitioners using Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) in acupuncture.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Gouret A, Le Bars S, Porssut T, et al (2024)

Advancements in brain-computer interfaces for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect: a concise review.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1373377.

This short review examines recent advancements in neurotechnologies within the context of managing unilateral spatial neglect (USN), a common condition following stroke. Despite the success of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in restoring motor function, there is a notable absence of effective BCI devices for treating cerebral visual impairments, a prevalent consequence of brain lesions that significantly hinders rehabilitation. This review analyzes current non-invasive BCIs and technological solutions dedicated to cognitive rehabilitation, with a focus on visuo-attentional disorders. We emphasize the need for further research into the use of BCIs for managing cognitive impairments and propose a new potential solution for USN rehabilitation, by combining the clinical subtleties of this syndrome with the technological advancements made in the field of neurotechnologies.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Chen W, Liu X, Wan P, et al (2024)

Anti-artifacts techniques for neural recording front-ends in closed-loop brain-machine interface ICs.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1393206.

In recent years, thanks to the development of integrated circuits, clinical medicine has witnessed significant advancements, enabling more efficient and intelligent treatment approaches. Particularly in the field of neuromedical, the utilization of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) has revolutionized the treatment of neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, or spinal cord injury. The BMI acquires neural signals via recording circuits and analyze them to regulate neural stimulator circuits for effective neurological treatment. However, traditional BMI designs, which are often isolated, have given way to closed-loop brain-machine interfaces (CL-BMI) as a contemporary development trend. CL-BMI offers increased integration and accelerated response speed, marking a significant leap forward in neuromedicine. Nonetheless, this advancement comes with its challenges, notably the stimulation artifacts (SA) problem inherent to the structural characteristics of CL-BMI, which poses significant challenges on the neural recording front-ends (NRFE) site. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of technologies addressing artifacts in the NRFE site within CL-BMI. Topics covered will include: (1) understanding and assessing artifacts; (2) exploring the impact of artifacts on traditional neural recording front-ends; (3) reviewing recent technological advancements aimed at addressing artifact-related issues; (4) summarizing and classifying the aforementioned technologies, along with an analysis of future trends.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Arulkumaran K, Di Vincenzo M, Dossa RFJ, et al (2024)

A comparison of visual and auditory EEG interfaces for robot multi-stage task control.

Frontiers in robotics and AI, 11:1329270.

Shared autonomy holds promise for assistive robotics, whereby physically-impaired people can direct robots to perform various tasks for them. However, a robot that is capable of many tasks also introduces many choices for the user, such as which object or location should be the target of interaction. In the context of non-invasive brain-computer interfaces for shared autonomy-most commonly electroencephalography-based-the two most common choices are to provide either auditory or visual stimuli to the user-each with their respective pros and cons. Using the oddball paradigm, we designed comparable auditory and visual interfaces to speak/display the choices to the user, and had users complete a multi-stage robotic manipulation task involving location and object selection. Users displayed differing competencies-and preferences-for the different interfaces, highlighting the importance of considering modalities outside of vision when constructing human-robot interfaces.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Yaeger K, J Mocco (2024)

Venous Sinus Stent to Treat Paralysis.

Neurosurgery clinics of North America, 35(3):375-378.

Transvenous treatment of paralysis is a concept less than a decade old. The Stentrode (Synchron, Inc, New York, USA) is a novel electrode on stent device intended to be implanted in the superior sagittal sinus adjacent to the motor cortex. Initial animal studies in sheep demonstrated the safety of the implant as well as its accuracy in detecting neural signals at both short and long term. Early human trials have shown the safety of the device and demonstrated the use of the Stentrode system in facilitating patients with paralysis to carry out daily activities such as texting, email, and personal finance. This is an emerging technology with promise, although certainly more research is required to better understand the capabilities and limitations of the device.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Kapgate DD (2024)

The Use of Happy Faces as Visual Stimuli Improves the Performance of the Hybrid SSVEP+P300 Brain Computer Interface.

Journal of neuroscience methods pii:S0165-0270(24)00115-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: This study illustrates a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) in which steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) and event-related potentials (P300) are evoked simultaneously. The goal of this study was to improve the performance of the current hybrid SSVEP+P300 BCI systems by incorporating a happy face into visual stimuli.

NEW METHOD: In this study, happy and sad faces were added to a visual stimulus to induce stronger cortical signals in a hybrid SSVEP+P300 BCI. Additionally, we developed a paradigm in which SSVEP responses were triggered by non-face stimuli, whereas P300 responses were triggered by face stimuli. We tested four paradigms: happy face paradigm (HF), sad face paradigm (SF), happy face and flicker paradigm (HFF), and sad face and flicker paradigm (SFF).

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that the HFF paradigm elicited more robust cortical responses, which resulted in enhanced system accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR). The HFF paradigm has a system communication rate of 25.9 bits per second and an average accuracy of 96.1%. Compared with other paradigms, the HFF paradigm is the best choice for BCI applications because it has the highest ITR and maximum level of comfort.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

R V, M Ramasubba Reddy (2024)

Optimizing motor imagery BCI models with hard trials removal and model refinement.

Biomedical physics & engineering express [Epub ahead of print].

Deep learning models have demonstrated remarkable performance in the classification of motor imagery BCI systems. However, these models exhibit sensitivity to challenging trials, often called hard trials, leading to performance degradation. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing two novel methods for identifying and mitigating the impact of hard trials on model performance. The first method leverages model prediction scores to discern hard trials. The second approach employs a quantitative explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) approach, enabling a more transparent and interpretable means of hard trials identification. The identified hard trials are removed from the entire motor imagery training and validation dataset, and the deep learning model is further re-trained using the dataset without hard trials. To evaluate the efficacy of these proposed methods, experiments were conducted on the Open BMI dataset. The results for hold-out analysis show that, the proposed quantitative XAI based hard trial removal method has statistically improved the average classification accuracy of the baseline deep CNN model from 63.77 % to 68.70 %, with p-value = 7.66 -11 for the subject specific MI classification. Additionally, analyzing the scalp map depicting the average relevance scores of correctly classified trials compared to a misclassified trial provides a deeper insight into identifying hard trials. The results indicates that the proposed quantitative based XAI approach outperforms the prediction-score based approach in hard trial identification. .

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Kojima S, S Kanoh (2024)

An auditory brain-computer interface based on selective attention to multiple tone streams.

PloS one, 19(5):e0303565.

In this study, we attempted to improve brain-computer interface (BCI) systems by means of auditory stream segregation in which alternately presented tones are perceived as sequences of various different tones (streams). A 3-class BCI using three tone sequences, which were perceived as three different tone streams, was investigated and evaluated. Each presented musical tone was generated by a software synthesizer. Eleven subjects took part in the experiment. Stimuli were presented to each user's right ear. Subjects were requested to attend to one of three streams and to count the number of target stimuli in the attended stream. In addition, 64-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) and two-channel electrooculogram (EOG) signals were recorded from participants with a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. The measured EEG data were classified based on Riemannian geometry to detect the object of the subject's selective attention. P300 activity was elicited by the target stimuli in the segregated tone streams. In five out of eleven subjects, P300 activity was elicited only by the target stimuli included in the attended stream. In a 10-fold cross validation test, a classification accuracy over 80% for five subjects and over 75% for nine subjects was achieved. For subjects whose accuracy was lower than 75%, either the P300 was also elicited for nonattended streams or the amplitude of P300 was small. It was concluded that the number of selected BCI systems based on auditory stream segregation can be increased to three classes, and these classes can be detected by a single ear without the aid of any visual modality.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Rajesh Rao has written the perfect introduction to the exciting world of brain-computer interfaces. The book is remarkably comprehensive — not only including full descriptions of classic and current experiments but also covering essential background concepts, from the brain to Bayes and back. Brain-Computer Interfacing will be welcomed by a wide range of intelligent readers interested in understanding the first steps toward the symbiotic merger of brains and computers. Eberhard E. Fetz, UW

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )