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Bibliography on: Pangenome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2020 at 01:31 Created: 

Pangenome

Although the enforced stability of genomic content is ubiquitous among MCEs, the opposite is proving to be the case among prokaryotes, which exhibit remarkable and adaptive plasticity of genomic content. Early bacterial whole-genome sequencing efforts discovered that whenever a particular "species" was re-sequenced, new genes were found that had not been detected earlier — entirely new genes, not merely new alleles. This led to the concepts of the bacterial core-genome, the set of genes found in all members of a particular "species", and the flex-genome, the set of genes found in some, but not all members of the "species". Together these make up the species' pan-genome.

Created with PubMed® Query: pangenome or "pan-genome" or "pan genome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Liu YH, Xie YG, Li L, et al (2020)

Cyclobacterium salsum sp. nov. and Cyclobacterium roseum sp. nov., isolated from a saline lake.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Two novel strains, designated SYSU L10167T and SYSU L10180T, were isolated from sediment sampled at Dabancheng saline lake in Xinjiang, PR China. A polyphasic approach was used to clarify the taxonomic positions of the two strains. Cells of the isolates were curved ring-like, horseshoe-shaped or rod-shaped, non-motile and non-spore-forming. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, heterotrophic and rose-pigmented. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SYSU L10167T and SYSU L10180T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Cyclobacterium. Strains SYSU L10167T and SYSU L10180T showed highest similarities to Cyclobacterium jeungdonense KCTC 23150T (98.0 and 97.4%, respectively). Results of genomic analyses (including average nucleotide identity, digital DNA-DNA hybridization and the marker gene tree) and pan-genome analysis further confirmed that strains SYSU L10167T and SYSU L10180T were separate from each other and other species of the genus Cyclobacterium. The draft genomes of the isolates had sizes of 5.5-5.7 Mb and reflected their major physiological capabilities. Based on phenotypic, physiological, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characterization, we propose that the isolates represent two novel species, for which the names Cyclobacterium salsum sp. nov. and Cyclobacterium roseum sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains of the species are SYSU L10167T (=KCTC 72390T=CGMCC 1.17521T) and SYSU L10180T (=KCTC 72391T=CGMCC 1.17278T).

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Garrido-Sanz D, Redondo-Nieto M, Martín M, et al (2020)

Comparative Genomics of the Rhodococcus Genus Shows Wide Distribution of Biodegradation Traits.

Microorganisms, 8(5): pii:microorganisms8050774.

The genus Rhodococcus exhibits great potential for bioremediation applications due to its huge metabolic diversity, including biotransformation of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. Comparative genomic studies of this genus are limited to a small number of genomes, while the high number of sequenced strains to date could provide more information about the Rhodococcus diversity. Phylogenomic analysis of 327 Rhodococcus genomes and clustering of intergenomic distances identified 42 phylogenomic groups and 83 species-level clusters. Rarefaction models show that these numbers are likely to increase as new Rhodococcus strains are sequenced. The Rhodococcus genus possesses a small "hard" core genome consisting of 381 orthologous groups (OGs), while a "soft" core genome of 1253 OGs is reached with 99.16% of the genomes. Models of sequentially randomly added genomes show that a small number of genomes are enough to explain most of the shared diversity of the Rhodococcus strains, while the "open" pangenome and strain-specific genome evidence that the diversity of the genus will increase, as new genomes still add more OGs to the whole genomic set. Most rhodococci possess genes involved in the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, while short-chain alkane degradation is restricted to a certain number of groups, among which a specific particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is only found in Rhodococcus sp. WAY2. The analysis of Rieske 2Fe-2S dioxygenases among rhodococci genomes revealed that most of these enzymes remain uncharacterized.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Eizenga JM, Novak AM, Sibbesen JA, et al (2020)

Pangenome Graphs.

Annual review of genomics and human genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Low-cost whole-genome assembly has enabled the collection of haplotype-resolved pangenomes for numerous organisms. In turn, this technological change is encouraging the development of methods that can precisely address the sequence and variation described in large collections of related genomes. These approaches often use graphical models of the pangenome to support algorithms for sequence alignment, visualization, functional genomics, and association studies. The additional information provided to these methods by the pangenome allows them to achieve superior performance on a variety of bioinformatic tasks, including read alignment, variant calling, and genotyping. Pangenome graphs stand to become a ubiquitous tool in genomics. Although it is unclear whether they will replace linear reference genomes, their ability to harmoniously relate multiple sequence and coordinate systems will make them useful irrespective of which pangenomic models become most common in the future. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 21 is August 31, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Kelly LJ, Plumb WJ, Carey DW, et al (2020)

Convergent molecular evolution among ash species resistant to the emerald ash borer.

Nature ecology & evolution pii:10.1038/s41559-020-1209-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies show that molecular convergence plays an unexpectedly common role in the evolution of convergent phenotypes. We exploited this phenomenon to find candidate loci underlying resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), the United States' most costly invasive forest insect to date, within the pan-genome of ash trees (the genus Fraxinus). We show that EAB-resistant taxa occur within three independent phylogenetic lineages. In genomes from these resistant lineages, we detect 53 genes with evidence of convergent amino acid evolution. Gene-tree reconstruction indicates that, for 48 of these candidates, the convergent amino acids are more likely to have arisen via independent evolution than by another process such as hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting. Seven of the candidate genes have putative roles connected to the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway and 17 relate to herbivore recognition, defence signalling or programmed cell death. Evidence for loss-of-function mutations among these candidates is more frequent in susceptible species than in resistant ones. Our results on evolutionary relationships, variability in resistance, and candidate genes for defence response within the ash genus could inform breeding for EAB resistance, facilitating ecological restoration in areas invaded by this beetle.

RevDate: 2020-05-25

Gao S, Wu J, Stiller J, et al (2020)

Identifying barley pan-genome sequence anchors using genetic mapping and machine learning.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik pii:10.1007/s00122-020-03615-y [Epub ahead of print].

KEY MESSAGE: We identified 1.844 million barley pan-genome sequence anchors from 12,306 genotypes using genetic mapping and machine learning. There is increasing evidence that genes from a given crop genotype are far to cover all genes in that species; thus, building more comprehensive pan-genomes is of great importance in genetic research and breeding. Obtaining a thousand-genotype scale pan-genome using deep-sequencing data is currently impractical for species like barley which has a huge and highly repetitive genome. To this end, we attempted to identify barley pan-genome sequence anchors from a large quantity of genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) datasets by combining genetic mapping and machine learning algorithms. Based on the GBS sequences from 11,166 domesticated and 1140 wild barley genotypes, we identified 1.844 million pan-genome sequence anchors. Of them, 532,253 were identified as presence/absence variation (PAV) tags. Through aligning these PAV tags to the genome of hulless barley genotype Zangqing320, our analysis resulted in a validation of 83.6% of them from the domesticated genotypes and 88.6% from the wild barley genotypes. Association analyses against flowering time, plant height and kernel size showed that the relative importance of the PAV and non-PAV tags varied for different traits. The pan-genome sequence anchors based on GBS tags can facilitate the construction of a comprehensive pan-genome and greatly assist various genetic studies including identification of structural variation, genetic mapping and breeding in barley.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Oshkin IY, Miroshnikov KK, Grouzdev DS, et al (2020)

Pan-Genome-Based Analysis as a Framework for Demarcating Two Closely Related Methanotroph Genera Methylocystis and Methylosinus.

Microorganisms, 8(5): pii:microorganisms8050768.

The Methylocystis and Methylosinus are two of the five genera that were included in the first taxonomic framework of methanotrophic bacteria created half a century ago. Members of both genera are widely distributed in various environments and play a key role in reducing methane fluxes from soils and wetlands. The original separation of these methanotrophs in two distinct genera was based mainly on their differences in cell morphology. Further comparative studies that explored various single-gene-based phylogenies suggested the monophyletic nature of each of these genera. Current availability of genome sequences from members of the Methylocystis/ Methylosinus clade opens the possibility for in-depth comparison of the genomic potentials of these methanotrophs. Here, we report the finished genome sequence of Methylocystis heyeri H2T and compare it to 23 currently available genomes of Methylocystis and Methylosinus species. The phylogenomic analysis confirmed that members of these genera form two separate clades. The Methylocystis/Methylosinus pan-genome core comprised 1,173 genes, with the accessory genome containing 4,941 and 11,192 genes in the shell and the cloud, respectively. Major differences between the genome-encoded environmental traits of these methanotrophs include a variety of enzymes for methane oxidation and dinitrogen fixation as well as genomic determinants for cell motility and photosynthesis.

RevDate: 2020-05-21

Castillo AI, Chacón-Díaz C, Rodríguez-Murillo N, et al (2020)

Impacts of local population history and ecology on the evolution of a globally dispersed pathogen.

BMC genomics, 21(1):369 pii:10.1186/s12864-020-06778-6.

BACKGROUND: Pathogens with a global distribution face diverse biotic and abiotic conditions across populations. Moreover, the ecological and evolutionary history of each population is unique. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-dwelling bacterium infecting multiple plant hosts, often with detrimental effects. As a group, X. fastidiosa is divided into distinct subspecies with allopatric historical distributions and patterns of multiple introductions from numerous source populations. The capacity of X. fastidiosa to successfully colonize and cause disease in naïve plant hosts varies among subspecies, and potentially, among populations. Within Central America (i.e. Costa Rica) two X. fastidiosa subspecies coexist: the native subsp. fastidiosa and the introduced subsp. pauca. Using whole genome sequences, the patterns of gene gain/loss, genomic introgression, and genetic diversity were characterized within Costa Rica and contrasted to other X. fastidiosa populations.

RESULTS: Within Costa Rica, accessory and core genome analyses showed a highly malleable genome with numerous intra- and inter-subspecific gain/loss events. Likewise, variable levels of inter-subspecific introgression were found within and between both coexisting subspecies; nonetheless, the direction of donor/recipient subspecies to the recombinant segments varied. Some strains appeared to recombine more frequently than others; however, no group of genes or gene functions were overrepresented within recombinant segments. Finally, the patterns of genetic diversity of subsp. fastidiosa in Costa Rica were consistent with those of other native populations (i.e. subsp. pauca in Brazil).

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study shows the importance of characterizing local evolutionary and ecological history in the context of world-wide pathogen distribution.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Fiuza TS, Lima JPMS, GA de Souza (2020)

EpitoCore: Mining Conserved Epitope Vaccine Candidates in the Core Proteome of Multiple Bacteria Strains.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:816.

In reverse vaccinology approaches, complete proteomes of bacteria are submitted to multiple computational prediction steps in order to filter proteins that are possible vaccine candidates. Most available tools perform such analysis only in a single strain, or a very limited number of strains. But the vast amount of genomic data had shown that most bacteria contain pangenomes, i.e., their genomic information contains core, conserved genes, and random accessory genes specific to each strain. Therefore, in reverse vaccinology methods it is of the utmost importance to define core proteins and core epitopes. EpitoCore is a decision-tree pipeline developed to fulfill that need. It provides surfaceome prediction of proteins from related strains, defines core proteins within those, calculate their immunogenicity, predicts epitopes for a given set of MHC alleles defined by the user, and then reports if epitopes are located extracellularly and if they are conserved among the core homologs. Pipeline performance is illustrated by mining peptide vaccine candidates in Mycobacterium avium hominissuis strains. From a total proteome of ~4,800 proteins per strain, EpitoCore predicted 103 highly immunogenic core homologs located at cell surface, many of those related to virulence and drug resistance. Conserved epitopes identified among these homologs allows the users to define sets of peptides with potential to immunize the largest coverage of tested HLA alleles using peptide-based vaccines. Therefore, EpitoCore is able to provide automated identification of conserved epitopes in bacterial pangenomic datasets.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Gohil K, Rajput V, M Dharne (2020)

Pan-genomics of Ochrobactrum species from clinical and environmental origins reveals distinct populations and possible links.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(19)30993-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Ochrobactrum genus is comprised of soil-dwelling Gram-negative bacteria mainly reported for bioremediation of toxic compounds. Since last few years, mainly two species of this genus, O. intermedium and O. anthropi were documented for causing infections mostly in the immunocompromised patients. Despite such ubiquitous presence, study of adaptation in various niches is still lacking. Thus, to gain insights into the niche adaptation strategies, pan-genome analysis was carried out by comparing 67 genome sequences belonging to Ochrobactrum species. Pan-genome analysis revealed it is an open pan-genome indicative of the continuously evolving nature of the genus. The presence/absence of gene clusters also illustrated the unique presence of antibiotic efflux transporter genes and type IV secretion system genes in the clinical strains while the genes of solvent resistance and exporter pumps in the environmental strains. A phylogenomic investigation based on 75 core genes depicted better and robust phylogenetic resolution and topology than the 16S rRNA gene. To support the pan-genome analysis, individual genomes were also investigated for the mobile genetic elements (MGE), antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), metal resistance genes (MRG) and virulence factors (VF). The analysis revealed the presence of MGE, ARG, and MRG in all the strains which play an important role in the species evolution which is in agreement with the pan-genome analysis. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) based on the genetic relatedness between the Ochrobactrum species indicated a distinction between individual species. Interestingly, the ANI tool was able to classify the Ochrobactrum genomes to the species level which were assigned till the genus level on the NCBI database.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Katiyar A, Sharma P, Dahiya S, et al (2020)

Genomic profiling of antimicrobial resistance genes in clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi from patients infected with Typhoid fever in India.

Scientific reports, 10(1):8299 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-64934-0.

The development of multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi currently forms a major roadblock for the treatment of enteric fever. This poses a major health problem in endemic regions and extends to travellers returning from developing countries. The appearance of fluoroquinolone non-susceptible strains has resulted in use of ceftriaxone as drug of choice with azithromycin being recommended for uncomplicated cases of typhoid fever. A recent sporadic instance of decreased susceptibility to the latest drug regime has necessitated a detailed analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes and possible relationships with their phenotypes to facilitate selection of future treatment regimes. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted for 133 clinical isolates from typhoid patients. Sequence output files were processed for pan-genome analysis and prediction of antimicrobial resistance genes. The WGS analyses disclosed the existence of fluoroquinolone resistance conferring mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE genes of all strains. Acquired resistance determining mechanisms observed included catA1 genes for chloramphenicol resistance, dfrA7, dfrA15, sul1 and sul2 for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and blaTEM-116/blaTEM-1B genes for amoxicillin. No resistance determinants were found for ceftriaxone and cefixime. The genotypes were further correlated with their respective phenotypes for chloramphenicol, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. A high correlation was observed between genotypes and phenotypes in isolates of S. Typhi. The pan-genome analysis revealed that core genes were enriched in metabolic functions and accessory genes were majorly implicated in pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. The pan-genome of S. Typhi appears to be closed (Bpan = 0.09) as analysed by Heap's law. Simpson's diversity index of 0.51 showed a lower level of genetic diversity among isolates of S. Typhi. Overall, this study augments the present knowledge that WGS can help predict resistance genotypes and eventual correlation with phenotypes, enabling the chance to spot AMR determinants for fast diagnosis and prioritize antibiotic use directly from sequence.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Datta S, Saha D, Chattopadhyay L, et al (2020)

Genome Comparison Identifies Different Bacillus Species in a Bast Fibre-Retting Bacterial Consortium and Provides Insights into Pectin Degrading Genes.

Scientific reports, 10(1):8169 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-65228-1.

Retting of bast fibres requires removal of pectin, hemicellulose and other non-cellulosic materials from plant stem tissues by a complex microbial community. A microbial retting consortium with high-efficiency pectinolytic bacterial strains is effective in reducing retting-time and enhancing fibre quality. We report comprehensive genomic analyses of three bacterial strains (PJRB 1, 2 and 3) of the consortium and resolve their taxonomic status, genomic features, variations, and pan-genome dynamics. The genome sizes of the strains are ~3.8 Mb with 3729 to 4002 protein-coding genes. Detailed annotations of the protein-coding genes revealed different carbohydrate-degrading CAZy classes viz. PL1, PL9, GH28, CE8, and CE12. Phylogeny and structural features of pectate lyase proteins of PJRB strains divulge their functional uniqueness and evolutionary convergence with closely related Bacillus strains. Genome-wide prediction of genomic variations revealed 12461 to 67381 SNPs, and notably many unique SNPs were localized within the important pectin metabolism genes. The variations in the pectate lyase genes possibly contribute to their specialized pectinolytic function during the retting process. These findings encompass a strong foundation for fundamental and evolutionary studies on this unique microbial degradation of decaying plant material with immense industrial significance. These have preponderant implications in plant biomass research and food industry, and also posit application in the reclamation of water pollution from plant materials.

RevDate: 2020-05-18

Huang CH, Chen CC, Liou JS, et al (2020)

Genome-based reclassification of Lactobacillus casei: emended classification and description of the species Lactobacillus zeae.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Taxonomic relationships between Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus zeae have long been debated. Results of previous analyses have shown that overall genome relatedness indices (such as average nucleotide identity and core nucleotide identity) between the type strains L. casei ATCC 393T and L. zeae ATCC 15820T were 94.6 and 95.3 %, respectively, which are borderline for species definition. However, the digital DNA‒DNA hybridization value was 57.3 %, which was clearly lower than the species delineation threshold of 70 %, and hence raised the possibility that L. casei could be reclassified into two species. To re-evaluate the taxonomic relationship of these taxa, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the concatenated five housekeeping gene (dnaJ, dnaK, mutL, pheS and yycH) sequences, phylogenomic and core genome multilocus sequence typing analyses, gene presence and absence profiles using pan-genome analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling analysis, cellular fatty acid compositions, and phenotype analysis were carried out. The results of phenotypic characterization, MLSA, whole-genome sequence-based analyses and MALDI-TOF MS profiling justified an independent species designation for the L. zeae strains, and supported an emended the description of the name of Lactobacillus zeae (ex Kuznetsov 1956) Dicks et al. 1996, with ATCC 15820T (=DSM 20178T=BCRC 17942T) as the type strain.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Bakhshi Ganje M, Mackay J, Nicolaisen M, et al (2020)

Comparative Genomics, Pangenome and Phylogenomic Analyses of the Brenneria spp., Delineation of the Brenneria izadpanahii sp. nov.

Phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Brenneria species are bacterial plant pathogens mainly affecting woody plants. Association of all members with devastating disorders (e. g. acute oak decline in Iran and UK) are due to adaptation and pathogenic behavior in response to host and environmental factors. Some species, including B. goodwinii, B. salicis and B. nigrifluens, also show endophytic residence. Here we show that all species including novel Brenneria sp. are closely related. Gene-based and genome/pangenome-based phylogeny divide the genus into two distinct lineages, Brenneria clade A and B. The two clades were functionally distinct and were consistent with their common and special potential activities as determined via annotation of functional domains. Pangenome analysis demonstrated that the core pathogenicity factors were highly conserved, a hrp gene cluster encoding a type III secretion system was found in all species except B. corticis. An extensive repertoire of candidate virulence factors was identified. Comparative genomics indicated a repertoire of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCDWs), metabolites/antibiotics, and numerous prophages providing new insights into Brenneria-host interactions and appropriate targets for further characterization. This work not only documented the genetic differentiation of Brenneria species but also delineates a more functionally driven understanding of Brenneria by comparison with relevant Pectobacteriaceae thereby substantially enriching the extent of information available for functional genomic investigations.

RevDate: 2020-05-14

Wang M, Zhu H, Kong Z, et al (2020)

Pan-Genome Analyses of Geobacillus spp. Reveal Genetic Characteristics and Composting Potential.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(9): pii:ijms21093393.

The genus Geobacillus is abundant in ecological diversity and is also well-known as an authoritative source for producing various thermostable enzymes. Although it is clear now that Geobacillus evolved from Bacillus, relatively little knowledge has been obtained regarding its evolutionary mechanism, which might also contribute to its ecological diversity and biotechnology potential. Here, a statistical comparison of thirty-two Geobacillus genomes was performed with a specific focus on pan- and core genomes. The pan-genome of this set of Geobacillus strains contained 14,913 genes, and the core genome contained 940 genes. The Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) analysis revealed that the Geobacillus strains had huge potential industrial application in composting for agricultural waste management. Detailed comparative analyses showed that basic functional classes and housekeeping genes were conserved in the core genome, while genes associated with environmental interaction or energy metabolism were more enriched in the pan-genome. Therefore, the evolution of Geobacillus seems to be guided by environmental parameters. In addition, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events among different Geobacillus species were detected. Altogether, pan-genome analysis was a useful method for detecting the evolutionary mechanism, and Geobacillus' evolution was directed by the environment and HGT events.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Chibani CM, Roth O, Liesegang H, et al (2020)

Genomic variation among closely related Vibrio alginolyticus strains is located on mobile genetic elements.

BMC genomics, 21(1):354 pii:10.1186/s12864-020-6735-5.

BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Vibrio, one of the most diverse bacteria genera, have undergone niche adaptation followed by clonal expansion. Niche adaptation and ultimately the formation of ecotypes and speciation in this genus has been suggested to be mainly driven by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) through mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Our knowledge about the diversity and distribution of Vibrio MGEs is heavily biased towards human pathogens and our understanding of the distribution of core genomic signatures and accessory genes encoded on MGEs within specific Vibrio clades is still incomplete. We used nine different strains of the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus isolated from pipefish in the Kiel-Fjord to perform a multiscale-comparative genomic approach that allowed us to investigate [1] those genomic signatures that characterize a habitat-specific ecotype and [2] the source of genomic variation within this ecotype.

RESULTS: We found that the nine isolates from the Kiel-Fjord have a closed-pangenome and did not differ based on core-genomic signatures. Unique genomic regions and a unique repertoire of MGEs within the Kiel-Fjord isolates suggest that the acquisition of gene-blocks by HGT played an important role in the evolution of this ecotype. Additionally, we found that ~ 90% of the genomic variation among the nine isolates is encoded on MGEs, which supports ongoing theory that accessory genes are predominately located on MGEs and shared by HGT. Lastly, we could show that these nine isolates share a unique virulence and resistance profile which clearly separates them from all other investigated V. alginolyticus strains and suggests that these are habitat-specific genes, required for a successful colonization of the pipefish, the niche of this ecotype.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that all nine V. alginolyticus strains from the Kiel-Fjord belong to a unique ecotype, which we named the Kiel-alginolyticus ecotype. The low sequence variation of the core-genome in combination with the presence of MGE encoded relevant traits, as well as the presence of a suitable niche (here the pipefish), suggest, that this ecotype might have evolved from a clonal expansion following HGT driven niche-adaptation.

RevDate: 2020-05-10

Molina L, Segura A, Duque E, et al (2020)

The versatility of Pseudomonas putida in the rhizosphere environment.

Advances in applied microbiology, 110:149-180.

This article addresses the lifestyle of Pseudomonas and focuses on how Pseudomonas putida can be used as a model system for biotechnological processes in agriculture, and in the removal of pollutants from soils. In this chapter we aim to show how a deep analysis using genetic information and experimental tests has helped to reveal insights into the lifestyle of Pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida is a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) that establishes commensal relationships with plants. The interaction involves a series of functions encoded by core genes which favor nutrient mobilization, prevention of pathogen development and efficient niche colonization. Certain Pseudomonas putida strains harbor accessory genes that confer specific biodegradative properties and because these microorganisms can thrive on the roots of plants they can be exploited to remove pollutants via rhizoremediation, making the consortium plant/Pseudomonas a useful tool to combat pollution.

RevDate: 2020-05-08

Kim YB, Kim JY, Song HS, et al (2020)

Haloplanus rubicundus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from solar salt.

Systematic and applied microbiology pii:S0723-2020(20)30036-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Two extremely halophilic archaea strains, CBA1112T and CBA1113, were isolated from solar salt in Korea. The genome sizes and G+C content of CBA1112T and CBA1113 were 3.77 and 3.53Mb, and 66.0 and 66.5mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on closely related taxa and environmental Haloplanus sequences indicated that both CBA1112T and CBA1113 strains are grouped within the genus Haloplanus. OrthoANI and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values were below the species delineation threshold. Pan-genomic analysis showed that the two novel strains and four reference strains had 6203 pan-orthologous groups in total. Six Haloplanus strains shared 1728 core pan-genome orthologous groups, which were mainly associated with amino acid transport and metabolism and translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis categories, and amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism related categories. The novel strain-specific pan-genome orthologous groups were mainly involved with replication, recombination and repair category and replication and repair pathway or amino acid metabolism pathway. Cells of both strains were Gram-negative and pleomorphic, and colonies were red-pigmented. The major polar lipids of both strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, and one glycolipid, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether. Based on genomic, phylogenetic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic features, strains CBA1112T and CBA1113 are described as novel species of the genus Haloplanus. Thus, we propose the name Haloplanus rubicundus sp. nov. The type strain is CBA1112T (=KCCM 43224T=JCM 30475T).

RevDate: 2020-05-07

Gladstone RA, Lo SW, Goater R, et al (2020)

Visualizing variation within Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs) and country population snapshots to contextualize pneumococcal isolates.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

Knowledge of pneumococcal lineages, their geographic distribution and antibiotic resistance patterns, can give insights into global pneumococcal disease. We provide interactive bioinformatic outputs to explore such topics, aiming to increase dissemination of genomic insights to the wider community, without the need for specialist training. We prepared 12 country-specific phylogenetic snapshots, and international phylogenetic snapshots of 73 common Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs) previously defined using PopPUNK, and present them in Microreact. Gene presence and absence defined using Roary, and recombination profiles derived from Gubbins are presented in Phandango for each GPSC. Temporal phylogenetic signal was assessed for each GPSC using BactDating. We provide examples of how such resources can be used. In our example use of a country-specific phylogenetic snapshot we determined that serotype 14 was observed in nine unrelated genetic backgrounds in South Africa. The international phylogenetic snapshot of GPSC9, in which most serotype 14 isolates from South Africa were observed, highlights that there were three independent sub-clusters represented by South African serotype 14 isolates. We estimated from the GPSC9-dated tree that the sub-clusters were each established in South Africa during the 1980s. We show how recombination plots allowed the identification of a 20 kb recombination spanning the capsular polysaccharide locus within GPSC97. This was consistent with a switch from serotype 6A to 19A estimated to have occured in the 1990s from the GPSC97-dated tree. Plots of gene presence/absence of resistance genes (tet, erm, cat) across the GPSC23 phylogeny were consistent with acquisition of a composite transposon. We estimated from the GPSC23-dated tree that the acquisition occurred between 1953 and 1975. Finally, we demonstrate the assignment of GPSC31 to 17 externally generated pneumococcal serotype 1 assemblies from Utah via Pathogenwatch. Most of the Utah isolates clustered within GPSC31 in a USA-specific clade with the most recent common ancestor estimated between 1958 and 1981. The resources we have provided can be used to explore to data, test hypothesis and generate new hypotheses. The accessible assignment of GPSCs allows others to contextualize their own collections beyond the data presented here.

RevDate: 2020-05-07

Bu QT, Li YP, Xie H, et al (2020)

Comprehensive dissection of dispensable genomic regions in Streptomyces based on comparative analysis approach.

Microbial cell factories, 19(1):99 pii:10.1186/s12934-020-01359-4.

BACKGROUND: Large-scale genome reduction has been performed to significantly improve the performance of microbial chassis. Identification of the essential or dispensable genes is pivotal for genome reduction to avoid synthetic lethality. Here, taking Streptomyces as an example, we developed a combinatorial strategy for systematic identification of large and dispensable genomic regions in Streptomyces based on multi-omics approaches.

RESULTS: Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the model strains including S. coelicolor A3(2), S. albus J1074 and S. avermitilis MA-4680 were preferred reference for comparative analysis of candidate genomes. Multiple genome alignment suggested that the Streptomyces genomes embodied highly conserved core region and variable sub-telomeric regions, and may present symmetric or asymmetric structure. Pan-genome and functional genome analyses showed that most conserved genes responsible for the fundamental functions of cell viability were concentrated in the core region and the vast majority of abundant genes were dispersed in the sub-telomeric regions. These results suggested that large-scale deletion can be performed in sub-telomeric regions to greatly streamline the Streptomyces genomes for developing versatile chassis.

CONCLUSIONS: The integrative approach of comparative genomics, functional genomics and pan-genomics can not only be applied to perform a multi-tiered dissection for Streptomyces genomes, but also work as a universal method for systematic analysis of removable regions in other microbial hosts in order to generate more miscellaneous and versatile chassis with minimized genome for drug discovery.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Zwarycz AS, Livingstone PG, DE Whitworth (2020)

Within-species variation in OMV cargo proteins: the Myxococcus xanthus OMV pan-proteome.

Molecular omics [Epub ahead of print].

Extracellular membrane vesicles are produced by all domains of life (bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes). Bacterial extracellular vesicles (outer membrane vesicles or OMVs) are produced by outer membrane blebbing, and contain proteins, nucleic acids, virulence factors, lipids and metabolites. OMV functions depend on their internal composition, therefore understanding the proteome of OMVs, and how it varies between organisms, is imperative. Here, we report a comparative proteomic profiling of OMVs from strains of Myxococcus xanthus, a predatory species of Gram-negative myxobacteria whose secretions include secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes, thought to be involved in prey lysis. Ten strains were chosen for study, of which seven had genome sequences available. The remaining three strains were genome sequenced allowing definition of the core and accessory genes and genome-derived proteins found within the pan-genome and pan-proteome respectively. OMVs were isolated from each strain and proteins identified using mass spectrometry. The M. xanthus OMV pan-proteome was found to contain tens of 'core' and hundreds of 'accessory' proteins. Properties of the OMV pan-proteome were compared with those of the pan-proteome deduced from the M. xanthus pan-genome. On average, 80% of 'core' OMV proteins are encoded by genes of the core genome, yet the OMV proteomes of individual strains contain subsets of core genome-derived proteins which only partially overlap. In addition, the distribution of characteristics of vesicle proteins does not correlate with the genome-derived proteome characteristic distribution. We hypothesize that M. xanthus cells package a personalized subset of proteins whose availability is only partially dictated by the presence/absence of encoding genes within the genome.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Garcia-Gutierrez E, Walsh CJ, Sayavedra L, et al (2020)

Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Fecal Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates Suggests Plasticity to Adapt to Different Human Body Sites.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:688.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal species that has been increasingly identified as a nosocomial agent. Despite the interest, little is known about the ability of S. epidermidis isolates to adapt to different ecological niches through comparisons at genotype or phenotype levels. One niche where S. epidermidis has been reported is the human gut. Here, we present three S. epidermidis strains isolated from feces and show that they are not phylogenetically distinct from S. epidermidis isolated from other human body sites. Both gut and skin strains harbored multiple genes associated with biofilm formation and showed similar levels of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. High-throughput physiological tests using the BIOLOG technology showed no major metabolic differences between isolates from stool, skin, or cheese, while an isolate from bovine mastitis showed more phenotypic variation. Gut and skin isolates showed the ability to metabolize glycine-conjugated bile acids and to grow in the presence of bile, but the gut isolates exhibited faster anaerobic growth compared to isolates of skin origin.

RevDate: 2020-05-04

Zhang Y, Wang J, Yajun C, et al (2020)

Comparative Genomics Uncovers the Genetic Diversity and Synthetic Biology of Secondary Metabolite Production of Trametes.

Mycobiology, 48(2):104-114 pii:1725361.

The carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) genes of Trametes contribute to polysaccharide degradation. However, the comprehensive analysis of the composition of CAZymes and the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of Trametes remain unclear. Here, we conducted comparative analysis, detected the CAZyme genes, and predicted the BGCs for nine Trametes strains. Among the 82,053 homologous clusters obtained for Trametes, we identified 8518 core genes, 60,441 accessory genes, and 13,094 specific genes. A large proportion of CAZyme genes were cataloged into glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, and carbohydrate esterases. The predicted BGCs of Trametes were divided into six strategies, and the nine Trametes strains harbored 47.78 BGCs on average. Our study revealed that Trametes exhibits an open pan-genome structure. These findings provide insights into the genetic diversity and explored the synthetic biology of secondary metabolite production for Trametes.

RevDate: 2020-05-03

Farin W, Oñate FP, Plassais J, et al (2020)

Impact of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy on gut microbiota: a metagenomic comparative analysis.

Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery pii:S1550-7289(20)30132-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective therapeutic procedure for morbidly obese patients. The 2 most common interventions are sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB).

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare microbiome long-term microbiome after SG and LRYGB surgery in obese patients.

SETTING: University Hospital, France; University Hospital, United States; and University Hospital, Switzerland.

METHODS: Eighty-nine and 108 patients who underwent SG and LRYGB, respectively, were recruited. Stools were collected before and 6 months after surgery. Microbial DNA was analyzed with shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SOLiD 5500 xl Wildfire). MSPminer, a novel innovative tool to characterize new in silico biological entities, was used to identify 715 Metagenomic Species Pan-genome. One hundred forty-eight functional modules were analyzed using GOmixer and KEGG database.

RESULTS: Both interventions resulted in a similar increase of Shannon's diversity index and gene richness of gut microbiota, in parallel with weight loss, but the changes of microbial composition were different. LRYGB led to higher relative abundance of aero-tolerant bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and buccal species, such as Streptococcus and Veillonella spp. In contrast, anaerobes, such as Clostridium, were more abundant after SG, suggesting better conservation of anaerobic conditions in the gut. Enrichment of Akkermansia muciniphila was also observed after both surgeries. Function-level changes included higher potential for bacterial use of supplements, such as vitamin B12, B1, and iron upon LRYGB.

CONCLUSION: Microbiota changes after bariatric surgery depend on the nature of the intervention. LRYGB induces greater taxonomic and functional changes in gut microbiota than SG. Possible long-term health consequences of these alterations remain to be established.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Li J, Gu T, Li L, et al (2020)

Complete genome sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of Bacillus sp. S3, a novel hyper Sb(III)-oxidizing bacterium.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):106 pii:10.1186/s12866-020-01737-3.

BACKGROUND: Antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing bacterium has great potential in the environmental bioremediation of Sb-polluted sites. Bacillus sp. S3 that was previously isolated from antimony-contaminated soil displayed high Sb(III) resistance and Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. However, the genomic information and evolutionary feature of Bacillus sp. S3 are very scarce.

RESULTS: Here, we identified a 5,436,472 bp chromosome with 40.30% GC content and a 241,339 bp plasmid with 36.74% GC content in the complete genome of Bacillus sp. S3. Genomic annotation showed that Bacillus sp. S3 contained a key aioB gene potentially encoding As (III)/Sb(III) oxidase, which was not shared with other Bacillus strains. Furthermore, a wide variety of genes associated with Sb(III) and other heavy metal (loid) s were also ascertained in Bacillus sp. S3, reflecting its adaptive advantage for growth in the harsh eco-environment. Based on the analysis of phylogenetic relationship and the average nucleotide identities (ANI), Bacillus sp. S3 was proved to a novel species within the Bacillus genus. The majority of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) mainly distributed on chromosomes within the Bacillus genus. Pan-genome analysis showed that the 45 genomes contained 554 core genes and many unique genes were dissected in analyzed genomes. Whole genomic alignment showed that Bacillus genus underwent frequently large-scale evolutionary events. In addition, the origin and evolution analysis of Sb(III)-resistance genes revealed the evolutionary relationships and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events among the Bacillus genus. The assessment of functionality of heavy metal (loid) s resistance genes emphasized its indispensable role in the harsh eco-environment of Bacillus genus. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis indicated that Sb(III)-related genes were all induced under the Sb(III) stress, while arsC gene was down-regulated.

CONCLUSIONS: The results in this study shed light on the molecular mechanisms of Bacillus sp. S3 coping with Sb(III), extended our understanding on the evolutionary relationships between Bacillus sp. S3 and other closely related species, and further enriched the Sb(III) resistance genetic data sources.

RevDate: 2020-04-27

Kim E, Yang SM, Cho EJ, et al (2020)

Novel real-time PCR assay for Lactobacillus casei group species using comparative genomics.

Food microbiology, 90:103485.

The Lactobacillus casei group, which includes the closely related species L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus, and L. chiayiensis, has been under debate regarding its taxonomy because of the difficulty in distinguishing the species from each other. In the present study, we developed a novel real-time PCR assay for distinguishing the L. casei group species. The pan-genome, as determined by the genomes of 44 strains, comprised 6789 genes, comparative genomic analysis showed that L. casei group strains were classified by species. Based on these results, species-specific genes were identified, and primers were designed from those genes. Real-time PCR clearly distinguished each species of the L. casei group and specifically amplified only to the target species. The method was applied to 29 probiotic products, and the detected results and label claims were compared. Total 23 products were in accordance with the label claims, and the remaining products contained species different from those stated in the label claims. Our method can rapidly and accurately distinguish the L. casei group species in a single reaction. Hence, our assay can be applied to identify L. casei group species from food or environmental samples and to accurately determine the nomenclature of the species.

RevDate: 2020-04-25

Bickhart DM, McClure JC, Schnabel RD, et al (2020)

Symposium review: Advances in sequencing technology herald a new frontier in cattle genomics and genome-enabled selection.

Journal of dairy science pii:S0022-0302(20)30311-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The cattle reference genome assembly has underpinned major innovations in beef and dairy genetics through genome-enabled selection, including removal of deleterious recessive variants and selection for favorable alleles affecting quantitative production traits. The initial reference assemblies, up to and including UMD3.1 and Btau4.1, were based on a combination of clone-by-clone sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosome clones generated from blood DNA of a Hereford bull and whole-genome shotgun sequencing of blood DNA from his inbred daughter/granddaughter named L1 Dominette 01449 (Dominette). The approach introduced assembly gaps, misassemblies, and errors, and it limited the ability to assemble regions that undergo rearrangement in blood cells, such as immune gene clusters. Nonetheless, the reference supported the creation of genotyping tools and provided a basis for many studies of gene expression. Recently, long-read sequencing technologies have emerged that facilitated a re-assembly of the reference genome, using lung tissue from Dominette to resolve many of the problems and providing a bridge to place historical studies in common context. The new reference, ARS-UCD1.2, successfully assembled germline immune gene clusters and improved overall continuity (i.e., reduction of gaps and inversions) by over 250-fold. This reference properly places nearly all of the legacy genetic markers used for over a decade in the industry. In this review, we discuss the improvements made to the cattle reference; remaining issues present in the assembly; tools developed to support genome-based studies in beef and dairy cattle; and the emergence of newer genome assembly methods that are producing even higher-quality assemblies for other breeds of cattle at a fraction of the cost. The new frontier for cattle genomics research will likely include a transition from the individual Hereford reference genome, to a "pan-genome" reference, representing all the DNA segments existing in commonly used cattle breeds, bringing the cattle reference into line with the current direction of human genome research.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Guillier L, Gourmelon M, Lozach S, et al (2020)

AB_SA: Accessory genes-Based Source Attribution - tracing the source of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium environmental strains.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

The partitioning of pathogenic strains isolated in environmental or human cases to their sources is challenging. The pathogens usually colonize multiple animal hosts, including livestock, which contaminate the food-production chain and the environment (e.g. soil and water), posing an additional public-health burden and major challenges in the identification of the source. Genomic data opens up new opportunities for the development of statistical models aiming to indicate the likely source of pathogen contamination. Here, we propose a computationally fast and efficient multinomial logistic regression source-attribution classifier to predict the animal source of bacterial isolates based on 'source-enriched' loci extracted from the accessory-genome profiles of a pangenomic dataset. Depending on the accuracy of the model's self-attribution step, the modeller selects the number of candidate accessory genes that best fit the model for calculating the likelihood of (source) category membership. The Accessory genes-Based Source Attribution (AB_SA) method was applied to a dataset of strains of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and its monophasic variant (S. enterica 1,4,[5],12:i:-). The model was trained on 69 strains with known animal-source categories (i.e. poultry, ruminant and pig). The AB_SA method helped to identify 8 genes as predictors among the 2802 accessory genes. The self-attribution accuracy was 80 %. The AB_SA model was then able to classify 25 of the 29 S. enterica Typhimurium and S. enterica 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates collected from the environment (considered to be of unknown source) into a specific category (i.e. animal source), with more than 85 % of probability. The AB_SA method herein described provides a user-friendly and valuable tool for performing source-attribution studies in only a few steps. AB_SA is written in R and freely available at https://github.com/lguillier/AB_SA.

RevDate: 2020-04-20

Teixeira P, Tacão M, Baraúna RA, et al (2020)

Genomic analysis of Chromobacterium haemolyticum: insights into the species resistome, virulence determinants and genome plasticity.

Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG pii:10.1007/s00438-020-01676-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The increasing number of Chromobacterium haemolyticum human infection reports, especially in tropical regions and connected with environmental sources, resulted in an urge to better describe this species. This study aimed to characterize the C. haemolyticum resistome, virulence determinants and genetic platforms related with genome plasticity. A comparative genomic analysis was conducted between clinical C. haemolyticum genomes publicly available and the genome of an environmental isolate obtained in this study. The pangenome of C. haemolyticum was calculated and a total of 3378 core genes were predicted in its core genome, corresponding to 51.7% of the pangenome. Genetic determinants putatively encoding resistance to beta-lactams, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides and trimethoprim were predicted in all genomes, possibly constituting the intrinsic resistome of this species. In terms of resistance to beta-lactams, 4 genes were predicted encoding beta-lactamases of classes A, C and D. Moreover, the analysis of Chromobacterium genomes and C. haemolyticum environmental isolates reinforced the role of this genus as progenitor of the blaKPC gene. Putative virulence factors (VFs) were predicted in all genomes, related to adherence, toxins production, colonization and cell invasion. Secretion systems, including type III, were detected. A significant number of transposases and genomic islands were predicted in C. haemolyticum, in some cases above the average reported for Gram-negative bacterial genomes. We conclude that C. haemolyticum strains, including those of environmental origin, present a noteworthy collection of antibiotic resistance genes and VFs. Furthermore, sequences related to gene mobility and genome plasticity suggest high adaptability potential and a possible role as disseminator of antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2020-04-17

Gounot JS, Neuvéglise C, Freel KC, et al (2020)

High complexity and degree of genetic variation in Brettanomyces bruxellensis population.

Genome biology and evolution pii:5821423 [Epub ahead of print].

Genome-wide characterization of genetic variants of a large population of individuals within the same species is essential to have a deeper insight into its evolutionary history as well as the genotype-phenotype relationship. Population genomic surveys have been performed in multiple yeast species, including the two model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this context, we sought to characterize at the population level the Brettanomyces bruxellensis yeast species, which is a major cause of wine spoilage but also can contribute to the specific flavor profile of some Belgium beers. We have completely sequenced the genome of 53 B. bruxellensis strains isolated worldwide. The annotation of the reference genome allowed us to define the gene content of this species. As previously suggested, our genomic data clearly highlighted that genetic diversity variation is related to ploidy level, which is variable in the B. bruxellensis species. Genomes are punctuated by multiple loss-of-heterozygosity regions while aneuploidies as well as segmental duplications are uncommon. Interestingly, triploid genomes are more prone to gene copy number variation than diploids. Finally, the pangenome of the species was reconstructed and was found to be small with few accessory genes compared to S. cerevisiae. The pangenome is composed of 5,409 ORFs among which 5,106 core ORFs and 303 ORFs that are variable within the population. All these results highlight the different trajectories of species evolution and consequently the interest of establishing population genomic surveys in more populations.

RevDate: 2020-04-17

Dziadkiewicz P, N Dojer (2020)

Getting insight into the pan-genome structure with PangTree.

BMC genomics, 21(Suppl 2):274 pii:10.1186/s12864-020-6610-4.

BACKGROUND: The term pan-genome was proposed to denominate collections of genomic sequences jointly analyzed or used as a reference. The constant growth of genomic data intensifies development of data structures and algorithms to investigate pan-genomes efficiently.

RESULTS: This work focuses on providing a tool for discovering and visualizing the relationships between the sequences constituting a pan-genome. A new structure to represent such relationships - called affinity tree - is proposed. Each node of this tree has assigned a subset of genomes, as well as their homogeneity level and averaged consensus sequence. Moreover, subsets assigned to sibling nodes form a partition of the genomes assigned to their parent.

CONCLUSIONS: Functionality of affinity tree is demonstrated on simulated data and on the Ebola virus pan-genome. Furthermore, two software packages are provided: PangTreeBuild constructs affinity tree, while PangTreeVis presents its result.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Yu Y, C Wei (2020)

A powerful HUPAN on a pan-genome study: significance and perspectives.

Cancer biology & medicine, 17(1):1-5.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Moulana A, Anderson RE, Fortunato CS, et al (2020)

Selection Is a Significant Driver of Gene Gain and Loss in the Pangenome of the Bacterial Genus Sulfurovum in Geographically Distinct Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents.

mSystems, 5(2): pii:5/2/e00673-19.

Microbial genomes have highly variable gene content, and the evolutionary history of microbial populations is shaped by gene gain and loss mediated by horizontal gene transfer and selection. To evaluate the influence of selection on gene content variation in hydrothermal vent microbial populations, we examined 22 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) (70 to 97% complete) from the ubiquitous vent Epsilonbacteraeota genus Sulfurovum that were recovered from two deep-sea hydrothermal vent regions, Axial Seamount in the northeastern Pacific Ocean (13 MAGs) and the Mid-Cayman Rise in the Caribbean Sea (9 MAGs). Genes involved in housekeeping functions were highly conserved across Sulfurovum lineages. However, genes involved in environment-specific functions, and in particular phosphate regulation, were found mostly in Sulfurovum genomes from the Mid-Cayman Rise in the low-phosphate Atlantic Ocean environment, suggesting that nutrient limitation is an important selective pressure for these bacteria. Furthermore, genes that were rare within the pangenome were more likely to undergo positive selection than genes that were highly conserved in the pangenome, and they also appeared to have experienced gene-specific sweeps. Our results suggest that selection is a significant driver of gene gain and loss for dominant microbial lineages in hydrothermal vents and highlight the importance of factors like nutrient limitation in driving microbial adaptation and evolution.IMPORTANCE Microbes can alter their gene content through the gain and loss of genes. However, there is some debate as to whether natural selection or neutral processes play a stronger role in molding the gene content of microbial genomes. In this study, we examined variation in gene content for the Epsilonbacteraeota genus Sulfurovum from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, which are dynamic habitats known for extensive horizontal gene transfer within microbial populations. Our results show that natural selection is a strong driver of Sulfurovum gene content and that nutrient limitation in particular has shaped the Sulfurovum genome, leading to differences in gene content between ocean basins. Our results also suggest that recently acquired genes undergo stronger selection than genes that were acquired in the more distant past. Overall, our results highlight the importance of natural selection in driving the evolution of microbial populations in these dynamic habitats.

RevDate: 2020-04-12

Oh YJ, Kim JY, Jo HE, et al (2020)

Lentibacillus cibarius sp. nov., isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented food.

Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea) pii:10.1007/s12275-020-9507-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Two bacterial strains designated NKC220-2T and NKC851-2 were isolated from commercial kimchi from different areas in Korea. The strains were Gram-positive, aerobic, oxidase-and catalase-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, non-motile, and halophilic bacteria. Both strains grew without NaCl, unlike type species in the genus Lentibacillus. The optimal pH for growth was 8.0, higher than that of the type species in the genus Lentibacillus, although growth was observed at pH 5.5-9.0. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two strains (99.3-99.9% similarity) are grouped within the genus Lentibacillus and most closely related to Lentibacillus juripiscarius IS40-3T (97.4-97.6% similarity) isolated from fish sauce in Thailand. OrthoANI value between two novel strains and Lentibacillus lipolyticus SSKP1-9T (79.5-79.6% similarity) was far lower than the species demarcation threshold. Comparative genomic analysis displayed differences between the two strains as well as among other strains belonging to Lentibacillus. Furthermore, each isolate had strain-specific groups of orthologous genes based on pangenome analysis. Genomic G + C contents of strains NKC-220-2T and NKC851-2 were 41.9 and 42.2 mol%, respectively. The strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell walls, and the major menaquinone was menaquinone-7. Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, and an unidentified glycolipid, aminophospholipid, and phospholipid were the major polar lipid components of both strains. The major cellular fatty acids of the strains were anteiso-C15:0 and an-teiso-C17:0. Based on phenotypic, genomic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic features, strains NKC220-2T and NKC851-2 represent novel species of the genus Lentibacillus, for which the name Lentibacillus cibarius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NKC220-2T (= KACC 21232T = JCM 33390T).

RevDate: 2020-04-11

Zeb S, Gulfam SM, H Bokhari (2020)

Comparative core/pan genome analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates from Pakistan.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases pii:S1567-1348(20)30147-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Cholera is an endemic disease in many regions of Asia including, Pakistan. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is considered as one of the best adapted bacteria due to its ability to withstand severe environmental stresses. The V. cholerae genome is very plastic with many gene additions and deletions. In this study, we sought to understand the diversity of V. cholerae genes in two Pakistani subclades [e.g. Pakistani subclade I (PSC I) and Pakistani subclade II (PSC II)]. We have analyzed 44 PSC I and 56 PSC II strains, respectively. By analyzing our data, it was concluded that subclade group 2 (PSC II) has 2967 core genes repositories, while the PSC 1 group has just 1062 core genes. It was observed that the pangenome in the PSC II group is open while the pan-genome in PSC I are closed. It was also noted that the number of accessory genes (n = 2500) is higher in the PSC I group compared to the PSC II group (n = 550). Furthermore, analysis extended to the study of unique gene profiles suggested that all strains of the PSC II group have unique genes. One strain among the PSC II group had a high number of unique genes (n = 2612). However, in the PSC I group, only a few strains had unique genes with a maximum of 86 unique genes being found in a single strain. Core phylogeny of PSC I indicated that just three groups initially arose from a single common ancestor. At the same time, a complex pattern of evolution was found in the PSC II phylogenetic tree based on core gene information. This comparative genomic analysis has revealed 'waves' of V. cholerae evolution and information on its transmission and ability to modify its genetic content to survive in different environmental conditions. Here, we have investigated how the versatility of V. cholerae, a bacterium that persists across different habitats, is reflected in its genome. The data generated during the study should be extremely beneficial in defining the evolutionary relationship as well as diversity between V. cholerae subclades. It will also benefit epidemiological studies and the design of better treatment strategies for controlling epidemics.

RevDate: 2020-04-11

Zhao J, Liu C, Liu Y, et al (2020)

Genomic characteristics of clinical important ST11 Klebsiella pneumoniae worldwide.

Journal of global antimicrobial resistance pii:S2213-7165(20)30087-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: ST11 Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most important clinical pathogen in China, and KL47 and KL64 are the dominant K-types of these strains. Understanding the genomic characteristics of these strains would be critical to their anti-infection treatment.

METHODS: 364 genome sequences of ST11 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from 13 countries from 2003 to 2018 were collected. These genome sequences included 338 downloaded from NCBI database and 26 newly sequenced. Phylogenic analysis, pan-genome and unique genes, resistance and virulence genes analysis were conducted to elucidate the molecular characteristics of these strains.

RESULTS: A total of 19,732 genes were identified from the 364 ST11 strains, and the pan-genome was open, indicating the genetic diversity of ST11 K. pneumoniae. These strains were clustered into 3 clades. Clade 1 contained the most various K-types (14/15, 93.3%) and unique genes. KL47 and KL64 were the dominant K-types of clade 2 and clade 3, accounting for 100% and 99.4% of strains in each clade. KL64 strains contained the most virulence genes, including iucA and rmpA, and the two genes tend to coexist. In addition, strains in clade 1 were isolated from all 13 countries, and the strains in clade 2 and 3 mainly from China.

CONCLUSION: ST11 K. pneumoniae strains of KL64 was becoming a newly emerged superbug with more resistance and virulence genes in China, which was significant different from other countries, and we should be alert the dissemination of this subclone.

RevDate: 2020-04-08

Zhou Y, Chebotarov D, Kudrna D, et al (2020)

A platinum standard pan-genome resource that represents the population structure of Asian rice.

Scientific data, 7(1):113 pii:10.1038/s41597-020-0438-2.

As the human population grows from 7.8 billion to 10 billion over the next 30 years, breeders must do everything possible to create crops that are highly productive and nutritious, while simultaneously having less of an environmental footprint. Rice will play a critical role in meeting this demand and thus, knowledge of the full repertoire of genetic diversity that exists in germplasm banks across the globe is required. To meet this demand, we describe the generation, validation and preliminary analyses of transposable element and long-range structural variation content of 12 near-gap-free reference genome sequences (RefSeqs) from representatives of 12 of 15 subpopulations of cultivated Asian rice. When combined with 4 existing RefSeqs, that represent the 3 remaining rice subpopulations and the largest admixed population, this collection of 16 Platinum Standard RefSeqs (PSRefSeq) can be used as a template to map resequencing data to detect virtually all standing natural variation that exists in the pan-genome of cultivated Asian rice.

RevDate: 2020-04-04

Smith EA, Miller EA, Weber BP, et al (2020)

Genomic landscape of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in commercial turkey production in the United States.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.02874-19 [Epub ahead of print].

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a causative agent of respiratory tract infections in avian hosts worldwide, but is a particular problem for commercial turkey production. Little is known about the ecologic and evolutionary dynamics of ORT, which makes prevention and control of this pathogen a challenge. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the genetic relationships between ORT populations through comparative genomics of clinical isolates from different US turkey producers. ORT clinical isolates were collected from four major US turkey producers and several independent turkey growers from the upper Midwest and Southeast, and whole-genome sequencing was performed. Genomes were compared phylogenetically using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based analysis, and then assemblies and annotations were performed to identify genes encoding putative virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance determinants. A pangenome approach was also used to establish a core set of genes consistently present in ORT, and to highlight differences in gene content between phylogenetic clades. A total of 1,457 non-recombinant SNPs were identified from 157 ORT genomes, and four distinct phylogenetic clades were identified. Isolates clustered by company on the phylogenetic tree, however, each company had isolates in multiple clades with similar collection dates, indicating that there are multiple ORT strains circulating within each of the companies examined. Additionally, several antimicrobial resistance proteins, putative virulence factors, and the pOR1 plasmid were associated with particular clades and multi-locus sequence types, which may explain why the same strains seem to have persisted in the same turkey operations for decades.Importance The whole-genome approach enhances our understanding of evolutionary relationships between clinical ORT isolates from different commercial turkey producers, and allows for identification of genes associated with virulence, antimicrobial resistance, or mobile genetic elements that are often excluded using traditional typing methods. Additionally, differentiating ORT isolates at the whole-genome level may provide insight into selection of the most appropriate autogenous vaccine strain, or groups of strains, for a given population of clinical isolates.

RevDate: 2020-04-02

Zhu L, Zhao M, Chen M, et al (2020)

The bHLH gene family and its response to saline stress in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG pii:10.1007/s00438-020-01658-w [Epub ahead of print].

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene family is a gene family of transcription factors that plays essential roles in plant growth and development, secondary metabolism and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the bHLH gene family is paramount to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes and develop advanced technologies to manipulate the processes efficiently. Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is a well-known medicinal herb; however, little is known about the bHLH genes (PgbHLH) in the species. Here, we identified 137 PgbHLH genes from Jilin ginseng cultivar, Damaya, widely cultivated in Jilin, China, of which 50 are newly identified by pan-genome analysis. These 137 PgbHLH genes were phylogenetically classified into 26 subfamilies, suggesting their sequence diversification. They are alternatively spliced into 366 transcripts in a 4-year-old plant and involved in 11 functional subcategories of the gene ontology, indicating their functional differentiation in ginseng. The expressions of the PgbHLH genes dramatically vary spatio-temporally and across 42 genotypes, but they are still somehow functionally correlated. Moreover, the PgbHLH gene family, at least some of its genes, is shown to have roles in plant response to the abiotic stress of saline. These results provide a new insight into the evolution and functional differentiation of the bHLH gene family in plants, new bHLH genes to the PgbHLH gene family, and saline stress-responsive genes for genetic improvement in ginseng and other plant species.

RevDate: 2020-04-01

Niu XK, Narsing Rao MP, Dong ZY, et al (2020)

Vulcaniibacterium gelatinicum sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 70(3):1571-1577.

The present study aimed to determine the taxonomic positions of strains designated R-5-52-3T, R-5-33-5-1-2, R-5-48-2 and R-5-51-4 isolated from hot spring water samples. Cells of these strains were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strains shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Vulcaniibacterium thermophilum KCTC 32020T (95.1%). Growth occurred at 28-55 °C, at pH 6-8 and with up to 3 % (w/v) NaCl. DNA fingerprinting, biochemical, phylogenetic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses suggested that R-5-52-3T, R-5-33-5-1-2, R-5-48-2 and R-5-51-4 were different strains but belonged to the same species. Hence, R-5-52-3T was chosen for further analysis and R-5-33-5-1-2, R-5-48-2 and R-5-51-4 were considered as additional strains of this species. R-5-52-3T possessed Q-8 as the only quinone and iso-C15:0, iso-C11:0, C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as major fatty acids. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified polar lipids and two unidentified phospholipids. The genomic G+C content was 71.6 mol%. Heat shock proteins (e.g. Hsp20, GroEL, DnaK and Clp ATPases) were noted in the R-5-52-3T genome, which could suggest its protection in the hot spring environment. Pan-genome analysis showed the number of singleton gene clusters among Vulcaniibacterium members varied. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between R-5-52-3T, Vulcaniibacterium tengchongense YIM 77520T and V. thermophilum KCTC 32020T were 80.1-85.8 %, which were below the cut-off level (95-96 %) recommended as the ANI criterion for interspecies identity. Thus, based on the above results, strain R-5-52-3T represents a novel species of the genus Vulcaniibacterium, for which the name Vulcaniibacterium gelatinicum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R-5-52-3T (=KCTC 72061T=CGMCC 1.16678T).

RevDate: 2020-03-21

Dunning LT, PA Christin (2020)

Reticulate evolution, lateral gene transfer, and innovation in plants.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-03-20

Muthukumarasamy U, Preusse M, Kordes A, et al (2020)

Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic diversity analysis of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

Genome biology and evolution pii:5810496 [Epub ahead of print].

Extensive use of next-generation sequencing has the potential to transform our knowledge on how genomic variation within bacterial species impacts phenotypic versatility. Since different environments have unique selection pressures, they drive divergent evolution. However, there is also parallel or convergent evolution of traits in independent bacterial isolates inhabiting similar environments. The application of tools to describe population-wide genomic diversity provides an opportunity to measure the predictability of genetic changes underlying adaptation. Here we describe patterns of sequence variations in the core genome among 99 individual Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are the basis for branching of the phylogenetic tree. We also identified SNPs that were acquired independently, in separate lineages, and not through inheritance from a common ancestor. While our results demonstrate that the P. aeruginosa core genome is highly conserved and in general, not subject to adaptive evolution, instances of parallel evolution will provide an opportunity to uncover genetic changes that underlie phenotypic diversity.

RevDate: 2020-03-19

Gautreau G, Bazin A, Gachet M, et al (2020)

PPanGGOLiN: Depicting microbial diversity via a partitioned pangenome graph.

PLoS computational biology, 16(3):e1007732 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-19-02015 [Epub ahead of print].

The use of comparative genomics for functional, evolutionary, and epidemiological studies requires methods to classify gene families in terms of occurrence in a given species. These methods usually lack multivariate statistical models to infer the partitions and the optimal number of classes and don't account for genome organization. We introduce a graph structure to model pangenomes in which nodes represent gene families and edges represent genomic neighborhood. Our method, named PPanGGOLiN, partitions nodes using an Expectation-Maximization algorithm based on multivariate Bernoulli Mixture Model coupled with a Markov Random Field. This approach takes into account the topology of the graph and the presence/absence of genes in pangenomes to classify gene families into persistent, cloud, and one or several shell partitions. By analyzing the partitioned pangenome graphs of isolate genomes from 439 species and metagenome-assembled genomes from 78 species, we demonstrate that our method is effective in estimating the persistent genome. Interestingly, it shows that the shell genome is a key element to understand genome dynamics, presumably because it reflects how genes present at intermediate frequencies drive adaptation of species, and its proportion in genomes is independent of genome size. The graph-based approach proposed by PPanGGOLiN is useful to depict the overall genomic diversity of thousands of strains in a compact structure and provides an effective basis for very large scale comparative genomics. The software is freely available at https://github.com/labgem/PPanGGOLiN.

RevDate: 2020-03-19

Hasni I, Andréani J, Colson P, et al (2020)

Description of Virulent Factors and Horizontal Gene Transfers of Keratitis-Associated Amoeba Acanthamoeba Triangularis by Genome Analysis.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 9(3): pii:pathogens9030217.

Acanthamoeba triangularis strain SH 621 is a free-living amoeba belonging to Acanthamoeba ribo-genotype T4. This ubiquitous protist is among the free-living amoebas responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis, a severe infection of human cornea. Genome sequencing and genomic comparison were carried out to explore the biological functions and to better understand the virulence mechanism related to the pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba keratitis. The genome assembly harbored a length of 66.43 Mb encompassing 13,849 scaffolds. The analysis of predicted proteins reported the presence of 37,062 ORFs. A complete annotation revealed 33,168 and 16,605 genes that matched with NCBI non-redundant protein sequence (nr) and Cluster of Orthologous Group of proteins (COG) databases, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) annotation reported a great number of genes related to carbohydrate, amino acid and lipid metabolic pathways. The pangenome performed with 8 available amoeba genomes belonging to genus Acanthamoeba revealed a core genome containing 843 clusters of orthologous genes with a ratio core genome/pangenome of less than 0.02. We detected 48 genes related to virulent factors of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Best hit analyses in nr database identified 99 homologous genes shared with amoeba-resisting microorganisms. This study allows the deciphering the genome of a free-living amoeba with medical interest and provides genomic data to better understand virulence-related Acanthamoeba keratitis.

RevDate: 2020-03-19

Kim YJ, Park JY, Balusamy SR, et al (2020)

Comprehensive Genome Analysis on the Novel Species Sphingomonas panacis DCY99T Reveals Insights into Iron Tolerance of Ginseng.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(6): pii:ijms21062019.

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria play vital roles not only in plant growth, but also in reducing biotic/abiotic stress. Sphingomonas panacis DCY99T is isolated from soil and root of Panax ginseng with rusty root disease, characterized by raised reddish-brown root and this is seriously affects ginseng cultivation. To investigate the relationship between 159 sequenced Sphingomonas strains, pan-genome analysis was carried out, which suggested genomic diversity of the Sphingomonas genus. Comparative analysis of S. panacis DCY99T with Sphingomonas sp. LK11 revealed plant growth-promoting potential of S. panacis DCY99T through indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilizing, and antifungal abilities. Detailed genomic analysis has shown that S. panacis DCY99T contain various heavy metals resistance genes in its genome and the plasmid. Functional analysis with Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505 predicted that S. panacis DCY99T possess genes for degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon and phenolic compounds in rusty-ginseng root. Interestingly, when primed ginseng with S. panacis DCY99T during high concentration of iron exposure, iron stress of ginseng was suppressed. In order to detect S. panacis DCY99T in soil, biomarker was designed using spt gene. This study brings new insights into the role of S. panacis DCY99T as a microbial inoculant to protect ginseng plants against rusty root disease.

RevDate: 2020-03-18

Kang SM, Asaf S, Khan AL, et al (2020)

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans CS51, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium, Under Heavy Metal Stress Conditions.

Microorganisms, 8(3): pii:microorganisms8030382.

In the current study, we aimed to elucidate the plant growth-promoting characteristics of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans CS51 under heavy metal stress conditions (Zn, Cu, and Cd) and determine the genetic makeup of the CS51 genome using the single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology of Pacific Biosciences. The results revealed that inoculation with CS51 induced endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellins (GAs), which significantly enhanced cucumber growth (root shoot length) and increased the heavy metal tolerance of cucumber plants. Moreover, genomic analysis revealed that the CS51 genome consisted of a circular chromosome of 5,364,174 base pairs with an average G+C content of 64.71%. There were around 4774 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs) in 4859 genes, 15 rRNA genes, and 67 tRNA genes. Around 3950 protein-coding genes with function prediction and 733 genes without function prediction were identified. Furthermore, functional analyses predicted that the CS51 genome could encode genes required for auxin biosynthesis, nitrate and nitrite ammonification, the phosphate-specific transport system, and the sulfate transport system, which are beneficial for plant growth promotion. The heavy metal resistance of CS51 was confirmed by the presence of genes responsible for cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance, nickel transport, and copper homeostasis in the CS51 genome. The extrapolation of the curve showed that the core genome contained a minimum of 2122 genes (95% confidence interval = 2034.24 to 2080.215). Our findings indicated that the genome sequence of CS51 may be used as an eco-friendly bioresource to promote plant growth in heavy metal-contaminated areas.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Satyam R, Bhardwaj T, Jha NK, et al (2020)

Toward a chimeric vaccine against multiple isolates of Mycobacteroides - An integrative approach.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(20)30289-7 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection (NTM) such as endophthalmitis, dacryocystitis, and canaliculitis are pervasive across the globe and are currently managed by antibiotics. However, the recent cases of Mycobacteroides developing drug resistance reported along with the improper practice of medicine intrigued us to explore its genomic and proteomic canvas at a global scale and develop a chimeric vaccine against Mycobacteroides.

MAIN METHODS: We carried out a vivid genomic study on five recently sequenced strains of Mycobacteroides and explored their Pan-Core genome/proteome in three different Phases. The promiscuous antigenic proteins were identified via a subtractive proteomics approach that qualified for virulence causation, resistance and essentiality factors for this notorious bacterium. An integrated pipeline was developed for the identification of B-Cell, MHC (Major histocompatibility complex) class I and II epitopes.

KEY FINDINGS: Phase I identified the shreds of evidence of reductive evolution and propensity of the Pan-genome of Mycobacteroides getting closed soon. Phase II and Phase III produced 8 vaccine constructs. Our final vaccine construct, V6 qualified for all tests such as absence for allergenicity, presence of antigenicity, etc. V6 contains β defensin as an adjuvant, linkers, LAMP1 (Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1) signal peptide, and PADRE (Pan HLA-DR epitopes) amino acid sequence. Besides, V6 also interacts with a maximum number of MHC molecules and the TLR4/MD2 (Toll-like Receptor 4/Myeloid Differentiation Factor 2) complex confirmed by docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies.

SIGNIFICANCE: The knowledge harnessed from the current study can help improve the current treatment regimens or in an event of an outbreak and propel further related studies.

RevDate: 2020-03-10

Chen M, Xu CY, Wang X, et al (2020)

Comparative genomics analysis of c-di-GMP metabolism and regulation in Microcystis aeruginosa.

BMC genomics, 21(1):217 pii:10.1186/s12864-020-6591-3.

BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria are of special concern because they proliferate in eutrophic water bodies worldwide and affect water quality. As an ancient photosynthetic microorganism, cyanobacteria can survive in ecologically diverse habitats because of their capacity to rapidly respond to environmental changes through a web of complex signaling networks, including using second messengers to regulate physiology or metabolism. A ubiquitous second messenger, bis-(3',5')-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), has been found to regulate essential behaviors in a few cyanobacteria but not Microcystis, which are the most dominant species in cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, comparative genomics analysis was performed to explore the genomic basis of c-di-GMP signaling in Microcystis aeruginosa.

RESULTS: Proteins involved in c-di-GMP metabolism and regulation, such as diguanylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, and PilZ-containing proteins, were encoded in M. aeruginosa genomes. However, the number of identified protein domains involved in c-di-GMP signaling was not proportional to the size of M. aeruginosa genomes (4.97 Mb in average). Pan-genome analysis showed that genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism and regulation are conservative in M. aeruginosa strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed good congruence between the two types of phylogenetic trees based on 31 highly conserved protein-coding genes and sensor domain-coding genes. Propensity for gene loss analysis revealed that most of genes involved in c-di-GMP signaling are stable in M. aeruginosa strains. Moreover, bioinformatics and structure analysis of c-di-GMP signal-related GGDEF and EAL domains revealed that they all possess essential conserved amino acid residues that bind the substrate. In addition, it was also found that all selected M. aeruginosa genomes encode PilZ domain containing proteins.

CONCLUSIONS: Comparative genomics analysis of c-di-GMP metabolism and regulation in M. aeruginosa strains helped elucidating the genetic basis of c-di-GMP signaling pathways in M. aeruginosa. Knowledge of c-di-GMP metabolism and relevant signal regulatory processes in cyanobacteria can enhance our understanding of their adaptability to various environments and bloom-forming mechanism.

RevDate: 2020-03-09

Aaltonen K, Kant R, Eklund M, et al (2020)

Streptococcus halichoeri: Comparative Genomics of an Emerging Pathogen.

International journal of genomics, 2020:8708305.

Streptococcus halichoeri is an emerging pathogen with a variety of host species and zoonotic potential. It has been isolated from grey seals and other marine mammals as well as from human infections. Beginning in 2010, two concurrent epidemics were identified in Finland, in fur animals and domestic dogs, respectively. The fur animals suffered from a new disease fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) and the dogs presented with ear infections with poor treatment response. S. halichoeri was isolated in both studies, albeit among other pathogens, indicating a possible role in the disease etiologies. The aim was to find a possible common origin of the fur animal and dog isolates and study the virulence factors to assess pathogenic potential. Isolates from seal, human, dogs, and fur animals were obtained for comparison. The whole genomes were sequenced from 20 different strains using the Illumina MiSeq platform and annotated using an automatic annotation pipeline RAST. The core and pangenomes were formed by comparing the genomes against each other in an all-against-all comparison. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the genes of the core genome. Virulence factors were assessed using the Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) concentrating on the previously confirmed streptococcal factors. A core genome was formed which encompassed approximately half of the genes in Streptococcus halichoeri. The resulting core was nearly saturated and would not change significantly by adding more genomes. The remaining genes formed the pangenome which was highly variable and would still evolve after additional genomes. The results highlight the great adaptability of this bacterium possibly explaining the ease at which it switches hosts and environments. Virulence factors were also analyzed and were found primarily in the core genome. They represented many classes and functions, but the largest single category was adhesins which again supports the marine origin of this species.

RevDate: 2020-03-06

Moustafa AM, PJ Planet (2020)

WhatsGNU: a tool for identifying proteomic novelty.

Genome biology, 21(1):58 pii:10.1186/s13059-020-01965-w.

To understand diversity in enormous collections of genome sequences, we need computationally scalable tools that can quickly contextualize individual genomes based on their similarities and identify features of each genome that make them unique. We present WhatsGNU, a tool based on exact match proteomic compression that, in seconds, classifies any new genome and provides a detailed report of protein alleles that may have novel functional differences. We use this technique to characterize the total allelic diversity (panallelome) of Salmonella enterica, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. It could be extended to others. WhatsGNU is available from https://github.com/ahmedmagds/WhatsGNU.

RevDate: 2020-03-05

Seif Y, Choudhary KS, Hefner Y, et al (2020)

Metabolic and genetic basis for auxotrophies in Gram-negative species.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1910499117 [Epub ahead of print].

Auxotrophies constrain the interactions of bacteria with their environment, but are often difficult to identify. Here, we develop an algorithm (AuxoFind) using genome-scale metabolic reconstruction to predict auxotrophies and apply it to a series of available genome sequences of over 1,300 Gram-negative strains. We identify 54 auxotrophs, along with the corresponding metabolic and genetic basis, using a pangenome approach, and highlight auxotrophies conferring a fitness advantage in vivo. We show that the metabolic basis of auxotrophy is species-dependent and varies with 1) pathway structure, 2) enzyme promiscuity, and 3) network redundancy. Various levels of complexity constitute the genetic basis, including 1) deleterious single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in-frame indels, and deletions; 2) single/multigene deletion; and 3) movement of mobile genetic elements (including prophages) combined with genomic rearrangements. Fourteen out of 19 predictions agree with experimental evidence, with the remaining cases highlighting shortcomings of sequencing, assembly, annotation, and reconstruction that prevent predictions of auxotrophies. We thus develop a framework to identify the metabolic and genetic basis for auxotrophies in Gram-negatives.

RevDate: 2020-03-05

Jin Y, Zhou J, Zhou J, et al (2020)

Genome-based classification of Burkholderia cepacia complex provides new insight into its taxonomic status.

Biology direct, 15(1):6 pii:10.1186/s13062-020-0258-5.

BACKGROUND: Accurate classification of different Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) species is essential for therapy, prognosis assessment and research. The taxonomic status of BCC remains problematic and an improved knowledge about the classification of BCC is in particular needed.

METHODS: We compared phylogenetic trees of BCC based on 16S rRNA, recA, hisA and MLSA (multilocus sequence analysis). Using the available whole genome sequences of BCC, we inferred a species tree based on estimated single-copy orthologous genes and demarcated species of BCC using dDDH/ANI clustering.

RESULTS: We showed that 16S rRNA, recA, hisA and MLSA have limited resolutions in the taxonomic study of closely related bacteria such as BCC. Our estimated species tree and dDDH/ANI clustering clearly separated 116 BCC strains into 36 clusters. With the appropriate reclassification of misidentified strains, these clusters corresponded to 22 known species as well as 14 putative novel species.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale and systematic study of the taxonomic status of the BCC and could contribute to further insights into BCC taxonomy. Our study suggested that conjunctive use of core phylogeny based on single-copy orthologous genes, as well as pangenome-based dDDH/ANI clustering would provide a preferable framework for demarcating closely related species.

REVIEWER: This article was reviewed by Dr. Xianwen Ren.

RevDate: 2020-03-04

Thukral A, Ross K, Hansen C, et al (2020)

A single dose polyanhydride-based nanovaccine against paratuberculosis infection.

NPJ vaccines, 5:15 pii:164.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease in ruminants and is characterized by chronic gastroenteritis leading to heavy economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. The currently available vaccine (inactivated bacterin in oil base) is not effective in preventing pathogen shedding and is rarely used to control Johne's disease in dairy herds. To develop a better vaccine that can prevent the spread of Johne's disease, we utilized polyanhydride nanoparticles (PAN) to encapsulate mycobacterial antigens composed of whole cell lysate (PAN-Lysate) and culture filtrate (PAN-Cf) of M. paratuberculosis. These nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) were well tolerated in mice causing no inflammatory lesions at the site of injection. Immunological assays demonstrated a substantial increase in the levels of antigen-specific T cell responses post-vaccination in the PAN-Cf vaccinated group as indicated by high percentages of triple cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α) producing CD8+ T cells. Following challenge, animals vaccinated with PAN-Cf continued to produce significant levels of double (IFN-γ, TNF-α) and single cytokine (IFN-γ) secreting CD8+ T cells compared with animals vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. A significant reduction in bacterial load was observed in multiple organs of animals vaccinated with PAN-Cf, which is a clear indication of protection. Overall, the use of polyanhydride nanovaccines resulted in development of protective and sustained immunity against Johne's disease, an approach that could be applied to counter other intracellular pathogens.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Tekedar HC, Blom J, Kalindamar S, et al (2020)

Comparative genomics of the fish pathogens Edwardsiella ictaluri 93-146 and Edwardsiella piscicida C07-087.

Microbial genomics, 6(2):.

Edwardsiella ictaluri and Edwardsiella piscicida are important fish pathogens affecting cultured and wild fish worldwide. To investigate the genome-level differences and similarities between catfish-adapted strains in these two species, the complete E. ictaluri 93-146 and E. piscicida C07-087 genomes were evaluated by applying comparative genomics analysis. All available complete (10) and non-complete (19) genomes from five Edwardsiella species were also included in a systematic analysis. Average nucleotide identity and core-genome phylogenetic tree analyses indicated that the five Edwardsiella species were separated from each other. Pan-/core-genome analyses for the 29 strains from the five species showed that genus Edwardsiella members have 9474 genes in their pan genome, while the core genome consists of 1421 genes. Orthology cluster analysis showed that E. ictaluri and E. piscicida genomes have the greatest number of shared clusters. However, E. ictaluri and E. piscicida also have unique features; for example, the E. ictaluri genome encodes urease enzymes and cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase subunits, whereas E. piscicida genomes encode tetrathionate reductase operons, capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzymes and vibrioferrin-related genes. Additionally, we report for what is believed to be the first time that E. ictaluri 93-146 and three other E. ictaluri genomes encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS), whereas none of the E. piscicida genomes encode this system. Additionally, the E. piscicida C07-087 genome encodes two different type VI secretion systems. E. ictaluri genomes tend to encode more insertion elements, phage regions and genomic islands than E. piscicida. We speculate that the T4SS could contribute to the increased number of mobilome elements in E. ictaluri compared to E. piscicida. Two of the E. piscicida genomes encode full CRISPR-Cas regions, whereas none of the E. ictaluri genomes encode Cas proteins. Overall, comparison of the E. ictaluri and E. piscicida genomes reveals unique features and provides new insights on pathogenicity that may reflect the host adaptation of the two species.

RevDate: 2020-02-28

Li Q, Cooper RE, Wegner CE, et al (2020)

Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Aggregation in Acidiphilium sp. C61 Isolated from Iron-Rich Pelagic Aggregates.

Microorganisms, 8(3): pii:microorganisms8030314.

Iron-rich pelagic aggregates (iron snow) are hot spots for microbial interactions. Using iron snow isolates, we previously demonstrated that the iron-oxidizer Acidithrix sp. C25 triggers Acidiphilium sp. C61 aggregation by producing the infochemical 2-phenethylamine (PEA). Here, we showed slightly enhanced aggregate formation in the presence of PEA on different Acidiphilium spp. but not other iron-snow microorganisms, including Acidocella sp. C78 and Ferrovum sp. PN-J47. Next, we sequenced the Acidiphilium sp. C61 genome to reconstruct its metabolic potential. Pangenome analyses of Acidiphilium spp. genomes revealed the core genome contained 65 gene clusters associated with aggregation, including autoaggregation, motility, and biofilm formation. Screening the Acidiphilium sp. C61 genome revealed the presence of autotransporter, flagellar, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production genes. RNA-seq analyses of Acidiphilium sp. C61 incubations (+/- 10 µM PEA) indicated genes involved in energy production, respiration, and genetic processing were the most upregulated differentially expressed genes in the presence of PEA. Additionally, genes involved in flagellar basal body synthesis were highly upregulated, whereas the expression pattern of biofilm formation-related genes was inconclusive. Our data shows aggregation is a common trait among Acidiphilium spp. and PEA stimulates the central cellular metabolism, potentially advantageous in aggregates rapidly falling through the water column.

RevDate: 2020-02-27

González-Castillo A, Enciso-Ibarra J, B Gomez-Gil (2020)

Genomic taxonomy of the Mediterranei clade of the genus Vibrio (Gammaproteobacteria).

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek pii:10.1007/s10482-020-01396-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The first genomic study of Mediterranei clade using five type strains (V. mediterranei, V. maritimus, V. variabilis, V. thalassae, and V. barjaei) and fourteen reference strains isolated from marine organisms, seawater, water and sediments of the sea was performed. These bacterial strains were characterised by means of a polyphasic approach comprising 16S rRNA gene, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 139 single-copy genes, the DNA G + C content, ANI, and in silico phenotypic characterisation. We found that the species of the Mediterranei clade formed two separate clusters based in 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, MLSA, OrthoANI, and Codon and Amino Acid usage. The Mediterranei clade species showed values between 76 and 95% for ANIb, 84 and 95% for ANIm. The core genome consisted of 2057 gene families and the pan-genome of 13,094 gene families. Based on the genomic analyses performed, the Mediterranei clade can be divided in two clusters, one with the strains of V. maritimus, V. variabilis and two potential new species, and the other cluster with the strains of V. mediterranei, V. thalassae, and V. barjaei.

RevDate: 2020-02-26

Whelan FJ, Rusilowicz M, JO McInerney (2020)

Coinfinder: detecting significant associations and dissociations in pangenomes.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

The accessory genes of prokaryote and eukaryote pangenomes accumulate by horizontal gene transfer, differential gene loss, and the effects of selection and drift. We have developed Coinfinder, a software program that assesses whether sets of homologous genes (gene families) in pangenomes associate or dissociate with each other (i.e. are 'coincident') more often than would be expected by chance. Coinfinder employs a user-supplied phylogenetic tree in order to assess the lineage-dependence (i.e. the phylogenetic distribution) of each accessory gene, allowing Coinfinder to focus on coincident gene pairs whose joint presence is not simply because they happened to appear in the same clade, but rather that they tend to appear together more often than expected across the phylogeny. Coinfinder is implemented in C++, Python3 and R and is freely available under the GNU license from https://github.com/fwhelan/coinfinder.

RevDate: 2020-02-22

Khan AMAM, Hauk VJ, Ibrahim M, et al (2020)

Caldicellulosiruptor bescii adheres to polysaccharides using a type IV pilin-dependent mechanism.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.00200-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological hydrolysis of cellulose above 70°C involves microorganisms that secrete free enzymes, and deploy separate protein systems to adhere to their substrate. Strongly cellulolytic Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is one such extreme thermophile, which deploys modular, multi-functional carbohydrate acting enzymes to deconstruct plant biomass. Additionally, C. bescii also encodes for non-catalytic carbohydrate binding proteins, which likely evolved as a mechanism to compete against other heterotrophs in carbon limited biotopes that these bacteria inhabit. Analysis of the Caldicellulosiruptor pangenome identified a type IV pilus (T4P) locus encoded upstream of the tāpirins, that is encoded for by all Caldicellulosiruptor species. In this study, we sought to determine if the C. bescii T4P plays a role in attachment to plant polysaccharides. The major C. bescii pilin (CbPilA) was identified by the presence of pilin-like protein domains, paired with transcriptomics and proteomics data. Using immuno-dot blots, we determined that the plant polysaccharide, xylan, induced production of CbPilA 10 to 14-fold higher than glucomannan or xylose. Furthermore, we are able to demonstrate that recombinant CbPilA directly interacts with xylan, and cellulose at elevated temperatures. Localization of CbPilA at the cell surface was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Lastly, a direct role for CbPilA in cell adhesion was demonstrated using recombinant CbPilA or anti-CbPilA antibodies to reduce C. bescii cell adhesion to xylan and crystalline cellulose up to 4.5 and 2-fold, respectively. Based on these observations, we propose that CbPilA and by extension, the T4P, play a role in Caldicellulosiruptor cell attachment to plant biomass.IMPORTANCEMost microorganisms are capable of attaching to surfaces in order to persist in their environment. Type IV (T4) pili produced by select mesophilic Firmicutes promote adherence, however a role for T4 pili encoded by thermophilic members of this phylum has yet to be demonstrated. Prior comparative genomics analyses identified a T4 pilus locus encoded by an extremely thermophilic genus within the Firmicutes. Here, we demonstrate that attachment to plant biomass-related carbohydrates by strongly cellulolytic Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is mediated by T4 pilins. Surprisingly, xylan but not cellulose induced expression of the major T4 pilin. Regardless, the C. bescii T4 pilin interacts with both polysaccharides at high temperatures, and is located to the cell surface where it is directly involved in C. bescii attachment. Adherence to polysaccharides is likely key to survival in environments where carbon sources are limiting, allowing C. bescii to compete against other plant degrading microorganisms.

RevDate: 2020-02-20

Romano I, Ventorino V, O Pepe (2020)

Effectiveness of Plant Beneficial Microbes: Overview of the Methodological Approaches for the Assessment of Root Colonization and Persistence.

Frontiers in plant science, 11:6.

Issues concerning the use of harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides that have large negative impacts on environmental and human health have generated increasing interest in the use of beneficial microorganisms for the development of sustainable agri-food systems. A successful microbial inoculant has to colonize the root system, establish a positive interaction and persist in the environment in competition with native microorganisms living in the soil through rhizocompetence traits. Currently, several approaches based on culture-dependent, microscopic and molecular methods have been developed to follow bioinoculants in the soil and plant surface over time. Although culture-dependent methods are commonly used to estimate the persistence of bioinoculants, it is difficult to differentiate inoculated organisms from native populations based on morphological characteristics. Therefore, these methods should be used complementary to culture-independent approaches. Microscopy-based techniques (bright-field, electron and fluorescence microscopy) allow to obtain a picture of microbial colonization outside and inside plant tissues also at high resolution, but it is not possible to always distinguish living cells from dead cells by direct observation as well as distinguish bioinoculants from indigenous microbial populations living in soils. In addition, the development of metagenomic techniques, including the use of DNA probes, PCR-based methods, next-generation sequencing, whole-genome sequencing and pangenome methods, provides a complementary approach useful to understand plant-soil-microbe interactions. However, to ensure good results in microbiological analysis, the first fundamental prerequisite is correct soil sampling and sample preparation for the different methodological approaches that will be assayed. Here, we provide an overview of the advantages and limitations of the currently used methods and new methodological approaches that could be developed to assess the presence, plant colonization and soil persistence of bioinoculants in the rhizosphere. We further discuss the possibility of integrating multidisciplinary approaches to examine the variations in microbial communities after inoculation and to track the inoculated microbial strains.

RevDate: 2020-02-19

Yu YY, CC Wei (2020)

[HUPAN promotes striding across of biomedical research from human genome to human pan-genome].

Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology, 49(2):105-107.

RevDate: 2020-02-18

Iversen KH, Rasmussen LH, Al-Nakeeb K, et al (2020)

Similar genomic patterns of clinical infective endocarditis and oral isolates of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii.

Scientific reports, 10(1):2728 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-59549-4.

Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis belong to the Mitis group streptococci, which mostly are commensals in the human oral cavity. Though they are oral commensals, they can escape their niche and cause infective endocarditis, a severe infection with high mortality. Several virulence factors important for the development of infective endocarditis have been described in these two species. However, the background for how the commensal bacteria, in some cases, become pathogenic is still not known. To gain a greater understanding of the mechanisms of the pathogenic potential, we performed a comparative analysis of 38 blood culture strains, S. sanguinis (n = 20) and S. gordonii (n = 18) from patients with verified infective endocarditis, along with 21 publicly available oral isolates from healthy individuals, S. sanguinis (n = 12) and S. gordonii (n = 9). Using whole genome sequencing data of the 59 streptococci genomes, functional profiles were constructed, using protein domain predictions based on the translated genes. These functional profiles were used for clustering, phylogenetics and machine learning. A clear separation could be made between the two species. No clear differences between oral isolates and clinical infective endocarditis isolates were found in any of the 675 translated core-genes. Additionally, random forest-based machine learning and clustering of the pan-genome data as well as amino acid variations in the core-genome could not separate the clinical and oral isolates. A total of 151 different virulence genes was identified in the 59 genomes. Among these homologs of genes important for adhesion and evasion of the immune system were found in all of the strains. Based on the functional profiles and virulence gene content of the genomes, we believe that all analysed strains had the ability to become pathogenic.

RevDate: 2020-02-17

Wu H, Wang D, F Gao (2020)

Toward a high-quality pan-genome landscape of Bacillus subtilis by removal of confounding strains.

Briefings in bioinformatics pii:5739184 [Epub ahead of print].

Pan-genome analysis is widely used to study the evolution and genetic diversity of species, particularly in bacteria. However, the impact of strain selection on the outcome of pan-genome analysis is poorly understood. Furthermore, a standard protocol to ensure high-quality pan-genome results is lacking. In this study, we carried out a series of pan-genome analyses of different strain sets of Bacillus subtilis to understand the impact of various strains on the performance and output quality of pan-genome analyses. Consequently, we found that the results obtained by pan-genome analyses of B. subtilis can be influenced by the inclusion of incorrectly classified Bacillus subspecies strains, phylogenetically distinct strains, engineered genome-reduced strains, chimeric strains, strains with a large number of unique genes or a large proportion of pseudogenes, and multiple clonal strains. Since the presence of these confounding strains can seriously affect the quality and true landscape of the pan-genome, we should remove these deviations in the process of pan-genome analyses. Our study provides new insights into the removal of biases from confounding strains in pan-genome analyses at the beginning of data processing, which enables the achievement of a closer representation of a high-quality pan-genome landscape of B. subtilis that better reflects the performance and credibility of the B. subtilis pan-genome. This procedure could be added as an important quality control step in pan-genome analyses for improving the efficiency of analyses, and ultimately contributing to a better understanding of genome function, evolution and genome-reduction strategies for B. subtilis in the future.

RevDate: 2020-02-14

Laflamme B, Dillon MM, Martel A, et al (2020)

The pan-genome effector-triggered immunity landscape of a host-pathogen interaction.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 367(6479):763-768.

Effector-triggered immunity (ETI), induced by host immune receptors in response to microbial effectors, protects plants against virulent pathogens. However, a systematic study of ETI prevalence against species-wide pathogen diversity is lacking. We constructed the Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector Compendium (PsyTEC) to reduce the pan-genome complexity of 5127 unique effector proteins, distributed among 70 families from 494 strains, to 529 representative alleles. We screened PsyTEC on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and identified 59 ETI-eliciting alleles (11.2%) from 19 families (27.1%), with orthologs distributed among 96.8% of P. syringae strains. We also identified two previously undescribed host immune receptors, including CAR1, which recognizes the conserved effectors AvrE and HopAA1, and found that 94.7% of strains harbor alleles predicted to be recognized by either CAR1 or ZAR1.

RevDate: 2020-02-14

Liao F, Mo Z, Gu W, et al (2020)

A comparative genomic analysis between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of hospital acquired and community infections in Yunnan province of China.

BMC infectious diseases, 20(1):137 pii:10.1186/s12879-020-4866-6.

BACKGROUND: Currently, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens worldwide, especially for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. However, few reports referred to patients' MRSA infections in Yunnan province, southwest China.

METHODS: In this study, we selected representative MRSA strains from patients' systemic surveillance in Yunnan province of China, performed the genomic sequencing and compared their features, together with some food derived strains.

RESULTS: Among sixty selective isolates, forty strains were isolated from patients, and twenty isolated from food. Among the patients' strains, sixteen were recognized as community-acquired (CA), compared with 24 for hospital-acquired (HA). ST6-t701, ST59-t437 and ST239-t030 were the three major genotype profiles. ST6-t701 was predominated in food strains, while ST59-t437 and ST239-t030 were the primary clones in patients. The clinical features between CA and HA-MRSA of patients were statistical different. Compared the antibiotic resistant results between patients and food indicated that higher antibiotic resistant rates were found in patients' strains. Totally, the average genome sizes of 60 isolates were 2.79 ± 0.05 Mbp, with GC content 33% and 84.50 ± 0.20% of coding rate. The core genomes of these isolates were 1593 genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on pan-genome and SNP of strains showed that five clustering groups were generated. Clustering ST239-t030 contained all the HA-MRSA cases in this study; clustering ST6-t701 referred to food and CA-MRSA infections in community; clustering ST59-t437 showed the heterogeneity for provoking different clinical diseases in both community and hospital. Phylogenetic tree, incorporating 24 isolates from different regions, indicated ST239-t030 strains in this study were more closely related to T0131 isolate from Tianjin, China, belonged to 'Turkish clade' from Eastern Europe; two groups of ST59-t437 clones of MRSA in Yunnan province were generated, belonged to the 'Asian-Pacific' clone (AP) and 'Taiwan' clone (TW) respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: ST239-t030, ST59-t437 and ST6-t701 were the three major MRSA clones in Yunnan province of China. ST239-t030 clonal Yunnan isolates demonstrated the local endemic of clone establishment for a number of years, whereas ST59-t437 strains revealed the multi-origins of this clone. In general, genomic study on epidemic clones of MRSA in southwest China provided the features and evolution of this pathogen.

RevDate: 2020-02-13

Dos Santos Silva LK, Rodrigues RAL, Dos Santos Pereira Andrade AC, et al (2020)

Isolation and genomic characterization of a new mimivirus of lineage B from a Brazilian river.

Archives of virology pii:10.1007/s00705-020-04542-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Since its discovery, the first identified giant virus associated with amoebae, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), has been rigorously studied to understand the structural and genomic complexity of this virus. In this work, we report the isolation and genomic characterization of a new mimivirus of lineage B, named "Borely moumouvirus". This new virus exhibits a structure and replicative cycle similar to those of other members of the family Mimiviridae. The genome of the new isolate is a linear double-strand DNA molecule of ~1.0 Mb, containing over 900 open reading frames. Genome annotation highlighted different translation system components encoded in the DNA of Borely moumouvirus, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, translation factors, and tRNA molecules, in a distribution similar to that in other lineage B mimiviruses. Pan-genome analysis indicated an increase in the genetic arsenal of this group of viruses, showing that the family Mimiviridae is still expanding. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis has shown that Borely moumouvirus is closely related to moumouvirus australiensis. This is the first mimivirus lineage B isolated from Brazilian territory to be characterized. Further prospecting studies are necessary for us to better understand the diversity of these viruses so a better classification system can be established.

RevDate: 2020-02-13

Hickey G, Heller D, Monlong J, et al (2020)

Genotyping structural variants in pangenome graphs using the vg toolkit.

Genome biology, 21(1):35 pii:10.1186/s13059-020-1941-7.

Structural variants (SVs) remain challenging to represent and study relative to point mutations despite their demonstrated importance. We show that variation graphs, as implemented in the vg toolkit, provide an effective means for leveraging SV catalogs for short-read SV genotyping experiments. We benchmark vg against state-of-the-art SV genotypers using three sequence-resolved SV catalogs generated by recent long-read sequencing studies. In addition, we use assemblies from 12 yeast strains to show that graphs constructed directly from aligned de novo assemblies improve genotyping compared to graphs built from intermediate SV catalogs in the VCF format.

RevDate: 2020-02-12

Maistrenko OM, Mende DR, Luetge M, et al (2020)

Disentangling the impact of environmental and phylogenetic constraints on prokaryotic within-species diversity.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-020-0600-z [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial organisms inhabit virtually all environments and encompass a vast biological diversity. The pangenome concept aims to facilitate an understanding of diversity within defined phylogenetic groups. Hence, pangenomes are increasingly used to characterize the strain diversity of prokaryotic species. To understand the interdependence of pangenome features (such as the number of core and accessory genes) and to study the impact of environmental and phylogenetic constraints on the evolution of conspecific strains, we computed pangenomes for 155 phylogenetically diverse species (from ten phyla) using 7,000 high-quality genomes to each of which the respective habitats were assigned. Species habitat ubiquity was associated with several pangenome features. In particular, core-genome size was more important for ubiquity than accessory genome size. In general, environmental preferences had a stronger impact on pangenome evolution than phylogenetic inertia. Environmental preferences explained up to 49% of the variance for pangenome features, compared with 18% by phylogenetic inertia. This observation was robust when the dataset was extended to 10,100 species (59 phyla). The importance of environmental preferences was further accentuated by convergent evolution of pangenome features in a given habitat type across different phylogenetic clades. For example, the soil environment promotes expansion of pangenome size, while host-associated habitats lead to its reduction. Taken together, we explored the global principles of pangenome evolution, quantified the influence of habitat, and phylogenetic inertia on the evolution of pangenomes and identified criteria governing species ubiquity and habitat specificity.

RevDate: 2020-02-12

Badet T, Oggenfuss U, Abraham L, et al (2020)

A 19-isolate reference-quality global pangenome for the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

BMC biology, 18(1):12 pii:10.1186/s12915-020-0744-3.

BACKGROUND: The gene content of a species largely governs its ecological interactions and adaptive potential. A species is therefore defined by both core genes shared between all individuals and accessory genes segregating presence-absence variation. There is growing evidence that eukaryotes, similar to bacteria, show intra-specific variability in gene content. However, it remains largely unknown how functionally relevant such a pangenome structure is for eukaryotes and what mechanisms underlie the emergence of highly polymorphic genome structures.

RESULTS: Here, we establish a reference-quality pangenome of a fungal pathogen of wheat based on 19 complete genomes from isolates sampled across six continents. Zymoseptoria tritici causes substantial worldwide losses to wheat production due to rapidly evolved tolerance to fungicides and evasion of host resistance. We performed transcriptome-assisted annotations of each genome to construct a global pangenome. Major chromosomal rearrangements are segregating within the species and underlie extensive gene presence-absence variation. Conserved orthogroups account for only ~ 60% of the species pangenome. Investigating gene functions, we find that the accessory genome is enriched for pathogenesis-related functions and encodes genes involved in metabolite production, host tissue degradation and manipulation of the immune system. De novo transposon annotation of the 19 complete genomes shows that the highly diverse chromosomal structure is tightly associated with transposable element content. Furthermore, transposable element expansions likely underlie recent genome expansions within the species.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our work establishes a highly complex eukaryotic pangenome providing an unprecedented toolbox to study how pangenome structure impacts crop-pathogen interactions.

RevDate: 2020-02-12

Zwickl NF, Stralis-Pavese N, Schäffer C, et al (2020)

Comparative genome characterization of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

BMC genomics, 21(1):150 pii:10.1186/s12864-020-6535-y.

BACKGROUND: Tannerella forsythia is a bacterial pathogen implicated in periodontal disease. Numerous virulence-associated T. forsythia genes have been described, however, it is necessary to expand the knowledge on T. forsythia's genome structure and genetic repertoire to further elucidate its role within pathogenesis. Tannerella sp. BU063, a putative periodontal health-associated sister taxon and closest known relative to T. forsythia is available for comparative analyses. In the past, strain confusion involving the T. forsythia reference type strain ATCC 43037 led to discrepancies between results obtained from in silico analyses and wet-lab experimentation.

RESULTS: We generated a substantially improved genome assembly of T. forsythia ATCC 43037 covering 99% of the genome in three sequences. Using annotated genomes of ten Tannerella strains we established a soft core genome encompassing 2108 genes, based on orthologs present in > = 80% of the strains analysed. We used a set of known and hypothetical virulence factors for comparisons in pathogenic strains and the putative periodontal health-associated isolate Tannerella sp. BU063 to identify candidate genes promoting T. forsythia's pathogenesis. Searching for pathogenicity islands we detected 38 candidate regions in the T. forsythia genome. Only four of these regions corresponded to previously described pathogenicity islands. While the general protein O-glycosylation gene cluster of T. forsythia ATCC 43037 has been described previously, genes required for the initiation of glycan synthesis are yet to be discovered. We found six putative glycosylation loci which were only partially conserved in other bacteria. Lastly, we performed a comparative analysis of translational bias in T. forsythia and Tannerella sp. BU063 and detected highly biased genes.

CONCLUSIONS: We provide resources and important information on the genomes of Tannerella strains. Comparative analyses enabled us to assess the suitability of T. forsythia virulence factors as therapeutic targets and to suggest novel putative virulence factors. Further, we report on gene loci that should be addressed in the context of elucidating T. forsythia's protein O-glycosylation pathway. In summary, our work paves the way for further molecular dissection of T. forsythia biology in general and virulence of this species in particular.

RevDate: 2020-02-10

Sherman RM, SL Salzberg (2020)

Pan-genomics in the human genome era.

Nature reviews. Genetics pii:10.1038/s41576-020-0210-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the early days of the genome era, the scientific community has relied on a single 'reference' genome for each species, which is used as the basis for a wide range of genetic analyses, including studies of variation within and across species. As sequencing costs have dropped, thousands of new genomes have been sequenced, and scientists have come to realize that a single reference genome is inadequate for many purposes. By sampling a diverse set of individuals, one can begin to assemble a pan-genome: a collection of all the DNA sequences that occur in a species. Here we review efforts to create pan-genomes for a range of species, from bacteria to humans, and we further consider the computational methods that have been proposed in order to capture, interpret and compare pan-genome data. As scientists continue to survey and catalogue the genomic variation across human populations and begin to assemble a human pan-genome, these efforts will increase our power to connect variation to human diversity, disease and beyond.

RevDate: 2020-02-05

Zhao J, Bayer PE, Ruperao P, et al (2020)

Trait associations in the pangenome of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

Plant biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is an important orphan crop mainly grown by smallholder farmers in India and Africa. Here we present the first pigeon pea pangenome based on 89 accessions mainly from India and the Philippines, showing that there is significant genetic diversity in Philippine individuals that is not present in Indian individuals. Annotation of variable genes suggests that they are associated with self-fertilisation and response to disease. We identified 225 SNPs associated with nine agronomically important traits over three locations and 2 different time-points, with SNPs associated with genes for transcription factors and kinases. These results will lead the way to an improved pigeon pea breeding program.

RevDate: 2020-02-06

Zhou X, Yang B, Stanton C, et al (2020)

Comparative analysis of Lactobacillus gasseri from Chinese subjects reveals a new species-level taxa.

BMC genomics, 21(1):119.

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus gasseri as a probiotic has history of safe consumption is prevalent in infants and adults gut microbiota to maintain gut homeostasis.

RESULTS: In this study, to explore the genomic diversity and mine potential probiotic characteristics of L. gasseri, 92 strains of L. gasseri were isolated from Chinese human feces and identified based on 16 s rDNA sequencing, after draft genomes sequencing, further average nucleotide identity (ANI) value and phylogenetic analysis reclassified them as L. paragasseri (n = 79) and L. gasseri (n = 13), respectively. Their pan/core-genomes were determined, revealing that L. paragasseri had an open pan-genome. Comparative analysis was carried out to identify genetic features, and the results indicated that 39 strains of L. paragasseri harboured Type II-A CRISPR-Cas system while 12 strains of L. gasseri contained Type I-E and II-A CRISPR-Cas systems. Bacteriocin operons and the number of carbohydrate-active enzymes were significantly different between the two species.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time to study pan/core-genome of L. gasseri and L. paragasseri, and compare their genetic diversity, and all the results provided better understating on genetics of the two species.

RevDate: 2020-02-09

Isidro J, Ferreira S, Pinto M, et al (2020)

Virulence and antibiotic resistance plasticity of Arcobacter butzleri: Insights on the genomic diversity of an emerging human pathogen.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 80:104213 pii:S1567-1348(20)30045-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Arcobacter butzleri is a foodborne emerging human pathogen, frequently displaying a multidrug resistant character. Still, the lack of comprehensive genome-scale comparative analysis has limited our knowledge on A. butzleri diversification and pathogenicity. Here, we performed a deep genome analysis of A. butzleri focused on decoding its core- and pan-genome diversity and specific genetic traits underlying its pathogenic potential and diverse ecology. A. butzleri (genome size 2.07-2.58 Mbp) revealed a large open pan-genome with 7474 genes (about 50% being singletons) and a small but diverse core-genome with 1165 genes. It presents a plastic virulome (including newly identified determinants), marked by the differential presence of multiple adaptation-related virulence factors, such as the urease cluster ureD(AB)CEFG (phenotypically confirmed), the hypervariable hemagglutinin-encoding hecA, a type I secretion system (T1SS) harboring another agglutinin and a novel VirB/D4 T4SS likely linked to interbacterial competition and cytotoxicity. In addition, A. butzleri harbors a large repertoire of efflux pumps (EPs) and other antibiotic resistant determinants. We unprecedentedly describe a genetic mechanism of A. butzleri macrolides resistance, (inactivation of a TetR repressor likely regulating an EP). Fluoroquinolones resistance correlated with Thr-85-Ile in GyrA and ampicillin resistance was linked to an OXA-15-like β-lactamase. Remarkably, by decoding the polymorphism pattern of the main antigen PorA, we show that A. butzleri is able to exchange porA as a whole and/or hypervariable epitope-encoding regions separately, leading to a multitude of chimeric PorA presentations that can impact pathogen-host interaction during infection. Ultimately, our unprecedented screening of short sequence repeats indicates that phase variation likely modulates A. butzleri key adaptive functions. In summary, this study constitutes a turning point on A. butzleri comparative genomics revealing that this human gastrointestinal pathogen is equipped with vast and diverse virulence and antibiotic resistance arsenals that open a multitude of phenotypic fingerprints for environmental/host adaptation and pathogenicity.

RevDate: 2020-02-07

Danilevicz MF, Tay Fernandez CG, Marsh JI, et al (2020)

Plant pangenomics: approaches, applications and advancements.

Current opinion in plant biology, 54:18-25 pii:S1369-5266(19)30120-7 [Epub ahead of print].

With the assembly of increasing numbers of plant genomes, it is becoming accepted that a single reference assembly does not reflect the gene diversity of a species. The production of pangenomes, which reflect the structural variation and polymorphisms in genomes, enables in depth comparisons of variation within species or higher taxonomic groups. In this review, we discuss the current and emerging approaches for pangenome assembly, analysis and visualisation. In addition, we consider the potential of pangenomes for applied crop improvement, evolutionary and biodiversity studies. To fully exploit the value of pangenomes it is important to integrate broad information such as phenotypic, environmental, and expression data to gain insights into the role of variable regions within genomes.

RevDate: 2020-01-31

Talwar C, Nagar S, Kumar R, et al (2020)

Defining the Environmental Adaptations of Genus Devosia: Insights into its Expansive Short Peptide Transport System and Positively Selected Genes.

Scientific reports, 10(1):1151.

Devosia are well known for their dominance in soil habitats contaminated with various toxins and are best characterized for their bioremediation potential. In this study, we compared the genomes of 27 strains of Devosia with aim to understand their metabolic abilities. The analysis revealed their adaptive gene repertoire which was bared from 52% unique pan-gene content. A striking feature of all genomes was the abundance of oligo- and di-peptide permeases (oppABCDF and dppABCDF) with each genome harboring an average of 60.7 ± 19.1 and 36.5 ± 10.6 operon associated genes respectively. Apart from their primary role in nutrition, these permeases may help Devosia to sense environmental signals and in chemotaxis at stressed habitats. Through sequence similarity network analyses, we identified 29 Opp and 19 Dpp sequences that shared very little homology with any other sequence suggesting an expansive short peptidic transport system within Devosia. The substrate determining components of these permeases viz. OppA and DppA further displayed a large diversity that separated into 12 and 9 homologous clusters respectively in addition to large number of isolated nodes. We also dissected the genome scale positive evolution and found genes associated with growth (exopolyphosphatase, HesB_IscA_SufA family protein), detoxification (moeB, nifU-like domain protein, alpha/beta hydrolase), chemotaxis (cheB, luxR) and stress response (phoQ, uspA, luxR, sufE) were positively selected. The study highlights the genomic plasticity of the Devosia spp. for conferring adaptation, bioremediation and the potential to utilize a wide range of substrates. The widespread toxin-antitoxin loci and 'open' state of the pangenome provided evidence of plastic genomes and a much larger genetic repertoire of the genus which is yet uncovered.

RevDate: 2020-01-30

Sanderson H, Ortega-Polo R, Zaheer R, et al (2020)

Comparative genomics of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus spp. isolated from wastewater treatment plants.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):20.

BACKGROUND: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered hotspots for the environmental dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are candidates for gauging the degree of AMR bacteria in wastewater. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are recognized indicators of fecal contamination in water. Comparative genomics of enterococci isolated from conventional activated sludge (CAS) and biological aerated filter (BAF) WWTPs was conducted.

RESULTS: VRE isolates, including E. faecalis (n = 24), E. faecium (n = 11), E. casseliflavus (n = 2) and E. gallinarum (n = 2) were selected for sequencing based on WWTP source, species and AMR phenotype. The pangenomes of E. faecium and E. faecalis were both open. The genomic fraction related to the mobilome was positively correlated with genome size in E. faecium (p < 0.001) and E. faecalis (p < 0.001) and with the number of AMR genes in E. faecium (p = 0.005). Genes conferring vancomycin resistance, including vanA and vanM (E. faecium), vanG (E. faecalis), and vanC (E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum), were detected in 20 genomes. The most prominent functional AMR genes were efflux pumps and transporters. A minimum of 16, 6, 5 and 3 virulence genes were detected in E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum, respectively. Virulence genes were more common in E. faecalis and E. faecium, than E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum. A number of mobile genetic elements were shared among species. Functional CRISPR/Cas arrays were detected in 13 E. faecalis genomes, with all but one also containing a prophage. The lack of a functional CRISPR/Cas arrays was associated with multi-drug resistance in E. faecium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated differential clustering of isolates based on original source but not WWTP. Genes related to phage and CRISPR/Cas arrays could potentially serve as environmental biomarkers.

CONCLUSIONS: There was no discernible difference between enterococcal genomes from the CAS and BAF WWTPs. E. faecalis and E. faecium have smaller genomes and harbor more virulence, AMR, and mobile genetic elements than other Enterococcus spp.

RevDate: 2020-02-08

Yun BR, Malik A, SB Kim (2020)

Genome based characterization of Kitasatospora sp. MMS16-BH015, a multiple heavy metal resistant soil actinobacterium with high antimicrobial potential.

Gene, 733:144379 pii:S0378-1119(20)30048-2 [Epub ahead of print].

An actinobacterial strain designated Kitasatospora sp. MMS16-BH015, exhibiting high level of heavy metal resistance, was isolated from soil of an abandoned metal mining site, and its potential for metal resistance and secondary metabolite production was studied. The strain was resistant to multiple heavy metals including zinc (up to 100 mM), nickel (up to 2 mM) and copper (up to 0.8 mM), and also showed antimicrobial potential against a broad group of microorganisms, in particular filamentous fungi. The genome of strain MMS16-BH015 was 8.96 Mbp in size with a G + C content of 72.7%, and contained 7270 protein-coding genes and 107 tRNA/rRNA genes. The genome analysis revealed presence of at least 121 metal resistance related genes, which was prominently higher in strain MMS16-BH015 compared to other genomes of Kitasatospora. The genes included those for proteins representing various families involved in the transport of heavy metals, for example dipeptide transport ATP-binding proteins, high-affinity nickel transport proteins, and P-type heavy metal-transporting ATPases. Additionally, 43 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, enriched with those for non-ribosomal peptides, were detected in this multiple heavy metal resistant actinobacterium, which was again the highest among the compared genomes of Kitasatospora. The pan-genome analysis also identified higher numbers of unique genes related to secondary metabolite production and metal resistance mechanism in strain MMS16-BH015. A high level of correlation between the biosynthetic potential and heavy metal resistance could be observed, thus indicating that heavy metal resistant actinobacteria can be a promising source of bioactive compounds.

RevDate: 2020-02-06

Wang L, Luo Y, Zhao Y, et al (2020)

Comparative genomic analysis reveals an 'open' pan-genome of African swine fever virus.

Transboundary and emerging diseases [Epub ahead of print].

The worldwide transmission of African swine fever virus (ASFV) drastically affects the pig industry and global trade. Development of vaccines is hindered by the lack of knowledge of the genomic characteristics of ASFV. In this study, we developed a pipeline for the de novo assembly of ASFV genome without virus isolation and purification. We then used a comparative genomics approach to systematically study 46 genomes of ASFVs to reveal the genomic characteristics. The analysis revealed that ASFV has an 'open' pan-genome based on both protein-coding genes and intergenic regions. Of the 151-174 genes found in the ASFV strains, only 86 were identified as core genes; the remainder were flexible accessory genes. Notably, 44 of the 86 core genes and 155 of the 324 accessory genes have been functionally annotated according to the known proteins. Interestingly, a dynamic number of taxis-related genes were identified in the accessory genes, and two potential virulence genes were identified in all ASFV isolates. The 'open' pan-genome of ASFV based on gene and intergenic regions reveals its pronounced natural diversity concerning genomic composition and regulation.

RevDate: 2020-01-23

Alexandraki V, Kazou M, Blom J, et al (2019)

Comparative Genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus Support Important Traits Concerning the Evolution, Biology and Technological Properties of the Species.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2916.

Streptococcus thermophilus is a major starter for the dairy industry with great economic importance. In this study we analyzed 23 fully sequenced genomes of S. thermophilus to highlight novel aspects of the evolution, biology and technological properties of this species. Pan/core genome analysis revealed that the species has an important number of conserved genes and that the pan genome is probably going to be closed soon. According to whole genome phylogeny and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis, most S. thermophilus strains were grouped in two major clusters (i.e., clusters A and B). More specifically, cluster A includes strains with chromosomes above 1.83 Mbp, while cluster B includes chromosomes below this threshold. This observation suggests that strains belonging to the two clusters may be differentiated by gene gain or gene loss events. Furthermore, certain strains of cluster A could be further subdivided in subgroups, i.e., subgroup I (ASCC 1275, DGCC 7710, KLDS SM, MN-BM-A02, and ND07), II (MN-BM-A01 and MN-ZLW-002), III (LMD-9 and SMQ-301), and IV (APC151 and ND03). In cluster B certain strains formed one distinct subgroup, i.e., subgroup I (CNRZ1066, CS8, EPS, and S9). Clusters and subgroups observed for S. thermophilus indicate the existence of lineages within the species, an observation which was further supported to a variable degree by the distribution and/or the architecture of several genomic traits. These would include exopolysaccharide (EPS) gene clusters, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR associated (Cas) systems, as well as restriction-modification (R-M) systems and genomic islands (GIs). Of note, the histidine biosynthetic cluster was found present in all cluster A strains (plus strain NCTC12958T) but was absent from all strains in cluster B. Other loci related to lactose/galactose catabolism and urea metabolism, aminopeptidases, the majority of amino acid and peptide transporters, as well as amino acid biosynthetic pathways were found to be conserved in all strains suggesting their central role for the species. Our study highlights the necessity of sequencing and analyzing more S. thermophilus complete genomes to further elucidate important aspects of strain diversity within this starter culture that may be related to its application in the dairy industry.

RevDate: 2020-02-09

Lannes-Costa PS, Baraúna RA, Ramos JN, et al (2020)

Comparative genomic analysis and identification of pathogenicity islands of hypervirulent ST-17 Streptococcus agalactiae Brazilian strain.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 80:104195 pii:S1567-1348(20)30027-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Streptococcus agalactiae are important pathogenic bacteria that cause severe infections in humans, especially neonates. The mechanism by which ST-17 causes invasive infections than other STs is not well understood. In this study, we sequenced the first genome of a S. agalactiae ST-17 strain isolated in Brazil using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 technology. S. agalactiae GBS90356 ST-17 belongs to the capsular type III and was isolated from a neonatal with a fatal case of meningitis. The genome presented a size of 2.03 Mbp and a G + C content of 35.2%. S. agalactiae has 706 genes in its core genome and an open pan-genome with a size of 5.020 genes, suggesting a high genomic plasticity. GIPSy software was used to identify 10 Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) which corresponded to 15% of the genome size. IslandViewer4 corroborated the prediction of six PAIs. The pathogenicity islands showed important virulence factors genes for S. agalactiae e.g. neu, cps, dlt, fbs, cfb, lmb. SignalP detected 20 proteins with signal peptides among the 352 proteins found in PAIs, which 60% were located in the SagPAI_5. SagPAI_2 and 5 were mainly detected in ST-17 strains studied. Moreover, we identified 51 unique genes, 9 recombination regions and a large number of SNPs with an average of 760.3 polymorphisms, which can be related with high genomic plasticity and virulence during host-pathogen interactions. Our results showed implications for pathogenesis, evolution, concept of species and in silico analysis value to understand the epidemiology and genome plasticity of S. agalactiae.

RevDate: 2020-01-19

Ying J, Ye J, Xu T, et al (2019)

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Rhodococcus equi: An Insight into Genomic Diversity and Genome Evolution.

International journal of genomics, 2019:8987436.

Rhodococcus equi, a member of the Rhodococcus genus, is a gram-positive pathogenic bacterium. Rhodococcus possesses an open pan-genome that constitutes the basis of its high genomic diversity and allows for adaptation to specific niche conditions and the changing host environments. Our analysis further showed that the core genome of R. equi contributes to the pathogenicity and niche adaptation of R. equi. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the genomes of R. equi shared identical collinearity relationship, and heterogeneity was mainly acquired by means of genomic islands and prophages. Moreover, genomic islands in R. equi were always involved in virulence, resistance, or niche adaptation and possibly working with prophages to cause the majority of genome expansion. These findings provide an insight into the genomic diversity, evolution, and structural variation of R. equi and a valuable resource for functional genomic studies.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Mataragas M (2020)

Investigation of genomic characteristics and carbohydrates' metabolic activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis during ripening of a Swiss-type cheese.

Food microbiology, 87:103392.

Genetic diversity and metabolic properties of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis were explored using phylogenetic, pan-genomic and metatranscriptomic analysis. The genomes, used in the current study, were available and downloaded from the GenBank which were primarily related with microorganisms isolated from dairy products and secondarily from other foodstuffs. To study the genetic diversity of the microorganism, various bioinformatics tools were employed such as average nucleotide identity, digital DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analysis, clusters of orthologous groups analysis, KEGG orthology analysis and pan-genomic analysis. The results showed that Lc. lactis subsp. lactis strains cannot be sufficiently separated into phylogenetic lineages based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences and core genome-based phylogenetic analysis was more appropriate. Pan-genomic analysis of the strains indicated that the core, accessory and unique genome comprised of 1036, 3146 and 1296 genes, respectively. Considering the results of pan-genomic and KEGG orthology analyses, the metabolic network of Lc. lactis subsp. lactis was rebuild regarding its carbohydrates' metabolic capabilities. Based on the metatranscriptomic data during the ripening of the Swiss-type Maasdam cheese at 20 °C and 5 °C, it was shown that the microorganism performed mixed acid fermentation producing lactate, formate, acetate, ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Mixed acid fermentation was more pronounced at higher ripening temperatures. At lower ripening temperatures, the genes involved in mixed acid fermentation were repressed while lactate production remained unaffected resembling to a homolactic fermentation. Comparative genomics and metatranscriptomic analysis are powerful tools to gain knowledge on the genomic diversity of the lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures as well as on the metabolic activities occurring in fermented dairy products.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Yu J, Xiang X, Huang J, et al (2020)

Haplotyping by CRISPR-mediated DNA circularization (CRISPR-hapC) broadens allele-specific gene editing.

Nucleic acids research pii:5707197 [Epub ahead of print].

Allele-specific protospacer adjacent motif (asPAM)-positioning SNPs and CRISPRs are valuable resources for gene therapy of dominant disorders. However, one technical hurdle is to identify the haplotype comprising the disease-causing allele and the distal asPAM SNPs. Here, we describe a novel CRISPR-based method (CRISPR-hapC) for haplotyping. Based on the generation (with a pair of CRISPRs) of extrachromosomal circular DNA in cells, the CRISPR-hapC can map haplotypes from a few hundred bases to over 200 Mb. To streamline and demonstrate the applicability of the CRISPR-hapC and asPAM CRISPR for allele-specific gene editing, we reanalyzed the 1000 human pan-genome and generated a high frequency asPAM SNP and CRISPR database (www.crispratlas.com/knockout) for four CRISPR systems (SaCas9, SpCas9, xCas9 and Cas12a). Using the huntingtin (HTT) CAG expansion and transthyretin (TTR) exon 2 mutation as examples, we showed that the asPAM CRISPRs can specifically discriminate active and dead PAMs for all 23 loci tested. Combination of the CRISPR-hapC and asPAM CRISPRs further demonstrated the capability for achieving highly accurate and haplotype-specific deletion of the HTT CAG expansion allele and TTR exon 2 mutation in human cells. Taken together, our study provides a new approach and an important resource for genome research and allele-specific (haplotype-specific) gene therapy.

RevDate: 2020-01-23

He Y, Zhou X, Chen Z, et al (2020)

PRAP: Pan Resistome analysis pipeline.

BMC bioinformatics, 21(1):20.

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) can spread among pathogens via horizontal gene transfer, resulting in imparities in their distribution even within the same species. Therefore, a pan-genome approach to analyzing resistomes is necessary for thoroughly characterizing patterns of ARGs distribution within particular pathogen populations. Software tools are readily available for either ARGs identification or pan-genome analysis, but few exist to combine the two functions.

RESULTS: We developed Pan Resistome Analysis Pipeline (PRAP) for the rapid identification of antibiotic resistance genes from various formats of whole genome sequences based on the CARD or ResFinder databases. Detailed annotations were used to analyze pan-resistome features and characterize distributions of ARGs. The contribution of different alleles to antibiotic resistance was predicted by a random forest classifier. Results of analysis were presented in browsable files along with a variety of visualization options. We demonstrated the performance of PRAP by analyzing the genomes of 26 Salmonella enterica isolates from Shanghai, China.

CONCLUSIONS: PRAP was effective for identifying ARGs and visualizing pan-resistome features, therefore facilitating pan-genomic investigation of ARGs. This tool has the ability to further excavate potential relationships between antibiotic resistance genes and their phenotypic traits.

RevDate: 2020-02-04

Park CJ, CP Andam (2020)

Distinct but Intertwined Evolutionary Histories of Multiple Salmonella enterica Subspecies.

mSystems, 5(1):.

Salmonella is responsible for many nontyphoidal foodborne infections and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans. Of the two Salmonella species, Salmonella enterica is highly diverse and includes 10 known subspecies and approximately 2,600 serotypes. Understanding the evolutionary processes that generate the tremendous diversity in Salmonella is important in reducing and controlling the incidence of disease outbreaks and the emergence of virulent strains. In this study, we aim to elucidate the impact of homologous recombination in the diversification of S. enterica subspecies. Using a data set of previously published 926 Salmonella genomes representing the 10 S. enterica subspecies and Salmonella bongori, we calculated a genus-wide pan-genome composed of 84,041 genes and the S. enterica pan-genome of 81,371 genes. The size of the accessory genomes varies between 12,429 genes in S. enterica subsp. arizonae (subsp. IIIa) to 33,257 genes in S. enterica subsp. enterica (subsp. I). A total of 12,136 genes in the Salmonella pan-genome show evidence of recombination, representing 14.44% of the pan-genome. We identified genomic hot spots of recombination that include genes associated with flagellin and the synthesis of methionine and thiamine pyrophosphate, which are known to influence host adaptation and virulence. Last, we uncovered within-species heterogeneity in rates of recombination and preferential genetic exchange between certain donor and recipient strains. Frequent but biased recombination within a bacterial species may suggest that lineages vary in their response to environmental selection pressure. Certain lineages, such as the more uncommon non-enterica subspecies (non-S. enterica subsp. enterica), may also act as a major reservoir of genetic diversity for the wider population.IMPORTANCES. enterica is a major foodborne pathogen, which can be transmitted via several distinct routes from animals and environmental sources to human hosts. Multiple subspecies and serotypes of S. enterica exhibit considerable differences in virulence, host specificity, and colonization. This study provides detailed insights into the dynamics of recombination and its contributions to S. enterica subspecies evolution. Widespread recombination within the species means that new adaptations arising in one lineage can be rapidly transferred to another lineage. We therefore predict that recombination has been an important factor in the emergence of several major disease-causing strains from diverse genomic backgrounds and their ability to adapt to disparate environments.

RevDate: 2020-01-31

Nakamura K, Murase K, Sato MP, et al (2020)

Differential dynamics and impacts of prophages and plasmids on the pangenome and virulence factor repertoires of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O145:H28.

Microbial genomics, 6(1):.

Phages and plasmids play important roles in bacterial evolution and diversification. Although many draft genomes have been generated, phage and plasmid genomes are usually fragmented, limiting our understanding of their dynamics. Here, we performed a systematic analysis of 239 draft genomes and 7 complete genomes of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O145:H28, the major virulence factors of which are encoded by prophages (PPs) or plasmids. The results indicated that PPs are more stably maintained than plasmids. A set of ancestrally acquired PPs was well conserved, while various PPs, including Stx phages, were acquired by multiple sublineages. In contrast, gains and losses of a wide range of plasmids have frequently occurred across the O145:H28 lineage, and only the virulence plasmid was well conserved. The different dynamics of PPs and plasmids have differentially impacted the pangenome of O145:H28, with high proportions of PP- and plasmid-associated genes in the variably present and rare gene fractions, respectively. The dynamics of PPs and plasmids have also strongly impacted virulence gene repertoires, such as the highly variable distribution of stx genes and the high conservation of a set of type III secretion effectors, which probably represents the core effectors of O145:H28 and the genes on the virulence plasmid in the entire O145:H28 population. These results provide detailed insights into the dynamics of PPs and plasmids, and show the application of genomic analyses using a large set of draft genomes and appropriately selected complete genomes.

RevDate: 2020-01-14

Tetz VV, GV Tetz (2020)

A new biological definition of life.

Biomolecular concepts, 11(1):1-6 pii:/j/bmc.2020.11.issue-1/bmc-2020-0001/bmc-2020-0001.xml.

Here we have proposed a new biological definition of life based on the function and reproduction of existing genes and creation of new ones, which is applicable to both unicellular and multicellular organisms. First, we coined a new term "genetic information metabolism" comprising functioning, reproduction, and creation of genes and their distribution among living and non-living carriers of genetic information. Encompassing this concept, life is defined as organized matter that provides genetic information metabolism. Additionally, we have articulated the general biological function of life as Tetz biological law: "General biological function of life is to provide genetic information metabolism" and formulated novel definition of life: "Life is an organized matter that provides genetic information metabolism". New definition of life and Tetz biological law allow to distinguish in a new way living and non-living objects on Earth and other planets based on providing genetic information metabolism.

RevDate: 2020-01-23

Song JM, Guan Z, Hu J, et al (2020)

Eight high-quality genomes reveal pan-genome architecture and ecotype differentiation of Brassica napus.

Nature plants, 6(1):34-45.

Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is the second most important oilseed crop in the world but the genetic diversity underlying its massive phenotypic variations remains largely unexplored. Here, we report the sequencing, de novo assembly and annotation of eight B. napus accessions. Using pan-genome comparative analysis, millions of small variations and 77.2-149.6 megabase presence and absence variations (PAVs) were identified. More than 9.4% of the genes contained large-effect mutations or structural variations. PAV-based genome-wide association study (PAV-GWAS) directly identified causal structural variations for silique length, seed weight and flowering time in a nested association mapping population with ZS11 (reference line) as the donor, which were not detected by single-nucleotide polymorphisms-based GWAS (SNP-GWAS), demonstrating that PAV-GWAS was complementary to SNP-GWAS in identifying associations to traits. Further analysis showed that PAVs in three FLOWERING LOCUS C genes were closely related to flowering time and ecotype differentiation. This study provides resources to support a better understanding of the genome architecture and acceleration of the genetic improvement of B. napus.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Jaiswal AK, Tiwari S, Jamal SB, et al (2020)

The pan-genome of Treponema pallidum reveals differences in genome plasticity between subspecies related to venereal and non-venereal syphilis.

BMC genomics, 21(1):33.

BACKGROUND: Spirochetal organisms of the Treponema genus are responsible for causing Treponematoses. Pathogenic treponemes is a Gram-negative, motile, spirochete pathogen that causes syphilis in human. Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) causes endemic syphilis (bejel); T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) causes venereal syphilis; T. pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) causes yaws; and T. pallidum subsp. Ccarateum causes pinta. Out of these four high morbidity diseases, venereal syphilis is mediated by sexual contact; the other three diseases are transmitted by close personal contact. The global distribution of syphilis is alarming and there is an increasing need of proper treatment and preventive measures. Unfortunately, effective measures are limited.

RESULTS: Here, the genome sequences of 53 T. pallidum strains isolated from different parts of the world and a diverse range of hosts were comparatively analysed using pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic and singleton analysis disclosed the close connection among all strains of the pathogen T. pallidum, its clonal behaviour and showed increases in the sizes of the pan-genome. Based on the genome plasticity analysis of the subsets containing the subspecies T pallidum subsp. pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum and T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, we found differences in the presence/absence of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) and genomic islands (GIs) on subsp.-based study.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we identified four pathogenicity islands (PAIs), eight genomic islands (GIs) in subsp. pallidum, whereas subsp. endemicum has three PAIs and seven GIs and subsp. pertenue harbours three PAIs and eight GIs. Concerning the presence of genes in PAIs and GIs, we found some genes related to lipid and amino acid biosynthesis that were only present in the subsp. of T. pallidum, compared to T. pallidum subsp. endemicum and T. pallidum subsp. pertenue.

RevDate: 2020-02-09

Si-Tuan N, Ngoc HM, Nhat LD, et al (2020)

Genomic features, whole-genome phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis of extreme-drug-resistant ventilator-associated-pneumonia Acinetobacter baumannii strain in a Vietnam hospital.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 80:104178 pii:S1567-1348(20)30010-1 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of ventilator-associated-pneumonia (VAP) worldwide due to its impressive propensity to rapidly acquire resistance elements to a wide range of antibacterial agents. We sought to explore the genomic features of this pathogen from a sputum specimen of a VAP male patient.

METHODS: Whole genome analysis of A. baumannii DMS06670 included de novo assembly; functional annotation, whole-genome-phylogenetic analysis, antibiotics genes identification, prophage regions, virulent factor and pan-genome analysis.

RESULTS: Assembly of whole-genome shotgun sequences of strain DMS06670 yielded an estimated genome size of 3.8 Mb with Sequence Type 447. Functional annotation and orthologous protein cluster analysis identified several potential antibiotic resistance genes was conducted (with 1 novel gene), prophage regions, virulent factors. The clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) analysis in protein sequence of the A. baumannii strain was compared with the other five genomes showed that the orthologous protein clusters responsible for multi-drug exist inside highly antimicrobial resistant strains. Whole-genome phylogenetic and in silico MLST analysis revealed that this A. baumannii strain is in the same clade as strains LAC-4 and BJAB0715. Comparative analysis of 23 available genomes of A. baumannii revealed a pan-genome consisting of 15,883 genes.

CONCLUSION: Our findings provide insight into the virulence-associated genes and then compared with the genomes of other A. baumannii strains by calculation of ANI values and pan-genome analysis. Functional studies of these pathogens are required to validate these findings.

RevDate: 2020-01-12

Rodriguez CI, JBH Martiny (2020)

Evolutionary relationships among bifidobacteria and their hosts and environments.

BMC genomics, 21(1):26.

BACKGROUND: The assembly of animal microbiomes is influenced by multiple environmental factors and host genetics, although the relative importance of these factors remains unclear. Bifidobacteria (genus Bifidobacterium, phylum Actinobacteria) are common first colonizers of gut microbiomes in humans and inhabit other mammals, social insects, food, and sewages. In humans, the presence of bifidobacteria in the gut has been correlated with health-promoting benefits. Here, we compared the genome sequences of a subset of the over 400 Bifidobacterium strains publicly available to investigate the adaptation of bifidobacteria diversity. We tested 1) whether bifidobacteria show a phylogenetic signal with their isolation sources (hosts and environments) and 2) whether key traits encoded by the bifidobacteria genomes depend on the host or environment from which they were isolated. We analyzed Bifidobacterium genomes available in the PATRIC and NCBI repositories and identified the hosts and/or environment from which they were isolated. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis was conducted to compare the genetic relatedness the strains harbored by different hosts and environments. Furthermore, we examined differences in genomic traits and genes related to amino acid biosynthesis and degradation of carbohydrates.

RESULTS: We found that bifidobacteria diversity appears to have evolved with their hosts as strains isolated from the same host were non-randomly associated with their phylogenetic relatedness. Moreover, bifidobacteria isolated from different sources displayed differences in genomic traits such as genome size and accessory gene composition and on particular traits related to amino acid production and degradation of carbohydrates. In contrast, when analyzing diversity within human-derived bifidobacteria, we observed no phylogenetic signal or differences on specific traits (amino acid biosynthesis genes and CAZymes).

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study shows that bifidobacteria diversity is strongly adapted to specific hosts and environments and that several genomic traits were associated with their isolation sources. However, this signal is not observed in human-derived strains alone. Looking into the genomic signatures of bifidobacteria strains in different environments can give insights into how this bacterial group adapts to their environment and what types of traits are important for these adaptations.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Garcia Teijeiro R, Belimov AA, IC Dodd (2019)

Microbial inoculum development for ameliorating crop drought stress: A case study of Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2.

New biotechnology, 56:103-113 pii:S1871-6784(19)30008-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Drought affects plant hormonal homeostasis, including root to shoot signalling. The plant is intimately connected below-ground with soil-dwelling microbes, including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that can modulate plant hormonal homeostasis. Incorporating PGPR into the rhizosphere often delivers favourable results in greenhouse experiments, while field applications are much less predictable. We review the natural processes that affect the formation and dynamics of the rhizosphere, establishing a model for successful field application of PGPR utilizing an example microbial inoculum, Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2.

RevDate: 2020-01-03

Rasheed A, Takumi S, Hassan MA, et al (2020)

Appraisal of wheat genomics for gene discovery and breeding applications: a special emphasis on advances in Asia.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik pii:10.1007/s00122-019-03523-w [Epub ahead of print].

KEY MESSAGE: We discussed the most recent efforts in wheat functional genomics to discover new genes and their deployment in breeding with special emphasis on advances in Asian countries. Wheat research community is making significant progress to bridge genotype-to-phenotype gap and then applying this knowledge in genetic improvement. The advances in genomics and phenomics have intrigued wheat researchers in Asia to make best use of this knowledge in gene and trait discovery. These advancements include, but not limited to, map-based gene cloning, translational genomics, gene mapping, association genetics, gene editing and genomic selection. We reviewed more than 57 homeologous genes discovered underpinning important traits and multiple strategies used for their discovery. Further, the complementary advancements in wheat phenomics and analytical approaches to understand the genetics of wheat adaptability, resilience to climate extremes and resistance to pest and diseases were discussed. The challenge to build a gold standard reference genome sequence of bread wheat is now achieved and several de novo reference sequences from the cultivars representing different gene pools will be available soon. New pan-genome sequencing resources of wheat will strengthen the foundation required for accelerated gene discovery and provide more opportunities to practice the knowledge-based breeding.

RevDate: 2020-01-11

Sulthana A, Lakshmi SG, RS Madempudi (2019)

High-quality draft genome and characterization of commercially potent probiotic Lactobacillus strains.

Genomics & informatics, 17(4):e43.

Lactobacillus acidophilus UBLA-34, L. paracasei UBLPC-35, L. plantarum UBLP-40, and L. reuteri UBLRU-87 were isolated from different varieties of fermented foods. To determine the probiotic safety at the strain level, the whole genome of the respective strains was sequenced, assembled, and characterized. Both the core-genome and pan-genome phylogeny showed that L. reuteri was closest to L. plantarum than to L. acidophilus, which was closest to L. paracasei. The genomic analysis of all the strains confirmed the absence of genes encoding putative virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and the plasmids.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Hu H, Yuan Y, Bayer PE, et al (2020)

Legume Pangenome Construction Using an Iterative Mapping and Assembly Approach.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2107:35-47.

A pangenome is a collection of genomic sequences found in the entire species rather than a single individual. It allows for comprehensive, species-wide characterization of genetic variations and mining of variable genes which may play important roles in phenotypes of interest. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated draft genome sequence construction and have made pangenome constructions feasible. Here, we present a reference genome-based iterative mapping and assembly method to construct a pangenome for a legume species.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Kim Y, Gu C, Kim HU, et al (2019)

Current status of pan-genome analysis for pathogenic bacteria.

Current opinion in biotechnology, 63:54-62 pii:S0958-1669(19)30138-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological knowledge accumulated over the decades and advances in computational methods have facilitated the implementation of pan-genome analysis that aims at better understanding of genotype-phenotype associations of a specific group of organisms. Pan-genome analysis has been shown to be an effective approach to better understand a clade of pathogenic bacteria because it helps developing various and tailored therapeutic strategies on the basis of their biological similarities and differences. Here, we review recent progress in the pan-genome analysis of pathogenic bacteria. In particular, we focus on computational tools that allow streamlined pan-genome analysis. Also, various applications of pan-genome analysis including those relevant to devising strategies for the prevention and treatment of pathogenic bacteria are reviewed.

RevDate: 2020-02-05

Coutinho FH, Edwards RA, F Rodríguez-Valera (2019)

Charting the diversity of uncultured viruses of Archaea and Bacteria.

BMC biology, 17(1):109.

BACKGROUND: Viruses of Archaea and Bacteria are among the most abundant and diverse biological entities on Earth. Unraveling their biodiversity has been challenging due to methodological limitations. Recent advances in culture-independent techniques, such as metagenomics, shed light on the unknown viral diversity, revealing thousands of new viral nucleotide sequences at an unprecedented scale. However, these novel sequences have not been properly classified and the evolutionary associations between them were not resolved.

RESULTS: Here, we performed phylogenomic analysis of nearly 200,000 viral nucleotide sequences to establish GL-UVAB: Genomic Lineages of Uncultured Viruses of Archaea and Bacteria. The pan-genome content of the identified lineages shed light on some of their infection strategies, potential to modulate host physiology, and mechanisms to escape host resistance systems. Furthermore, using GL-UVAB as a reference database for annotating metagenomes revealed elusive habitat distribution patterns of viral lineages and environmental drivers of community composition.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide insights about the genomic diversity and ecology of viruses of prokaryotes. The source code used in these analyses is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gluvab/.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Golicz AA, Bayer PE, Bhalla PL, et al (2020)

Pangenomics Comes of Age: From Bacteria to Plant and Animal Applications.

Trends in genetics : TIG, 36(2):132-145.

The pangenome refers to a collection of genomic sequence found in the entire species or population rather than in a single individual; the sequence can be core, present in all individuals, or accessory (variable or dispensable), found in a subset of individuals only. While pangenomic studies were first undertaken in bacterial species, developments in genome sequencing and assembly approaches have allowed construction of pangenomes for eukaryotic organisms, fungi, plants, and animals, including two large-scale human pangenome projects. Analysis of the these pangenomes revealed key differences, most likely stemming from divergent evolutionary histories, but also surprising similarities.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Lee IPA, CP Andam (2019)

Pan-genome diversification and recombination in Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen in neonates, and insights to its xerotolerant lifestyle.

BMC microbiology, 19(1):306.

BACKGROUND: Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging opportunistic bacterial pathogen known to cause neonatal and pediatric infections, including meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bacteremia. Multiple disease outbreaks of C. sakazakii have been documented in the past few decades, yet little is known of its genomic diversity, adaptation, and evolution. Here, we analyzed the pan-genome characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of 237 genomes of C. sakazakii and 48 genomes of related Cronobacter species isolated from diverse sources.

RESULTS: The C. sakazakii pan-genome contains 17,158 orthologous gene clusters, and approximately 19.5% of these constitute the core genome. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the presence of at least ten deep branching monophyletic lineages indicative of ancestral diversification. We detected enrichment of functions involved in proton transport and rotational mechanism in accessory genes exclusively found in human-derived strains. In environment-exclusive accessory genes, we detected enrichment for those involved in tryptophan biosynthesis and indole metabolism. However, we did not find significantly enriched gene functions for those genes exclusively found in food strains. The most frequently detected virulence genes are those that encode proteins associated with chemotaxis, enterobactin synthesis, ferrienterobactin transporter, type VI secretion system, galactose metabolism, and mannose metabolism. The genes fos which encodes resistance against fosfomycin, a broad-spectrum cell wall synthesis inhibitor, and mdf(A) which encodes a multidrug efflux transporter were found in nearly all genomes. We found that a total of 2991 genes in the pan-genome have had a history of recombination. Many of the most frequently recombined genes are associated with nutrient acquisition, metabolism and toxin production.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results indicate that the presence of a large accessory gene pool, ability to switch between ecological niches, a diverse suite of antibiotic resistance, virulence and niche-specific genes, and frequent recombination partly explain the remarkable adaptability of C. sakazakii within and outside the human host. These findings provide critical insights that can help define the development of effective disease surveillance and control strategies for Cronobacter-related diseases.

RevDate: 2020-02-04

Wang Y, Luo L, Li Q, et al (2019)

Genomic dissection of the most prevalent Listeria monocytogenes clone, sequence type ST87, in China.

BMC genomics, 20(1):1014.

BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes consists of four lineages that occupy a wide variety of ecological niches. Sequence type (ST) 87 (serotype 1/2b), belonging to lineage I, is one of the most common STs isolated from food products, food associated environments and sporadic listeriosis in China. Here, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of the L. monocytogenes ST87 clone by sequencing 71 strains representing a diverse range of sources, different geographical locations and isolation years.

RESULTS: The core genome and pan genome of ST87 contained 2667 genes and 3687 genes respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on core genome SNPs divided the 71 strains into 10 clades. The clinical strains were distributed among multiple clades. Four clades contained strains from multiple geographic regions and showed high genetic diversity. The major gene content variation of ST87 genomes was due to putative prophages, with eleven hotspots of the genome that harbor prophages. All strains carry an intact CRISRP/Cas system. Two major CRISPR spacer profiles were found which were not clustered phylogenetically. A large plasmid of about 90 Kb, which carried heavy metal resistance genes, was found in 32.4% (23/71) of the strains. All ST87 strains harbored the Listeria pathogenicity island (LIPI)-4 and a unique 10-open read frame (ORF) genomic island containing a novel restriction-modification system.

CONCLUSION: Whole genome sequence analysis of L. monocytogenes ST87 enabled a clearer understanding of the population structure and the evolutionary history of ST87 L. monocytogenes in China. The novel genetic elements identified may contribute to its virulence and adaptation to different environmental niches. Our findings will be useful for the development of effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of listeriosis caused by this prevalent clone.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Albert K, Rani A, DA Sela (2019)

Comparative Pangenomics of the Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium longum.

Microorganisms, 8(1): pii:microorganisms8010007.

Bifidobacterium longum colonizes mammalian gastrointestinal tracts where it could metabolize host-indigestible oligosaccharides. Although B. longum strains are currently segregated into three subspecies that reflect common metabolic capacities and genetic similarity, heterogeneity within subspecies suggests that these taxonomic boundaries may not be completely resolved. To address this, the B. longum pangenome was analyzed from representative strains isolated from a diverse set of sources. As a result, the B. longum pangenome is open and contains almost 17,000 genes, with over 85% of genes found in ≤28 of 191 strains. B. longum genomes share a small core gene set of only ~500 genes, or ~3% of the total pangenome. Although the individual B. longum subspecies pangenomes share similar relative abundances of clusters of orthologous groups, strains show inter- and intrasubspecies differences with respect to carbohydrate utilization gene content and growth phenotypes.

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )