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Bibliography on: Pangenome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 22 Jan 2021 at 01:32 Created: 


Although the enforced stability of genomic content is ubiquitous among MCEs, the opposite is proving to be the case among prokaryotes, which exhibit remarkable and adaptive plasticity of genomic content. Early bacterial whole-genome sequencing efforts discovered that whenever a particular "species" was re-sequenced, new genes were found that had not been detected earlier — entirely new genes, not merely new alleles. This led to the concepts of the bacterial core-genome, the set of genes found in all members of a particular "species", and the flex-genome, the set of genes found in some, but not all members of the "species". Together these make up the species' pan-genome.

Created with PubMed® Query: pangenome or "pan-genome" or "pan genome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-01-18

Pais AKL, Silva JRD, Santos LVSD, et al (2021)

Genomic sequencing of different sequevars of Ralstonia solanacearum belonging to the Moko ecotype.

Genetics and molecular biology, 44(1):e20200172 pii:S1415-47572021000100402.

Banana vascular wilt or Moko is a disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and compare the genomes of R. solanacearum Moko ecotypes of different sequevar strains from Brazil. Average nucleotide identity analyses demonstrated a high correlation (> 96%) between the genome sequences of strains CCRMRs277 (sequevar IIA-24), CCRMRs287 (IIB-4), CCRMRs304 (IIA-24), and CCRMRsB7 (IIB-25), which were grouped into phylotypes IIA and IIB. The number of coding sequences present in chromosomes and megaplasmids varied from 3,070 to 3,521 and 1,669 to 1,750, respectively. Pangenome analysis identified 3,378 clusters in the chromosomes, of which 2,604 were shared by all four analyzed genomes and 2,580 were single copies. In megaplasmids, 1,834 clusters were identified, of which 1,005 were shared by all four genomes and 992 were identified as single copies. Strains CCRMRsB7 and CCRMRs287 differed from the others by having unique clusters in both their chromosomes and megaplasmids, and CCRMRsB7 possessed the largest genome among all Moko ecotype strains sequenced to date. Therefore, the genomic information obtained in this study provides a theoretical basis for the identification, characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of R. solanacearum Moko ecotypes.

RevDate: 2021-01-16

Rai A, Hirakawa H, Nakabayashi R, et al (2021)

Chromosome-level genome assembly of Ophiorrhiza pumila reveals the evolution of camptothecin biosynthesis.

Nature communications, 12(1):405.

Plant genomes remain highly fragmented and are often characterized by hundreds to thousands of assembly gaps. Here, we report chromosome-level reference and phased genome assembly of Ophiorrhiza pumila, a camptothecin-producing medicinal plant, through an ordered multi-scaffolding and experimental validation approach. With 21 assembly gaps and a contig N50 of 18.49 Mb, Ophiorrhiza genome is one of the most complete plant genomes assembled to date. We also report 273 nitrogen-containing metabolites, including diverse monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). A comparative genomics approach identifies strictosidine biogenesis as the origin of MIA evolution. The emergence of strictosidine biosynthesis-catalyzing enzymes precede downstream enzymes' evolution post γ whole-genome triplication, which occurred approximately 110 Mya in O. pumila, and before the whole-genome duplication in Camptotheca acuminata identified here. Combining comparative genome analysis, multi-omics analysis, and metabolic gene-cluster analysis, we propose a working model for MIA evolution, and a pangenome for MIA biosynthesis, which will help in establishing a sustainable supply of camptothecin.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Bravakos P, Mandalakis M, Nomikou P, et al (2021)

Genomic adaptation of Pseudomonas strains to acidity and antibiotics in hydrothermal vents at Kolumbo submarine volcano, Greece.

Scientific reports, 11(1):1336.

Although the rise of antibiotic and multidrug resistant bacteria is one of the biggest current threats to human health, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in antibiotic resistance selection remains scarce. We performed whole genome sequencing of 21 Pseudomonas strains, previously isolated from an active submarine volcano of Greece, the Kolumbo volcano. Our goal was to identify the genetic basis of the enhanced co-tolerance to antibiotics and acidity of these Pseudomonas strains. Pangenome analysis identified 10,908 Gene Clusters (GCs). It revealed that the numbers of phage-related GCs and sigma factors, which both provide the mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stressors, were much higher in the high tolerant Pseudomonas strains compared to the rest ones. All identified GCs of these strains were associated with antimicrobial and multidrug resistance. The present study provides strong evidence that the CO2-rich seawater of the volcano associated with low pH might be a reservoir of microorganisms carrying multidrug efflux-mediated systems and pumps. We, therefore, suggest further studies of other extreme environments (or ecosystems) and their associated physicochemical parameters (or factors) in the rise of antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Heaton MP, Smith TPL, Bickhart DM, et al (2021)

A reference genome assembly of Simmental cattle, Bos taurus taurus.

The Journal of heredity pii:6092654 [Epub ahead of print].

Genomics research has relied principally on the establishment and curation of a reference genome for the species. However, it is increasingly recognized that a single reference genome cannot fully describe the extent of genetic variation within many widely-distributed species. Pangenome representations are based on high-quality genome assemblies of multiple individuals and intended to represent the broadest possible diversity within a species. A Bovine Pangenome Consortium (BPC) has recently been established to begin assembling genomes from more than 600 recognized breeds of cattle, together with other related species to provide information on ancestral alleles and haplotypes. Previously reported de novo genome assemblies for Angus, Brahman, Hereford, and Highland breeds of cattle are part of the initial BPC effort. The present report describes a complete single haplotype assembly at chromosome-scale for a fullblood Simmental cow from an F1 bison-cattle hybrid fetus by trio binning. Simmental cattle, also known as Fleckvieh due to their red and white spots, originated in central Europe in the 1830's as a triple-purpose breed selected for draught, meat, and dairy production. There are over 50 million Simmental cattle in the world, known today for their fast growth and beef yields. This assembly (ARS_Simm1.0) is similar in length to the other bovine assemblies at 2.86 Gb, with a scaffold N50 of 102 Mb (max scaffold 156.8 Mb) and meets or exceeds the continuity of the best B. taurus reference assemblies to date.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Hasan NA, Norton GJ, Virdi R, et al (2021)

Measurable genomic changes in Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis after long-term adaptation in Acanthamoeba lenticulata and reduced persistence in macrophages.

Journal of bacteriology pii:JB.00257-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Free-living amoebae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and act as environmental reservoirs for nontuberculous mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis recovered from Acanthamoeba has been demonstrated to be more virulent in both human and murine models. Here, we investigate the persistence of M. avium subsp. hominissuis after short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (42 weeks) co-culture in Acanthamoeba lenticulata We hypothesize that A. lenticulata-adapted M. avium subsp. hominissuis demonstrate phenotypic and genomic changes facilitating intracellular persistence in naïve Acanthamoeba and human macrophages. M. avium subsp. hominissuis CFU in co-culture with A. lenticulata were recorded every 2 weeks up to 60 weeks. While A. lenticulata-associated M. avium subsp. hominissuis CFU did not significantly change across 60 weeks of co-culture, longer adaptation time in amoebae reduced colony size. Isolates recovered after 2 or 42 weeks of amoebae co-culture were referred as "early-adapted" and "late-adapted" M. avium subsp. hominissuis, respectively. Whole genome sequencing was performed on amoebae-adapted isolates with pan-genome comparisons to the original M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolate. Next, amoebae-adapted isolates were assessed for their persistence in A. lenticulata,A. castellanii, and human THP-1 macrophages. Multiplex cytokine/chemokine analyses were conducted on THP-1 culture supernatants. Compared to the original isolate, counts of late-adapted M. avium subsp. hominissuis were reduced in Acanthamoeba and contrary to expectations, lower counts were also observed in THP-1 macrophages with concomitant decrease in TNFa, IL-6, and MIP-1b suggesting that host adaptation may influence the inflammatory properties of M. aviumIMPORTANCE Short-term interaction between Acanthamoeba and M. avium has been demonstrated to increase infectivity in human and murine models of infection, establishing the paradigm that amoebae "train" M. avium in the environment by selecting for phenotypes capable of enduring in human cells. We investigate this phenomenon further by determining the consequence of long-term amoebae adaptation on M. avium subsp. hominissuis persistence in host cells. We monitored genomic changes across long-term Acanthamoeba co-culture and report significant changes to the M. avium subsp. hominissuis genome in response to amoebae-adaptation and reduced colony size. Furthermore, we examined isolates co-cultured with A. lenticulata for 2 or 42 weeks and provide biological evidence that long-term co-culture in amoebae reduces M. avium persistence in human macrophages.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Firrao G, Scortichini M, L Pagliari (2021)

Orthology-Based Estimate of the Contribution of Horizontal Gene Transfer from Distantly Related Bacteria to the Intraspecific Diversity and Differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(1): pii:pathogens10010046.

Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium phylogenetically related to the xanthomonads, with an unusually large and diversified range of plant hosts. To ascertain the origin of its peculiarities, its pan-genome was scanned to identify the genes that are not coherent with its phylogenetic position within the order Xanthomonadales. The results of the analysis revealed that a large fraction of the genes of the Xylella pan-genome have no ortholog or close paralog in the order Xanthomonadales. For a significant part of the genes, the closest homologue was found in bacteria belonging to distantly related taxonomic groups, most frequently in the Betaproteobacteria. Other species, such as Xanthomonas vasicola and Xanthomonas albilineans which were investigated for comparison, did not show a similar genetic contribution from distant branches of the prokaryotic tree of life. This finding indicates that the process of acquisition of DNA from the environment is still a relevant component of Xylella fastidiosa evolution. Although the ability of Xylella fastidiosa strains to recombine among themselves is well known, the results of the pan-genome analyses stressed the additional relevance of environmental DNA in shaping their genomes, with potential consequences on their phytopathological features.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Du H, Diao C, Zhao P, et al (2021)

Integrated hybrid de novo assembly technologies to obtain high-quality pig genome using short and long reads.

Briefings in bioinformatics pii:6082823 [Epub ahead of print].

With the rapid progress of sequencing technologies, various types of sequencing reads and assembly algorithms have been designed to construct genome assemblies. Although recent studies have attempted to evaluate the appropriate type of sequencing reads and algorithms for assembling high-quality genomes, it is still a challenge to set the correct combination for constructing animal genomes. Here, we present a comparative performance assessment of 14 assembly combinations-9 software programs with different short and long reads of Duroc pig. Based on the results of the optimization process for genome construction, we designed an integrated hybrid de novo assembly pipeline, HSCG, and constructed a draft genome for Duroc pig. Comparison between the new genome and Sus scrofa 11.1 revealed important breakpoints in two S. scrofa 11.1 genes. Our findings may provide new insights into the pan-genome analysis studies of agricultural animals, and the integrated assembly pipeline may serve as a guide for the assembly of other animal genomes.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Harrison F, AR Smyth (2021)

Professor Pangloss and the Pangenome: Does Staphylococcus aureus Have the Best of All Possible Worlds?.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-01-09

Wang M, Ruan R, H Li (2021)

The completed genome sequence of the pathogenic ascomycete fungus Penicillium digitatum.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(21)00001-X [Epub ahead of print].

P. digitatum, the causative agent of green mold, is one of the most destructive pathogens in the citrus industry. To facilitate basal researches on this important plant pathogen, here we report a finished genome sequence for P. digitatum strain PDW03 using a combination of Illumina, PacBio, and Hi-C sequencing technologies. The assembly comprised 6 chromosomes from telomere to telomere and encodes approximately 9000 proteins. Genomic re-analyses identified 302 Carbohydrate-active enzymes, 420 secreted proteins, and 39 secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters. Furthermore, we found 10 fragmentary SM clusters in the P. digitatum PDW03 genome. Pangenome analysis based on 5 P. digitatum genomes available showed that conserved orthogroups account for ~68% of the species pangenome. Taken together, this fully completed P. digitatum genome will provide an optimum resource for further researches to investigate the driving forces of fungal host switch and effectors functioning in plant-pathogen interaction.

RevDate: 2021-01-09

Higdon SM, Huang BC, Bennett AB, et al (2020)

Identification of Nitrogen Fixation Genes in Lactococcus Isolated from Maize Using Population Genomics and Machine Learning.

Microorganisms, 8(12): pii:microorganisms8122043.

Sierra Mixe maize is a landrace variety from Oaxaca, Mexico, that utilizes nitrogen derived from the atmosphere via an undefined nitrogen fixation mechanism. The diazotrophic microbiota associated with the plant's mucilaginous aerial root exudate composed of complex carbohydrates was previously identified and characterized by our group where we found 23 lactococci capable of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) without containing any of the proposed essential genes for this trait (nifHDKENB). To determine the genes in Lactococcus associated with this phenotype, we selected 70 lactococci from the dairy industry that are not known to be diazotrophic to conduct a comparative population genomic analysis. This showed that the diazotrophic lactococcal genomes were distinctly different from the dairy isolates. Examining the pangenome followed by genome-wide association study and machine learning identified genes with the functions needed for BNF in the maize isolates that were absent from the dairy isolates. Many of the putative genes received an 'unknown' annotation, which led to the domain analysis of the 135 homologs. This revealed genes with molecular functions needed for BNF, including mucilage carbohydrate catabolism, glycan-mediated host adhesion, iron/siderophore utilization, and oxidation/reduction control. This is the first report of this pathway in this organism to underpin BNF. Consequently, we proposed a model needed for BNF in lactococci that plausibly accounts for BNF in the absence of the nif operon in this organism.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Horesh G, Blackwell GA, Tonkin-Hill G, et al (2021)

A comprehensive and high-quality collection of Escherichia coli genomes and their genes.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Nzoyikorera N, Diawara I, Fresia P, et al (2021)

Whole genomic comparative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 isolates causing invasive and non-invasive infections among children under 5 years in Casablanca, Morocco.

BMC genomics, 22(1):39.

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 remains a leading cause of invasive pneumococcal diseases, even in countries with PCV-10/PCV-13 vaccine implementation. The main objective of this study, which is part of the Pneumococcal African Genome project (PAGe), was to determine the phylogenetic relationships of serotype 1 isolates recovered from children patients in Casablanca (Morocco), compared to these from other African countries; and to investigate the contribution of accessory genes and recombination events to the genetic diversity of this serotype.

RESULTS: The genome average size of the six-pneumococcus serotype 1 from Casablanca was 2,227,119 bp, and the average content of coding sequences was 2113, ranging from 2041 to 2161. Pangenome analysis of the 80 genomes used in this study revealed 1685 core genes and 1805 accessory genes. The phylogenetic tree based on core genes and the hierarchical bayesian clustering analysis revealed five sublineages with a phylogeographic structure by country. The Moroccan strains cluster in two different lineages, the five invasive strains clusters altogether in a divergent clade distantly related to the non-invasive strain, that cluster with all the serotype 1 genomes from Africa.

CONCLUSIONS: The whole genome sequencing provides increased resolution analysis of the highly virulent serotype 1 in Casablanca, Morocco. Our results are concordant with previous works, showing that the phylogeography of S. pneumoniae serotype 1 is structured by country, and despite the small size (six isolates) of the Moroccan sample, our analysis shows the genetic cohesion of the Moroccan invasive isolates.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Yahara K, Suzuki M, Hirabayashi A, et al (2021)

Long-read metagenomics using PromethION uncovers oral bacteriophages and their interaction with host bacteria.

Nature communications, 12(1):27.

Bacteriophages (phages), or bacterial viruses, are very diverse and highly abundant worldwide, including as a part of the human microbiomes. Although a few metagenomic studies have focused on oral phages, they relied on short-read sequencing. Here, we conduct a long-read metagenomic study of human saliva using PromethION. Our analyses, which integrate both PromethION and HiSeq data of >30 Gb per sample with low human DNA contamination, identify hundreds of viral contigs; 0-43.8% and 12.5-56.3% of the confidently predicted phages and prophages, respectively, do not cluster with those reported previously. Our analyses demonstrate enhanced scaffolding, and the ability to place a prophage in its host genomic context and enable its taxonomic classification. Our analyses also identify a Streptococcus phage/prophage group and nine jumbo phages/prophages. 86% of the phage/prophage group and 67% of the jumbo phages/prophages contain remote homologs of antimicrobial resistance genes. Pan-genome analysis of the phages/prophages reveals remarkable diversity, identifying 0.3% and 86.4% of the genes as core and singletons, respectively. Furthermore, our study suggests that oral phages present in human saliva are under selective pressure to escape CRISPR immunity. Our study demonstrates the power of long-read metagenomics utilizing PromethION in uncovering bacteriophages and their interaction with host bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Della Coletta R, Qiu Y, Ou S, et al (2021)

How the pan-genome is changing crop genomics and improvement.

Genome biology, 22(1):3.

Crop genomics has seen dramatic advances in recent years due to improvements in sequencing technology, assembly methods, and computational resources. These advances have led to the development of new tools to facilitate crop improvement. The study of structural variation within species and the characterization of the pan-genome has revealed extensive genome content variation among individuals within a species that is paradigm shifting to crop genomics and improvement. Here, we review advances in crop genomics and how utilization of these tools is shifting in light of pan-genomes that are becoming available for many crop species.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Fontana F, Alessandri G, Lugli GA, et al (2020)

Probiogenomics Analysis of 97 Lactobacilluscrispatus Strains as a Tool for the Identification of Promising Next-Generation Probiotics.

Microorganisms, 9(1): pii:microorganisms9010073.

Members of the genus Lactobacillus represent the most common colonizers of the human vagina and are well-known for preserving vaginal health and contrasting the colonization of opportunistic pathogens. Remarkably, high abundance of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vaginal environment has been linked to vaginal health, leading to the widespread use of many L. crispatus strains as probiotics. Nevertheless, despite the scientific and industrial relevance of this species, a comprehensive investigation of the genomics of L. crispatus taxon is still missing. For this reason, we have performed a comparative genomics analysis of 97 L. crispatus strains, encompassing 16 strains sequenced in the framework of this study alongside 81 additional publicly available genome sequences. Thus, allowing the dissection of the L.crispatus pan-genome and core-genome followed by a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted core genes that revealed clustering based on ecological origin. Subsequently, a genomics-targeted approach, i.e., probiogenomics analysis, was applied for in-depth analysis of the eight L. crispatus strains of human origin sequenced in this study. In detail their genetic repertoire was screened for strain-specific genes responsible for phenotypic features that may guide the identification of optimal candidates for next-generation probiotics. The latter includes bacteriocin production, carbohydrates transport and metabolism, as well as a range of features that may be responsible for improved ecological fitness. In silico results regarding the genetic repertoire involved in carbohydrate metabolism were also validated by growth assays on a range of sugars, leading to the selection of putative novel probiotic strains.

RevDate: 2021-01-01

Wibberg D, Price-Carter M, Rückert C, et al (2020)

Complete Genome Sequence of Ovine Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strain JIII-386 (MAP-S/type III) and Its Comparison to MAP-S/type I, MAP-C, and M. avium Complex Genomes.

Microorganisms, 9(1): pii:microorganisms9010070.

Mycobacterium avium (M. a.) subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a worldwide-distributed obligate pathogen in ruminants causing Johne's disease. Due to a lack of complete subtype III genome sequences, there is not yet conclusive information about genetic differences between strains of cattle (MAP-C, type II) and sheep (MAP-S) type, and especially between MAP-S subtypes I, and III. Here we present the complete, circular genome of MAP-S/type III strain JIII-386 (DE) closed by Nanopore-technology and its comparison with MAP-S/type I closed genome of strain Telford (AUS), MAP-S/type III draft genome of strain S397 (U.S.), twelve closed MAP-C strains, and eight closed M.-a.-complex-strains. Structural comparative alignments revealed clearly the mosaic nature of MAP, emphasized differences between the subtypes and the higher diversity of MAP-S genomes. The comparison of various genomic elements including transposases and genomic islands provide new insights in MAP genomics. MAP type specific phenotypic features may be attributed to genes of known large sequence polymorphisms (LSPS s) regions I-IV and deletions #1 and #2, confirmed here, but could also result from identified frameshifts or interruptions of various virulence-associated genes (e.g., mbtC in MAP-S). Comprehensive core and pan genome analysis uncovered unique genes (e.g., cytochromes) and genes probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer in different MAP-types and subtypes, but also emphasized the highly conserved and close relationship, and the complex evolution of M.-a.-strains.

RevDate: 2021-01-01

Yang SM, Baek J, Kim E, et al (2020)

Development of a Genoserotyping Method for Salmonella Infantis Detection on the Basis of Pangenome Analysis.

Microorganisms, 9(1): pii:microorganisms9010067.

In recent years, Salmonella Infantis has become a predominant serovariant in clinical and poultry isolates, thereby imposing a substantial economic burden on both public health and the livestock industry. With the aim of coping with the steep increase in serovar Infantis prevalence, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based rapid and accurate diagnostic assay was developed in this study through pangenome profiling of 60 Salmonella serovars. A gene marker, SIN_02055, was identified, which is present in the S. Infantis genome but not in the pangenome of the other serovars. Primers specific to SIN_02055 were used to accurately detect serovar Infantis, and to successfully differentiate Infantis from the other 59 serovars in real-time PCR with a R2 of 0.999 and an efficiency of 95.76%. The developed method was applied to 54 Salmonella strains belonging to eight dominant serovars, and distinguished Infantis from the other seven serovars with an accuracy of 100%. The diagnostic primer set also did not show false positive amplification with 32 strains from eight non-Salmonella bacterial species. This cost-effective and rapid method can be considered an alternative to the classic serotyping using antisera.

RevDate: 2020-12-31

Bazin A, Gautreau G, Médigue C, et al (2020)

panRGP: a pangenome-based method to predict genomic islands and explore their diversity.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 36(Supplement_2):i651-i658.

MOTIVATION: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major source of variability in prokaryotic genomes. Regions of genome plasticity (RGPs) are clusters of genes located in highly variable genomic regions. Most of them arise from HGT and correspond to genomic islands (GIs). The study of those regions at the species level has become increasingly difficult with the data deluge of genomes. To date, no methods are available to identify GIs using hundreds of genomes to explore their diversity.

RESULTS: We present here the panRGP method that predicts RGPs using pangenome graphs made of all available genomes for a given species. It allows the study of thousands of genomes in order to access the diversity of RGPs and to predict spots of insertions. It gave the best predictions when benchmarked along other GI detection tools against a reference dataset. In addition, we illustrated its use on metagenome assembled genomes by redefining the borders of the leuX tRNA hotspot, a well-studied spot of insertion in Escherichia coli. panRPG is a scalable and reliable tool to predict GIs and spots making it an ideal approach for large comparative studies.

The methods presented in the current work are available through the following software: Detailed results and scripts to compute the benchmark metrics are available at

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Surachat K, Kantachote D, Deachamag P, et al (2020)

Genomic Insight into Pediococcus acidilactici HN9, a Potential Probiotic Strain Isolated from the Traditional Thai-Style Fermented Beef Nhang.

Microorganisms, 9(1): pii:microorganisms9010050.

Pediococcus acidilactici HN9 is a beneficial lactic acid bacterium isolated from Nhang, a traditional Thai-style fermented beef. In this study, the molecular properties of P. acidilactici HN9 were characterized to provide insights into its potential probiotic activity. Specifically, this work sought to report the complete genome of P. acidilactici HN9 and perform a comparative genome analysis with other bacterial strains belonging to the genus Pediococcus. Genomic features of HN9 were compared with those of all other bacterial Pediococcus strains to examine the adaptation, evolutionary relationships, and diversity within this genus. Additionally, several bioinformatic approaches were used to investigate phylogenetic relationships, genome stability, virulence factors, bacteriocin production, and antimicrobial resistance genes of the HN9 strain, as well as to ensure its safety as a potential starter culture in food applications. A 2,034,522 bp circular chromosome and two circular plasmids, designated pHN9-1 (42,239-bp) and pHN9-2 (30,711-bp), were detected, and used for pan-genome analysis, as well as for identification of bacteriocin-encoding genes in 129 strains belonging to all Pediococcus species. Two CRISPR regions were identified in P. acidilactici HN9, including type II-A CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas). This study provides an in-depth analysis on P. acidilactici HN9, facilitating a better understanding of its adaptability to different environments and its mechanism to maintain genome stability over time.

RevDate: 2020-12-31

Blesa A, Baquedano I, González-de la Fuente S, et al (2020)

Integrative and Conjugative Element ICETh1 Functions as a Pangenomic DNA Capture Module in Thermus thermophilus.

Microorganisms, 8(12): pii:microorganisms8122051.

Transjugation is an unconventional conjugation mechanism in Thermus thermophilus (Tth) that involves the active participation of both mating partners, encompassing a DNA secretion system (DSS) in the donor and an active natural competence apparatus (NCA) in the recipient cells. DSS is encoded within an integrative and conjugative element (ICETh1) in the strain Tth HB27, whereas the NCA is constitutively expressed in both mates. Previous experiments suggested the presence of multiple origins of transfer along the genome, which could generate genomic mosaicity among the progeny. Here, we designed transjugation experiments between two closely related strains of Tth with highly syntenic genomes, containing enough single nucleotide polymorphisms to allow precise parenthood analysis. Individual clones from the progeny were sequenced, revealing their origin as derivatives of our ICETh1-containing intended "donor" strain (HB27), which had acquired separate fragments from the genome of the ICETh1-free HB8 cells, which are our intended recipient. Due to the bidirectional nature of transjugation, only assays employing competence-defective HB27 derivatives as donors allowed the recovery of HB8-derived progeny. These results show a preference for a retrotransfer mechanism in transjugation in ICETh1-bearing strains, supporting an inter-strain gene-capture function for ICETh1. This function could benefit the donor-capable host by facilitating the acquisition of adaptive traits from external sources, ultimately increasing the open pangenome of Thermus, maximizing the potential repertoire of physiological and phenotypical traits related to adaptation and speciation.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Verma DK, Chaudhary C, Singh L, et al (2020)

Isolation and Taxonomic Characterization of Novel Haloarchaeal Isolates From Indian Solar Saltern: A Brief Review on Distribution of Bacteriorhodopsins and V-Type ATPases in Haloarchaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:554927.

Haloarchaea inhabit high salinity environments worldwide. They are a potentially rich source of crucial biomolecules like carotenoids and industrially useful proteins. However, diversity in haloarchaea present in Indian high salinity environments is poorly studied. In the present study, we isolated 12 haloarchaeal strains from hypersaline Kottakuppam, Tamil Nadu solar saltern in India. 16S rRNA based taxonomic characterization of these isolates suggested that nine of them are novel strains that belong to genera Haloarcula, Halomicrobium, and Haloferax. Transmission electron microscopy suggests the polymorphic nature of these haloarchaeal isolates. Most of the haloarchaeal species are known to be high producers of carotenoids. We were able to isolate carotenoids from all these 12 isolates. The UV-Vis spectroscopy-based analysis suggests that bacterioruberin and lycopene are the major carotenoids produced by these isolates. Based on the visual inspection of the purified carotenoids, the isolates were classified into two broad categories i.e., yellow and orange, attributed to the differences in the ratio of bacterioruberin and lycopene as confirmed by the UV-Vis spectral analysis. Using a PCR-based screening assay, we were able to detect the presence of the bacteriorhodopsin gene (bop) in 11 isolates. We performed whole-genome sequencing for three bop positive and one bop negative haloarchaeal isolates. Whole-genome sequencing, followed by pan-genome analysis identified multiple unique genes involved in various biological functions. We also successfully cloned, expressed, and purified functional recombinant bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from one of the isolates using Escherichia coli as an expression host. BR has light-driven proton pumping activity resulting in the proton gradient across the membrane, which is utilized by V-Type ATPases to produce ATP. We analyzed the distribution of bop and other accessory genes involved in functional BR expression and ATP synthesis in all the representative haloarchaeal species. Our bioinformatics-based analysis of all the sequenced members of genus Haloarcula suggests that bop, if present, is usually inserted between the genes coding for B and D subunits of the V-type ATPases operon. This study provides new insights into the genomic variations in haloarchaea and reports expression of new BR variant having good expression in functional form in E. coli.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Li F, Ye Q, Chen M, et al (2020)

Mining of novel target genes through pan-genome analysis for multiplex PCR differentiation of the major Listeria monocytogenes serotypes.

International journal of food microbiology, 339:109026 pii:S0168-1605(20)30520-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The abundant information provided by the pan-genome analysis approach reveals the diversity among Listeria monocytogenes serotypes. The objective of this study was to mine novel target genes using pan-genome analysis for multiplex PCR detection and differentiation of the major L. monocytogenes serotypes present in food. Pan-genome analysis and PCR validation revealed a total of 10 specific targets: one for lineage I, two for serogroup I.1, one for serogroup I.2, two for lineage II, one for serogroup II.1, three for lineage III. Primers for the novel targets were highly specific in individual reactions. The detection limits were 103-104 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL in pure bacterial cultures, meeting the requirements of molecular detection. Based on these novel targets, two new "lineage" multiplex PCR assays were developed to simultaneously distinguish between three lineages (I, II, and III) and five major serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 4b, and 4c) of L. monocytogenes. The detection limits of lineage I and lineage II&III mPCRs were 0.771 pg/μL and 1.76 pg/μL genomic DNA, respectively. The specificity of the mPCRs was robustly verified using other L. monocytogenes and non-L. monocytogenes serotypes. These results suggest that the two "lineage" multiplex PCRs based on novel targets offer a promising approach for accurate, sensitive, and rapid identification of L. monocytogenes serotypes.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Lassalle F, Dastgheib SMM, Zhao FJ, et al (2020)

Phylogenomics reveals the basis of adaptation of Pseudorhizobium species to extreme environments and supports a taxonomic revision of the genus.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 44(1):126165 pii:S0723-2020(20)30120-X [Epub ahead of print].

The family Rhizobiaceae includes many genera of soil bacteria, often isolated for their association with plants. Herein, we investigate the genomic diversity of a group of Rhizobium species and unclassified strains isolated from atypical environments, including seawater, rock matrix or polluted soil. Based on whole-genome similarity and core genome phylogeny, we show that this group corresponds to the genus Pseudorhizobium. We thus reclassify Rhizobium halotolerans, R. marinum, R. flavum and R. endolithicum as P. halotolerans sp. nov., P. marinum comb. nov., P. flavum comb. nov. and P. endolithicum comb. nov., respectively, and show that P. pelagicum is a synonym of P. marinum. We also delineate a new chemolithoautotroph species, P. banfieldiae sp. nov., whose type strain is NT-26T (=DSM 106348T=CFBP 8663T). This genome-based classification was supported by a chemotaxonomic comparison, with increasing taxonomic resolution provided by fatty acid, protein and metabolic profiles. In addition, we used a phylogenetic approach to infer scenarios of duplication, horizontal transfer and loss for all genes in the Pseudorhizobium pangenome. We thus identify the key functions associated with the diversification of each species and higher clades, shedding light on the mechanisms of adaptation to their respective ecological niches. Respiratory proteins acquired at the origin of Pseudorhizobium were combined with clade-specific genes to enable different strategies for detoxification and nutrition in harsh, nutrient-poor environments.

RevDate: 2020-12-21

Pardini Gontijo MT, Pereira Vidigal PM, Soto Lopez ME, et al (2020)

Bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria as source of signal-arrest-release motif lysins.

Research in microbiology pii:S0923-2508(20)30123-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria is challenging, a potential solution for which is the use of bacteriophage-derived lytic enzymes. However, the exogenous action of bacteriophage lysins against Gram-negative bacteria is hindered due to the presence of an impermeable outer membrane in these bacteria. Nevertheless, recent research has demonstrated that some lysins are capable of permeating the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria with the help of signal peptides. In the present study, we investigated the genomes of 309 bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative pathogens of clinical interest in order to determine the evolutionary markers of signal peptide-containing lysins. Complete genomes displayed 265 putative lysins, of which 17 (6.41%) contained signal-arrest-release motifs and 41 (15.47%) contained cleavable signal peptides. There was no apparent relationship between host specificity and lysin diversity. Nevertheless, the evolution of lysin genes might not be independent of the rest of the bacteriophage genome once pan-genome clustering and lysin diversity appear to be correlated. In addition, signal peptide- and signal-arrest-release-containing lysins were monophyletically distributed in the protein cladogram, suggesting that the natural selection of holin-independent lysins is divergent. Our study screened 58 (21.89%) out of 265 potential candidates for in vitro experimentation against MDR bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-12-21

Viana MVC, Profeta R, da Silva AL, et al (2020)

Taxonomic classification of strain PO100/5 shows a broader geographic distribution and genetic markers of the recently described Corynebacterium silvaticum.

PloS one, 15(12):e0244210 pii:PONE-D-20-11131.

The bacterial strain PO100/5 was isolated from a skin abscess taken from a pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) in the Alentejo region of southern Portugal. It was identified as Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis using biochemical tests, multiplex PCR and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. After genome sequencing and rpoB phylogeny, the strain was classified as C. ulcerans. To better understand the taxonomy of this strain and improve identification methods, we compared strain PO100/5 to other publicly available genomes from C. diphtheriae group. Taxonomic analysis reclassified it and three others strains as the recently described C. silvaticum, which have been isolated from wild boar and roe deer in Germany and Austria. The results showed that PO100/5 is the first sequenced genome of a C. silvaticum strain from livestock and a different geographical region, has the unique sequence type ST709, and could be could produce the diphtheriae toxin, along with strain 05-13. Genomic analysis of PO100/5 showed four prophages, and eight conserved genomic islands in comparison to C. ulcerans. Pangenome analysis of 38 C. silvaticum and 76 C. ulcerans genomes suggested that C. silvaticum is a genetically homogeneous species, with 73.6% of its genes conserved and a pangenome near to be closed (α > 0.952). There are 172 genes that are unique to C. silvaticum in comparison to C. ulcerans. Most of these conserved genes are related to nutrient uptake and metabolism, prophages or immunity against them, and could be genetic markers for species identification. Strains PO100/5 (livestock) and KL0182T (wild boar) were predicted to be potential human pathogens. This information may be useful for identification and surveillance of this pathogen.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Hansen MJ, Kudirkiene E, I Dalsgaard (2020)

Analysis of 44 Vibrio anguillarum genomes reveals high genetic diversity.

PeerJ, 8:e10451.

Vibriosis, a hemorrhagic septicemic disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, is an important bacterial infection in Danish sea-reared rainbow trout. Despite of vaccination, outbreaks still occur, likely because the vaccine is based on V. anguillarum strains from abroad/other hosts than rainbow trout. Information about the genetic diversity of V. anguillarum specifically in Danish rainbow trout, is required to investigate this claim. Consequently, the aim of the present investigation was to sequence and to characterize a collection of 44 V. anguillarum strains obtained primarily from vibriosis outbreaks in Danish rainbow trout. The strains were sequenced, de novo assembled, and the genomes examined for the presence of plasmids, virulence, and acquired antibiotic resistance genes. To investigate the phylogeny, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, and the pan-genome was calculated. All strains carried tet(34) encoding tetracycline resistance, and 36 strains also contained qnrVC6 for increased fluoroquinolone/quinolone resistance. But interestingly, all strains were phenotypic sensitive to both oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid. Almost all serotype O1 strains contained a pJM1-like plasmid and nine serotype O2A strains carried the plasmid p15. The distribution of virulence genes was rather similar across the strains, although evident variance among serotypes was observed. Most significant, almost all serotype O2 and O3 strains, as well as the serotype O1 strain without a pJM1-like plasmid, carried genes encoding piscibactin biosynthesis. Hence supporting the hypothesis, that piscibactin plays a crucial role in virulence for pathogenic strains lacking the anguibactin system. The phylogenetic analysis and pan-genome calculations revealed great diversity within V. anguillarum. Serotype O1 strains were in general very similar, whereas considerable variation was found among serotype O2A strains. The great diversity within the V. anguillarum serotype O2A genomes is most likely the reason why vaccines provide good protection from some strains, but not from others. Hopefully, the new genomic data and knowledge provided in this study might help develop an optimized vaccine against V. anguillarum in the future to reduce the use of antibiotics, minimize economic losses and improve the welfare of the fish.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Ghaly TM, Paulsen IT, Sajjad A, et al (2020)

A Novel Family of Acinetobacter Mega-Plasmids Are Disseminating Multi-Drug Resistance Across the Globe While Acquiring Location-Specific Accessory Genes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:605952.

Acinetobacter species are emerging as major nosocomial pathogens, aided by their ability to acquire resistance to all classes of antibiotics. A key factor leading to their multi-drug resistance phenotypes is the acquisition of a wide variety of mobile genetic elements, particularly large conjugative plasmids. Here, we characterize a family of 21 multi-drug resistance mega-plasmids in 11 different Acinetobacter species isolated from various locations across the globe. The plasmid family exhibits a highly dynamic and diverse accessory genome, including 221 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that confer resistance to 13 classes of antibiotics. We show that plasmids isolated within the same geographic region are often evolutionarily divergent members of this family based on their core-genome, yet they exhibit a more similar accessory genome. Individual plasmids, therefore, can disseminate to different locations around the globe, where they then appear to acquire diverse sets of accessory genes from their local surroundings. Further, we show that plasmids from several geographic regions were enriched with location-specific functional traits. Together, our findings show that these mega-plasmids can transmit across species boundaries, have the capacity for global dissemination, can accumulate a diverse suite of location-specific accessory genes, and can confer multi-drug resistance phenotypes of significant concern for human health. We therefore highlight this previously undescribed plasmid family as a serious threat to healthcare systems worldwide. These findings also add to the growing concern that mega-plasmids are key disseminators of antibiotic resistance and require global surveillance.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Cai Z, Guo Q, Yao Z, et al (2020)

Comparative genomics of Klebsiella michiganensis BD177 and related members of Klebsiella sp. reveal the symbiotic relationship with Bactrocera dorsalis.

BMC genetics, 21(Suppl 2):138.

BACKGROUND: Bactrocera dorsalis is a destructive polyphagous and highly invasive insect pest of tropical and subtropical species of fruit and vegetable crops. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used for decades to control insect pests of agricultural, veterinary, and human health importance. Irradiation of pupae in SIT can reduce the ecological fitness of the sterile insects. Our previous study has shown that a gut bacterial strain BD177 that could restore ecological fitness by promoting host food intake and metabolic activities.

RESULTS: Using long-read sequence technologies, we assembled the complete genome of K. michiganensis BD177 strain. The complete genome of K. michiganensis BD177 comprises one circular chromosome and four plasmids with a GC content of 55.03%. The pan-genome analysis was performed on 119 genomes (strain BD177 genome and 118 out of 128 published Klebsiella sp. genomes since ten were discarded). The pan-genome includes a total of 49305 gene clusters, a small number of 858 core genes, and a high number of accessory (10566) genes. Pan-genome and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis showed that BD177 is more similar to the type strain K. michiganensis DSM2544, while away from the type strain K. oxytoca ATCC13182. Comparative genome analysis with 21 K. oxytoca and 12 K. michiganensis strains, identified 213 unique genes, several of them related to amino acid metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism in BD177 genome.

CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenomics analysis reclassified strain BD177 as a member of the species K. michiganensis. Comparative genome analysis suggested that K. michiganensis BD177 has the strain-specific ability to provide three essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine) and two vitamins B (folate and riboflavin) to B. dorsalis. The clear classification status of BD177 strain and identification of unique genetic characteristics may contribute to expanding our understanding of the symbiotic relationship of gut microbiota and B. dorsalis.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Ramsamy Y, Mlisana KP, Amoako DG, et al (2020)

Comparative Pathogenomics of Aeromonas veronii from Pigs in South Africa: Dominance of the Novel ST657 Clone.

Microorganisms, 8(12):.

The pathogenomics of carbapenem-resistant Aeromonas veronii (A. veronii) isolates recovered from pigs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was explored by whole genome sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Genomic functional annotation revealed a vast array of similar central networks (metabolic, cellular, and biochemical). The pan-genome analysis showed that the isolates formed a total of 4349 orthologous gene clusters, 4296 of which were shared; no unique clusters were observed. All the isolates had similar resistance phenotypes, which corroborated their chromosomally mediated resistome (blaCPHA 3 and blaOXA- 12) and belonged to a novel sequence type, ST657 (a satellite clone). Isolates in the same sub-clades clustered according to their clonal lineages and host. Mobilome analysis revealed the presence of chromosome-borne insertion sequence families. The estimated pathogenicity score (Pscore ≈ 0.60) indicated their potential pathogenicity in humans. Furthermore, these isolates carried several virulence factors (adherence factors, toxins, and immune evasion), in different permutations and combinations, indicating a differential ability to establish infection. Phylogenomic and metadata analyses revealed a predilection for water environments and aquatic animals, with more recent reports in humans and food animals across geographies, making A. veronii a potential One Health indicator bacterium.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Park S, Steinegger M, Cho HS, et al (2020)

Metagenomic Association Analysis of Gut Symbiont Limosilactobacillus reuteri Without Host-Specific Genome Isolation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:585622.

Limosilactobacillus reuteri is a model symbiont that colonizes the guts of vertebrates in studies on host adaptation of the gut symbiont. Previous studies have investigated host-specific phylogenetic and functional properties by isolating the genomic sequence. This dependency on genome isolation is a significant bottleneck. Here, we propose a method to study the association between L. reuteri and its hosts directly from metagenomic reads without strain isolation using pan-genomes. We characterized the host-specificity of L. reuteri in metagenomic samples, not only in previously studied organisms (mice and pigs) but also in dogs. For each sample, two types of profiles were generated: (1) genome-based strain type abundance profiles and (2) gene composition profiles. Our profiles showed host-association of L. reuteri in both phylogenetic and functional aspects without depending on host-specific genome isolation. We observed not only the presence of host-specific lineages, but also the dominant lineages associated with the different hosts. Furthermore, we showed that metagenome-assembled genomes provide detailed insights into the host-specificity of L. reuteri. We inferred evolutionary trajectories of host-associative L. reuteri strains in the metagenomic samples by placing the metagenome-assembled genomes into a phylogenetic tree and identified novel host-specific genes that were unannotated in existing pan-genome databases. Our pan-genomic approach reduces the need for time-consuming and expensive host-specific genome isolation, while producing consistent results with previous host-association findings in mice and pigs. Additionally, we predicted associations that have not yet been studied in dogs.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Wolter LA, Wietz M, Ziesche L, et al (2020)

Pseudooceanicola algae sp. nov., isolated from the marine macroalga Fucus spiralis, shows genomic and physiological adaptations for an algae-associated lifestyle.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 44(1):126166 pii:S0723-2020(20)30121-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Pseudooceanicola from the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter group currently includes ten validated species. We herein describe strain Lw-13eT, the first Pseudooceanicola species from marine macroalgae, isolated from the brown alga Fucus spiralis abundant at European and North American coasts. Physiological and pangenome analyses of Lw-13eT showed corresponding adaptive features. Adaptations to the tidal environment include a broad salinity tolerance, degradation of macroalgae-derived substrates (mannitol, mannose, proline), and resistance to several antibiotics and heavy metals. Notably, Lw-13eT can degrade oligomeric alginate via PL15 alginate lyase encoded in a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL), rarely described for roseobacters to date. Plasmid localization of the PUL strengthens the importance of mobile genetic elements for evolutionary adaptations within the Roseobacter group. PL15 homologs were primarily detected in marine plant-associated metagenomes from coastal environments but not in the open ocean, corroborating its adaptive role in algae-rich habitats. Exceptional is the tolerance of Lw-13eT against the broad-spectrum antibiotic tropodithietic acid, produced by Phaeobacter spp. co-occurring in coastal habitats. Furthermore, Lw-13eT exhibits features resembling terrestrial plant-bacteria associations, i.e. biosynthesis of siderophores, terpenes and volatiles, which may contribute to mutual bacteria-algae interactions. Closest described relative of Lw-13eT is Pseudopuniceibacterium sediminis CY03T with 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. However, protein sequence-based core genome phylogeny and average nucleotide identity indicate affiliation of Lw-13eT with the genus Pseudooceanicola. Based on phylogenetic, physiological and (chemo)taxonomic distinctions, we propose strain Lw-13eT (=DSM 29013T=LMG 30557T) as a novel species with the name Pseudooceanicola algae.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Jiao J, CF Tian (2020)

Ancestral zinc-finger bearing protein MucR in alpha-proteobacteria: A novel xenogeneic silencer?.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 18:3623-3631.

The MucR/Ros family protein is conserved in alpha-proteobacteria and characterized by its zinc-finger motif that has been proposed as the ancestral domain from which the eukaryotic C2H2 zinc-finger structure evolved. In the past decades, accumulated evidences have revealed MucR as a pleiotropic transcriptional regulator that integrating multiple functions such as virulence, symbiosis, cell cycle and various physiological processes. Scattered reports indicate that MucR mainly acts as a repressor, through oligomerization and binding to multiple sites of AT-rich target promoters. The N-terminal region and zinc-finger bearing C-terminal region of MucR mediate oligomerization and DNA-binding, respectively. These features are convergent to those of xenogeneic silencers such as H-NS, MvaT, Lsr2 and Rok, which are mainly found in other lineages. Phylogenetic analysis of MucR homologs suggests an ancestral origin of MucR in alpha- and delta-proteobacteria. Multiple independent duplication and lateral gene transfer events contribute to the diversity and phyletic distribution of MucR. Finally, we posed questions which remain unexplored regarding the putative roles of MucR as a xenogeneic silencer and a general manager in balancing adaptation and regulatory integration in the pangenome context.

RevDate: 2020-12-13

Zhou G, Liang H, Gu Y, et al (2020)

Comparative genomics of Helicobacter pullorum from different countries.

Gut pathogens, 12(1):56.

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pullorum commonly colonized in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and caused gastroenteritis. This bacterium could be transmitted to humans through contaminated food and caused colitis and hepatitis. Currently, the genetic characteristics of the H. pullorum were not recognized enough. In this study, the genomes of 23 H. pullorum strains from different counties were comparatively analyzed. Among them, H. pullorum 2013BJHL was the first isolated and reported in China.

RESULTS: The genomes of the studied strains were estimated to vary from 1.55 to 2.03 Mb, with a GC content of ~ 34%. 4064 pan genes and 1267 core genes were obtained from the core-pan genome analysis using the Roary pipeline. Core genome SNPs (cg-SNPs) were obtained using Snippy4 software. Two groups were identified with the phylogenetic analysis based on the cg-SNPs. Some adhesion-related, immune regulation, motility-related, antiphagocytosis-related, toxin-related and quorum sensing related genes were identified as virulence factors. APH(3')-IIIa, APH(2'')-If, and AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia were identified as antibiotic resistance genes among the H. pullorum genomes. cat, SAT-4 and tetO genes were only identified in 2013BJHL, and tet(C) was identified in MIT98-5489. MIC determination revealed that the 2013BJHL showed acquired resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin, only sensitive to ampicillin. The antibiotic resistance genetic determinants on the 2013BJHL genome correlate well with observed antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Two types of VI secretion system (T6SS) were identified in 52.2% (12/23) the studied strains.

CONCLUSION: In this study, we obtained the genetic characteristics of H. pullorum from different sources in the world. The comprehensive genetic characteristics of H. pullorum were first described. H. pullorum showed highly genetic diversity and two sub-types of T6SSs were first identified in H. pullorum. 2013BJHL was found to be multidrug resistant as it was resistant to at least three different antibiotic classes.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Webster J, Bogema D, TA Chapman (2020)

Comparative Genomics of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri A* Pathotype Reveals Three Distinct Clades with Varying Plasmid Distribution.

Microorganisms, 8(12):.

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) is an important disease of citrus cultivars worldwide that causes blister-like lesions on host plants and leads to more severe symptoms such as plant defoliation and premature fruit drop. The causative agent, Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, exists as three pathotypes-A, A*, and Aw-which differ in their host range and elicited host response. To date, comparative analyses have been hampered by the lack of closed genomes for the A* pathotype. In this study, we sequenced and assembled six CBC isolates of pathotype A* using second- and third-generation sequencing technologies to produce complete, closed assemblies. Analysis of these genomes and reference A, A*, and Aw sequences revealed genetic groups within the A* pathotype. Investigation of accessory genomes revealed virulence factors, including type IV secretion systems and heavy metal resistance genes, differentiating the genetic groups. Genomic comparisons of closed genome assemblies also provided plasmid distribution information for the three genetic groups of A*. The genomes presented here complement existing closed genomes of A and Aw pathotypes that are publicly available and open opportunities to investigate the evolution of X. citri pv. citri and the virulence factors that contribute to this serious pathogen.

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Danilevicz MF, Tay Fernandez CG, Marsh JI, et al (2021)

High-Throughput Genotyping Technologies in Plant Taxonomy.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2222:149-166.

Molecular markers provide researchers with a powerful tool for variation analysis between plant genomes. They are heritable and widely distributed across the genome and for this reason have many applications in plant taxonomy and genotyping. Over the last decade, molecular marker technology has developed rapidly and is now a crucial component for genetic linkage analysis, trait mapping, diversity analysis, and association studies. This chapter focuses on molecular marker discovery, its application, and future perspectives for plant genotyping through pangenome assemblies. Included are descriptions of automated methods for genome and sequence distance estimation, genome contaminant analysis in sequence reads, genome structural variation, and SNP discovery methods.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Choo SW, Rishik S, WY Wee (2020)

Comparative genome analyses of Mycobacteroides immunogenum reveals two potential novel subspecies.

Microbial genomics, 6(12):.

Mycobacteroides immunogenum is an emerging opportunistic pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections. Comparative genome analyses may provide better insights into its genomic structure, functions and evolution. The present analysis showed that M. immunogenum has an open pan-genome. Approximately 36.8% of putative virulence genes were identified in the accessory regions of M. immunogenum. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two potential novel subspecies of M. immunogenum, supported by evidence from ANIb (average nucleotide identity using blast) and GGDC (Genome to Genome Distance Calculator) analyses. We identified 74 genomic islands (GIs) in Subspecies 1 and 23 GIs in Subspecies 2. All Subspecies 2-harboured GIs were not found in Subspecies 1, indicating that they might have been acquired by Subspecies 2 after their divergence. Subspecies 2 has more defence genes than Subspecies 1, suggesting that it might be more resistant to the insertion of foreign DNA and probably explaining why Subspecies 2 has fewer GIs. Positive selection analysis suggest that M. immunogenum has a lower selection pressure compared to non-pathogenic mycobacteria. Thirteen genes were positively selected and many were involved in virulence.

RevDate: 2020-12-10

Valero-Jiménez CA, Steentjes MBF, Slot JC, et al (2020)

Dynamics in Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters in Otherwise Highly Syntenic and Stable Genomes in the Fungal Genus Botrytis.

Genome biology and evolution, 12(12):2491-2507.

Fungi of the genus Botrytis infect >1,400 plant species and cause losses in many crops. Besides the broad host range pathogen Botrytis cinerea, most other species are restricted to a single host. Long-read technology was used to sequence genomes of eight Botrytis species, mostly pathogenic on Allium species, and the related onion white rot fungus, Sclerotium cepivorum. Most assemblies contained <100 contigs, with the Botrytis aclada genome assembled in 16 gapless chromosomes. The core genome and pan-genome of 16 Botrytis species were defined and the secretome, effector, and secondary metabolite repertoires analyzed. Among those genes, none is shared among all Allium pathogens and absent from non-Allium pathogens. The genome of each of the Allium pathogens contains 8-39 predicted effector genes that are unique for that single species, none stood out as potential determinant for host specificity. Chromosome configurations of common ancestors of the genus Botrytis and family Sclerotiniaceae were reconstructed. The genomes of B. cinerea and B. aclada were highly syntenic with only 19 rearrangements between them. Genomes of Allium pathogens were compared with ten other Botrytis species (nonpathogenic on Allium) and with 25 Leotiomycetes for their repertoire of secondary metabolite gene clusters. The pattern was complex, with several clusters displaying patchy distribution. Two clusters involved in the synthesis of phytotoxic metabolites are at distinct genomic locations in different Botrytis species. We provide evidence that the clusters for botcinic acid production in B. cinerea and Botrytis sinoallii were acquired by horizontal transfer from taxa within the same genus.

RevDate: 2020-12-10

Fagorzi C, Ilie A, Decorosi F, et al (2020)

Symbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Members of the Genus Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) Are Separated into Two Clades Based on Comparative Genomics and High-Throughput Phenotyping.

Genome biology and evolution, 12(12):2521-2534.

Rhizobium-legume symbioses serve as paradigmatic examples for the study of mutualism evolution. The genus Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) contains diverse plant-associated bacteria, a subset of which can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. To gain insights into the evolution of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), and interkingdom mutualisms more generally, we performed extensive phenotypic, genomic, and phylogenetic analyses of the genus Ensifer. The data suggest that SNF likely emerged several times within the genus Ensifer through independent horizontal gene transfer events. Yet, the majority (105 of 106) of the Ensifer strains with the nodABC and nifHDK nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes were found within a single, monophyletic clade. Comparative genomics highlighted several differences between the "symbiotic" and "nonsymbiotic" clades, including divergences in their pangenome content. Additionally, strains of the symbiotic clade carried 325 fewer genes, on average, and appeared to have fewer rRNA operons than strains of the nonsymbiotic clade. Initial characterization of a subset of ten Ensifer strains identified several putative phenotypic differences between the clades. Tested strains of the nonsymbiotic clade could catabolize 25% more carbon sources, on average, than strains of the symbiotic clade, and they were better able to grow in LB medium and tolerate alkaline conditions. On the other hand, the tested strains of the symbiotic clade were better able to tolerate heat stress and acidic conditions. We suggest that these data support the division of the genus Ensifer into two main subgroups, as well as the hypothesis that pre-existing genetic features are required to facilitate the evolution of SNF in bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Gaba S, Kumari A, Medema M, et al (2020)

Pan-genome analysis and ancestral state reconstruction of class halobacteria: probability of a new super-order.

Scientific reports, 10(1):21205.

Halobacteria, a class of Euryarchaeota are extremely halophilic archaea that can adapt to a wide range of salt concentration generally from 10% NaCl to saturated salt concentration of 32% NaCl. It consists of the orders: Halobacteriales, Haloferaciales and Natriabales. Pan-genome analysis of class Halobacteria was done to explore the core (300) and variable components (Softcore: 998, Cloud:36531, Shell:11784). The core component revealed genes of replication, transcription, translation and repair, whereas the variable component had a major portion of environmental information processing. The pan-gene matrix was mapped onto the core-gene tree to find the ancestral (44.8%) and derived genes (55.1%) of the Last Common Ancestor of Halobacteria. A High percentage of derived genes along with presence of transformation and conjugation genes indicate the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer during the evolution of Halobacteria. A Core and pan-gene tree were also constructed to infer a phylogeny which implicated on the new super-order comprising of Natrialbales and Halobacteriales.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Chen Z, Erickson DL, J Meng (2020)

Benchmarking Long-Read Assemblers for Genomic Analyses of Bacterial Pathogens Using Oxford Nanopore Sequencing.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(23):.

Oxford Nanopore sequencing can be used to achieve complete bacterial genomes. However, the error rates of Oxford Nanopore long reads are greater compared to Illumina short reads. Long-read assemblers using a variety of assembly algorithms have been developed to overcome this deficiency, which have not been benchmarked for genomic analyses of bacterial pathogens using Oxford Nanopore long reads. In this study, long-read assemblers, namely Canu, Flye, Miniasm/Racon, Raven, Redbean, and Shasta, were thus benchmarked using Oxford Nanopore long reads of bacterial pathogens. Ten species were tested for mediocre- and low-quality simulated reads, and 10 species were tested for real reads. Raven was the most robust assembler, obtaining complete and accurate genomes. All Miniasm/Racon and Raven assemblies of mediocre-quality reads provided accurate antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, while the Raven assembly of Klebsiella variicola with low-quality reads was the only assembly with an accurate AMR profile among all assemblers and species. All assemblers functioned well for predicting virulence genes using mediocre-quality and real reads, whereas only the Raven assemblies of low-quality reads had accurate numbers of virulence genes. Regarding multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Miniasm/Racon was the most effective assembler for mediocre-quality reads, while only the Raven assemblies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and K. variicola with low-quality reads showed positive MLST results. Miniasm/Racon and Raven were the best performers for MLST using real reads. The Miniasm/Racon and Raven assemblies showed accurate phylogenetic inference. For the pan-genome analyses, Raven was the strongest assembler for simulated reads, whereas Miniasm/Racon and Raven performed the best for real reads. Overall, the most robust and accurate assembler was Raven, closely followed by Miniasm/Racon.

RevDate: 2020-12-02

Brown AV, Conners SI, Huang W, et al (2020)

A new decade and new data at SoyBase, the USDA-ARS soybean genetics and genomics database.

Nucleic acids research pii:6017360 [Epub ahead of print].

SoyBase, a USDA genetic and genomics database, holds professionally curated soybean genetic and genomic data, which is integrated and made accessible to researchers and breeders. The site holds several reference genome assemblies, as well as genetic maps, thousands of mapped traits, expression and epigenetic data, pedigree information, and extensive variant and genotyping data sets. SoyBase displays include genetic, genomic, and epigenetic maps of the soybean genome. Gene expression data is presented in the genome viewer as heat maps and pictorial and tabular displays in gene report pages. Millions of sequence variants have been added, representing variations across various collections of cultivars. This variant data is explorable using new interactive tools to visualize the distribution of those variants across the genome, between selected accessions. SoyBase holds several reference-quality soybean genome assemblies, accessible via various query tools and browsers, including a new visualization system for exploring the soybean pan-genome. SoyBase also serves as a nexus of announcements pertinent to the greater soybean research community. The database also includes a soybean-specific anatomic and biochemical trait ontology. The database can be accessed at

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Zhang Y, Thomas W, Bayer PE, et al (2020)

Frontiers in Dissecting and Managing Brassica Diseases: From Reference-Based RGA Candidate Identification to Building Pan-RGAomes.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(23):.

The Brassica genus contains abundant economically important vegetable and oilseed crops, which are under threat of diseases caused by fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens. Resistance gene analogues (RGAs) are associated with quantitative and qualitative disease resistance and the identification of candidate RGAs associated with disease resistance is crucial for understanding the mechanism and management of diseases through breeding. The availability of Brassica genome assemblies has greatly facilitated reference-based quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for disease resistance. In addition, pangenomes, which characterise both core and variable genes, have been constructed for B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus. Genome-wide characterisation of RGAs using conserved domains and motifs in reference genomes and pangenomes reveals their clustered arrangements and presence of structural variations. Here, we comprehensively review RGA identification in important Brassica genome and pangenome assemblies. Comparison of the RGAs in QTL between resistant and susceptible individuals allows for efficient identification of candidate disease resistance genes. However, the reference-based QTL mapping and RGA candidate identification approach is restricted by the under-represented RGA diversity characterised in the limited number of Brassica assemblies. The species-wide repertoire of RGAs make up the pan-resistance gene analogue genome (pan-RGAome). Building a pan-RGAome, through either whole genome resequencing or resistance gene enrichment sequencing, would effectively capture RGA diversity, greatly expanding breeding resources that can be utilised for crop improvement.

RevDate: 2020-12-16

Yahara H, Hiraki A, Maruoka Y, et al (2020)

Shotgun metagenome sequencing identification of a set of genes encoded by Actinomyces associated with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

PloS one, 15(11):e0241676.

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is intractable and severely affects a patient's quality of life. Although many cases of MRONJ have been reported in the past decade, the disease pathophysiology is unclear and there are no evidence-based therapeutic strategies. MRONJ usually features bone inflammation and infection. Prior studies that explored the association between MRONJ and microbial infection used the culture-based approach, which is not applicable to hundreds of unculturable taxa in the human oral microbiome, or 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, which does not provide quantitative information of the abundance of specific taxa, and information of the presence, abundance, and function of specific genes in the microbiome. Here, deep shotgun metagenome sequencing (>10 Gb per sample) of bulk DNA extracted from saliva of MRONJ patients and healthy controls was performed to overcome these limitations. Comparative quantitative analyses of taxonomic and functional composition of these deep metagenomes (initially of 5 patients and 5 healthy controls) revealed an average 10.1% increase of genus Actinomyces and a 33.2% decrease in genus Streptococcus normally predominant in the human oral microbiota. Pan-genome analysis identified genes present exclusively in the MRONJ samples. Further analysis of the reads mapping to the genes in the extended dataset comprising five additional MRONJ samples and publicly available dataset of nine healthy controls resulted in the identification of 31 genes significantly associated with MRONJ. All these genes were encoded by Actinomyces genomic regions. Of these, the top two abundant genes were almost exclusively encoded by Actinomyces among usual taxa in the human oral microbiota. The potential relationships of these key genes with the disease are discussed at molecular level based on the literature. Although the sample size was small, this study will aid future studies to verify the data and characterize these genes in vitro and in vivo to understand the disease mechanisms, develop molecular targeted drugs, and for early stage screening and prognosis prediction.

RevDate: 2020-11-27

Hammond JA, Gordon EA, Socarras KM, et al (2020)

Beyond the pan-genome: current perspectives on the functional and practical outcomes of the distributed genome hypothesis.

Biochemical Society transactions pii:227074 [Epub ahead of print].

The principle of monoclonality with regard to bacterial infections was considered immutable prior to 30 years ago. This view, espoused by Koch for acute infections, has proven inadequate regarding chronic infections as persistence requires multiple forms of heterogeneity among the bacterial population. This understanding of bacterial plurality emerged from a synthesis of what-were-then novel technologies in molecular biology and imaging science. These technologies demonstrated that bacteria have complex life cycles, polymicrobial ecologies, and evolve in situ via the horizontal exchange of genic characters. Thus, there is an ongoing generation of diversity during infection that results in far more highly complex microbial communities than previously envisioned. This perspective is based on the fundamental tenet that the bacteria within an infecting population display genotypic diversity, including gene possession differences, which result from horizontal gene transfer mechanisms including transformation, conjugation, and transduction. This understanding is embodied in the concepts of the supragenome/pan-genome and the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH). These paradigms have fostered multiple researches in diverse areas of bacterial ecology including host-bacterial interactions covering the gamut of symbiotic relationships including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. With regard to the human host, within each of these symbiotic relationships all bacterial species possess attributes that contribute to colonization and persistence; those species/strains that are pathogenic also encode traits for invasion and metastases. Herein we provide an update on our understanding of bacterial plurality and discuss potential applications in diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccinology based on perspectives provided by the DGH with regard to the evolution of pathogenicity.

RevDate: 2020-11-27

Hudson LK, Constantine-Renna L, Thomas L, et al (2020)

Genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana.

PeerJ, 8:e10256.

Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana is the fourth most reported serovar of laboratory-confirmed human Salmonella infections in the U.S. and in Tennessee (TN). Although Salmonella ser. Javiana is a common cause of human infection, the majority of cases are sporadic in nature rather than outbreak-associated. To better understand Salmonella ser. Javiana microbial population structure in TN, we completed a phylogenetic analysis of 111 Salmonella ser. Javiana clinical isolates from TN collected from Jan. 2017 to Oct. 2018. We identified mobile genetic elements and genes known to confer antibiotic resistance present in the isolates, and performed a pan-genome-wide association study (pan-GWAS) to compare gene content between clades identified in this study. The population structure of TN Salmonella ser. Javiana clinical isolates consisted of three genetic clades: TN clade I (n = 54), TN clade II (n = 4), and TN clade III (n = 48). Using a 5, 10, and 25 hqSNP distance threshold for cluster identification, nine, 12, and 10 potential epidemiologically-relevant clusters were identified, respectively. The majority of genes that were found to be over-represented in specific clades were located in mobile genetic element (MGE) regions, including genes encoding integrases and phage structures (91.5%). Additionally, a large portion of the over-represented genes from TN clade II (44.9%) were located on an 87.5 kb plasmid containing genes encoding a toxin/antitoxin system (ccdAB). Additionally, we completed phylogenetic analyses of global Salmonella ser. Javiana datasets to gain a broader insight into the population structure of this serovar. We found that the global phylogeny consisted of three major clades (one of which all of the TN isolates belonged to) and two cgMLST eBurstGroups (ceBGs) and that the branch length between the two Salmonella ser. Javiana ceBGs (1,423 allelic differences) was comparable to those from other serovars that have been reported as polyphyletic (929-2,850 allelic differences). This study demonstrates the population structure of TN and global Salmonella ser. Javiana isolates, a clinically important Salmonella serovar and can provide guidance for phylogenetic cluster analyses for public health surveillance and response.

RevDate: 2020-11-27

Su F, Tian R, Yang Y, et al (2020)

Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Basis of Niche Adaptation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:566080.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most commonly isolated species from human skin and the second leading cause of bloodstream infections. Here, we performed a large-scale comparative study without any pre-assigned reference to identify genomic determinants associated with the diversity and adaptation of S. epidermidis strains to various environments. Pan-genome of S. epidermidis was open with 435 core proteins and had a pan-genome size of 8,034 proteins. Genome-wide phylogenetic tree showed high heterogeneity and suggested that routine whole genome sequencing was a powerful tool for analyzing the complex evolution of S. epidermidis and for investigating the infection sources. Comparative genome analyses demonstrated a range of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, especially those within mobile genetic elements. The complicated host-bacterium and bacterium-bacterium relationships help S. epidermidis to play a vital role in balancing the epithelial microflora. The highly variable and dynamic nature of the S. epidermidis genome may contribute to its success in adapting to broad habitats. Genes related to biofilm formation and cell toxicity were significantly enriched in the blood and skin, demonstrating their potentials in identifying risk genotypes. This study gave a general landscape of S. epidermidis pan-genome and provided valuable insights into mechanisms for genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation of this ecologically flexible species.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Jayakodi M, Padmarasu S, Haberer G, et al (2020)

The barley pan-genome reveals the hidden legacy of mutation breeding.

Nature, 588(7837):284-289.

Genetic diversity is key to crop improvement. Owing to pervasive genomic structural variation, a single reference genome assembly cannot capture the full complement of sequence diversity of a crop species (known as the 'pan-genome'1). Multiple high-quality sequence assemblies are an indispensable component of a pan-genome infrastructure. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop with a long history of cultivation that is adapted to a wide range of agro-climatic conditions2. Here we report the construction of chromosome-scale sequence assemblies for the genotypes of 20 varieties of barley-comprising landraces, cultivars and a wild barley-that were selected as representatives of global barley diversity. We catalogued genomic presence/absence variants and explored the use of structural variants for quantitative genetic analysis through whole-genome shotgun sequencing of 300 gene bank accessions. We discovered abundant large inversion polymorphisms and analysed in detail two inversions that are frequently found in current elite barley germplasm; one is probably the product of mutation breeding and the other is tightly linked to a locus that is involved in the expansion of geographical range. This first-generation barley pan-genome makes previously hidden genetic variation accessible to genetic studies and breeding.

RevDate: 2020-11-24

Khan S, Vancuren SJ, JE Hill (2020)

A Generalist Lifestyle Allows Rare Gardnerella spp. to Persist at Low Levels in the Vaginal Microbiome.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Gardnerella spp. are considered a hallmark of bacterial vaginosis, a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome. There are four cpn60 sequence-based subgroups within the genus (A, B, C and D), and thirteen genome species have been defined recently. Gardnerella spp. co-occur in the vaginal microbiome with varying abundance, and these patterns are shaped by a resource-dependent, exploitative competition, which affects the growth rate of subgroups A, B and C negatively. The growth rate of rarely abundant subgroup D, however, increases with the increasing number of competitors, negatively affecting the growth rate of others. We hypothesized that a nutritional generalist lifestyle and minimal niche overlap with the other more abundant Gardnerella spp. facilitate the maintenance of subgroup D in the vaginal microbiome through negative frequency-dependent selection. Using 40 whole-genome sequences from isolates representing all four subgroups, we found that they could be distinguished based on the content of their predicted proteomes. Proteins associated with carbohydrate and amino acid uptake and metabolism were significant contributors to the separation of subgroups. Subgroup D isolates had significantly more of their proteins assigned to amino acid metabolism than the other subgroups. Subgroup D isolates were also significantly different from others in terms of number and type of carbon sources utilized in a phenotypic assay, while the other three could not be distinguished. Overall, the results suggest that a generalist lifestyle and lack of niche overlap with other Gardnerella spp. leads to subgroup D being favoured by negative frequency-dependent selection in the vaginal microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-11-23

Tahir Ul Qamar M, Zhu X, Khan MS, et al (2020)

Pan-genome: A promising resource for noncoding RNA discovery in plants.

The plant genome, 13(3):e20046.

Plant genomes contain both protein-coding and noncoding sequences including transposable elements (TEs) and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The ncRNAs are recognized as important elements that play fundamental roles in the structural organization and function of plant genomes. Despite various hypotheses, TEs are believed to be a major precursor of ncRNAs. Transposable elements are also prime factors that cause genomic variation among members of a species. Hence, TEs pose a major challenge in the discovery and analysis of ncRNAs. With the increase in the number of sequenced plant genomes, it is now accepted that a single reference genome is insufficient to represent the complete genomic diversity and contents of a species, and exploring the pan-genome of a species is critical. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the field of plant pan-genomes. We also discuss TEs and their roles in ncRNA biogenesis and present our perspectives on the application of pan-genomes for the discovery of ncRNAs to fully explore and exploit their biological roles in plants.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Dar HA, Zaheer T, Ullah N, et al (2020)

Pangenome Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Core-Drug Targets and Screening of Promising Lead Compounds for Drug Discovery.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(11):.

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is one of the leading causes of human deaths globally according to the WHO TB 2019 report. The continuous rise in multi- and extensive-drug resistance in M. tuberculosis broadens the challenges to control tuberculosis. The availability of a large number of completely sequenced genomes of M. tuberculosis has provided an opportunity to explore the pangenome of the species along with the pan-phylogeny and to identify potential novel drug targets leading to drug discovery. We attempt to calculate the pangenome of M. tuberculosis that comprises a total of 150 complete genomes and performed the phylo-genomic classification and analysis. Further, the conserved core genome (1251 proteins) is subjected to various sequential filters (non-human homology, essentiality, virulence, physicochemical parameters, and pathway analysis) resulted in identification of eight putative broad-spectrum drug targets. Upon molecular docking analyses of these targets with ligands available at the DrugBank database shortlisted a total of five promising ligands with projected inhibitory potential; namely, 2'deoxy-thymidine-5'-diphospho-alpha-d-glucose, uridine diphosphate glucose, 2'-deoxy-thymidine-beta-l-rhamnose, thymidine-5'-triphosphate, and citicoline. We are confident that with further lead optimization and experimental validation, these lead compounds may provide a sound basis to develop safe and effective drugs against tuberculosis disease in humans.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Korzhenkov AA, Toshchakov SV, Podosokorskaya OA, et al (2020)

Data on draft genome sequence of Caldanaerobacter sp. strain 1523vc, a thermophilic bacterium, isolated from a hot spring of Uzon Caldera, (Kamchatka, Russia).

Data in brief, 33:106336.

The draft genome sequence of Caldanaerobacter sp. strain 1523vc, a thermophilic bacterium, isolated from a hot spring of Uzon Caldera, (Kamchatka, Russia) is presented. The complete genome assembly was of 2 713 207 bp with predicted completeness of 99.38%. Genome structural annotation revealed 2674 protein-coding genes, 127 pseudogenes and 77 RNA genes. Pangenome analysis of 7 currently available high quality Caldanaerobacter spp. genomes including 1523vc revealed 4673 gene clusters. Of them, 1130 clusters formed a core genome of genus Caldanaerobacter. Of the rest 3543 Caldanaerobacter pangenome genes, 385 were exclusively represented in 1523vc genome. 101 of 2801 Caldanaerobacter CDS were found to be encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). The majority of CAZymes were predicted to be involved in degradation of beta-linked polysaccharides as chitin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, reflecting the metabolism of strain 1523vc, isolated on cellulose. 5 of 101 CAZyme genes were found to be unique for the strain 1523vc and belonged to GH23, GT56, GH15 and two CE9 family proteins. The draft genome of strain 1523vc was deposited at DBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accessions JABEQB000000000, PRJNA629090 and SAMN14766777 for Genome, Bioproject and Biosample, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Kim J, Sung J, Han K, et al (2020)

A High Quality Asian Genome Assembly Identifies Features of Common Missing Regions.

Genes, 11(11):.

The current human reference genome (GRCh38), with its superior quality, has contributed significantly to genome analysis. However, GRCh38 may still underrepresent the ethnic genome, specifically for Asians, though exactly what we are missing is still elusive. Here, we juxtaposed GRCh38 with a high-contiguity genome assembly of one Korean (AK1) to show that a part of AK1 genome is missing in GRCh38 and that the missing regions harbored ~1390 putative coding elements. Furthermore, we found that multiple populations shared some certain parts in the missing genome when we analyzed the "unmapped" (to GRCh38) reads of fourteen individuals (five East-Asians, four Europeans, and five Africans), amounting to ~5.3 Mb (~0.2% of AK1) of the total genomic regions. The recovered AK1 regions from the "unmapped reads", which were the estimated missing regions that did not exist in GRCh38, harbored candidate coding elements. We verified that most of the common (shared by ≥7 individuals) missing regions exist in human and chimpanzee DNA. Moreover, we further identified the occurrence mechanism and ethnic heterogeneity as well as the presence of the common missing regions. This study illuminates a potential advantage of using a pangenome reference and brings up the need for further investigations on the various features of regions globally missed in GRCh38.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Li X, Lin J, Hu Y, et al (2020)

PARMAP: A Pan-Genome-Based Computational Framework for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:578795.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as one of the most urgent global threats to public health. Accurate detection of AMR phenotypes is critical for reducing the spread of AMR strains. Here, we developed PARMAP (Prediction of Antimicrobial Resistance by MAPping genetic alterations in pan-genome) to predict AMR phenotypes and to identify AMR-associated genetic alterations based on the pan-genome of bacteria by utilizing machine learning algorithms. When we applied PARMAP to 1,597 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, it successfully predicted their AMR phenotypes based on a pan-genome analysis. Furthermore, it identified 328 genetic alterations in 23 known AMR genes and discovered many new AMR-associated genetic alterations in ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, and it clearly indicated the genetic heterogeneity of AMR genes in different subtypes of resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Additionally, PARMAP performed well in predicting the AMR phenotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli, indicating the robustness of the PARMAP framework. In conclusion, PARMAP not only precisely predicts the AMR of a population of strains of a given species but also uses whole-genome sequencing data to prioritize candidate AMR-associated genetic alterations based on their likelihood of contributing to AMR. Thus, we believe that PARMAP will accelerate investigations into AMR mechanisms in other human pathogens.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Yuan C, Wei Y, Zhang S, et al (2020)

Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Genetic Mechanisms of the Variety of Pathogenicity, Antibiotic Resistance, and Environmental Adaptation of Providencia Genus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:572642.

The bacterial genus Providencia is Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, which have been isolated from a variety of environments and organisms, ranging from humans to animals. Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii are the most common clinical isolates, however, these three species differ in their pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and environmental adaptation. Genomes of 91 isolates of the genus Providencia were investigated to clarify their genetic diversity, focusing on virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes, and environmental adaptation genes. Our study revealed an open pan-genome for the genus Providencia containing 14,720 gene families. Species of the genus Providencia exhibited different functional constraints, with the core genes, accessory genes, and unique genes. A maximum-likelihood phylogeny reconstructed with concatenated single-copy core genes classified all Providencia isolates into 11 distant groups. Comprehensive and systematic comparative genomic analyses revealed that specific distributions of virulence genes, which were highly homologous to virulence genes of the genus Proteus, contributed to diversity in pathogenicity of Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii. Furthermore, multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes of isolates of Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii were predominantly due to resistance genes from class 1 and 2 integrons. In addition, Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii harbored more genes related to material transport and energy metabolism, which conferred a stronger ability to adapt to diverse environments. Overall, our study provided valuable insights into the genetic diversity and functional features of the genus Providencia, and revealed genetic mechanisms underlying diversity in pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and environmental adaptation of members of this genus.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Gao L, Koo DH, Juliana P, et al (2020)

The Aegilops ventricosa 2NvS segment in bread wheat: cytology, genomics and breeding.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik pii:10.1007/s00122-020-03712-y [Epub ahead of print].

KEY MESSAGE: The first cytological characterization of the 2NvS segment in hexaploid wheat; complete de novo assembly and annotation of 2NvS segment; 2NvS frequency is increasing 2NvS and is associated with higher yield. The Aegilops ventricosa 2NvS translocation segment has been utilized in breeding disease-resistant wheat crops since the early 1990s. This segment is known to possess several important resistance genes against multiple wheat diseases including root knot nematode, stripe rust, leaf rust and stem rust. More recently, this segment has been associated with resistance to wheat blast, an emerging and devastating wheat disease in South America and Asia. To date, full characterization of the segment including its size, gene content and its association with grain yield is lacking. Here, we present a complete cytological and physical characterization of this agronomically important translocation in bread wheat. We de novo assembled the 2NvS segment in two wheat varieties, 'Jagger' and 'CDC Stanley,' and delineated the segment to be approximately 33 Mb. A total of 535 high-confidence genes were annotated within the 2NvS region, with > 10% belonging to the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene families. Identification of groups of NLR genes that are potentially N genome-specific and expressed in specific tissues can fast-track testing of candidate genes playing roles in various disease resistances. We also show the increasing frequency of 2NvS among spring and winter wheat breeding programs over two and a half decades, and the positive impact of 2NvS on wheat grain yield based on historical datasets. The significance of the 2NvS segment in wheat breeding due to resistance to multiple diseases and a positive impact on yield highlights the importance of understanding and characterizing the wheat pan-genome for better insights into molecular breeding for wheat improvement.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Piza-Buitrago A, Rincón V, Donato J, et al (2020)

Genome-based characterization of two Colombian clinical Providencia rettgeri isolates co-harboring NDM-1, VIM-2, and other β-lactamases.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):345.

BACKGROUND: Providencia rettgeri is a nosocomial pathogen associated with urinary tract infections and related to Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI). In recent years isolates producing New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) and other β-lactamases have been reported that reduce the efficiency of clinical antimicrobial treatments. In this study, we analyzed antibiotic resistance, the presence of resistance genes and the clonal relationship of two P. rettgeri isolates obtained from male patients admitted to the same hospital in Bogotá - Colombia, 2015.

RESULTS: Antibiotic susceptibility profile evaluated by the Kirby-Bauer method revealed that both isolates were resistant to third-generation carbapenems and cephalosporins. Whole-genome sequencing (Illumina HiSeq) followed by SPAdes assembling, Prokka annotation in combination with an in-house Python program and resistance gene detection by ResFinder identified the same six β-lactamase genes in both isolates: blaNDM-1, blaVIM-2, blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-10, blaCMY-2 and blaTEM-1. Additionally, various resistance genes associated with antibiotic target alteration (arnA, PmrE, PmrF, LpxA, LpxC, gyrB, folP, murA, rpoB, rpsL, tet34) were found and four efflux pumps (RosAB, EmrD, mdtH and cmlA). The additional resistance to gentamicin in one of the two isolates could be explained by a detected SNP in CpxA (Cys191Arg) which is involved in the stress response of the bacterial envelope. Genome BLAST comparison using CGView, the ANI value (99.99%) and the pangenome (using Roary) phylogenetic tree (same clade, small distance) showed high similarity between the isolates. The rMLST analysis indicated that both isolates were typed as rST-61,696, same as the RB151 isolate previously isolated in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2013, and the FDAARGOS_330 isolate isolated in the USA, 2015.

CONCLUSIONS: We report the coexistence of the carbapenemase genes blaNDM-1, and blaVIM-2, together with the β-lactamase genes blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-10, blaCMY-2 and blaTEM-1, in P. rettgeri isolates from two patients in Colombia. Whole-genome sequence analysis indicated a circulation of P. rettgeri rST-61,696 strains in America that needs to be investigated further.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Pandey A, Humbert MV, Jackson A, et al (2020)

Evidence of homologous recombination as a driver of diversity in Brachyspira pilosicoli.

Microbial genomics, 6(12):.

The enteric, pathogenic spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli colonizes and infects a variety of birds and mammals, including humans. However, there is a paucity of genomic data available for this organism. This study introduces 12 newly sequenced draft genome assemblies, boosting the cohort of examined isolates by fourfold and cataloguing the intraspecific genomic diversity of the organism more comprehensively. We used several in silico techniques to define a core genome of 1751 genes and qualitatively and quantitatively examined the intraspecific species boundary using phylogenetic analysis and average nucleotide identity, before contextualizing this diversity against other members of the genus Brachyspira. Our study revealed that an additional isolate that was unable to be species typed against any other Brachyspira lacked putative virulence factors present in all other isolates. Finally, we quantified that homologous recombination has as great an effect on the evolution of the core genome of the B. pilosicoli as random mutation (r/m=1.02). Comparative genomics has informed Brachyspira diversity, population structure, host specificity and virulence. The data presented here can be used to contribute to developing advanced screening methods, diagnostic assays and prophylactic vaccines against this zoonotic pathogen.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Lau BT, Pavlichin D, Hooker AC, et al (2020)

Profiling SARS-CoV-2 mutation fingerprints that range from the viral pangenome to individual infection quasispecies.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences.

Background: The genome of SARS-CoV-2 is susceptible to mutations during viral replication due to the errors generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. These mutations enable the SARS-CoV-2 to evolve into new strains. Viral quasispecies emerge from de novo mutations that occur in individual patients. In combination, these sets of viral mutations provide distinct genetic fingerprints that reveal the patterns of transmission and have utility in contract tracing.

Methods: Leveraging thousands of sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes, we performed a viral pangenome analysis to identify conserved genomic sequences. We used a rapid and highly efficient computational approach that relies on k-mers, short tracts of sequence, instead of conventional sequence alignment. Using this method, we annotated viral mutation signatures that were associated with specific strains. Based on these highly conserved viral sequences, we developed a rapid and highly scalable targeted sequencing assay to identify mutations, detect quasispecies and identify mutation signatures from patients. These results were compared to the pangenome genetic fingerprints.

Results: We built a k-mer index for thousands of SARS-CoV-2 genomes and identified conserved genomics regions and landscape of mutations across thousands of virus genomes. We delineated mutation profiles spanning common genetic fingerprints (the combination of mutations in a viral assembly) and rare ones that occur in only small fraction of patients. We developed a targeted sequencing assay by selecting primers from the conserved viral genome regions to flank frequent mutations. Using a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples, we identified genetic fingerprints consisting of strain-specific mutations seen across populations and de novo quasispecies mutations localized to individual infections. We compared the mutation profiles of viral samples undergoing analysis with the features of the pangenome.

Conclusions: We conducted an analysis for viral mutation profiles that provide the basis of genetic fingerprints. Our study linked pangenome analysis with targeted deep sequenced SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples. We identified quasispecies mutations occurring within individual patients, mutations demarcating dominant species and the prevalence of mutation signatures, of which a significant number were relatively unique. Analysis of these genetic fingerprints may provide a way of conducting molecular contact tracing.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Drijver EPMD, Stohr JJJM, Verweij JJ, et al (2020)

Limited Genetic Diversity of blaCMY-2-Containing IncI1-pST12 Plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae of Human and Broiler Chicken Origin in The Netherlands.

Microorganisms, 8(11):.

Distinguishing epidemiologically related and unrelated plasmids is essential to confirm plasmid transmission. We compared IncI1-pST12 plasmids from both human and livestock origin and explored the degree of sequence similarity between plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae with different epidemiological links. Short-read sequence data of Enterobacteriaceae cultured from humans and broilers were screened for the presence of both a blaCMY-2 gene and an IncI1-pST12 replicon. Isolates were long-read sequenced on a MinION sequencer (OxfordNanopore Technologies). After plasmid reconstruction using hybrid assembly, pairwise single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined. The plasmids were annotated, and a pan-genome was constructed to compare genes variably present between the different plasmids. Nine Escherichia coli sequences of broiler origin, four Escherichia coli sequences, and one Salmonella enterica sequence of human origin were selected for the current analysis. A circular contig with the IncI1-pST12 replicon and blaCMY-2 gene was extracted from the assembly graph of all fourteen isolates. Analysis of the IncI1-pST12 plasmids revealed a low number of SNP differences (range of 0-9 SNPs). The range of SNP differences overlapped in isolates with different epidemiological links. One-hundred and twelve from a total of 113 genes of the pan-genome were present in all plasmid constructs. Next generation sequencing analysis of blaCMY-2-containing IncI1-pST12 plasmids isolated from Enterobacteriaceae with different epidemiological links show a high degree of sequence similarity in terms of SNP differences and the number of shared genes. Therefore, statements on the horizontal transfer of these plasmids based on genetic identity should be made with caution.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Gerdol M, Moreira R, Cruz F, et al (2020)

Massive gene presence-absence variation shapes an open pan-genome in the Mediterranean mussel.

Genome biology, 21(1):275.

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an ecologically and economically relevant edible marine bivalve, highly invasive and resilient to biotic and abiotic stressors causing recurrent massive mortalities in other bivalves. Although these traits have been recently linked with the maintenance of a high genetic variation within natural populations, the factors underlying the evolutionary success of this species remain unclear.

RESULTS: Here, after the assembly of a 1.28-Gb reference genome and the resequencing of 14 individuals from two independent populations, we reveal a complex pan-genomic architecture in M. galloprovincialis, with a core set of 45,000 genes plus a strikingly high number of dispensable genes (20,000) subject to presence-absence variation, which may be entirely missing in several individuals. We show that dispensable genes are associated with hemizygous genomic regions affected by structural variants, which overall account for nearly 580 Mb of DNA sequence not included in the reference genome assembly. As such, this is the first study to report the widespread occurrence of gene presence-absence variation at a whole-genome scale in the animal kingdom.

CONCLUSIONS: Dispensable genes usually belong to young and recently expanded gene families enriched in survival functions, which might be the key to explain the resilience and invasiveness of this species. This unique pan-genome architecture is characterized by dispensable genes in accessory genomic regions that exceed by orders of magnitude those observed in other metazoans, including humans, and closely mirror the open pan-genomes found in prokaryotes and in a few non-metazoan eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2020-11-12

Vasilyev IY, Nikolaeva IV, Siniagina MN, et al (2020)

Multidrug-Resistant Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae Found Persisting Silently in Infant Gut Microbiota.

International journal of microbiology, 2020:4054393.

Since the spread of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDRKP) strains is considered as a challenge for patients with weakened or suppressed immunity, the emergence of isolates carrying determinants of hypervirulent phenotypes in addition may become a serious problem even for healthy individuals. The aim of this study is an investigation of the nonoutbreak K. pneumoniae emergence occurred in early 2017 at a maternity hospital of Kazan, Russia. Ten bacterial isolates demonstrating multiple drug resistance phenotypes were collected from eight healthy full-term breastfed neonates, observed at the maternity hospital of Kazan, Russia. All the infants and their mothers were dismissed without symptoms or complaints, in a satisfactory condition. Whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing was performed with the purpose to track down a possible spread source(s) and obtain detailed information about resistance determinants and pathogenic potential of the collected isolates. Microdilution tests have confirmed production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and their resistance to aminoglycoside, β-lactam, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, and fosfomycin antibiotics and Klebsiella phage. The WGS analysis has revealed the genes that are resistant to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulfonamides, chloramphenicols, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim and ESBL determinants. The pangenome analysis had split the isolates into two phylogenetic clades. The first group, a more heterogeneous clade, was represented by 5 isolates with 4 different in silico multilocus sequence types (MLSTs). The second group contained 5 isolates from infants born vaginally with the single MLST ST23, positive for genes corresponding to hypervirulent phenotypes: yersiniabactin, aerobactin, salmochelin, colibactin, hypermucoid determinants, and specific alleles of K- and O-antigens. The source of the MDRKP spread was not defined. Infected infants have shown no developed disease symptoms.

RevDate: 2020-11-28

Lugli GA, Tarracchini C, Alessandri G, et al (2020)

Decoding the Genomic Variability among Members of the Bifidobacteriumdentium Species.

Microorganisms, 8(11):.

Members of the Bifidobacterium dentium species are usually identified in the oral cavity of humans and associated with the development of plaque and dental caries. Nevertheless, they have also been detected from fecal samples, highlighting a widespread distribution among mammals. To explore the genetic variability of this species, we isolated and sequenced the genomes of 18 different B. dentium strains collected from fecal samples of several primate species and an Ursus arctos. Thus, we investigated the genomic variability and metabolic abilities of the new B. dentium isolates together with 20 public genome sequences. Comparative genomic analyses provided insights into the vast metabolic repertoire of the species, highlighting 19 glycosyl hydrolases families shared between each analyzed strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the B. dentium taxon, involving 1140 conserved genes, revealed a very close phylogenetic relatedness among members of this species. Furthermore, low genomic variability between strains was also confirmed by an average nucleotide identity analysis showing values higher than 98.2%. Investigating the genetic features of each strain, few putative functional mobile elements were identified. Besides, a consistent occurrence of defense mechanisms such as CRISPR-Cas and restriction-modification systems may be responsible for the high genome synteny identified among members of this taxon.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Dahlhausen KE, Jospin G, Coil DA, et al (2020)

Isolation and sequence-based characterization of a koala symbiont: Lonepinella koalarum.

PeerJ, 8:e10177.

Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are highly specialized herbivorous marsupials that feed almost exclusively on Eucalyptus leaves, which are known to contain varying concentrations of many different toxic chemical compounds. The literature suggests that Lonepinella koalarum, a bacterium in the Pasteurellaceae family, can break down some of these toxic chemical compounds. Furthermore, in a previous study, we identified L. koalarum as the most predictive taxon of koala survival during antibiotic treatment. Therefore, we believe that this bacterium may be important for koala health. Here, we isolated a strain of L. koalarum from a healthy koala female and sequenced its genome using a combination of short-read and long-read sequencing. We placed the genome assembly into a phylogenetic tree based on 120 genome markers using the Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB), which currently does not include any L. koalarum assemblies. Our genome assembly fell in the middle of a group of Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Basfia species. According to average nucleotide identity and a 16S rRNA gene tree, the closest relative of our isolate is L. koalarum strain Y17189. Then, we annotated the gene sequences and compared them to 55 closely related, publicly available genomes. Several genes that are known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism could exclusively be found in L. koalarum relative to the other taxa in the pangenome, including glycoside hydrolase families GH2, GH31, GH32, GH43 and GH77. Among the predicted genes of L. koalarum were 79 candidates putatively involved in the degradation of plant secondary metabolites. Additionally, several genes coding for amino acid variants were found that had been shown to confer antibiotic resistance in other bacterial species against pulvomycin, beta-lactam antibiotics and the antibiotic efflux pump KpnH. In summary, this genetic characterization allows us to build hypotheses to explore the potentially beneficial role that L. koalarum might play in the koala intestinal microbiome. Characterizing and understanding beneficial symbionts at the whole genome level is important for the development of anti- and probiotic treatments for koalas, a highly threatened species due to habitat loss, wildfires, and high prevalence of Chlamydia infections.

RevDate: 2020-11-04

Kim E, Cho EJ, Yang SM, et al (2020)

Identification and monitoring of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies using pangenomic-based novel genetic markers.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology pii:jmb.2009.09034 [Epub ahead of print].

Genetic markers currently used for the discrimination of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies have low efficiency for identification at subspecies level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select novel genetic markers for accurate identification and discrimination of six L. delbrueckii subspecies based on pangenome analysis. This study evaluated L. delbrueckii genomes to avoid making incorrect conclusions in the process of selecting genetic markers due to mislabeled genome. Genome analysis showed that two genomes of L. delbrueckii subspecies deposited in NCBI were misidentified. Based on these results, subspecies-specific genetic markers were selected by comparing pan and core-genome. Genetic markers were confirmed to be specific for 59,196,562 genome sequences via in silico analysis. They were found in all strains of the same subspecies, but not in other subspecies or bacterial strains. These genetic markers also could be used to accurately identify genomes at the subspecies level for genomes known at the species level. A real-time PCR method for the detection of three main subspecies (L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, lactis, and bulgaricus) was developed to cost-effectively identify them using genetic markers. Results showed 100% specificity for each subspecies. These genetic markers could differentiate each subspecies from 44 other lactic acid bacteria. This real-time PCR method was then applied to monitor 26 probiotics and dairy products. It was also used to identify 64 unknown strains isolated from raw milk samples and dairy products. Results confirmed that unknown isolates and subspecies contained in the product could be accurately identified using this real-time PCR method.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Rogalski E, Ehrmann MA, RF Vogel (2021)

Intraspecies diversity and genome-phenotype-associations in Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis.

Microbiological research, 243:126625.

In this study the intraspecies diversity of Fructilactobacillus (F.) sanfranciscensis (formerly Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) was characterized by comparative genomics supported by physiological data. Twenty-four strains of F. sanfranciscensis were analyzed and sorted into six different genomic clusters. The core genome comprised only 43,14 % of the pan genome, i.e. 0.87 Mbp of 2.04 Mbp. The main annotated genomic differences reside in maltose, fructose and sucrose as well as nucleotide metabolism, use of electron acceptors, and exopolysacchride formation. Furthermore, all strains are well equipped to cope with oxidative stress via NADH oxidase and a distinct thiol metabolism. Only ten of 24 genomes contain two maltose phosphorylase genes (mapA and mapB). In F. sanfranciscensis TMW 1.897 only mapA was found. All strains except those from genomic cluster 2 contained the mannitol dehydrogenase and should therefore be able to use fructose as external electron acceptor. Moreover, six strains were able to grow on fructose as sole carbon source, as they contained a functional fructokinase gene. No growth was observed on pentoses, i.e. xylose, arabinose or ribose, as sole carbon source. This can be referred to the absence of ribose pyranase rbsD in all genomes, and absence of or mutations in numerous other genes, which are essential for arabinose and xylose metabolism. Seven strains were able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose. In addition, the strains containing levS were able to grow on sucrose as sole carbon source. Strains of one cluster exhibit auxotrophies for purine nucleotides. The physiological and genomic analyses suggest that the biodiversity of F. sanfranciscensis is larger than anticipated. Consequently, "original" habitats and lifestyles of F. sanfranciscensis may vary but can generally be referred to an adaptation to sugary (maltose/sucrose/fructose-rich) and aerobic environments as found in plants and insects. It can dominate sourdoughs as a result of reductive evolution and cooperation with fructose-delivering, acetate-tolerant yeasts.

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Huang WC, Hu Y, Zhang G, et al (2020)

Comparative genomic analysis reveals metabolic diversity of different Paenibacillus groups.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 104(23):10133-10143.

The genus Paenibacillus was originally recognized based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Recently, a standardized bacterial taxonomy approach based on a genome phylogeny has substantially revised the classification of Paenibacillus, dividing it into 23 genera. However, the metabolic differences among these groups remain undescribed. Here, genomes of 41 Paenibacillus strains comprising 25 species were sequenced, and a comparative genomic analysis was performed considering these and 187 publicly available Paenibacillus genomes to understand their phylogeny and metabolic differences. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Paenibacillus clustered into 10 subgroups. Core genome and pan-genome analyses revealed similar functional categories among the different Paenibacillus subgroups; however, each group tended to harbor specific gene families. A large proportion of genes in the subgroups A, E, and G are related to carbohydrate metabolism. Among them, genes related to the glycoside hydrolase family were most abundant. Metabolic reconstruction of the newly sequenced genomes showed that the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, and citric acid cycle are central pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in Paenibacillus. Further, the genomes of the subgroups A and G lack genes involved in glyoxylate cycle and D-galacturonate degradation, respectively. The current study revealed the metabolic diversity of Paenibacillus subgroups assigned based on a genomic phylogeny and could inform the taxonomy of Paenibacillus. KEY POINTS: • Paenibacillus clustered into 10 subgroups. • Genomic content variation and metabolic diversity in the subgroup A, E, and G were described. • Carbohydrate transport and metabolism is important for Paenibacillus survival.

RevDate: 2020-11-07

Zukancic A, Khan MA, Gurmen SJ, et al (2020)

Staphylococcal Protein A (spa) Locus Is a Hot Spot for Recombination and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major canine pathogen but also occasionally colonizes and infects humans. Multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MDR MRSP) strains have emerged globally, making treatment and control of this pathogen challenging. Sequence type 71 (ST71), ST68, and ST45 are the most widespread and successful MDR MRSP clones. The potential genetic factors underlying the clonal success of these and other predominant clones remain unknown. Characterization of the pangenome, lineage-associated accessory genes, and genes acquired through horizontal gene transfer from other bacteria is important for identifying such factors. Here, we analyzed genome sequence data from 622 S. pseudintermedius isolates to investigate the evolution of pathogenicity across lineages. We show that the predominant clones carry one or more lineage-associated virulence genes. The gene encoding staphylococcal protein A (SpA), a key virulence factor involved in immune evasion and a potential vaccine antigen, is deleted in 62% of isolates. Most importantly, we have discovered that the spa locus is a hot spot for recombination and horizontal gene transfer in S. pseudintermedius, where genes related to restriction modification, prophage immunity, mercury resistance, and nucleotide and carbohydrate metabolism have been acquired in different lineages. Our study also establishes that ST45 is composed of two distinct sublineages that differ in their accessory gene content and virulence potential. Collectively, this study reports several previously undetected lineage-associated genetic factors that may have a role in the clonal success of the major MDR MRSP clones. These data provide a framework for future experimental studies on S. pseudintermedius pathogenesis and for developing novel therapeutics against this pathogen.IMPORTANCEStaphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major canine pathogen but can also occasionally infect humans. Identification of genetic factors contributing to the virulence and clonal success of multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius clones is critical for the development of therapeutics against this pathogen. Here, we characterized the genome sequences of a global collection of 622 S. pseudintermedius isolates. We show that all major clones, besides carrying core virulence genes, which are present in all strains, carry one or more lineage-specific genes. Many of these genes have been acquired from other bacterial species through a horizontal gene transfer mechanism. Importantly, we have discovered that the staphylococcal protein A gene (spa), a widely used marker for molecular typing of S. pseudintermedius strains and a potential vaccine candidate antigen, is deleted in 62% of strains. Furthermore, the spa locus in S. pseudintermedius acts as a reservoir to accumulate lineage-associated genes with adaptive functions.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Ding Y, Weckwerth PR, Poretsky E, et al (2020)

Genetic elucidation of interconnected antibiotic pathways mediating maize innate immunity.

Nature plants, 6(11):1375-1388.

Specialized metabolites constitute key layers of immunity that underlie disease resistance in crops; however, challenges in resolving pathways limit our understanding of the functions and applications of these metabolites. In maize (Zea mays), the inducible accumulation of acidic terpenoids is increasingly considered to be a defence mechanism that contributes to disease resistance. Here, to understand maize antibiotic biosynthesis, we integrated association mapping, pan-genome multi-omic correlations, enzyme structure-function studies and targeted mutagenesis. We define ten genes in three zealexin (Zx) gene clusters that encode four sesquiterpene synthases and six cytochrome P450 proteins that collectively drive the production of diverse antibiotic cocktails. Quadruple mutants in which the ability to produce zealexins (ZXs) is blocked exhibit a broad-spectrum loss of disease resistance. Genetic redundancies ensuring pathway resiliency to single null mutations are combined with enzyme substrate promiscuity, creating a biosynthetic hourglass pathway that uses diverse substrates and in vivo combinatorial chemistry to yield complex antibiotic blends. The elucidated genetic basis of biochemical phenotypes that underlie disease resistance demonstrates a predominant maize defence pathway and informs innovative strategies for transferring chemical immunity between crops.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Slizen MV, OV Galzitskaya (2020)

Comparative Analysis of Proteomes of a Number of Nosocomial Pathogens by KEGG Modules and KEGG Pathways.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(21):.

Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections remain a serious challenge for health systems. The reason for this lies not only in the local imperfection of medical practices and protocols. The frequency of infection with antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria is growing every year, both in developed and developing countries. In this work, a pangenome and comparative analysis of 201 genomes of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycoplasma spp. was performed on the basis of high-level functional annotations-KEGG pathways and KEGG modules. The first three organisms are serious nosocomial pathogens, often exhibiting multidrug resistance. Analysis of KEGG modules revealed methicillin resistance in 25% of S. aureus strains and resistance to carbapenems in 21% of Enterobacter spp. strains. P. aeruginosa has a wide range of unique efflux systems. One hundred percent of the analyzed strains have at least two drug resistance systems, and 75% of the strains have seven. Each of the organisms has a characteristic set of metabolic features, whose impact on drug resistance can be considered in future studies. Comparing the genomes of nosocomial pathogens with each other and with Mycoplasma genomes can expand our understanding of the versatility of certain metabolic features and mechanisms of drug resistance.

RevDate: 2020-12-23

Zou W, Ye G, Zhang K, et al (2020)

Analysis of the core genome and pangenome of Clostridium butyricum.

Genome [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridium butyricum is an anaerobic bacterium that inhabits broad niches. Clostridium butyricum is known for its production of butyrate, 1,3-propanediol, and hydrogen. This study aimed to present a comparative pangenome analysis of 24 strains isolated from different niches. We sequenced and annotated the genome of C. butyricum 3-3 isolated from the Chinese baijiu ecosystem. The pangenome of C. butyricum was open. The core genome, accessory genome, and strain-specific genes comprised 1011, 4543, and 1473 genes, respectively. In the core genome, Carbohydrate metabolism was the largest category, and genes in the biosynthetic pathway of butyrate and glycerol metabolism were conserved (in the core or soft-core genome). Furthermore, the 1,3-propanediol operon existed in 20 strains. In the accessory genome, numerous mobile genetic elements belonging to the Replication, recombination, and repair (L) category were identified. In addition, genome islands were identified in all 24 strains, ranging from 2 (strain KNU-L09) to 53 (strain SU1), and phage sequences were found in 17 of the 24 strains. This study provides an important genomic framework that could pave the way for the exploration of C. butyricum and future studies on the genetic diversification of C. butyricum.

RevDate: 2020-12-06

Song JM, Liu DX, Xie WZ, et al (2020)

BnPIR: Brassica napus pan-genome information resource for 1689 accessions.

Plant biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-12-24

Li H, Feng X, C Chu (2020)

The design and construction of reference pangenome graphs with minigraph.

Genome biology, 21(1):265.

The recent advances in sequencing technologies enable the assembly of individual genomes to the quality of the reference genome. How to integrate multiple genomes from the same species and make the integrated representation accessible to biologists remains an open challenge. Here, we propose a graph-based data model and associated formats to represent multiple genomes while preserving the coordinate of the linear reference genome. We implement our ideas in the minigraph toolkit and demonstrate that we can efficiently construct a pangenome graph and compactly encode tens of thousands of structural variants missing from the current reference genome.

RevDate: 2020-12-23

De Filippis F, Pasolli E, D Ercolini (2020)

Newly Explored Faecalibacterium Diversity Is Connected to Age, Lifestyle, Geography, and Disease.

Current biology : CB, 30(24):4932-4943.e4.

Faecalibacterium is prevalent in the human gut and a promising microbe for the development of next-generation probiotics (NGPs) or biotherapeutics. Analyzing reference Faecalibacterium genomes and almost 3,000 Faecalibacterium-like metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) reconstructed from 7,907 human and 203 non-human primate gut metagenomes, we identified the presence of 22 different Faecalibacterium-like species-level genome bins (SGBs), some further divided in different strains according to the subject geographical origin. Twelve SGBs are globally spread in the human gut and show different genomic potential in the utilization of complex polysaccharides, suggesting that higher SGB diversity may be related with increased utilization of plant-based foods. Moreover, up to 11 different species may co-occur in the same subject, with lower diversity in Western populations, as well as intestinal inflammatory states and obesity. The newly explored Faecalibacterium diversity will be able to support the choice of strains suitable as NGPs, guided by the consideration of the differences existing in their functional potential.

RevDate: 2020-11-14

Zhou Z, Charlesworth J, M Achtman (2020)

Accurate reconstruction of bacterial pan- and core genomes with PEPPAN.

Genome research, 30(11):1667-1679.

Bacterial genomes can contain traces of a complex evolutionary history, including extensive homologous recombination, gene loss, gene duplications, and horizontal gene transfer. To reconstruct the phylogenetic and population history of a set of multiple bacteria, it is necessary to examine their pangenome, the composite of all the genes in the set. Here we introduce PEPPAN, a novel pipeline that can reliably construct pangenomes from thousands of genetically diverse bacterial genomes that represent the diversity of an entire genus. PEPPAN outperforms existing pangenome methods by providing consistent gene and pseudogene annotations extended by similarity-based gene predictions, and identifying and excluding paralogs by combining tree- and synteny-based approaches. The PEPPAN package additionally includes PEPPAN_parser, which implements additional downstream analyses, including the calculation of trees based on accessory gene content or allelic differences between core genes. To test the accuracy of PEPPAN, we implemented SimPan, a novel pipeline for simulating the evolution of bacterial pangenomes. We compared the accuracy and speed of PEPPAN with four state-of-the-art pangenome pipelines using both empirical and simulated data sets. PEPPAN was more accurate and more specific than any of the other pipelines and was almost as fast as any of them. As a case study, we used PEPPAN to construct a pangenome of approximately 40,000 genes from 3052 representative genomes spanning at least 80 species of Streptococcus The resulting gene and allelic trees provide an unprecedented overview of the genomic diversity of the entire Streptococcus genus.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Kumar R, Register K, Christopher-Hennings J, et al (2020)

Population Genomic Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis Elucidates Geographical Variations and Genes associated with Host-Types.

Microorganisms, 8(10):.

: Among more than twenty species belonging to the class Mollecutes, Mycoplasma bovis is the most common cause of bovine mycoplasmosis in North America and Europe. Bovine mycoplasmosis causes significant economic loss in the cattle industry. The number of M. bovis positive herds recently has increased in North America and Europe. Since antibiotic treatment is ineffective and no efficient vaccine is available, M. bovis induced mycoplasmosis is primarily controlled by herd management measures such as the restriction of moving infected animals out of the herds and culling of infected or shedders of M. bovis. To better understand the population structure and genomic factors that may contribute to its transmission, we sequenced 147 M. bovis strains isolated from four different countries viz. USA (n = 121), Canada (n = 22), Israel (n = 3) and Lithuania (n = 1). All except two of the isolates (KRB1 and KRB8) were isolated from two host types i.e., bovine (n = 75) and bison (n = 70). We performed a large-scale comparative analysis of M. bovis genomes by integrating 103 publicly available genomes and our dataset (250 total genomes). Whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based phylogeny using M.agalactiae as an outgroup revealed that M. bovis population structure is composed of five different clades. USA isolates showed a high degree of genomic divergence in comparison to the Australian isolates. Based on host of origin, all the isolates in clade IV was of bovine origin, whereas majority of the isolates in clades III and V was of bison origin. Our comparative genome analysis also revealed that M. bovis has an open pangenome with a large breadth of unexplored diversity of genes. The function based analysis of autogenous vaccine candidates (n = 10) included in this study revealed that their functional diversity does not span the genomic diversity observed in all five clades identified in this study. Our study also found that M. bovis genome harbors a large number of IS elements and their number increases significantly (p = 7.8x10-6) as the genome size increases. Collectively, the genome data and the whole genome-based population analysis in this study may help to develop better understanding of M. bovis induced mycoplasmosis in cattle.

RevDate: 2020-10-11

Eizenga JM, Novak AM, Kobayashi E, et al (2020)

Efficient dynamic variation graphs.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5872523 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Pangenomics is a growing field within computational genomics. Many pangenomic analyses use bidirected sequence graphs as their core data model. However, implementing and correctly using this data model can be difficult, and the scale of pangenomic datasets can be challenging to work at. These challenges have impeded progress in this field.

RESULTS: Here, we present a stack of two C++ libraries, libbdsg and libhandlegraph, which use a simple, field-proven interface, designed to expose elementary features of these graphs while preventing common graph manipulation mistakes. The libraries also provide a Python binding. Using a diverse collection of pangenome graphs, we demonstrate that these tools allow for efficient construction and manipulation of large genome graphs with dense variation. For instance, the speed and memory usage are up to an order of magnitude better than the prior graph implementation in the VG toolkit, which has now transitioned to using libbdsg's implementations.

libhandlegraph and libbdsg are available under an MIT License from and

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Kumar J, D Sen Gupta (2020)

Prospects of next generation sequencing in lentil breeding.

Molecular biology reports, 47(11):9043-9053.

Lentil is an important food legume crop that has large and complex genome. During past years, considerable attention has been given on the use of next generation sequencing for enriching the genomic resources including identification of SSR and SNP markers, development of unigenes, transcripts, and identification of candidate genes for biotic and abiotic stresses, analysis of genetic diversity and identification of genes/ QTLs for agronomically important traits. However, in other crops including pulses, next generation sequencing has revolutionized the genomic research and helped in genomic assisted breeding rapidly and cost effectively. The present review discuss current status and future prospects of the use NGS based breeding in lentil.

RevDate: 2020-10-29

Muthuirulandi Sethuvel DP, Mutreja A, Pragasam AK, et al (2020)

Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Analysis Reveals the Recent Dominance of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei and Local Persistence of S. flexneri Clones in India.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Shigella is the second leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Recently, Shigella sonnei seems to be replacing Shigella flexneri in low- and middle-income countries undergoing economic development. Despite this, studies focusing on these species at the genomic level remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared the genome sequences of S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolates from India with the publicly available genomes of global strains. Our analysis provides evidence for the long-term persistence of all phylogenetic groups (PGs) of S. flexneri and the recent dominance of the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei lineage in India. Within S. flexneri PGs, the majority of the study isolates belonged to PG3 within the predominance of serotype 2. For S. sonnei, the current pandemic involves globally distributed multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones that belong to Central Asia lineage III. The presence of such epidemiologically dominant lineages in association with stable antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants results in successful survival in the community.IMPORTANCEShigella is the second leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. This has been categorized as a priority pathogen among enteric bacteria by the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Recently, S. sonnei seems to be replacing S. flexneri in low- and middle-income countries undergoing economic development. Antimicrobial resistance in S. flexneri and S. sonnei is a growing international concern, specifically with the international dominance of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) lineage. Genomic studies focusing on S. flexneri and S. sonnei in India remain largely unexplored. This study provides information on the introduction and expansion of drug-resistant Shigella strains in India for the first time by comparing the genome sequences of S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolates from India with the publicly available genomes of global strains. The study discusses the key differences between the two dominant species of Shigella at the genomic level to understand the evolutionary trends and genome dynamics of emerging and existing resistance clones. The present work demonstrates evidence for the long-term persistence of all PGs of S. flexneri and the recent dominance of a ciprofloxacin-resistant S. sonnei lineage in India.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Khilyas IV, Sorokina AV, Markelova MI, et al (2020)

Genomic and phenotypic analysis of siderophore-producing Rhodococcus qingshengii strain S10 isolated from an arid weathered serpentine rock environment.

Archives of microbiology pii:10.1007/s00203-020-02057-w [Epub ahead of print].

The success of members of the genus Rhodococcus in colonizing arid rocky environments is owed in part to desiccation tolerance and an ability to extract iron through the secretion and uptake of siderophores. Here, we report a comprehensive genomic and taxonomic analysis of Rhodococcus qingshengii strain S10 isolated from eathered serpentine rock at the arid Khalilovsky massif, Russia. Sequence comparisons of whole genomes and of selected marker genes clearly showed strain S10 to belong to the R. qingshengii species. Four prophage sequences within the R. qingshengii S10 genome were identified, one of which encodes for a putative siderophore-interacting protein. Among the ten non-ribosomal peptides synthase (NRPS) clusters identified in the strain S10 genome, two show high homology to those responsible for siderophore synthesis. Phenotypic analyses demonstrated that R. qingshengii S10 secretes siderophores and possesses adaptive features (tolerance of up to 8% NaCl and pH 9) that should enable survival in its native habitat within dry serpentine rock.

RevDate: 2020-10-09

Sonnenberg CB, Kahlke T, P Haugen (2020)

Vibrionaceae core, shell and cloud genes are non-randomly distributed on Chr 1: An hypothesis that links the genomic location of genes with their intracellular placement.

BMC genomics, 21(1):695.

BACKGROUND: The genome of Vibrionaceae bacteria, which consists of two circular chromosomes, is replicated in a highly ordered fashion. In fast-growing bacteria, multifork replication results in higher gene copy numbers and increased expression of genes located close to the origin of replication of Chr 1 (ori1). This is believed to be a growth optimization strategy to satisfy the high demand of essential growth factors during fast growth. The relationship between ori1-proximate growth-related genes and gene expression during fast growth has been investigated by many researchers. However, it remains unclear which other gene categories that are present close to ori1 and if expression of all ori1-proximate genes is increased during fast growth, or if expression is selectively elevated for certain gene categories.

RESULTS: We calculated the pangenome of all complete genomes from the Vibrionaceae family and mapped the four pangene categories, core, softcore, shell and cloud, to their chromosomal positions. This revealed that core and softcore genes were found heavily biased towards ori1, while shell genes were overrepresented at the opposite part of Chr 1 (i.e., close to ter1). RNA-seq of Aliivibrio salmonicida and Vibrio natriegens showed global gene expression patterns that consistently correlated with chromosomal distance to ori1. Despite a biased gene distribution pattern, all pangene categories contributed to a skewed expression pattern at fast-growing conditions, whereas at slow-growing conditions, softcore, shell and cloud genes were responsible for elevated expression.

CONCLUSION: The pangene categories were non-randomly organized on Chr 1, with an overrepresentation of core and softcore genes around ori1, and overrepresentation of shell and cloud genes around ter1. Furthermore, we mapped our gene distribution data on to the intracellular positioning of chromatin described for V. cholerae, and found that core/softcore and shell/cloud genes appear enriched at two spatially separated intracellular regions. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that there is a link between the genomic location of genes and their cellular placement.

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Malik A, Kim YR, SB Kim (2020)

Genome Mining of the Genus Streptacidiphilus for Biosynthetic and Biodegradation Potential.

Genes, 11(10):.

The genus Streptacidiphilus represents a group of acidophilic actinobacteria within the family Streptomycetaceae, and currently encompasses 15 validly named species, which include five recent additions within the last two years. Considering the potential of the related genera within the family, namely Streptomyces and Kitasatospora, these relatively new members of the family can also be a promising source for novel secondary metabolites. At present, 15 genome data for 11 species from this genus are available, which can provide valuable information on their biology including the potential for metabolite production as well as enzymatic activities in comparison to the neighboring taxa. In this study, the genome sequences of 11 Streptacidiphilus species were subjected to the comparative analysis together with selected Streptomyces and Kitasatospora genomes. This study represents the first comprehensive comparative genomic analysis of the genus Streptacidiphilus. The results indicate that the genomes of Streptacidiphilus contained various secondary metabolite (SM) producing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), some of them exclusively identified in Streptacidiphilus only. Several of these clusters may potentially code for SMs that may have a broad range of bioactivities, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antitumor activities. The biodegradation capabilities of Streptacidiphilus were also explored by investigating the hydrolytic enzymes for complex carbohydrates. Although all genomes were enriched with carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), their numbers in the genomes of some strains such as Streptacidiphilus carbonis NBRC 100919T were higher as compared to well-known carbohydrate degrading organisms. These distinctive features of each Streptacidiphilus species make them interesting candidates for future studies with respect to their potential for SM production and enzymatic activities.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Chambers J, Sparks N, Sydney N, et al (2020)

Comparative Genomics and Pan-Genomics of the Myxococcaceae, including a Description of Five Novel Species: Myxococcus eversor sp. nov., Myxococcus llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogochensis sp. nov., Myxococcus vastator sp. nov., Pyxidicoccus caerfyrddinensis sp. nov., and Pyxidicoccus trucidator sp. nov.

Genome biology and evolution, 12(12):2289-2302.

Members of the predatory Myxococcales (myxobacteria) possess large genomes, undergo multicellular development, and produce diverse secondary metabolites, which are being actively prospected for novel drug discovery. To direct such efforts, it is important to understand the relationships between myxobacterial ecology, evolution, taxonomy, and genomic variation. This study investigated the genomes and pan-genomes of organisms within the Myxococcaceae, including the genera Myxococcus and Corallococcus, the most abundant myxobacteria isolated from soils. Previously, ten species of Corallococcus were known, whereas six species of Myxococcus phylogenetically surrounded a third genus (Pyxidicoccus) composed of a single species. Here, we describe draft genome sequences of five novel species within the Myxococcaceae (Myxococcus eversor, Myxococcus llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogochensis, Myxococcus vastator, Pyxidicoccus caerfyrddinensis, and Pyxidicoccus trucidator) and for the Pyxidicoccus type species strain, Pyxidicoccus fallax DSM 14698T. Genomic and physiological comparisons demonstrated clear differences between the five novel species and every other Myxococcus or Pyxidicoccus spp. type strain. Subsequent analyses of type strain genomes showed that both the Corallococcus pan-genome and the combined Myxococcus and Pyxidicoccus (Myxococcus/Pyxidicoccus) pan-genome are large and open, but with clear differences. Genomes of Corallococcus spp. are generally smaller than those of Myxococcus/Pyxidicoccus spp. but have core genomes three times larger. Myxococcus/Pyxidicoccus spp. genomes are more variable in size, with larger and more unique sets of accessory genes than those of Corallococcus species. In both genera, biosynthetic gene clusters are relatively enriched in the shell pan-genomes, implying they grant a greater evolutionary benefit than other shell genes, presumably by conferring selective advantages during predation.

RevDate: 2020-10-09
CmpDate: 2020-10-09

Jensen SE, Charles JR, Muleta K, et al (2020)

A sorghum practical haplotype graph facilitates genome-wide imputation and cost-effective genomic prediction.

The plant genome, 13(1):e20009.

Successful management and utilization of increasingly large genomic datasets is essential for breeding programs to accelerate cultivar development. To help with this, we developed a Sorghum bicolor Practical Haplotype Graph (PHG) pangenome database that stores haplotypes and variant information. We developed two PHGs in sorghum that were used to identify genome-wide variants for 24 founders of the Chibas sorghum breeding program from 0.01x sequence coverage. The PHG called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with 5.9% error at 0.01x coverage-only 3% higher than PHG error when calling SNPs from 8x coverage sequence. Additionally, 207 progenies from the Chibas genomic selection (GS) training population were sequenced and processed through the PHG. Missing genotypes were imputed from PHG parental haplotypes and used for genomic prediction. Mean prediction accuracies with PHG SNP calls range from .57-.73 and are similar to prediction accuracies obtained with genotyping-by-sequencing or targeted amplicon sequencing (rhAmpSeq) markers. This study demonstrates the use of a sorghum PHG to impute SNPs from low-coverage sequence data and shows that the PHG can unify genotype calls across multiple sequencing platforms. By reducing input sequence requirements, the PHG can decrease the cost of genotyping, make GS more feasible, and facilitate larger breeding populations. Our results demonstrate that the PHG is a useful research and breeding tool that maintains variant information from a diverse group of taxa, stores sequence data in a condensed but readily accessible format, unifies genotypes across genotyping platforms, and provides a cost-effective option for genomic selection.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Roe C, Williamson CHD, Vazquez AJ, et al (2020)

Bacterial Genome Wide Association Studies (bGWAS) and Transcriptomics Identifies Cryptic Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Frontiers in public health, 8:451.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, is becoming a serious public health threat. While some mechanisms of AMR have been reported, understanding novel mechanisms of resistance is critical for identifying emerging resistance. One of the first steps in identifying novel AMR mechanisms is performing genotype/phenotype association studies; however, performing these studies is complicated by the plastic nature of the A. baumannii pan-genome. In this study, we compared the antibiograms of 12 antimicrobials associated with multiple drug families for 84 A. baumannii isolates, many isolated in Arizona, USA. in silico screening of these genomes for known AMR mechanisms failed to identify clear correlations for most drugs. We then performed a bacterial genome wide association study (bGWAS) looking for associations between all possible 21-mers; this approach generally failed to identify mechanisms that explained the resistance phenotype. In order to decrease the genomic noise associated with population stratification, we compared four phylogenetically-related pairs of isolates with differing susceptibility profiles. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on paired isolates and differentially-expressed genes were identified. In these isolate pairs, five different potential mechanisms were identified, highlighting the difficulty of broad AMR surveillance in this species. To verify and validate differential expression, amplicon sequencing was performed. These results suggest that a diagnostic platform based on gene expression rather than genomics alone may be beneficial in certain surveillance efforts. The implementation of such advanced diagnostics coupled with increased AMR surveillance will potentially improve A. baumannii infection treatment and patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Yang Y, Zhang Y, Cápiro NL, et al (2020)

Genomic Characteristics Distinguish Geographically Distributed Dehalococcoidia.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:546063.

Dehalococcoidia (Dia) class microorganisms are frequently found in various pristine and contaminated environments. Metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) and single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) studies have substantially improved the understanding of Dia microbial ecology and evolution; however, an updated thorough investigation on the genomic and evolutionary characteristics of Dia microorganisms distributed in geographically distinct environments has not been implemented. In this study, we analyzed available genomic data to unravel Dia evolutionary and metabolic traits. Based on the phylogeny of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from sixty-seven genomes, Dia microorganisms can be categorized into three groups, the terrestrial cluster that contains all Dehalococcoides and Dehalogenimonas strains, the marine cluster I, and the marine cluster II. These results reveal that a higher ratio of horizontally transferred genetic materials was found in the Dia marine clusters compared to that of the Dia terrestrial cluster. Pangenome analysis further suggests that Dia microorganisms have evolved cluster-specific enzymes (e.g., dehalogenase in terrestrial Dia, sulfite reductase in marine Dia) and biosynthesis capabilities (e.g., siroheme biosynthesis in marine Dia). Marine Dia microorganisms are likely adapted to versatile metabolisms for energy conservation besides organohalide respiration. The genomic differences between marine and terrestrial Dia may suggest distinct functions and roles in element cycling (e.g., carbon, sulfur, chlorine), which require interdisciplinary approaches to unravel the physiology and evolution of Dia in various environments.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Kim HB, Kim E, Yang SM, et al (2020)

Development of Real-Time PCR Assay to Specifically Detect 22 Bifidobacterium Species and Subspecies Using Comparative Genomics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:2087.

Bifidobacterium species are used as probiotics to provide beneficial effects to humans. These effects are specific to some species or subspecies of Bifidobacterium. However, some Bifidobacterium species or subspecies are not distinguished because similarity of 16S rRNA and housekeeping gene sequences within Bifidobacterium species is very high. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to rapidly and accurately detect 22 Bifidobacterium species by selecting genetic markers using comparative genomic analysis. A total of 210 Bifidobacterium genome sequences were compared to select species- or subspecies-specific genetic markers. A phylogenetic tree based on pan-genomes generated clusters according to Bifidobacterium species or subspecies except that two strains were not grouped with their subspecies. Based on pan-genomes constructed, species- or subspecies-specific genetic markers were selected. The specificity of these markers was confirmed by aligning these genes against 210 genome sequences. Real-time PCR could detect 22 Bifidobacterium specifically. We constructed the criterion for quantification by standard curves. To further test the developed assay for commercial food products, we monitored 26 probiotic products and 7 dairy products. Real-time PCR results and labeling data were then compared. Most of these products (21/33, 63.6%) were consistent with their label claims. Some products labeled at species level only can be detected up to subspecies level through our developed assay.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Akob DM, Hallenbeck M, Beulig F, et al (2020)

Mixotrophic Iron-Oxidizing Thiomonas Isolates from an Acid Mine Drainage-Affected Creek.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 86(24):.

Natural attenuation of heavy metals occurs via coupled microbial iron cycling and metal precipitation in creeks impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). Here, we describe the isolation, characterization, and genomic sequencing of two iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) species: Thiomonas ferrovorans FB-6 and Thiomonas metallidurans FB-Cd, isolated from slightly acidic (pH 6.3), Fe-rich, AMD-impacted creek sediments. These strains precipitated amorphous iron oxides, lepidocrocite, goethite, and magnetite or maghemite and grew at a pH optimum of 5.5. While Thiomonas spp. are known as mixotrophic sulfur oxidizers and As oxidizers, the FB strains oxidized Fe, which suggests they can efficiently remove Fe and other metals via coprecipitation. Previous evidence for Thiomonas sp. Fe oxidation is largely ambiguous, possibly because of difficulty demonstrating Fe oxidation in heterotrophic/mixotrophic organisms. Therefore, we also conducted a genomic analysis to identify genetic mechanisms of Fe oxidation, other metal transformations, and additional adaptations, comparing the two FB strain genomes with 12 other Thiomonas genomes. The FB strains fall within a relatively novel group of Thiomonas strains that includes another strain (b6) with solid evidence of Fe oxidation. Most Thiomonas isolates, including the FB strains, have the putative iron oxidation gene cyc2, but only the two FB strains possess the putative Fe oxidase genes mtoAB The two FB strain genomes contain the highest numbers of strain-specific gene clusters, greatly increasing the known Thiomonas genetic potential. Our results revealed that the FB strains are two distinct novel species of Thiomonas with the genetic potential for bioremediation of AMD via iron oxidation.IMPORTANCE As AMD moves through the environment, it impacts aquatic ecosystems, but at the same time, these ecosystems can naturally attenuate contaminated waters via acid neutralization and catalyzing metal precipitation. This is the case in the former Ronneburg uranium-mining district, where AMD impacts creek sediments. We isolated and characterized two iron-oxidizing Thiomonas species that are mildly acidophilic to neutrophilic and that have two genetic pathways for iron oxidation. These Thiomonas species are well positioned to naturally attenuate AMD as it discharges across the landscape.

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Harris LG, Bodger O, Post V, et al (2020)

Temporal Changes in Patient-Matched Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates from Infections: towards Defining a 'True' Persistent Infection.

Microorganisms, 8(10):.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is found naturally on the skin but is a common cause of persistent orthopaedic device-related infections (ODRIs). This study used a pan-genome and gene-by-gene approach to analyse the clonality of whole genome sequences (WGS) of 115 S. epidermidis isolates from 55 patients with persistent ODRIs. Analysis of the 522 gene core genome revealed that the isolates clustered into three clades, and MLST analysis showed that 83% of the isolates belonged to clonal complex 2 (CC2). Analysis also found 13 isolate pairs had different MLST types and less than 70% similarity within the genes; hence, these were defined as re-infection by a different S. epidermidis strain. Comparison of allelic diversity in the remaining 102 isolates (49 patients) revealed that 6 patients had microevolved infections (>7 allele differences), and only 37 patients (77 isolates) had a 'true' persistent infection. Analysis of the core genomes of isolate pairs from 37 patients found 110/841 genes had variations; mainly in metabolism associated genes. The accessory genome consisted of 2936 genes; with an average size of 1515 genes. To conclude, this study demonstrates the advantage of using WGS for identifying the accuracy of a persistent infection diagnosis. Hence, persistent infections can be defined as 'true' persistent infections if the core genome of paired isolates has ≤7 allele differences; microevolved persistent infection if the paired isolates have >7 allele differences but same MLST type; and polyclonal if they are the same species but a different MLST type.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Srivastava AK, Srivastava R, Sharma A, et al (2020)

Pan-genome analysis of Exiguobacterium reveals species delineation and genomic similarity with Exiguobacterium profundum PHM 11.

Environmental microbiology reports, 12(6):639-650.

The stint of the bacterial species is convoluting, but the new algorithms to calculate genome-to-genome distance (GGD) and DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) for comparative genome analysis have rejuvenated the exploration of species and sub-species characterization. The present study reports the first whole genome sequence of Exiguobacterium profundum PHM11. PHM11 genome consist of ~ 2.92 Mb comprising 48 contigs, 47.93% G + C content. Functional annotations revealed a total of 3033 protein coding genes and 33 non-protein coding genes. Out of these, only 2316 could be characterized and others reported as hypothetical proteins. The comparative analysis of predicted proteome of PHM11 with five other Exiguobacterium sp. identified 3806 clusters, out of which the PHM11 shared a total of 2723 clusters having 1664 common clusters, 131 singletons and 928 distributed between five species. The pan-genome analysis of 70 different genomic sequences of Exigubacterium strains devoid of a species taxon was done on the basis of GGD and the DDH which identified eight genomes analogous to the PHM11 at species level and may be characterized as E. profundum. The ANI value and phylogenetic tree analysis also support the same. The results regarding pan-genome analysis provide a convincing insight for delineation of these eight strains to species.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Patel M, Patel HM, Vohra N, et al (2020)

Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome characterization of the lignocellulosic biomass degrading bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri MP4687 from cattle rumen.

Biotechnology reports (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 28:e00530.

We report the complete genome sequencing of novel Pseudomonas stutzeri strain MP4687 isolated from cattle rumen. Various strains of P. stutzeri have been reported from different environmental samples including oil-contaminated sites, crop roots, air, and human clinical samples, but not from rumen samples, which is being reported here for the first time. The genome of P. stutzeri MP4687 has a single replicon, 4.75 Mb chromosome and a G + C content of 63.45%. The genome encodes for 4,790 protein coding genes including 164 CAZymes and 345 carbohydrate processing genes. The isolate MP4687 harbors LCB hydrolyzing potential through endoglucanase (4.5 U/mL), xylanase (3.1 U/mL), β-glucosidase (3.3 U/mL) and β-xylosidase (1.9 U/mL) activities. The pangenome analysis further revealed that MP4687 has a very high number of unique genes (>2100) compared to other P. stutzeri genomes, which might have an important role in rumen functioning.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Verma DK, Vasudeva G, Sidhu C, et al (2020)

Biochemical and Taxonomic Characterization of Novel Haloarchaeal Strains and Purification of the Recombinant Halotolerant α-Amylase Discovered in the Isolate.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:2082.

Haloarchaea are salt-loving archaea and potential source of industrially relevant halotolerant enzymes. In the present study, three reddish-pink, extremely halophilic archaeal strains, namely wsp1 (wsp-water sample Pondicherry), wsp3, and wsp4, were isolated from the Indian Solar saltern. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that both wsp3 and wsp4 strains belong to Halogeometricum borinquense while wsp1 is closely related to Haloferax volcanii species. The comparative genomics revealed an open pangenome for both genera investigated here. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that these isolates have multiple copies of industrially/biotechnologically important unique genes and enzymes. Among these unique enzymes, for recombinant expression and purification, we selected four putative α-amylases identified in these three isolates. We successfully purified functional halotolerant recombinant Amy2, from wsp1 using pelB signal sequence-based secretion strategy using Escherichia coli as an expression host. This method may prove useful to produce functional haloarchaeal secretory recombinant proteins suitable for commercial or research applications. Biochemical analysis of Amy2 suggests the halotolerant nature of the enzyme having maximum enzymatic activity observed at 1 M NaCl. We also report the isolation and characterization of carotenoids purified from these isolates. This study highlights the presence of several industrially important enzymes in the haloarchaeal strains which may potentially have improved features like stability and salt tolerance suitable for industrial applications.

RevDate: 2020-12-09

Chen Y, Song W, Xie X, et al (2020)

A Collinearity-Incorporating Homology Inference Strategy for Connecting Emerging Assemblies in the Triticeae Tribe as a Pilot Practice in the Plant Pangenomic Era.

Molecular plant, 13(12):1694-1708.

Plant genome sequencing has dramatically increased, and some species even have multiple high-quality reference versions. Demands for clade-specific homology inference and analysis have increased in the pangenomic era. Here we present a novel method, GeneTribe (, for homology inference among genetically similar genomes that incorporates gene collinearity and shows better performance than traditional sequence-similarity-based methods in terms of accuracy and scalability. The Triticeae tribe is a typical allopolyploid-rich clade with complex species relationships that includes many important crops, such as wheat, barley, and rye. We built Triticeae-GeneTribe (, a homology database, by integrating 12 Triticeae genomes and 3 outgroup model genomes and implemented versatile analysis and visualization functions. With macrocollinearity analysis, we were able to construct a refined model illustrating the structural rearrangements of the 4A-5A-7B chromosomes in wheat as two major translocation events. With collinearity analysis at both the macro- and microscale, we illustrated the complex evolutionary history of homologs of the wheat vernalization gene Vrn2, which evolved as a combined result of genome translocation, duplication, and polyploidization and gene loss events. Our work provides a useful practice for connecting emerging genome assemblies, with awareness of the extensive polyploidy in plants, and will help researchers efficiently exploit genome sequence resources.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

McCubbin T, Gonzalez-Garcia RA, Palfreyman RW, et al (2020)

A Pan-Genome Guided Metabolic Network Reconstruction of Five Propionibacterium Species Reveals Extensive Metabolic Diversity.

Genes, 11(10):.

Propionibacteria have been studied extensively since the early 1930s due to their relevance to industry and importance as human pathogens. Still, their unique metabolism is far from fully understood. This is partly due to their signature high GC content, which has previously hampered the acquisition of quality sequence data, the accurate annotation of the available genomes, and the functional characterization of genes. The recent completion of the genome sequences for several species has led researchers to reassess the taxonomical classification of the genus Propionibacterium, which has been divided into several new genres. Such data also enable a comparative genomic approach to annotation and provide a new opportunity to revisit our understanding of their metabolism. Using pan-genome analysis combined with the reconstruction of the first high-quality Propionibacterium genome-scale metabolic model and a pan-metabolic model of current and former members of the genus Propionibacterium, we demonstrate that despite sharing unique metabolic traits, these organisms have an unexpected diversity in central carbon metabolism and a hidden layer of metabolic complexity. This combined approach gave us new insights into the evolution of Propionibacterium metabolism and led us to propose a novel, putative ferredoxin-linked energy conservation strategy. The pan-genomic approach highlighted key differences in Propionibacterium metabolism that reflect adaptation to their environment. Results were mathematically captured in genome-scale metabolic reconstructions that can be used to further explore metabolism using metabolic modeling techniques. Overall, the data provide a platform to explore Propionibacterium metabolism and a tool for the rational design of strains.

RevDate: 2020-11-14

Feng Y, Fan X, Zhu L, et al (2020)

Phylogenetic and genomic analysis reveals high genomic openness and genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens.

Microbial genomics, 6(10):.

Clostridium perfringens is associated with a variety of diseases in both humans and animals. Recent advances in genomic sequencing make it timely to re-visit this important pathogen. Although the genome sequence of C. perfringens was first determined in 2002, large-scale comparative genomics with isolates of different origins is still lacking. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing of 45 C. perfringens isolates with isolation time spanning an 80-year period and performed comparative analysis of 173 genomes from worldwide strains. We also conducted phylogenetic lineage analysis and introduced an openness index (OI) to evaluate the openness of bacterial genomes. We classified all these genomes into five lineages and hypothesized that the origin of C. perfringens dates back to ~80 000 years ago. We showed that the pangenome of the 173 C. perfringens strains contained a total of 26 954 genes, while the core genome comprised 1020 genes, accounting for about a third of the genome of each isolate. We demonstrated that C. perfringens had the highest OI compared with 51 other bacterial species. Intact prophage sequences were found in nearly 70.0 % of C. perfringens genomes, while CRISPR sequences were found only in ~40.0 %. Plasmids were prevalent in C. perfringens isolates, and half of the virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) identified in all the isolates could be found in plasmids. ARG-sharing network analysis showed that C. perfringens shared its 11 ARGs with 55 different bacterial species, and a high frequency of ARG transfer may have occurred between C. perfringens and species in the genera Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. Correlation analysis showed that the ARG number in C. perfringens strains increased with time, while the virulence gene number was relative stable. Our results, taken together with previous studies, revealed the high genome openness and genetic diversity of C. perfringens and provide a comprehensive view of the phylogeny, genomic features, virulence gene and ARG profiles of worldwide strains.

RevDate: 2020-10-23

Rautiainen M, T Marschall (2020)

GraphAligner: rapid and versatile sequence-to-graph alignment.

Genome biology, 21(1):253.

Genome graphs can represent genetic variation and sequence uncertainty. Aligning sequences to genome graphs is key to many applications, including error correction, genome assembly, and genotyping of variants in a pangenome graph. Yet, so far, this step is often prohibitively slow. We present GraphAligner, a tool for aligning long reads to genome graphs. Compared to the state-of-the-art tools, GraphAligner is 13x faster and uses 3x less memory. When employing GraphAligner for error correction, we find it to be more than twice as accurate and over 12x faster than extant tools.Availability: Package manager: and source code:

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Sánchez-Osuna M, Cortés P, Llagostera M, et al (2020)

Exploration into the origins and mobilization of di-hydrofolate reductase genes and the emergence of clinical resistance to trimethoprim.

Microbial genomics, 6(11):.

Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial agent that targets folate biosynthesis by competitively binding to the di-hydrofolate reductase enzyme (DHFR). Trimethoprim is often administered synergistically with sulfonamide, another chemotherapeutic agent targeting the di-hydropteroate synthase (DHPS) enzyme in the same pathway. Clinical resistance to both drugs is widespread and mediated by enzyme variants capable of performing their biological function without binding to these drugs. These mutant enzymes were assumed to have arisen after the discovery of these synthetic drugs, but recent work has shown that genes conferring resistance to sulfonamide were present in the bacterial pangenome millions of years ago. Here, we apply phylogenetics and comparative genomics methods to study the largest family of mobile trimethoprim-resistance genes (dfrA). We show that most of the dfrA genes identified to date map to two large clades that likely arose from independent mobilization events. In contrast to sulfonamide resistance (sul) genes, we find evidence of recurrent mobilization in dfrA genes. Phylogenetic evidence allows us to identify novel dfrA genes in the emerging pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, and we confirm their resistance phenotype in vitro. We also identify a cluster of dfrA homologues in cryptic plasmid and phage genomes, but we show that these enzymes do not confer resistance to trimethoprim. Our methods also allow us to pinpoint the chromosomal origin of previously reported dfrA genes, and we show that many of these ancient chromosomal genes also confer resistance to trimethoprim. Our work reveals that trimethoprim resistance predated the clinical use of this chemotherapeutic agent, but that novel mutations have likely also arisen and become mobilized following its widespread use within and outside the clinic. Hence, this work confirms that resistance to novel drugs may already be present in the bacterial pangenome, and stresses the importance of rapid mobilization as a fundamental element in the emergence and global spread of resistance determinants.

RevDate: 2020-12-28
CmpDate: 2020-12-28

Jin L, Chen Y, Yang W, et al (2020)

Complete genome sequence of fish-pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila HX-3 and a comparative analysis: insights into virulence factors and quorum sensing.

Scientific reports, 10(1):15479.

The gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agent of motile aeromonad septicaemia, has attracted increasing attention due to its high pathogenicity. Here, we constructed the complete genome sequence of a virulent strain, A. hydrophila HX-3 isolated from Pseudosciaena crocea and performed comparative genomics to investigate its virulence factors and quorum sensing features in comparison with those of other Aeromonas isolates. HX-3 has a circular chromosome of 4,941,513 bp with a 61.0% G + C content encoding 4483 genes, including 4318 protein-coding genes, and 31 rRNA, 127 tRNA and 7 ncRNA operons. Seventy interspersed repeat and 153 tandem repeat sequences, 7 transposons, 8 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, and 39 genomic islands were predicted in the A. hydrophila HX-3 genome. Phylogeny and pan-genome were also analyzed herein to confirm the evolutionary relationships on the basis of comparisons with other fully sequenced Aeromonas genomes. In addition, the assembled HX-3 genome was successfully annotated against the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins database (76.03%), Gene Ontology database (18.13%), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway database (59.68%). Two-component regulatory systems in the HX-3 genome and virulence factors profiles through comparative analysis were predicted, providing insights into pathogenicity. A large number of genes related to the AHL-type 1 (ahyI, ahyR), LuxS-type 2 (luxS, pfs, metEHK, litR, luxOQU) and QseBC-type 3 (qseB, qseC) autoinducer systems were also identified. As a result of the expression of the ahyI gene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), combined UPLC-MS/MS profiling led to the identification of several new N-acyl-homoserine lactone compounds synthesized by AhyI. This genomic analysis determined the comprehensive QS systems of A. hydrophila, which might provide novel information regarding the mechanisms of virulence signatures correlated with QS.

RevDate: 2020-09-24

Fang X, Lloyd CJ, BO Palsson (2020)

Reconstructing organisms in silico: genome-scale models and their emerging applications.

Nature reviews. Microbiology pii:10.1038/s41579-020-00440-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Escherichia coli is considered to be the best-known microorganism given the large number of published studies detailing its genes, its genome and the biochemical functions of its molecular components. This vast literature has been systematically assembled into a reconstruction of the biochemical reaction networks that underlie E. coli's functions, a process which is now being applied to an increasing number of microorganisms. Genome-scale reconstructed networks are organized and systematized knowledge bases that have multiple uses, including conversion into computational models that interpret and predict phenotypic states and the consequences of environmental and genetic perturbations. These genome-scale models (GEMs) now enable us to develop pan-genome analyses that provide mechanistic insights, detail the selection pressures on proteome allocation and address stress phenotypes. In this Review, we first discuss the overall development of GEMs and their applications. Next, we review the evolution of the most complete GEM that has been developed to date: the E. coli GEM. Finally, we explore three emerging areas in genome-scale modelling of microbial phenotypes: collections of strain-specific models, metabolic and macromolecular expression models, and simulation of stress responses.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Phanse Y, Wu CW, Venturino AJ, et al (2020)

A Protective Vaccine against Johne's Disease in Cattle.

Microorganisms, 8(9):.

Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is a chronic infection characterized by the development of granulomatous enteritis in wild and domesticated ruminants. It is one of the most significant livestock diseases not only in the USA but also globally, accounting for USD 200-500 million losses annually for the USA alone with potential link to cases of Crohn's disease in humans. Developing safe and protective vaccines is of a paramount importance for JD control in dairy cows. The current study evaluated the safety, immunity and protective efficacy of a novel live attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidate with and without an adjuvant in comparison to an inactivated vaccine. Results indicated that the LAV, irrespective of the adjuvant presence, induced robust T cell immune responses indicated by proinflammatory cytokine production such as IFN-γ, IFN-α, TNF-α and IL-17 as well as strong response to intradermal skin test against M. paratuberculosis antigens. Furthermore, the LAV was safe with minimal tissue pathology. Finally, calves vaccinated with adjuvanted LAV did not shed M. paratuberculosis post-challenge, a much-desired characteristic of an effective vaccine against JD. Together, this data suggests a strong potential of testing LAV in field trials to curb JD in dairy herds.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Zhong C, Wang L, K Ning (2020)

Pan-genome study of Thermococcales reveals extensive genetic diversity and genetic evidence of thermophilic adaption.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Thermococcales has a strong adaptability to extreme environments, which is of profound interest in explaining how complex life forms emerge on earth. However, their gene composition, thermal stability and evolution in hyperthermal environments are still little known. Here, we characterized the pan-genome architecture of 30 Thermococcales species to gain insight into their genetic properties, evolutionary patterns and specific metabolisms adapted to niches. We revealed an open pan-genome of Thermococcales comprising 6070 gene families that tend to increase with the availability of additional genomes. The genome contents of Thermococcales were flexible, with a series of genes experienced gene duplication, progressive divergence, or gene gain and loss events exhibiting distinct functional features. These archaea had concise types of heat shock proteins, such as HSP20, HSP60 and prefoldin, which were constrained by strong purifying selection that governed their conservative evolution. Furthermore, purifying selection forced genes involved in enzyme, motility, secretion system, defence system and chaperones to differ in functional constraints and their disparity in the rate of evolution may be related to adaptation to specific niche. These results deepened our understanding of genetic diversity and adaptation patterns of Thermococcales, and provided valuable research models for studying the metabolic traits of early life forms.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )