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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Jun 2024 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Wang Q, Zhan PC, Han XL, et al (2024)

Metagenomic and culture-dependent analysis of Rhinopithecius bieti gut microbiota and characterization of a novel genus of Sphingobacteriaceae.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13819.

Culture-dependent and metagenomic binning techniques were employed to gain an insight into the diversification of gut bacteria in Rhinopithecius bieti, a highly endangered primate endemic to China. Our analyses revealed that Bacillota_A and Bacteroidota were the dominant phyla. These two phyla species are rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, which could provide nutrients and energy for their own or hosts' survival under different circumstances. Among the culturable bacteria, one novel bacterium, designated as WQ 2009[T], formed a distinct branch that had a low similarity to the known species in the family Sphingobacteriaceae, based on the phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence or phylogenomic analysis. The ANI, dDDH and AAI values between WQ 2009[T] and its most closely related strains S. kitahiroshimense 10C[T], S. pakistanense NCCP-246[T] and S. faecium DSM 11690[T] were significantly lower than the accepted cut-off values for microbial species delineation. All results demonstrated that WQ 2009[T] represent a novel genus, for which names Rhinopithecimicrobium gen. nov. and Rhinopithecimicrobium faecis sp. nov. (Type strain WQ 2009[T] = CCTCC AA 2021153[T] = KCTC 82941[T]) are proposed.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Lo WS, Sommer RJ, Z Han (2024)

Microbiota succession influences nematode physiology in a beetle microcosm ecosystem.

Nature communications, 15(1):5137.

Unravelling the multifaceted and bidirectional interactions between microbiota and host physiology represents a major scientific challenge. Here, we utilise the nematode model, Pristionchus pacificus, coupled to a laboratory-simulated decay process of its insect host, to mimic natural microbiota succession and investigate associated tripartite interactions. Metagenomics reveal that during initial decay stages, the population of vitamin B-producing bacteria diminishes, potentially due to a preferential selection by nematodes. As decay progresses to nutrient-depleted stages, bacteria with smaller genomes producing less nutrients become more prevalent. Lipid utilisation and dauer formation, representing key nematode survival strategies, are influenced by microbiota changes. Additionally, horizontally acquired cellulases extend the nematodes' reproductive phase due to more efficient foraging. Lastly, the expressions of Pristionchus species-specific genes are more responsive to natural microbiota compared to conserved genes, suggesting their importance in the organisms' adaptation to its ecological niche. In summary, we show the importance of microbial successions and their reciprocal interaction with nematodes for insect decay in semi-artificial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Wang H, Zhang Y, Zhou Q, et al (2024)

Microbial metagenomic shifts in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia during induction therapy and predictive biomarkers for infection.

Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 23(1):52.

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has indicated a link between the gut microbiota and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the acute changes in gut microbiota during chemotherapy and the predictive value of baseline gut microbiota in infectious complication remain largely unknown.

METHODS: Faecal samples (n = 126) from children with ALL (n = 49) undergoing induction chemotherapy were collected at three timepoints, i.e., initiation of chemotherapy (baseline, T0), 7 days (T1) and 33 days (T2) after initiation of chemotherapy. Gut microbiome profile was performed via metagenomic shotgun sequencing. The bioBakery3 pipeline (Kneaddata, Metaphlan 3 and HUMAnN) was performed to assign taxonomy and functional annotations. Gut microbiome at T0 were used to predict infection during chemotherapy.

RESULTS: The microbial diversities and composition changed significantly during chemotherapy, with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bifidobacterium longum being the most prominent species. The microbial metabolic pathways were also significantly altered during chemotherapy, including the pathway of pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate, and assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models based on Bifidobacterium longum at T0 could predict infectious complications during the first month of chemotherapy with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.720.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into the acute changes in microbial and functional characteristics in children with ALL during chemotherapy. The baseline gut microbiota could be potential biomarkers for infections during chemotherapy.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University (2021-KY-171-01) and registered on http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2200065406, Registration Date: November 4, 2022).

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Salamandane A, Leech J, Almeida R, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial microbiome, resistome and virulome distinguishes Portuguese Serra da Estrela PDO cheeses from similar non-PDO cheeses: An exploratory approach.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 189:114556.

This study aimed to evaluate the microbiome, resistome and virulome of two types of Portuguese cheese using high throughput sequencing (HTS). Culture-dependent chromogenic methods were also used for certain groups/microorganisms. Eight samples of raw ewe's milk cheese were obtained from four producers: two producers with cheeses with a PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) label and the other two producers with cheeses without a PDO label. Agar-based culture methods were used to quantify total mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and lactic acid bacteria. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella was also investigated. The selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluated to determine antibiotic resistance and the presence of virulence genes. The eight cheese samples analyzed broadly complied with EC regulations in terms of the microbiological safety criteria. The HTS results demonstrated that Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Enterococcus durans and Lactobacillus coryniformis were the most prevalent bacterial species in cheeses. The composition of the bacterial community varied, not only between PDO and non-PDO cheeses, but also between producers, particularly between the two non-PDO cheeses. Alpha-diversity analyses showed that PDO cheeses had greater bacterial diversity than non-PDO cheeses, demonstrating that the diversity of spontaneously fermented foods is significantly higher in cheeses produced without the addition of food preservatives and dairy ferments. Despite complying with microbiological regulations, both PDO and non-PDO cheeses harbored potential virulence genes as well as antibiotic resistance genes. However, PDO cheeses exhibited fewer of these virulence and antibiotic resistance genes compared to non-PDO cheeses. Therefore, the combination of conventional microbiological methods and the metagenomic approach could contribute to improving the attribution of the PDO label to this type of cheese.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Kothe CI, Carøe C, Mazel F, et al (2024)

Novel misos shape distinct microbial ecologies: opportunities for flavourful sustainable food innovation.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 189:114490.

Fermentation is resurgent around the world as people seek healthier, more sustainable, and tasty food options. This study explores the microbial ecology of miso, a traditional Japanese fermented paste, made with novel regional substrates to develop new plant-based foods. Eight novel miso varieties were developed using different protein-rich substrates: yellow peas, Gotland lentils, and fava beans (each with two treatments: standard and nixtamalisation), as well as rye bread and soybeans. The misos were produced at Noma, a restaurant in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were analysed with biological and technical triplicates at the beginning and end of fermentation. We also incorporated in this study six samples of novel misos produced following the same recipe at Inua, a former affiliate restaurant of Noma in Tokyo, Japan. To analyse microbial community structure and diversity, metabarcoding (16S and ITS) and shotgun metagenomic analyses were performed. The misos contain a greater range of microbes than is currently described for miso in the literature. The composition of the novel yellow pea misos was notably similar to the traditional soybean ones, suggesting they are a good alternative, which supports our culinary collaborators' sensory conclusions. For bacteria, we found that overall substrate had the strongest effect, followed by time, treatment (nixtamalisation), and geography. For fungi, there was a slightly stronger effect of geography and a mild effect of substrate, and no significant effects for treatment or time. Based on an analysis of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), strains of Staphylococccus epidermidis differentiated according to substrate. Carotenoid biosynthesis genes in these MAGs appeared in strains from Japan but not from Denmark, suggesting a possible gene-level geographical effect. The benign and possibly functional presence of S. epidermidis in these misos, a species typically associated with the human skin microbiome, suggests possible adaptation to the miso niche, and the flow of microbes between bodies and foods in certain fermentation as more common than is currently recognised. This study improves our understanding of miso ecology, highlights the potential for developing novel misos using diverse local ingredients, and suggests how fermentation innovation can contribute to studies of microbial ecology and evolution.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Yi Y, Liang L, de Jong A, et al (2024)

A systematic comparison of natural product potential, with an emphasis on RiPPs, by mining of bacteria of three large ecosystems.

Genomics, 116(4):110880.

The implementation of several global microbiome studies has yielded extensive insights into the biosynthetic potential of natural microbial communities. However, studies on the distribution of several classes of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) in different large microbial ecosystems have been very limited. Here, we collected a large set of metagenome-assembled bacterial genomes from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems to investigate the biosynthetic potential of these bacteria. We demonstrate the utility of public dataset collections for revealing the different secondary metabolite biosynthetic potentials among these different living environments. We show that there is a higher occurrence of RiPPs in terrestrial systems, while in marine systems, we found relatively more terpene-, NRP-, and PK encoding gene clusters. Among the many new biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) identified, we analyzed various Nif-11-like and nitrile hydratase leader peptide (NHLP) containing gene clusters that would merit further study, including promising products, such as mersacidin-, LAP- and proteusin analogs. This research highlights the significance of public datasets in elucidating the biosynthetic potential of microbes in different living environments and underscores the wide bioengineering opportunities within the RiPP family.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Liu Y, Wang Y, Wei F, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota-bile acid crosstalk contributes to intestinal damage after nitrate exposure in Bufo gargarizans tadpoles.

The Science of the total environment, 943:173795.

Bile acids (BAs) are amphipathic steroid acids whose production and diversity depend on both host and microbial metabolism. Nitrate (NO3[-]) is a widespread pollutant in aquatic ecosystems, which can cause rapid changes in microbial community structure and function. However, the effect of gut microbiota reshaped by nitrate‑nitrogen (NO3-N) on BAs profiles remains unclarified. To test this, intestinal targeted BAs metabolomics and fecal metagenomic sequencing were performed on Bufo gargarizans tadpoles treated with different concentrations of NO3-N. NO3-N exposure induced a reduction in the abundance of microbiota with bile acid-inducible enzymes (BAIs) and/or hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDHs), thus inhibiting the conversion of primary BAs to secondary BAs. Inhibition of BAs biotransformation decreased protective hydrophilic BAs (UDCA) and increased toxic hydrophobic BAs (CA and CDCA), which may contribute to intestinal histopathological damage. Moreover, we found that NO3-N treatment increased microbial virulence factors and decreased Glycoside hydrolases, further highlighting the deleterious risk of NO3-N. Overall, this study shed light on the complex interactions of NO3-N, gut microbiota, and BAs, and emphasized the hazardous effects of NO3-N pollution on the health of amphibians.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Fernández-Triana I, Rubilar O, Parada J, et al (2024)

Metal nanoparticles and pesticides under global climate change: Assessing the combined effects of multiple abiotic stressors on soil microbial ecosystems.

The Science of the total environment, 942:173494.

The soil is a vital resource that hosts many microorganisms crucial in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem health. However, human activities such as the use of metal nanoparticles (MNPs), pesticides and the impacts of global climate change (GCCh) can significantly affect soil microbial communities (SMC). For many years, pesticides and, more recently, nanoparticles have contributed to sustainable agriculture to ensure continuous food production to sustain the significant growth of the world population and, therefore, the demand for food. Pesticides have a recognized pest control capacity. On the other hand, nanoparticles have demonstrated a high ability to improve water and nutrient retention, promote plant growth, and control pests. However, it has been reported that their accumulation in agricultural soils can also adversely affect the environment and soil microbial health. In addition, climate change, with its variations in temperature and extreme water conditions, can lead to drought and increased soil salinity, modifying both soil conditions and the composition and function of microbial communities. Abiotic stressors can interact and synergistically or additively affect soil microorganisms, significantly impacting soil functioning and the capacity to provide ecosystem services. Therefore, this work reviewed the current scientific literature to understand how multiple stressors interact and affect the SMC. In addition, the importance of molecular tools such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, proteomics, or metabolomics in the study of the responses of SMC to exposure to multiple abiotic stressors was examined. Future research directions were also proposed, focusing on exploring the complex interactions between stressors and their long-term effects and developing strategies for sustainable soil management. These efforts will contribute to the preservation of soil health and the promotion of sustainable agricultural practices.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Zhuo LB, Yang Y, Xiao C, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota-bile acid axis mediated the beneficial associations between dietary lignans and hyperuricemia: a prospective study.

Food & function, 15(12):6438-6449.

Background: The escalating prevalence of hyperuricemia is emerging as a significant public health concern. The association between dietary lignans and hyperuricemia is yet to be fully elucidated. Our study aims to evaluate the relationships between dietary lignan intake and hyperuricemia among middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals, with an additional focus on investigating the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Dietary lignan intake was measured using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in 3801 participants at the baseline. Among them, 2552 participants were included in the longitudinal study with a median follow-up of 10.5 years. The gut microbiota was analyzed by shotgun metagenome sequencing in 1789 participants, and the targeted fecal metabolome was determined in 987 participants using UPLC-MS/MS at the midpoint of follow-up. Results: The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for hyperuricemia incidence in the highest quartile (vs. the lowest quartile) of dietary intake of total lignans, matairesinol, pinoresinol, and secoisolariciresinol were 0.93 (0.78-1.10), 0.77 (0.66-0.90), 0.83 (0.70-0.97), and 0.85 (0.73-1.00), respectively. The gut microbial and fecal metabolic compositions were significantly different across the dietary lignan groups and the hyperuricemia groups. The beneficial associations between dietary lignans and hyperuricemia might be mediated by several gut microbes (e.g., Fusobacterium mortiferum and Blautia sp. CAG-257) and the downstream bile acid products (e.g., NorCA, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, and glycoursodeoxycholic acid). Conclusion: We found that dietary lignans were inversely associated with hyperuricemia incidence, and the gut microbiota-bile acid axis might mediate this association. Our findings provide new perspectives on precise therapeutic targets and underlying mechanisms for conditions associated with elevated uric acid.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Duong JT, Pope CE, Hayden HS, et al (2024)

Alterations in the fecal microbiota in patients with advanced cystic fibrosis liver disease after 6 months of elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor.

Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society, 23(3):490-498.

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis associated liver disease (CFLD) carries a significant disease burden with no effective preventive therapies. According to the gut-liver axis hypothesis for CFLD pathogenesis, dysbiosis and increased intestinal inflammation and permeability permit pathogenic bacterial translocation into the portal circulation, leading to hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Evaluating the effect of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) modulation with elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (ETI) may help determine the role of CFTR in CFLD and increase understanding of CFLD pathogenesis, which is critical for developing therapies. We aimed to characterize the fecal microbiota in participants with CF with and without advanced CFLD (aCFLD) before and after ETI.

METHODS: This is an ancillary analysis of stool samples from participants ages ≥12 y/o enrolled in PROMISE (NCT04038047). Included participants had aCFLD (cirrhosis with or without portal hypertension, or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension) or CF without liver disease (CFnoLD). Fecal microbiota were defined by shotgun metagenomic sequencing at baseline and 1 and 6 months post-ETI.

RESULTS: We analyzed 93 samples from 34 participants (11 aCFLD and 23 CFnoLD). Compared to CFnoLD, aCFLD had significantly higher baseline relative abundances of potential pathogens Streptococcus salivarius and Veillonella parvula. Four of 11 aCFLD participants had an initially abnormal fecal calprotectin that normalized 6 months post-ETI, correlating with a significant decrease in S. salivarius and a trend towards decreasing V. parvula.

CONCLUSIONS: These results support an association between dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation in CFLD with improvements in both post-ETI, lending further support to the gut-liver axis in aCFLD.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Sivalingam P, Sabatino R, Sbaffi T, et al (2024)

Anthropogenic pollution may enhance natural transformation in water, favouring the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

Journal of hazardous materials, 475:134885 pii:S0304-3894(24)01464-X [Epub ahead of print].

Aquatic ecosystems are crucial in the antimicrobial resistance cycle. While intracellular DNA has been extensively studied to understand human activity's impact on antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) dissemination, extracellular DNA is frequently overlooked. This study examines the effect of anthropogenic water pollution on microbial community diversity, the resistome, and ARG dissemination. We analyzed intracellular and extracellular DNA from wastewater treatment plant effluents and lake surface water by shotgun sequencing. We also conducted experiments to evaluate anthropogenic pollution's effect on transforming extracellular DNA (using Gfp-plasmids carrying ARGs) within a natural microbial community. Chemical analysis showed treated wastewater had higher anthropogenic pollution-related parameters than lake water. The richness of microbial community, antimicrobial resistome, and high-risk ARGs was greater in treated wastewaters than in lake waters both for intracellular and extracellular DNA. Except for the high-risk ARGs, richness was significantly higher in intracellular than in extracellular DNA. Several ARGs were associated with mobile genetic elements and located on plasmids. Furthermore, Gfp-plasmid transformation within a natural microbial community was enhanced by anthropogenic pollution levels. Our findings underscore anthropogenic pollution's pivotal role in shaping microbial communities and their antimicrobial resistome. Additionally, it may facilitate ARG dissemination through extracellular DNA plasmid uptake.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Pulvirenti F, Giufrè M, Pentimalli TM, et al (2024)

Oropharyngeal microbial ecosystem perturbations influence the risk for acute respiratory infections in common variable immunodeficiency.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1371118.

BACKGROUND: The respiratory tract microbiome is essential for human health and well-being and is determined by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer from respiratory and intestinal tract infections, leading to chronic diseases and increased mortality rates. While CVID patients' gut microbiota have been analyzed, data on the respiratory microbiome ecosystem are limited.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the bacterial composition of the oropharynx of adults with CVID and its link with clinical and immunological features and risk for respiratory acute infections.

METHODS: Oropharyngeal samples from 72 CVID adults and 26 controls were collected in a 12-month prospective study. The samples were analyzed by metagenomic bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and processed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIME) pipeline. Differentially abundant species were identified and used to build a dysbiosis index. A machine learning model trained on microbial abundance data was used to test the power of microbiome alterations to distinguish between healthy individuals and CVID patients.

RESULTS: Compared to controls, the oropharyngeal microbiome of CVID patients showed lower alpha- and beta-diversity, with a relatively increased abundance of the order Lactobacillales, including the family Streptococcaceae. Intra-CVID analysis identified age >45 years, COPD, lack of IgA, and low residual IgM as associated with a reduced alpha diversity. Expansion of Haemophilus and Streptococcus genera was observed in patients with undetectable IgA and COPD, independent from recent antibiotic use. Patients receiving azithromycin as antibiotic prophylaxis had a higher dysbiosis score. Expansion of Haemophilus and Anoxybacillus was associated with acute respiratory infections within six months.

CONCLUSIONS: CVID patients showed a perturbed oropharynx microbiota enriched with potentially pathogenic bacteria and decreased protective species. Low residual levels of IgA/IgM, chronic lung damage, anti antibiotic prophylaxis contributed to respiratory dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-16
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Chen CM, Yan QL, Guo RC, et al (2024)

Distinct characteristics of the gut virome in patients with osteoarthritis and gouty arthritis.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):564.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE(S): The gut microbiota and its metabolites play crucial roles in pathogenesis of arthritis, highlighting gut microbiota as a promising avenue for modulating autoimmunity. However, the characterization of the gut virome in arthritis patients, including osteoarthritis (OA) and gouty arthritis (GA), requires further investigation.

METHODS: We employed virus-like particle (VLP)-based metagenomic sequencing to analyze gut viral community in 20 OA patients, 26 GA patients, and 31 healthy controls, encompassing a total of 77 fecal samples.

RESULTS: Our analysis generated 6819 vOTUs, with a considerable proportion of viral genomes differing from existing catalogs. The gut virome in OA and GA patients differed significantly from healthy controls, showing variations in diversity and viral family abundances. We identified 157 OA-associated and 94 GA-associated vOTUs, achieving high accuracy in patient-control discrimination with random forest models. OA-associated viruses were predicted to infect pro-inflammatory bacteria or bacteria associated with immunoglobulin A production, while GA-associated viruses were linked to Bacteroidaceae or Lachnospiraceae phages. Furthermore, several viral functional orthologs displayed significant differences in frequency between OA-enriched and GA-enriched vOTUs, suggesting potential functional roles of these viruses. Additionally, we trained classification models based on gut viral signatures to effectively discriminate OA or GA patients from healthy controls, yielding AUC values up to 0.97, indicating the clinical utility of the gut virome in diagnosing OA or GA.

CONCLUSION: Our study highlights distinctive alterations in viral diversity and taxonomy within gut virome of OA and GA patients, offering insights into arthritis etiology and potential treatment and prevention strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-16
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Matharu D, Ponsero AJ, Lengyel M, et al (2024)

Human milk oligosaccharide composition is affected by season and parity and associates with infant gut microbiota in a birth mode dependent manner in a Finnish birth cohort.

EBioMedicine, 104:105182.

BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), their determinants, infant gut microbiota and health are under extensive research; however, seldom jointly addressed. Leveraging data from the HELMi birth cohort, we investigated them collectively, considering maternal and infant secretor status.

METHODS: HMO composition in breastmilk collected 3 months postpartum (n = 350 mothers) was profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography. Infant gut microbiota taxonomic and functional development was studied at 3, 6, and 12 months (n = 823 stool samples) via shotgun metagenomic sequencing, focusing on HMO metabolism via glycoside hydrolase (GH) analysis. Maternal and infant secretor statuses were identified through phenotyping and genotyping, respectively. Child health, emphasizing allergies and antibiotics as proxies for infectious diseases, was recorded until 2 years.

FINDINGS: Mother's parity, irritable bowel syndrome, gestational diabetes, and season of milk collection associated with HMO composition. Neither maternal nor infant secretor status associated with infant gut microbiota, except for a few taxa linked to individual HMOs. Analysis stratified for birth mode revealed distinct patterns between the infant gut microbiota and HMOs. Child health parameters were not associated to infant or maternal secretor status.

INTERPRETATION: This comprehensive exploration unveils intricate links between secretor genotype, maternal factors, HMO composition, infant microbiota, and child health. Understanding these nuanced relationships is paramount for refining strategies to optimize early life nutrition and its enduring impact on long-term health.

FUNDING: Sweet Crosstalk EU H2020 MSCA ITN, Academy of Finland, Mary and Georg C. Ehrnrooth Foundation, Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, and Tekes.

RevDate: 2024-06-16
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Mostafa I, Hibberd MC, Hartman SJ, et al (2024)

A microbiota-directed complementary food intervention in 12-18-month-old Bangladeshi children improves linear growth.

EBioMedicine, 104:105166.

BACKGROUND: Globally, stunting affects ∼150 million children under five, while wasting affects nearly 50 million. Current interventions have had limited effectiveness in ameliorating long-term sequelae of undernutrition including stunting, cognitive deficits and immune dysfunction. Disrupted development of the gut microbiota has been linked to the pathogenesis of undernutrition, providing potentially new treatment approaches.

METHODS: 124 Bangladeshi children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) enrolled (at 12-18 months) in a previously reported 3-month RCT of a microbiota-directed complementary food (MDCF-2) were followed for two years. Weight and length were monitored by anthropometry, the abundances of bacterial strains were assessed by quantifying metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) in serially collected fecal samples and levels of growth-associated proteins were measured in plasma.

FINDINGS: Children who had received MDCF-2 were significantly less stunted during follow-up than those who received a standard ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) [linear mixed-effects model, βtreatment group x study week (95% CI) = 0.002 (0.001, 0.003); P = 0.004]. They also had elevated fecal abundances of Agathobacter faecis, Blautia massiliensis, Lachnospira and Dialister, plus increased levels of a group of 37 plasma proteins (linear model; FDR-adjusted P < 0.1), including IGF-1, neurotrophin receptor NTRK2 and multiple proteins linked to musculoskeletal and CNS development, that persisted for 6-months post-intervention.

INTERPRETATION: MDCF-2 treatment of Bangladeshi children with MAM, which produced significant improvements in wasting during intervention, also reduced stunting during follow-up. These results suggest that the effectiveness of supplementary foods for undernutrition may be improved by including ingredients that sponsor healthy microbiota-host co-development.

FUNDING: This work was supported by the BMGF (Grants OPP1134649/INV-000247).

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Gan Y, Ji X, R Yang (2024)

Metagenomic profiling of antibiotic resistance genes/bacteria removal in urban water: Algal-bacterial consortium treatment system.

Bioresource technology, 404:130905.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have exhibited significant ecological concerns, especially in the urban water that are closely associated with human health. In this study, with presence of exogenous Chlorella vulgaris-Bacillus licheniformis consortium, most of the typical ARGs and MGEs were removed. Furthermore, the relative abundance of potential ARGs hosts has generally decreased by 1-4 orders of magnitude, revealing the role of algal-bacterial consortium in cutting the spread of ARGs in urban water. While some of ARGs such as macB increased, which may be due to the negative impact of algicidal bacteria and algal viruses in urban water on exogenous C. vulgaris and the suppression of exogenous B. licheniformis by indigenous microorganisms. A new algal-bacterial interaction might form between C. vulgaris and indigenous microorganisms. The interplay between C. vulgaris and bacteria has a significant impact on the fate of ARGs removal in urban water.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Chen X, Zou T, Zeng Q, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis reveals ecological and functional signatures of oral phageome associated with severe early childhood caries.

Journal of dentistry, 146:105059.

OBJECTIVES: Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) is highly prevalent, affecting children's oral health. S-ECC development is closely associated with the complex oral microbial microbiome and its microorganism interactions, such as the imbalance of bacteriophages and bacteria. Till now, little is known about oral phageome on S-ECC. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential role of the oral phageome in the pathogenesis of S-ECC.

METHODS: Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from 20 children with and without S-ECC for metagenomics analysis. Metagenomics sequencing and bioinformatic analysis were performed to determine the two groups' phageome diversity, taxonomic and functional annotations. Statistical analysis and visualization were performed with R and SPSS Statistics software.

RESULTS: 85.7 % of the extracted viral sequences were predicted from phages, in which most phages were classified into Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae. Alpha diversity decreased, and Beta diversity increased in the S-ECC phageome compared to the healthy group. The abundance of Podoviridae phages increased, and the abundance of Inoviridae, Herelleviridae, and Streptococcus phages decreased in the S-ECC group. Functional annotation revealed increased annotation on glycoside hydrolases and nucleotide metabolism, decreased glycosyl transferases, carbohydrate-binding modules, and biogenic metabolism in the S-ECC phageome.

CONCLUSIONS: Metagenomic analysis revealed reduced Streptococcus phages and significant changes in functional annotations within the S-ECC phageome. These findings suggest a potential weakening of the regulatory influence of oral bacteria, which may indicate the development of innovative prevention and treatment strategies for S-ECC. These implications deserve further investigation and hold promise for advancing our understanding and management of S-ECC.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study indicate that oral phageomes are associated with bacterial genomes and metabolic processes, affecting the development of S-ECC. The reduced modulatory effect of the oral phageome in counteracting S-ECC's cariogenic activity suggests a new avenue for the prevention and treatment of S-ECC.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Xiang Y, Wang S, Huang H, et al (2024)

A novel endolysin from an Enterococcus faecalis phage and application.

Microbial pathogenesis, 192:106689.

Enterococcus faecalis is the primary species detected in cases of secondary persistent infection resulting from root canal therapy failure. Due to the overuse of antibacterial agents, E. faecalis has developed resistance to these drugs, making it challenging to treat clinical diseases caused by E. faecalis infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new alternative drugs for treating E. faecalis infections. We aimed to clone and express the genes of phage endolysins, purify the recombinant proteins, and analyze their antibacterial activity, lysis profile, and ability to remove biofilm. The crude enzyme of phage endolysin pEF51 (0.715 mg/mL), derived from phage PEf771 infecting E. faecalis, exhibited superior bacterial inhibitory activity and a broader bactericidal spectrum than its parental phage PEf771. Furthermore, pEF51 demonstrated high efficacy in eliminating E. faecalis biofilm. Therapeutic results of the infected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model indicated that among 10 SD rats, only one developed a thoracic peritoneal abscess and splenic peritoneal abscess after 72 h of treatment with pEF51. This suggests that pEF51 could provide protection against E. faecalis infection in SD rats. Based on the 16S rDNA metagenomic data of the intestinal microbial community of SD rats, endolysin pEF51 exerted a certain influence on the diversity of intestinal microorganisms at the genus level. Thus, pEF51 may serve as a promising alternative to antibiotics in the management of E. faecalis infection.

RevDate: 2024-06-16
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Mac Aogáin M, Tiew PY, Jaggi TK, et al (2024)

Targeting respiratory microbiomes in COPD and bronchiectasis.

Expert review of respiratory medicine, 18(3-4):111-125.

INTRODUCTION: This review summarizes our current understanding of the respiratory microbiome in COPD and Bronchiectasis. We explore the interplay between microbial communities, host immune responses, disease pathology, and treatment outcomes.

AREAS COVERED: We detail the dynamics of the airway microbiome, its influence on chronic respiratory diseases, and analytical challenges. Relevant articles from PubMed and Medline (January 2010-March 2024) were retrieved and summarized. We examine clinical correlations of the microbiome in COPD and bronchiectasis, assessing how current therapies impact upon it. The potential of emerging immunotherapies, antiinflammatories and antimicrobial strategies is discussed, with focus on the pivotal role of commensal taxa in maintaining respiratory health and the promising avenue of microbiome remodeling for disease management.

EXPERT OPINION: Given the heterogeneity in microbiome composition and its pivotal role in disease development and progression, a shift toward microbiome-directed therapeutics is appealing. This transition, from traditional 'pathogencentric' diagnostic and treatment modalities to those acknowledging the microbiome, can be enabled by evolving crossdisciplinary platforms which have the potential to accelerate microbiome-based interventions into routine clinical practice. Bridging the gap between comprehensive microbiome analysis and clinical application, however, remains challenging, necessitating continued innovation in research, diagnostics, trials, and therapeutic development pipelines.

RevDate: 2024-06-16
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Zhou S, Liu L, Ye B, et al (2024)

Gut microbial metabolism is linked to variations in circulating non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

EBioMedicine, 104:105150.

BACKGROUND: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) was a strong risk factor for incident cardiovascular diseases and proved to be a better target of lipid-lowering therapies. Recently, gut microbiota has been implicated in the regulation of host metabolism. However, its causal role in the variation of non-HDL-c remains unclear.

METHODS: Microbial species and metabolic capacities were assessed with fecal metagenomics, and their associations with non-HDL-c were evaluated by Spearman correlation, followed by LASSO and linear regression adjusted for established cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, integrative analysis with plasma metabolomics were performed to determine the key molecules linking microbial metabolism and variation of non-HDL-c. Furthermore, bi-directional mendelian randomization analysis was performed to determine the potential causal associations of selected species and metabolites with non-HDL-c.

FINDINGS: Decreased Eubacterium rectale but increased Clostridium sp CAG_299 were causally linked to a higher level of non-HDL-c. A total of 16 microbial capacities were found to be independently associated with non-HDL-c after correcting for age, sex, demographics, lifestyles and comorbidities, with the strongest association observed for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Furthermore, decreased 3-indolepropionic acid and N-methyltryptamine, resulting from suppressed capacities for microbial reductive TCA cycle, functioned as major microbial effectors to the elevation of circulating non-HDL-c.

INTERPRETATION: Overall, our findings provided insight into the causal effects of gut microbes on non-HDL-c and uncovered a novel link between non-HDL-c and microbial metabolism, highlighting the possibility of regulating non-HDL-c by microbiota-modifying interventions.

FUNDING: A full list of funding bodies can be found in the Sources of funding section.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Faial T (2024)

Metagenomics of the human gut mycobiome.

Nature genetics, 56(6):1038.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Shama S, Asbury MR, DL O'Connor (2024)

From parent to progeny.

Cell host & microbe, 32(6):947-949.

How infants acquire their gut microbial communities and the various factors influencing these dynamics remain unclear. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Selma-Royo et al. and Dubois et al. use shotgun metagenomic sequencing to understand the transmission of microbes from parents to infants and delve into factors modifying this process.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Dubois L, Valles-Colomer M, Ponsero A, et al (2024)

Paternal and induced gut microbiota seeding complement mother-to-infant transmission.

Cell host & microbe, 32(6):1011-1024.e4.

Microbial colonization of the neonatal gut involves maternal seeding, which is partially disrupted in cesarean-born infants and after intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. However, other physically close individuals could complement such seeding. To assess the role of both parents and of induced seeding, we analyzed two longitudinal metagenomic datasets (health and early life microbiota [HELMi]: N = 74 infants, 398 samples, and SECFLOR: N = 7 infants, 35 samples) with cesarean-born infants who received maternal fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that the father constitutes a stable source of strains for the infant independently of the delivery mode, with the cumulative contribution becoming comparable to that of the mother after 1 year. Maternal FMT increased mother-infant strain sharing in cesarean-born infants, raising the average bacterial empirical growth rate while reducing pathogen colonization. Overall, our results indicate that maternal seeding is partly complemented by that of the father and support the potential of induced seeding to restore potential deviations in this process.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Xie DY, Lin M, Luo YM, et al (2024)

Trilobatin suppresses aging-induced cognitive impairment by targeting SIRT2: Involvement of remodeling gut microbiota to mediate the brain-gut axis.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 130:155744.

BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with learning and memory disorder, affecting multiple brain areas, especially the hippocampus. Previous studies have demonstrated trilobatin (TLB), as a natural food additive, can extend the life of Caenorhabditis elegans and exhibit neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease mice. However, the possible significance of TLB in anti-aging remains elusive.

PURPOSE: This study aimed to delve into the physiological mechanism by which TLB ameliorated aging-induced cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice.

METHODS: 6-month-old SAMP8 mice were administrated with TLB (5, 10, 20 mg/kg/day, i.g.) for 3 months. The therapeutic effect of TLB on aging-induced cognitive impairment was assessed in mice using behavioral tests and aging score. The gut microbiota composition in fecal samples was analyzed by metagenomic analysis. The protective effects of TLB on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and intestinal barrier were detected by transmission electron microscope, H&E staining and western blot (WB) assay. The inhibitive effects of TLB on inflammation in brain and intestine were assessed using immunofluorescence, WB and ELISA assay. Molecular docking and surface plasma resonance (SPR) assay were utilized to investigate interaction between TLB and sirtuin 2 (SIRT2).

RESULTS: Herein, the findings exhibited TLB mitigated aging-induced cognitive impairment, neuron injury and neuroinflammation in hippocampus of aged SAMP8 mice. Moreover, TLB treatment repaired imbalance of gut microbiota in aged SAMP8 mice. Furthermore, TLB alleviated the damage to BBB and intestinal barrier, concomitant with reducing the expression of SIRT2, phosphorylated levels of c-Jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNK) and c-Jun, and expression of MMP9 protein in aged SAMP8 mice. Molecular docking and SPR unveiled TLB combined with SIRT2 and down-regulated SIRT2 protein expression. Mechanistically, the potential mechanism of SIRT2 in TLB that exerted anti-aging effect was validated in vitro. As expected, SIRT2 deficiency attenuated phosphorylated level of JNK in HT22 cells treated with d-galactose.

CONCLUSION: These findings reveal, for the first time, SIRT2-mediated brain-gut barriers contribute to aging and aging-related diseases, and TLB can rescue aging-induced cognitive impairment by targeting SIRT2 and restoring gut microbiota disturbance to mediate the brain-gut axis. Overall, this work extends the potential application of TLB as a natural food additive in aging-related diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Long AR, Mortara EL, Mendoza BN, et al (2024)

Sequence similarity network analysis of drug- and dye-modifying azoreductase enzymes found in the human gut microbiome.

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 757:110025.

Drug metabolism by human gut microbes is often exemplified by azo bond reduction in the anticolitic prodrug sulfasalazine. Azoreductase activity is often found in incubations with cell cultures or ex vivo gut microbiome samples and contributes to the xenobiotic metabolism of drugs and food additives. Applying metagenomic studies to personalized medicine requires knowledge of the genes responsible for sulfasalazine and other drug metabolism, and candidate genes and proteins for drug modifications are understudied. A representative gut-abundant azoreductase from Anaerotignum lactatifermentan DSM 14214 efficiently reduces sulfasalazine and another drug, phenazopyridine, but could not reduce all azo-bonded drugs in this class. We used enzyme kinetics to characterize this enzyme for its NADH-dependent reduction of these drugs and food additives and performed computational docking to provide the groundwork for understanding substrate specificity in this family. We performed an analysis of the Flavodoxin-like fold InterPro family (IPR003680) by computing a sequence similarity network to classify distinct subgroups of the family and then performed chemically-guided functional profiling to identify proteins that are abundant in the NIH Human Microbiome Project dataset. This strategy aims to reduce the number of unique azoreductases needed to characterize one protein family in the diverse set of potential drug- and dye-modifying activities found in the human gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Elbere I, Orlovskis Z, Ansone L, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome encoded purine and amino acid pathways present prospective biomarkers for predicting metformin therapy efficacy in newly diagnosed T2D patients.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2361491.

Metformin is widely used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, the efficacy of metformin monotherapy is highly variable within the human population. Understanding the potential indirect or synergistic effects of metformin on gut microbiota composition and encoded functions could potentially offer new insights into predicting treatment efficacy and designing more personalized treatments in the future. We combined targeted metabolomics and metagenomic profiling of gut microbiomes in newly diagnosed T2D patients before and after metformin therapy to identify potential pre-treatment biomarkers and functional signatures for metformin efficacy and induced changes in metformin therapy responders. Our sequencing data were largely corroborated by our metabolic profiling and identified that pre-treatment enrichment of gut microbial functions encoding purine degradation and glutamate biosynthesis was associated with good therapy response. Furthermore, we identified changes in glutamine-associated amino acid (arginine, ornithine, putrescine) metabolism that characterize differences in metformin efficacy before and after the therapy. Moreover, metformin Responders' microbiota displayed a shifted balance between bacterial lipidA synthesis and degradation as well as alterations in glutamate-dependent metabolism of N-acetyl-galactosamine and its derivatives (e.g. CMP-pseudaminate) which suggest potential modulation of bacterial cell walls and human gut barrier, thus mediating changes in microbiome composition. Together, our data suggest that glutamine and associated amino acid metabolism as well as purine degradation products may potentially condition metformin activity via its multiple effects on microbiome functional composition and therefore serve as important biomarkers for predicting metformin efficacy.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Lu G, Gao D, Jiang W, et al (2024)

Disrupted gut microecology after high-dose [131]I therapy and radioprotective effects of arachidonic acid supplementation.

European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, 51(8):2395-2408.

BACKGROUND: Despite the potential radiotoxicity in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with high-dose [131]I therapy, the alterations and regulatory mechanisms dependent on intestinal microecology remain poorly understood. We aimed to identify the characteristics of the gut microbiota and metabolites in DTC patients suffering from high-dose [131]I therapy and explore the radioprotective mechanisms underlying arachidonic acid (ARA) treatment.

METHODS: A total of 102 patients with DTC were recruited, with fecal samples collected before and after [131]I therapy for microbiome and untargeted and targeted metabolomic analyses. Mice were exposed to total body irradiation with ARA replenishment and antibiotic pretreatment and were subjected to metagenomic, metabolomic, and proteomic analyses.

RESULTS: [131]I therapy significantly changed the structure of gut microbiota and metabolite composition in patients with DTC. Lachnospiraceae were the most dominant bacteria after [131]I treatment, and metabolites with decreased levels and pathways related to ARA and linoleic acid were observed. In an irradiation mouse model, ARA supplementation not only improved quality of life and recovered hematopoietic and gastrointestinal systems but also ameliorated oxidative stress and inflammation and preserved enteric microecology composition. Additionally, antibiotic intervention eliminated the radioprotective effects of ARA. Proteomic analysis and ursolic acid pretreatment showed that ARA therapy greatly influenced intestinal lipid metabolism in mice subjected to irradiation by upregulating the expression of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1.

CONCLUSION: These findings highlight that ARA, as a key metabolite, substantially contributes to radioprotection. Our study provides novel insights into the pivotal role that the microbiota-metabolite axis plays in radionuclide protection and offers effective biological targets for treating radiation-induced adverse effects.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Aya JV, Vega LC, Muñoz E, et al (2024)

Divergent Gut Microbiota: Archaeal and Bacterial Signatures Unveil Unique Patterns in Colombian Cyclists Compared to Weightlifters and Non-Athletes.

Advanced biology, 8(6):e2400069.

Engagement in physical activity, across various sports, promotes a diverse microbiota in active individuals. This study examines the gut microbiota of Colombian athletes, specifically weightlifters (n = 16) and road cyclists (n = 13), compared to non-athletes (n = 15). Using Kruskal-Wallis tests, the physical activity level of a group of non-athletic individuals and the sports experience of a group of professional athletes is analyzed. The median age of participants is 24 years, comprising 25 men and 19 women. The microbiota is collected using fecal samples. Participants provided these samples during their pre-competitive stage, specifically during the concentration phase occurring two weeks prior to national competitions. This timing is chosen to capture the microbial composition during a period of heightened physical preparation. Questionnaire responses and microbial composition assessments identify disparities among groups. Microbial composition analysis explores core microbiome, abundance, and taxonomy using Pavian, MicrobiomeAnalyst 2.0, and GraPhlAn. ANCOM-BC2 reveals differentially abundant species. Road cyclists exhibit decreased Bacteria and increased Archaea abundance. Phylum-level variations included Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria, while Bacteroidetes prevailed. Key families influencing gut microbiota are Bacteroidaceae, Muribaculaceae, and Selenomonadaceae. Weightlifters exhibit unique viral and archaeal community connections, while cyclists showed specialized microbial interplay influenced by endurance exercise. Correlation network analysis emphasizes distinctive microbial interactions within athlete groups, shedding light on the impact of physical activities on gut microbiota and athlete health.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Wang B, Tan M, Li W, et al (2024)

Exploring the microbiota difference of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid between community-acquired pneumonia with or without COPD based on metagenomic sequencing: a retrospective study.

BMC pulmonary medicine, 24(1):278.

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have higher disease severity and mortality compared to those without COPD. However, deep investigation into microbiome distribution of lower respiratory tract of CAP with or without COPD was unknown.

METHODS: So we used metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) to explore the microbiome differences between the two groups.

RESULTS: Thirty-six CAP without COPD and 11 CAP with COPD cases were retrieved. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and analyzed using untargeted mNGS and bioinformatic analysis. mNGS revealed that CAP with COPD group was abundant with Streptococcus, Prevotella, Bordetella at genus level and Cutibacterium acnes, Rothia mucilaginosa, Bordetella genomosp. 6 at species level. While CAP without COPD group was abundant with Ralstonia, Prevotella, Streptococcus at genus level and Ralstonia pickettii, Rothia mucilaginosa, Prevotella melaninogenica at species level. Meanwhile, both alpha and beta microbiome diversity was similar between groups. Linear discriminant analysis found that pa-raburkholderia, corynebacterium tuberculostearicum and staphylococcus hominis were more enriched in CAP without COPD group while the abundance of streptococcus intermedius, streptococcus constellatus, streptococcus milleri, fusarium was higher in CAP with COPD group.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that concomitant COPD have an mild impact on lower airway microbiome of CAP patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Rubio-Noguez D, Breton-Deval L, Salinas-Peralta I, et al (2024)

Pollution pressure drives microbial assemblages that improve the phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by Ricinus communis.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(8):241.

Due to the rapid expansion of industrial activity, soil pollution has intensified. Plants growing in these polluted areas have developed a rhizobiome uniquely and specially adapted to thrive in such environments. However, it remains uncertain whether pollution acts as a sufficiently selective force to shape the rhizobiome, and whether these adaptations endure over time, potentially aiding in long-term phytoremediation. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to compare whether the microbiome associated with roots from plants germinated in polluted riverbanks will improve the phytoremediation of Cd and Pb under mesocosm experiments compared with plants germinating in a greenhouse. The experimental design was a factorial 2 × 2, i.e., the origin of the plant and the presence or absence of 100 mg/L of Cd and 1000 mg/L of Pb. Our results showed that plants germinated in polluted riverbanks have the capacity to accumulate twice the amount of Pb and Cd during mesocosm experiments. The metagenomic analysis showed that plants from the river exposed to heavy metals at the end of mesocosm experiments were rich in Rhizobium sp. AC44/96 and Enterobacter sp. EA-1, Enterobacter soli, Pantoea rwandensis, Pantoea endophytica. In addition, those plants were uniquely associated with Rhizobium grahamii, which likely contributed to the differences in the levels of phytoremediation achieved. Furthermore, the functional analysis revealed an augmented functional potential related to hormones, metallothioneins, dismutases, and reductases; meanwhile, the plants germinated in the greenhouse showed an unspecific strategy to exceed heavy metal stress. In conclusion, pollution pressure drives stable microbial assemblages, which could be used in future phytostabilization and phytoremediation experiments.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Tedersoo L, Hosseyni Moghaddam MS, Mikryukov V, et al (2024)

EUKARYOME: the rRNA gene reference database for identification of all eukaryotes.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2024:.

Molecular identification of micro- and macroorganisms based on nuclear markers has revolutionized our understanding of their taxonomy, phylogeny and ecology. Today, research on the diversity of eukaryotes in global ecosystems heavily relies on nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) markers. Here, we present the research community-curated reference database EUKARYOME for nuclear ribosomal 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S rRNA markers for all eukaryotes, including metazoans (animals), protists, fungi and plants. It is particularly useful for the identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as it bridges the four commonly used molecular markers-ITS1, ITS2, 18S V4-V5 and 28S D1-D2 subregions. The key benefits of this database over other annotated reference sequence databases are that it is not restricted to certain taxonomic groups and it includes all rRNA markers. EUKARYOME also offers a number of reference long-read sequences that are derived from (meta)genomic and (meta)barcoding-a unique feature that can be used for taxonomic identification and chimera control of third-generation, long-read, high-throughput sequencing data. Taxonomic assignments of rRNA genes in the database are verified based on phylogenetic approaches. The reference datasets are available in multiple formats from the project homepage, http://www.eukaryome.org.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Barac A, Vujovic A, Peric J, et al (2024)

Rethinking Aspergillosis in the Era of Microbiota and Mycobiota.

Mycopathologia, 189(4):49.

Aspergillosis encompasses a wide range of clinical conditions based on the interaction between Aspergillus and the host. It ranges from colonization to invasive aspergillosis. The human lung provides an entry door for Aspergillus. Aspergillus has virulence characteristics such as conidia, rapid growth at body temperature, and the production of specific proteins, carbohydrates, and secondary metabolites that allow A. fumigatus to infiltrate the lung's alveoli and cause invasive aspergillosis. Alveolar epithelial cells play an important role in both fungus clearance and immune cell recruitment via cytokine release. Although the innate immune system quickly clears conidia in immunocompetent hosts, A. fumigatus has evolved multiple virulence factors in order to escape immune response such as ROS detoxifying enzymes, the rodlet layer, DHN-melanin and toxins. Bacterial co-infections or interactions can alter the immune response, impact Aspergillus growth and virulence, enhance biofilm formation, confound diagnosis, and reduce treatment efficacy. The gut microbiome's makeup influences pulmonary immune responses generated by A. fumigatus infection and vice versa. The real-time PCR for Aspergillus DNA detection might be a particularly useful tool to diagnose pulmonary aspergillosis. Metagenomics analyses allow quick and easy detection and identification of a great variety of fungi in different clinical samples, although optimization is still required particularly for the use of NGS techniques. This review will analyze the current state of aspergillosis in light of recent discoveries in the microbiota and mycobiota.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Hu M, Yang W, Yan R, et al (2024)

Co-evolution of vaginal microbiome and cervical cancer.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):559.

BACKGROUND: Exploration of adaptive evolutionary changes at the genetic level in vaginal microbial communities during different stages of cervical cancer remains limited. This study aimed to elucidate the mutational profile of the vaginal microbiota throughout the progression of cervical disease and subsequently establish diagnostic models.

METHODS: This study utilized a metagenomic dataset consisting of 151 subjects classified into four categories: invasive cervical cancer (CC) (n = 42), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (n = 43), HPV-infected (HPVi) patients without cervical lesions (n = 34), and healthy controls (n = 32). The analysis focused on changes in microbiome abundance and extracted information on genetic variation. Consequently, comprehensive multimodal microbial signatures associated with CC, encompassing taxonomic alterations, mutation signatures, and enriched metabolic functional pathways, were identified. Diagnostic models for predicting CC were established considering gene characteristics based on single nucleotide variants (SNVs).

RESULTS: In this study, we screened and analyzed the abundances of 18 key microbial strains during CC progression. Additionally, 71,6358 non-redundant mutations were identified, predominantly consisting of SNVs that were further annotated into 25,773 genes. Altered abundances of SNVs and mutation types were observed across the four groups. Specifically, there were 9847 SNVs in the HPV-infected group and 14,892 in the CC group. Furthermore, two distinct mutation signatures corresponding to the benign and malignant groups were identified. The enriched metabolic pathways showed limited similarity with only two overlapping pathways among the four groups. HPVi patients exhibited active nucleotide biosynthesis, whereas patients with CC demonstrated a significantly higher abundance of signaling and cellular-associated protein families. In contrast, healthy controls showed a distinct enrichment in sugar metabolism. Moreover, biomarkers based on microbial SNV abundance displayed stronger diagnostic capability (cc.AUC = 0.87) than the species-level biomarkers (cc.AUC = 0.78). Ultimately, the integration of multimodal biomarkers demonstrated optimal performance for accurately identifying different cervical statuses (cc.AUC = 0.86), with an acceptable performance (AUC = 0.79) in the external testing set.

CONCLUSIONS: The vaginal microbiome exhibits specific SNV evolution in conjunction with the progression of CC, and serves as a specific biomarker for distinguishing between different statuses of cervical disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Krausfeldt LE, Shmakova E, Lee HW, et al (2024)

Microbial diversity, genomics, and phage-host interactions of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) is related to their physical and chemical environment. However, less is known about their associated microbial interactions and processes. In this study, cyanoHABs were analyzed as a microbial ecosystem, using 1 year of 16S rRNA sequencing and 70 metagenomes collected during the bloom season from Lake Okeechobee (Florida, USA). Biogeographical patterns observed in microbial community composition and function reflected ecological zones distinct in their physical and chemical parameters that resulted in bloom "hotspots" near major lake inflows. Changes in relative abundances of taxa within multiple phyla followed increasing bloom severity. Functional pathways that correlated with increasing bloom severity encoded organic nitrogen and phosphorus utilization, storage of nutrients, exchange of genetic material, phage defense, and protection against oxidative stress, suggesting that microbial interactions may promote cyanoHAB resilience. Cyanobacterial communities were highly diverse, with picocyanobacteria ubiquitous and oftentimes most abundant, especially in the absence of blooms. The identification of novel bloom-forming cyanobacteria and genomic comparisons indicated a functionally diverse cyanobacterial community with differences in its capability to store nitrogen using cyanophycin and to defend against phage using CRISPR and restriction-modification systems. Considering blooms in the context of a microbial ecosystem and their interactions in nature, physiologies and interactions supporting the proliferation and stability of cyanoHABs are proposed, including a role for phage infection of picocyanobacteria. This study displayed the power of "-omics" to reveal important biological processes that could support the effective management and prediction of cyanoHABs.

IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms pose a significant threat to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Although physical and chemical conditions in aquatic systems that facilitate bloom development are well studied, there are fundamental gaps in the biological understanding of the microbial ecosystem that makes a cyanobacterial bloom. High-throughput sequencing was used to determine the drivers of cyanobacteria blooms in nature. Multiple functions and interactions important to consider in cyanobacterial bloom ecology were identified. The microbial biodiversity of blooms revealed microbial functions, genomic characteristics, and interactions between cyanobacterial populations that could be involved in bloom stability and more coherently define cyanobacteria blooms. Our results highlight the importance of considering cyanobacterial blooms as a microbial ecosystem to predict, prevent, and mitigate them.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Ma B, Wang D, Chen X, et al (2024)

Dietary α-linolenic acid supplementation enhances resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium challenge in chickens by altering the intestinal mucosal barrier integrity and cecal microbes.

Microbiological research, 285:127773.

Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen. Given the ban on the use of antibiotics during the egg-laying period in China, finding safe and effective alternatives to antibiotics to reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infections in chickens is essential for the prevention and control of this pathogen and the protection of human health. Numerous studies have shown that unsaturated fatty acids have a positive effect on intestinal inflammation and resistance to infection by intestinal pathogens. Here we investigated the protective effect of α-linolenic acid (ALA) against S. Typhimurium infection in chickens and further explored its mechanism of action. We added different proportions of ALA to the feed and observed the effect of ALA on S. Typhimurium colonization using metagenomic sequencing technology and physiological index measurements. The role of gut flora on S. Typhimurium colonization was subsequently verified by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that ALA protects chickens from S. Typhimurium infection by reducing intestinal inflammation through remodeling the gut microbiota, up-regulating the expression of ileocecal barrier-related genes, and maintaining the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Our data suggest that supplementation of feed with ALA may be an effective strategy to alleviate S. Typhimurium infection in chickens.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Díaz-Sánchez S, Vaz-Rodrigues R, Contreras M, et al (2024)

Zebrafish gut microbiota composition in response to tick saliva biomolecules correlates with allergic reactions to mammalian meat consumption.

Microbiological research, 285:127786.

The α-Gal syndrome (AGS) is an IgE-mediated tick borne-allergy that results in delayed anaphylaxis to the consumption of mammalian meat and products containing α-Gal. Considering that α-Gal-containing microbiota modulates natural antibody production to this glycan, this study aimed to evaluate the influence on tick salivary compounds on the gut microbiota composition in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) animal model. Sequencing of 16 S rDNA was performed in a total of 75 zebrafish intestine samples, representing different treatment groups: PBS control, Ixodes ricinus tick saliva, tick saliva non-protein fraction (NPF), tick saliva protein fraction (PF), and tick saliva protein fractions 1-5 with NPF (F1-5). The results revealed that treatment with tick saliva and different tick salivary fractions, combined with α-Gal-positive dog food feeding, resulted in specific variations in zebrafish gut microbiota composition at various taxonomic levels and affected commensal microbial alpha and beta diversities. Metagenomics results were corroborated by qPCR, supporting the overrepresentation of phylum Firmicutes in the tick saliva group, phylum Fusobacteriota in group F1, and phylum Cyanobacteria in F2 and F5 compared to the PBS-control. qPCRs results at genus level sustained significant enrichment of Plesiomonas spp. in groups F3 and F5, Rhizobium spp. in NPF and F4, and Cloacibacterium spp. dominance in the PBS control group. This study provides new results on the role of gut microbiota in allergic reactions to tick saliva components using a zebrafish model of AGS. Overall, gut microbiota composition in response to tick saliva biomolecules may be associated with allergic reactions to mammalian meat consumption in AGS.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Jagadesh M, Dash M, Kumari A, et al (2024)

Revealing the hidden world of soil microbes: Metagenomic insights into plant, bacteria, and fungi interactions for sustainable agriculture and ecosystem restoration.

Microbiological research, 285:127764.

The future of agriculture is questionable under the current climate change scenario. Climate change and climate-related calamities directly influence biotic and abiotic factors that control agroecosystems, endangering the safety of the world's food supply. The intricate interactions between soil microorganisms, including plants, bacteria, and fungi, play a pivotal role in promoting sustainable agriculture and ecosystem restoration. Soil microbes play a major part in nutrient cycling, including soil organic carbon (SOC), and play a pivotal function in the emission and depletion of greenhouse gases, including CH4, CO2, and N2O, which can impact the climate. At this juncture, developing a triumphant metagenomics approach has greatly increased our knowledge of the makeup, functionality, and dynamics of the soil microbiome. Currently, the involvement of plants in climate change indicates that they can interact with the microbial communities in their environment to relieve various stresses through the innate microbiome assortment of focused strains, a phenomenon dubbed "Cry for Help." The metagenomics method has lately appeared as a new platform to adjust and encourage beneficial communications between plants and microbes and improve plant fitness. The metagenomics of soil microbes can provide a powerful tool for designing and evaluating ecosystem restoration strategies that promote sustainable agriculture under a changing climate. By identifying the specific functions and activities of soil microbes, we can develop restoration programs that support these critical components of healthy ecosystems while providing economic benefits through ecosystem services. In the current review, we highlight the innate functions of microbiomes to maintain the sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem restoration. Through this insight study of soil microbe metagenomics, we pave the way for innovative strategies to address the pressing challenges of food security and environmental conservation. The present article elucidates the mechanisms through which plants and microbes communicate to enhance plant resilience and ecosystem restoration and to leverage metagenomics to identify and promote beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Key findings reveal that soil microbes are pivotal in nutrient cycling, greenhouse gas modulation, and overall ecosystem health, offering novel insights into designing ecosystem restoration strategies that bolster sustainable agriculture. As this is a topic many are grappling with, hope these musings will provide people alike with some food for thought.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Costa VA, EC Holmes (2024)

Diversity, evolution, and emergence of fish viruses.

Journal of virology, 98(6):e0011824.

The production of aquatic animals has more than doubled over the last 50 years and is anticipated to continually increase. While fish are recognized as a valuable and sustainable source of nutrition, particularly in the context of human population growth and climate change, the rapid expansion of aquaculture coincides with the emergence of highly pathogenic viruses that often spread globally through aquacultural practices. Here, we provide an overview of the fish virome and its relevance for disease emergence, with a focus on the insights gained through metagenomic sequencing, noting potential areas for future study. In particular, we describe the diversity and evolution of fish viruses, for which the majority have no known disease associations, and demonstrate how viruses emerge in fish populations, most notably at an expanding domestic-wild interface. We also show how wild fish are a powerful and tractable model system to study virus ecology and evolution more broadly and can be used to identify the major factors that shape vertebrate viromes. Central to this is a process of virus-host co-divergence that proceeds over many millions of years, combined with ongoing cross-species virus transmission.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Guo X, Wang R, Chen R, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota and serum metabolite signatures along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence: Implications for early detection and intervention.

Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 560:119732.

AIM: Our study focuses on the microbial and metabolomic profile changes during the adenoma stage, as adenomas can be considered potential precursors to colorectal cancer through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Identifying possible intervention targets at this stage may aid in preventing the progression of colorectal adenoma (CRA) to malignant lesions. Furthermore, we evaluate the efficacy of combined microbial and metabolite biomarkers in detecting CRA.

METHODS: Fecal metagenomic and serum metabolomic analyses were performed for the discovery of alterations of gut microbiome and metabolites in CRA patients (n = 26), Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n = 19), Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) patients (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 20). Finally, analyzing the associations between gut microbes and metabolites was performed by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve.

RESULTS: Our analysis present that CRA patients differ significantly in gut microflora and serum metabolites compared with healthy controls, especially for Lachnospiraceae and Parasutterella. Its main metabolite, butyric acid, concentrations were raised in CRA patients compared with the healthy controls, indicating its role as a promoter of colorectal tumorigenesis. α-Linolenic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine represented the other healthy metabolite for CRA. Combining five microbial and five metabolite biomarkers, we differentiated CRA from CRC with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.85 out of this performance vastly superior to the specificity recorded by traditional markers CEA and CA199 in such differentiation of these conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: The study underlines significant microbial and metabolic alterations in CRA with a novel insight into screening and early intervention of its tumorigenesis.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Herrera G, Castañeda S, Arboleda JC, et al (2024)

Metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) suggest an acetate-driven protective role in gut microbiota disrupted by Clostridioides difficile.

Microbiological research, 285:127739.

Clostridioides difficile may have a negative impact on gut microbiota composition in terms of diversity and abundance, thereby triggering functional changes supported by the differential presence of genes involved in significant metabolic pathways, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). This work has evaluated shotgun metagenomics data regarding 48 samples from four groups classified according to diarrhea acquisition site (community- and healthcare facility-onset) and positive or negative Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) result. The metagenomic-assembled genomes (MAGs) obtained from each sample were taxonomically assigned for preliminary comparative analysis concerning differences in composition among groups. The predicted genes involved in metabolism, transport, and signaling remained constant in microbiota members; characteristic patterns were observed in MAGs and genes involved in SCFA butyrate and acetate metabolic pathways for each study group. A decrease in genera and species, as well as relative MAG abundance with the presence of the acetate metabolism-related gene, was evident in the HCFO/- group. Increased antibiotic resistance markers (ARM) were observed in MAGs along with the genes involved in acetate metabolism. The results highlight the need to explore the role of acetate in greater depth as a potential protector of the imbalances produced by CDI, as occurs in other inflammatory intestinal diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Simpson JB, Walker ME, Sekela JJ, et al (2024)

Gut microbial β-glucuronidases influence endobiotic homeostasis and are modulated by diverse therapeutics.

Cell host & microbe, 32(6):925-944.e10.

Hormones and neurotransmitters are essential to homeostasis, and their disruptions are connected to diseases ranging from cancer to anxiety. The differential reactivation of endobiotic glucuronides by gut microbial β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes may influence interindividual differences in the onset and treatment of disease. Using multi-omic, in vitro, and in vivo approaches, we show that germ-free mice have reduced levels of active endobiotics and that distinct gut microbial Loop 1 and FMN GUS enzymes drive hormone and neurotransmitter reactivation. We demonstrate that a range of FDA-approved drugs prevent this reactivation by intercepting the catalytic cycle of the enzymes in a conserved fashion. Finally, we find that inhibiting GUS in conventional mice reduces free serotonin and increases its inactive glucuronide in the serum and intestines. Our results illuminate the indispensability of gut microbial enzymes in sustaining endobiotic homeostasis and indicate that therapeutic disruptions of this metabolism promote interindividual response variabilities.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Huang P, Dong Q, Wang Y, et al (2024)

Gut microbial genomes with paired isolates from China illustrate probiotic and cardiometabolic effects.

Cell genomics, 4(6):100559.

The gut microbiome displays genetic differences among populations, and characterization of the genomic landscape of the gut microbiome in China remains limited. Here, we present the Chinese Gut Microbial Reference (CGMR) set, comprising 101,060 high-quality metagenomic assembled genomes (MAGs) of 3,707 nonredundant species from 3,234 fecal samples across primarily rural Chinese locations, 1,376 live isolates mainly from lactic acid bacteria, and 987 novel species relative to worldwide databases. We observed region-specific coexisting MAGs and MAGs with probiotic and cardiometabolic functionalities. Preliminary mouse experiments suggest a probiotic effect of two Faecalibacillus intestinalis isolates in alleviating constipation, cardiometabolic influences of three Bacteroides fragilis_A isolates in obesity, and isolates from the genera Parabacteroides and Lactobacillus in host lipid metabolism. Our study expands the current microbial genomes with paired isolates and demonstrates potential host effects, contributing to the mechanistic understanding of host-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Yadegar A, Bar-Yoseph H, Monaghan TM, et al (2024)

Fecal microbiota transplantation: current challenges and future landscapes.

Clinical microbiology reviews, 37(2):e0006022.

SUMMARYGiven the importance of gut microbial homeostasis in maintaining health, there has been considerable interest in developing innovative therapeutic strategies for restoring gut microbiota. One such approach, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), is the main "whole gut microbiome replacement" strategy and has been integrated into clinical practice guidelines for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). Furthermore, the potential application of FMT in other indications such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), metabolic syndrome, and solid tumor malignancies is an area of intense interest and active research. However, the complex and variable nature of FMT makes it challenging to address its precise functionality and to assess clinical efficacy and safety in different disease contexts. In this review, we outline clinical applications, efficacy, durability, and safety of FMT and provide a comprehensive assessment of its procedural and administration aspects. The clinical applications of FMT in children and cancer immunotherapy are also described. We focus on data from human studies in IBD in contrast with rCDI to delineate the putative mechanisms of this treatment in IBD as a model, including colonization resistance and functional restoration through bacterial engraftment, modulating effects of virome/phageome, gut metabolome and host interactions, and immunoregulatory actions of FMT. Furthermore, we comprehensively review omics technologies, metagenomic approaches, and bioinformatics pipelines to characterize complex microbial communities and discuss their limitations. FMT regulatory challenges, ethical considerations, and pharmacomicrobiomics are also highlighted to shed light on future development of tailored microbiome-based therapeutics.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Ślusarczyk A, Ismail H, Zapała Ł, et al (2024)

Changes in the Urinary Microbiome After Transurethral Resection of Non-muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Insights from a Prospective Observational Study.

Annals of surgical oncology, 31(7):4773-4786.

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to characterize the urinary and tumor microbiomes in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) before and after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT).

METHODS: This single-center prospective study included 26 samples from 11 patients with low-grade Ta papillary NMIBC. Urine samples were collected at the index TURBT and at a 1-year follow-up cystoscopy. The metagenomic analysis of bacterial and archaeal populations was performed based on the highly variable V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS: Phylogenetic alpha diversity of the bladder microbiome detected in urine was found to be lower at the 1-year follow-up cystoscopy compared to the time of the index TURBT (p < 0.01). Actinomyces, Candidatus cloacimonas, Sphingobacterium, Sellimonas, Fusobacterium, and Roseobacter were more differentially enriched taxa in urine at the follow-up cystoscopy than at the index TURBT. Beta diversity of urine microbiome significantly changed over time (p < 0.05). Phylogenetic alpha diversity of the microbiome was greater in tumor tissues than in paired urine samples (p<0.01). Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Candidatus, and Kocuria were more differentially overrepresented in tumor tissues than in urine. The enrichment of the abundance of Corynebacterium and Anaerococcus species in urine collected at TURBT was observed in patients who experienced recurrence within the follow-up period.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with low-grade NMIBC, the urine microbiome undergoes changes over time after removal of the tumor. The microbiome detected in tumor tissues is more phylogenetically diverse than in paired urine samples collected at TURBT. The interplay between bladder microbiome, tumor microbiome, and their alterations requires further studies to elucidate their predictive value and perhaps therapeutic implications.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Mahar JE, Wille M, Harvey E, et al (2024)

The diverse liver viromes of Australian geckos and skinks are dominated by hepaciviruses and picornaviruses and reflect host taxonomy and habitat.

Virus evolution, 10(1):veae044.

Lizards have diverse ecologies and evolutionary histories, and represent a promising group to explore how hosts shape virome structure and virus evolution. Yet, little is known about the viromes of these animals. In Australia, squamates (lizards and snakes) comprise the most diverse order of vertebrates, and Australia hosts the highest diversity of lizards globally, with the greatest breadth of habitat use. We used meta-transcriptomic sequencing to determine the virome of nine co-distributed, tropical lizard species from three taxonomic families in Australia and analyzed these data to identify host traits associated with viral abundance and diversity. We show that lizards carry a large diversity of viruses, identifying more than thirty novel, highly divergent vertebrate-associated viruses. These viruses were from nine viral families, including several that contain well known pathogens, such as the Flaviviridae, Picornaviridae, Bornaviridae, Iridoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae. Members of the Flaviviridae were particularly abundant across species sampled here, largely belonging to the genus Hepacivirus: fourteen novel hepaciviruses were identified, broadening the known diversity of this group and better defining its evolution by uncovering new reptilian clades. The evolutionary histories of the viruses studied here frequently aligned with the biogeographic and phylogenetic histories of the hosts, indicating that exogenous viruses may help infer host evolutionary history if sampling is strategic and sampling density high enough. Notably, analysis of alpha and beta diversity revealed that virome composition and richness in the animals sampled here was shaped by host taxonomy and habitat. In sum, we identified a diverse range of reptile viruses that broadly contributes to our understanding of virus-host ecology and evolution.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Herruzo-Ruiz AM, Trombini C, Moreno-Garrido I, et al (2024)

Ions and nanoparticles of Ag and/or Cd metals in a model aquatic microcosm: Effects on the abundance, diversity and functionality of the sediment bacteriome.

Marine pollution bulletin, 204:116525 pii:S0025-326X(24)00502-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Metals can be adsorbed on particulate matter, settle in sediments and cause alterations in aquatic environments. This study assesses the effect of Ag and/or Cd, both in ionic and nanoparticle (NP) forms, on the microbiome of sediments. For that purpose, aquatic controlled-microcosm experiments were exposed to an environmentally relevant and at tenfold higher doses of each form of the metals. Changes in the bacteriome were inferred by 16S rDNA sequencing. Ionic Ag caused a significant decrease of several bacterial families, whereas the effect was opposite when mixed with Cd, e.g., Desulfuromonadaceae family; in both cases, the bacteriome functionalities were greatly affected, particularly the nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Compared to ionic forms, metallic NPs produced hardly any change in the abundance of microbial families, although the α-biodiversity of the bacteriome was reduced, and the functionality altered, when exposed to the NPs´ mixture. Our goal is to understand how metals, in different forms and combinations, released into the environment may endanger the health of aquatic ecosystems. This work may help to understand how aquatic metal pollution alters the structure and functionality of the microbiome and biogeochemical cycles, and how these changes can be addressed.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Rubio Garcia E, Casadellà M, Parera M, et al (2024)

Gut resistome linked to sexual preference and HIV infection.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):201.

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of acquisition of multidrug resistant organisms due to higher rates of predisposing factors. The gut microbiome is the main reservoir of the collection of antimicrobial resistance determinants known as the gut resistome. In PLWH, changes in gut microbiome have been linked to immune activation and HIV-1 associated complications. Specifically, gut dysbiosis defined by low microbial gene richness has been linked to low Nadir CD4 + T-cell counts. Additionally, sexual preference has been shown to strongly influence gut microbiome composition in PLWH resulting in different Prevotella or Bacteroides enriched enterotypes, in MSM (men-who-have-sex-with-men) or no-MSM, respectively. To date, little is known about gut resistome composition in PLWH due to the scarcity of studies using shotgun metagenomics. The present study aimed to detect associations between different microbiome features linked to HIV-1 infection and gut resistome composition.

RESULTS: Using shotgun metagenomics we characterized the gut resistome composition of 129 HIV-1 infected subjects showing different HIV clinical profiles and 27 HIV-1 negative controls from a cross-sectional observational study conducted in Barcelona, Spain. Most no-MSM showed a Bacteroides-enriched enterotype and low microbial gene richness microbiomes. We did not identify differences in resistome diversity and composition according to HIV-1 infection or immune status. However, gut resistome was more diverse in MSM group, Prevotella-enriched enterotype and gut micorbiomes with high microbial gene richness compared to no-MSM group, Bacteroides-enriched enterotype and gut microbiomes with low microbial gene richness. Additionally, gut resistome beta-diversity was different according to the defined groups and we identified a set of differentially abundant antimicrobial resistance determinants based on the established categories.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a significant correlation between gut resistome composition and various host variables commonly associated with gut microbiome, including microbiome enterotype, microbial gene richness, and sexual preference. These host variables have been previously linked to immune activation and lower Nadir CD4 + T-Cell counts, which are prognostic factors of HIV-related comorbidities. This study provides new insights into the relationship between antibiotic resistance and clinical characteristics of PLWH.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Alemu BK, Lee MW, Leung MBW, et al (2024)

Preventive effect of prenatal maternal oral probiotic supplementation on neonatal jaundice (POPS Study): A protocol for the randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

BMJ open, 14(6):e083641.

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal jaundice is a common and life-threatening health problem in neonates due to overaccumulation of circulating unconjugated bilirubin. Gut flora has a potential influence on bilirubin metabolism. The infant gut microbiome is commonly copied from the maternal gut. During pregnancy, due to changes in dietary habits, hormones and body weight, maternal gut dysbiosis is common, which can be stabilised by probiotics supplementation. However, whether probiotic supplements can reach the baby through the mother and reduce the incidence of neonatal jaundice has not been studied yet. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the effect of prenatal maternal probiotic supplementation on the incidence of neonatal jaundice.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial among 94 pregnant women (47 in each group) in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. Voluntary eligible participants will be recruited between 28 and 35 weeks of gestation. Computer-generated randomisation and allocation to either the intervention or control group will be carried out. Participants will take either one sachet of Vivomixx (450 billion colony-forming units per sachet) or a placebo per day until 1 week post partum. Neither the study participants nor researchers will know the randomisation and allocation. The intervention will be initiated at 36 weeks of gestation. Neonatal bilirubin level will be measured to determine the primary outcome (hyperbilirubinaemia) while the metagenomic microbiome profile of breast milk and maternal and infant stool samples as well as pregnancy outcomes will be secondary outcomes. Binary logistic and linear regressions will be carried out to assess the association of the microbiome data with different clinical outcomes.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is obtained from the Joint CUHK-NTEC Clinical Research Ethics Committee, Hong Kong (CREC Ref: 2023.100-T). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT06087874.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Du P, Cao Y, Li J, et al (2024)

Dopamine Alleviates Phloridzin Toxicity in Apple by Modifying Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Structure and Function.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 72(23):13001-13014.

Phloridzin significantly influences apple plant growth, development, and resistance to environmental stresses by engaging in various metabolic processes. Its excessive accumulation in soil, attributed to continuous monoculture practices, not only inhibits plant growth but also disrupts the rhizosphere microbial community. This study aims to explore the remedial effects of dopamine, a known antioxidant and stress resistance modulator in plants, on the adverse impacts of phloridzin stress in apple. Through hydroponic and pot experiments, it was demonstrated that dopamine significantly mitigates the growth inhibition caused by phloridzin stress in apple by reducing reactive oxygen species levels and enhancing photosynthesis and nitrogen transport. Additionally, dopamine reduced phloridzin concentrations in both the rhizosphere and roots. Furthermore, dopamine positively influences the structure of the rhizosphere microbial community, enriching beneficial microbes associated with nitrogen cycling. It increases the potential for soil nitrogen degradation and fixation by upregulating the abundance of ureC, GDH, and nifH, as revealed by metagenomic analysis. This aids in alleviating phloridzin stress. The study reveals dopamine's pivotal roles in modulating rhizosphere ecology under phloridzin stress and suggests its potential in sustainable apple cultivation practices to counter ARD and enhance productivity.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Van Syoc E, Nixon MP, Silverman JD, et al (2024)

Changes in the type 2 diabetes gut mycobiome associate with metformin treatment across populations.

mBio, 15(6):e0016924.

UNLABELLED: The human gut teems with a diverse ecosystem of microbes, yet non-bacterial portions of that community are overlooked in studies of metabolic diseases firmly linked to gut bacteria. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with compositional shifts in the gut bacterial microbiome and the mycobiome, the fungal portion of the microbiome. However, whether T2D and/or metformin treatment underpins fungal community changes is unresolved. To differentiate these effects, we curated a gut mycobiome cohort spanning 1,000 human samples across five countries and validated our findings in a murine experimental model. We use Bayesian multinomial logistic normal models to show that T2D and metformin both associate with shifts in the relative abundance of distinct gut fungi. T2D is associated with shifts in the Saccharomycetes and Sordariomycetes fungal classes, while the genera Fusarium and Tetrapisipora most consistently associate with metformin treatment. We confirmed the impact of metformin on individual gut fungi by administering metformin to healthy mice. Thus, metformin and T2D account for subtle, but significant and distinct variation in the gut mycobiome across human populations. This work highlights for the first time that metformin can confound associations of gut fungi with T2D and warrants the need to consider pharmaceutical interventions in investigations of linkages between metabolic diseases and gut microbial inhabitants.

IMPORTANCE: This is the largest to-date multi-country cohort characterizing the human gut mycobiome, and the first to investigate potential perturbations in gut fungi from oral pharmaceutical treatment. We demonstrate the reproducible effects of metformin treatment on the human and murine gut mycobiome and highlight a need to consider metformin as a confounding factor in investigations between type 2 diabetes mellitus and the gut microbial ecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Mourik K, Sidorov I, Carbo EC, et al (2024)

Comparison of the performance of two targeted metagenomic virus capture probe-based methods using reference control materials and clinical samples.

Journal of clinical microbiology, 62(6):e0034524.

UNLABELLED: Viral enrichment by probe hybridization has been reported to significantly increase the sensitivity of viral metagenomics. This study compares the analytical performance of two targeted metagenomic virus capture probe-based methods: (i) SeqCap EZ HyperCap by Roche (ViroCap) and (ii) Twist Comprehensive Viral Research Panel workflow, for diagnostic use. Sensitivity, specificity, and limit of detection were analyzed using 25 synthetic viral sequences spiked in increasing proportions of human background DNA, eight clinical samples, and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Virome Virus Mix. Sensitivity and specificity were 95% and higher for both methods using the synthetic and reference controls as gold standard. Combining thresholds for viral sequence read counts and genome coverage [respectively 500 reads per million (RPM) and 10% coverage] resulted in optimal prediction of true positive results. Limits of detection were approximately 50-500 copies/mL for both methods as determined by ddPCR. Increasing proportions of spike-in cell-free human background sequences up to 99.999% (50 ng/mL) did not negatively affect viral detection, suggesting effective capture of viral sequences. These data show analytical performances in ranges applicable to clinical samples, for both probe hybridization metagenomic approaches. This study supports further steps toward more widespread use of viral metagenomics for pathogen detection, in clinical and surveillance settings using low biomass samples.

IMPORTANCE: Viral metagenomics has been gradually applied for broad-spectrum pathogen detection of infectious diseases, surveillance of emerging diseases, and pathogen discovery. Viral enrichment by probe hybridization methods has been reported to significantly increase the sensitivity of viral metagenomics. During the past years, a specific hybridization panel distributed by Roche has been adopted in a broad range of different clinical and zoonotic settings. Recently, Twist Bioscience has released a new hybridization panel targeting human and animal viruses. This is the first report comparing the performance of viral metagenomic hybridization panels.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Ross PA, Xu W, Jalomo-Khayrova E, et al (2024)

Framework for exploring the sensory repertoire of the human gut microbiota.

mBio, 15(6):e0103924.

Bacteria sense changes in their environment and transduce signals to adjust their cellular functions accordingly. For this purpose, bacteria employ various sensors feeding into multiple signal transduction pathways. Signal recognition by bacterial sensors is studied mainly in a few model organisms, but advances in genome sequencing and analysis offer new ways of exploring the sensory repertoire of many understudied organisms. The human gut is a natural target of this line of study: it is a nutrient-rich and dynamic environment and is home to thousands of bacterial species whose activities impact human health. Many gut commensals are also poorly studied compared to model organisms and are mainly known through their genome sequences. To begin exploring the signals human gut commensals sense and respond to, we have designed a framework that enables the identification of sensory domains, prediction of signals that they recognize, and experimental verification of these predictions. We validate this framework's functionality by systematically identifying amino acid sensors in selected bacterial genomes and metagenomes, characterizing their amino acid binding properties, and demonstrating their signal transduction potential.IMPORTANCESignal transduction is a central process governing how bacteria sense and respond to their environment. The human gut is a complex environment with many living organisms and fluctuating streams of nutrients. One gut inhabitant, Escherichia coli, is a model organism for studying signal transduction. However, E. coli is not representative of most gut microbes, and signaling pathways in the thousands of other organisms comprising the human gut microbiota remain poorly understood. This work provides a foundation for how to explore signals recognized by these organisms.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Mies US, Hervé V, Kropp T, et al (2024)

Genome reduction and horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of Endomicrobia-rise and fall of an intracellular symbiosis with termite gut flagellates.

mBio, 15(6):e0082624.

Bacterial endosymbionts of eukaryotic hosts typically experience massive genome reduction, but the underlying evolutionary processes are often obscured by the lack of free-living relatives. Endomicrobia, a family-level lineage of host-associated bacteria in the phylum Elusimicrobiota that comprises both free-living representatives and endosymbionts of termite gut flagellates, are an excellent model to study evolution of intracellular symbionts. We reconstructed 67 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of Endomicrobiaceae among more than 1,700 MAGs from the gut microbiota of a wide range of termites. Phylogenomic analysis confirmed a sister position of representatives from termites and ruminants, and allowed to propose eight new genera in the radiation of Endomicrobiaceae. Comparative genome analysis documented progressive genome erosion in the new genus Endomicrobiellum, which comprises all flagellate endosymbionts characterized to date. Massive gene losses were accompanied by the acquisition of new functions by horizontal gene transfer, which led to a shift from a glucose-based energy metabolism to one based on sugar phosphates. The breakdown of glycolysis and many anabolic pathways for amino acids and cofactors in several subgroups was compensated by the independent acquisition of new uptake systems, including an ATP/ADP antiporter, from other gut microbiota. The putative donors are mostly flagellate endosymbionts from other bacterial phyla, including several, hitherto unknown lineages of uncultured Alphaproteobacteria, documenting the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the convergent evolution of these intracellular symbioses. The loss of almost all biosynthetic capacities in some lineages of Endomicrobiellum suggests that their originally mutualistic relationship with flagellates is on its decline.IMPORTANCEUnicellular eukaryotes are frequently colonized by bacterial and archaeal symbionts. A prominent example are the cellulolytic gut flagellates of termites, which harbor diverse but host-specific bacterial symbionts that occur exclusively in termite guts. One of these lineages, the so-called Endomicrobia, comprises both free-living and endosymbiotic representatives, which offers the unique opportunity to study the evolutionary processes underpinning the transition from a free-living to an intracellular lifestyle. Our results revealed a progressive gene loss in energy metabolism and biosynthetic pathways, compensated by the acquisition of new functions via horizontal gene transfer from other gut bacteria, and suggest the eventual breakdown of an initially mutualistic symbiosis. Evidence for convergent evolution of unrelated endosymbionts reflects adaptations to the intracellular environment of termite gut flagellates.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Pol S, Kallonen T, Mäklin T, et al (2024)

Exploring the pediatric nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota with culture-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and targeted metagenomic sequencing.

mBio, 15(6):e0078424.

UNLABELLED: The nasopharynx is an important reservoir of disease-associated and antimicrobial-resistant bacterial species. This proof-of-concept study assessed the utility of a combined culture, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and targeted metagenomic sequencing workflow for the study of the pediatric nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota. Nasopharyngeal swabs and clinical metadata were collected from Cambodian children during a hospital outpatient visit and then biweekly for 12 weeks. Swabs were cultured on chocolate and blood-gentamicin agar, and all colony morphotypes were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Metagenomic sequencing was done on a scrape of all colonies from a chocolate agar culture and processed using the mSWEEP pipeline. One hundred one children were enrolled, yielding 620 swabs. MALDI-TOF MS identified 106 bacterial species/40 genera: 20 species accounted for 88.5% (2,190/2,474) of isolates. Colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis (92.1% of children on ≥1 swab), Haemophilus influenzae (87.1%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (83.2%) was particularly common. In S. pneumoniae-colonized children, a median of two serotypes [inter-quartile range (IQR) 1-2, range 1-4] was detected. For the 21 bacterial species included in the mSWEEP database and identifiable by MALDI-TOF, detection by culture + MALDI-TOF MS and culture + mSWEEP was highly concordant with a median species-level agreement of 96.9% (IQR 86.8%-98.8%). mSWEEP revealed highly dynamic lineage-level colonization patterns for S. pneumoniae which were quite different to those for S. aureus. A combined culture, MALDI-TOF MS, targeted metagenomic sequencing approach for the exploration of the young child nasopharyngeal microbiome was technically feasible, and each component yielded complementary data.

IMPORTANCE: The human upper respiratory tract is an important source of disease-causing and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, understanding the interactions and stability of these bacterial populations is technically challenging. We used a combination of approaches to determine colonization patterns over a 3-month period in 101 Cambodian children. The combined approach was feasible to implement, and each component gave complementary data to enable a better understanding of the complex patterns of bacterial colonization.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Ordinola-Zapata R, Costalonga M, Dietz M, et al (2024)

The root canal microbiome diversity and function. A whole-metagenome shotgun analysis.

International endodontic journal, 57(7):872-884.

AIM: To evaluate the root canal microbiome composition and bacterial functional capability in cases of primary and secondary apical periodontitis utilizing whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing.

METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two samples from patients with primary root canal infections, and 18 samples obtained from previously treated teeth currently diagnosed with apical periodontitis were analysed with whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing at a depth of 20 M reads. Taxonomic and functional gene annotations were made using MetaPhlAn3 and HUMAnN3 software. The Shannon and Chao1 indices were utilized to measure alpha diversity. Differences in community composition were evaluated utilizing analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarities. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare differences in taxa and functional genes.

RESULTS: Microbial community variations within a community were significantly lower in secondary relative to primary infections (alpha diversity p = .001). Community composition was significantly different in primary versus secondary infection (R = .11, p = .005). The predominant taxa observed among samples (>2.5%) were Pseudopropionibacterium propionicum, Prevotella oris, Eubacterium infirmum, Tannerella forsythia, Atopobium rimae, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Bacteroidetes bacterium oral taxon 272, Parvimonas micra, Olsenella profusa, Streptococcus anginosus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium brachy and Solobacterium moorei. The Wilcoxon rank test revealed no significant differences in relative abundances of functional genes in both groups. Genes with greater relative abundances (top 25) were associated with genetic, signalling and cellular processes including the iron and peptide/nickel transport system. Numerous genes encoding toxins were identified: exfoliative toxin, haemolysins, thiol-activated cytolysin, phospholipase C, cAMP factor, sialidase, and hyaluronic glucosaminidase.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite taxonomic differences between primary and secondary apical periodontitis, the functional capability of the microbiomes was similar.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Corrêa PS, Fernandes MA, Jimenez CR, et al (2024)

Interaction between methanotrophy and gastrointestinal nematodes infection on the rumen microbiome of lambs.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 100(6):.

Complex cross-talk occurs between gastrointestinal nematodes and gut symbiotic microbiota, with consequences for animal metabolism. To investigate the connection between methane production and endoparasites, this study evaluated the effect of mixed infection with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis on methanogenic and methanotrophic community in rumen microbiota of lambs using shotgun metagenomic and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The rumen content was collected from six Santa Inês lambs, (7 months old) before and after 42 days infection by esophageal tube. The metagenomic analysis showed that the infection affected the microbial community structure leading to decreased abundance of methanotrophs bacteria, i.e. α-proteobacteria and β-proteobacteria, anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME), protozoa, sulfate-reducing bacteria, syntrophic bacteria with methanogens, geobacter, and genes related to pyruvate, fatty acid, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolisms, ribulose monophosphate cycle, and Entner-Doudoroff Pathway. Additionally, the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the mcrA gene did not change. The co-occurrence networks enabled us to identify the interactions between each taxon in microbial communities and to determine the reshaping of rumen microbiome associations by gastrointestinal nematode infection. Besides, the correlation between ANMEs was lower in the animal's postinfection. Our findings suggest that gastrointestinal parasites potentially lead to decreased methanotrophic metabolism-related microorganisms and genes.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Alessandri G, Fontana F, Mancabelli L, et al (2024)

Species-level characterization of saliva and dental plaque microbiota reveals putative bacterial and functional biomarkers of periodontal diseases in dogs.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 100(6):.

Periodontal diseases are among the most common bacterial-related pathologies affecting the oral cavity of dogs. Nevertheless, the canine oral ecosystem and its correlations with oral disease development are still far from being fully characterized. In this study, the species-level taxonomic composition of saliva and dental plaque microbiota of 30 healthy dogs was investigated through a shallow shotgun metagenomics approach. The obtained data allowed not only to define the most abundant and prevalent bacterial species of the oral microbiota in healthy dogs, including members of the genera Corynebacterium and Porphyromonas, but also to identify the presence of distinct compositional motifs in the two oral microniches as well as taxonomical differences between dental plaques collected from anterior and posterior teeth. Subsequently, the salivary and dental plaque microbiota of 18 dogs affected by chronic gingival inflammation and 18 dogs with periodontitis were compared to those obtained from the healthy dogs. This analysis allowed the identification of bacterial and metabolic biomarkers correlated with a specific clinical status, including members of the genera Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium as microbial biomarkers of a healthy and diseased oral status, respectively, and genes predicted to encode for metabolites with anti-inflammatory properties as metabolic biomarkers of a healthy status.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Agustinho DP, Fu Y, Menon VK, et al (2024)

Unveiling microbial diversity: harnessing long-read sequencing technology.

Nature methods, 21(6):954-966.

Long-read sequencing has recently transformed metagenomics, enhancing strain-level pathogen characterization, enabling accurate and complete metagenome-assembled genomes, and improving microbiome taxonomic classification and profiling. These advancements are not only due to improvements in sequencing accuracy, but also happening across rapidly changing analysis methods. In this Review, we explore long-read sequencing's profound impact on metagenomics, focusing on computational pipelines for genome assembly, taxonomic characterization and variant detection, to summarize recent advancements in the field and provide an overview of available analytical methods to fully leverage long reads. We provide insights into the advantages and disadvantages of long reads over short reads and their evolution from the early days of long-read sequencing to their recent impact on metagenomics and clinical diagnostics. We further point out remaining challenges for the field such as the integration of methylation signals in sub-strain analysis and the lack of benchmarks.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Tarzi C, Zampieri G, Sullivan N, et al (2024)

Emerging methods for genome-scale metabolic modeling of microbial communities.

Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM, 35(6):533-548.

Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) are consolidating as platforms for studying mixed microbial populations, by combining biological data and knowledge with mathematical rigor. However, deploying these models to answer research questions can be challenging due to the increasing number of available computational tools, the lack of universal standards, and their inherent limitations. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of foundational concepts for building and evaluating genome-scale models of microbial communities. We then compare tools in terms of requirements, capabilities, and applications. Next, we highlight the current pitfalls and open challenges to consider when adopting existing tools and developing new ones. Our compendium can be relevant for the expanding community of modelers, both at the entry and experienced levels.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Korneev A, Peshkova M, Koteneva P, et al (2024)

Modulation of the skin and gut microbiome by psoriasis treatment: a comprehensive systematic review.

Archives of dermatological research, 316(7):374.

The microbiome is intricately linked to the development of psoriasis, serving as both a potential cause and consequence of the psoriatic process. In recent years, there has been growing interest among psoriasis researchers in exploring how psoriasis treatments affect the skin and gut microbiome. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of modern treatment approaches on the microbiome has yet to be conducted. In this systematic review, we analyze studies investigating alterations in the skin and gut microbiome resulting from psoriasis treatment, aiming to understand how current therapies influence the role of the microbiome in psoriasis development. The systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for eligible studies from the inception dates until July 5, 2023. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were carried out by three overlapping pairs of reviewers, resolving any disagreements through consensus. Our analysis of various treatments, including biologics, conventional medications, phototherapy, and probiotics, reveals significant shifts in microbial diversity and abundance. Importantly, favorable treatment outcomes are associated with microbiota alterations that approach those observed in healthy individuals. While the studies reviewed exhibit varying degrees of bias, underscoring the need for further research, this review supports the potential of microbiome modulation as both a preventive and therapeutic strategy for psoriasis patients. The findings underscore the importance of personalized therapeutic approaches, recognizing the profound impact of treatment on the microbiome. They also highlight the promise of probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary interventions in psoriasis management.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Li J, Xiong A, Wang J, et al (2024)

Deciphering the microbial landscape of lower respiratory tract infections: insights from metagenomics and machine learning.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1385562.

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections represent prevalent ailments. Nonetheless, current comprehension of the microbial ecosystems within the lower respiratory tract remains incomplete and necessitates further comprehensive assessment. Leveraging the advancements in metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) technology alongside the emergence of machine learning, it is now viable to compare the attributes of lower respiratory tract microbial communities among patients across diverse age groups, diseases, and infection types.

METHOD: We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 138 patients diagnosed with lower respiratory tract infections and conducted mNGS to characterize the lung microbiota. Employing various machine learning algorithms, we investigated the correlation of key bacteria in patients with concurrent bronchiectasis and developed a predictive model for hospitalization duration based on these identified key bacteria.

RESULT: We observed variations in microbial communities across different age groups, diseases, and infection types. In the elderly group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the highest relative abundance, followed by Corynebacterium striatum and Acinetobacter baumannii. Methylobacterium and Prevotella emerged as the dominant genera at the genus level in the younger group, while Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Haemophilus influenzae were prevalent species. Within the bronchiectasis group, dominant bacteria included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Significant differences in the presence of Pseudomonas phage JBD93 were noted between the bronchiectasis group and the control group. In the group with concomitant fungal infections, the most abundant genera were Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas, with Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the predominant species. Notable differences were observed in the presence of Human gammaherpesvirus 4, Human betaherpesvirus 5, Candida albicans, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus fumigatus between the group with concomitant fungal infections and the bacterial group. Machine learning algorithms were utilized to select bacteria and clinical indicators associated with hospitalization duration, confirming the excellent performance of bacteria in predicting hospitalization time.

CONCLUSION: Our study provided a comprehensive description of the microbial characteristics among patients with lower respiratory tract infections, offering insights from various perspectives. Additionally, we investigated the advanced predictive capability of microbial community features in determining the hospitalization duration of these patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Liu H, Xu Y, X Dai (2024)

Electron-transfer-driven spatial optimisation of anaerobic consortia for efficient methanogenesis: Neglected inductive effect of conductive materials.

Bioresource technology, 403:130856.

The inductive effect of conductive materials (CMs) on enhancing methanogenesis metabolism has been overlooked. Herein, we highlight role of CMs in inducing the spatial optimisation of methanogenic consortia by altering the Lewis acid-base (AB) interactions within microbial aggregates. In the presence of CMs and after their removal, the methane production and methane proportion in biogas significantly increase, with no significant difference between the two situations. Analyses of interactions between CMs and extracellular polymer substances (EPSs) with and without D2O reveal that CMs promote release and transfer potential of electron in EPSs, which induce and enhance the role of water molecules being primarily as proton acceptors in the hydrogen bonding between EPSs and water, thereby changing the electron-donor- and electron-acceptor-based AB interactions. Investigations of succession dynamics of microbial communities, co-occurrence networks, and metagenomics further indicate that electron transfer drives the microbial spatial optimisation for efficient methanogenesis through intensive interspecies interactions.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Zhang K, He C, Wang L, et al (2024)

Compendium of 5810 genomes of sheep and goat gut microbiomes provides new insights into the glycan and mucin utilization.

Microbiome, 12(1):104.

BACKGROUND: Ruminant gut microbiota are critical in ecological adaptation, evolution, and nutrition utilization because it regulates energy metabolism, promotes nutrient absorption, and improves immune function. To study the functional roles of key gut microbiota in sheep and goats, it is essential to construct reference microbial gene catalogs and high-quality microbial genomes database.

RESULTS: A total of 320 fecal samples were collected from 21 different sheep and goat breeds, originating from 32 distinct farms. Metagenomic deep sequencing and binning assembly were utilized to construct a comprehensive microbial genome information database for the gut microbiota. We successfully generated the largest reference gene catalogs for gut microbiota in sheep and goats, containing over 162 million and 82 million nonredundant predicted genes, respectively, with 49 million shared nonredundant predicted genes and 1138 shared species. We found that the rearing environment has a greater impact on microbial composition and function than the host's species effect. Through subsequent assembly, we obtained 5810 medium- and high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), out of which 2661 were yet unidentified species. Among these MAGs, we identified 91 bacterial taxa that specifically colonize the sheep gut, which encode polysaccharide utilization loci for glycan and mucin degradation.

CONCLUSIONS: By shedding light on the co-symbiotic microbial communities in the gut of small ruminants, our study significantly enhances the understanding of their nutrient degradation and disease susceptibility. Our findings emphasize the vast potential of untapped resources in functional bacterial species within ruminants, further expanding our knowledge of how the ruminant gut microbiota recognizes and processes glycan and mucins. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Faleiros CA, Nunes AT, Gonçalves OS, et al (2024)

Exploration of mobile genetic elements in the ruminal microbiome of Nellore cattle.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13056.

Metagenomics has made it feasible to elucidate the intricacies of the ruminal microbiome and its role in the differentiation of animal production phenotypes of significance. The search for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) has taken on great importance, as they play a critical role in the transfer of genetic material between organisms. Furthermore, these elements serve a dual purpose by controlling populations through lytic bacteriophages, thereby maintaining ecological equilibrium and driving the evolutionary progress of host microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to identify the association between ruminal bacteria and their MGEs in Nellore cattle using physical chromosomal links through the Hi-C method. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing and the proximity ligation method ProxiMeta were used to analyze DNA, getting 1,713,111,307 bp, which gave rise to 107 metagenome-assembled genomes from rumen samples of four Nellore cows maintained on pasture. Taxonomic analysis revealed that most of the bacterial genomes belonged to the families Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Saccharofermentanaceae, and Treponemataceae and mostly encoded pathways for central carbon and other carbohydrate metabolisms. A total of 31 associations between host bacteria and MGE were identified, including 17 links to viruses and 14 links to plasmids. Additionally, we found 12 antibiotic resistance genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Brazilian cattle that connect MGEs with their microbial hosts. It identifies MGEs present in the rumen of pasture-raised Nellore cattle, offering insights that could advance biotechnology for food digestion and improve ruminant performance in production systems.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Zhu C, Zhang C, Wang S, et al (2024)

Characterizations of multi-kingdom gut microbiota in immune checkpoint inhibitor-treated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Journal for immunotherapy of cancer, 12(6): pii:jitc-2023-008686.

BACKGROUND: The association between gut bacteria and the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been studied; however, multi-kingdom gut microbiome alterations and interactions in ICI-treated HCC cohorts are not fully understood.

METHODS: From November 2018 to April 2022, patients receiving ICI treatment for advanced HCC were prospectively enrolled. Herein, we investigated the multi-kingdom microbiota characterization of the gut microbiome, mycobiome, and metabolome using metagenomic, ITS2, and metabolomic data sets of 80 patients with ICI-treated HCC.

RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that bacteria and metabolites differed significantly between the durable clinical benefit (DCB) and non-durable clinical benefit (NDB) groups, whereas the differences were smaller for fungi. The overall diversity of bacteria and fungi before treatment was higher in the DCB group than in the NDB group, and the difference in diversity began to change with the use of immunotherapy after 6-8 weeks. We also explored the alterations of gut microbes in the DCB and NDB groups, established 18 bacterial species models as predictive biomarkers for predicting whether immunotherapy is of sustained benefit (area under the curve=75.63%), and screened two species of bacteria (Actinomyces_sp_ICM47, and Senegalimassilia_anaerobia) and one metabolite (galanthaminone) as prognostic biomarkers for predicting survival in patients with HCC treated with ICI.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the status and characterization of the multi-kingdom microbiota, including gut bacteria, fungi, and their metabolites, were described by multiomics sequencing for the first time in patients with HCC treated with ICI. Our findings demonstrate the potential of bacterial taxa as predictive biomarkers of ICI clinical efficacy, and bacteria and their metabolites as prognostic biomarkers.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Peng L, Hou J, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of a thermophilic bacterial consortium and its use in the bioremediation of a petroleum-contaminated soil.

Chemosphere, 360:142379.

Biodegradation is difficult at high temperatures due to the limited capacity of microorganisms to survive and function outside their optimum temperature range. Here, a thermophilic petroleum-degrading consortium was enriched from compost at a temperature of 55 °C. 16S rDNA and metagenomic techniques were used to analyze the composition of the consortium and the mechanisms of degradation. The consortium degraded 17000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) L[-1] with a degradation efficiency of 81.5% in 14 days. The consortium utilized a range of substrates such as n-hexadecane, n-docosane, naphthalene and pyrene and grew well over a wide range of pH (4-10) and salinity (0-90 g L[-1]). The hydrocarbon-degrading extremophilic consortium contained, inter alia, (relative abundance >1%) Caldibacillus, Geobacillus, Mycolicibacterium, Bacillus, Chelatococcus, and Aeribacillus spp. Metagenomic analysis was conducted to discover the degradation and environmental tolerance functional genes of the consortium. Two alkane hydroxylase genes, alkB and ladA, were found. A microcosm study shows that the consortium promoted the bioremediation of soil TPHs. The results indicate that the consortium may be a good candidate for the high-temperature bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Rubin-Blum M, Makovsky Y, Rahav E, et al (2024)

Active microbial communities facilitate carbon turnover in brine pools found in the deep Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

Marine environmental research, 198:106497.

Discharge of gas-rich brines fuels productive chemosynthetic ecosystems in the deep sea. In these salty, methanic and sulfidic brines, microbial communities adapt to specific niches along the physicochemical gradients. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these adaptations are not fully known. Using metagenomics, we investigated the dense (∼10[6] cell ml[-1]) microbial communities that occupy small deep-sea brine pools found in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (1150 m water depth, ∼22 °C, ∼60 PSU salinity, sulfide, methane, ammonia reaching millimolar levels, and oxygen usually depleted), reaching high productivity rates of 685 μg C L[-1] d[-1] ex-situ. We curated 266 metagenome-assembled genomes of bacteria and archaea from the several pools and adjacent sediment-water interface, highlighting the dominance of a single Sulfurimonas, which likely fuels its autotrophy using sulfide oxidation or inorganic sulfur disproportionation. This lineage may be dominant in its niche due to genome streamlining, limiting its metabolic repertoire, particularly by using a single variant of sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase. These primary producers co-exist with ANME-2c archaea that catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Other lineages can degrade the necromass aerobically (Halomonas and Alcanivorax), or anaerobically through fermentation of macromolecules (e.g., Caldatribacteriota, Bipolaricaulia, Chloroflexota, etc). These low-abundance organisms likely support the autotrophs, providing energy-rich H2, and vital organics such as vitamin B12.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-09

Kebede V, Ravizza T, Balosso S, et al (2024)

Early treatment with rifaximin during epileptogenesis reverses gut alterations and reduces seizure duration in a mouse model of acquired epilepsy.

Brain, behavior, and immunity, 119:363-380.

The gut microbiota is altered in epilepsy and is emerging as a potential target for new therapies. We studied the effects of rifaximin, a gastrointestinal tract-specific antibiotic, on seizures and neuropathology and on alterations in the gut and its microbiota in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Epilepsy was induced by intra-amygdala kainate injection causing status epilepticus (SE) in C57Bl6 adult male mice. Sham mice were injected with vehicle. Two cohorts of SE mice were fed a rifaximin-supplemented diet for 21 days, starting either at 24 h post-SE (early disease stage) or at day 51 post-SE (chronic disease stage). Corresponding groups of SE mice (one each disease stage) were fed a standard (control) diet. Cortical ECoG recording was done at each disease stage (24/7) for 21 days in all SE mice to measure the number and duration of spontaneous seizures during either rifaximin treatment or control diet. Then, epileptic mice ± rifaximin and respective sham mice were sacrificed and brain, gut and feces collected. Biospecimens were used for: (i) quantitative histological analysis of the gut structural and cellular components; (ii) markers of gut inflammation and intestinal barrier integrity by RTqPCR; (iii) 16S rRNA metagenomics analysis in feces. Hippocampal neuronal cell loss was assessed in epileptic mice killed in the early disease phase. Rifaximin administered for 21 days post-SE (early disease stage) reduced seizure duration (p < 0.01) and prevented hilar mossy cells loss in the hippocampus compared to epileptic mice fed a control diet. Epileptic mice fed a control diet showed a reduction of both villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio (p < 0.01) and a decreased number of goblet cells (p < 0.01) in the duodenum, as well as increased macrophage (Iba1)-immunostaining in the jejunum (p < 0.05), compared to respective sham mice. Rifaximin's effect on seizures was associated with a reversal of gut structural and cellular changes, except for goblet cells which remained reduced. Seizure duration in epileptic mice was negatively correlated with the number of mossy cells (p < 0.01) and with villus height/crypt depth ratio (p < 0.05). Rifaximin-treated epileptic mice also showed increased tight junctions (occludin and ZO-1, p < 0.01) and decreased TNF mRNA expression (p < 0.01) in the duodenum compared to epileptic mice fed a control diet. Rifaximin administered for 21 days in chronic epileptic mice (chronic disease stage) did not change the number or duration of seizures compared to epileptic mice fed a control diet. Chronic epileptic mice fed a control diet showed an increased crypt depth (p < 0.05) and reduced villus height/crypt depth ratio (p < 0.01) compared to respective sham mice. Rifaximin treatment did not affect these intestinal changes. At both disease stages, rifaximin modified α- and β-diversity in epileptic and sham mice compared to respective mice fed a control diet. The microbiota composition in epileptic mice, as well as the effects of rifaximin at the phylum, family and genus levels, depended on the stage of the disease. During the early disease phase, the abundance of specific taxa was positively correlated with seizure duration in epileptic mice. In conclusion, gut-related alterations reflecting a dysfunctional state, occur during epilepsy development in a TLE mouse model. A short-term treatment with rifaximin during the early phase of the disease, reduced seizure duration and neuropathology, and reversed some intestinal changes, strengthening the therapeutic effects of gut-based therapies in epilepsy.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Santos-Júnior CD, Torres MDT, Duan Y, et al (2024)

Discovery of antimicrobial peptides in the global microbiome with machine learning.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(24)00522-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Novel antibiotics are urgently needed to combat the antibiotic-resistance crisis. We present a machine-learning-based approach to predict antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) within the global microbiome and leverage a vast dataset of 63,410 metagenomes and 87,920 prokaryotic genomes from environmental and host-associated habitats to create the AMPSphere, a comprehensive catalog comprising 863,498 non-redundant peptides, few of which match existing databases. AMPSphere provides insights into the evolutionary origins of peptides, including by duplication or gene truncation of longer sequences, and we observed that AMP production varies by habitat. To validate our predictions, we synthesized and tested 100 AMPs against clinically relevant drug-resistant pathogens and human gut commensals both in vitro and in vivo. A total of 79 peptides were active, with 63 targeting pathogens. These active AMPs exhibited antibacterial activity by disrupting bacterial membranes. In conclusion, our approach identified nearly one million prokaryotic AMP sequences, an open-access resource for antibiotic discovery.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Yan Q, Li S, Yan Q, et al (2024)

A genomic compendium of cultivated human gut fungi characterizes the gut mycobiome and its relevance to common diseases.

Cell, 187(12):2969-2989.e24.

The gut fungal community represents an essential element of human health, yet its functional and metabolic potential remains insufficiently elucidated, largely due to the limited availability of reference genomes. To address this gap, we presented the cultivated gut fungi (CGF) catalog, encompassing 760 fungal genomes derived from the feces of healthy individuals. This catalog comprises 206 species spanning 48 families, including 69 species previously unidentified. We explored the functional and metabolic attributes of the CGF species and utilized this catalog to construct a phylogenetic representation of the gut mycobiome by analyzing over 11,000 fecal metagenomes from Chinese and non-Chinese populations. Moreover, we identified significant common disease-related variations in gut mycobiome composition and corroborated the associations between fungal signatures and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through animal experimentation. These resources and findings substantially enrich our understanding of the biological diversity and disease relevance of the human gut mycobiome.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Bank NC, Singh V, McCourt B, et al (2024)

Antigenic operon fragmentation and diversification mechanism in Bacteroidota impacts gut metagenomics and pathobionts in Crohn's disease microlesions.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2350150.

Comensal Bacteroidota (Bacteroidota) and Enterobacteriacea are often linked to gut inflammation. However, the causes for variability of pro-inflammatory surface antigens that affect gut commensal/opportunistic dualism in Bacteroidota remain unclear. By using the classical lipopolysaccharide/O-antigen 'rfb operon' in Enterobacteriaceae as a surface antigen model (5-rfb-gene-cluster rfbABCDX), and a recent rfbA-typing strategy for strain classification, we characterized the integrity and conservancy of the entire rfb operon in Bacteroidota. Through exploratory analysis of complete genomes and metagenomes, we discovered that most Bacteroidota have the rfb operon fragmented into nonrandom patterns of gene-singlets and doublets/triplets, termed 'rfb-gene-clusters', or rfb-'minioperons' if predicted as transcriptional. To reflect global operon integrity, contiguity, duplication, and fragmentation principles, we propose a six-category (infra/supra-numerary) cataloging system and a Global Operon Profiling System for bacteria. Mechanistically, genomic sequence analyses revealed that operon fragmentation is driven by intra-operon insertions of predominantly Bacteroides-DNA (thetaiotaomicron/fragilis) and likely natural selection in gut-wall specific micro-niches or micropathologies. Bacteroides-insertions, also detected in other antigenic operons (fimbriae), but not in operons deemed essential (ribosomal), could explain why Bacteroidota have fewer KEGG-pathways despite large genomes. DNA insertions, overrepresenting DNA-exchange-avid (Bacteroides) species, impact our interpretation of functional metagenomics data by inflating by inflating gene-based pathway inference and by overestimating 'extra-species' abundance. Of disease relevance, Bacteroidota species isolated from cavitating/cavernous fistulous tract (CavFT) microlesions in Crohn's Disease have supra-numerary fragmented operons, stimulate TNF-alpha from macrophages with low potency, and do not induce hyperacute peritonitis in mice compared to CavFT Enterobacteriaceae. The impact of 'foreign-DNA' insertions on pro-inflammatory operons, metagenomics, and commensalism/opportunism requires further studies to elucidate their potential for novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and to elucidate the role of co-existing pathobionts in Crohn's disease microlesions.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Hu J, Chen J, Nie Y, et al (2024)

Characterizing the gut phageome and phage-borne antimicrobial resistance genes in pigs.

Microbiome, 12(1):102.

BACKGROUND: Mammalian intestine harbors a mass of phages that play important roles in maintaining gut microbial ecosystem and host health. Pig has become a common model for biomedical research and provides a large amount of meat for human consumption. However, the knowledge of gut phages in pigs is still limited.

RESULTS: Here, we investigated the gut phageome in 112 pigs from seven pig breeds using PhaBOX strategy based on the metagenomic data. A total of 174,897 non-redundant gut phage genomes were assembled from 112 metagenomes. A total of 33,487 gut phage genomes were classified and these phages mainly belonged to phage families such as Ackermannviridae, Straboviridae, Peduoviridae, Zierdtviridae, Drexlerviridae, and Herelleviridae. The gut phages in seven pig breeds exhibited distinct communities and the gut phage communities changed with the age of pig. These gut phages were predicted to infect a broad range of 212 genera of prokaryotes, such as Candidatus Hamiltonella, Mycoplasma, Colwellia, and Lactobacillus. The data indicated that broad KEGG and CAZy functions were also enriched in gut phages of pigs. The gut phages also carried the antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and the most abundant antimicrobial resistance genotype was diaminopyrimidine resistance.

CONCLUSIONS: Our research delineates a landscape for gut phages in seven pig breeds and reveals that gut phages serve as a key reservoir of ARGs in pigs. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Qiao Y, Wang Z, Sun H, et al (2024)

Synthetic community derived from grafted watermelon rhizosphere provides protection for ungrafted watermelon against Fusarium oxysporum via microbial synergistic effects.

Microbiome, 12(1):101.

BACKGROUND: Plant microbiota contributes to plant growth and health, including enhancing plant resistance to various diseases. Despite remarkable progress in understanding diseases resistance in plants, the precise role of rhizosphere microbiota in enhancing watermelon resistance against soil-borne diseases remains unclear. Here, we constructed a synthetic community (SynCom) of 16 core bacterial strains obtained from the rhizosphere of grafted watermelon plants. We further simplified SynCom and investigated the role of bacteria with synergistic interactions in promoting plant growth through a simple synthetic community.

RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that the SynCom significantly enhanced the growth and disease resistance of ungrafted watermelon grown in non-sterile soil. Furthermore, analysis of the amplicon and metagenome data revealed the pivotal role of Pseudomonas in enhancing plant health, as evidenced by a significant increase in the relative abundance and biofilm-forming pathways of Pseudomonas post-SynCom inoculation. Based on in vitro co-culture experiments and bacterial metabolomic analysis, we selected Pseudomonas along with seven other members of the SynCom that exhibited synergistic effects with Pseudomonas. It enabled us to further refine the initially constructed SynCom into a simplified SynCom comprising the eight selected bacterial species. Notably, the plant-promoting effects of simplified SynCom were similar to those of the initial SynCom. Furthermore, the simplified SynCom protected plants through synergistic effects of bacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the SynCom proliferate in the rhizosphere and mitigate soil-borne diseases through microbial synergistic interactions, highlighting the potential of synergistic effects between microorganisms in enhancing plant health. This study provides a novel insight into using the functional SynCom as a promising solution for sustainable agriculture. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Liu Z, Zhang Q, Zhang H, et al (2024)

Colorectal cancer microbiome programs DNA methylation of host cells by affecting methyl donor metabolism.

Genome medicine, 16(1):77.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) arises from complex interactions between host and environment, which include the gut and tissue microbiome. It is hypothesized that epigenetic regulation by gut microbiota is a fundamental interface by which commensal microbes dynamically influence intestinal biology. The aim of this study is to explore the interplay between gut and tissue microbiota and host DNA methylation in CRC.

METHODS: Metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples was performed on matched CRC patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18). Additionally, tissue microbiome was profiled with 16S rRNA gene sequencing on tumor (n = 24) and tumor-adjacent normal (n = 24) tissues of CRC patients, while host DNA methylation was assessed through whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) in a subset of 13 individuals.

RESULTS: Our analysis revealed substantial alterations in the DNA methylome of CRC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. An extensive meta-analysis, incorporating publicly available and in-house data, identified significant shifts in microbial-derived methyl donor-related pathways between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Of note, we observed a pronounced enrichment of microbial-associated CpGs within the promoter regions of genes in adjacent normal tissues, a phenomenon notably absent in tumor tissues. Furthermore, we established consistent and recurring associations between methylation patterns of tumor-related genes and specific bacterial taxa.

CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the pivotal role of the gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in dynamically shaping DNA methylation patterns, impacting physiological homeostasis, and contributing to CRC tumorigenesis. These findings provide valuable insights into the intricate host-environment interactions in CRC development and offer potential avenues for therapeutic interventions in this disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Luo Y, Zhang C, Liao H, et al (2024)

Integrative metagenomics, volatilomics and chemometrics for deciphering the microbial structure and core metabolic network during Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu) fermentation in different regions.

Food microbiology, 122:104569.

Huangjiu is a spontaneously fermented alcoholic beverage, that undergoes intricate microbial compositional changes. This study aimed to unravel the flavor and quality formation mechanisms based on the microbial metabolism of Huangjiu. Here, metagenome techniques, chemometrics analysis, and headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) metabolomics combined with microbial metabolic network were employed to investigate the distinctions and relationship between the microbial profiles and the quality characteristics, flavor metabolites, functional metabolic patterns of Huangjiu across three regions. Significant variations (P < 0.05) were observed in metabolic rate of physicochemical parameters and biogenic amine concentration among three regions. 8 aroma compounds (phenethyl acetate, phenylethyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl alcohol, and diethyl succinate) out of 448 volatile compounds were identified as the regional chemical markers. 25 dominant microbial genera were observed through metagenomic analysis, and 13 species were confirmed as microbial markers in three regions. A metabolic network analysis revealed that Saccharomycetales (Saccharomyces), Lactobacillales (Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Leuconostoc), and Eurotiales (Aspergillus) were the predominant populations responsible for substrate, flavor (mainly esters and phenylethyl alcohol) metabolism, Lactobacillales and Enterobacterales were closely linked with biogenic amine. These findings provide scientific evidence for regional microbial contributions to geographical characteristics of Huangjiu, and perspectives for optimizing microbial function to promote Huangjiu quality.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Laumen JGE, Van Dijck C, Manoharan-Basil SS, et al (2024)

The effect of daily usage of Listerine Cool Mint mouthwash on the oropharyngeal microbiome: a substudy of the PReGo trial.

Journal of medical microbiology, 73(6):.

Introduction. Listerine[Ò] is a bactericidal mouthwash widely used to prevent oral health problems such as dental plaque and gingivitis. However, whether it promotes or undermines a healthy oral microbiome is unclear.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We hypothesized that the daily use of Listerine Cool Mint would have a significant impact on the oropharyngeal microbiome.Aim. We aimed to assess if daily usage of Listerine Cool Mint influenced the composition of the pharyngeal microbiome.Methodology. The current microbiome substudy is part of the Preventing Resistance in Gonorrhoea trial. This was a double-blind single-centre, crossover, randomized controlled trial of antibacterial versus placebo mouthwash to reduce the incidence of gonorrhoea/chlamydia/syphilis in men who have sex with men (MSM) taking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Fifty-nine MSM taking HIV PrEP were enrolled. In this crossover trial, participants received 3 months of daily Listerine followed by 3 months of placebo mouthwash or vice versa. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken at baseline and after 3 months use of each mouthwash. DNA was extracted for shotgun metagenomic sequencing (Illumina Inc.). Non-host reads were taxonomically classified with MiniKraken and Bracken. The alpha and beta diversity indices were compared between baseline and after each mouthwash use. Differentially abundant bacterial taxa were identified using ANOVA-like differential expression analysis.Results. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in most samples (n = 103, 61.7 %) with a median relative abundance of 31.5% (IQR 20.6-44.8), followed by Prevotella [13.5% (IQR 4.8-22.6)] and Veillonella [10.0% (IQR 4.0-16.8)]. Compared to baseline, the composition of the oral microbiome at the genus level (beta diversity) was significantly different after 3 months of Listerine (P = 0.006, pseudo-F = 2.29) or placebo (P = 0.003, pseudo-F = 2.49, permutational multivariate analysis of variance) use. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus anginosus were significantly more abundant after Listerine use compared to baseline.Conclusion. Listerine use was associated with an increased abundance of common oral opportunistic bacteria previously reported to be enriched in periodontal diseases, oesophageal and colorectal cancer, and systemic diseases. These findings suggest that the regular use of Listerine mouthwash should be carefully considered.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Deek RA, Ma S, Lewis J, et al (2024)

Statistical and computational methods for integrating microbiome, host genomics, and metabolomics data.

eLife, 13:.

Large-scale microbiome studies are progressively utilizing multiomics designs, which include the collection of microbiome samples together with host genomics and metabolomics data. Despite the increasing number of data sources, there remains a bottleneck in understanding the relationships between different data modalities due to the limited number of statistical and computational methods for analyzing such data. Furthermore, little is known about the portability of general methods to the metagenomic setting and few specialized techniques have been developed. In this review, we summarize and implement some of the commonly used methods. We apply these methods to real data sets where shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics data are available for microbiome multiomics data integration analysis. We compare results across methods, highlight strengths and limitations of each, and discuss areas where statistical and computational innovation is needed.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Roach MJ, Beecroft SJ, Mihindukulasuriya KA, et al (2024)

Hecatomb: an integrated software platform for viral metagenomics.

GigaScience, 13:.

BACKGROUND: Modern sequencing technologies offer extraordinary opportunities for virus discovery and virome analysis. Annotation of viral sequences from metagenomic data requires a complex series of steps to ensure accurate annotation of individual reads and assembled contigs. In addition, varying study designs will require project-specific statistical analyses.

FINDINGS: Here we introduce Hecatomb, a bioinformatic platform coordinating commonly used tasks required for virome analysis. Hecatomb means "a great sacrifice." In this setting, Hecatomb is "sacrificing" false-positive viral annotations using extensive quality control and tiered-database searches. Hecatomb processes metagenomic data obtained from both short- and long-read sequencing technologies, providing annotations to individual sequences and assembled contigs. Results are provided in commonly used data formats useful for downstream analysis. Here we demonstrate the functionality of Hecatomb through the reanalysis of a primate enteric and a novel coral reef virome.

CONCLUSION: Hecatomb provides an integrated platform to manage many commonly used steps for virome characterization, including rigorous quality control, host removal, and both read- and contig-based analysis. Each step is managed using the Snakemake workflow manager with dependency management using Conda. Hecatomb outputs several tables properly formatted for immediate use within popular data analysis and visualization tools, enabling effective data interpretation for a variety of study designs. Hecatomb is hosted on GitHub (github.com/shandley/hecatomb) and is available for installation from Bioconda and PyPI.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Kitsios GD, Sayed K, Fitch A, et al (2024)

Longitudinal multicompartment characterization of host-microbiota interactions in patients with acute respiratory failure.

Nature communications, 15(1):4708.

Critical illness can significantly alter the composition and function of the human microbiome, but few studies have examined these changes over time. Here, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of the oral, lung, and gut microbiota in 479 mechanically ventilated patients (223 females, 256 males) with acute respiratory failure. We use advanced DNA sequencing technologies, including Illumina amplicon sequencing (utilizing 16S and ITS rRNA genes for bacteria and fungi, respectively, in all sample types) and Nanopore metagenomics for lung microbiota. Our results reveal a progressive dysbiosis in all three body compartments, characterized by a reduction in microbial diversity, a decrease in beneficial anaerobes, and an increase in pathogens. We find that clinical factors, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunosuppression, and antibiotic exposure, are associated with specific patterns of dysbiosis. Interestingly, unsupervised clustering of lung microbiota diversity and composition by 16S independently predicted survival and performed better than traditional clinical and host-response predictors. These observations are validated in two separate cohorts of COVID-19 patients, highlighting the potential of lung microbiota as valuable prognostic biomarkers in critical care. Understanding these microbiome changes during critical illness points to new opportunities for microbiota-targeted precision medicine interventions.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Huang B, Zhang N, Wang J, et al (2024)

Maternal Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-Phthalate exposure during pregnancy altered energy metabolism in immature offspring and caused hyperglycemia.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 279:116494.

Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), as distinctive endocrine disrupting chemicals, has become a global environmental pollutant harmful to human and animal health. However, the impacts on offspring and mothers with maternal DEHP exposure are largely unknown and the mechanism remains elusive. We established DEHP-exposed maternal mice to investigate the impacts on mother and offspring and illustrate the mechanism from multiple perspectives. Pregnant mice were administered with different doses of DEHP, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing used fecal and transcriptome sequencing using placentas and livers from offspring have been performed, respectively. The results of the histopathology perspective demonstrated that DEHP exposure could disrupt the function of islets impact placentas and fetus development for maternal mice, and cause the disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism for immature offspring mice, resulting in hyperglycemia. The results of the metagenome of gut microbial communities indicated that the dysbiosis of gut microbiota in mother and offspring mice and the dominant phyla transformed through vertical transmission. Transcriptome analysis found DEHP exposure induced mutations of Ahcy and Gstp3, which can damage liver cells and affect the metabolism of the host. DEHP exposure harms pregnant mice and offspring by affecting gene expression and altering metabolism. Our results suggested that exposure of pregnant mice to DEHP during pregnancy and lactation increased the risk of metabolic disorders by altering key genes in liver and gut microbiota, and these results provided new insights into the potential long-term harms of DEHP.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Osman JR, Castillo J, Sanhueza V, et al (2024)

Key energy metabolisms in modern living microbialites from hypersaline Andean lagoons of the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

The Science of the total environment, 937:173469.

Microbialites are organosedimentary structures formed mainly due to the precipitation of carbonate minerals, although they can also incorporate siliceous, phosphate, ferric, and sulfate minerals. The minerals' precipitation occurs because of local chemical changes triggered by changes in pH and redox transformations catalyzed by the microbial energy metabolisms. Here, geochemistry, metagenomics, and bioinformatics tools reveal the key energy metabolisms of microbial mats, stromatolites and an endoevaporite distributed across four hypersaline lagoons from the Salar de Atacama. Chemoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic microorganisms seem to coexist and influence microbialite formation. The microbialite types of each lagoon host unique microbial communities and metabolisms that influence their geochemistry. Among them, photosynthetic, carbon- and nitrogen- fixing and sulfate-reducing microorganisms appear to control the main biogeochemical cycles. Genes associated with non-conventional energy pathways identified in MAGs, such as hydrogen production/consumption, arsenic oxidation/reduction, manganese oxidation and selenium reduction, also contribute to support life in microbialites. The presence of genes encoding for enzymes associated with ureolytic processes in the Cyanobacteria phylum and Gammaproteobacteria class might induce carbonate precipitation in hypersaline environments, contributing to the microbialites formation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing metagenomically microbialites enriched in manganese and identifying metabolic pathways associated with manganese oxidation, selenium reduction, and ureolysis in this ecosystem, which suggests that the geochemistry and bioavailability of energy sources (As, Mn and Se) shapes the microbial metabolisms in the microbialites.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Cao Y, Li Y, Jia L, et al (2024)

Long-term and combined heavy-metal contamination forms a unique microbiome and resistome: A case study in a Yellow River tributary sediments.

Environmental research, 252(Pt 1):118861.

Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to adapt to environmental stress, but how microbial communities adapt to long-term and combined heavy-metal contamination under natural environmental conditions remains unclear. Specifically, this study analyzed the characteristics of heavy metal composition, microbial community, and heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs) in sediments along Mang River, a tributary of the Yellow River, which has been heavily polluted by industrial production for more than 40 years. The results showed that the concentrations of Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu and As in most sediments were higher than the ambient background values. Bringing the heavy metals speciation and concentration into the risk evaluation method, two-thirds of the sediment samples were at or above the moderate risk level, and the ecological risk of combined heavy metals in the sediments decreased along the river stream. The high ecological risk of heavy metals affected the microbial community structure, metabolic pathways and MRG distribution. The formation of a HM-resistant microbiome possibly occurred through the spread of insertion sequences (ISs) carrying multiple MRGs, the types of ISs carrying MRGs outnumber those of plasmids, and the quantity of MRGs on ISs is also higher than that on plasmids. These findings could improve our understanding of the adaptation mechanism of microbial communities to long-term combined heavy metal contamination.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Zhu J, Sun C, Li M, et al (2024)

Compared to histamine-2 receptor antagonist, proton pump inhibitor induces stronger oral-to-gut microbial transmission and gut microbiome alterations: a randomised controlled trial.

Gut, 73(7):1087-1097 pii:gutjnl-2023-330168.

OBJECTIVE: We aim to compare the effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) on the gut microbiota through longitudinal analysis.

DESIGN: Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either PPI (n=23) or H2RA (n=26) daily for seven consecutive days. We collected oral (saliva) and faecal samples before and after the intervention for metagenomic next-generation sequencing. We analysed intervention-induced alterations in the oral and gut microbiome including microbial abundance and growth rates, oral-to-gut transmissions, and compared differences between the PPI and H2RA groups.

RESULTS: Both interventions disrupted the gut microbiota, with PPIs demonstrating more pronounced effects. PPI usage led to a significantly higher extent of oral-to-gut transmission and promoted the growth of specific oral microbes in the gut. This led to a significant increase in both the number and total abundance of oral species present in the gut, including the identification of known disease-associated species like Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus anginosus. Overall, gut microbiome-based machine learning classifiers could accurately distinguish PPI from non-PPI users, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.924, in contrast to an AUROC of 0.509 for H2RA versus non-H2RA users.

CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that PPIs have a greater impact on the gut microbiome and oral-to-gut transmission than H2RAs, shedding light on the mechanism underlying the higher risk of certain diseases associated with prolonged PPI use.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2300072310.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Viladomat Jasso M, García-Ulloa M, Zapata-Peñasco I, et al (2024)

Metagenomic insight into taxonomic composition, environmental filtering and functional redundancy for shaping worldwide modern non-lithifying microbial mats.

PeerJ, 12:e17412.

Modern microbial mats are relictual communities mostly found in extreme environments worldwide. Despite their significance as representatives of the ancestral Earth and their important roles in biogeochemical cycling, research on microbial mats has largely been localized, focusing on site-specific descriptions and environmental change experiments. Here, we present a global comparative analysis of non-lithifying microbial mats, integrating environmental measurements with metagenomic data from 62 samples across eight sites, including two new samples from the recently discovered Archaean Domes from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. Our results revealed a notable influence of environmental filtering on both taxonomic and functional compositions of microbial mats. Functional redundancy appears to confer resilience to mats, with essential metabolic pathways conserved across diverse and highly contrasting habitats. We identified six highly correlated clusters of taxa performing similar ecological functions, suggesting niche partitioning and functional specialization as key mechanisms shaping community structure. Our findings provide insights into the ecological principles governing microbial mats, and lay the foundation for future research elucidating the intricate interplay between environmental factors and microbial community dynamics.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Medeiros W, Hidalgo K, Leão T, et al (2024)

Unlocking the biosynthetic potential and taxonomy of the Antarctic microbiome along temporal and spatial gradients.

Microbiology spectrum, 12(6):e0024424.

Extreme environments, such as Antarctica, select microbial communities that display a range of evolutionary strategies to survive and thrive under harsh environmental conditions. These include a diversity of specialized metabolites, which have the potential to be a source for new natural product discovery. Efforts using (meta)genome mining approaches to identify and understand biosynthetic gene clusters in Antarctica are still scarce, and the extent of their diversity and distribution patterns in the environment have yet to be discovered. Herein, we investigated the biosynthetic gene diversity of the biofilm microbial community of Whalers Bay, Deception Island, in the Antarctic Peninsula and revealed its distribution patterns along spatial and temporal gradients by applying metagenome mining approaches and multivariable analysis. The results showed that the Whalers Bay microbial community harbors a great diversity of biosynthetic gene clusters distributed into seven classes, with terpene being the most abundant. The phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota were the most abundant in the microbial community and contributed significantly to the biosynthetic gene abundances in Whalers Bay. Furthermore, the results highlighted a significant correlation between the distribution of biosynthetic genes and taxonomic diversity, emphasizing the intricate interplay between microbial taxonomy and their potential for specialized metabolite production.IMPORTANCEThis research on antarctic microbial biosynthetic diversity in Whalers Bay, Deception Island, unveils the hidden potential of extreme environments for natural product discovery. By employing metagenomic techniques, the research highlights the extensive diversity of biosynthetic gene clusters and identifies key microbial phyla, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota, as significant contributors. The correlation between taxonomic diversity and biosynthetic gene distribution underscores the intricate interplay governing specialized metabolite production. These findings are crucial for understanding microbial adaptation in extreme environments and hold significant implications for bioprospecting initiatives. The study opens avenues for discovering novel bioactive compounds with potential applications in medicine and industry, emphasizing the importance of preserving and exploring these polyextreme ecosystems to advance biotechnological and pharmaceutical research.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Wang Y, Zhou Y, Huang Y, et al (2024)

Analyzing the characteristics of respiratory microbiota after the placement of an airway stent for malignant central airway obstruction.

Microbiology spectrum, 12(6):e0347223.

UNLABELLED: Malignant central airway stenosis is treated with airway stent placement, but post-placement microbial characteristics remain unclear. We studied microbial features in 60 patients post-stent placement, focusing on changes during granulation tissue proliferation. Samples were collected before stent (N = 29), after stent on day 3 (N = 20), and after granulation tissue formation (AS-GTF, N = 43). Metagenomic sequencing showed significant respiratory tract microbiota changes with granulation tissue. The microbiota composition, dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, was similar among the groups. At the species level, the AS-GTF group exhibited significant differences, with Peptostreptococcus stomatis and Achromobacter xylosoxidans enriched. Analysis based on tracheoesophageal fistula presence identified Tannerella forsythia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as the main differential species, enriched in the fistula subgroup. Viral and fungal detection showed Human gammaherpesvirus 4 and Candida albicans as the main species, respectively. These findings highlight microbiota changes after stent placement, potentially associated with granulation tissue proliferation, informing stent placement therapy and anti-infective treatment optimization.

IMPORTANCE: Malignant central airway stenosis is a life-threatening condition that can be effectively treated with airway stent placement. However, despite its clinical importance, the microbial characteristics of the respiratory tract following stent insertion remain poorly understood. This study addresses this gap by investigating the microbial features in patients with malignant central airway stenosis after stent placement, with a specific focus on microbial changes during granulation tissue proliferation. The findings reveal significant alterations in the diversity and structure of the respiratory tract microbiota following the placement of malignant central airway stents. Notably, certain bacterial species, including Peptostreptococcus stomatis and Achromobacter xylosoxidans, exhibit distinct patterns in the after-stent granulation tissue formation group. Additionally, the presence of tracheoesophageal fistula further influences the microbial composition. These insights provide valuable references for optimizing stent placement therapy and enhancing clinical anti-infective strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Piton G, Allison SD, Bahram M, et al (2024)

Reply to: Microbial dark matter could add uncertainties to metagenomic trait estimations.

Nature microbiology, 9(6):1431-1433.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Osburn ED, McBride SG, MS Strickland (2024)

Microbial dark matter could add uncertainties to metagenomic trait estimations.

Nature microbiology, 9(6):1427-1430.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Cao Y, Du P, Li Z, et al (2024)

Melatonin promotes the recovery of apple plants after waterlogging by shaping the structure and function of the rhizosphere microbiome.

Plant, cell & environment, 47(7):2614-2630.

The dynamics of the physiological adaptability of plants and the rhizosphere soil environment after waterlogging remain unclear. Here we investigated the mechanisms regulating plant condition and shaping of the rhizosphere microbiome in a pot experiment. In the experiment, we added melatonin to waterlogged plants, which promoted waterlogging relief. The treatment significantly enhanced photosynthesis and the antioxidant capacity of apple plants, and significantly promoted nitrogen (N) utilization efficiency by upregulating genes related to N transport and metabolism. Multiperiod soil microbiome analysis showed the dynamic effects of melatonin on the diversity of the microbial community during waterlogging recovery. Random forest and linear regression analyses were used to screen for potential beneficial bacteria (e.g., Azoarcus, Pseudomonas and Nocardioides) specifically regulated by melatonin and revealed a positive correlation with soil nutrient levels and plant growth. Furthermore, metagenomic analyses revealed the regulatory effects of melatonin on genes involved in N cycling in soil. Melatonin positively contributed to the accumulation of plant dry weight by upregulating the expression of nifD and nifK (N fixation). In summary, melatonin positively regulates physiological functions in plants and the structure and function of the microbial community; it promoted the recovery of apple plants after waterlogging stress.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Chen Y, Dong X, Sun Z, et al (2024)

Potential coupling of microbial methane, nitrogen, and sulphur cycling in the Okinawa Trough cold seep sediments.

Microbiology spectrum, 12(6):e0349023.

The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a back-arc basin with a wide distribution of active cold seep systems. However, our understanding of the metabolic function of microbial communities in the cold seep sediments of the OT remains limited. In this study, we investigated the vertical profiles of functional genes involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur cycling in the cold seep sediments of the OT. Furthermore, we explored the possible coupling mechanisms between these biogeochemical cycles. The study revealed that the majority of genes associated with the nitrogen and sulphur cycles were most abundant in the surface sediment layers. However, only the key genes responsible for sulphur disproportionation (sor), nitrogen fixation (nifDKH), and methane metabolism (mcrABG) were more prevalent within sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ). Significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) were observed between functional genes involved in sulphur oxidation, thiosulphate disproportionation with denitrification, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), as well as between AOM/methanogenesis and nitrogen fixation, and between sulphur disproportionation and AOM. A genome of Filomicrobium (class Alphaproteobacteria) has demonstrated potential in chemoautotrophic activities, particularly in coupling DNRA and denitrification with sulphur oxidation. Additionally, the characterized sulfate reducers such as Syntrophobacterales have been found to be capable of utilizing nitrate as an electron acceptor. The predominant methanogenic/methanotrophic groups in the OT sediments were identified as H2-dependent methylotrophic methanogens (Methanomassiliicoccales and Methanofastidiosales) and ANME-1a. This study offered a thorough understanding of microbial ecosystems in the OT cold seep sediments, emphasizing their contribution to nutrient cycling.IMPORTANCEThe Okinawa Trough (OT) is a back-arc basin formed by extension within the continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu Trench arc system. Cold seeps are widespread in the OT. While some studies have explored microbial communities in OT cold seep sediments, their metabolic potential remains largely unknown. In this study, we used metagenomic analysis to enhance comprehension of the microbial community's role in nutrient cycling and proposed hypotheses on the coupling process and mechanisms involved in biogeochemical cycles. It was revealed that multiple metabolic pathways can be performed by a single organism or microbes that interact with each other to carry out various biogeochemical cycling. This data set provided a genomic road map on microbial nutrient cycling in OT sediment microbial communities.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Ma G, Yan H, Tye KD, et al (2024)

Effect of probiotic administration during pregnancy on the functional diversity of the gut microbiota in healthy pregnant women.

Microbiology spectrum, 12(6):e0041324.

UNLABELLED: Our study aims to investigate the impact of probiotic consumption during pregnancy on gut microbiota functional diversity in healthy pregnant women. Thirty-two pregnant women were randomly assigned to two groups. The probiotic group (PG) consisted of pregnant women who consumed triple viable Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus tablets from the 32nd week of pregnancy until delivery. The functional profiles of the gut microbiota were predicted through high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing results using PICRUSt software and referencing the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. In the gut microbiota of the PG, the genera Blautia and Ruminococcus, as well as the species Subdoligranulum, showed significantly higher relative abundances compared to the control group (CG) (P < 0.05). At Level 1 of the KEGG signaling pathways, there was a significant reduction in the functional genes of the gut microbiota involved in Organismal Systems in the PG (P < 0.05). In Level 2 of the KEGG signaling pathways, there was a significant reduction in the functional genes of the gut microbiota involved in Infectious Disease in the PG (P < 0.05). In Level 3 of the KEGG signaling pathways, the PG exhibited a significant increase in the functional genes of the gut microbiota involved in ABC transporters, Oxidative phosphorylation, Folate biosynthesis, and Biotin metabolism (P < 0.05). The CG showed a significant increase in the functional genes related to Cysteine and methionine metabolism, Vitamin B6 metabolism, Tuberculosis, and Vibrio cholerae pathogenic cycle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that probiotic supplementation during pregnancy has a significant impact on functional metabolism in healthy pregnant women.

IMPORTANCE: Probiotics are considered beneficial to human health. There is limited understanding of how probiotic consumption during pregnancy affects the functional diversity of the gut microbiota. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of probiotic consumption during pregnancy on the functional diversity of the gut microbiota. Our findings suggest that probiotic supplementation during pregnancy has a significant impact on functional metabolism. This could potentially open up new avenues for preventing various pregnancy-related complications. This also provides new insights into the effects of probiotic consumption during pregnancy on the gut microbiota and offers a convenient method for exploring the potential mechanisms underlying the impact of probiotics on the gut microbiota of pregnant women.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Choudhary G, Kumari S, Anu K, et al (2024)

Deciphering the microbial communities of alkaline hot spring in Panamik, Ladakh, India using a high-throughput sequencing approach.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology], 55(2):1465-1476.

Due to their distinctive physicochemical characteristics, hot springs are extremely important. The whole genome metagenomic sequencing technology can be utilized to analyze the diverse microbial community that thrives in this habitat due to the particular selection pressure that prevails there. The current investigation emphasizes on culture-independent metagenomic study of the Panamik hot spring and its nearby areas from Ladakh, India. Based on different diversity indices, sequence analysis of the soil reservoir showed higher species richness and diversity in comparison to water and sediment samples. The mineral content and various physicochemical pameters like temperature, pH had an impact on the composition of the microbial community of the geothermal springs. The phyla Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacter, Firmicutes, and Verrucomicrobia in bacterial domain dominate the thermos-alkaline spring at Panamik in different concentrations. Economically significant microbes from the genera Actinobacter, Thermosynechoccus, Candidatus Solibacter, Chthoniobacter, Synechoccus, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas, were prevalent in hot spring. In the archaeal domain, the most dominant phylum and genera were Euryarchaeota and Thermococcus in all the samples. Further, the most abundant species were Methanosarcina barkeri, Nitrospumilus maritimus and Methanosarcina acetivorans. The present study which only examined one of the several thermal springs present in the Himalayan geothermal area, should be regarded as a preliminary investigation of the microbiota that live in the hot springs on these remote areas. These findings suggest that further investigations should be undertaken to characterize the ecosystems of the Panamik hot spring, which serve as a repository for unidentified microbial lineages.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Cai X, Yi P, Chen X, et al (2024)

Intake of compound probiotics accelerates the construction of immune function and gut microbiome in Holstein calves.

Microbiology spectrum, 12(6):e0190923.

UNLABELLED: Acquired immunity is an important way to construct the intestinal immune barrier in mammals, which is almost dependent on suckling. To develop a new strategy for accelerating the construction of gut microbiome, newborn Holstein calves were continuously fed with 40 mL of compound probiotics (containing Lactobacillus plantarum T-14, Enterococcus faecium T-11, Saccharomyces cerevisiae T-209, and Bacillus licheniformis T-231) per day for 60 days. Through diarrhea rate monitoring, immune index testing, antioxidant capacity detection, and metagenome sequencing, the changes in diarrhea incidence, average daily gain, immune index, and gut microbiome of newborn calves within 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that feeding the compound probiotics reduced the average diarrhea rate of calves by 42.90%, increased the average daily gain by 43.40%, raised the antioxidant indexes of catalase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and Glutathione peroxidase by 22.81%, 6.49%, 8.33%, and 13.67%, respectively, and increased the immune indexes of IgA, IgG, and IgM by 10.44%, 4.85%, and 6.12%, respectively. Moreover, metagenome sequencing data showed that feeding the compound probiotics increased the abundance of beneficial strains (e.g., Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus massionigeriensis) and decreased the abundance of some harmful strains (e.g., Escherichia sp. MOD1-EC5189 and Mycobacterium brisbane) in the gut microbiome of calves, thus contributing to accelerating the construction of healthy gut microbiome in newborn Holstein calves.

IMPORTANCE: The unstable gut microbiome and incomplete intestinal function of newborn calves are important factors for the high incidence of early diarrhea. This study presents an effective strategy to improve the overall immunity and gut microbiome in calves and provides new insights into the application of compound probiotics in mammals.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Yang F, Li Q, X Yin (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of the effects of salinity on microbial community and functional gene diversity in glacial meltwater estuary, Ny-Alesund, Arctic.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology], 55(2):1587-1599.

Due to the inflow of meltwater from the Midre Lovénbreen glacier upstream of Kongsfjorden, the nutrient concentration of Kongsfjorden change from the estuary to the interior of the fjord. Our objective was to explore the changes in bacterial community structure and metabolism-related genes from the estuary to fjord by metagenomic analysis. Our data indicate that glacial meltwater input has altered the physicochemical properties of the fjords, with a significant effect, in particular, on fjords salinity, thus altering the relative abundance of some specific bacterial groups. In addition, we suggest that the salinity of a fjord is an important factor affecting the abundance of genes associated with the nitrogen and sulfur cycles in the fjord. Changes in salinity may affect the relative abundance of microbial populations that carry metabolic genes, thus affecting the relative abundance of genes associated with the nitrogen and sulfur cycles.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Chen L-p, Zhang L-f, Liu S, et al (2024)

Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan decoction ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via modulating the gut microbiota.

Microbiology spectrum, 12(6):e0197923.

UNLABELLED: Numerous studies have supported that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan decoction (LG) has been clinically used to treat NAFLD, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study investigated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of LG in mice with NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HD). An HD-induced NAFLD mice model was established to evaluate the efficacy of LG followed by biochemical and histopathological analysis. Metagenomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics were used to explore the structure and metabolism of the gut microbiota. LG significantly improved hepatic function and decreased lipid droplet accumulation in HD-induced NAFLD mice. LG reversed the structure of the gut microbiota that is damaged by HD and improved intestinal barrier function. Meanwhile, the LG group showed a lower total blood bile acids (BAs) concentration, a shifted BAs composition, and a higher fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration. Furthermore, LG could regulate the hepatic expression of genes associated with the primary BAs biosynthesis pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Our study suggested that LG could ameliorate NAFLD by altering the structure and metabolism of gut microbiota, while BAs and SCFAs are considered possible mediating substances.

IMPORTANCE: Until now, there has still been no study on the gut microbiota and metabolomics of Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan decoction (LG) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse models. Our study is the first to report on the reshaping of the structure and metabolism of the gut microbiota by LG, as well as explore the potential mechanism underlying the improvement of NAFLD. Specifically, our study demonstrates the potential of gut microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and blood bile acids (BAs) as mediators of LG therapy for NAFLD in animal models. Based on the results of transcriptomics, we further verified that LG attenuates NAFLD by restoring the metabolic disorder of BAs via the up-regulation of Fgf15/FXR in the ileum and down-regulation of CYP7A1/FXR in the liver. LG also reduces lipogenesis in NAFLD mice by mediating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, which then contributes to reducing hepatic inflammation and improving intestinal barrier function to treat NAFLD.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Ali R, Chaluvadi SR, Wang X, et al (2024)

Microbiome properties in the root nodules of Prosopis cineraria, a leguminous desert tree.

Microbiology spectrum, 12(6):e0361723.

We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the total microbiome and transcriptionally active microbiome communities in the roots and root nodules of Prosopis cineraria, an important leguminous tree in arid regions of many Asian countries. Mature P. cineraria trees growing in the desert did not exhibit any detected root nodules. However, we observed root nodules on the roots of P. cineraria growing on a desert farm and on young plants growing in a growth chamber, when inoculated with rhizosphere soil, including with rhizosphere soil from near desert tree roots that had no nodules. Compared to nearby soil, non-nodulated roots were enriched with Actinobacteria (e.g., Actinophytocola sp.), whereas root nodules sampled from the desert farm and growth chamber had abundant Alphaproteobacteria (e.g., Ensifer sp.). These nodules yielded many microbes in addition to such nitrogen-fixing bacteria as Ensifer and Sinorhizobium species. Significant differences exist in the composition and abundance of microbial isolates between the nodule surface and the nodule endosphere. Shotgun metagenome analysis of nodule endospheres revealed that the root nodules comprised over 90% bacterial DNA, whereas metatranscriptome analysis showed that the plant produces vastly more transcripts than the microbes in these nodules. Control inoculations demonstrated that four out of six Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, or Ensifer isolates purified from P. cineraria nodules produced nodules in the roots of P. cineraria seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The best nodulation was achieved when seedlings were inoculated with a mixture of those bacterial strains. Though root nodulation could be achieved under water stress conditions, nodule number and nodule biomass increased with copious water availability. .IMPORTANCEMicrobial communities were investigated in roots and root nodules of Prosopis cineraria, a leguminous tree species in arid Asian regions that is responsible for exceptionally important contributions to soil fertility in these dramatically dry locations. Soil removed from regions near nodule-free roots on these mature plants contained an abundance of bacteria with the genetic ability to generate nodules and fix nitrogen but did not normally nodulate in their native rhizosphere environment, suggesting a very different co-evolved relationship than that observed for herbaceous legumes. The relative over-expression of the low-gene-density plant DNA compared to the bacterial DNA in the nodules was also unexpected, indicating a very powerful induction of host genetic contributions within the nodule. Finally, the water dependence of nodulation in inoculated seedlings suggested a possible link between early seedling growth (before a deep root system can be developed) and the early development of nitrogen-fixing capability.