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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Aug 2022 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Gaire TN, Odland C, Zhang B, et al (2022)

The impacts of viral infection and subsequent antimicrobials on the microbiome-resistome of growing pigs.

Microbiome, 10(1):118.

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are used in food-producing animals for purposes of preventing, controlling, and/or treating infections. In swine, a major driver of antimicrobial use is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by a virus that predisposes infected animals to secondary bacterial infections. Numerous antimicrobial protocols are used to treat PRRS, but we have little insight into how these treatment schemes impact antimicrobial resistance (AMR) dynamics within the fecal microbiome of commercial swine. The aim of this study was to determine whether different PRRS-relevant antimicrobial treatment protocols were associated with differences in the fecal microbiome and resistome of growing pigs. To accomplish this, we used a metagenomics approach to characterize and compare the longitudinal wean-to-market resistome and microbiome of pigs challenged with PRRS virus and then exposed to different antimicrobial treatments, and a group of control pigs not challenged with PRRS virus and having minimal antimicrobial exposure. Genomic DNA was extracted from pen-level composite fecal samples from each treatment group and subjected to metagenomic sequencing and microbiome-resistome bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Microbiome-resistome profiles were compared over time and between treatment groups.

RESULTS: Fecal microbiome and resistome compositions both changed significantly over time, with a dramatic and stereotypic shift between weaning and 9 days post-weaning (dpw). Antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) richness and diversity were significantly higher at earlier time points, while microbiome richness and diversity were significantly lower. The post-weaning shift was characterized by transition from a Bacteroides-dominated enterotype to Lactobacillus- and Streptococcus-dominated enterotypes. Both the microbiome and resistome stabilized by 44 dpw, at which point the trajectory of microbiome-resistome maturation began to diverge slightly between the treatment groups, potentially due to physical clustering of the pigs. Challenge with PRRS virus seemed to correspond to the re-appearance of many very rare and low-abundance ARGs within the feces of challenged pigs. Despite very different antimicrobial exposures after challenge with PRRS virus, resistome composition remained largely similar between the treatment groups. Differences in ARG abundance between the groups were mostly driven by temporal changes in abundance that occurred prior to antimicrobial exposures, with the exception of ermG, which increased in the feces of treated pigs, and was significantly more abundant in the feces of these pigs compared to the pigs that did not receive post-PRRS antimicrobials.

CONCLUSIONS: The fecal microbiome-resistome of growing pigs exhibited a stereotypic trajectory driven largely by weaning and physiologic aging of the pigs. Events such as viral illness, antimicrobial exposures, and physical grouping of the pigs exerted significant yet relatively minor influence over this trajectory. Therefore, the AMR profile of market-age pigs is the culmination of the life history of the individual pigs and the populations to which they belong. Disease status alone may be a significant driver of AMR in market-age pigs, and understanding the interaction between disease processes and antimicrobial exposures on the swine microbiome-resistome is crucial to developing effective, robust, and reproducible interventions to control AMR. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Marx V (2022)

Why the ocean virome matters.

Nature methods, 19(8):924-927.

RevDate: 2022-08-02
CmpDate: 2022-08-02

Bay V, Gür S, O Bayraktar (2022)

Plant-derived tormentic acid alters the gut microbiota of the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

Scientific reports, 12(1):13005.

In recent years, phytochemicals have started to attract more attention due to their contribution to health and bioactivity. Microorganisms in the intestines of organisms contribute to the processing, function, and biotransformation of these substances. The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is one of the organisms used for the biotransformation of phytochemicals due to its controlled reproduction and liability to microbial manipulation. In this study, a bioactive compound, tormentic acid (TA), extracted from Sarcopoterium spinosum was used in the silkworm diet, and the alterations of intestinal microbiota of the silkworm were assessed. To do this, silkworms were fed on a diet with various tormentic acid content, and 16S metagenomic analysis was performed to determine the alterations in the gut microbiota profile of these organisms. Diet with different TA content did not cause a change in the bacterial diversity of the samples. A more detailed comparison between different feeding groups indicated increased abundance of bacteria associated with health, i.e., Intestinibacter spp., Flavonifractor spp., Senegalimassilia spp., through the utilization of bioactive substances such as flavonoids. In conclusion, it might be said that using TA as a supplementary product might help ameliorate the infected gut, promote the healthy gut, and relieve the undesirable effects of medicines on the gastrointestinal system.

RevDate: 2022-07-29
CmpDate: 2022-07-29

Tian Y, Rimal B, Gui W, et al (2022)

Early Life Short-Term Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyl 126 in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunction and Microbiota Changes in Adulthood.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(15): pii:ijms23158220.

Early life exposure to environmental pollutants may have long-term consequences and harmful impacts on health later in life. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term impact of early life 3,3',4,4',5-pentacholorobiphenyl (PCB 126) exposure (24 μg/kg body weight for five days) in mice on the host and gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and 1H NMR- and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Induction of Cyp1a1, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-responsive gene, was observed at 6 days and 13 weeks after PCB 126 exposure consistent with the long half-life of PCB 126. Early life, Short-Term PCB 126 exposure resulted in metabolic abnormalities in adulthood including changes in liver amino acid and nucleotide metabolism as well as bile acid metabolism and increased hepatic lipogenesis. Interestingly, early life PCB 126 exposure had a greater impact on bacteria in adulthood at the community structure, metabolic, and functional levels. This study provides evidence for an association between early life environmental pollutant exposure and increased risk of metabolic disorders later in life and suggests the microbiome is a key target of environmental chemical exposure.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Calle-Tobón A, Pérez-Pérez J, Forero-Pineda N, et al (2022)

Local-scale virome depiction in Medellín, Colombia, supports significant differences between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

PloS one, 17(7):e0263143 pii:PONE-D-21-40917.

Aedes spp. comprise the primary group of mosquitoes that transmit arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses to humans, and thus these insects pose a significant burden on public health worldwide. Advancements in next-generation sequencing and metagenomics have expanded our knowledge on the richness of RNA viruses harbored by arthropods such as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Increasing evidence suggests that vector competence can be modified by the microbiome (comprising both bacteriome and virome) of mosquitoes present in endemic zones. Using an RNA-seq-based metataxonomic approach, this study determined the virome structure, Wolbachia presence and mitochondrial diversity of field-caught Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Medellín, Colombia, a municipality with a high incidence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. The two species are sympatric, but their core viromes differed considerably in richness, diversity, and abundance; although the community of viral species identified was large and complex, the viromes were dominated by few virus species. BLAST searches of assembled contigs suggested that at least 17 virus species (16 of which are insect-specific viruses [ISVs]) infect the Ae. aegypti population. Dengue virus 3 was detected in one sample and it was the only pathogenic virus detected. In Ae. albopictus, up to 11 ISVs and one plant virus were detected. Therefore, the virome composition appears to be species-specific. The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia was identified in all Ae. albopictus samples and in some Ae. aegypti samples collected after 2017. The presence of Wolbachia sp. in Ae. aegypti was not related to significant changes in the richness, diversity, or abundance of this mosquito's virome, although it was related to an increase in the abundance of Aedes aegypti To virus 2 (Metaviridae). The mitochondrial diversity of these mosquitoes suggested that the Ae. aegypti population underwent a change that started in the second half of 2017, which coincides with the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in Medellín, indicating that the population of wMel-infected mosquitoes released has introduced new alleles into the wild Ae. aegypti population of Medellín. However, additional studies are required on the dispersal speed and intergenerational stability of wMel in Medellín and nearby areas as well as on the introgression of genetic variants in the native mosquito population.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Cannon JL, Seabolt MH, Xu R, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiome Changes Occurring with Norovirus Infection and Recovery in Infants Enrolled in a Longitudinal Birth Cohort in Leon, Nicaragua.

Viruses, 14(7): pii:v14071395.

Noroviruses are associated with one fifth of diarrheal illnesses globally and are not yet preventable with vaccines. Little is known about the effects of norovirus infection on infant gut microbiome health, which has a demonstrated role in protecting hosts from pathogens and a possible role in oral vaccine performance. In this study, we characterized infant gut microbiome changes occurring with norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and the extent of recovery. Metagenomic sequencing was performed on the stools of five infants participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study conducted in León, Nicaragua. Taxonomic and functional diversities of gut microbiomes were profiled at time points before, during, and after norovirus infection. Initially, the gut microbiomes resembled those of breastfeeding infants, rich in probiotic species. When disturbed by AGE, Gammaproteobacteria dominated, particularly Pseudomonas species. Alpha diversity increased but the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and glycan biosynthesis decreased. After the symptoms subsided, the gut microbiomes rebounded with their taxonomic and functional communities resembling those of the pre-infection microbiomes. In this study, during disruptive norovirus-associated AGE, the gut microbiome was temporarily altered, returning to a pre-infection composition a median of 58 days later. Our study provides new insights for developing probiotic treatments and furthering our understanding of the role that episodes of AGE have in shaping the infant gut microbiome, their long-term outcomes, and implications for oral vaccine effectiveness.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

French RK, Filion A, Niebuhr CN, et al (2022)

Metatranscriptomic Comparison of Viromes in Endemic and Introduced Passerines in New Zealand.

Viruses, 14(7): pii:v14071364.

New Zealand/Aotearoa has many endemic passerine birds vulnerable to emerging infectious diseases. Yet little is known about viruses in passerines, and in some countries, including New Zealand, the virome of wild passerines has been only scarcely researched. Using metatranscriptomic sequencing we characterised the virome of New Zealand endemic and introduced species of passerine. Accordingly, we identified 34 possible avian viruses from cloacal swabs of 12 endemic and introduced bird species not showing signs of disease. These included a novel siadenovirus, iltovirus, and avastrovirus in the Eurasian blackbird (Turdus merula, an introduced species), song thrush (Turdus philomelos, introduced) and silvereye/tauhou (Zosterops lateralis, introduced), respectively. This is the first time novel viruses from these genera have been identified in New Zealand, likely reflecting prior undersampling. It also represents the first identification of an iltovirus and siadenovirus in blackbirds and thrushes globally. These three viruses were only found in introduced species and may pose a risk to endemic species if they were to jump species boundaries, particularly the iltoviruses and siadenoviruses that have a prior history of disease associations. Further virus study and surveillance are needed in New Zealand avifauna, particularly in Turdus populations and endemic species.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Sharon I, Quijada NM, Pasolli E, et al (2022)

The Core Human Microbiome: Does It Exist and How Can We Find It? A Critical Review of the Concept.

Nutrients, 14(14): pii:nu14142872.

The core microbiome, which refers to a set of consistent microbial features across populations, is of major interest in microbiome research and has been addressed by numerous studies. Understanding the core microbiome can help identify elements that lead to dysbiosis, and lead to treatments for microbiome-related health states. However, defining the core microbiome is a complex task at several levels. In this review, we consider the current state of core human microbiome research. We consider the knowledge that has been gained, the factors limiting our ability to achieve a reliable description of the core human microbiome, and the fields most likely to improve that ability. DNA sequencing technologies and the methods for analyzing metagenomics and amplicon data will most likely facilitate higher accuracy and resolution in describing the microbiome. However, more effort should be invested in characterizing the microbiome's interactions with its human host, including the immune system and nutrition. Other components of this holobiontic system should also be emphasized, such as fungi, protists, lower eukaryotes, viruses, and phages. Most importantly, a collaborative effort of experts in microbiology, nutrition, immunology, medicine, systems biology, bioinformatics, and machine learning is probably required to identify the traits of the core human microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Swarthout JM, Fuhrmeister ER, Hamzah L, et al (2022)

Differential Overlap in Human and Animal Fecal Microbiomes and Resistomes in Rural versus Urban Bangladesh.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 88(14):e0075922.

Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear the largest mortality burden of antibiotic-resistant infections. Small-scale animal production and free-roaming domestic animals are common in many LMICs, yet data on zoonotic exchange of gut bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in low-income communities are sparse. Differences between rural and urban communities with regard to population density, antibiotic use, and cohabitation with animals likely influence the frequency of transmission of gut bacterial communities and ARGs between humans and animals. Here, we determined the similarity in gut microbiomes, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and resistomes, using long-read metagenomics, between humans, chickens, and goats in a rural community compared to an urban community in Bangladesh. Gut microbiomes were more similar between humans and chickens in the rural (where cohabitation is more common) than the urban community, but there was no difference for humans and goats in the rural versus the urban community. Human and goat resistomes were more similar in the urban community, and ARG abundance was higher in urban animals than rural animals. We identified substantial overlap of ARG alleles in humans and animals in both settings. Humans and chickens had more overlapping ARG alleles than humans and goats. All fecal hosts from the urban community and rural humans carried ARGs on chromosomal contigs classified as potentially pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridioides difficile, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These findings provide insight into the breadth of ARGs circulating within human and animal populations in a rural compared to urban community in Bangladesh. IMPORTANCE While the development of antibiotic resistance in animal gut microbiomes and subsequent transmission to humans has been demonstrated in intensive farming environments and high-income countries, evidence of zoonotic exchange of antibiotic resistance in LMIC communities is lacking. This research provides genomic evidence of overlap of antibiotic resistance genes between humans and animals, especially in urban communities, and highlights chickens as important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Chicken and human gut microbiomes were more similar in rural Bangladesh, where cohabitation is more common. Incorporation of long-read metagenomics enabled characterization of bacterial hosts of resistance genes, which has not been possible in previous culture-independent studies using only short-read sequencing. These findings highlight the importance of developing strategies for combatting antibiotic resistance that account for chickens being reservoirs of ARGs in community environments, especially in urban areas.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Chitcharoen S, Sivapornnukul P, S Payungporn (2022)

Revolutionized virome research using systems microbiology approaches.

Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 247(13):1135-1147.

Currently, both pathogenic and commensal viruses are continuously being discovered and acknowledged as ubiquitous components of microbial communities. The advancements of systems microbiological approaches have changed the face of virome research. Here, we focus on viral metagenomic approach to study virus community and their interactions with other microbial members as well as their hosts. This review also summarizes challenges, limitations, and benefits of the current virome approaches. Potentially, the studies of virome can be further applied in various biological and clinical fields.

RevDate: 2022-07-27
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Yakimovich KM, LM Quarmby (2022)

A metagenomic study of the bacteria in snow algae microbiomes.

Canadian journal of microbiology, 68(7):507-520.

The bacterial communities found in snow algae blooms have been described in terms of their 16S rRNA gene community profiles, but little information exists on their metabolic potential. Previously, we reported that several bacterial taxa are common across snow algae blooms in the southwestern mountains of the Coast Range in British Columbia, Canada. Here, we further this work by reporting a partial bacterial metagenome from the same snow algal microbiomes. Using shotgun metagenomic data, we constructed metagenomically assembled bacterial genomes (MAGs). Of the total 54 binned MAGs, 28 were bacterial and estimated to be at least 50% complete based on single copy core genes. The 28 MAGs fell into five classes: Actinomycetia, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. All MAGs were assigned to a class, 27 to an order, 25 to a family, 18 to a genus, and none to species. MAGs showed the potential to support algal growth by synthesizing B-vitamins and growth hormones. There was also widespread adaptation to the low oxygen environment of biofilms, including synthesis of high-affinity terminal oxidases and anaerobic pathways for cobalamin synthesis. Also notable were the absence of N2 fixation, and the presence of incomplete denitrification pathways suggestive of NO signalling within the microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-07-27
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Hsu CL, Zhang X, Jiang L, et al (2022)

Intestinal virome in patients with alcohol use disorder and after abstinence.

Hepatology communications, 6(8):2058-2069.

Alcohol use is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, and changes in the microbiome associated with alcohol use contribute to patients' risk for liver disease progression. Less is known about the effects of alcohol use on the intestinal viral microbiome (virome) and interactions between bacteriophages and their target bacteria. We studied changes in the intestinal virome of 62 clinically well-characterized patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) during active alcohol use and after 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence, by extracting virus-like particles and performing metagenomic sequencing. We observed decreased abundance of Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc phages in patients with active AUD when compared with controls, whereas after 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence, patients with AUD demonstrated an increase in the abundance of Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc phages. The intestinal virome signature was also significantly different in patients with AUD with progressive liver disease, with increased abundance of phages targeting Enterobacteria and Lactococcus species phages compared with patients with AUD with nonprogressive liver disease. By performing moderation analyses, we found that progressive liver disease is associated with changes in interactions between some bacteriophages and their respective target bacteria. In summary, active alcohol use and alcohol-associated progressive liver disease are associated with changes in the fecal virome, some of which are partially reversible after a short period of abstinence. Progression of alcohol-associated liver disease is associated with changes in bacteriophage-bacteria interactions.

RevDate: 2022-07-27
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Testerman T, Li Z, Galuppo B, et al (2022)

Insights from shotgun metagenomics into bacterial species and metabolic pathways associated with NAFLD in obese youth.

Hepatology communications, 6(8):1962-1974.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease and is often the precursor for more serious liver conditions such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated in the development of NAFLD, the strong association of obesity with NAFLD and its effect on microbiome structure has made interpreting study outcomes difficult. In the present study, we examined the taxonomic and functional differences between the microbiomes of youth with obesity and with and without NAFLD. Shotgun metagenome sequencing was performed to profile the microbiomes of 36 subjects, half of whom were diagnosed with NAFLD using abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Beta diversity analysis showed community-wide differences between the groups (p = 0.002). Specific taxonomic differences included increased relative abundances of the species Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans (p = 0.042), Romboutsia ilealis (p = 0.046), and Actinomyces sp. ICM47 (p = 0.0009), and a decrease of Bacteroides thetaiotamicron (p = 0.0002), in the NAFLD group as compared with the non-NAFLD group. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes (p < 0.0001) was decreased in the NAFLD group. Functionally, branched-chain amino acid (p = 0.01343) and aromatic amino acid (p = 0.01343) synthesis pathways had increased relative abundances in the NAFLD group along with numerous energy use pathways, including pyruvate fermentation to acetate (p = 0.01318). Conclusion: Community-wide differences were noted based on NAFLD status, and individual bacterial species along with specific metabolic pathways were identified as potential drivers of these differences. The results of the present study support the idea that the NAFLD phenotype displays a differentiated microbial and functional signature from the obesity phenotype.

RevDate: 2022-07-26
CmpDate: 2022-07-26

Hu Y, Satten GA, YJ Hu (2022)

LOCOM: A logistic regression model for testing differential abundance in compositional microbiome data with false discovery rate control.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(30):e2122788119.

Compositional analysis is based on the premise that a relatively small proportion of taxa are differentially abundant, while the ratios of the relative abundances of the remaining taxa remain unchanged. Most existing methods use log-transformed data, but log-transformation of data with pervasive zero counts is problematic, and these methods cannot always control the false discovery rate (FDR). Further, high-throughput microbiome data such as 16S amplicon or metagenomic sequencing are subject to experimental biases that are introduced in every step of the experimental workflow. McLaren et al. [eLife 8, e46923 (2019)] have recently proposed a model for how these biases affect relative abundance data. Motivated by this model, we show that the odds ratios in a logistic regression comparing counts in two taxa are invariant to experimental biases. With this motivation, we propose logistic compositional analysis (LOCOM), a robust logistic regression approach to compositional analysis, that does not require pseudocounts. Inference is based on permutation to account for overdispersion and small sample sizes. Traits can be either binary or continuous, and adjustment for confounders is supported. Our simulations indicate that LOCOM always preserved FDR and had much improved sensitivity over existing methods. In contrast, analysis of composition of microbiomes (ANCOM) and ANCOM with bias correction (ANCOM-BC)/ANOVA-Like Differential Expression tool (ALDEx2) had inflated FDR when the effect sizes were small and large, respectively. Only LOCOM was robust to experimental biases in every situation. The flexibility of our method for a variety of microbiome studies is illustrated by the analysis of data from two microbiome studies. Our R package LOCOM is publicly available.

RevDate: 2022-07-26
CmpDate: 2022-07-26

Guo W, Guo XJ, Xu LN, et al (2022)

Effect of whole-plant corn silage treated with lignocellulose-degrading bacteria on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen microflora in sheep.

Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 16(7):100576.

Lignification of cellulose limits the effective utilisation of fibre in plant cell wall. Lignocellulose-degrading bacteria secrete enzymes that decompose lignin and have the potential to improve fibre digestibility. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of whole-plant corn silage inoculated with lignocellulose-degrading bacteria on the growth performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen microbiome in sheep. Twelve 2-month-old male hybrid sheep (Dorper ♂ × small-tailed Han ♀) were randomly assigned into two dietary groups (n = 6): (1) untreated whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) and (2) WPCS inoculated with bacterial inoculant (WPCSB). Whole-plant corn silage inoculated with bacterial inoculant had higher in situ NDF digestibility than WPCS. Sheep in the WPCSB group had significantly higher average daily gain, DM intake, and feed conversion rate than those in the WPCS group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, higher volatile fatty acid concentrations were detected in WPCSB rumen samples, leading to lower ruminal pH (P < 0.05). The WPCSB group showed higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and lower abundance of Firmicutes in the rumen microbiome than the WPCS group (P < 0.05). Multiple differential genera were identified, with Prevotella being the most dominant genus and more abundant in WPCSB samples. Moreover, the enriched functional attributes, including those associated with glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and citrate cycle, were more actively expressed in the WPCSB samples than in the WPCS samples. Additionally, certain glucoside hydrolases that hydrolyse the side chains of hemicelluloses and pectins were also actively expressed in the WPCSB microbiome. These findings suggested that WPCSB increased NDF digestibility in three ways: (1) by increasing the relative abundance of the most abundant genera, (2) by recruiting more functional features involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and citrate cycle pathways, and (3) by increasing the relative abundance and/or expression activity of the glucoside hydrolases involved in hemicellulose and pectin metabolism. Our findings provide novel insights into the microbial mechanisms underlying improvement in the growth performance of sheep/ruminants. However, the biological mechanisms cannot be fully elucidated using only metagenomics tools; therefore, a combined multi-omics approach will be used in subsequent studies.

RevDate: 2022-07-26
CmpDate: 2022-07-26

Ghazi AR, Münch PC, Chen D, et al (2022)

Strain Identification and Quantitative Analysis in Microbial Communities.

Journal of molecular biology, 434(15):167582.

Microbiology has long studied the ways in which subtle genetic differences between closely related microbial strains can have profound impacts on their phenotypes and those of their surrounding environments and communities. Despite the growth in high-throughput microbial community profiling, however, such strain-level differences remain challenging to detect. Once detected, few quantitative approaches have been well-validated for associating strain variants from microbial communities with phenotypes of interest, such as medication usage, treatment efficacy, host environment, or health. First, the term "strain" itself is not used consistently when defining a highly-resolved taxonomic or genomic unit from within a microbial community. Second, computational methods for identifying such strains directly from shotgun metagenomics are difficult, with several possible reference- and assembly-based approaches available, each with different sensitivity/specificity tradeoffs. Finally, statistical challenges exist in using any of the resulting strain profiles for downstream analyses, which can include strain tracking, phylogenetic analysis, or genetic association studies. We provide an in depth discussion of recently available computational tools that can be applied for this task, as well as statistical models and gaps in performing and interpreting any of these three main types of studies using strain-resolved shotgun metagenomic profiling of microbial communities.

RevDate: 2022-07-25
CmpDate: 2022-07-25

Jiang Q, Lin L, Xie F, et al (2022)

Metagenomic insights into the microbe-mediated B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis in the gastrointestinal microbiome of ruminants.

Microbiome, 10(1):109.

BACKGROUND: B and K2 vitamins, essential nutrients in host metabolism, can be synthesized by the rumen microbiome in ruminants and subsequently absorbed by the host. However, the B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis by the whole gastrointestinal microbiome and their abundances in different dietary strategies are largely unknown. Here, we reanalyzed our previous large-scale metagenomic data on the gastrointestinal microbiome of seven ruminant species and recruited 17,425 nonredundant microbial genomes from published datasets to gain a comprehensive understanding of the microbe-mediated B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis in ruminants.

RESULTS: We identified 1,135,807 genes and 167 enzymes involved in B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis. Our results indicated that the total abundances of B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis were dominant in the stomach microbiome, while the biosynthesis of thiamine, niacin, and pyridoxine was more abundant in the large intestine. By examining 17,425 nonredundant genomes, we identified 2366 high-quality genomes that were predicted to de novo biosynthesize at least one vitamin. Genomic analysis suggested that only 2.7% of these genomes can synthesize five or more vitamins, and nearly half of genomes can synthesize only one vitamin. Moreover, we found that most genomes possessed cobalamin transporters or cobalamin-dependent enzymes to consume cobalamin directly, and only a few microbial genomes possessed a complete cobalamin biosynthesis pathway. Based on these genomic data, we examined the effect of the high-grain (HG) diet on the vitamin biosynthesis of the rumen microbiome of dairy cattle. We revealed that most vitamin biosynthesis was enhanced in the HG group, while only cobalamin synthesis was inhibited in the HG group, indicating that dietary fiber is vital for cobalamin biosynthesis.

CONCLUSIONS: We primarily provided a gene catalog and 2366 microbial genomes involved in B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis in ruminants. Our findings demonstrated the regional heterogeneity and dietary effect of vitamin biosynthetic potential in the ruminant gastrointestinal microbiome and interpreted the biosynthesis mechanisms of these microbes and their physiological adaptability. This study expands our understanding of microbe-mediated vitamin biosynthesis in ruminants and may provide novel targets for manipulation to improve the production of these essential vitamins. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2022-07-25
CmpDate: 2022-07-25

Szabo RE, Pontrelli S, Grilli J, et al (2022)

Historical contingencies and phage induction diversify bacterioplankton communities at the microscale.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(30):e2117748119.

In many natural environments, microorganisms decompose microscale resource patches made of complex organic matter. The growth and collapse of populations on these resource patches unfold within spatial ranges of a few hundred micrometers or less, making such microscale ecosystems hotspots of heterotrophic metabolism. Despite the potential importance of patch-level dynamics for the large-scale functioning of heterotrophic microbial communities, we have not yet been able to delineate the ecological processes that control natural populations at the microscale. Here, we address this challenge by characterizing the natural marine communities that assembled on over 1,000 individual microscale particles of chitin, the most abundant marine polysaccharide. Using low-template shotgun metagenomics and imaging, we find significant variation in microscale community composition despite the similarity in initial species pools across replicates. Chitin-degrading taxa that were rare in seawater established large populations on a subset of particles, resulting in a wide range of predicted chitinolytic abilities and biomass at the level of individual particles. We show, through a mathematical model, that this variability can be attributed to stochastic colonization and historical contingencies affecting the tempo of growth on particles. We find evidence that one biological process leading to such noisy growth across particles is differential predation by temperate bacteriophages of chitin-degrading strains, the keystone members of the community. Thus, initial stochasticity in assembly states on individual particles, amplified through ecological interactions, may have significant consequences for the diversity and functionality of systems of microscale patches.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Chen F, Fan B, Wang C, et al (2022)

Weak electro-stimulation promotes microbial uranium removal: Efficacy and mechanisms.

Journal of hazardous materials, 439:129622 pii:S0304-3894(22)01415-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Removal and recovery of uranium from uranium-mine wastewater is beneficial to environmental protection and resource preservation. Reduction of soluble hexavalent U (U(VI)) to insoluble tetravalent uranium (U(IV)) by microbes is a plausible approach for this purpose, but its practical implementation has long been restricted by its intrinsic drawbacks. The electro-stimulated microbial process offers promise in overcoming these drawbacks. However, its applicability in real wastewater has not been evaluated yet, and its U(VI) removal mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that introducing a weak electro-stimulation considerably boosted microbial U(VI) removal activities in both synthetic and real wastewater. The U(VI) removal has proceeded via U(VI)-to-U(IV) reduction in the biocathode, and the electrochemical characterization demonstrates the crucial role of the electroactive biofilm. Microbial community analysis shows that the broad biodiversity of the cathode biofilm is capable of U(VI) reduction, and the molecular ecological network indicates that synthetic metabolisms among electroactive and metal-reducing bacteria play major roles in electro-microbial-mediated uranium removal. Metagenomic sequencing elucidates that the electro-stimulated U(VI) bioreduction may proceed via e-pili, extracellular electron shuttles, periplasmic and outer membrane cytochrome, and thioredoxin pathways. These findings reveal the potential and mechanism of the electro-stimulated U(VI) bioreduction system for the treatment of U-bearing wastewater.

RevDate: 2022-07-22
CmpDate: 2022-07-22

Killinger BJ, Whidbey C, Sadler NC, et al (2022)

Activity-based protein profiling identifies alternating activation of enzymes involved in the bifidobacterium shunt pathway or mucin degradation in the gut microbiome response to soluble dietary fiber.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1):60.

While deprivation of dietary fiber has been associated with adverse health outcomes, investigations concerning the effect of dietary fiber on the gut microbiome have been largely limited to compositional sequence-based analyses or utilize a defined microbiota not native to the host. To extend understanding of the microbiome's functional response to dietary fiber deprivation beyond correlative evidence from sequence-based analyses, approaches capable of measuring functional enzymatic activity are needed. In this study, we use an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach to identify sugar metabolizing and transport proteins in native mouse gut microbiomes that respond with differential activity to the deprivation or supplementation of the soluble dietary fibers inulin and pectin. We found that the microbiome of mice subjected to a high fiber diet high in soluble fiber had increased functional activity of multiple proteins, including glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, and sugar transport proteins from diverse taxa. The results point to an increase in activity of the Bifidobacterium shunt metabolic pathway in the microbiome of mice fed high fiber diets. In those subjected to a low fiber diet, we identified a shift from the degradation of dietary fibers to that of gut mucins, in particular by the recently isolated taxon "Musculibacterium intestinale", which experienced dramatic growth in response to fiber deprivation. When combined with metabolomics and shotgun metagenomics analyses, our findings provide a functional investigation of dietary fiber metabolism in the gut microbiome and demonstrates the power of a combined ABPP-multiomics approach for characterizing the response of the gut microbiome to perturbations.

RevDate: 2022-07-19
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Conteville LC, ACP Vicente (2022)

A plasmid network from the gut microbiome of semi-isolated human groups reveals unique and shared metabolic and virulence traits.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12102.

The plasmids in gut microbiomes have the potential to contribute to the microbiome community, as well as human health and physiology. Nevertheless, this niche remains poorly explored. In general, most microbiome studies focus on urban-industrialized groups, but here, we studied semi-isolated groups from South America and Africa, which would represent a link between ancestral and modern human groups. Based on open metagenomic data, we characterized the set of plasmids, including their genes and functions, from the gut microbiome of the Hadza, Matses, Tunapuco, and Yanomami, semi-isolated groups with a hunter, gather or subsistence lifestyle. Unique plasmid clusters and gene functions for each human group were identified. Moreover, a dozen plasmid clusters circulating in other niches worldwide are shared by these distinct groups. In addition, novel and unique plasmids harboring resistance (encompassing six antibiotic classes and multiple metals) and virulence (as type VI secretion systems) genes were identified. Functional analysis revealed pathways commonly associated with urban-industrialized groups, such as lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis that was characterized in the Hadza gut plasmids. These results demonstrate the richness of plasmids in semi-isolated human groups' gut microbiome, which represents an important source of information with biotechnological/pharmaceutical potential, but also on the spread of resistance/virulence genes to semi-isolated groups.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-07-20

Shang J, Tang X, Guo R, et al (2022)

Accurate identification of bacteriophages from metagenomic data using Transformer.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 23(4):.

MOTIVATION: Bacteriophages are viruses infecting bacteria. Being key players in microbial communities, they can regulate the composition/function of microbiome by infecting their bacterial hosts and mediating gene transfer. Recently, metagenomic sequencing, which can sequence all genetic materials from various microbiome, has become a popular means for new phage discovery. However, accurate and comprehensive detection of phages from the metagenomic data remains difficult. High diversity/abundance, and limited reference genomes pose major challenges for recruiting phage fragments from metagenomic data. Existing alignment-based or learning-based models have either low recall or precision on metagenomic data.

RESULTS: In this work, we adopt the state-of-the-art language model, Transformer, to conduct contextual embedding for phage contigs. By constructing a protein-cluster vocabulary, we can feed both the protein composition and the proteins' positions from each contig into the Transformer. The Transformer can learn the protein organization and associations using the self-attention mechanism and predicts the label for test contigs. We rigorously tested our developed tool named PhaMer on multiple datasets with increasing difficulty, including quality RefSeq genomes, short contigs, simulated metagenomic data, mock metagenomic data and the public IMG/VR dataset. All the experimental results show that PhaMer outperforms the state-of-the-art tools. In the real metagenomic data experiment, PhaMer improves the F1-score of phage detection by 27%.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-07-21

Satjarak A, Graham LE, Trest MT, et al (2022)

Nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemically important features of Atacama Desert giant horsetail plant microbiomes inferred from metagenomic contig analysis.

Annals of botany, 130(1):65-75.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Canyon stream beds in the hyperarid Atacama Desert surprisingly harbour magnificent groves of endemic giant horsetail wetland plants, Equisetum xylochaetum. Our previous metagenomic study of eukaryotes closely associated with this plant indicated that the microbiome included prokaryotes that might likewise influence host success and environment. We explored this possibility by using the metagenomic sequence to characterize prokaryote taxa and functional genes present in the microbiome of E. xylochaetum sampled from remote sites differing in the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. We focused on biogeochemical functions known to be important in wetland ecosystems.

METHODS: To ensure that analyses were conducted on microbes most closely associated with plants, we extracted DNA from well-washed plant organs whose microbial biofilms were revealed with scanning electron microscopy. To assess the benefits of longer sequences for taxonomic and gene classifications, results of analyses performed using contigs were compared with those obtained with unassembled reads. We employed methods widely used to estimate genomic coverage of single taxa for genomic analysis to infer relative abundances of taxa and functional genes.

KEY RESULTS: Key functional bacterial genera (e.g. Hydrogenophaga, Sulfuritalea and Rhodoferax) inferred from taxonomic and functional gene analysis of contigs - but not unassembled reads - to occur on surfaces of (or within) plants at relatively high abundance (>50× genomic coverage) indicated roles in nitrogen, sulfur and other mineral cycling processes. Comparison between sites revealed impacts on biogeochemical functions, e.g. reduced levels of the nifH gene marker under disturbance. Vanadium nitrogenases were more important than molybdenum nitrogenases, indicated by both functional genes and taxa such as Rhodomicrobium and Phaeospirillum inferred from contigs but not unassembled reads.

CONCLUSIONS: Our contig-based metagenomic analyses revealed that microbes performing key wetland biogeochemical functions occur as tightly adherent biofilms on the plant body, not just in water or sediments, and that disturbance reduces such functions, providing arguments for conservation efforts.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-07-21

Levy-Booth DJ, Navas LE, Fetherolf MM, et al (2022)

Discovery of lignin-transforming bacteria and enzymes in thermophilic environments using stable isotope probing.

The ISME journal, 16(8):1944-1956.

Characterizing microorganisms and enzymes involved in lignin biodegradation in thermal ecosystems can identify thermostable biocatalysts. We integrated stable isotope probing (SIP), genome-resolved metagenomics, and enzyme characterization to investigate the degradation of high-molecular weight, 13C-ring-labeled synthetic lignin by microbial communities from moderately thermophilic hot spring sediment (52 °C) and a woody "hog fuel" pile (53 and 62 °C zones). 13C-Lignin degradation was monitored using IR-GCMS of 13CO2, and isotopic enrichment of DNA was measured with UHLPC-MS/MS. Assembly of 42 metagenomic libraries (72 Gb) yielded 344 contig bins, from which 125 draft genomes were produced. Fourteen genomes were significantly enriched with 13C from lignin, including genomes of Actinomycetes (Thermoleophilaceae, Solirubrobacteraceae, Rubrobacter sp.), Firmicutes (Kyrpidia sp., Alicyclobacillus sp.) and Gammaproteobacteria (Steroidobacteraceae). We employed multiple approaches to screen genomes for genes encoding putative ligninases and pathways for aromatic compound degradation. Our analysis identified several novel laccase-like multi-copper oxidase (LMCO) genes in 13C-enriched genomes. One of these LMCOs was heterologously expressed and shown to oxidize lignin model compounds and minimally transformed lignin. This study elucidated bacterial lignin depolymerization and mineralization in thermal ecosystems, establishing new possibilities for the efficient valorization of lignin at elevated temperature.

RevDate: 2022-07-20
CmpDate: 2022-07-20

Moreno-Sanz B, Montes MT, Manzano S, et al (2022)

Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Assess the Effect of Two Probiotics on the Preterms' Gut Microbiota.

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 74(6):e153-e159.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new probiotic strain combination, Ligilactobacillus salivarius subsp infantis PS11603 and Bifidobacterium longum PS10402, on gut bacterial colonization of preterm infants.

METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in preterm infants from 28 weeks + 0days to 30 weeks + 6days of gestation. Thirty preterm infants were randomly selected after birth to receive either probiotics or placebo. Stool samples were collected before product intake and then sequentially during the first weeks of their admission. Classical microbiological, metagenomics and multiplex immunological analyses were performed to assess the bacterial and immune profile of the samples.

RESULTS: Twenty-seven infants completed the study (14 vs 13, probiotic and placebo groups). A higher number of participants were colonized by Lactobacilli in the probiotic group than in the placebo group (93% vs 46%; P = 0.013). Similar results were obtained when analysing bifidobacterial colonization (100% vs 69%; P = 0.041). Earlier colonization was observed in the probiotics group versus the placebo group, specifically 5 weeks for Lactobacillus and 1 week for Bifidobacterium. Although no effect was observed in the faecal immunological profile, a decreasing trend could be observed in Th17 response during the first week of probiotic treatment. None of the adverse events (AEs) registered were related to product intake.

CONCLUSION: Probiotic supplementation with L salivarius PS11603 and B longum subsp. infantis PS10402 enhanced an earlier colonization of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in preterm infants' guts in 5 and 1 week, respectively. A higher number of infants were colonized by Lactobacilli with the probiotics' intake at the end of the study.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Abuzahrah SS, Baeshen MN, Alkaladi A, et al (2022)

Exploring the taxonomic and functional diversity of marine benthic micro-Eukaryotes along the Red Sea coast of Jeddah city.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 29(8):103342.

Backgrounds: Diverse marine habitats along Jeddah's Red Sea coast support rich biodiversity. Few studies have been done on its diverse communities, especially its microbial counterparts. Metagenomic analysis of marine benthic micro-eukaryotic communities was performed for the first time on the Red Sea coast of Jeddah. This research looks into their community structure and metabolic potential.

Methods: Next-generation sequencing was used to examine the micro-eukaryotic communities of seven sedimentary soil samples from four Jeddah coast locations. After isolating DNA from seven benthic sedimentary soil samples, the 18S rDNA V4 regions were amplified and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq. It was also verified using an Agilent Technologies 2100 Bioanalyzer with a DNA 1000 chip (Agilent Technologies, Fisher Scientific). A standard curve of fluorescence readings generated by qPCR quantification using the Illumina library was achieved using the GS FLX library. Metagenomic data analysis was used to evaluate the microbial communities' biochemical and enzymatic allocations in studied samples.

Results: Blast analysis showed that the top ten phyla were Annelida, Eukaryota, Diatomea, Porifera, Phragmoplastophyta, Arthropoda, Dinoflagellata, Xenacoelomorpha Nematoda, and uncultured. Annelida was also found in the highest percentage (93%), in the sample M followed by Porifera (64%), the most abundant in the control sample then Eukaryotes (61%), Phragmatoplastophyta (55%), Arthropoda, and Diatomea (the least common) (32%). community diversity analysis: using Shannon and inverse Simpson indices showed sediment composition to be effective. Also, PICRUST2 indicated that the most abundant pathways were pyruvate fermentation to isobutanol, pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotide phosphorylation, adenosine ribonucleotide de novo biosynthesis, guanosine ribonucleotide de novo biosynthesis, NAD salvage pathway I, the super pathway of glyoxylate bypass and aerobic respiration I (cytochrome c).

Conclusion: Results showed that high throughput metagenomics could reveal species diversity and estimate gene profiles. Environmental factors appear to be more important than geographic variation in determining the structure of these microbial communities. This study provides the first report of marine benthic micro-eukaryotic communities found on the Red Sea coast of Jeddah and will serve as a good platform for future research.

RevDate: 2022-07-18
CmpDate: 2022-07-18

Cheng JE, Su P, Zhang ZH, et al (2022)

Metagenomic analysis of the dynamical conversion of photosynthetic bacterial communities in different crop fields over different growth periods.

PloS one, 17(7):e0262517.

Photosynthetic bacteria are beneficial to plants, but knowledge of photosynthetic bacterial community dynamics in field crops during different growth stages is scarce. The factors controlling the changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community during plant growth require further investigation. In this study, 35 microbial community samples were collected from the seedling, flowering, and mature stages of tomato, cucumber, and soybean plants. 35 microbial community samples were assessed using Illumina sequencing of the photosynthetic reaction center subunit M (pufM) gene. The results revealed significant alpha diversity and community structure differences among the three crops at the different growth stages. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum, and Methylobacterium, Roseateles, and Thiorhodococcus were the dominant genera at all growth stages. PCoA revealed clear differences in the structure of the microbial populations isolated from leaf samples collected from different crops at different growth stages. In addition, a dissimilarity test revealed significant differences in the photosynthetic bacterial community among crops and growth stages (P<0.05). The photosynthetic bacterial communities changed during crop growth. OTUs assigned to Methylobacterium were present in varying abundances among different sample types, which we speculated was related to the function of different Methylobacterium species in promoting plant growth development and enhancing plant photosynthetic efficiency. In conclusion, the dynamics observed in this study provide new research ideas for the detailed assessments of the relationship between photosynthetic bacteria and different growth stages of plants.

RevDate: 2022-07-15
CmpDate: 2022-07-15

Zeng Q, Zhao M, Wang F, et al (2022)

Integrating Choline and Specific Intestinal Microbiota to Classify Type 2 Diabetes in Adults: A Machine Learning Based Metagenomics Study.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:906310.

Emerging evidence is examining the precise role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of intestinal microbiota and microbiota-generated metabolites with glucose metabolism systematically in a large cross-sectional study in China. 1160 subjects were divided into three groups based on their glucose level: normal glucose group (n=504), prediabetes group (n=394), and diabetes group (n=262). Plasma concentrations of TMAO, choline, betaine, and carnitine were measured. Intestinal microbiota was measured in a subgroup of 161 controls, 144 prediabetes and 56 diabetes by using metagenomics sequencing. We identified that plasma choline [Per SD of log-transformed change: odds ratio 1.36 (95 confidence interval 1.16, 1.58)] was positively, while betaine [0.77 (0.66, 0.89)] was negatively associated with diabetes, independently of TMAO. Individuals with diabetes could be accurately distinguished from controls by integrating data on choline, and certain microbiota species, as well as traditional risk factors (AUC=0.971). KOs associated with the carbohydrate metabolism pathway were enhanced in individuals with high choline level. The functional shift in the carbohydrate metabolism pathway in high choline group was driven by species Ruminococcus lactaris, Coprococcus catus and Prevotella copri. We demonstrated the potential ability for classifying diabetic population by choline and specific species, and provided a novel insight of choline metabolism linking the microbiota to impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes.

RevDate: 2022-07-15
CmpDate: 2022-07-15

Xiao M, Lu B, Ding R, et al (2022)

Metatranscriptomic analysis of host response and vaginal microbiome of patients with severe COVID-19.

Science China. Life sciences, 65(7):1473-1476.

RevDate: 2022-07-14
CmpDate: 2022-07-14

Rubiola S, Macori G, Civera T, et al (2022)

Comparison Between Full-Length 16S rRNA Metabarcoding and Whole Metagenome Sequencing Suggests the Use of Either Is Suitable for Large-Scale Microbiome Studies.

Foodborne pathogens and disease, 19(7):495-504.

Since the number of studies of the microbial communities related to food and food-associated matrices almost completely reliant on next-generation sequencing techniques is rising, evaluations of these high-throughput methods are critical. Currently, the two most used sequencing methods to profile the microbiota of complex samples, including food and food-related matrices, are the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metabarcoding and the whole metagenome sequencing (WMS), both of which are powerful tools for the monitoring of foodborne pathogens and the investigation of the microbiome. Herein, the microbial profiles of 20 bulk tank milk filters from different dairy farms were investigated using both the full-length 16S (FL-16S) rRNA metabarcoding, a third-generation sequencing method whose application in food and food-related matrices is yet in its infancy, and the WMS, to evaluate the correlation and the reliability of these two methods to explore the microbiome of food-related matrices. Metabarcoding and metagenomic data were generated on a MinION platform (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and on a Illumina NovaSeq 6000 platform, respectively. Our findings support the greater resolution of WMS in terms of both increased detection of bacterial taxa and enhanced detection of diversity; in contrast, FL-16S rRNA metabarcoding has proven to be a promising, less expensive, and more practical tool to profile most abundant taxa. The significant correlation of the two technologies both in terms of taxa diversity and richness, together with the similar profiles defined for both highly abundant taxa and core microbiomes, including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, and Escherichia genera, highlights the possible application of both methods for different purposes. This study allowed the first comparison of FL-16S rRNA sequencing and WMS to investigate the microbial composition of a food-related matrix, pointing out the advantageous use of FL-16S rRNA to identify dominant microorganisms and the superior power of WMS for the taxonomic detection of low abundant microorganisms and to perform functional analysis of the microbial communities.

RevDate: 2022-07-14
CmpDate: 2022-07-14

Muthappa DM, Lamba S, Sivasankaran SK, et al (2022)

16S rRNA Based Profiling of Bacterial Communities Colonizing Bakery-Production Environments.

Foodborne pathogens and disease, 19(7):485-494.

Conventional culture-based techniques are largely inadequate in elucidating the microbiota contained in an environment, due to low recovery within a complex bacterial community. This limitation has been mitigated by the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches thereby facilitating the identification and classification of both culturable and uncultivable microorganisms. Amplicon targeted NGS methods, such as 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and shotgun metagenomics, are increasingly being applied in various settings such as in food production environments to decipher the microbial consortium therein. Even though multiple food matrices/food production environments have been studied, the low-moisture environment associated with bakery food production remains to be investigated. To address this knowledge gap, in this study, we investigated the microbiome associated with two bakery production sites (designated as A and B) located in Ireland using 16S rRNA-amplicon-based sequencing. Amplicons corresponding to a hypervariable region contained within the 16S rRNA gene were amplified from DNA samples purified from environmental swabs and ingredients collected at both sites at various stages (preparation, production, postproduction, and storage) across the bakery production chain, over three seasons (winter, spring, and summer). These amplicons were sequenced, and data were analyzed using the mothur pipeline and visualized using MicrobiomeAnalyst and a series of R packages. The top seven bacterial phyla identified at both sites were composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Patescibacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. In addition, the phyla Tenericutes (Mycoplasmatota) and Acidobacteria were observed only in samples taken at site B. Different bacterial compositions were identified at each stage of production. These same bacteria were also found to be present in the final processed food suggesting the influence of the environment on the food matrix. This study is the first demonstration of the utility of 16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing to describe the microbiota associated with bakery processing environments.

RevDate: 2022-07-14
CmpDate: 2022-07-14

Lee SA, Kim M, Esterhuizen M, et al (2022)

An acceleration of carotenoid production and growth of Haematococcus lacustris induced by host-microbiota network interaction.

Microbiological research, 262:127097.

Haematococcus lacustris is a chlamydomonadalean with high biotechnological interest owing to its capacity to produce astaxanthin, a valuable secondary carotenoid with extraordinary antioxidation properties. However, its prolonged growth has limited its utility commercially. Thus, rapid growth to attain high densities of H. lacustris cells optimally producing astaxanthin is an essential biotechnological target to facilitate profitable commercialisation. Our study focused on characterising the bacterial communities associated with the alga's phycosphere by metagenomics. Subsequently, we altered the bacterial consortia in combined co-culture with key beneficial bacteria to optimise the growth of H. lacustris. The algal biomass increased by up to 2.1-fold in co-cultures, leading to a 1.6-fold increase in the astaxanthin yield. This study attempted to significantly improve the H. lacustris growth rate and biomass yield via Next-Generation Sequencing analysis and phycosphere bacterial augmentation, highlighting the possibility to overcome the hurdles associated with astaxanthin production by H. lacustris at a commercial scale.

RevDate: 2022-07-14
CmpDate: 2022-07-14

Shaffer JP, Carpenter CS, Martino C, et al (2022)

A comparison of six DNA extraction protocols for 16S, ITS and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities.

BioTechniques, 73(1):34-46.

Microbial communities contain a broad phylogenetic diversity of organisms; however, the majority of methods center on describing bacteria and archaea. Fungi are important symbionts in many ecosystems and are potentially important members of the human microbiome, beyond those that can cause disease. To expand our analysis of microbial communities to include data from the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, five candidate DNA extraction kits were compared against our standardized protocol for describing bacteria and archaea using 16S rRNA gene amplicon- and shotgun metagenomics sequencing. The results are presented considering a diverse panel of host-associated and environmental sample types and comparing the cost, processing time, well-to-well contamination, DNA yield, limit of detection and microbial community composition among protocols. Across all criteria, the MagMAX Microbiome kit was found to perform best. The PowerSoil Pro kit performed comparably but with increased cost per sample and overall processing time. The Zymo MagBead, NucleoMag Food and Norgen Stool kits were included.

RevDate: 2022-07-13
CmpDate: 2022-07-13

Garfias-Gallegos D, Zirión-Martínez C, Bustos-Díaz ED, et al (2022)

Metagenomics Bioinformatic Pipeline.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2512:153-179.

Microbial communities' taxonomic and functional diversity has been broadly studied since sequencing technologies enabled faster and cheaper data obtainment. Nevertheless, the programming skills needed and the amount of software available may be overwhelming to someone trying to analyze these data. Here, we present a comprehensive and straightforward pipeline that takes shotgun metagenomics data through the needed steps to obtain valuable results. The raw data goes through a quality control process, metagenomic assembly, binning (the obtention of single genomes from a metagenome), taxonomic assignment, and taxonomic diversity analysis and visualization.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Tremblay ÉD, GJ Bilodeau (2022)

Biomonitoring of Fungal and Oomycete Plant Pathogens by Using Metabarcoding.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2536:309-346.

Fungal and oomycete plant pathogens are responsible for the devastation of various ecosystems such as forest and crop species worldwide. In an effort to protect such natural resources for food, lumber, etc., early detection of non-indigenous phytopathogenic fungi in new areas is a key approach in managing threats at their source of introduction. A workflow was developed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS), more specifically metabarcoding, a method for rapid and higher throughput species screening near high-risk areas, and over larger geographical spaces. Biomonitoring of fungal and oomycete entities of plant pathogens (e.g., airborne spores) regained from environmental samples and their processing by metabarcoding is thoroughly described here. The amplicon-based approach goes from DNA and sequencing library preparation using custom-designed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fusion primers that target the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) from fungi and oomycetes and extends to multiplex HTS with the Ion Torrent platform. In addition, a brief and simplified overview of the bioinformatics analysis pipeline and other available tools required to process amplicon sequences is also included. The raw data obtained and processed enable users to select a bioinformatics pipeline in order to directly perform biodiversity, presence/absence, geographical distribution, and abundance analyses through the tools suggested, which allows for accelerated identification of phytopathogens of interest.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Vettraino AM, N Luchi (2022)

A Rapid Method for Extracting High-Quality DNA from Soils.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2536:103-107.

Metagenomics offers the possibility to study the microbial community of soils at large scale, allowing the characterization also of unculturable microorganisms. Availability of high-quality DNA is a prerequisite of this approach. However, since soils have highly heterogeneous physicochemical properties, several parameters need to be considered for the development of the best molecular practices. A method for isolation of high-molecular-weight and good-quality metagenomic DNA from different soil samples is described here. The protocol combines physical and chemical strategies to ensure efficient cell lysis and precipitation of humic impurities-free DNA suitable for downstream processing for metagenomics study.

RevDate: 2022-07-12
CmpDate: 2022-07-12

Sabater C, Calvete-Torre I, Ruiz L, et al (2022)

Arabinoxylan and Pectin Metabolism in Crohn's Disease Microbiota: An In Silico Study.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(13): pii:ijms23137093.

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disorder including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD). Gut dysbiosis is often associated with CD, and metagenomics allows a better understanding of the microbial communities involved. The objective of this study was to reconstruct in silico carbohydrate metabolic capabilities from metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) obtained from healthy and CD individuals. This computational method was developed as a mean to aid rationally designed prebiotic interventions to rebalance CD dysbiosis, with a focus on metabolism of emergent prebiotics derived from arabinoxylan and pectin. Up to 1196 and 1577 MAGs were recovered from CD and healthy people, respectively. MAGs of Akkermansia muciniphila, Barnesiella viscericola DSM 18177 and Paraprevotella xylaniphila YIT 11841 showed a wide range of unique and specific enzymes acting on arabinoxylan and pectin. These glycosidases were also found in MAGs recovered from CD patients. Interestingly, these arabinoxylan and pectin degraders are predicted to exhibit metabolic interactions with other gut microbes reduced in CD. Thus, administration of arabinoxylan and pectin may ameliorate dysbiosis in CD by promoting species with key metabolic functions, capable of cross-feeding other beneficial species. These computational methods may be of special interest for the rational design of prebiotic ingredients targeting at CD.

RevDate: 2022-07-12
CmpDate: 2022-07-12

Edwards A, Soares A, Debbonaire A, et al (2022)

Before you go: a packing list for portable DNA sequencing of microbiomes and metagenomes.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 168(7):.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Jeffery NW, Lehnert SJ, Kess T, et al (2022)

Application of Omics Tools in Designing and Monitoring Marine Protected Areas For a Sustainable Blue Economy.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:886494 pii:886494.

A key component of the global blue economy strategy is the sustainable extraction of marine resources and conservation of marine environments through networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). Connectivity and representativity are essential factors that underlie successful implementation of MPA networks, which can safeguard biological diversity and ecosystem function, and ultimately support the blue economy strategy by balancing ocean use with conservation. New "big data" omics approaches, including genomics and transcriptomics, are becoming essential tools for the development and maintenance of MPA networks. Current molecular omics techniques, including population-scale genome sequencing, have direct applications for assessing population connectivity and for evaluating how genetic variation is represented within and among MPAs. Effective baseline characterization and long-term, scalable, and comprehensive monitoring are essential for successful MPA management, and omics approaches hold great promise to characterize the full range of marine life, spanning the microbiome to megafauna across a range of environmental conditions (shallow sea to the deep ocean). Omics tools, such as eDNA metabarcoding can provide a cost-effective basis for biodiversity monitoring in large and remote conservation areas. Here we provide an overview of current omics applications for conservation planning and monitoring, with a focus on metabarcoding, metagenomics, and population genomics. Emerging approaches, including whole-genome sequencing, characterization of genomic architecture, epigenomics, and genomic vulnerability to climate change are also reviewed. We demonstrate that the operationalization of omics tools can enhance the design, monitoring, and management of MPAs and thus will play an important role in a modern and comprehensive blue economy strategy.

RevDate: 2022-07-11
CmpDate: 2022-07-11

Sinha A, Li Y, Mirzaei MK, et al (2022)

Transplantation of bacteriophages from ulcerative colitis patients shifts the gut bacteriome and exacerbates the severity of DSS colitis.

Microbiome, 10(1):105.

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by chronic and debilitating gut inflammation. Altered bacterial communities of the intestine are strongly associated with IBD initiation and progression. The gut virome, which is primarily composed of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages, phages), is thought to be an important factor regulating and shaping microbial communities in the gut. While alterations in the gut virome have been observed in IBD patients, the contribution of these viruses to alterations in the bacterial community and heightened inflammatory responses associated with IBD patients remains largely unknown.

RESULTS: Here, we performed in vivo microbial cross-infection experiments to follow the effects of fecal virus-like particles (VLPs) isolated from UC patients and healthy controls on bacterial diversity and severity of experimental colitis in human microbiota-associated (HMA) mice. Shotgun metagenomics confirmed that several phages were transferred to HMA mice, resulting in treatment-specific alterations in the gut virome. VLPs from healthy and UC patients also shifted gut bacterial diversity of these mice, an effect that was amplified during experimental colitis. VLPs isolated from UC patients specifically altered the relative abundance of several bacterial taxa previously implicated in IBD progression. Additionally, UC VLP administration heightened colitis severity in HMA mice, as indicated by shortened colon length and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, this effect was dependent on intact VLPs.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings build on recent literature indicating that phages are dynamic regulators of bacterial communities in the gut and implicate the intestinal virome in modulating intestinal inflammation and disease. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-07-11
CmpDate: 2022-07-11

Han W, Tang H, Y Ye (2022)

Locality-Sensitive Hashing-Based k-Mer Clustering for Identification of Differential Microbial Markers Related to Host Phenotype.

Journal of computational biology : a journal of computational molecular cell biology, 29(7):738-751.

Microbial organisms play important roles in many aspects of human health and diseases. Encouraged by the numerous studies that show the association between microbiomes and human diseases, computational and machine learning methods have been recently developed to generate and utilize microbiome features for prediction of host phenotypes such as disease versus healthy cancer immunotherapy responder versus nonresponder. We have previously developed a subtractive assembly approach, which focuses on extraction and assembly of differential reads from metagenomic data sets that are likely sampled from differential genomes or genes between two groups of microbiome data sets (e.g., healthy vs. disease). In this article, we further improved our subtractive assembly approach by utilizing groups of k-mers with similar abundance profiles across multiple samples. We implemented a locality-sensitive hashing (LSH)-enabled approach (called kmerLSHSA) to group billions of k-mers into k-mer coabundance groups (kCAGs), which were subsequently used for the retrieval of differential kCAGs for subtractive assembly. Testing of the kmerLSHSA approach on simulated data sets and real microbiome data sets showed that, compared with the conventional approach that utilizes all genes, our approach can quickly identify differential genes that can be used for building promising predictive models for microbiome-based host phenotype prediction. We also discussed other potential applications of LSH-enabled clustering of k-mers according to their abundance profiles across multiple microbiome samples.

RevDate: 2022-07-09

Xu AA, Kennedy LK, Hoffman K, et al (2022)

Dietary Fatty Acid Intake and the Colonic Gut Microbiota in Humans.

Nutrients, 14(13): pii:nu14132722.

A high-fat diet has been associated with systemic diseases in humans and alterations in gut microbiota in animal studies. However, the influence of dietary fatty acid intake on gut microbiota in humans has not been well studied. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the association between intake of total fatty acids (TFAs), saturated fatty acids (SFAs), trans fatty acids (TrFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), n3-FAs, and n6-FAs, and the community composition and structure of the adherent colonic gut microbiota. We obtained 97 colonic biopsies from 34 participants with endoscopically normal colons. Microbial DNA was used to sequence the 16S rRNA V4 region. The DADA2 and SILVA database were used for amplicon sequence variant assignment. Dietary data were collected using the Block food frequency questionnaire. The biodiversity and the relative abundance of the bacterial taxa by higher vs. lower fat intake were compared using the Mann-Whitney test followed by multivariable negative binomial regression model. False discovery rate-adjusted p-values (q value) < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. The beta diversity of gut bacteria differed significantly by intake of all types of fatty acids. The relative abundance of Sutterella was significantly higher with higher intake of TFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and n6-FAs. The relative abundance of Tyzzerella and Fusobacterium was significantly higher with higher intake of SFAs. Tyzzerella was also higher with higher intake of TrFA. These observations were confirmed by multivariate analyses. Dietary fat intake was associated with bacterial composition and structure. Sutterella, Fusobacterium, and Tyzzerella were associated with fatty acid intake.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Palmer M, Sutcliffe I, Venter SN, et al (2022)

It is time for a new type of type to facilitate naming the microbial world.

New microbes and new infections, 47:100991 pii:S2052-2975(22)00043-9.

Since January 1, 2001, the only acceptable nomenclatural type for species under the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) has been pure cultures. Here, we argue that this requirement is discordant with the more inclusive nature of nomenclatural types accepted under other codes of nomenclature and posit that the unique rigidity of the ICNP has failed to serve the broad research community and has stifled progress. This case is based on the axiom that many archaea and bacteria are interdependent in nature and therefore difficult, if not impossible, to grow, preserve, and distribute as pure cultures. As such, a large proportion of Earth's biodiversity cannot be named under the current system, which limits our ability to communicate about microbial diversity within and beyond the microbiology research community. Genome sequence data are now encouraged for valid publication of new taxa in microbial systematics journals, and metagenome-assembled genomes and single cell-amplified genomes are being generated rapidly from every biome on Earth. Thus, genome sequences are available for both cultivated and uncultivated microorganisms and can readily serve as a new category of nomenclatural type, allowing for a unified nomenclature for all archaea and bacteria, whether or not they are available as pure cultures. Ideally this would be under a single code of nomenclature but, as we review here, the newly established SeqCode will operate in parallel with the ICNP as a first step toward this goal.

RevDate: 2022-07-08
CmpDate: 2022-07-08

Sumithra TG, Sharma SRK, Gayathri S, et al (2022)

Comparative evaluation of fish larval preservation methods on microbiome profiles to aid in metagenomics research.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 106(12):4719-4735.

Applications of microbiome research through metagenomics promise to generate microbiome manipulation strategies for improved larval survival in aquaculture. However, existing lacunae on the effects of sample preservation methods in metagenome profiles hinder the successful application of this technique. In this context, four preservation methods were scrutinized to identify reliable methods for fish larval microbiome research. The results showed that a total of ten metagenomics metrics, including DNA yield, taxonomic and functional microbiome profiles, and diversity measures, were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by the preservation method. Activity ranking based on the performance and reproducibility showed that three methods, namely immediate direct freezing, room temperature preservation in absolute ethanol, and preservation at - 20 °C in lysis, storage, and transportation buffer, could be recommended for larval microbiome research. Furthermore, as there was an apparent deviation of the microbiome profiles of ethanol preserved samples at room temperature, the other methods are preferred. Detailed analysis showed that this deviation was due to the bias towards Vibrionales and Rhodobacterales. The microbial taxa responsible for the dissimilarity across different methods were identified. Altogether, the paper sheds light on the preservation protocols of fish larval microbiome research for the first time. The results can help in cross-comparison of future and past larval microbiome studies. Furthermore, this is the first report on the activity ranking of preservation methods based on metagenomics metrics. Apart from methodological perspectives, the paper provides for the first time certain insights into larval microbial profiles of Rachycentron canadum, a potential marine aquaculture species. KEY POINTS: • First report on effects of preservation methods on fish larval microbiome profiles. • First report on activity ranking of preservation methods based on metagenomics metrics. • Storage methods influenced DNA yield, taxonomic and functional microbiome profiles.

RevDate: 2022-07-06

Kanukollu S, Remus R, Rücker AM, et al (2022)

Methanol utilizers of the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of a common grass and forb host species.

Environmental microbiome, 17(1):35.

BACKGROUND: Managed grasslands are global sources of atmospheric methanol, which is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere and promotes oxidative capacity for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone depletion. The phyllosphere is a favoured habitat of plant-colonizing methanol-utilizing bacteria. These bacteria also occur in the rhizosphere, but their relevance for methanol consumption and ecosystem fluxes is unclear. Methanol utilizers of the plant-associated microbiota are key for the mitigation of methanol emission through consumption. However, information about grassland plant microbiota members, their biodiversity and metabolic traits, and thus key actors in the global methanol budget is largely lacking.

RESULTS: We investigated the methanol utilization and consumption potentials of two common plant species (Festuca arundinacea and Taraxacum officinale) in a temperate grassland. The selected grassland exhibited methanol formation. The detection of 13C derived from 13C-methanol in 16S rRNA of the plant microbiota by stable isotope probing (SIP) revealed distinct methanol utilizer communities in the phyllosphere, roots and rhizosphere but not between plant host species. The phyllosphere was colonized by members of Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria. In the rhizosphere, 13C-labelled Bacteria were affiliated with Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadates, and Verrucomicrobiae. Less-abundant 13C-labelled Bacteria were affiliated with well-known methylotrophs of Alpha-, Gamma-, and Betaproteobacteria. Additional metagenome analyses of both plants were consistent with the SIP results and revealed Bacteria with methanol dehydrogenases (e.g., MxaF1 and XoxF1-5) of known but also unusual genera (i.e., Methylomirabilis, Methylooceanibacter, Gemmatimonas, Verminephrobacter). 14C-methanol tracing of alive plant material revealed divergent potential methanol consumption rates in both plant species but similarly high rates in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the rhizosphere as an overlooked hotspot for methanol consumption in temperate grasslands. We further identified unusual new but potentially relevant methanol utilizers besides well-known methylotrophs in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere. We did not observe a plant host-specific methanol utilizer community. Our results suggest that our approach using quantitative SIP and metagenomics may be useful in future field studies to link gross methanol consumption rates with the rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-07-07
CmpDate: 2022-07-07

Leviatan S, Shoer S, Rothschild D, et al (2022)

An expanded reference map of the human gut microbiome reveals hundreds of previously unknown species.

Nature communications, 13(1):3863.

The gut is the richest ecosystem of microbes in the human body and has great influence on our health. Despite many efforts, the set of microbes inhabiting this environment is not fully known, limiting our ability to identify microbial content and to research it. In this work, we combine new microbial metagenomic assembled genomes from 51,052 samples, with previously published genomes to produce a curated set of 241,118 genomes. Based on this set, we procure a new and improved human gut microbiome reference set of 3594 high quality species genomes, which successfully matches 83.65% validation samples' reads. This improved reference set contains 310 novel species, including one that exists in 19% of validation samples. Overall, this study provides a gut microbial genome reference set that can serve as a valuable resource for further research.

RevDate: 2022-07-07
CmpDate: 2022-07-07

Kayani MUR, Zaidi SSA, Feng R, et al (2022)

Genome-Resolved Characterization of Structure and Potential Functions of the Zebrafish Stool Microbiome.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:910766.

Zebrafish have been used as a model organism for more than 50 years and are considered an excellent model for studying host-microbiome interactions. However, this largely depends on our understanding of the zebrafish gut microbiome itself. Despite advances in sequencing and data analysis methods, the zebrafish gut microbiome remains highly understudied. This study performed the de novo metagenome assembly and recovery of the metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) through genome binning (and refinement) of the contigs assembled from the zebrafish stool. The results indicate that majority of the MAGs had excellent quality i.e. high completeness (≥90%) and low contamination levels (≤5%). MAGs mainly belong to the taxa that are known to be members of the core zebrafish stool microbiome, including the phylum Proteobacteria, Fusobacteriota, and Actinobacteriota. However, most of the MAGs remained unclassified at the species level and reflected previously unexplored microbial taxa and their potential novelty. These MAGs also contained genes with predicted functions associated with diverse metabolic pathways that included carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism pathways. Lastly, we performed a comparative analysis of Paucibacter MAGs and reference genomes that highlighted the presence of novel Paucibacter species and enriched metabolic potential in the recovered MAGs.

RevDate: 2022-07-07
CmpDate: 2022-07-07

Moussa DG, Ahmad P, Mansour TA, et al (2022)

Current State and Challenges of the Global Outcomes of Dental Caries Research in the Meta-Omics Era.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:887907.

Despite significant healthcare advances in the 21st century, the exact etiology of dental caries remains unsolved. The past two decades have witnessed a tremendous growth in our understanding of dental caries amid the advent of revolutionary omics technologies. Accordingly, a consensus has been reached that dental caries is a community-scale metabolic disorder, and its etiology is beyond a single causative organism. This conclusion was based on a variety of microbiome studies following the flow of information along the central dogma of biology from genomic data to the end products of metabolism. These studies were facilitated by the unprecedented growth of the next- generation sequencing tools and omics techniques, such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, to estimate the community composition of oral microbiome and its functional potential. Furthermore, the rapidly evolving proteomics and metabolomics platforms, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry coupled with chromatography, have enabled precise quantification of the translational outcomes. Although the majority supports 'conserved functional changes' as indicators of dysbiosis, it remains unclear how caries dynamics impact the microbiota functions and vice versa, over the course of disease onset and progression. What compounds the situation is the host-microbiota crosstalk. Genome-wide association studies have been undertaken to elucidate the interaction of host genetic variation with the microbiome. However, these studies are challenged by the complex interaction of host genetics and environmental factors. All these complementary approaches need to be orchestrated to capture the key players in this multifactorial disease. Herein, we critically review the milestones in caries research focusing on the state-of-art singular and integrative omics studies, supplemented with a bibliographic network analysis to address the oral microbiome, the host factors, and their interactions. Additionally, we highlight gaps in the dental literature and shed light on critical future research questions and study designs that could unravel the complexities of dental caries, the most globally widespread disease.

RevDate: 2022-07-07
CmpDate: 2022-07-07

Zhao F, Wang C, Song S, et al (2022)

Intake of a Chicken Protein-Based or Soy Protein-Based Diet Differentially Affects Growth Performance, Absorptive Capacity, and Gut Microbiota in Young Rats.

Molecular nutrition & food research, 66(13):e2101124.

SCOPE: Both plant and animal products provide protein for human demands. However, the effect of protein sources on the physiological responses and the composition and functions of the gut microbiota during the early stage of life have received little attention.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, chicken protein and soy protein are fed to young weaning rats for 14 days based on the AIN-93G diet formulation. The growth performance is recorded, and the morphology of the small intestine is analyzed to estimate the absorptive capacity. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing is applied to analyze the cecal microbiota. The chicken protein-based diet (CHPD) enhances growth performance and absorptive capacity in young rats compared to the soy protein-based diet (SPD). The CHPD maintains higher levels of Lactobacillus species, associated with glutathione synthesis.

CONCLUSION: The CHPD seems favorable for young growing rats in relation to growth performance and absorptive capacity, correlated with changes in the composition and functional potential of the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-07-07
CmpDate: 2022-07-07

Šantl-Temkiv T, Amato P, Casamayor EO, et al (2022)

Microbial ecology of the atmosphere.

FEMS microbiology reviews, 46(4):.

The atmosphere connects habitats across multiple spatial scales via airborne dispersal of microbial cells, propagules and biomolecules. Atmospheric microorganisms have been implicated in a variety of biochemical and biophysical transformations. Here, we review ecological aspects of airborne microorganisms with respect to their dispersal, activity and contribution to climatic processes. Latest studies utilizing metagenomic approaches demonstrate that airborne microbial communities exhibit pronounced biogeography, driven by a combination of biotic and abiotic factors. We quantify distributions and fluxes of microbial cells between surface habitats and the atmosphere and place special emphasis on long-range pathogen dispersal. Recent advances have established that these processes may be relevant for macroecological outcomes in terrestrial and marine habitats. We evaluate the potential biological transformation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds and other substrates by airborne microorganisms and discuss clouds as hotspots of microbial metabolic activity in the atmosphere. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of microorganisms as ice nucleating particles and their relevance for the water cycle via formation of clouds and precipitation. Finally, potential impacts of anthropogenic forcing on the natural atmospheric microbiota via emission of particulate matter, greenhouse gases and microorganisms are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-07-06

Hernández-Guzmán M, Pérez-Hernández V, Gómez-Acata S, et al (2022)

Application of young maize plant residues alters the microbiome composition and its functioning in a soil under conservation agriculture: a metagenomics study.

Archives of microbiology, 204(8):458.

To increase our knowledge on how application of organic material alters soil microbial populations and functionality, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to determine the microbial communities and their potential functionality in an arable soil amended with young maize plants (Zea mays L.) in a laboratory experiment after 3 days. The relative abundance of bacterial and viral groups was strongly affected by organic material application, whereas that of the archaeal, protist and fungal groups was less affected. Cellulose degraders with copiotrophic lifestyle (e.g., Betaproteobacteria) were enriched in the amended soil, whereas the groups with slow growing oligotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolism within Bacteria and Archaea were greater in the unamended than in the amended soil. The soil viral structure and richness were also affected. Caudovirales was the dominant viral family, with members of Siphoviridae enriched in the amended soil and members of Myoviridae in the unamended soil. More specialized metabolic traits related to both the degradation of complex C compounds and denitrification related genes were enriched in the young maize plant amended soil than in the unamended soil, whereas nitrification related genes were enriched in the latter. Copiotrophic life-style bacterial groups were enriched in the amended soil, whereas oligotrophic life-style bacterial groups in the unamended soil. Many bacterial and viral phylotypes were affected by the application of young maize plants, but the number of soil fungi, archaea and protists affected was smaller. Metabolic functionality was affected by the application of organic material as the relative abundance of genes involved in the denitrification process was higher in the maize plant amended soil than in the unamended soil and those involved in the nitrification process was higher in the unamended soil.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-07-06

Chen Y, Xia Z, H Li (2022)

Metagenomic comparison of gut communities between hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

Archives of microbiology, 204(8):450.

The gut microbiota is closely linked to host nutrition, immunity, and health. Here, metagenomic analysis was conducted to elucidate the taxonomic and functional diversity of gut communities from hawksbills and green sea turtles. In terms of diversity and abundance, the gut microbiota of herbivorous green sea turtles showed a higher bacterial diversity and richness than that of hawksbills. Firmicutes dominated in all groups; however, the phylum Proteobacteria showed a higher relative abundance in hawksbills. Several metabolic pathways displayed broad prevalence and high relative abundances in the two sea turtle populations. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) responsible for resistance to glycopeptide and tetracycline were the most abundant in all samples. In ARGs, the subtype macB was the most abundant in the two different sea turtle populations; however, evgS, bcrA, and efrA were more abundant in the green sea turtles, while in the hawksbills, tetT and tetB(P) were more abundant. Among mobile genetic elements (MGEs), the abundance of 16 MGE types showed a significant difference between the two sea turtle populations. MGE type transposase and plasmid were the most abundant in the two sea turtle populations. Additionally, gene functions were enriched in carbohydrate esterases, glycoside hydrolases, and polysaccharide lyases in the green sea turtles, whereas genes related to glycosyltransferases and auxiliary activities were highly abundant in hawksbills. These metagenomic profiles provide further insights into the microbial diversities of the two types of sea turtles and provide valuable information for future conservation efforts.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-07-06

Wei C, Gu W, Tian R, et al (2022)

Comparative analysis of the structure and function of rhizosphere microbiome of the Chinese medicinal herb Alisma in different regions.

Archives of microbiology, 204(7):448.

Rhizoma Alismatis, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, is the dried tuber of Alisma orientale and Alisma A. plantago-aquatica, mainly cultivated in Fujian and Sichuan provinces (China), respectively. Studies have shown that the rhizosphere microbiome is a key factor determining quality of Chinese medicinal plants. Here we applied metagenomics to investigate the rhizosphere microbiome of Alisma in Fujian and Sichuan, focusing on its structure and function and those genes involved in protostane triterpenes biosynthesis. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes. Compared with Fujian, the rhizosphere of Sichuan has a greater α diversity and stronger microbial interactions but significantly lower relative abundance of archaea. Microbes with disease-suppressing functions were more abundant in Sichuan than Fujian, but vice versa for those with IAA-producing functions. Gemmatimonas, Anaeromyxobacter, and Pseudolabrys were the main contributors to the potential functional difference in two regions. Genes related to protostane triterpenes biosynthesis were enriched in Fujian. Steroidobacter, Pseudolabrys, Nevskia, and Nitrospira may contribute to the accumulation of protostane triterpenes in Alisma. This work fills a knowledge gap of Alisma's rhizosphere microbiome, providing a valuable reference for studying its beneficial microorganisms.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-07-06

Bose H, Sahu RP, P Sar (2022)

Impact of arsenic on microbial community structure and their metabolic potential from rice soils of West Bengal, India.

The Science of the total environment, 841:156486.

Paddy soil is a heterogenous ecosystem that harbours diverse microbial communities critical for maintaining ecosystem sustainability and crop yield. Considering the importance of soil in crop production and recent reports on its contamination with arsenic (As) across the South East Asia, its microbial community composition and biogeochemical functions remained inadequately studied. We have characterized the microbial communities of rice soil from eleven paddy fields of As-contaminated sites from West Bengal (India), through metagenomics and amplicon sequencing. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed considerable bacterial diversity [over 0.2 million Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs)] and abundance (upto 1.6 × 107 gene copies/g soil). Existence of a core-microbiome (261 OTUs conserved out of a total 141,172 OTUs) across the samples was noted. Most of the core-microbiome members were also found to represent the abundant taxa of the soil. Statistical analyses suggested that the microbial communities were highly constrained by As, Fe K, N, PO43-, SO42- and organic carbon (OC). Members of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Thaumarchaeota constituted the core-microbiome. Co-occurrence network analysis displayed significant interaction among diverse anaerobic, SO42- and NO3- reducing, cellulose and other organic matter or C1 compound utilizing, fermentative and aerobic/facultative anaerobic bacteria and archaea. Correlation analysis suggested that taxa which were positively linked with soil parameters that maintain soil health and productivity (e.g., N, K, PO43- and Fe) were adversely impacted by increasing As concentration. Shotgun metagenomics highlighted major metabolic pathways controlling the C (3-hydroxypropionate bicycle), N (Denitrification, dissimilatory NO3- reduction to ammonium), and S (assimilatory SO42- reduction and sulfide oxidation) cycling, As homeostasis (methylation and reduction) and plant growth promotion (polyphosphate hydrolysis and auxin biosynthesis). All these major biogeochemical processes were found to be catalyzed by the members of most abundant/core-community.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-07-06

Alma'abadi A, Behzad H, Alarawi M, et al (2022)

Identification of lipolytic enzymes using high-throughput single-cell screening and sorting of a metagenomic library.

New biotechnology, 70:102-108.

The demand for novel, robust microbial biocatalysts for use in industrial and pharmaceutical applications continues to increase rapidly. As a result, there is a need to develop advanced tools and technologies to exploit the vast metabolic potential of unculturable microorganisms found in various environments. Single-cell and functional metagenomics studies can explore the enzymatic potential of entire microbial communities in a given environment without the need to culture the microorganisms. This approach has contributed substantially to the discovery of unique microbial genes for industrial and medical applications. Functional metagenomics involves the extraction of microbial DNA directly from environmental samples, constructing expression libraries comprising the entire microbial genome, and screening of the libraries for the presence of desired phenotypes. In this study, lipolytic enzymes from the Red Sea were targeted. A high-throughput single-cell microfluidic platform combined with a laser-based fluorescent screening bioassay was employed to discover new genes encoding lipolytic enzymes. Analysis of the metagenomic library led to the identification of three microbial genes encoding lipases based on their functional similarity and sequence homology to known lipases. The results demonstrated that microfluidics is a robust technology that can be used for screening in functional metagenomics. The results also indicate that the Red Sea is a promising, under-investigated source of new genes and gene products.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-07-06

Griswold CK (2022)

A dynamic ancestral graph model and GPU-based simulation of a community based on metagenomic sampling.

Molecular ecology resources, 22(6):2429-2442.

In this paper, we present an ancestral graph model of the evolution of a guild in an ecological community. The model is based on a metagenomic sampling design in that a random sample is taken at the community, as opposed the taxon, level and species are discovered by genetic sequencing. The specific implementation of the model envisions an ecological guild that was founded by colonization at some point in the past that then potentially undergoes diversification by natural selection. Within the graph, species emerge and evolve through the diversification process and their densities in the graph are dynamic and governed by both ecological drift and random genetic drift, as well as differential viability. We employ the 3% sequence divergence rule at a marker locus to identify operational taxonomic units. We then explore approaches to see whether there are indirect signals of the diversification process, including population genetic and ecological approaches. In terms of population genetics, we study the joint site frequency spectrum of OTUs, as well its associated statistics. In terms of ecology, we study the species (or OTU) abundance distribution. For both, we observe deviations from neutrality, which indicates that there may be signals of diversifying selection in metagenomic studies under certain conditions. The model is available as a GPU-based computer program in C/C++ and using OpenCL, with the long-term goal of adding functionality iteratively to model large-scale eco-evolutionary processes for metagenomic data.

RevDate: 2022-07-05

Schmidt A, Schneider C, Decker P, et al (2022)

Shotgun metagenomics of soil invertebrate communities reflects taxonomy, biomass, and reference genome properties.

Ecology and evolution, 12(6):e8991 pii:ECE38991.

Metagenomics - shotgun sequencing of all DNA fragments from a community DNA extract - is routinely used to describe the composition, structure, and function of microorganism communities. Advances in DNA sequencing and the availability of genome databases increasingly allow the use of shotgun metagenomics on eukaryotic communities. Metagenomics offers major advances in the recovery of biomass relationships in a sample, in comparison to taxonomic marker gene-based approaches (metabarcoding). However, little is known about the factors which influence metagenomics data from eukaryotic communities, such as differences among organism groups, the properties of reference genomes, and genome assemblies.We evaluated how shotgun metagenomics records composition and biomass in artificial soil invertebrate communities at different sequencing efforts. We generated mock communities of controlled biomass ratios from 28 species from all major soil mesofauna groups: mites, springtails, nematodes, tardigrades, and potworms. We shotgun sequenced these communities and taxonomically assigned them with a database of over 270 soil invertebrate genomes.We recovered over 95% of the species, and observed relatively high false-positive detection rates. We found strong differences in reads assigned to different taxa, with some groups (e.g., springtails) consistently attracting more hits than others (e.g., enchytraeids). Original biomass could be predicted from read counts after considering these taxon-specific differences. Species with larger genomes, and with more complete assemblies, consistently attracted more reads than species with smaller genomes. The GC content of the genome assemblies had no effect on the biomass-read relationships. Results were similar among different sequencing efforts.The results show considerable differences in taxon recovery and taxon specificity of biomass recovery from metagenomic sequence data. The properties of reference genomes and genome assemblies also influence biomass recovery, and they should be considered in metagenomic studies of eukaryotes. We show that low- and high-sequencing efforts yield similar results, suggesting high cost-efficiency of metagenomics for eukaryotic communities. We provide a brief roadmap for investigating factors which influence metagenomics-based eukaryotic community reconstructions. Understanding these factors is timely as accessibility of DNA sequencing and momentum for reference genomes projects show a future where the taxonomic assignment of DNA from any community sample becomes a reality.

RevDate: 2022-07-05
CmpDate: 2022-07-04

Horne RG, Freedman SB, Johnson-Henry KC, et al (2022)

Intestinal Microbial Composition of Children in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Probiotics to Treat Acute Gastroenteritis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:883163.

Compositional analysis of the intestinal microbiome in pre-schoolers is understudied. Effects of probiotics on the gut microbiota were evaluated in children under 4-years-old presenting to an emergency department with acute gastroenteritis. Included were 70 study participants (n=32 placebo, n=38 probiotics) with stool specimens at baseline (day 0), day 5, and after a washout period (day 28). Microbiota composition and deduced functions were profiled using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and predictive metagenomics, respectively. Probiotics were detected at day 5 of administration but otherwise had no discernable effects, whereas detection of bacterial infection (P<0.001) and participant age (P<0.001) had the largest effects on microbiota composition, microbial diversity, and deduced bacterial functions. Participants under 1 year had lower bacterial diversity than older aged pre-schoolers; compositional changes of individual bacterial taxa were associated with maturation of the gut microbiota. Advances in age were associated with differences in gut microbiota composition and deduced microbial functions, which have the potential to impact health later in life.

Clinical Trial Registration:, identifier: NCT01853124.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Jing H, Xiao X, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

Composition and Ecological Roles of the Core Microbiome along the Abyssal-Hadal Transition Zone Sediments of the Mariana Trench.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(3):e0198821.

The unique geological features of hadal trenches are known to influence both the structure and ecological function of microbial communities. It is also well known that heterotrophs and chemoautotrophs dominate the hadal and abyssal pelagic zones, respectively. Here, a metagenomic investigation was conducted on sediment samples obtained from the abyssal-hadal transition zone in the Mariana Trench to gain a better understanding of the general diversity and potential function of the core microbiome in this zone. A high level of cosmopolitanism existed in the core microbiome referred from a high community similarity among different stations. Niche differentiation along the fine-scale of different sediment layers was observed, especially for major archaeal groups, largely due to sediment depth and the source of organic matter. A prevalence of nitrogen biogeochemical cycles driven by various nitrifying groups with the capability of dark carbon fixation in the abyssal-hadal biosphere was also demonstrated. The predominance of heterotrophic over chemolithoautotrophic pathways in this transition zone was found, and a high abundance of genes related to respiration and carbon fixation (i.e., the intact Calvin and rTCA cycles) were detected as well, which might reflect the intensive microbial activities known to occur in this deep biosphere. The presence of those metabolic processes and associated microbes were reflected by functional and genetic markers generated from the metagenomic data in the current study. However, their roles and contributions to the nitrogen/carbon biogeochemical cycles and flux in the abyssal-hadal transition zone still need further analysis. IMPORTANCE The Mariana Trench is the deepest oceanic region on earth, its microbial ecological exploration has become feasible with the rapid progress of submersible and metagenomic sequencing. We investigated the community compositions and metabolic functions of the core microbiome along the abyssal-hadal transition zone of the Mariana Trench, although most studies by far were focused on the pelagic zone. We found a predominance of heterotrophic groups and related metabolic pathways, which were closely associated with nitrogen biogeochemical cycles driven by various nitrifying groups with the capability of dark carbon fixation.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Tong X, Yu X, Du Y, et al (2022)

Peripheral Blood Microbiome Analysis via Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Reveals the Complexity of Circulating Microbial Cell-Free DNA.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(3):e0041422.

While circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is becoming a powerful marker for noninvasive identification of infectious pathogens in liquid biopsy specimens, a microbial cfDNA baseline in healthy individuals is urgently needed for the proper interpretation of microbial cfDNA sequencing results in clinical metagenomics. Because noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) shares many similarities with the sequencing protocol of metagenomics, we utilized the standard low-pass whole-genome-sequencing-based NIPT to establish a microbial cfDNA baseline in healthy people. Sequencing data from a total of 107,763 peripheral blood samples of healthy pregnant women undergoing NIPT screening were retrospectively collected and reanalyzed for microbiome DNA screening. It was found that more than 95% of exogenous cfDNA was from bacteria, 3% from eukaryotes, and 0.4% from viruses, indicating the gut/environment origins of many microorganisms. Overall and regional abundance patterns were well illustrated, with huge regional diversity and complexity, and unique interspecies and symbiotic relationships were observed for TORCH organisms (Toxoplasma gondii, others [Treponema pallidum {causing syphilis}, hepatitis B virus {HBV}, and human parvovirus B19 {HPV-B19}], rubella virus, cytomegalovirus [CMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) and another common virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). To sum up, our study revealed the complexity of the baseline circulating microbial cfDNA and showed that microbial cfDNA sequencing results need to be interpreted in a more comprehensive manner. IMPORTANCE While circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been becoming a powerful marker for noninvasive identification of infectious pathogens in liquid biopsy specimens, a baseline for microbial cfDNA in healthy individuals is urgently needed for the proper interpretation of microbial cfDNA sequencing results in clinical metagenomics. Standard low-pass whole-genome-sequencing-based NIPT shares many similarities with the sequencing protocol for metagenomics and could provide a microbial cfDNA baseline in healthy people; thus, a reference cfDNA data set of the human microbiome was established with sequencing data from a total of 107,763 peripheral blood samples of healthy pregnant women undergoing NIPT screening. Our study revealed the complexity of circulating microbial cfDNA and indicated that microbial cfDNA sequencing results need to be interpreted in a more comprehensive manner, especially with regard to geographic patterns and coexistence networks.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Zhang Z, Nie S, Sang Y, et al (2022)

Effects of Spartina alterniflora Invasion on Nitrogen Fixation and Phosphorus Solubilization in a Subtropical Marine Mangrove Ecosystem.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(3):e0068221.

Nitrogen fixation (NF) and phosphorus solubilization (PS) play a key role in maintaining the stability of mangrove ecosystems. In China, the invasion of Spartina alterniflora has brought a serious threat to the mangrove ecosystem. However, systematic research on NF and PS in mangrove sediments has not been conducted, and limited studies have focused on the response of NF and PS to S. alterniflora invasion, particularly at different sediment depths. In the present study, shotgun metagenomics and quantitative PCR were used to study the 0- to 100-cm sediment profile of the mangrove ecosystem in the Beibu Gulf of China. Results showed that the PS potential of mangrove sediments was primarily caused by enzymes encoded by phoA, phoD, ppx, ppa, and gcd genes. S. alterniflora changed environmental factors, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon, and enhanced the potential of NF and PS in sediments. Moreover, most microorganisms involved in NF or PS (NFOPSMs) responded positively to the invasion of S. alterniflora. Cd, available iron, and salinity were the key environmental factors that affected the distribution of NF and PS genes (NFPSGs) and NFOPSMs. A strong coupling effect was observed between NF and PS in the mangrove ecosystem. S. alterniflora invasion enhanced the coupling of NF and PS and the interaction of microorganisms involved in NF and PS (NFAPSM), thereby promoting the turnover of NP and improving sediment quality. Finally, 108 metagenome-assembled genomes involved in NF or PS were reconstructed to further evaluate NFOPSMs. IMPORTANCE This study revealed the efficient nutrient cycling mechanism of mangroves. Positive coupling effects were observed in sediment quality, NF and PS processes, and NFOPSMs with the invasion of S. alterniflora. This research contributed to the understanding of the effects of S. alterniflora invasion on the subtropical mangrove ecosystem and provided theoretical guidance for mangrove protection, restoration, and soil management. Additionally, novel NFOPSMs provided a reference for the development of marine biological fertilizers.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Devi P, Maurya R, Mehta P, et al (2022)

Increased Abundance of Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in Upper Airway Transcriptionally Active Microbiome of COVID-19 Mortality Patients Indicates Role of Co-Infections in Disease Severity and Outcome.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(3):e0231121.

The modulators of severe COVID-19 have emerged as the most intriguing features of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. This is especially true as we are encountering variants of concern (VOC) with increased transmissibility and vaccination breakthroughs. Microbial co-infections are being investigated as one of the crucial factors for exacerbation of disease severity and complications of COVID-19. A key question remains whether early transcriptionally active microbial signature/s in COVID-19 patients can provide a window for future disease severity susceptibility and outcome? Using complementary metagenomics sequencing approaches, respiratory virus oligo panel (RVOP) and Holo-seq, our study highlights the possible functional role of nasopharyngeal early resident transcriptionally active microbes in modulating disease severity, within recovered patients with sub-phenotypes (mild, moderate, severe) and mortality. The integrative analysis combines patients' clinical parameters, SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic analysis, microbial differential composition, and their functional role. The clinical sub-phenotypes analysis led to the identification of transcriptionally active bacterial species associated with disease severity. We found significant transcript abundance of Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in the mortality, Leptotrichia buccalis in the severe, Veillonella parvula in the moderate, and Actinomyces meyeri and Halomonas sp. in the mild COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the metabolic pathways, distinguishing the microbial functional signatures between the clinical sub-phenotypes, were also identified. We report a plausible mechanism wherein the increased transcriptionally active bacterial isolates might contribute to enhanced inflammatory response and co-infections that could modulate the disease severity in these groups. Current study provides an opportunity for potentially using these bacterial species for screening and identifying COVID-19 patient sub-groups with severe disease outcome and priority medical care. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is invariably a disease of diverse clinical manifestation, with multiple facets involved in modulating the progression and outcome. In this regard, we investigated the role of transcriptionally active microbial co-infections as possible modulators of disease pathology in hospital admitted SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Specifically, can there be early nasopharyngeal microbial signatures indicative of prospective disease severity? Based on disease severity symptoms, the patients were segregated into clinical sub-phenotypes: mild, moderate, severe (recovered), and mortality. We identified significant presence of transcriptionally active isolates, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in the mortality patients. Importantly, the bacterial species might contribute toward enhancing the inflammatory responses as well as reported to be resistant to common antibiotic therapy, which together hold potential to alter the disease severity and outcome.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Hu C, Beyda ND, KW Garey (2022)

A Vancomycin HPLC Assay for Use in Gut Microbiome Research.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(3):e0168821.

The human microbiome project has revolutionized our understanding of the interaction between commensal microbes and human health. By far, the biggest perturbation of the microbiome involves use of broad-spectrum antibiotics excreted in the gut. Thus, pharmacodynamics of microbiome changes in relation to drug exposure pharmacokinetics is an emerging field. However, reproducibility studies are necessary to develop the field. A simple and fast high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC) method was validated for quantitative fecal vancomycin analysis. Reproducibility of results were tested based on sample storage time, homogeneity of antibiotic within stool, and concentration consistency after lyophilization. The HPLC method enabled the complete elution of vancomycin within ~4.2 min on the reversed-phase C18 column under the isocratic elution mode, with excellent recovery (85% to 110%) over a 4-log, quantitative range (0.4-100 μg/mL). Relative standard derivations (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day results ranged from 0.4% to 5.4%. Using sample stool aliquots of various weights consistently demonstrated similar vancomycin concentrations (mean RSD: 6%; range: 2-16%). After correcting for water concentrations, vancomycin concentrations obtained after lyophilization were similar to the concentrations obtained from the original samples (RSD less than 10%). These methodologies establish sample condition standards for a quantitative HPLC to enable vancomycin pharmacokinetic studies with the human microbiome. IMPORTANCE Research on antibiotic effect on the gut microbiome is an emerging field with standardization of research methods needed. In this study, a simple and fast high-performance liquid chromatography method was validated for quantitative fecal vancomycin analysis. Reproducibility of results were tested to standardize storage time, homogeneity of antibiotic within stool, and concentration consistency after lyophilization. These methodologies establish sample condition standards for a quantitative HPLC to enable vancomycin pharmacokinetic studies with the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Rubin IMC, Mollerup S, Broholm C, et al (2022)

No Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on Eradication of Colonization by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium or Microbiome Diversity in Hospitalized Adult Patients.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(3):e0234821.

The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a 4-week supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in eliminating the gastrointestinal carrier state of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) in hospitalized adults. The primary outcome of the study was the number of patients with cleared VREfm colonization after the 4-week intervention. Secondary outcomes were clearance of VREfm colonization at weeks 8, 16, and 24, number of VREfm infections (isolated from nonintestinal foci), and changes in fecal microbiome diversity after the intervention. The trial was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in hospitalized adult VREfm carriers. Patients were enrolled and randomized to receive 60 billion CFU of LGG daily or placebo for 4 weeks. For a subgroup of patients, rectal swabs for VREfm were collected also at 8, 16, and 24 weeks and analyzed using shotgun metagenomics. Patients ingesting a minimum of 50% of the probiotic during the 4-week intervention were included in subsequent outcome analyses (48 of 81 patients). Twelve of 21 patients in the LGG group (57%) compared to 15 of 27 patients in the placebo group (56%) cleared their VREfm carriage. Eighteen patients completed the entire 24-week intervention with the same minimum compliancy. Of these, almost 90% in both groups cleared their VREfm carriage. We found a statistically significant difference between VREfm clearers and nonclearers regarding metronidazole and vancomycin usage as well as length of hospitalization after inclusion. The microbiome analyses revealed no significant difference in alpha diversity between the LGG and the placebo group. Beta diversity differed between the groups and the different time points. This study did not show an effect of LGG in eradication of VREfm after a 4-week intervention. IMPORTANCE Whereas other studies exploring the effect of L. rhamnosus in clearing VREfm from the intestine included children and adults, with a wider age range, our study consisted of a geriatric patient cohort. The natural clearance of VREfm in this study was almost 60% after 4 weeks, thus much higher than described previously. Also, this study characterizes the microbiome of VREfm patients in detail. This article showed no effect of the probiotic L. rhamnosus in clearing VREfm from the intestine of patients.

RevDate: 2022-07-01
CmpDate: 2022-07-01

Verbanic S, Deacon JM, IA Chen (2022)

The Chronic Wound Phageome: Phage Diversity and Associations with Wounds and Healing Outcomes.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(3):e0277721.

Two leading impediments to chronic wound healing are polymicrobial infection and biofilm formation. Recent studies have characterized the bacterial fraction of these microbiomes and have begun to elucidate compositional correlations to healing outcomes. However, the factors that drive compositional shifts are still being uncovered. The virome may play an important role in shaping bacterial community structure and function. Previous work on the skin virome determined that it was dominated by bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria. To characterize the virome, we enrolled 20 chronic wound patients presenting at an outpatient wound care clinic in a microbiome survey, collecting swab samples from healthy skin and chronic wounds (diabetic, venous, arterial, or pressure) before and after a single, sharp debridement procedure. We investigated the virome using a virus-like particle enrichment procedure, shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and a k-mer-based, reference-dependent taxonomic classification method. Taxonomic composition, diversity, and associations with covariates are presented. We find that the wound virome is highly diverse, with many phages targeting known pathogens, and may influence bacterial community composition and functionality in ways that impact healing outcomes. IMPORTANCE Chronic wounds are an increasing medical burden. These wounds are known to be rich in microbial content, including both bacteria and bacterial viruses (phages). The viruses may play an important role in shaping bacterial community structure and function. We analyzed the virome and bacterial composition of 20 patients with chronic wounds. The viruses found in wounds are highly diverse compared to normal skin, unlike the bacterial composition, where diversity is decreased. These data represent an initial look at this relatively understudied component of the chronic wound microbiome and may help inform future phage-based interventions.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Urbaniak C, Morrison MD, Thissen JB, et al (2022)

Microbial Tracking-2, a metagenomics analysis of bacteria and fungi onboard the International Space Station.

Microbiome, 10(1):100.

BACKGROUND: The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique and complex built environment with the ISS surface microbiome originating from crew and cargo or from life support recirculation in an almost entirely closed system. The Microbial Tracking 1 (MT-1) project was the first ISS environmental surface study to report on the metagenome profiles without using whole-genome amplification. The study surveyed the microbial communities from eight surfaces over a 14-month period. The Microbial Tracking 2 (MT-2) project aimed to continue the work of MT-1, sampling an additional four flights from the same locations, over another 14 months.

METHODS: Eight surfaces across the ISS were sampled with sterile wipes and processed upon return to Earth. DNA extracted from the processed samples (and controls) were treated with propidium monoazide (PMA) to detect intact/viable cells or left untreated and to detect the total DNA population (free DNA/compromised cells/intact cells/viable cells). DNA extracted from PMA-treated and untreated samples were analyzed using shotgun metagenomics. Samples were cultured for bacteria and fungi to supplement the above results.

RESULTS: Staphylococcus sp. and Malassezia sp. were the most represented bacterial and fungal species, respectively, on the ISS. Overall, the ISS surface microbiome was dominated by organisms associated with the human skin. Multi-dimensional scaling and differential abundance analysis showed significant temporal changes in the microbial population but no spatial differences. The ISS antimicrobial resistance gene profiles were however more stable over time, with no differences over the 5-year span of the MT-1 and MT-2 studies. Twenty-nine antimicrobial resistance genes were detected across all samples, with macrolide/lincosamide/streptogramin resistance being the most widespread. Metagenomic assembled genomes were reconstructed from the dataset, resulting in 82 MAGs. Functional assessment of the collective MAGs showed a propensity for amino acid utilization over carbohydrate metabolism. Co-occurrence analyses showed strong associations between bacterial and fungal genera. Culture analysis showed the microbial load to be on average 3.0 × 105 cfu/m2 CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing various metagenomics analyses and culture methods, we provided a comprehensive analysis of the ISS surface microbiome, showing microbial burden, bacterial and fungal species prevalence, changes in the microbiome, and resistome over time and space, as well as the functional capabilities and microbial interactions of this unique built microbiome. Data from this study may help to inform policies for future space missions to ensure an ISS surface microbiome that promotes astronaut health and spacecraft integrity. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Wang Z, Zhang Z, Lu C, et al (2022)

Effects of Sporisorium reiliana polysaccharides and Phoenix dactylifera monosaccharides on the gut microbiota and serum metabolism in mice with fructose-induced hyperuricemia.

Archives of microbiology, 204(7):436.

In recent decades, the prevalence of hyperuricemia has increased, and dietary fructose is an important risk factor for the development of this disease. This study investigated and compared the effects of Sphacelotheca reiliana polysaccharides and Phoenix dactylifera monosaccharides on a series of physiological and biochemical indicators and on the metagenomes and serum metabolites in mice with hyperuricemia caused by a high-fructose diet. S. reiliana polysaccharides inhibited uric acid biosynthesis and promoted uric acid excretion, thereby alleviating the hyperuricemia phenotype. In addition, hyperuricemia was closely related to the gut microbiota. After treatment with S. reiliana polysaccharides, the abundances of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in the mouse intestines were decreased, the expression of genes involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis metabolic pathways and purine metabolism was downregulated, and the dysfunction of the gut microbiota was alleviated. With regard to serum metabolism, the abundance of hippuric acid, uridine, kynurenic acid, propionic acid and arachidonoyl decreased, and the abundances of serum metabolites in inflammatory pathways involved in kidney injury and gout, such as bile acid metabolism, purine metabolism and tryptophan metabolism pathways, decreased. P. dactylifera monosaccharides aggravated hyperuricemia. This research provides a valuable reference for the development of sugar applications.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Higginson EE, Sayeed MA, Pereira Dias J, et al (2022)

Microbiome Profiling of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Carriers Highlights Signature Differences between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Individuals.

mBio, 13(3):e0015722.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, large-scale pathogen burden studies in children have identified ETEC in the guts of both symptomatic patients and controls. The factors that influence this balance are poorly understood, but it is postulated that the gut microbiome may play a role in either resistance or progression to disease. In this study, we profiled the microbiomes of children and adults from Bangladesh who were asymptomatically or symptomatically infected with ETEC. Symptomatic patients had significantly higher numbers of sequenced reads mapping to both E. coli and two ETEC toxins, suggesting higher bacterial burden. They were also significantly more likely to be coinfected with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and had higher proportions of other Gammaproteobacteria, including Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Haemophilus. Colonization with ETEC was also associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, most notably those of the β-lactamase class. Taxonomic profiles were distinctly different between all groups in both species richness and composition, although the direction of these changes was different in adults and children. As seen previously, children with high E. coli burdens also had higher proportions of Streptococcus spp., while healthy children were more heavily colonized by Bifidobacterium spp. Our study provides insight into the microbiome changes that occur upon infection with ETEC in an endemic setting and provides rationale for future studies investigating how the microbiome may protect or predispose individuals to symptomatic infections with gastrointestinal pathogens. IMPORTANCE Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children in low- and middle-income countries. However, these bacteria are often identified in both patients and healthy controls. We do not yet understand why only some people get sick, but it has been suggested that the gut microbiome might play a role. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to profile the gut microbiomes of individuals in Bangladesh, with or without a symptomatic ETEC infection. In general, individuals with high levels of ETEC also harbored other pathogenic E. coli strains, higher proportions of Gammaproteobacteria such as Salmonella and Klebsiella, and a higher burden of antimicrobial resistance genes in their guts. Healthy children, in contrast, had higher levels of bifidobacteria. These data confirm that the composition of the gut microbiome is different between symptomatic and asymptomatic people and provides important preliminary information on the impact of the gut microbiome in intestinal infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Brealey JC, Lecaudey LA, Kodama M, et al (2022)

Microbiome "Inception": an Intestinal Cestode Shapes a Hierarchy of Microbial Communities Nested within the Host.

mBio, 13(3):e0067922.

The concept of a holobiont, a host organism and its associated microbial communities, encapsulates the vital role the microbiome plays in the normal functioning of its host. Parasitic infections can disrupt this relationship, leading to dysbiosis. However, it is increasingly recognized that multicellular parasites are themselves holobionts. Intestinal parasites share space with the host gut microbiome, creating a system of nested microbiomes within the primary host. However, how the parasite, as a holobiont, interacts with the host holobiont remains unclear, as do the consequences of these interactions for host health. Here, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomics sequencing to characterize the microbiome of the intestinal cestode Eubothrium and its effect on the gut microbiome of its primary host, Atlantic salmon. Our results indicate that cestode infection is associated with salmon gut dysbiosis by acting as a selective force benefiting putative pathogens and potentially introducing novel bacterial species to the host. Our results suggest that parasitic cestodes may themselves be holobionts nested within the microbial community of their holobiont host, emphasizing the importance of also considering microbes associated with parasites when studying intestinal parasitic infections. IMPORTANCE The importance of the parasite microbiome is gaining recognition. Of particular concern is understanding how these parasite microbiomes influence host-parasite interactions and parasite interactions with the vertebrate host microbiome as part of a system of nested holobionts. However, there are still relatively few studies focusing on the microbiome of parasitic helminths in general and almost none on cestodes in particular, despite the significant burden of disease caused by these parasites globally. Our study provides insights into a system of significance to the aquaculture industry, cestode infections of Atlantic salmon and, more broadly, expands our general understanding of parasite-microbiome-host interactions and introduces a new element, the microbiome of the parasite itself, which may play a critical role in modulating the host microbiome, and, therefore, the host response, to parasite infection.

RevDate: 2022-06-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Sahu RP, Kazy SK, Bose H, et al (2022)

Microbial diversity and function in crystalline basement beneath the Deccan Traps explored in a 3 km borehole at Koyna, western India.

Environmental microbiology, 24(6):2837-2853.

Deep terrestrial subsurface represents a huge repository of global prokaryotic biomass. Given its vastness and importance, microbial life within the deep subsurface continental crust remains under-represented in global studies. We characterize the microbial communities of deep, extreme and oligotrophic realm hosted by crystalline Archaean granitic rocks underneath the Deccan Traps, through sampling via 3000 m deep scientific borehole at Koyna, India through metagenomics, amplicon sequencing and cultivation-based analyses. Gene sequences 16S rRNA (7.37 × 106) show considerable bacterial diversity and the existence of a core microbiome (5724 operational taxonomic units conserved out of a total 118,064 OTUs) across the depths. Relative abundance of different taxa of core microbiome varies with depth in response to prevailing lithology and geochemistry. Co-occurrence network analysis and cultivation attempt to elucidate close interactions among autotrophic and organotrophic bacteria. Shotgun metagenomics reveals a major role of autotrophic carbon fixation via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and genes responsible for energy and carbon metabolism. Deeper analysis suggests the existence of an 'acetate switch', coordinating biosynthesis and cellular homeostasis. We conclude that the microbial life in the nutrient- and energy-limited deep granitic crust is constrained by the depth and managed by a few core members via a close interplay between autotrophy and organotrophy.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Kothe CI, Mohellibi N, P Renault (2022)

Revealing the microbial heritage of traditional Brazilian cheeses through metagenomics.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 157:111265.

Brazilian artisanal cheeses date from the first Portuguese settlers and evolved via local factors, resulting in unique products that are now part of the patrimony and identity of different Brazilian regions. In this study, we combined several culture-independent approaches, including 16S/ITS metagenetics, assembly- and deep profiling-metagenomics to characterize the originality of the microbiota of five varieties of Brazilian artisanal cheeses from the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Their core microbiota contained mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), of which Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was the most frequent, followed by Streptococcus thermophilus in the South region. Moreover, several samples from the Southeast region contained, as dominant LAB, two other food Streptococci belonging to a new species of the salivarius group and S. infantarius. Rinds of samples from the Southeast region were dominated by the halotolerant bacterium Corynebacterium variabile, and the yeasts Diutina catenulata, followed by Debaryomyces hansenii and Kodamaea ohmeri. Rinds from the South region contained mainly LAB due to their short ripening time, and the predominant yeast was D. hansenii. Phylogenomic analysis based on L. lactis metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) showed that most Brazilian strains are closely related and form a different clade from those whose genomes are available at this time, indicating that they belong to a specific group. Lastly, functional analysis showed that S. infantarius acquired a ∼ 26 kb DNA fragment from S. thermophilus starter strains that carry the LacSZ system, allowing fast lactose assimilation, an adaptation advantage for growth in milk. Finally, our study identified several areas of concern, such as the presence of somatic cell DNA and high levels of antibiotic resistance genes in several cheese microbiota, suggesting that milk from diseased animals may still be used occasionally. Overall, the data from this study highlight the potential value of the traditional and artisanal cheese production network in Brazil, and provide a metagenomic-based scheme to help manage this resource safely.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Sequino G, Valentino V, Villani F, et al (2022)

Omics-based monitoring of microbial dynamics across the food chain for the improvement of food safety and quality.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 157:111242.

The diffusion of high-throughput sequencing has dramatically changed the study of food microbial ecology. Amplicon-based description of the microbial community may be routinary implemented in the food industry to understand how the processing parameters and the raw material quality may affect the microbial community of the final product, as well as how the community changes during the shelf-life. In addition, application of shotgun metagenomics may represent an invaluable resource to understand the functional potential of the microbial community, identifying the presence of spoilage-associated activities or genes related to pathogenesis. Finally, retrieving Metagenome-Assembled Genomes (MAGs) of relevant species may be useful for strain-tracking along the food chain and in case of food poisoning outbreaks. This review gives an overview of the possible applications of sequencing-based approaches in the study of food microbial ecology, highlighting limitations that still prevent the spreading of these techniques to the food industry.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Roguet A, Newton RJ, Eren AM, et al (2022)

Guts of the Urban Ecosystem: Microbial Ecology of Sewer Infrastructure.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbes have inhabited the oceans and soils for millions of years and are uniquely adapted to their habitat. In contrast, sewer infrastructure in modern cities dates back only ~150 years. Sewer pipes transport human waste and provide a view into public health, but the resident organisms that likely modulate these features are relatively unexplored. Here, we show that the bacterial assemblages sequenced from untreated wastewater in 71 U.S. cities were highly coherent at a fine sequence level, suggesting that urban infrastructure separated by great spatial distances can give rise to strikingly similar communities. Within the overall microbial community structure, temperature had a discernible impact on the distribution patterns of closely related amplicon sequence variants, resulting in warm and cold ecotypes. Two bacterial genera were dominant in most cities regardless of their size or geographic location; on average, Arcobacter accounted for 11% and Acinetobacter 10% of the entire community. Metagenomic analysis of six cities revealed these highly abundant resident organisms carry clinically important antibiotic resistant genes blaCTX-M, blaOXA, and blaTEM. In contrast, human fecal bacteria account for only ~13% of the community; therefore, antibiotic resistance gene inputs from human sources to the sewer system could be comparatively small, which will impact measurement capabilities when monitoring human populations using wastewater. With growing awareness of the metabolic potential of microbes within these vast networks of pipes and the ability to examine the health of human populations, it is timely to increase our understanding of the ecology of these systems. IMPORTANCE Sewer infrastructure is a relatively new habitat comprised of thousands of kilometers of pipes beneath cities. These wastewater conveyance systems contain large reservoirs of microbial biomass with a wide range of metabolic potential and are significant reservoirs of antibiotic resistant organisms; however, we lack an adequate understanding of the ecology or activity of these communities beyond wastewater treatment plants. The striking coherence of the sewer microbiome across the United States demonstrates that the sewer environment is highly selective for a particular microbial community composition. Therefore, results from more in-depth studies or proven engineering controls in one system could be extrapolated more broadly. Understanding the complex ecology of sewer infrastructure is critical for not only improving our ability to treat human waste and increasing the sustainability of our cities but also to create scalable and effective sewage microbial observatories, which are inevitable investments of the future to monitor health in human populations.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Lemos LN, de Carvalho FM, Santos FF, et al (2022)

Large Scale Genome-Centric Metagenomic Data from the Gut Microbiome of Food-Producing Animals and Humans.

Scientific data, 9(1):366.

The One Health concept is a global strategy to study the relationship between human and animal health and the transfer of pathogenic and non-pathogenic species between these systems. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data based on One Health genome-centric metagenomics are available in public repositories. Here, we present a dataset based on a pilot-study of 2,915 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of 107 samples from the human (N = 34), cattle (N = 28), swine (N = 15) and poultry (N = 30) gut microbiomes. Samples were collected from the five Brazilian geographical regions. Of the draft genomes, 1,273 were high-quality drafts (≥90% of completeness and ≤5% of contamination), and 1,642 were medium-quality drafts (≥50% of completeness and ≤10% of contamination). Taxonomic predictions were based on the alignment and concatenation of single-marker genes, and the most representative phyla were Bacteroidota, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Many of these species represent potential pathogens that have already been described or potential new families, genera, and species with potential biotechnological applications. Analyses of this dataset will highlight discoveries about the ecology and functional role of pathogens and uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria from food-producing animals and humans. Furthermore, it also represents an opportunity to describe new species from underrepresented taxonomic groups.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Fritsch DA, Jackson MI, Wernimont SM, et al (2022)

Microbiome function underpins the efficacy of a fiber-supplemented dietary intervention in dogs with chronic large bowel diarrhea.

BMC veterinary research, 18(1):245.

BACKGROUND: Chronic large bowel diarrhea is a common occurrence in pet dogs. While nutritional intervention is considered the primary therapy, the metabolic and gut microfloral effects of fiber and polyphenol-enriched therapeutic foods are poorly understood.

METHODS: This prospective clinical study enrolled 31 adult dogs from private veterinary practices with chronic, active large bowel diarrhea. Enrolled dogs received a complete and balanced dry therapeutic food containing a proprietary fiber bundle for 56 days. Metagenomic and metabolomic profiling were performed on fecal samples at Days 1, 2, 3, 14, 28, and 56; metabolomic analysis was conducted on serum samples taken at Days 1, 2, 3, 28, and 56.

RESULTS: The dietary intervention improved clinical signs and had a clear effect on the gut microfloral metabolic output of canines with chronic diarrhea, shifting gut metabolism from a predominantly proteolytic to saccharolytic fermentative state. Microbial metabolism of tryptophan to beneficial indole postbiotics and the conversion of plant-derived phenolics into bioavailable postbiotics were observed. The intervention altered the endocannabinoid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and sphingolipid profiles, suggesting a modulation in gastrointestinal inflammation. Changes in membrane phospholipid and collagen signatures were indicative of improved gut function and possible alleviation of the pathophysiology related to chronic diarrhea.

CONCLUSIONS: In dogs with chronic diarrhea, feeding specific dietary fibers increased gut saccharolysis and bioavailable phenolic and indole-related compounds, while suppressing putrefaction. These changes were associated with improved markers of gut inflammation and stool quality.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Maeda Y, Motooka D, Kawasaki T, et al (2022)

Longitudinal alterations of the gut mycobiota and microbiota on COVID-19 severity.

BMC infectious diseases, 22(1):572.

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gut fungal (mycobiota) and bacterial (microbiota) communities has been elucidated individually. This study analyzed both gut mycobiota and microbiota and their correlation in the COVID-19 patients with severe and mild conditions and follow-up to monitor their alterations after recovery.

METHODS: We analyzed the gut mycobiota and microbiota by bacterial 16S and fungal ITS1 metagenomic sequencing of 40 severe patients, 38 mild patients, and 30 healthy individuals and reanalyzed those of 10 patients with severe COVID-19 approximately 6 months after discharge.

RESULTS: The mycobiota of the severe and mild groups showed lower diversity than the healthy group, and in some, characteristic patterns dominated by a single fungal species, Candida albicans, were detected. Lower microbial diversity in the severe group was observed, but no differences in its diversity or community structure were detected between the mild and healthy groups. The microbiota of the severe group was characterized by an increase in Enterococcus and Lactobacillus, and a decrease in Faecalibacterium and Bacteroides. The abundance of Candida was positively correlated with that of Enterococcus in patients with COVID-19. After the recovery of severe patients, alteration of the microbiota remained, but the mycobiota recovered its diversity comparable to that of mild and healthy groups.

CONCLUSION: In mild cases, the microbiota is stable during SARS-CoV-2 infection, but in severe cases, alterations persist for 6 months after recovery.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Li J, Zhao Q, Huang JP, et al (2022)

The functional microbiota of on- and off-year moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) influences the development of the bamboo pest Pantana phyllostachysae.

BMC plant biology, 22(1):307.

BACKGROUND: Development of Pantana phyllostachysae, a moso bamboo pest, is affected by its diet. Understanding the mechanism underlying the different insect-resistant capacities of on- and off-year moso bamboo fed by P. phyllostachysae is crucial for managing pest outbreaks. As microbes were proven to influence plant immunity, we compared gut microbial communities of P. phyllostachysae with different diets by metabarcoding sequencing. By using sterilization assay, microbes were removed from leaf surfaces, and thus we confirmed that microbes inhabiting moso bamboo leaves impact the weight of P. phyllostachysae larva. Furthermore, the gut microbial communities of P. phyllostachysae fed on on- and off-year bamboo leaves were compared, to identify the functional microbial communities that impact the interaction between bamboo leaves and P. phyllostachysae.

RESULTS: We found that species from orders Lactobacillales and Rickettsiales are most effective within functional microbiota. Functional prediction revealed that gut microbes of larva fed on on-year leaves were related to naphthalene degradation, while those fed on off-year leaves were related to biosynthesis of ansamycins, polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis, metabolism of xenobiotics, and tetracycline biosynthesis. Most functional microbes are beneficial to the development of larva that feed on on-year bamboo leaves, but damage the balance of intestinal microenvironment and immune systems of those larva that feed on off-year leaves.

CONCLUSIONS: This work developed an efficient strategy for microbiome research of Lepidopteran insects and provided insights into microbiota related to the interaction between host plants and P. phyllostachysae. We provided microbial candidates for the ecological control of P. phyllostachysae according to the function of effective microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Silveira DD, Farooq AJ, Wallace SJ, et al (2022)

Structural and functional spatial dynamics of microbial communities in aerated and non-aerated horizontal flow treatment wetlands.

The Science of the total environment, 838(Pt 4):156600.

A multiphasic study using structural and functional analyses was employed to investigate the spatial dynamics of the microbial community within five horizontal subsurface flow treatment wetlands (TWs) of differing designs in Germany. The TWs differed in terms of the depth of media saturation, presence of plants (Phragmites australis), and aeration. In addition to influent and effluent water samples, internal samples were taken at different locations (12.5 %, 25 %, 50 %, and 75 % of the fractional distance along the flow path) within each system. 16S rRNA sequencing was used for the investigation of microbial community structure and was compared to microbial community function and enumeration data. The microbial community structure in the unaerated systems was similar, but different from the aerated TW profiles. Spatial positioning along the flow path explained the majority of microbial community dynamics/differences within this study. This was mainly attributed to the availability of nutrients closer to the inlet which also regulated the fixed biofilm/biomass densities. As the amount of fixed biofilm decreased from the inlet to the TW outlets, structural diversity increased, suggesting different microbial communities were present to handle the more easily utilized/degraded pollutants near the inlet vs. the more difficult to degrade and recalcitrant pollutants closer to the outlets. This study also confirmed that effluent water samples do not accurately describe the microbial communities responsible for water treatment inside a TW, highlighting the importance of using internal samples for investigating microbial communities in TWs. The results of this study reinforce an existing knowledge gap regarding the potential for TW design modifications which incorporate microbial community spatial dynamics (heterogeneity). It is suggested that utilizing step-feeding could allow for improved water treatment within the same areal footprint, and modifications enhancing co-metabolic processes could assist in improving the treatment of more difficult to degrade or recalcitrant compounds such as micropollutants.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Kim DW, Jeong HS, Kim E, et al (2022)

Oral delivery of stem-cell-loaded hydrogel microcapsules restores gut inflammation and microbiota.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 347:508-520.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive candidate for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but their poor delivery rate to an inflamed colon is a major factor hampering the clinical potential of stem cell therapies. Moreover, there remains a formidable hurdle to overcome with regard to survival and homing in to injured sites. Here, we develop a strategy utilizing monodisperse hydrogel microcapsules with a thin intermediate oil layer prepared by a triple-emulsion drop-based microfluidic approach as an in-situ oral delivering carrier. The oral delivery of stem-cell-loaded hydrogel microcapsules (SC-HM) enhances MSC survival and retention in the hostile stomach environment due to the intermediate oil layer and low value of the overall stiffness, facilitating programmable cell release during gastrointestinal peristalsis. SC-HM is shown to induce tissue repair, reduce the colonic macrophage infiltration responsible for the secretion of the pro-inflammatory factors, and significantly mitigate the severity of IBD in a mouse model, where MSCs released by SC-HM successfully accumulate at the colonic crypt. Moreover, a metagenomics analysis reveals that SC-HM ameliorates the dysbiosis of specific bacterial genera, including Bacteroides acidifaciens, Lactobacillus (L.) gasseri, Lactobacillus reuteri, and L. intestinalis, implying optimization of the microorganism's composition and abundance. These findings demonstrate that SC-HM is a potential IBD treatment candidate.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Chen DW, NR Garud (2022)

Rapid evolution and strain turnover in the infant gut microbiome.

Genome research, 32(6):1124-1136.

Although the ecological dynamics of the infant gut microbiome have been intensely studied, relatively little is known about evolutionary dynamics in the infant gut microbiome. Here we analyze longitudinal fecal metagenomic data from more than 700 infants and their mothers over the first year of life and find that the evolutionary dynamics in infant gut microbiomes are distinct from those of adults. We find evidence for more than a 10-fold increase in the rate of evolution and strain turnover in the infant gut compared with healthy adults, with the mother-infant transition at delivery being a particularly dynamic period in which gene loss dominates. Within a few months after birth, these dynamics stabilize, and gene gains become increasingly frequent as the microbiome matures. We furthermore find that evolutionary changes in infants show signatures of being seeded by a mixture of de novo mutations and transmissions of pre-evolved lineages from the broader family. Several of these evolutionary changes occur in parallel across infants, highlighting candidate genes that may play important roles in the development of the infant gut microbiome. Our results point to a picture of a volatile infant gut microbiome characterized by rapid evolutionary and ecological change in the early days of life.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Mirza AI, Zhu F, Knox N, et al (2022)

The metabolic potential of the paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis gut microbiome.

Multiple sclerosis and related disorders, 63:103829.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the gut microbiome's metabolic potential in paediatric-onset MS patients (symptom onset <18 years).

METHODS: We included 17 MS participants and 20 controls similar for sex, age, race, and stool consistency from the Canadian Paediatric Demyelinating Disease Network study. Stool-derived gut metagenome gene abundances were used to estimate relative abundances and turnover scores of individual microbial metabolites and the composition and diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). MS participants and controls were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, as were the disease-modifying drug (DMD) exposed and naïve MS participants.

RESULTS: The median age(s) at MS symptom onset=16.1 years (interquartile range [IQR]=1.7), and at stool sample procurement=16.9/15.8 years (IQR=2.0/1.4), for the MS participants/controls. Most MS and control participants were girls (80-82%). Five (29%) of the MS participants had never been exposed to a DMD pre-stool sample and 12 (71%) had (7 to beta-interferon and 5 glatiramer acetate). While the relative abundance of metabolites did not differ between MS participants and controls, turnover scores did. MS participants had a greater potential to metabolize lipopolysaccharides than controls (score difference=1.6E-04, p = 0.034) but lower potential to metabolize peptidoglycan molecules and starch (score differences<2.2E-02, p<0.040). Further, although CAZymes diversity did not differ (p>0.050), starch-degrading subfamilies were underrepresented in MS participants versus controls (relative abundance differences >-0.34, p<0.040) and in the DMD exposed verses DMD naïve MS participants (relative abundance differences>-0.20, p<0.049).

CONCLUSION: Paediatric-onset MS participants had an altered gut microbiome-related metabolic potential compared to controls, including higher breakdown of lipopolysaccharide molecules, but lower resistant starch metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Li YJ, Chuang CH, Cheng WC, et al (2022)

A metagenomics study of hexabromocyclododecane degradation with a soil microbial community.

Journal of hazardous materials, 430:128465.

Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are globally prevalent and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed by the Stockholm Convention in 2013. They have been detected in many environmental media from waterbodies to Plantae and even in the human body. Due to their highly bioaccumulative characterization, they pose an urgent public health issue. Here, we demonstrate that the indigenous microbial community in the agricultural soil in Taiwan could decompose HBCDs with no additional carbon source incentive. The degradation kinetics reached 0.173 day-1 after the first treatment and 0.104 day-1 after second exposure. With additional C-sources, the rate constants decreased to 0.054-0.097 day-1. The hydroxylic debromination metabolites and ring cleavage long-chain alkane metabolites were identified to support the potential metabolic pathways utilized by the soil microbial communities. The metagenome established by Nanopore sequencing showed significant compositional alteration in the soil microbial community after the HBCD treatment. After ranking, comparing relative abundances, and performing network analyses, several novel bacterial taxa were identified to contribute to HBCD biotransformation, including Herbaspirillum, Sphingomonas, Brevundimonas, Azospirillum, Caulobacter, and Microvirga, through halogenated / aromatic compound degradation, glutathione-S-transferase, and hydrolase activity. We present a compelling and applicable approach combining metagenomics research, degradation kinetics, and metabolomics strategies, which allowed us to decipher the natural attenuation and remediation mechanisms of HBCDs.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Doytchinov VV, SG Dimov (2022)

Microbial Community Composition of the Antarctic Ecosystems: Review of the Bacteria, Fungi, and Archaea Identified through an NGS-Based Metagenomics Approach.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:life12060916.

Antarctica represents a unique environment, both due to the extreme meteorological and geological conditions that govern it and the relative isolation from human influences that have kept its environment largely undisturbed. However, recent trends in climate change dictate an unavoidable change in the global biodiversity as a whole, and pristine environments, such as Antarctica, allow us to study and monitor more closely the effects of the human impact. Additionally, due to its inaccessibility, Antarctica contains a plethora of yet uncultured and unidentified microorganisms with great potential for useful biological activities and production of metabolites, such as novel antibiotics, proteins, pigments, etc. In recent years, amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed for a fast and thorough examination of microbial communities to accelerate the efforts of unknown species identification. For these reasons, in this review, we present an overview of the archaea, bacteria, and fungi present on the Antarctic continent and the surrounding area (maritime Antarctica, sub-Antarctica, Southern Sea, etc.) that have recently been identified using amplicon-based NGS methods.

RevDate: 2022-06-24
CmpDate: 2022-06-24

He J, Zhang N, Shen X, et al (2022)

Deciphering environmental resistome and mobilome risks on the stone monument: A reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes.

The Science of the total environment, 838(Pt 3):156443.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment has attracted increasing attention as an emerging global threat to public health. Stone is an essential ecosystem in nature and also an important material for human society, having architectural and aesthetic values. However, little is known about the AMR in stone ecosystems, particularly in the stone monument, where antimicrobials are often applied against biodeterioration. Here, we provide the first detailed metagenomic study of AMR genes across different types of biodeteriorated stone monuments, which revealed abundant and diverse AMR genes conferring resistance to drugs (antibiotics), biocides, and metals. Totally, 132 AMR subtypes belonging to 27 AMR types were detected including copper-, rifampin-, and aminocoumarins-resistance genes, of which diversity was mainly explained by the spatial turnover (replacement of genes between samples) rather than nestedness (loss of nested genes between samples). Source track analysis confirms that stone resistomes are likely driven by anthropogenic activities across stone heritage areas. We also detected various mobile genetic elements (namely mobilome, e.g., prophages, plasmids, and insertion sequences) that could accelerate replication and horizontal transfer of AMR genes. Host-tracking analysis further identified multiple biodeterioration-related bacterial genera such as Pseudonocardia, Sphingmonas, and Streptomyces as the major hosts of resistome. Taken together, these findings highlight that stone microbiota is one of the natural reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant hazards, and the diverse resistome and mobilome carried by active biodeteriogens may improve their adaptation on stone and even deactivate the antimicrobials applied against biodeterioration. This enhanced knowledge may also provide novel and specific avenues for environmental management and stone heritage protection.

RevDate: 2022-06-24
CmpDate: 2022-06-24

Beale DJ, Bissett A, Nilsson S, et al (2022)

Perturbation of the gut microbiome in wild-caught freshwater turtles (Emydura macquarii macquarii) exposed to elevated PFAS levels.

The Science of the total environment, 838(Pt 3):156324.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally persistent and pervasive. Understanding the toxicity of PFAS to wildlife is difficult, both due to the complexity of biotic and abiotic perturbations in the taxa under study and the practical and ethical problems associated with studying the impacts of environmental pollutants on free living wildlife. One avenue of inquiry into the effects of environmental pollutants, such as PFAS, is assessing the impact on the host gut microbiome. Here we show the microbial composition and biochemical functional outputs from the gut microbiome of sampled faeces from euthanised and necropsied wild-caught freshwater turtles (Emydura macquarii macquarii) exposed to elevated PFAS levels. The microbial community composition was profiled by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using a Nanopore MinION and the biochemical functional outputs of the gut microbiome were profiled using a combination of targeted central carbon metabolism metabolomics using liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS) and untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (LC-QToF-MS). Total PFAS was measured in the turtle serum using standard methods. These preliminary data demonstrated a 60-fold PFAS increase in impacted turtles compared to the sampled aquatic environment. The microbiome community was also impacted in the PFAS exposed turtles, with the ratio of Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes rising from 1.4 at the reference site to 5.5 at the PFAS impacted site. This ratio increase is indicative of host stress and dysfunction of the gut microbiome that was correlated with the biochemical metabolic function data, metabolites observed that are indications of stress and inflammation in the gut microbiome. Utilising the gut microbiome of sampled faeces collected from freshwater turtles provides a non-destructive avenue for investigating the impacts of PFAS in native wildlife, and provides an avenue to explore other contaminants in higher-order taxa within the environment.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Zhang Y, Bhosle A, Bae S, et al (2022)

Discovery of bioactive microbial gene products in inflammatory bowel disease.

Nature, 606(7915):754-760.

Microbial communities and their associated bioactive compounds1-3 are often disrupted in conditions such as the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)4. However, even in well-characterized environments (for example, the human gastrointestinal tract), more than one-third of microbial proteins are uncharacterized and often expected to be bioactive5-7. Here we systematically identified more than 340,000 protein families as potentially bioactive with respect to gut inflammation during IBD, about half of which have not to our knowledge been functionally characterized previously on the basis of homology or experiment. To validate prioritized microbial proteins, we used a combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics to provide evidence of bioactivity for a subset of proteins that are involved in host and microbial cell-cell communication in the microbiome; for example, proteins associated with adherence or invasion processes, and extracellular von Willebrand-like factors. Predictions from high-throughput data were validated using targeted experiments that revealed the differential immunogenicity of prioritized Enterobacteriaceae pilins and the contribution of homologues of von Willebrand factors to the formation of Bacteroides biofilms in a manner dependent on mucin levels. This methodology, which we term MetaWIBELE (workflow to identify novel bioactive elements in the microbiome), is generalizable to other environmental communities and human phenotypes. The prioritized results provide thousands of candidate microbial proteins that are likely to interact with the host immune system in IBD, thus expanding our understanding of potentially bioactive gene products in chronic disease states and offering a rational compendium of possible therapeutic compounds and targets.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Zhang L, Jonscher KR, Zhang Z, et al (2022)

Islet autoantibody seroconversion in type-1 diabetes is associated with metagenome-assembled genomes in infant gut microbiomes.

Nature communications, 13(1):3551.

The immune system of some genetically susceptible children can be triggered by certain environmental factors to produce islet autoantibodies (IA) against pancreatic β cells, which greatly increases their risk for Type-1 diabetes. An environmental factor under active investigation is the gut microbiome due to its important role in immune system education. Here, we study gut metagenomes that are de-novo-assembled in 887 at-risk children in the Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) project. Our results reveal a small set of core protein families, present in >50% of the subjects, which account for 64% of the sequencing reads. Time-series binning generates 21,536 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from 883 species, including 176 species that hitherto have no MAG representation in previous comprehensive human microbiome surveys. IA seroconversion is positively associated with 2373 MAGs and negatively with 1549 MAGs. Comparative genomics analysis identifies lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis in Bacteroides MAGs and sulfate reduction in Anaerostipes MAGs as functional signatures of MAGs with positive IA-association. The functional signatures in the MAGs with negative IA-association include carbohydrate degradation in lactic acid bacteria MAGs and nitrate reduction in Escherichia MAGs. Overall, our results show a distinct set of gut microorganisms associated with IA seroconversion and uncovered the functional genomics signatures of these IA-associated microorganisms.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Cowart DA, Murphy KR, CC Cheng (2022)

Environmental DNA from Marine Waters and Substrates: Protocols for Sampling and eDNA Extraction.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2498:225-251.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis has emerged in recent years as a powerful tool for the detection, monitoring, and characterization of aquatic metazoan communities, including vulnerable species. The rapid rate of adopting the eDNA approach across diverse habitats and taxonomic groups attests to its value for a wide array of investigative goals, from understanding natural or changing biodiversity to informing on conservation efforts at local and global scales. Regardless of research objectives, eDNA workflows commonly include the following essential steps: environmental sample acquisition, processing and preservation of samples, and eDNA extraction, followed by eDNA sequencing library preparation, high-capacity sequencing and sequence data analysis, or other methods of genetic detection. In this chapter, we supply instructional details for the early steps in the workflow to facilitate researchers considering adopting eDNA analysis to address questions in marine environments. Specifically, we detail sampling, preservation, extraction, and quantification protocols for eDNA originating from marine water, shallow substrates, and deeper sediments. eDNA is prone to degradation and loss, and to contamination through improper handling; these factors crucially influence the outcome and validity of an eDNA study. Thus, we also provide guidance on avoiding these pitfalls. Following extraction, purified eDNA is often sequenced on massively parallel sequencing platforms for comprehensive faunal diversity assessment using a metabarcoding or metagenomic approach, or for the detection and quantification of specific taxa by qPCR methods. These components of the workflow are project-specific and thus not included in this chapter. Instead, we briefly touch on the preparation of eDNA libraries and discuss comparisons between sequencing approaches to aid considerations in project design.

RevDate: 2022-06-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Speth DR, Yu FB, Connon SA, et al (2022)

Microbial communities of Auka hydrothermal sediments shed light on vent biogeography and the evolutionary history of thermophily.

The ISME journal, 16(7):1750-1764.

Hydrothermal vents have been key to our understanding of the limits of life, and the metabolic and phylogenetic diversity of thermophilic organisms. Here we used environmental metagenomics combined with analysis of physicochemical data and 16S rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the sediment-hosted microorganisms at the recently discovered Auka vents in the Gulf of California. We recovered 325 metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) representing 54 phyla, over 30% of those currently known, showing the microbial community in Auka hydrothermal sediments is highly diverse. 16S rRNA gene amplicon screening of 224 sediment samples across the vent field indicates that the MAGs retrieved from a single site are representative of the microbial community in the vent field sediments. Metabolic reconstruction of a vent-specific, deeply branching clade within the Desulfobacterota suggests these organisms metabolize sulfur using novel octaheme cytochrome-c proteins related to hydroxylamine oxidoreductase. Community-wide comparison between Auka MAGs and MAGs from Guaymas Basin revealed a remarkable 20% species-level overlap, suggestive of long-distance species transfer over 400 km and subsequent sediment colonization. Optimal growth temperature prediction on the Auka MAGs, and thousands of reference genomes, shows that thermophily is a trait that has evolved frequently. Taken together, our Auka vent field results offer new perspectives on our understanding of hydrothermal vent microbiology.

RevDate: 2022-06-22
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Odrzywolek K, Karwowska Z, Majta J, et al (2022)

Deep embeddings to comprehend and visualize microbiome protein space.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10332.

Understanding the function of microbial proteins is essential to reveal the clinical potential of the microbiome. The application of high-throughput sequencing technologies allows for fast and increasingly cheaper acquisition of data from microbial communities. However, many of the inferred protein sequences are novel and not catalogued, hence the possibility of predicting their function through conventional homology-based approaches is limited, which indicates the need for further research on alignment-free methods. Here, we leverage a deep-learning-based representation of proteins to assess its utility in alignment-free analysis of microbial proteins. We trained a language model on the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Protein catalogue and validated the resulting protein representation on the bacterial part of the SwissProt database. Finally, we present a use case on proteins involved in SCFA metabolism. Results indicate that the deep learning model manages to accurately represent features related to protein structure and function, allowing for alignment-free protein analyses. Technologies that contextualize metagenomic data are a promising direction to deeply understand the microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Shell WA, SM Rehan (2022)

Comparative metagenomics reveals expanded insights into intra- and interspecific variation among wild bee microbiomes.

Communications biology, 5(1):603.

The holobiont approach proposes that species are most fully understood within the context of their associated microbiomes, and that both host and microbial community are locked in a mutual circuit of co-evolutionary selection. Bees are an ideal group for this approach, as they comprise a critical group of pollinators that contribute to both ecological and agricultural health worldwide. Metagenomic analyses offer comprehensive insights into an organism's microbiome, diet, and viral load, but remain largely unapplied to wild bees. Here, we present metagenomic data from three species of carpenter bees sampled from around the globe, representative of the first ever carpenter bee core microbiome. Machine learning, co-occurrence, and network analyses reveal that wild bee metagenomes are unique to host species. Further, we find that microbiomes are likely strongly affected by features of their local environment, and feature evidence of plant pathogens previously known only in honey bees. Performing the most comprehensive comparative analysis of bee microbiomes to date we discover that microbiome diversity is inversely proportional to host species social complexity. Our study helps to establish some of the first wild bee hologenomic data while offering powerful empirical insights into the biology and health of vital pollinators.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Patterson GT, Osorio EY, Peniche A, et al (2022)

Pathologic Inflammation in Malnutrition Is Driven by Proinflammatory Intestinal Microbiota, Large Intestine Barrier Dysfunction, and Translocation of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:846155.

Acute malnutrition, or wasting, is implicated in over half of all deaths in children under five and increases risk of infectious disease. Studies in humans and preclinical models have demonstrated that malnutrition is linked to an immature intestinal microbiota characterized by increased prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae. Observational studies in children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have also observed heightened systemic inflammation and increased circulating bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS; endotoxin). However, the mechanisms that underpin the systemic inflammatory state and endotoxemia, and their pathophysiological consequences, remain uncertain. Understanding these pathophysiological mechanisms is necessary to design targeted treatments that will improve the unacceptable rate of failure or relapse that plague current approaches. Here we use a mouse model of MAM to investigate the mechanisms that promote inflammation in the malnourished host. We found that mice with MAM exhibited increased systemic inflammation at baseline, increased translocation of bacteria and bacterial LPS, and an exaggerated response to inflammatory stimuli. An exaggerated response to bacterial LPS was associated with increased acute weight loss. Remarkably, intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction was found in the cecum and colon. The cecum showed a dysbiotic microbiota with expansion of Gammaproteobacteria and some Firmicutes, and contraction of Bacteroidetes. These changes were paralleled by an increase in fecal LPS bioactivity. The inflammatory phenotype and weight loss was modulated by oral administration of non-absorbable antibiotics that altered the proportion of cecal Gammaproteobacteria. We propose that the heightened inflammation of acute malnutrition is the result of changes in the intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier dysfunction in the cecum and colon, and increased systemic exposure to LPS.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Wang S, Li B, Mao H, et al (2022)

[Effects of rice wheat intervention on intestinal microflora of rats based on metagenomics].

Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research, 51(3):449-455.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of rice on intestinal microflora in rats.

METHODS: Thirty 4-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, rice group and wheat group according to body weight. The control group was fed with AIN-93 diet, the rice group and the wheat group was fed with the AIN-93 diet which the carbohydrate was replaced with rice and wheat, respectively, for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, lipid related biochemical indexes were determined, and the contents of the distal colon(feces) of rats were collected for macro factor detection.

RESULTS: From the beginning to the end of feeding, there was no difference in weight gain among the groups. After the end of the experiment, there was no difference among lipid-related indicators and blood glucose. α diversity showed that there was no difference in the diversity of intestinal microbiota between the rice and wheat groups, and the gene abundance analysis of intestinal microbiota in the wheat group showed that the gene abundance of intestinal microbiota was lower. The difference analysis of intestinal microbiota result showed that compared with the rice group, the wheat group was composed of higher proportion of verrucomicrophyla and lower proportion of Bacteroidetes. Lefse analysis showed that the surface group was enriched with Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bifidobacterium animalis, and a variety of beneficial bacteria such as Faecalibaculum rodentium and Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, while Prevotella copri was rich in the rice group. Glycoside hydrolases 8, glycoside hydrolases 16, glycoside hydrolases 99 and glycosyl transferase family 56.

CONCLUSION: Rice or wheat as different carbohydrate sources have different effects on the composition of intestinal microflora and carbohydrate-related active enzymes in rats.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Hua H, Meydan C, Afshin EE, et al (2022)

A Wipe-Based Stool Collection and Preservation Kit for Microbiome Community Profiling.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:889702.

While a range of methods for stool collection exist, many require complicated, self-directed protocols and stool transfer. In this study, we introduce and validate a novel, wipe-based approach to fecal sample collection and stabilization for metagenomics analysis. A total of 72 samples were collected across four different preservation types: freezing at -20°C, room temperature storage, a commercial DNA preservation kit, and a dissolvable wipe used with DESS (dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium chloride) solution. These samples were sequenced and analyzed for taxonomic abundance metrics, bacterial metabolic pathway classification, and diversity analysis. Overall, the DESS wipe results validated the use of a wipe-based capture method to collect stool samples for microbiome analysis, showing an R2 of 0.96 for species across all kingdoms, as well as exhibiting a maintenance of Shannon diversity (3.1-3.3) and species richness (151-159) compared to frozen samples. Moreover, DESS showed comparable performance to the commercially available preservation kit (R2 of 0.98), and samples consistently clustered by subject across each method. These data support that the DESS wipe method can be used for stable, room temperature collection and transport of human stool specimens.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Escudero-Martinez C, Coulter M, Alegria Terrazas R, et al (2022)

Identifying plant genes shaping microbiota composition in the barley rhizosphere.

Nature communications, 13(1):3443.

A prerequisite to exploiting soil microbes for sustainable crop production is the identification of the plant genes shaping microbiota composition in the rhizosphere, the interface between roots and soil. Here, we use metagenomics information as an external quantitative phenotype to map the host genetic determinants of the rhizosphere microbiota in wild and domesticated genotypes of barley, the fourth most cultivated cereal globally. We identify a small number of loci with a major effect on the composition of rhizosphere communities. One of those, designated the QRMC-3HS, emerges as a major determinant of microbiota composition. We subject soil-grown sibling lines harbouring contrasting alleles at QRMC-3HS and hosting contrasting microbiotas to comparative root RNA-seq profiling. This allows us to identify three primary candidate genes, including a Nucleotide-Binding-Leucine-Rich-Repeat (NLR) gene in a region of structural variation of the barley genome. Our results provide insights into the footprint of crop improvement on the plant's capacity of shaping rhizosphere microbes.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Zhou L, Huang S, Gong J, et al (2022)

500 metagenome-assembled microbial genomes from 30 subtropical estuaries in South China.

Scientific data, 9(1):310.

As a unique geographical transition zone, the estuary is considered as a model environment to decipher the diversity, functions and ecological processes of microbial communities, which play important roles in the global biogeochemical cycle. Here we used surface water metagenomic sequencing datasets to construct metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from 30 subtropical estuaries at a large scale along South China. In total, 500 dereplicated MAGs with completeness ≥ 50% and contamination ≤ 10% were obtained, among which more than one-thirds (n = 207 MAGs) have a completeness ≥ 70%. These MAGs are dominated by taxa assigned to the phylum Proteobacteria (n = 182 MAGs), Bacteroidota (n = 110) and Actinobacteriota (n = 104). These draft genomes can be used to study the diversity, phylogenetic history and metabolic potential of microbiota in the estuary, which should help improve our understanding of the structure and function of these microorganisms and how they evolved and adapted to extreme conditions in the estuarine ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-06-17
CmpDate: 2022-06-17

Di Chiacchio IM, Gómez-Abenza E, Paiva IM, et al (2022)

Bee pollen in zebrafish diet affects intestinal microbiota composition and skin cutaneous melanoma development.

Scientific reports, 12(1):9998.

Bee pollen is recommended as dietary supplement due to immunostimulating functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of such properties is still not well understood. As diet can be associated with animal performance, microbiota modulation and potentially factor for cancer, this study aimed to analyze if bee pollen could influence growth, gut microbial and skin cutaneous melanoma development in zebrafish. Control diets based on commercial flakes and Artemia were compared with the same diet supplemented with bee pollen. Fish weight gain, increased length, intestinal bacteria metagenomics analysis, serum amyloid A gene expression and cutaneous melanoma transplantation assays were performed. Bee pollen affected microbiota composition and melanoma development. Differential abundance revealed higher abundance in the control group for Aeromonadaceae family, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas genus, A. sobria, A. schubertii, A. jandaei and P. alcaligenes species compared with pollen diet group. Pollen group presented higher abundance for Chromobacterium genus and for Gemmobacter aquaticus, Flavobacterium succinicans and Bifidobacterium breve compared with control group. Unexpectedly, fish fed with bee pollen showed higher tumor growth rate and larger tumor size than control group. This is the first study to report intestinal microbial changes and no protective cancer properties after bee pollen administration.

RevDate: 2022-06-17
CmpDate: 2022-06-17

Prekrasna I, Pavlovska M, Miryuta N, et al (2022)

Antarctic Hairgrass Rhizosphere Microbiomes: Microscale Effects Shape Diversity, Structure, and Function.

Microbes and environments, 37(2):.

The rhizosphere microbiome of the native Antarctic hairgrass Deschampsia antarctica from the central maritime Antarctic was investigated using 16S RNA metagenomics and compared to those of the second native Antarctic plant Colobanthus quitensis and closely related temperate D. cespitosa. The rhizosphere microbial communities of D. antarctica and D. cespitosa had high taxon richness, while that of C. quitensis had markedly lower diversity. The majority of bacteria in the rhizosphere communities of the hairgrass were affiliated to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The rhizosphere of C. quitensis was dominated by Actinobacteria. All microbial communities included high proportions of unique amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) and there was high heterogeneity between samples at the ASV level. The soil parameters examined did not explain this heterogeneity. Bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were sensitive to fluctuations in the soil surface temperature. The values of the United Soil Surface Temperature Influence Index (UTII, Iti) showed that variations in most microbial communities from Galindez Island were associated with microscale variations in temperature. Metabolic predictions in silico using PICRUSt 2.0, based on the taxonomically affiliated part of the microbiomes, showed similarities with the rhizosphere community of D. antarctica in terms of the predicted functional repertoire. The results obtained indicate that these communities are involved in the primary processes of soil development (particularly the degradation of lignin and lignin-derived compounds) in the central maritime Antarctic and may be beneficial for the growth of Antarctic vascular plants. However, due to the limitations associated with interpreting PICRUSt 2.0 outputs, these predictions need to be verified experimentally.

RevDate: 2022-06-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-16

Murali A, Giri V, Cameron HJ, et al (2022)

Investigating the gut microbiome and metabolome following treatment with artificial sweeteners acesulfame potassium and saccharin in young adult Wistar rats.

Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 165:113123.

To elucidate if artificial sweeteners modify fecal bacterial composition and the fecal and plasma metabolomes, Wistar rats from both sexes were treated for 28 days with acesulfame potassium (40 and 120 mg/kg body weight) and saccharin (20 and 100 mg/kg body weight). Targeted MS-based metabolome profiling (plasma and feces) and fecal 16S gene sequencing were conducted. Both sweeteners exhibited only minor effects on the fecal metabolome and microbiota. Saccharin treatment significantly altered amino acids, lipids, energy metabolism and specifically, bile acids in the plasma metabolome. Additionally, sex-specific differences were observed for conjugated primary and secondary bile acids. Acesulfame potassium treated male rats showed larger alterations in glycine conjugated primary and secondary bile-acids than females. Other changes in the plasma metabolome were more profound for saccharin than acesulfame potassium, for both sexes. Changes in conjugated bile-acids in plasma, which are often associated with microbiome changes, and the absence of similarly large changes in microbiota suggest an adaptative change of the latter, rather than toxicity. Further studies with a high resolution 16S sequencing data and/or metagenomics approach, with particular emphasis on bile acids, will be required to explore the mechanisms driving this metabolic outcome of saccharin in Wistar rats.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

He T, Zhu C, Li Z, et al (2022)

Virome analysis of ticks in Zhoushan Archipelago, China.

The Journal of veterinary medical science, 84(6):847-854.

Ticks are an important group of arthropod vectors. Ticks pose a profound risk to public health by transmitting many types of microorganisms that are human and animal pathogens. With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and viral metagenomics, numerous novel viruses have been discovered in ticks and tick-related hosts. To fully understand the virus spectrum in ticks in the Zhoushan Archipelago of Zhejiang province in China, ticks were collected from Qushan Island, Zhoushan Island, and Daishan Island in the Zhoushan Archipelago in June 2016. NGS performed to investigate the diversity of tick-associated viruses identified 21 viral sequences. Twelve were pathogenic to humans and animals. Trough verification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed the existence of three tick-associated viruses with extensive homology with Dabieshan, MG22, and Odaw virus. Other NGS-detected sequences that could not be amplified by PCR were highly homologous (92-100%) with known pathogenic viruses that included hepatitis B virus, papillomavirus, and human mastadenovirus C. This is the first study to systematically apply high throughput sequencing technology to explore the spectrum of viruses carried by ticks in the Zhoushan Archipelago. The findings are fundamental knowledge of the diversity of tick-associated viruses in this region and will inform strategies to monitor and prevent the spread of tick-borne diseases.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and ev